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Sample records for short interspersed elements

  1. Prediction and phylogenetic analysis of mammalian short interspersed elements (SINEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozin, I B; Mayorov, V I; Lavrentieva, M V; Milanesi, L; Adkison, L R

    2000-09-01

    The presence of repetitive elements can create serious problems for sequence analysis, especially in the case of homology searches in nucleotide sequence databases. Repetitive elements should be treated carefully by using special programs and databases. In this paper, various aspects of SINE (short interspersed repetitive element) identification, analysis and evolution are discussed.

  2. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) of the Geomyoidea superfamily rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolevsky, Konstantin P; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2006-05-24

    A new short interspersed element (SINE) was isolated from the genome of desert kangaroo rat (Dipodomys deserti) using single-primer PCR. This SINE consists of two monomers: the left monomer (IDL) resembles rodent ID element and other tRNAAla(CGC)-derived SINEs, whereas the right one (Geo) shows no similarity with known SINE sequences. PCR and hybridization analyses demonstrated that IDL-Geo SINE is restricted to the rodent superfamily Geomyoidea (families Geomyidea and Heteromyidea). Isolation and analysis of IDL-Geo from California pocket mouse (Chaetodipus californicus) and Botta's pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae) revealed some species-specific features of this SINE family. The structure and evolution of known dimeric SINEs are discussed.

  3. CORE-SINEs: eukaryotic short interspersed retroposing elements with common sequence motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, N; Labuda, D

    1999-03-16

    A 65-bp "core" sequence is dispersed in hundreds of thousands copies in the human genome. This sequence was found to constitute the central segment of a group of short interspersed elements (SINEs), referred to as mammalian-wide interspersed repeats, that proliferated before the radiation of placental mammals. Here, we propose that the core identifies an ancient tRNA-like SINE element, which survived in different lineages such as mammals, reptiles, birds, and fish, as well as mollusks, presumably for >550 million years. This element gave rise to a number of sequence families (CORE-SINEs), including mammalian-wide interspersed repeats, whose distinct 3' ends are shared with different families of long interspersed elements (LINEs). The evolutionary success of the generic CORE-SINE element can be related to the recruitment of the internal promoter from highly transcribed host RNA as well as to its capacity to adapt to changing retropositional opportunities by sequence exchange with actively amplifying LINEs. It reinforces the notion that the very existence of SINEs depends on the cohabitation with both LINEs and the host genome.

  4. Characterization of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in a red alga, Porphyra yezoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Lin, Xiaofei; Peddigari, Suresh; Takechi, Katsuaki; Takano, Hiroyoshi; Takio, Susumu

    2007-02-01

    Short interspersed element (SINE)-like sequences referred to as PySN1 and PySN2 were identified in a red alga, Porphyra yezoensis. Both elements contained an internal promoter with motifs (A box and B box) recognized by RNA polymerase III, and target site duplications at both ends. Genomic Southern blot analysis revealed that both elements were widely and abundantly distributed on the genome. 3' and 5' RACE suggested that PySN1 was expressed as a chimera transcript with flanking SINE-unrelated sequences and possessed the poly-A tail at the same position near the 3' end of PySN1.

  5. Short interspersed transposable elements (SINEs) are excluded from imprinted regions in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greally, John M

    2002-01-08

    To test whether regions undergoing genomic imprinting have unique genomic characteristics, imprinted and nonimprinted human loci were compared for nucleotide and retroelement composition. Maternally and paternally expressed subgroups of imprinted genes were found to differ in terms of guanine and cytosine, CpG, and retroelement content, indicating a segregation into distinct genomic compartments. Imprinted regions have been normally permissive to L1 long interspersed transposable element retroposition during mammalian evolution but universally and significantly lack short interspersed transposable elements (SINEs). The primate-specific Alu SINEs, as well as the more ancient mammalian-wide interspersed repeat SINEs, are found at significantly low densities in imprinted regions. The latter paleogenomic signature indicates that the sequence characteristics of currently imprinted regions existed before the mammalian radiation. Transitions from imprinted to nonimprinted genomic regions in cis are characterized by a sharp inflection in SINE content, demonstrating that this genomic characteristic can help predict the presence and extent of regions undergoing imprinting. During primate evolution, SINE accumulation in imprinted regions occurred at a decreased rate compared with control loci. The constraint on SINE accumulation in imprinted regions may be mediated by an active selection process. This selection could be because of SINEs attracting and spreading methylation, as has been found at other loci. Methylation-induced silencing could lead to deleterious consequences at imprinted loci, where inactivation of one allele is already established, and expression is often essential for embryonic growth and survival.

  6. Epigenetic regulation of transcription and possible functions of mammalian short interspersed elements, SINEs.

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    Ichiyanagi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are a class of retrotransposons, which amplify their copy numbers in their host genomes by retrotransposition. More than a million copies of SINEs are present in a mammalian genome, constituting over 10% of the total genomic sequence. In contrast to the other two classes of retrotransposons, long interspersed elements (LINEs) and long terminal repeat (LTR) elements, SINEs are transcribed by RNA polymerase III. However, like LINEs and LTR elements, the SINE transcription is likely regulated by epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, at least for human Alu and mouse B1. Whereas SINEs and other transposable elements have long been thought as selfish or junk DNA, recent studies have revealed that they play functional roles at their genomic locations, for example, as distal enhancers, chromatin boundaries and binding sites of many transcription factors. These activities imply that SINE retrotransposition has shaped the regulatory network and chromatin landscape of their hosts. Whereas it is thought that the epigenetic mechanisms were originated as a host defense system against proliferation of parasitic elements, this review discusses a possibility that the same mechanisms are also used to regulate the SINE-derived functions.

  7. Sauria SINEs: Novel short interspersed retroposable elements that are widespread in reptile genomes.

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    Piskurek, Oliver; Austin, Christopher C; Okada, Norihiro

    2006-05-01

    SINEs are short interspersed retrotransposable elements that invade new genomic sites. Their retrotransposition depends on reverse transcriptase and endonuclease activities encoded by partner LINEs (long interspersed elements). Recent genomic research has demonstrated that retroposons account for at least 40% of the human genome. Hitherto, more than 30 families of SINEs have been characterized in mammalian genomes, comprising approximately 4600 extant species; the distribution and extent of SINEs in reptilian genomes, however, are poorly documented. With more than 7400 species of lizards and snakes, Squamata constitutes the largest and most diverse group of living reptiles. We have discovered and characterized a novel SINE family, Sauria SINEs, whose members are widely distributed among genomes of lizards, snakes, and tuataras. Sauria SINEs comprise a 5' tRNA-related region, a tRNA-unrelated region, and a 3' tail region (containing short tandem repeats) derived from LINEs. We distinguished eight Sauria SINE subfamilies in genomes of four major squamate lineages and investigated their evolutionary relationships. Our data illustrate the overall efficacy of Sauria SINEs as novel retrotransposable markers for elucidation of squamate evolutionary history. We show that all Sauria SINEs share an identical 3' sequence with Bov-B LINEs and propose that they utilize the enzymatic machinery of Bov-B LINEs for their own retrotransposition. This finding, along with the ubiquity of Bov-B LINEs previously demonstrated in squamate genomes, suggests that these LINEs have been an active partner of Sauria SINEs since this SINE family was generated more than 200 million years ago.

  8. Enrichment of short interspersed transposable elements to embryonic stem cell-specific hypomethylated gene regions.

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    Muramoto, Hiroki; Yagi, Shintaro; Hirabayashi, Keiji; Sato, Shinya; Ohgane, Jun; Tanaka, Satoshi; Shiota, Kunio

    2010-08-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have a distinctive epigenome, which includes their genome-wide DNA methylation modification status, as represented by the ESC-specific hypomethylation of tissue-dependent and differentially methylated regions (T-DMRs) of Pou5f1 and Nanog. Here, we conducted a genome-wide investigation of sequence characteristics associated with T-DMRs that were differentially methylated between ESCs and somatic cells, by focusing on transposable elements including short interspersed elements (SINEs), long interspersed elements (LINEs) and long terminal repeats (LTRs). We found that hypomethylated T-DMRs were predominantly present in SINE-rich/LINE-poor genomic loci. The enrichment for SINEs spread over 300 kb in cis and there existed SINE-rich genomic domains spreading continuously over 1 Mb, which contained multiple hypomethylated T-DMRs. The characterization of sequence information showed that the enriched SINEs were relatively CpG rich and belonged to specific subfamilies. A subset of the enriched SINEs were hypomethylated T-DMRs in ESCs at Dppa3 gene locus, although SINEs are overall methylated in both ESCs and the liver. In conclusion, we propose that SINE enrichment is the genomic property of regions harboring hypomethylated T-DMRs in ESCs, which is a novel aspect of the ESC-specific epigenomic information.

  9. Short interspersed element (SINE) depletion and long interspersed element (LINE) abundance are not features universally required for imprinting.

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    Cowley, Michael; de Burca, Anna; McCole, Ruth B; Chahal, Mandeep; Saadat, Ghazal; Oakey, Rebecca J; Schulz, Reiner

    2011-04-20

    Genomic imprinting is a form of gene dosage regulation in which a gene is expressed from only one of the alleles, in a manner dependent on the parent of origin. The mechanisms governing imprinted gene expression have been investigated in detail and have greatly contributed to our understanding of genome regulation in general. Both DNA sequence features, such as CpG islands, and epigenetic features, such as DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs, play important roles in achieving imprinted expression. However, the relative importance of these factors varies depending on the locus in question. Defining the minimal features that are absolutely required for imprinting would help us to understand how imprinting has evolved mechanistically. Imprinted retrogenes are a subset of imprinted loci that are relatively simple in their genomic organisation, being distinct from large imprinting clusters, and have the potential to be used as tools to address this question. Here, we compare the repeat element content of imprinted retrogene loci with non-imprinted controls that have a similar locus organisation. We observe no significant differences that are conserved between mouse and human, suggesting that the paucity of SINEs and relative abundance of LINEs at imprinted loci reported by others is not a sequence feature universally required for imprinting.

  10. Short interspersed element (SINE depletion and long interspersed element (LINE abundance are not features universally required for imprinting.

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    Michael Cowley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Genomic imprinting is a form of gene dosage regulation in which a gene is expressed from only one of the alleles, in a manner dependent on the parent of origin. The mechanisms governing imprinted gene expression have been investigated in detail and have greatly contributed to our understanding of genome regulation in general. Both DNA sequence features, such as CpG islands, and epigenetic features, such as DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs, play important roles in achieving imprinted expression. However, the relative importance of these factors varies depending on the locus in question. Defining the minimal features that are absolutely required for imprinting would help us to understand how imprinting has evolved mechanistically. Imprinted retrogenes are a subset of imprinted loci that are relatively simple in their genomic organisation, being distinct from large imprinting clusters, and have the potential to be used as tools to address this question. Here, we compare the repeat element content of imprinted retrogene loci with non-imprinted controls that have a similar locus organisation. We observe no significant differences that are conserved between mouse and human, suggesting that the paucity of SINEs and relative abundance of LINEs at imprinted loci reported by others is not a sequence feature universally required for imprinting.

  11. Gene conversion as a secondary mechanism of short interspersed element (SINE) evolution

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    Kass, D.H. [Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Batzer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Deininger, P.L. [Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology]|[Alton Ochsner Medical Foundation, New Orleans, LA (United States). Lab. of Molecular Genetics

    1995-01-01

    The Alu repetitive family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in primates can be subdivided into distinct subfamilies by specific diagnostic nucleotide changes. The older subfamilies are generally very abundant, while the younger subfamilies have fewer copies. Some of the youngest Alu elements are absent in the orthologous loci of nonhuman primates, indicative of recent retroposition events, the primary mode of SINE evolutions. PCR analysis of one young Alu subfamily (Sb2) member found in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene apparently revealed the presence of this element in the green monkey, orangutan, gorilla, and chimpanzee genomes, as well as the human genome. However, sequence analysis of these genomes revealed a highly mutated, older, primate-specific Alu element was present at this position in the nonhuman primates. Comparison of the flanking DNA sequences upstream of this Alu insertion corresponded to evolution expected for standard primate phylogeny, but comparison of the Alu repeat sequences revealed that the human element departed from this phylogeny. The change in the human sequence apparently occurred by a gene conversion event only within the Alu element itself, converting it from one of the oldest to one of the youngest Alu subfamilies. Although gene conversions of Alu elements are clearly very rare, this finding shows that such events can occur and contribute to specific cases of SINE subfamily evolution.

  12. RUDI, a short interspersed element of the V-SINE superfamily widespread in molluscan genomes.

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    Luchetti, Andrea; Šatović, Eva; Mantovani, Barbara; Plohl, Miroslav

    2016-06-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retrotransposons that are widespread in eukaryotic genomes. They exhibit a chimeric sequence structure consisting of a small RNA-related head, an anonymous body and an AT-rich tail. Although their turnover and de novo emergence is rapid, some SINE elements found in distantly related species retain similarity in certain core segments (or highly conserved domains, HCD). We have characterized a new SINE element named RUDI in the bivalve molluscs Ruditapes decussatus and R. philippinarum and found this element to be widely distributed in the genomes of a number of mollusc species. An unexpected structural feature of RUDI is the HCD domain type V, which was first found in non-amniote vertebrate SINEs and in the SINE from one cnidarian species. In addition to the V domain, the overall sequence conservation pattern of RUDI elements resembles that found in ancient AmnSINE (~310 Myr old) and Au SINE (~320 Myr old) families, suggesting that RUDI might be among the most ancient SINE families. Sequence conservation suggests a monophyletic origin of RUDI. Nucleotide variability and phylogenetic analyses suggest long-term vertical inheritance combined with at least one horizontal transfer event as the most parsimonious explanation for the observed taxonomic distribution.

  13. BoS: a large and diverse family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in Brassica oleracea.

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    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wessler, Susan R

    2005-05-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous non-LTR retrotransposons that populate eukaryotic genomes. Numerous SINE families have been identified in animals, whereas only a few have been described in plants. Here we describe a new family of SINEs, named BoS, that is widespread in Brassicaceae and present at approximately 2000 copies in Brassica oleracea. In addition to sharing a modular structure and target site preference with previously described SINEs, BoS elements have several unusual features. First, the head regions of BoS RNAs can adopt a distinct hairpin-like secondary structure. Second, with 15 distinct subfamilies, BoS represents one of the most diverse SINE families described to date. Third, several of the subfamilies have a mosaic structure that has arisen through the exchange of sequences between existing subfamilies, possibly during retrotransposition. Analysis of BoS subfamilies indicate that they were active during various time periods through the evolution of Brassicaceae and that active elements may still reside in some Brassica species. As such, BoS elements may be a valuable tool as phylogenetic makers for resolving outstanding issues in the evolution of species in the Brassicaceae family.

  14. Identification and insertion polymorphisms of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in Brassica genomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouroz, F.; Naveed, M.

    2018-01-01

    The non-LTR retrotransposons (retroposons) are abundant in plant genomes including members of Brassicaceae. Of the retroposons, long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) are more copious followed by short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in sequenced eukaryotic genomes. The SINEs are short elements and ranged from 100-500 bps flanked by variable sized target site duplications, 5' tRNA region with polymerase III promoter, internal tRNA unrelated region, 3' LINEs derived region and a poly adenosine tail. Different computational approaches were used for the identification and characterization of SINEs, while PCR was used to detect the SINEs insertion polymorphisms in various Brassica genotypes. Ten previously unidentified families of SINEs were identified and characterized from Brassica genomes. The structural features of these SINEs were studied in detail, which showed typical SINE features displaying small sizes, target site duplications, head regions, internal regions (body) of variable sizes and a poly (A) tail at the 3' terminus. The elements from various families ranged from 206-558 bp, where BoSINE2 family displayed smallest SINE element (206 bp), while larger members belonged to BoSINE9 family (524-558 bp). The distribution and abundance of SINEs in various Brassica species and genotypes (40) at a particular site/locus were investigated by SINEs based PCR markers. Various SINE insertion polymorphisms were detected from different genotypes, where higher PCR bands amplified the SINE insertions, while lower bands amplified the pre-insertion sites (flanking regions). The analysis of Brassica SINEs copy numbers from 10 identified families revealed that around 860 and 1712 copies of SINEs were calculated from B. rapa and B. oleracea Whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS) respectively. Analysis of insertion sites of Brassica SINEs revealed that the members from all 10 SINE families had shown an insertion preference in AT rich regions. The present

  15. Molecular characterization, genomic distribution and evolutionary dynamics of Short INterspersed Elements in the termite genome.

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    Luchetti, Andrea; Mantovani, Barbara

    2011-02-01

    Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) in invertebrates, and especially in animal inbred genomes such that of termites, are poorly known; in this paper we characterize three new SINE families (Talub, Taluc and Talud) through the analyses of 341 sequences, either isolated from the Reticulitermes lucifugus genome or drawn from EST Genbank collection. We further add new data to the only isopteran element known so far, Talua. These SINEs are tRNA-derived elements, with an average length ranging from 258 to 372 bp. The tails are made up by poly(A) or microsatellite motifs. Their copy number varies from 7.9 × 10(3) to 10(5) copies, well within the range observed for other metazoan genomes. Species distribution, age and target site duplication analysis indicate Talud as the oldest, possibly inactive SINE originated before the onset of Isoptera (~150 Myr ago). Taluc underwent to substantial sequence changes throughout the evolution of termites and data suggest it was silenced and then re-activated in the R. lucifugus lineage. Moreover, Taluc shares a conserved sequence block with other unrelated SINEs, as observed for some vertebrate and cephalopod elements. The study of genomic environment showed that insertions are mainly surrounded by microsatellites and other SINEs, indicating a biased accumulation within non-coding regions. The evolutionary dynamics of Talu~ elements is explained through selective mechanisms acting in an inbred genome; in this respect, the study of termites' SINEs activity may provide an interesting framework to address the (co)evolution of mobile elements and the host genome.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships among East African haplochromine fish as revealed by short interspersed elements (SINEs).

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    Terai, Yohey; Takezaki, Naoko; Mayer, Werner E; Tichy, Herbert; Takahata, Naoyuki; Klein, Jan; Okada, Norihiro

    2004-01-01

    Genomic DNA libraries were prepared from two endemic species of Lake Victoria haplochromine (cichlid) fish and used to isolate and characterize a set of short interspersed elements (SINEs). The distribution and sequences of the SINEs were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among East African haplochromines. The SINE-based classification divides the fish into four groups, which, in order of their divergence from a stem lineage, are the endemic Lake Tanganyika flock (group 1); fish of the nonendemic, monotypic, widely distributed genus Astatoreochromis (group 2); the endemic Lake Malawi flock (group 3); and group 4, which contains fish from widely dispersed East African localities including Lakes Victoria, Edward, George, Albert, and Rukwa, as well as many rivers. The group 4 haplochromines are characterized by a subset of polymorphic SINEs, each of which is present in some individuals and absent in others of the same population at a given locality, the same morphologically defined species, and the same mtDNA-defined haplogroup. SINE-defined group 4 contains six of the seven previously described mtDNA haplogroups. One of the polymorphic SINEs appears to be fixed in the endemic Lake Victoria flock; four others display the presence-or-absence polymorphism within the species of this flock. These findings have implications for the origin of Lake Victoria cichlids and for their founding population sizes.

  17. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) in plants: origin, classification, and use as phylogenetic markers.

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    Deragon, Jean-Marc; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2006-12-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are a class of dispersed mobile sequences that use RNA as an intermediate in an amplification process called retroposition. The presence-absence of a SINE at a given locus has been used as a meaningful classification criterion to evaluate phylogenetic relations among species. We review here recent developments in the characterisation of plant SINEs and their use as molecular makers to retrace phylogenetic relations among wild and cultivated Oryza and Brassica species. In Brassicaceae, further use of SINE markers is limited by our partial knowledge of endogenous SINE families (their origin and evolution histories) and by the absence of a clear classification. To solve this problem, phylogenetic relations among all known Brassicaceae SINEs were analyzed and a new classification, grouping SINEs in 15 different families, is proposed. The relative age and size of each Brassicaceae SINE family was evaluated and new phylogenetically supported subfamilies were described. We also present evidence suggesting that new potentially active SINEs recently emerged in Brassica oleracea from the shuffling of preexisting SINE portions. Finally, the comparative evolution history of SINE families present in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea revealed that SINEs were in general more active in the Brassica lineage. The importance of these new data for the use of Brassicaceae SINEs as molecular markers in future applications is discussed.

  18. Distribution, Diversity, and Long-Term Retention of Grass Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs).

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    Mao, Hongliang; Wang, Hao

    2017-08-01

    Instances of highly conserved plant short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) families and their enrichment near genes have been well documented, but little is known about the general patterns of such conservation and enrichment and underlying mechanisms. Here, we perform a comprehensive investigation of the structure, distribution, and evolution of SINEs in the grass family by analyzing 14 grass and 5 other flowering plant genomes using comparative genomics methods. We identify 61 SINE families composed of 29,572 copies, in which 46 families are first described. We find that comparing with other grass TEs, grass SINEs show much higher level of conservation in terms of genomic retention: The origin of at least 26% families can be traced to early grass diversification and these families are among most abundant SINE families in 86% species. We find that these families show much higher level of enrichment near protein coding genes than families of relatively recent origin (51%:28%), and that 40% of all grass SINEs are near gene and the percentage is higher than other types of grass TEs. The pattern of enrichment suggests that differential removal of SINE copies in gene-poor regions plays an important role in shaping the genomic distribution of these elements. We also identify a sequence motif located at 3' SINE end which is shared in 17 families. In short, this study provides insights into structure and evolution of SINEs in the grass family. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Identification and characterisation of Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) genome.

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    Barghini, Elena; Mascagni, Flavia; Natali, Lucia; Giordani, Tommaso; Cavallini, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous retrotransposons in the genome of most eukaryotic species. While SINEs have been intensively investigated in humans and other animal systems, SINE identification has been carried out only in a limited number of plant species. This lack of information is apparent especially in non-model plants whose genome has not been sequenced yet. The aim of this work was to produce a specific bioinformatics pipeline for analysing second generation sequence reads of a non-model species and identifying SINEs. We have identified, for the first time, 227 putative SINEs of the olive tree (Olea europaea), that constitute one of the few sets of such sequences in dicotyledonous species. The identified SINEs ranged from 140 to 362 bp in length and were characterised with regard to the occurrence of the tRNA domain in their sequence. The majority of identified elements resulted in single copy or very lowly repeated, often in association with genic sequences. Analysis of sequence similarity allowed us to identify two major groups of SINEs showing different abundances in the olive tree genome, the former with sequence similarity to SINEs of Scrophulariaceae and Solanaceae and the latter to SINEs of Salicaceae. A comparison of sequence conservation between olive SINEs and LTR retrotransposon families suggested that SINE expansion in the genome occurred especially in very ancient times, before LTR retrotransposon expansion, and presumably before the separation of the rosids (to which Oleaceae belong) from the Asterids. Besides providing data on olive SINEs, our results demonstrate the suitability of the pipeline employed for SINE identification. Applying this pipeline will favour further structural and functional analyses on these relatively unknown elements to be performed also in other plant species, even in the absence of a reference genome, and will allow establishing general evolutionary patterns for this kind of repeats in

  20. Short interspersed DNA elements and miRNAs: a novel hidden gene regulation layer in zebrafish?

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    Scarpato, Margherita; Angelini, Claudia; Cocca, Ennio; Pallotta, Maria M; Morescalchi, Maria A; Capriglione, Teresa

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigated by in silico analysis the possible correlation between microRNAs (miRNAs) and Anamnia V-SINEs (a superfamily of short interspersed nuclear elements), which belong to those retroposon families that have been preserved in vertebrate genomes for millions of years and are actively transcribed because they are embedded in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of several genes. We report the results of the analysis of the genomic distribution of these mobile elements in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and discuss their involvement in generating miRNA gene loci. The computational study showed that the genes predicted to bear V-SINEs can be targeted by miRNAs with a very high hybridization E-value. Gene ontology analysis indicates that these genes are mainly involved in metabolic, membrane, and cytoplasmic signaling pathways. Nearly all the miRNAs that were predicted to target the V-SINEs of these genes, i.e., miR-338, miR-9, miR-181, miR-724, miR-735, and miR-204, have been validated in similar regulatory roles in mammals. The large number of genes bearing a V-SINE involved in metabolic and cellular processes suggests that V-SINEs may play a role in modulating cell responses to different stimuli and in preserving the metabolic balance during cell proliferation and differentiation. Although they need experimental validation, these preliminary results suggest that in the genome of D. rerio, as in other TE families in vertebrates, the preservation of V-SINE retroposons may also have been favored by their putative role in gene network modulation.

  1. Evolutionary modes of emergence of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) families in grasses.

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    Kögler, Anja; Schmidt, Thomas; Wenke, Torsten

    2017-11-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous transposable elements which are propagated by retrotransposition and constitute an inherent part of the genome of most eukaryotic species. Knowledge of heterogeneous and highly abundant SINEs is crucial for de novo (or improvement of) annotation of whole genome sequences. We scanned Poaceae genome sequences of six important cereals (Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, Panicum virgatum, Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays) and Brachypodium distachyon to examine the diversity and evolution of SINE populations. We comparatively analyzed the structural features, distribution, evolutionary relation and abundance of 32 SINE families and subfamilies within grasses, comprising 11 052 individual copies. The investigation of activity profiles within the Poaceae provides insights into their species-specific diversification and amplification. We found that Poaceae SINEs (PoaS) fall into two length categories: simple SINEs of up to 180 bp and dimeric SINEs larger than 240 bp. Detailed analysis at the nucleotide level revealed that multimerization of related and unrelated SINE copies is an important evolutionary mechanism of SINE formation. We conclude that PoaS families diversify by massive reshuffling between SINE families, likely caused by insertion of truncated copies, and provide a model for this evolutionary scenario. Twenty-eight of 32 PoaS families and subfamilies show significant conservation, in particular either in the 5' or 3' regions, across Poaceae species and share large sequence stretches with one or more other PoaS families. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) of squamate reptiles (Squam1 and Squam2): structure and phylogenetic significance.

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    Grechko, Vernata V; Kosushkin, Sergei A; Borodulina, Olga R; Butaeva, Fatima G; Darevsky, Ilya S

    2011-05-15

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are important nuclear molecular markers of the evolution of many eukaryotes. However, the SINEs of squamate reptile genomes have been little studied. We first identified two families of SINEs, termed Squam1 and Squam2, in the DNA of meadow lizard Darevskia praticola (Lacertidae) by performing DNA hybridization and PCR. Later, the same families of retrotransposons were found using the same methods in members of another 25 lizard families (from Iguania, Scincomorpha, Gekkota, Varanoidea, and Diploglossa infraorders) and two snake families, but their abundances in these taxa varied greatly. Both SINEs were Squamata-specific and were absent from mammals, birds, crocodiles, turtles, amphibians, and fish. Squam1 possessed some characteristics common to tRNA-related SINEs from fish and mammals, while Squam2 belonged to the tRNA(Ala) group of SINEs and had a more unusual and divergent structure. Squam2-related sequences were found in several unannotated GenBank sequences of squamate reptiles. Squam1 abundance in the Polychrotidae, Agamidae, Leiolepididae, Chamaeleonidae, Scincidae, Lacertidae, Gekkonidae, Varanidae, Helodermatidae, and two snake families were 10(2) -10(4) times higher than those in other taxa (Corytophanidae, Iguanidae, Anguidae, Cordylidae, Gerrhosauridae, Pygopodidae, and Eublepharidae). A less dramatic degree of copy number variation was observed for Squam2 in different taxa. Several Squam1 copies from Lacertidae, Chamaeleonidae, Gekkonidae, Varanidae, and Colubridae were sequenced and found to have evident orthologous features, as well as taxa-specific autapomorphies. Squam1 from Lacertidae and Chamaeleonidae could be divided into several subgroups based on sequence differences. Possible applications of these SINEs as Squamata phylogeny markers are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  3. Targeted identification of short interspersed nuclear element families shows their widespread existence and extreme heterogeneity in plant genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Torsten; Döbel, Thomas; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Junghans, Holger; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons that are highly abundant, heterogeneous, and mostly not annotated in eukaryotic genomes. We developed a tool designated SINE-Finder for the targeted discovery of tRNA-derived SINEs. We analyzed sequence data of 16 plant genomes, including 13 angiosperms and three gymnosperms and identified 17,829 full-length and truncated SINEs falling into 31 families showing the widespread occurrence of SINEs in higher plants. The investigation focused on potato (Solanum tuberosum), resulting in the detection of seven different SolS SINE families consisting of 1489 full-length and 870 5' truncated copies. Consensus sequences of full-length members range in size from 106 to 244 bp depending on the SINE family. SolS SINEs populated related species and evolved separately, which led to some distinct subfamilies. Solanaceae SINEs are dispersed along chromosomes and distributed without clustering but with preferred integration into short A-rich motifs. They emerged more than 23 million years ago and were species specifically amplified during the radiation of potato, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). We show that tobacco TS retrotransposons are composite SINEs consisting of the 3' end of a long interspersed nuclear element integrated downstream of a nonhomologous SINE family followed by successfully colonization of the genome. We propose an evolutionary scenario for the formation of TS as a spontaneous event, which could be typical for the emergence of SINE families.

  4. Targeted Identification of Short Interspersed Nuclear Element Families Shows Their Widespread Existence and Extreme Heterogeneity in Plant Genomes[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Torsten; Döbel, Thomas; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Junghans, Holger; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons that are highly abundant, heterogeneous, and mostly not annotated in eukaryotic genomes. We developed a tool designated SINE-Finder for the targeted discovery of tRNA-derived SINEs. We analyzed sequence data of 16 plant genomes, including 13 angiosperms and three gymnosperms and identified 17,829 full-length and truncated SINEs falling into 31 families showing the widespread occurrence of SINEs in higher plants. The investigation focused on potato (Solanum tuberosum), resulting in the detection of seven different SolS SINE families consisting of 1489 full-length and 870 5′ truncated copies. Consensus sequences of full-length members range in size from 106 to 244 bp depending on the SINE family. SolS SINEs populated related species and evolved separately, which led to some distinct subfamilies. Solanaceae SINEs are dispersed along chromosomes and distributed without clustering but with preferred integration into short A-rich motifs. They emerged more than 23 million years ago and were species specifically amplified during the radiation of potato, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). We show that tobacco TS retrotransposons are composite SINEs consisting of the 3′ end of a long interspersed nuclear element integrated downstream of a nonhomologous SINE family followed by successfully colonization of the genome. We propose an evolutionary scenario for the formation of TS as a spontaneous event, which could be typical for the emergence of SINE families. PMID:21908723

  5. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE Sequences in the Genome of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Af293.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakkhana Kanhayuwa

    Full Text Available Novel families of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE sequences in the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, clinical isolate Af293, were identified and categorised into tRNA-related and 5S rRNA-related SINEs. Eight predicted tRNA-related SINE families originating from different tRNAs, and nominated as AfuSINE2 sequences, contained target site duplications of short direct repeat sequences (4-14 bp flanking the elements, an extended tRNA-unrelated region and typical features of RNA polymerase III promoter sequences. The elements ranged in size from 140-493 bp and were present in low copy number in the genome and five out of eight were actively transcribed. One putative tRNAArg-derived sequence, AfuSINE2-1a possessed a unique feature of repeated trinucleotide ACT residues at its 3'-terminus. This element was similar in sequence to the I-4_AO element found in A. oryzae and an I-1_AF long nuclear interspersed element-like sequence identified in A. fumigatus Af293. Families of 5S rRNA-related SINE sequences, nominated as AfuSINE3, were also identified and their 5'-5S rRNA-related regions show 50-65% and 60-75% similarity to respectively A. fumigatus 5S rRNAs and SINE3-1_AO found in A. oryzae. A. fumigatus Af293 contains five copies of AfuSINE3 sequences ranging in size from 259-343 bp and two out of five AfuSINE3 sequences were actively transcribed. Investigations on AfuSINE distribution in the fungal genome revealed that the elements are enriched in pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions and inserted within gene-rich regions. We also demonstrated that some, but not all, AfuSINE sequences are targeted by host RNA silencing mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated that infection of the fungus with mycoviruses had no apparent effects on SINE activity.

  6. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE) Sequences in the Genome of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Af293.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhayuwa, Lakkhana; Coutts, Robert H A

    2016-01-01

    Novel families of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) sequences in the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, clinical isolate Af293, were identified and categorised into tRNA-related and 5S rRNA-related SINEs. Eight predicted tRNA-related SINE families originating from different tRNAs, and nominated as AfuSINE2 sequences, contained target site duplications of short direct repeat sequences (4-14 bp) flanking the elements, an extended tRNA-unrelated region and typical features of RNA polymerase III promoter sequences. The elements ranged in size from 140-493 bp and were present in low copy number in the genome and five out of eight were actively transcribed. One putative tRNAArg-derived sequence, AfuSINE2-1a possessed a unique feature of repeated trinucleotide ACT residues at its 3'-terminus. This element was similar in sequence to the I-4_AO element found in A. oryzae and an I-1_AF long nuclear interspersed element-like sequence identified in A. fumigatus Af293. Families of 5S rRNA-related SINE sequences, nominated as AfuSINE3, were also identified and their 5'-5S rRNA-related regions show 50-65% and 60-75% similarity to respectively A. fumigatus 5S rRNAs and SINE3-1_AO found in A. oryzae. A. fumigatus Af293 contains five copies of AfuSINE3 sequences ranging in size from 259-343 bp and two out of five AfuSINE3 sequences were actively transcribed. Investigations on AfuSINE distribution in the fungal genome revealed that the elements are enriched in pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions and inserted within gene-rich regions. We also demonstrated that some, but not all, AfuSINE sequences are targeted by host RNA silencing mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated that infection of the fungus with mycoviruses had no apparent effects on SINE activity.

  7. SINE_scan: an efficient tool to discover short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in large-scale genomic datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hongliang; Wang, Hao

    2017-03-01

    Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs) are transposable elements (TEs) that amplify through a copy-and-paste mode via RNA intermediates. The computational identification of new SINEs are challenging because of their weak structural signals and rapid diversification in sequences. Here we report SINE_Scan, a highly efficient program to predict SINE elements in genomic DNA sequences. SINE_Scan integrates hallmark of SINE transposition, copy number and structural signals to identify a SINE element. SINE_Scan outperforms the previously published de novo SINE discovery program. It shows high sensitivity and specificity in 19 plant and animal genome assemblies, of which sizes vary from 120 Mb to 3.5 Gb. It identifies numerous new families and substantially increases the estimation of the abundance of SINEs in these genomes. The code of SINE_Scan is freely available at http://github.com/maohlzj/SINE_Scan , implemented in PERL and supported on Linux. wangh8@fudan.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. PCR and magnetic bead-mediated target capture for the isolation of short interspersed nucleotide elements in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhu, Guoli; Tang, Wenqiao; Yang, Jinquan; Guo, Hongyi

    2012-01-01

    Short interspersed nucleotide elements (SINEs), a type of retrotransposon, are widely distributed in various genomes with multiple copies arranged in different orientations, and cause changes to genes and genomes during evolutionary history. This can provide the basis for determining genome diversity, genetic variation and molecular phylogeny, etc. SINE DNA is transcribed into RNA by polymerase III from an internal promoter, which is composed of two conserved boxes, box A and box B. Here we present an approach to isolate novel SINEs based on these promoter elements. Box A of a SINE is obtained via PCR with only one primer identical to box B (B-PCR). Box B and its downstream sequence are acquired by PCR with one primer corresponding to box A (A-PCR). The SINE clone produced by A-PCR is selected as a template to label a probe with biotin. The full-length SINEs are isolated from the genomic pool through complex capture using the biotinylated probe bound to magnetic particles. Using this approach, a novel SINE family, Cn-SINE, from the genomes of Coilia nasus, was isolated. The members are 180-360 bp long. Sequence homology suggests that Cn-SINEs evolved from a leucine tRNA gene. This is the first report of a tRNA(Leu)-related SINE obtained without the use of a genomic library or inverse PCR. These results provide new insights into the origin of SINEs.

  9. PCR and Magnetic Bead-Mediated Target Capture for the Isolation of Short Interspersed Nucleotide Elements in Fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Short interspersed nucleotide elements (SINEs, a type of retrotransposon, are widely distributed in various genomes with multiple copies arranged in different orientations, and cause changes to genes and genomes during evolutionary history. This can provide the basis for determining genome diversity, genetic variation and molecular phylogeny, etc. SINE DNA is transcribed into RNA by polymerase III from an internal promoter, which is composed of two conserved boxes, box A and box B. Here we present an approach to isolate novel SINEs based on these promoter elements. Box A of a SINE is obtained via PCR with only one primer identical to box B (B-PCR. Box B and its downstream sequence are acquired by PCR with one primer corresponding to box A (A-PCR. The SINE clone produced by A-PCR is selected as a template to label a probe with biotin. The full-length SINEs are isolated from the genomic pool through complex capture using the biotinylated probe bound to magnetic particles. Using this approach, a novel SINE family, Cn-SINE, from the genomes of Coilia nasus, was isolated. The members are 180–360 bp long. Sequence homology suggests that Cn-SINEs evolved from a leucine tRNA gene. This is the first report of a tRNALeu-related SINE obtained without the use of a genomic library or inverse PCR. These results provide new insights into the origin of SINEs.

  10. Diversification, evolution and methylation of short interspersed nuclear element families in sugar beet and related Amaranthaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, Katrin; Wenke, Torsten; Zakrzewski, Falk; Seibt, Kathrin M; Minoche, André; Dohm, Juliane C; Weisshaar, Bernd; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons which are widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. While SINEs have been intensively studied in animals, only limited information is available about plant SINEs. We analysed 22 SINE families from seven genomes of the Amaranthaceae family and identified 34 806 SINEs, including 19 549 full-length copies. With the focus on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), we performed a comparative analysis of the diversity, genomic and chromosomal organization and the methylation of SINEs to provide a detailed insight into the evolution and age of Amaranthaceae SINEs. The lengths of consensus sequences of SINEs range from 113 nucleotides (nt) up to 224 nt. The SINEs show dispersed distribution on all chromosomes but were found with higher incidence in subterminal euchromatic chromosome regions. The methylation of SINEs is increased compared with their flanking regions, and the strongest effect is visible for cytosines in the CHH context, indicating an involvement of asymmetric methylation in the silencing of SINEs. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are a major source of canine genomic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Kirkness, Ewen F

    2005-12-01

    SINEs are retrotransposons that have enjoyed remarkable reproductive success during the course of mammalian evolution, and have played a major role in shaping mammalian genomes. Previously, an analysis of survey-sequence data from an individual dog (a poodle) indicated that canine genomes harbor a high frequency of alleles that differ only by the absence or presence of a SINEC_Cf repeat. Comparison of this survey-sequence data with a draft genome sequence of a distinct dog (a boxer) has confirmed this prediction, and revealed the chromosomal coordinates for >10,000 loci that are bimorphic for SINEC_Cf insertions. Analysis of SINE insertion sites from the genomes of nine additional dogs indicates that 3%-5% are absent from either the poodle or boxer genome sequences--suggesting that an additional 10,000 bimorphic loci could be readily identified in the general dog population. We describe a methodology that can be used to identify these loci, and could be adapted to exploit these bimorphic loci for genotyping purposes. Approximately half of all annotated canine genes contain SINEC_Cf repeats, and these elements are occasionally transcribed. When transcribed in the antisense orientation, they provide splice acceptor sites that can result in incorporation of novel exons. The high frequency of bimorphic SINE insertions in the dog population is predicted to provide numerous examples of allele-specific transcription patterns that will be valuable for the study of differential gene expression among multiple dog breeds.

  12. The Salmon Smai Family of Short Interspersed Repetitive Elements (Sines): Interspecific and Intraspecific Variation of the Insertion of Sines in the Genomes of Chum and Pink Salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Takasaki, N.; Yamaki, T.; Hamada, M.; Park, L.; Okada, N.

    1997-01-01

    The genomes of chum salmon and pink salmon contain a family of short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs), designated the salmon SmaI family. It is restricted to these two species, a distribution that suggests that this SINE family might have been generated in their common ancestor. When insertions of the SmaI SINEs at 10 orthologous loci of these species were analyzed, however, it was found that there were no shared insertion sites between chum and pink salmon. Furthermore, at six loci w...

  13. A Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE)-Based Real-Time PCR Approach to Detect and Quantify Porcine Component in Meat Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Fang, Xin; Qiu, Haopu; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Real-time PCR amplification of mitochondria gene could not be used for DNA quantification, and that of single copy DNA did not allow an ideal sensitivity. Moreover, cross-reactions among similar species were commonly observed in the published methods amplifying repetitive sequence, which hindered their further application. The purpose of this study was to establish a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE)-based real-time PCR approach having high specificity for species detection that could be used in DNA quantification. After massive screening of candidate Sus scrofa SINEs, one optimal combination of primers and probe was selected, which had no cross-reaction with other common meat species. LOD of the method was 44 fg DNA/reaction. Further, quantification tests showed this approach was practical in DNA estimation without tissue variance. Thus, this study provided a new tool for qualitative detection of porcine component, which could be promising in the QC of meat products.

  14. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) from insectivores. Two classes of mammalian SINEs distinguished by A-rich tail structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodulina, O R; Kramerov, D A

    2001-10-01

    Four tRNA-related SINE families were isolated from the genome of the shrew Sorex araneus (SOR element), mole Mogera robusta (TAL element), and hedgehog Mesechinus dauuricus (ERI-1 and ERI-2 elements). Each of these SINEs families is specific for a single Insectivora family: SOR, for Soricidae (shrews); TAL, for Talpidae (moles and desmans); ERI-1 and ERI-2, for Erinaceidae (hedgehogs). There is a long polypyrimidine region (TC-motif) in TAL, ERI-1, and ERI-2 elements located immediately upstream of an A-rich tail with polyadenylation signals (AATAAA) and an RNA polymerase III terminator (T(4-6)) or TCT(3-4)). Ten out of 14 analyzed mammalian tRNA-related SINE families have an A-rich tail similar to that of TAL, ERI-1, and ERI-2 elements. These elements were assigned to class T+. The other four SINEs including SOR element have no polyadenylation signal and transcription terminator in their A-rich tail and were assigned to class T-. Class T+ SINEs occur only in mammals, and most of them have a long polypyrimidine region. Possible models of retroposition of class T+ and T- SINEs are discussed.

  15. Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are abundant in Solanaceae and have a family-specific impact on gene structure and genome organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, Kathrin M; Wenke, Torsten; Muders, Katja; Truberg, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are highly abundant non-autonomous retrotransposons that are widespread in plants. They are short in size, non-coding, show high sequence diversity, and are therefore mostly not or not correctly annotated in plant genome sequences. Hence, comparative studies on genomic SINE populations are rare. To explore the structural organization and impact of SINEs, we comparatively investigated the genome sequences of the Solanaceae species potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), wild tomato (Solanum pennellii), and two pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum). Based on 8.5 Gbp sequence data, we annotated 82 983 SINE copies belonging to 10 families and subfamilies on a base pair level. Solanaceae SINEs are dispersed over all chromosomes with enrichments in distal regions. Depending on the genome assemblies and gene predictions, 30% of all SINE copies are associated with genes, particularly frequent in introns and untranslated regions (UTRs). The close association with genes is family specific. More than 10% of all genes annotated in the Solanaceae species investigated contain at least one SINE insertion, and we found genes harbouring up to 16 SINE copies. We demonstrate the involvement of SINEs in gene and genome evolution including the donation of splice sites, start and stop codons and exons to genes, enlargement of introns and UTRs, generation of tandem-like duplications and transduction of adjacent sequence regions. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Analysis of the 227 bp short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion of the promoter of the myostatin (MSTN) gene in different horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Olio, Stefania; Scotti, Emilio; Fontanesi, Luca; Tassinari, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The myostatin (MSTN) gene encodes a protein known to be a negative regulator of muscle mass in mammalian species. Different polymorphisms of the horse (Equus caballus) MSTN gene have been identified, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion of 227 bp within the promoter of the gene. The SINE insertion has been associated with performance traits in Thoroughbred racehorses and it was proposed as a predictor of optimum racing distance. The aims of this study were to perform in silico analysis to identify putative gains or abrogation of transcription-factor binding sites (TFBSs) generated by the SINE allele of the promoter and to analyse the frequency of the SINE insertion in horses used for racing (gallop and trot) and other purposes. The SINE insertion was genotyped in 227 horses from 10 breeds belonging to different morphological types (brachimorphic, mesomorphic, meso-dolichomorphic and dolichomorphic). The presence of the insertion was confirmed in the Quarter Horse (SINE allele frequency of 0.81) and in the Thoroughbred (0.51), whereas the SINE allele did not segregate in any of the other analysed breeds. As the SINE MSTN gene polymorphism may be population or breed specific, it is not a useful marker for association studies in all breeds.

  17. Retroposition of the AFC family of SINEs (short interspersed repetitive elements) before and during the adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi and related inferences about phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Nishida, M; Yuma, M; Okada, N

    2001-01-01

    Lake Malawi is home to more than 450 species of endemic cichlids, which provide a spectacular example of adaptive radiation. To clarify the phylogenetic relationships among these fish, we examined the presence and absence of SINEs (short interspersed repetitive elements) at orthologous loci. We identified six loci at which a SINE sequence had apparently been specifically inserted by retroposition in the common ancestor of all the investigated species of endemic cichlids in Lake Malawi. At another locus, unique sharing of a SINE sequence was evident among all the investigated species of endemic non-Mbuna cichlids with the exception of Rhamphochromis sp. The relationships were in good agreement with those deduced in previous studies with various different markers, demonstrating that the SINE method is useful for the elucidation of phylogenetic relationships among cichlids in Lake Malawi. We also characterized a locus that exhibited transspecies polymorphism with respect to the presence or absence of the SINE sequence among non-Mbuna species. This result suggests that incomplete lineage sorting and/or interspecific hybridization might have occurred or be occurring among the species in this group, which might potentially cause misinterpretation of phylogenetic data, in particular when a single-locus marker, such as a sequence in the mitochondrial DNA, is used for analysis.

  18. Analysis of the 227 bp short interspersed nuclear element (SINE insertion of the promoter of the myostatin (MSTN gene in different horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Dall'Olio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The myostatin (MSTN gene encodes a protein known to be a negative regulator of muscle mass in mammalian species. Different polymorphisms of the horse (Equus caballus MSTN gene have been identified, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE insertion of 227 bp within the promoter of the gene. The SINE insertion has been associated with performance traits in Thoroughbred racehorses and it was proposed as a predictor of optimum racing distance. The aims of this study were to perform in silico analysis to identify putative gains or abrogation of transcription-factor binding sites (TFBSs generated by the SINE allele of the promoter and to analyse the frequency of the SINE insertion in horses used for racing (gallop and trot and other purposes. The SINE insertion was genotyped in 227 horses from 10 breeds belonging to different morphological types (brachimorphic, mesomorphic, meso-dolichomorphic and dolichomorphic. The presence of the insertion was confirmed in the Quarter Horse (SINE allele frequency of 0.81 and in the Thoroughbred (0.51, whereas the SINE allele did not segregate in any of the other analysed breeds. As the SINE MSTN gene polymorphism may be population or breed specific, it is not a useful marker for association studies in all breeds.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of short interspersed nuclear elements SINES revealed high sequence conservation, gene association and retrotranspositional activity in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Smadar; Yaakov, Beery; Kashkush, Khalil

    2013-10-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous non-LTR retroelements that are present in most eukaryotic species. While SINEs have been intensively investigated in humans and other animal systems, they are poorly studied in plants, especially in wheat (Triticum aestivum). We used quantitative PCR of various wheat species to determine the copy number of a wheat SINE family, termed Au SINE, combined with computer-assisted analyses of the publicly available 454 pyrosequencing database of T. aestivum. In addition, we utilized site-specific PCR on 57 Au SINE insertions, transposon methylation display and transposon display on newly formed wheat polyploids to assess retrotranspositional activity, epigenetic status and genetic rearrangements in Au SINE, respectively. We retrieved 3706 different insertions of Au SINE from the 454 pyrosequencing database of T. aestivum, and found that most of the elements are inserted in A/T-rich regions, while approximately 38% of the insertions are associated with transcribed regions, including known wheat genes. We observed typical retrotransposition of Au SINE in the second generation of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid, and massive hypermethylation in CCGG sites surrounding Au SINE in the third generation. Finally, we observed huge differences in the copy numbers in diploid Triticum and Aegilops species, and a significant increase in the copy numbers in natural wheat polyploids, but no significant increase in the copy number of Au SINE in the first four generations for two of three newly formed allopolyploid species used in this study. Our data indicate that SINEs may play a prominent role in the genomic evolution of wheat through stress-induced activation. © 2013 Ben-Gurion University The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Silencing of the PiAvr3a effector-encoding gene from Phytophthora infestans by transcriptional fusion to a short interspersed element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetukuri, Ramesh R; Tian, Zhendong; Avrova, Anna O; Savenkov, Eugene I; Dixelius, Christina; Whisson, Stephen C

    2011-12-01

    Phytophthora infestans is the notorious oomycete causing late blight of potato and tomato. A large proportion of the P. infestans genome is composed of transposable elements, the activity of which may be controlled by RNA silencing. Accumulation of small RNAs is one of the hallmarks of RNA silencing. Here we demonstrate the presence of small RNAs corresponding to the sequence of a short interspersed retrotransposable element (SINE) suggesting that small RNAs might be involved in silencing of SINEs in P. infestans. This notion was exploited to develop novel tools for gene silencing in P. infestans by engineering transcriptional fusions of the PiAvr3a gene, encoding an RXLR avirulence effector, to the infSINEm retroelement. Transgenic P. infestans lines expressing either 5'-infSINEm::PiAvr3a-3' or 5'-PiAvr3a::SINEm-3' chimeric transcripts initially exhibited partial silencing of PiAvr3a. Over time, PiAvr3a either recovered wild type transcript levels in some lines, or became fully silenced in others. Introduction of an inverted repeat construct was also successful in yielding P. infestans transgenic lines silenced for PiAvr3a. In contrast, constructs expressing antisense or aberrant RNA transcripts failed to initiate silencing of PiAvr3a. Lines exhibiting the most effective silencing of PiAvr3a were either weakly or non-pathogenic on susceptible potato cv. Bintje. This study expands the repertoire of reverse genetics tools available for P. infestans research, and provides insights into a possible mode of variation in effector expression through spread of silencing from adjacent retroelements. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Short interspersed repetitive sequences (SINEs) and their use as a phylogenetic tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramerov, D A; Vasetskiĭ, N S

    2009-01-01

    The data on one of the most common repetitive elements of eukaryotic genomes, short interspersed elements (SINEs), are reviewed. Their structure, origin, and functioning in the genome are discussed. The variation and abundance of these neutral genomic markers makes them a convenient and reliable tool for phylogenetic analysis. The main methods of such analysis are presented, and the potential and limitations of this approach are discussed using specific examples.

  2. Similarities between long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) reverse transcriptase and telomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopera, Huira C; Moldovan, John B; Morrish, Tammy A; Garcia-Perez, Jose Luis; Moran, John V

    2011-12-20

    Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposons encode two proteins (ORF1p and ORF2p) that contain activities required for conventional retrotransposition by a mechanism termed target-site primed reverse transcription. Previous experiments in XRCC4 or DNA protein kinase catalytic subunit-deficient CHO cell lines, which are defective for the nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair pathway, revealed an alternative endonuclease-independent (ENi) pathway for L1 retrotransposition. Interestingly, some ENi retrotransposition events in DNA protein kinase catalytic subunit-deficient cells are targeted to dysfunctional telomeres. Here we used an in vitro assay to detect L1 reverse transcriptase activity to demonstrate that wild-type or endonuclease-defective L1 ribonucleoprotein particles can use oligonucleotide adapters that mimic telomeric ends as primers to initiate the reverse transcription of L1 mRNA. Importantly, these ribonucleoprotein particles also contain a nuclease activity that can process the oligonucleotide adapters before the initiation of reverse transcription. Finally, we demonstrate that ORF1p is not strictly required for ENi retrotransposition at dysfunctional telomeres. Thus, these data further highlight similarities between the mechanism of ENi L1 retrotransposition and telomerase.

  3. Long interspersed element-1 protein expression is a hallmark of many human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodić, Nemanja; Sharma, Reema; Sharma, Rajni; Zampella, John; Dai, Lixin; Taylor, Martin S; Hruban, Ralph H; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Maitra, Anirban; Torbenson, Michael S; Goggins, Michael; Shih, Ie-Ming; Duffield, Amy S; Montgomery, Elizabeth A; Gabrielson, Edward; Netto, George J; Lotan, Tamara L; De Marzo, Angelo M; Westra, William; Binder, Zev A; Orr, Brent A; Gallia, Gary L; Eberhart, Charles G; Boeke, Jef D; Harris, Chris R; Burns, Kathleen H

    2014-05-01

    Cancers comprise a heterogeneous group of human diseases. Unifying characteristics include unchecked abilities of tumor cells to proliferate and spread anatomically, and the presence of clonal advantageous genetic changes. However, universal and highly specific tumor markers are unknown. Herein, we report widespread long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) repeat expression in human cancers. We show that nearly half of all human cancers are immunoreactive for a LINE-1-encoded protein. LINE-1 protein expression is a common feature of many types of high-grade malignant cancers, is rarely detected in early stages of tumorigenesis, and is absent from normal somatic tissues. Studies have shown that LINE-1 contributes to genetic changes in cancers, with somatic LINE-1 insertions seen in selected types of human cancers, particularly colon cancer. We sought to correlate this observation with expression of the LINE-1-encoded protein, open reading frame 1 protein, and found that LINE-1 open reading frame 1 protein is a surprisingly broad, yet highly tumor-specific, antigen. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Retrotransposon long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) is activated during salamander limb regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Kuo, Dwight; Nathanson, Jason; Satoh, Akira; Pao, Gerald M.; Yeo, Gene W.; Bryant, Susan V.; Voss, S. Randal; Gardiner, David M.; Hunter, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Salamanders possess an extraordinary capacity for tissue and organ regeneration when compared to mammals. In our effort to characterize the unique transcriptional fingerprint emerging during the early phase of salamander limb regeneration, we identified transcriptional activation of some germline-specific genes within the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) that is indicative of cellular reprogramming of differentiated cells into a germline-like state. In this work, we focus on one of these genes, the long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposon, which is usually active in germ cells and silent in most of the somatic tissues in other organisms. LINE-1 was found to be dramatically upregulated during regeneration. In addition, higher genomic LINE-1 content was also detected in the limb regenerate when compared to that before amputation indicating that LINE-1 retrotransposition is indeed active during regeneration. Active LINE-1 retrotransposition has been suggested to have a potentially deleterious impact on genomic integrity. Silencing of activated LINE-1 by small RNAs has been reported to be part of the machinery aiming to maintain genomic integrity. Indeed, we were able to identify putative LINE-1-related piRNAs in the limb blastema. Transposable element-related piRNAs have been identified frequently in the germline in other organisms. Thus, we present here a scenario in which a unique germline-like state is established during axolotl limb regeneration, and the re-activation of LINE-1 may serve as a marker for cellular dedifferentiation in the early-stage of limb regeneration. PMID:22913491

  5. Long interspersed nuclear element-1 hypomethylation and oxidative stress: correlation and bladder cancer diagnostic potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maturada Patchsung

    Full Text Available Although, increased oxidative stress and hypomethylation of long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1 associate with bladder cancer (BCa development, the relationship between these alterations is unknown. We evaluated the oxidative stress and hypomethylation of the LINE-1 in 61 BCa patients and 45 normal individuals. To measure the methylation levels and to differentiate the LINE-1 loci into hypermethylated, partially methylated and hypomethylated, peripheral blood cells, urinary exfoliated cells and cancerous tissues were evaluated by combined bisulfite restriction analysis PCR. The urinary total antioxidant status (TAS and plasma protein carbonyl content were determined. The LINE-1 methylation levels and patterns, especially hypomethylated loci, in the blood and urine cells of the BCa patients were different from the levels and patterns in the healthy controls. The urinary TAS was decreased, whereas the plasma protein carbonyl content was increased in the BCa patients relative to the controls. A positive correlation between the methylation of LINE-1 in the blood-derived DNA and urinary TAS was found in both the BCa and control groups. The urinary hypomethylated LINE-1 loci and the plasma protein carbonyl content provided the best diagnostic potential for BCa prediction. Based on post-diagnostic samples, the combination test improved the diagnostic power to a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 96%. In conclusion, decreased LINE-1 methylation is associated with increased oxidative stress both in healthy and BCa subjects across the various tissue types, implying a dose-response association. Increases in the LINE-1 hypomethylation levels and the number of hypomethylated loci in both the blood- and urine-derived cells and increase in the oxidative stress were found in the BCa patients. The combination test of the urinary hypomethylated LINE-1 loci and the plasma protein carbonyl content may be useful for BCa screening and monitoring of

  6. Evaluation of Mammalian Interspersed Repeats to investigate the goat genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mariani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the repeated sequences present in most eukaryotic genomes, SINEs (Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements are widely used to investigate evolution in the mammalian order (Buchanan et al., 1999. One family of these repetitive sequences, the MIR (Mammalian Interspersed Repeats; Jurka et al., 1995, is ubiquitous in all mammals.MIR elements are tRNA-derived SINEs and are identifiable by a conserved core region of about 70 nucleotides.

  7. Retrotransposition of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 is associated with colitis but not tumors in a murine colitic cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Otsubo

    Full Text Available Long interspersed element-1 (L1 is a transposable element that can move within the genome, potentially leading to genome diversity and modified gene function. Although L1 activity in somatic cells is normally suppressed through DNA methylation, some L1s are activated in tumors including colorectal carcinoma. However, how L1-retrotransposition (L1-RTP is involved in gastrointestinal disorders remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that L1-RTP in somatic cells might contribute to colitis-associated cancer (CAC. To address this, we employed an experimental model of CAC using transgenic L1-reporter mice carrying a human L1-EGFP reporter gene. Mice were subjected to repeated cycles of colitis induced by administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS in drinking water with injection of carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM. L1-RTP levels were measured by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting the newly inserted reporter EGFP in various tissues and cell types, including samples obtained by laser microdissection and cell sorting with flow cytometry. DNA methylation levels of the human L1 promoter were analyzed by bisulfite pyrosequencing. AOM+DSS-treated mice exhibited significantly higher levels of L1-RTP in whole colon tissue during the acute phase of colitis when compared with control naïve mice. L1-RTP levels in whole colon tissue were positively correlated with the histological severity of colitis and degree of neutrophil infiltration into the lamina propria (LP, but not with tumor development in the colon. L1-RTP was enriched in LP mesenchymal cells rather than epithelial cells (ECs, myeloid, or lymphoid cells. DNA methylation levels of the human L1 promoter region showed a negative correlation with L1-RTP levels. L1-RTP was absent from most tumors found in 22-week-old mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated that L1-RTP was induced in the mouse CAC mucosa in accordance with the acute inflammatory response; however, retrotransposition appears

  8. Long interspersed element-1 is differentially regulated by food-borne carcinogens via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okudaira, N; Okamura, T; Tamura, M; Iijma, K; Goto, M; Matsunaga, A; Ochiai, M; Nakagama, H; Kano, S; Fujii-Kuriyama, Y; Ishizaka, Y

    2013-10-10

    A single human cell contains more than 5.0 × 10(5) copies of long interspersed element-1 (L1), 80-100 of which are competent for retrotransposition (L1-RTP). Recent observations have revealed the presence of de novo L1 insertions in various tumors, but little is known about its mechanism. Here, we found that 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), food-borne carcinogens that are present in broiled meats, induced L1-RTP. This induction was dependent on a cellular cascade comprising the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a mitogen-activated protein kinase, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β. Notably, these compounds exhibited differential induction of L1-RTP. MeIQx-induced L1-RTP was dependent on AhR nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1), a counterpart of AhR required for gene expression in response to environmental pollutants. By contrast, PhIP-induced L1-RTP did not require ARNT1 but was dependent on estrogen receptor α (ERα) and AhR repressor. In vivo studies using transgenic mice harboring the human L1 gene indicated that PhIP-induced L1-RTP was reproducibly detected in the mammary gland, which is a target organ of PhIP-induced carcinoma. Moreover, picomolar levels of each compound induced L1-RTP, which is comparable to the PhIP concentration detected in human breast milk. Data suggest that somatic cells possess machineries that induce L1-RTP in response to the carcinogenic compounds. Together with data showing that micromolar levels of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) were non-genotoxic, our observations indicate that L1-RTP by environmental compounds is a novel type of genomic instability, further suggesting that analysis of L1-RTP by HCAs is a novel approach to clarification of modes of carcinogenesis.

  9. Short interspersed CAN SINE elements as prognostic markers in canine mammary neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaleti, Gabriela B; Granzotto, Adriana; Leonel, Camila; Jardim, Bruna V; Moschetta, Marina G; Carareto, Claudia M A; Zuccari, Debora Ap P C

    2014-01-01

    The genome of mammals is characterized by a large number of non-LTR retrotransposons, and among them, the CAN SINEs are characteristics of the canine species. Small amounts of DNA freely circulate in normal blood serum and high amounts are found in human patients with cancer, characterizing it as a candidate tumor-biomarker. The aim of this study was to estimate, through its absolute expression, the number of copies of CAN SINE sequences present in free circulating DNA of female dogs with mammary cancer, in order to correlate with the clinical and pathological characteristics and the follow-up period. The copy number of CAN SINE sequences was estimated by qPCR in 28 female dogs with mammary neoplasia. The univariate analysis showed an increased number of copies in female dogs with mammary tumor in female dogs >10 years old (p=0.02) and tumor time >18 months (pSINE fragments can be good markers for the detection of tumor DNA in blood and may characterize it as a marker of poor prognosis, being related to female dogs with shorter survival times. This estimate can be used as a prognostic marker in non-invasive breast cancer research and is useful in predicting tumor progression and patient monitoring.

  10. Tissue-Specific Methylation of Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element-1 of Homo Sapiens (L1Hs) During Human Embryogenesis and Roles in Neural Tube Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Chang, S; Guan, J; Shangguan, S; Lu, X; Wang, Z; Wu, L; Zou, J; Zhao, H; Bao, Y; Qiu, Z; Niu, B; Zhang, T

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposition events plays crucial roles during early development. Previously we showed that LINE-1 hypomethylation in neuronal tissues is associated with pathogenesis of neural tube defect (NTD). Herein, we further evaluated LINE-1 Homo sapiens (L1Hs) methylation in tissues derived from three germ layers of stillborn NTD fetuses, to define patterns of tissue specific methylation and site-specific hypomethylation at CpG sites within an L1Hs promoter region. Stable, tissue-specific L1Hs methylation patterns throughout three germ layer lineages of the fetus, placenta, and maternal peripheral blood were observed. Samples from maternal peripheral blood exhibited the highest level of L1Hs methylation (64.95%) and that from placenta showed the lowest (26.82%). Between samples from NTDs and controls, decrease in L1Hs methylation was only significant in NTD-affected brain tissue at 7.35%, especially in females (8.98%). L1Hs hypomethylation in NTDs was also associated with a significant increase in expression level of an L1Hs-encoded transcript in females (r = -0.846, p = 0.004). This could be due to genomic DNA instability and alternation in chromatins accessibility resulted from abnormal L1Hs hypomethylation, as showed in this study with HCT-15 cells treated with methylation inhibitor 5-Aza.

  11. Pretreatment long interspersed element (LINE-1 methylation levels, not early hypomethylation under treatment, predict hematological response to azacitidine in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cross M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Cross,1 Enrica Bach,1 Thao Tran,1 Rainer Krahl,1 Nadja Jaekel,1 Dietger Niederwieser,1 Christian Junghanss,2 Georg Maschmeyer,3 Haifa Kathrin Al-Ali11Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; 2Clinic for Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Medicine, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany; 3Clinic for Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Ernst-von-Bergmann Clinic, Potsdam, GermanyBackground: Epigenetic modulations, including changes in DNA cytosine methylation, are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Azacitidine is a hypomethylating agent that is incorporated into RNA as well as DNA. Thus, there is a rationale to its use in patients with AML. We determined whether baseline and/or early changes in the methylation of long interspersed element (LINE-1 or CDH13 correlate with bone marrow blast clearance, hematological response, or survival in patients with AML treated with azacitidine.Methods: An open label, phase I/II trial was performed in 40 AML patients (median bone marrow blast count was 42% unfit for intensive chemotherapy treated with azacitidine 75 mg/m2/day subcutaneously for 5 days every 4 weeks. Bone marrow mononuclear cell samples were taken on day 0 (pretreatment and day 15 during the first treatment cycle; LINE-1 and CDH13 methylation levels were quantified by methylation-specific, semiquantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: Treatment with azacitidine significantly reduced LINE-1 but not CDH13 methylation levels over the first cycle (P < 0.0001. Absolute LINE-1 methylation levels tended to be lower on day 0 (P = 0.06 and day 15 of cycle 1 (P = 0.03 in patients who went on to achieve subsequent complete remission, partial remission or hematological improvement versus patients with stable disease. However, the decrease in LINE-1 methylation over the first treatment cycle did not correlate with subsequent response (P = 0

  12. A specific family of interspersed repeats (SINEs facilitates meiotic synapsis in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Matthew E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Errors during meiosis that affect synapsis and recombination between homologous chromosomes contribute to aneuploidy and infertility in humans. Despite the clinical relevance of these defects, we know very little about the mechanisms by which homologous chromosomes interact with one another during mammalian meiotic prophase. Further, we remain ignorant of the way in which chromosomal DNA complexes with the meiosis-specific structure that tethers homologs, the synaptonemal complex (SC, and whether specific DNA elements are necessary for this interaction. Results In the present study we utilized chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP and DNA sequencing to demonstrate that the axial elements of the mammalian SC are markedly enriched for a specific family of interspersed repeats, short interspersed elements (SINEs. Further, we refine the role of the repeats to specific sub-families of SINEs, B1 in mouse and AluY in old world monkey (Macaca mulatta. Conclusions Because B1 and AluY elements are the most actively retrotransposing SINEs in mice and rhesus monkeys, respectively, our observations imply that they may serve a dual function in axial element binding; i.e., as the anchoring point for the SC but possibly also as a suppressor/regulator of retrotransposition.

  13. The new element 112. Short note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, S.; Ninov, V.; Hessberger, F.P.; Armbruster, P.; Folger, H.; Muenzenberg, G.; Schoett, H.J.; Popeko, A.G.; Yeremin, A.V.; Saro, S.; Janik, R.; Leino, M.

    1996-02-01

    The new element 112 was produced and identified unambigiously in an experiment at SHIP, GSI Darmstadt. Two decay chains of the isotope 277 112 were observed in irradiations of 208 Pb targets with 70 Zn projectiles of 344 MeV kinetic energy. The isotope decays by emission of α particles with a half-life of (240 -90 +430 ) μs. Two different α energies of (11.649±20) keV and (11.454±20) keV were measured for the two observed decays. The cross-section measured in three weeks of irradiations is (1.0 -0.4 +18 ) pb. (orig.)

  14. 30 CFR 75.601-3 - Short circuit protection; dual element fuses; current ratings; maximum values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit protection; dual element fuses... Trailing Cables § 75.601-3 Short circuit protection; dual element fuses; current ratings; maximum values. Dual element fuses having adequate current-interrupting capacity shall meet the requirements for short...

  15. The long (LINEs) and the short (SINEs) of it: altered methylation as a precursor to toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, Ammie N; Goodman, Jay I

    2003-10-01

    Although once thought of as "junk" DNA, the importance of interspersed elements in the genome has become increasingly appreciated in recent years. In a broad sense these are collectively referred to as transposable elements, which encompass both transposons and retrotransposons. The latter include long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) and short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs). Expression of these elements leads to genetic instability. Therefore, it is important that they remain transcriptionally silenced, and DNA methylation plays a key role in this regard. A framework for understanding the possible interplay between altered DNA methylation, an epigenetic change, and mutational events is presented. A case is made as to how retrotransposable elements, specifically LINEs and SINEs, are likely to emerge as key players in furthering our understanding of mechanisms underlying a variety of toxicities, including carcinogenesis but not limited to this endpoint.

  16. A short summary on finite element modelling of fatigue crack closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Konjengbam Darunkumar [Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati (India); Parry, Matthew Roger [Airbus Operations Ltd, Bristol(United Kingdom); Sinclair, Ian [University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    This paper presents a short summary pertaining to the finite element modelling of fatigue crack closure. Several key issues related to finite element modelling of fatigue crack closure are highlighted: element type, mesh refinement, stabilization of crack closure, crack-tip node release scheme, constitutive model, specimen geometry, stress-states (i.e., plane stress, plane strain), crack closure monitoring. Reviews are presented for both straight and deflected cracks.

  17. Binding among Select Episodic Elements Is Altered via Active Short-Term Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Donna J.; Voss, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    Of the many elements that comprise an episode, are any disproportionately bound to the others? We tested whether active short-term retrieval selectively increases binding. Individual objects from multiobject displays were retrieved after brief delays. Memory was later tested for the other objects. Cueing with actively retrieved objects facilitated…

  18. Consideration of reinforcement mechanism in the short fiber mixing granular materials by granular element simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kentaro; Kaneko, Kenji; Hashizume, Yutaka

    2017-06-01

    The short fiber mixing method is well known as one of the method to improve the strength of gran- ular soils in geotechnical engineering. Mechanical properties of the short fiber mixing granular materials are influenced by many factors, such as the mixture ratio of the short fiber, the material of short fiber, the length, and the orientation. In particular, the mixture ratio of the short fibers is very important in mixture design. In the past study, we understood that the strength is reduced by too much short fiber mixing by a series of tri-axial compression experiments. Namely, there is "optimum mixture ratio" in the short fiber mixing granular soils. In this study, to consider the mechanism of occurrence of the optimum mixture ratio, we carried out the numerical experiments by granular element method. As the results, we can understand that the strength decrease when too much grain-fiber contact points exist, because a friction coefficient is smaller than the grain-grain contact points.

  19. Determination of short-lived trace elements in environmental samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardani, S.; Sihombing, E.; Hamzah, A.; Rochidi; Hery, P.S.; Hartaman, S.; Iman, J.

    1998-01-01

    Concentration of a short-lived trace elements in environmental samples were determined by neutron activation analysis, a counting loss often occur due to the high counting rate. A Pile-Up Rejecter (PUR) electric circuit was installed in counting a short-lived trace elements by a γ-ray spectrometer in order to correct a counting loss. The samples were irradiated for 30∼60 seconds at neutron flux of 3.5 x 10 12 n.cm -2 .s -1 , then the samples cooled for 120 second and counted for 180 second using this system. The nuclides concentration in the varieties environmental samples have a difference analysis result, was more accurate and precise, which the measured result would be 30 % more higher by PUR system than the result would be counted using a conventional γ-ray spectrometry method

  20. Behaviour of short-lived fission products within operating UO2 fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, I.J.; Hunt, C.E.L.; Lipsett, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    We have carried out experiments using a ''sweep gas'' technique to determine the behaviour of short-lived fission products within operating, intact UO 2 fuel elements. The Zircaloy-4-clad elements were 500 mm long and contained fuel of density 10.65-10.71 Mg/m 3 . A He-2% H 2 carrier gas swept gaseous or volatile fission products out of the operating fuel element past a gamma spectrometer for measurement. In tests at linear powers of 45 and 60 kW/m to maximum burnups of 70 MW.h/kg U, the species measured directly at the spectrometer were generally the short-lived xenons and kryptons. We did not observe iodine or bromine during normal operation. However, we have deduced the behaviour of I-133 and I-135 from the decay of Xe-133 and Xe-135 during reactor shutdowns. Plots of R/B (released/born) against lambda (decay constant) or effective lambda for all isotopes observed at 45 and 60 kW/m show that a line of slope -0.5, corresponding with diffusion kinetics, is a good fit to the measured xenon and krypton data. Our inferred release of iodine fits the same line. From this we can extrapolate to an R/B for I-131 of about 5x10 -3 . The ANS 5.4 release correlation gives calculated results in good agreement with our measurements. (author)

  1. Short-circuit protection of LLC resonant converter using voltages across resonant tank elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Igorovych Zaikin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two methods for the short-circuit protection of the LLC resonant converter. One of them uses the voltage across the capacitor and the other uses the voltage across the inductor of the resonant tank. These voltages can be processed (integrated or differentiated to recover the resonant tank current. The two circuits illustrated in the described methods make it possible to develop a robust LLC converter design and to avoid using lossy current measurement elements, such as a shunt resistor or current transformer. The methods also allow measuring resonant tank current without breaking high-current paths and connecting the measuring circuit in parallel with the inductor or capacitor of the resonant tank. Practical implementations of these indirect current measurements have been experimentally tested for the short-circuit protection of the 1600 W LLC converter.

  2. Short-distance matrix elements for $D$-meson mixing for 2+1 lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chia Cheng [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We study the short-distance hadronic matrix elements for D-meson mixing with partially quenched Nf = 2+1 lattice QCD. We use a large set of the MIMD Lattice Computation Collaboration's gauge configurations with a2 tadpole-improved staggered sea quarks and tadpole-improved Lüscher-Weisz gluons. We use the a2 tadpole-improved action for valence light quarks and the Sheikoleslami-Wohlert action with the Fermilab interpretation for the valence charm quark. Our calculation covers the complete set of five operators needed to constrain new physics models for D-meson mixing. We match our matrix elements to the MS-NDR scheme evaluated at 3 GeV. We report values for the Beneke-Buchalla-Greub-Lenz-Nierste choice of evanescent operators.

  3. Behaviour of short-lived iodines in operating UO2 fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipsett, J.J.; Hastings, I.J.; Hunt, C.E.L.

    1984-11-01

    Sweep gas experiments have been done to determine the behaviour of short-lived fission products within operating UO 2 fuel elements at linear powers of 45, 54, and 60 KW/m, and to burnups of 70, 80, and 50 MWh/kgU respectively. Although radioiodine transport was not observed directly during normal operation, equilibrium gap inventories for I-131 were deduced from the shutdown decay behaviour of the fission gases. These inventories were a strong function of fuel power and ranged from 10 GBq (0.27 Ci) to 100 GBq (2.7 Ci) over the range tested. We conclude that the iodine inventory was adsorbed onto the fuel and/or sheath surfaces with a volatile fraction of less than 10 -2 and a charcoal-filter-penetrating fraction of less than 2x10 -4

  4. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  5. Determination of short half-life elements in biological, foodstuff, and environmental samples qualitatively by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syukria Kurniawati; Muhayatun Santoso; Diah Dwiana Lestiani

    2010-01-01

    NAA applications at routine operation power of 15 MW at Multipurpose Reactor GA Siwabessy (MPR-GAS) for sample matrices analysis have been widely applied. However, the results are not optimum for some matrices especially for short half-live elements. Preliminary study of short half-life elements determination in biological, foodstuff, and environmental samples using 1 MW power have been conducted to solve this problem. The samples were irradiated in rabbit system of MPR-GAS for 5 minutes, counted for 200 seconds by HPGe detector, and the spectrum were analyzed further using software Genie 2000 and Bandung NAA Utility. Analysis under 1 MW power on biological and foodstuff samples were capable to detect eight elements: Al, Br, CI, Ca, I, K, Mg, Ti, and Na for biological samples; Al, Br, CI, Ca, I, K, Mg, Mn, and Na for foodstuff samples, while at 15 MW power only three elements (CI, K, Na) were detected. At 1 MW power the counting process is more optimum due to smaller radiation exposure and dead time. For the environmental samples, the number of elements detected by 1 MW and 15 MW powers did not differ significantly. Generally, the results on the three types of samples showed that the elements of short half-life are better detected at 1 MW than that of 15 MW power. Further research needs to be done to obtain the optimum analytical conditions for irradiation and counting time determination. (author)

  6. Transposable Elements: No More 'Junk DNA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ji Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of whole-genome sequencing, transposable elements (TEs, just thought to be 'junk' DNA, have been noticed because of their numerous copies in various eukaryotic genomes. Many studies about TEs have been conducted to discover their functions in their host genomes. Based on the results of those studies, it has been generally accepted that they have a function to cause genomic and genetic variations. However, their infinite functions are not fully elucidated. Through various mechanisms, including de novo TE insertions, TE insertion-mediated deletions, and recombination events, they manipulate their host genomes. In this review, we focus on Alu, L1, human endogenous retrovirus, and short interspersed element/variable number of tandem repeats/Alu (SVA elements and discuss how they have affected primate genomes, especially the human and chimpanzee genomes, since their divergence.

  7. D20S16 is a complex interspersed repeated sequence: Genetic and physical analysis of the locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, D.W.; Krawchuk, M.D.; Howard, T.D. [Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC (United States)] [and others

    1995-01-20

    The genomic structure of the D20S16 locus has been evaluated using genetic and physical methods. D20S16, originally detected with the probe CRI-L1214, is a highly informative, complex restriction fragment length polymorphism consisting of two separate allelic systems. The allelic systems have the characteristics of conventional VNTR polymorphisms and are separated by recombination ({theta} = 0.02, Z{sub max} = 74.82), as demonstrated in family studies. Most of these recombination events are meiotic crossovers and are maternal in origin, but two, including deletion of the locus in a cell line from a CEPH family member, occur without evidence for exchange of flanking markers. DNA sequence analysis suggests that the basis of the polymorphism is variable numbers of a 98-bp sequence tandemly repeated with 87 to 90% sequence similarity between repeats. The 98-bp repeat is a dimer of 49 bp sequence with 45 to 98% identity between the elements. In addition, nonpolymorphic genomic sequences adjacent to the polymorphic 98-bp repeat tracts are also repeated but are not polymorphic, i.e., show no individual to individual variation. Restriction enzyme mapping of cosmids containing the CRI-L1214 sequence suggests that there are multiple interspersed repeats of the CRI-L1214 sequence on chromosome 20. The results of dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments with interphase nuclei are also consistent with multiple repeats of an interspersed sequence on chromosome 20. 23 refs., 6 figs.

  8. The mobile genetic element Alu in the human genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novick, G.E. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Batzer, M.A.; Deininger, P.L. [Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    Genetic material has been traditionally envisioned as relatively static with the exception of occasional, often deleterious mutations. The sequence DNA-to-RNA-to-protein represented for many years the central dogma relating gene structure and function. Recently, the field of molecular genetics has provided revolutionary information on the dynamic role of repetitive elements in the function of the genetic material and the evolution of humans and other organisms. Alu sequences represent the largest family of short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) in humans, being present in an excess of 500,000 copies per haploid genome. Alu elements, as well as the other repetitive elements, were once considered to be useless. Today, the biology of Alu transposable elements is being widely examined in order to determine the molecular basis of a growing number of identified diseases and to provide new directions in genome mapping and biomedical research. 66 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Discrete meso-element simulation of the failure behavior of short-fiber composites under dynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenyan; Tang, Z.P.; Liu Yunxin

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, more attention has been paid to a better understanding of the failure behavior and mechanism of heterogeneous materials at the meso-scale level. In this paper, the crack initiation and development in epoxy composites reinforced with short steel fibers under dynamic loading were simulated and analyzed with the 2D Discrete Meso-Element Dynamic Method. Results show that the damage process depends greatly on the binding property between matrix and fibers

  10. Microstructure and elemental distribution of americium containing MOX fuel under the short term irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Hirosawa, Takashi; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shin Ichi; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kenya

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of americium addition to MOX fuels on the irradiation behavior, the 'Am-1' program is being conducted in JAEA. The Am-1 program consists of two short term irradiation tests of 10-minute and 24 hour irradiations and a steady-state irradiation test. The short-term irradiation tests were successfully completed and the post irradiation examinations (PIEs) are in progress. The PIEs for Am-containing MOX fuels focused on the microstructural evolution and redistribution behavior of Am at the initial stage of irradiation and the results to date are reported

  11. SINEs of progress: Mobile element applications to molecular ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, David A

    2007-01-01

    Mobile elements represent a unique and under-utilized set of tools for molecular ecologists. They are essentially homoplasy-free characters with the ability to be genotyped in a simple and efficient manner. Interpretation of the data generated using mobile elements can be simple compared to other genetic markers. They exist in a wide variety of taxa and are useful over a wide selection of temporal ranges within those taxa. Furthermore, their mode of evolution instills them with another advantage over other types of multilocus genotype data: the ability to determine loci applicable to a range of time spans in the history of a taxon. In this review, I discuss the application of mobile element markers, especially short interspersed elements (SINEs), to phylogenetic and population data, with an emphasis on potential applications to molecular ecology.

  12. Determination of k0-factors of short-lived nuclides and application of k0-NAA to selected trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Holzbecher, J.; Chatt, A.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the standardization program of k 0 -based NAA (k 0 -NAA) methods at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor (DUSR) facility, the k 0 -factors of 15 analytically important short-lived nuclides (half-life 197 Au). The elemental standards used were prepared mostly from their primary standard solutions. The samples were irradiated in both inner and outer pneumatic sites of the DUSR facility and counted using an HPGe-detector coupled to an ORTEC’s digital gamma-ray spectrometer. The k 0 -factors determined using both inner and outer irradiation sites were found to be within ±5% with respect to either recommended or literature values in most cases. The Z-score values at 95% confidence level were found to be in the range of ±0.03–1.6. The k 0 -NAA method was applied to three different NIST standard reference materials (SRMs) and concentrations of six elements, namely Ag, F, Hf, Rb, Sc, and Se were determined using their short-lived nuclides. The concentrations of these elements were also determined by relative NAA method for comparison purposes.

  13. Liver CT image processing: A short introduction of the technical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masutani, Y.; Uozumi, K.; Akahane, Masaaki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the technical aspects of image analysis for liver diagnosis and treatment, including the state-of-the-art of liver image analysis and its applications. After discussion on modalities for liver image analysis, various technical elements for liver image analysis such as registration, segmentation, modeling, and computer-assisted detection are covered with examples performed with clinical data sets. Perspective in the imaging technologies is also reviewed and discussed

  14. Liver CT image processing: a short introduction of the technical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masutani, Y; Uozumi, K; Akahane, Masaaki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we describe the technical aspects of image analysis for liver diagnosis and treatment, including the state-of-the-art of liver image analysis and its applications. After discussion on modalities for liver image analysis, various technical elements for liver image analysis such as registration, segmentation, modeling, and computer-assisted detection are covered with examples performed with clinical data sets. Perspective in the imaging technologies is also reviewed and discussed.

  15. [Hyperfine structure and isotope shift measurements of short lived elements by laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine nuclear moments and charge distributions of short-lived isotopes produced both on-line and off-line to a nuclear facility. These measurements give detailed information on the nuclear force and are used to test current nuclear models. The small amounts of nuclei which can be produced off stability constitute the challenge in these experiments. Presently mainly neutron-rich isotopes are being studied by three ultrasensitive high-resolution laser techniques. These are collinear fast ion-beam laser spectroscopy, stored-ion laser spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. 5 figs

  16. Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1): passenger or driver in human neoplasms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodić, Nemanja; Burns, Kathleen H

    2013-03-01

    LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons make up a significant portion of human genomes, with an estimated 500,000 copies per genome. Like other retrotransposons, L1 retrotransposons propagate through RNA sequences that are reverse transcribed into DNA sequences, which are integrated into new genomic loci. L1 somatic insertions have the potential to disrupt the transcriptome by inserting into or nearby genes. By mutating genes and playing a role in epigenetic dysregulation, L1 transposons may contribute to tumorigenesis. Studies of the "mobilome" have lagged behind other tumor characterizations at the sequence, transcript, and epigenetic levels. Here, we consider evidence that L1 retrotransposons may sometimes drive human tumorigenesis.

  17. Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1: passenger or driver in human neoplasms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Rodić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available LINE-1 (L1 retrotransposons make up a significant portion of human genomes, with an estimated 500,000 copies per genome. Like other retrotransposons, L1 retrotransposons propagate through RNA sequences that are reverse transcribed into DNA sequences, which are integrated into new genomic loci. L1 somatic insertions have the potential to disrupt the transcriptome by inserting into or nearby genes. By mutating genes and playing a role in epigenetic dysregulation, L1 transposons may contribute to tumorigenesis. Studies of the "mobilome" have lagged behind other tumor characterizations at the sequence, transcript, and epigenetic levels. Here, we consider evidence that L1 retrotransposons may sometimes drive human tumorigenesis.

  18. Short communication. Major macro element exports in fruits of diverse almond cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J. M.; Espada, J. L.; Socias, R.; Socias i Company, R.

    2012-11-01

    The amount of the major macro elements required to produce a given crop has been determined for a set of 11 almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) cultivars growing in the Middle Ebro Valley (NE Spain). A wide diversity of nutrient exports was found among the different cultivars. Although the production of kernels is the main objective when growing almonds, all the different fruit components: the mesocarp (hull), the endocarp (shell) and the seed (kernel), were taken into account. The different fruit components showed a great variation among cultivars, and the amount of fruit dry matter required for producing 1 kg of kernel ranged from 4.32 kg in Guara to 10.56 kg in Desmayo Largueta. Similarly, the macroelement requirements to produce a given amount of kernels varied among the different cultivars. Guara has proved to be the most effective cultivar in taking advantage of the mineral elements for producing a crop, showing that this efficiency is independent of the shell type. (Author) 9 refs.

  19. Distribution and characterization of staphylococcal interspersed repeat units (SIRUs) and potential use for strain differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardy, K.J.; Ussery, David; Oppenheim, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    are similar to those used in the study of the evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clades. Seven VNTRs, termed staphylococcal interspersed repeat units (SIRUs), distributed around the genome are described, occurring in both unique and multiple sites, and varying in length from 48 to 159 bp. Variations...

  20. Effects of Interspersed versus Summary Feedback on the Quality of Students' Case Report Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Fred; Wolcott, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether students show greater improvement in written case analyses when given feedback that is either interspersed throughout their written case analyses or presented only as a summary, and whether the benefits of these placements vary across differing levels of student performance in the course. Results from an exploratory…

  1. Transposable elements in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kathleen H

    2017-07-01

    Transposable elements give rise to interspersed repeats, sequences that comprise most of our genomes. These mobile DNAs have been historically underappreciated - both because they have been presumed to be unimportant, and because their high copy number and variability pose unique technical challenges. Neither impediment now seems steadfast. Interest in the human mobilome has never been greater, and methods enabling its study are maturing at a fast pace. This Review describes the activity of transposable elements in human cancers, particularly long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1). LINE-1 sequences are self-propagating, protein-coding retrotransposons, and their activity results in somatically acquired insertions in cancer genomes. Altered expression of transposable elements and animation of genomic LINE-1 sequences appear to be hallmarks of cancer, and can be responsible for driving mutations in tumorigenesis.

  2. Mechanical comparison between lengthened and short sacroiliac screws in sacral fracture fixation: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Zhang, S; Sun, T; Wang, D; Lian, W; Tan, J; Zou, D; Zhao, Y

    2013-09-01

    To compare the stability of lengthened sacroiliac screw and standard sacroiliac screw for the treatment of unilateral vertical sacral fractures; to provide reference for clinical applications. A finite element model of Tile type C pelvic ring injury (unilateral Denis type II fracture of the sacrum) was produced. The unilateral sacral fractures were fixed with lengthened sacroiliac screw and sacroiliac screw in six different types of models respectively. The translation and angle displacement of the superior surface of the sacrum (in standing position on both feet) were measured and compared. The stability of one lengthened sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 or S2 segment is superior to that of one sacroiliac screw fixation in the same sacral segment. The stability of one lengthened sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 and S2 segments respectively is superior to that of one sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 and S2 segments respectively. The stability of one lengthened sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 and S2 segments respectively is superior to that of one lengthened sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 or S2 segment. The stability of one sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 and S2 segments respectively is markedly superior to that of one sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 or S2 segment. The vertical and rotational stability of lengthened sacroiliac screw fixation and sacroiliac screw fixation in S2 is superior to that of S1. In a finite element model of type C pelvic ring disruption, S1 and S2 lengthened sacroiliac screws should be utilized for the fixation as regularly as possible and the most stable fixation is the combination of the lengthened sacroiliac screws of S1 and S2 segments. Even if lengthened sacroiliac screws cannot be systematically used due to specific conditions, one sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 and S2 segments respectively is recommended. No matter which kind of sacroiliac screw is used, if only one screw can be implanted, the fixation in S2 segment is more recommended

  3. Representative volume element size of a polycrystalline aggregate with embedded short crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovski, I.; Cizelj, L.

    2007-01-01

    A random polycrystalline aggregate model is proposed for evaluation of a representative volume element size (RVE) of a 316L stainless steel with embedded surface crack. RVE size is important since it defines the size of specimen where the influence of local microstructural features averages out, resulting in the same macroscopic response for geometrically similar specimen. On the other hand macroscopic responses of specimen with size smaller than RVE will, due to the microstructural features, differ significantly. Different sizes and orientations of grains, inclusions, voids,... etc are examples of such microstructural features. If a specimen size is above RVE size, classical continuum mechanics can be applied. On the other hand, advanced material models should be used for specimen with size below RVE. This paper proposes one such model, where random size, shape and orientation of grains are explicitly modeled. Crystal plasticity constitutive model is used to account for slip in the grains. RVE size is estimated by calculating the crack tip opening displacements of aggregates with different grain numbers. Progressively larger number of grains are included in the aggregates until the crack tip displacements for two consecutive aggregates of increasing size differ less than 1 %. At this point the model has reached RVE size. (author)

  4. Determination of some trace elements in biological materials using the short living isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taskaev, E.

    1985-01-01

    A method for determination of V, Cu, Rb, Mo and K in breast cancer tumors is described. Samples were irradiated with ICIS pneumatic irradiation system of University of London Reactor Centre for 5 min. with mixed neutron flux: 1,7.10 1 2 thermal neutrons.cm -2 .s -1 and 9.10 11 fast neutrons.cm -2 .s -1 . Wet ashing procedure of Byrne and Kosta was used for the dissolution. Consecutive separation procedures of V and Mo, Cu, Mn, K and Rb, followed by counting and activity measuring were carried out. In order to study the chemical yields for all the elements both animal and plant matrixes were used. The error of 3% ( 0.05 confidence level) for single determination of chemical yield was chosen as the highest value acceptable. The possibility of using 137-Cs tracer for K and Rb chemical yield determination was also checked. To check the whole procedure the standard reference materials SRM-1577 Bovine Liver, SRM-1571 Orchard Leaves and Bowen's Kale were analysed

  5. Measurement of toxic elements in infant food supplements marketed in Iran (short comunication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mehrnia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to similarities with breast-feeding, baby food is used as a partial replacement for babies between 6 to 12 months of age. In this study, five samples of famous infant food supplement consisting of three types from Ghoncheh company (rice with milk, wheat with milk, almond porridge and two types from Nestle company (wheat and milk, and banana and wheat with milk were prepared. Samples were digested with nitric acid and the concentrations of cadmium, lead, manganese, molybdenum and nickel were analyzed. In addition, the estimated daily intake (EDI index for all samples was calculated and compared with tolerable daily intake (TDI index. The minimum and maximum concentration of cadmium was found in the sample with rice + milk formula (40.3 µg/kg and infant food supplements containing wheat + milk (58.0 µgr/kg, respectively. The amount of cadmium, lead, manganese, molybdenum and nickel were estimated in the range of 40.3-58.0 ppb, 31.85 ppb, 2.3-4.9 ppm, 417.9-518.8 ppb and 4479.1-6415.0 ppb, respectively. In was concluded that the amount of toxic elements in infant foods marketed in Iran were found below the maximum limit.

  6. Impact of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on foliar elemental composition in a short rotation poplar plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinari, Sara; Calfapietra, Carlo; De Angelis, Paolo; Mugnozza, Giuseppe Scarascia; Grego, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    The experiment was carried out on a short rotation coppice culture of poplars (POP-EUROFACE, Central Italy), growing in a free air carbon dioxide enriched atmosphere (FACE). The specific objective of this work was to study whether elevated CO 2 and fertilization (two CO 2 treatments, elevated CO 2 and control, two N fertilization treatments, fertilized and unfertilized), as well as the interaction between treatments caused an unbalanced nutritional status of leaves in three poplar species (P. x euramericana, P. nigra and P. alba). Finally, we discuss the ecological implications of a possible change in foliar nutrients concentration. CO 2 enrichment reduced foliar nitrogen and increased the concentration of magnesium; whereas nitrogen fertilization had opposite effects on leaf nitrogen and magnesium concentrations. Moreover, the interaction between elevated CO 2 and N fertilization amplified some element unbalances such as the K/N-ratio. - CO 2 enrichment reduced foliar nitrogen and increased the magnesium concentration in poplar

  7. Short-range order in alloys of nickel with the elements of group VIII of the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, F.A.

    1981-08-01

    Experimental measurements of the diffuse X-ray scattering intensity were performed on alloys of Ni with Rh and Os. The atomic short-range order (SRO) parameters αsub(i) and the size-effect parameters βsub(i) were calculated from these measurements. It is established that SRO and size-effect exist in Ni-Rh and Ni-Os alloys analogously as in a few other alloys of Ni with the elements of group VIII of the periodic table. The experimental data was interpreted theoretically by calculating the interaction energies from the pseudo-potentials and the effective valencies of the individual components of the systems studied. It was found that theoretically calculated values of the interaction energies for these alloys are inconsistent with the experimentally determined sign of the SRO parameter. (author)

  8. Amplification of an ancestral mammalian L1 family of long interspersed repeated DNA occurred just before the murine radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascale, E.; Valle, E.; Furano, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    Each mammalian genus examined so far contains 50,000-100,000 members of an L1 (LINE 1) family of long interspersed repeated DNA elements. Current knowledge on the evolution of L1 families presents a paradox because, although L1 families have been in mammalian genomes since before the mammalian radiation ∼80 million years ago, most members of the L1 families are only a few million years old. Accordingly it has been suggested either that the extensive amplification that characterizes present-day L1 families did not occur in the past or that old members were removed as new one were generated. However, the authors show here that an ancestral rodent L1 family was extensively amplified ∼10 million years ago and that the relics of this amplification have persisted in modern murine genomes. This amplification occurred just before the divergence of modern murine genera from their common ancestor and identifies the murine node in the lineage of modern muroid rodents The results suggest that repeated amplification of L1 elements is a feature of the evaluation of mammalian genomes and that ancestral amplification events could provide a useful tool for determining mammalian lineages

  9. Transcriptional activity of transposable elements in coelacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forconi, Mariko; Chalopin, Domitille; Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria Assunta; De Moro, Gianluca; Galiana, Delphine; Gerdol, Marco; Pallavicini, Alberto; Canapa, Adriana; Olmo, Ettore; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    The morphological stasis of coelacanths has long suggested a slow evolutionary rate. General genomic stasis might also imply a decrease of transposable elements activity. To evaluate the potential activity of transposable elements (TEs) in "living fossil" species, transcriptomic data of Latimeria chalumnae and its Indonesian congener Latimeria menadoensis were compared through the RNA-sequencing mapping procedures in three different organs (liver, testis, and muscle). The analysis of coelacanth transcriptomes highlights a significant percentage of transcribed TEs in both species. Major contributors are LINE retrotransposons, especially from the CR1 family. Furthermore, some particular elements such as a LF-SINE and a LINE2 sequences seem to be more expressed than other elements. The amount of TEs expressed in testis suggests possible transposition burst in incoming generations. Moreover, significant amount of TEs in liver and muscle transcriptomes were also observed. Analyses of elements displaying marked organ-specific expression gave us the opportunity to highlight exaptation cases, that is, the recruitment of TEs as new cellular genes, but also to identify a new Latimeria-specific family of Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements called CoeG-SINEs. Overall, transcriptome results do not seem to be in line with a slow-evolving genome with poor TE activity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Determination of essential and trace elements in milk and measurement of short-lived nuclides using FIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, R.; Kalayoglu, S.; Unseren, E.; Grass, F.; Boeck, H.

    1988-01-01

    In the experiments, Gueluem, Sek and Pinar brand of bottled milks and Pinar milk powder which are commercially available were used. As standards IAEA Milk powder A-11, NBS-Orchard Leaves 1571 and for Cu single standard was used. Samples and standards were irradiated together in the central thimble of I.T.U. TRIGA Mark-II reactor for 1-8 hrs and for 60 sec in the fast pneumatic tube of TRIGA Reactor. Depending on the nuclear characteristics of the isotopes to be analyzed, they are counted at different counting times. The activities were measured with a high-purity Ge detector coupled to Canberra 90 model multichannel analyzer in the ITU. In order to determine short half-life nuclides a very fast irradiation and measuring system (FIMS) has been used. When the average values of the 16 elements are considered, it is observed that the amount of Na, As, Al, Mn, Zn, Rb , Co in the milk powder is greater than that of milk, where as in Pinar milk, which is a durable kind of milk, the amount of Na, K, Br, Al , As, Zn, Co is larger than that in daily milk. When daily products of different brands are compared, it was found that the quantity of Fe, Cr, Mg is higher while Cl, Sb, Zn, Rb, Co is less than that in Gueluem milk. The quantity of Cl is about 10 times as much and Mg 7 times less than in Sek milk. It was not possible to investigate how the seasons and the regions from where the milk was collected affect the quantity of the elements. It will be useful to continue the study in this field

  11. Automated High-Throughput Genotyping for Study of Global Epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Based on Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supply, Philip; Lesjean, Sarah; Savine, Evgueni; Kremer, Kristin; van Soolingen, Dick; Locht, Camille

    2001-01-01

    Large-scale genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is especially challenging, as the current typing methods are labor-intensive and the results are difficult to compare among laboratories. Here, automated typing based on variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) of genetic elements named mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs) in 12 mammalian minisatellite-like loci of M. tuberculosis is presented. This system combines analysis of multiplex PCRs on a fluorescence-based DNA analyzer with computerized automation of the genotyping. Analysis of a blinded reference set of 90 strains from 38 countries (K. Kremer et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:2607–2618, 1999) demonstrated that it is 100% reproducible, sensitive, and specific for M. tuberculosis complex isolates, a performance that has not been achieved by any other typing method tested in the same conditions. MIRU-VNTRs can be used for analysis of the global genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis complex strains at different levels of evolutionary divergence. To fully exploit the portability of this typing system, a website was set up for the analysis of M. tuberculosis MIRU-VNTR genotypes via the Internet. This opens the way for global epidemiological surveillance of tuberculosis and should lead to novel insights into the evolutionary and population genetics of this major pathogen. PMID:11574573

  12. Compression and radiation of high-power short rf pulses. II. A novel antenna array design with combined compressor/radiator elements

    KAUST Repository

    Sirenko, Kostyantyn; Pazynin, Vadim L.; Sirenko, Yu K.; Bagci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation of compressed high power short RF pulses using two different types of antennas: (i) A simple monopole antenna and (ii) a novel array design, where each of the elements is constructed by combining a compressor and a

  13. Mobile Element Evolution Playing Jigsaw - SINEs in Gastropod and Bivalve Mollusks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matetovici, Irina; Sajgo, Szilard; Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Bulzu, Paul; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette

    2016-01-06

    SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are widely distributed among eukaryotes. Some SINE families are organized in superfamilies characterized by a shared central domain. These central domains are conserved across species, classes, and even phyla. Here we report the identification of two novel such superfamilies in the genomes of gastropod and bivalve mollusks. The central conserved domain of the first superfamily is present in SINEs in Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda as well as in all four subclasses of Bivalvia. We designated the domain MESC (Romanian for MElc-snail and SCoica-mussel) because it appears to be restricted to snails and mussels. The second superfamily is restricted to Caenogastropoda. Its central conserved domain-Snail-is related to the Nin-DC domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a 40-bp subdomain of the SINE V-domain is conserved in SINEs in mollusks and arthropods. It is predicted to form a stable stem-loop structure that is preserved in the context of the overall SINE RNA secondary structure in invertebrates. Our analysis also recovered short retrotransposons with a Long INterspersed Element (LINE)-derived 5' end. These share the body and/or the tail with transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived SINEs within and across species. Finally, we identified CORE SINEs in gastropods and bivalves-extending the distribution range of this superfamily. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Mobile Element Evolution Playing Jigsaw—SINEs in Gastropod and Bivalve Mollusks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matetovici, Irina; Sajgo, Szilard; Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Bulzu, Paul; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are widely distributed among eukaryotes. Some SINE families are organized in superfamilies characterized by a shared central domain. These central domains are conserved across species, classes, and even phyla. Here we report the identification of two novel such superfamilies in the genomes of gastropod and bivalve mollusks. The central conserved domain of the first superfamily is present in SINEs in Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda as well as in all four subclasses of Bivalvia. We designated the domain MESC (Romanian for MElc—snail and SCoica—mussel) because it appears to be restricted to snails and mussels. The second superfamily is restricted to Caenogastropoda. Its central conserved domain—Snail—is related to the Nin-DC domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a 40-bp subdomain of the SINE V-domain is conserved in SINEs in mollusks and arthropods. It is predicted to form a stable stem-loop structure that is preserved in the context of the overall SINE RNA secondary structure in invertebrates. Our analysis also recovered short retrotransposons with a Long INterspersed Element (LINE)-derived 5′ end. These share the body and/or the tail with transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived SINEs within and across species. Finally, we identified CORE SINEs in gastropods and bivalves—extending the distribution range of this superfamily. PMID:26739168

  15. Compression and radiation of high-power short rf pulses. II. A novel antenna array design with combined compressor/radiator elements

    KAUST Repository

    Sirenko, Kostyantyn

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation of compressed high power short RF pulses using two different types of antennas: (i) A simple monopole antenna and (ii) a novel array design, where each of the elements is constructed by combining a compressor and a radiator. The studies on the monopole antenna demonstrate the possibility of a high power short RF pulse\\'s efficient radiation even using simple antennas. The studies on the novel array design demonstrate that a reduced size array with lower pulse distortion and power decay can be constructed by assembling the array from elements each of which integrates a compressor and a radiator. This design idea can be used with any type of antenna array; in this work it is applied to a phased array.

  16. Alu Mobile Elements: From Junk DNA to Genomic Gems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Dridi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alus, the short interspersed repeated sequences (SINEs, are retrotransposons that litter the human genomes and have long been considered junk DNA. However, recent findings that these mobile elements are transcribed, both as distinct RNA polymerase III transcripts and as a part of RNA polymerase II transcripts, suggest biological functions and refute the notion that Alus are biologically unimportant. Indeed, Alu RNAs have been shown to control mRNA processing at several levels, to have complex regulatory functions such as transcriptional repression and modulating alternative splicing and to cause a host of human genetic diseases. Alu RNAs embedded in Pol II transcripts can promote evolution and proteome diversity, which further indicates that these mobile retroelements are in fact genomic gems rather than genomic junks.

  17. Alginate nanobeads interspersed fibrin network as in situ forming hydrogel for soft tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deepthi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are a class of materials that has the property of injectability and in situ gel formation. This property of hydrogels is manipulated in this study to develop a biomimetic bioresorbable injectable system of alginate nanobeads interspersed in fibrin network. Alginate nanobeads developed by calcium cross-linking yielded a size of 200–500 nm. The alginate nanobeads fibrin hydrogel was formed using dual syringe apparatus. Characterization of the in situ injectable hydrogel was done by SEM, FTIR and Rheometer. The developed hydrogel showed mechanical strength of 19 kPa which provides the suitable compliance for soft tissue engineering. Cytocompatibility studies using human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells showed good attachment, proliferation and infiltration within the hydrogel similar to fibrin gel. The developed in situ forming hydrogel could be a suitable delivery carrier of stem cells for soft tissue regeneration.

  18. Alginate nanobeads interspersed fibrin network as in situ forming hydrogel for soft tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthi, S; Jayakumar, R

    2018-06-01

    Hydrogels are a class of materials that has the property of injectability and in situ gel formation. This property of hydrogels is manipulated in this study to develop a biomimetic bioresorbable injectable system of alginate nanobeads interspersed in fibrin network. Alginate nanobeads developed by calcium cross-linking yielded a size of 200-500 nm. The alginate nanobeads fibrin hydrogel was formed using dual syringe apparatus. Characterization of the in situ injectable hydrogel was done by SEM, FTIR and Rheometer. The developed hydrogel showed mechanical strength of 19 kPa which provides the suitable compliance for soft tissue engineering. Cytocompatibility studies using human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells showed good attachment, proliferation and infiltration within the hydrogel similar to fibrin gel. The developed in situ forming hydrogel could be a suitable delivery carrier of stem cells for soft tissue regeneration.

  19. ParTIES: a toolbox for Paramecium interspersed DNA elimination studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby Wilkes, Cyril; Arnaiz, Olivier; Sperling, Linda

    2016-02-15

    Developmental DNA elimination occurs in a wide variety of multicellular organisms, but ciliates are the only single-celled eukaryotes in which this phenomenon has been reported. Despite considerable interest in ciliates as models for DNA elimination, no standard methods for identification and characterization of the eliminated sequences are currently available. We present the Paramecium Toolbox for Interspersed DNA Elimination Studies (ParTIES), designed for Paramecium species, that (i) identifies eliminated sequences, (ii) measures their presence in a sequencing sample and (iii) detects rare elimination polymorphisms. ParTIES is multi-threaded Perl software available at https://github.com/oarnaiz/ParTIES. ParTIES is distributed under the GNU General Public Licence v3. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A novel abundant family of retroposed elements (DAS-SINEs) in the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churakov, Gennady; Smit, Arian F A; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2005-04-01

    About half of the mammalian genome is composed of retroposons. Long interspersed elements (LINEs) and short interspersed elements (SINEs) are the most abundant repetitive elements and account for about 21% and 13% of the human genome, respectively. SINEs have been detected in all major mammalian lineages, except for the South American order Xenarthra, also termed Edentata (armadillos, anteaters, and sloths). Investigating this order, we discovered a novel high-copy-number family of tRNA derived SINEs in the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus, a species that successfully crossed the Central American land bridge to North America in the Pliocene. A specific computer algorithm was developed, and we detected and extracted 687 specific SINEs from databases. Termed DAS-SINEs, we further divided them into six distinct subfamilies. We extracted tRNA(Ala)-derived monomers, two types of dimers, and three subfamilies of chimeric fusion products of a tRNA(Ala) domain and an approximately 180-nt sequence of thus far unidentified origin. Comparisons of secondary structures of the DAS-SINEs' tRNA domains suggest selective pressure to maintain a tRNA-like D-arm structure in the respective founder RNAs, as shown by compensatory mutations. By analysis of subfamily-specific genetic variability, comparison of the proportion of direct repeats, and analysis of self-integrations as well as key events of dimerization and deletions or insertions, we were able to delineate the evolutionary history of the DAS-SINE subfamilies.

  1. Isothermal gas chromatography of short-lived Hf isotopes and element 104 in chlorinating, oxygen containing carrier gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, D.T.; Dressler, R.; Eichler, B.; Piguet, D.; Tuerler, A.; Gaeggeler, H.W.; Gaertner, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Grantz, M.; Huebener, S. [FZR (Germany); Buklanov, G.; Lebedev, V.; Timkhin, S.; Vedeneev, M.V.; Yakushev, A.; Zvara, I. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    Based on thermodynamic state functions retention times of Hf and element 104 were calculated in the case of the simple adsorption of the tetrachlorides and the case of a complex adsorption involving a substitution process with oxygen in the chlorinating gas. Preliminary results for {sup 261}104 and Hf are shown. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  2. Possibilities of chemical isolation of element 106 from aqueous solutions according to the model experiments with short lived tungsten isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeglowski, Z.; Bruchertseifer, H.; Brudanin, V.B.

    1993-01-01

    A rapid method for continuous separation of short-lived tungsten isotopes from the lanthanides has been developed. It consists in transforming nuclear reaction products from the target by an aerosol jet to an absorber where the KCl particulates are dissolved in 0.2 M HF and percolating the product solution through three successively linked columns filled with ion exchange resins Dowex 50X8 (cationite), Dowex 1X8 (anionite) and again Dowex 50X8. 3 refs

  3. Detecting the (quasi-) two-body decays of /τ leptons in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asratyan, A.; Balatz, M.; Boehnlein, D.; Childres, S.; Davidenko, G.; Dolgolenko, A.; Dzyubenko, G.; Kaftanov, V.; Kubantsev, M.; Reay, N. W.; Musser, J.; Rosenfeld, C.; Stanton, N. R.; Thun, R.; Tzanakos, G. S.; Verebryusov, V.; Vishnyakov, V.

    1999-05-01

    Novel detector schemes are proposed for the short-baseline neutrino experiments of next generation, aimed at exploring the large- Δm 2 domain of ν μ→ν τ oscillations in the appearance mode. These schemes emphasize good spectrometry for charged particles and for electromagnetic showers and efficient reconstruction of π0→ γγ decays. The basic elements are a sequence of relatively thin emulsion targets, immersed in magnetic field and interspersed with electronic trackers, and a fine-grained electromagnetic calorimeter built of lead glass. These elements act as an integral whole in reconstructing the electromagnetic showers. This conceptual scheme shows good performance in identifying the τ (quasi-) two-body decays by their characteristic kinematics and in selecting the electronic decays of the τ.

  4. Detecting the (quasi-) two-body decays of τ leptons in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asratyan, A.; Balatz, M.; Boehnlein, D.; Childres, S.; Davidenko, G.; Dolgolenko, A.; Dzyubenko, G.; Kaftanov, V.; Kubantsev, M.; Reay, N.W.; Musser, J.; Rosenfeld, C.; Stanton, N.R.; Thun, R.; Tzanakos, G.S.; Verebryusov, V.; Vishnyakov, V.

    1999-01-01

    Novel detector schemes are proposed for the short-baseline neutrino experiments of next generation, aimed at exploring the large-Δm 2 domain of ν μ →ν τ oscillations in the appearance mode. These schemes emphasize good spectrometry for charged particles and for electromagnetic showers and efficient reconstruction of π 0 →γγ decays. The basic elements are a sequence of relatively thin emulsion targets, immersed in magnetic field and interspersed with electronic trackers, and a fine-grained electromagnetic calorimeter built of lead glass. These elements act as an integral whole in reconstructing the electromagnetic showers. This conceptual scheme shows good performance in identifying the τ (quasi-) two-body decays by their characteristic kinematics and in selecting the electronic decays of the τ

  5. In situ detection of a heat-shock regulatory element binding protein using a soluble short synthetic enhancer sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harel-Bellan, A; Brini, A T; Farrar, W L [National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (USA); Ferris, D K [Program Resources, Inc., Frederick, MD (USA); Robin, P [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)

    1989-06-12

    In various studies, enhancer binding proteins have been successfully absorbed out by competing sequences inserted into plasmids, resulting in the inhibition of the plasmid expression. Theoretically, such a result could be achieved using synthetic enhancer sequences not inserted into plasmids. In this study, a double stranded DNA sequence corresponding to the human heat shock regulatory element was chemically synthesized. By in vitro retardation assays, the synthetic sequence was shown to bind specifically a protein in extracts from the human T cell line Jurkat. When the synthetic enhancer was electroporated into Jurkat cells, not only the enhancer was shown to remain undegraded into the cells for up to 2 days, but also its was shown to bind intracellularly a protein. The binding was specific and was modulated upon heat shock. Furthermore, the binding protein was shown to be of the expected molecular weight by UV crosslinking. However, when the synthetic enhancer element was co-electroporated with an HSP 70-CAT reporter construct, the expression of the reporter plasmid was consistently enhanced in the presence of the exogenous synthetic enhancer.

  6. An Analysis of Figurative Language Elements upon an American Short Story Entitled “The Monkey’s Paw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Muhammad Ardiansyah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the study of semantic in a specified domain of figurative language upon a selected work of American English literature, in form of short story written by the renowned writer and author, William Wymark Jacobs, entitled as ‘The Monkey’s Paw’. Several objectives are deduced by the researcher in quest of finding the forms of this figurative language within the passage. Briefly, figurative language itself is a feature of every languages, which emphasized the use of expression to symbolize a different meaning from the usual literal interpretation. In our analysis of ‘The Monkey’s Paw’, the varieties of figurative language: Metaphor, Personification, Hyperbole, Symbolism, also another terms used to represent unusual words construction or combination such as Onomatopoeia, Idiom, and even Imagery, are discussed in order in relation with true meaning discovery behind each figurative language properties.

  7. Analysis of trace elements in the shells of short-necked clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia) with respect to reconstruction of individual life history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Jumpei; Sakamoto, Wataru

    1998-01-01

    Strontium (Sr) concentration in the shells of short-necked clams collected at different locations (Shirahama, warm area and Maizuru, cold area, Japan) was analyzed by two methods, PIXE and EPMA. The Sr concentration of external surface of shell umbo, which was made during short term at early benthic phase, was analyzed by PIXE, and was ranged from 1000 to 3500 ppm for individuals. The Sr concentration of clams collected at Shirahama showed positive correlation with shell length (SL) in individuals with SL < 31 mm, whereas clams collected at Maizuru did not show significant correlation. This result may be caused from the difference of the spawning seasons between two areas. The Sr concentration of cross section of shell umbo, which develops thicker continuously during their life to form faint stratum structure, was analyzed by EPMA along the line across the stratum structure. Some surges and long term waving patterns of the Sr concentration were observed. These results suggest that the life histories of individual clams could be recorded in the shell umbo cross sections as variations of trace elements and analyses of trace elements could clarify the histories of individual clams. (author)

  8. Distribution of the ore elements in ore bodies of the Zapolyarnoe field (Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Taymasov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author conducted studies of the chemical zonality of ore deposits of all types for the sulfide-copper-nickel deposit Zapolyarnoe. Within the deposit of sulfide-copper-nickel ores Zapolyarnoe are the following industrial types of ores: rich interspersed ores, which are interspersed mineralization in peridotites; brecciated ores formed by detrital material; poor interspersed ores characterized by vein-interspersed mineralization; solid ores in a form of massive sulphide emissions. This work is based on operational and detailed exploration data. The author sorted samples according to the types of ores. Using the results, the author derived regression lines and their formulas to rectilinear dependencies. Analysis of the graphs showed that for all types of ores the dependences of copper and cobalt content on nickel content are direct, but at that, in thick-interspersed and brecciated types they are similar, and in scattered-interspersed they differ significantly. It becomes clear that correlation of copper and nickel in ore body depends on the scattered-interspersed ores, whereas the correlation of cobalt and nickel is determined mainly by thick-interspersed and brecciated ores. Dependencies between nickel, copper and cobalt in ores change when concentration of nickel in the ore changes. The graphs also show that the ratio of Ni/Cu in breccias and scattered-interspersed ores, as well as in near-ore metaperidotites, is almost constant at different nickel concentrations, on average 2:1.5 and 1, respectively. Thick- interspersed ores show the tendency towards an increase in the ratio with an increase in nickel content. The Ni/Co ratio increases with an increase of Ni concentration in all types of ores. In rich ores, growth occurs along a stepped curve, and in breccias – rectilinearly. Thus, the analysis of distribution of ore elements in ore bodies indicates a complex heterogeneous composition of sulphide mineralizations in different types of ores

  9. The use of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit typing and whole genome sequencing to inform tuberculosis prevention and control activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2013-07-01

    Molecular strain typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been possible for only about 20 years; it has significantly improved our understanding of the evolution and epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and tuberculosis disease. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit typing, based on 24 variable number tandem repeat unit loci, is highly discriminatory, relatively easy to perform and interpret and is currently the most widely used molecular typing system for tuberculosis surveillance. Nevertheless, clusters identified by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit typing sometimes cannot be confirmed or adequately defined by contact tracing and additional methods are needed. Recently, whole genome sequencing has been used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms and other mutations, between genotypically indistinguishable isolates from the same cluster, to more accurately trace transmission pathways. Rapidly increasing speed and quality and reduced costs will soon make large scale whole genome sequencing feasible, combined with the use of sophisticated bioinformatics tools, for epidemiological surveillance of tuberculosis.

  10. Polycaprolactone nanofiber interspersed collagen type-I scaffold for bone regeneration: a unique injectable osteogenic scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylan, Nuray; Ditto, Maggie; Lawrence, Joseph G; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda; Bhat, Samerna; Lecka-Czernik, Beata

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for an injectable cell coupled three-dimensional (3D) scaffold to be used as bone fracture augmentation material. To address this demand, a novel injectable osteogenic scaffold called PN-COL was developed using cells, a natural polymer (collagen type-I), and a synthetic polymer (polycaprolactone (PCL)). The injectable nanofibrous PN-COL is created by interspersing PCL nanofibers within pre-osteoblast cell embedded collagen type-I. This simple yet novel and powerful approach provides a great benefit as an injectable bone scaffold over other non-living bone fracture stabilization polymers, such as polymethylmethacrylate and calcium content resin-based materials. The advantages of injectability and the biomimicry of collagen was coupled with the structural support of PCL nanofibers, to create cell encapsulated injectable 3D bone scaffolds with intricate porous internal architecture and high osteoconductivity. The effects of PCL nanofiber inclusion within the cell encapsulated collagen matrix has been evaluated for scaffold size retention and osteocompatibility, as well as for MC3T3-E1 cells osteogenic activity. The structural analysis of novel bioactive material proved that the material is chemically stable enough in an aqueous solution for an extended period of time without using crosslinking reagents, but it is also viscous enough to be injected through a syringe needle. Data from long-term in vitro proliferation and differentiation data suggests that novel PN-COL scaffolds promote the osteoblast proliferation, phenotype expression, and formation of mineralized matrix. This study demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of creating a structurally competent, injectable, cell embedded bone tissue scaffold. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the advantages of mimicking the hierarchical architecture of native bone with nano- and micro-size formation through introducing PCL nanofibers within macron-size collagen fibers and in

  11. Short-term exposure to predation affects body elemental composition, climbing speed and survival ability in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrikis Krams

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Factors such as temperature, habitat, larval density, food availability and food quality substantially affect organismal development. In addition, risk of predation has a complex impact on the behavioural and morphological life history responses of prey. Responses to predation risk seem to be mediated by physiological stress, which is an adaptation for maintaining homeostasis and improving survivorship during life-threatening situations. We tested whether predator exposure during the larval phase of development has any influence on body elemental composition, energy reserves, body size, climbing speed and survival ability of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Fruit fly larvae were exposed to predation by jumping spiders (Phidippus apacheanus, and the percentage of carbon (C and nitrogen (N content, extracted lipids, escape response and survival were measured from predator-exposed and control adult flies. The results revealed predation as an important determinant of adult phenotype formation and survival ability. D. melanogaster reared together with spiders had a higher concentration of body N (but equal body C, a lower body mass and lipid reserves, a higher climbing speed and improved adult survival ability. The results suggest that the potential of predators to affect the development and the adult phenotype of D. melanogaster is high enough to use predators as a more natural stimulus in laboratory experiments when testing, for example, fruit fly memory and learning ability, or when comparing natural populations living under different predation pressures.

  12. On capabilities of thermomechanical treatment in increasing durability of short service life elements of mining аnd processing equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. И. Болобов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hadfield steel (110G13L is the basic material for fast wornout items of mining equipment: beaters, hammers, liners, refractory plates of crushers and mills. By way of example, the effect of cold hardening was specifically analyzed on the rate of wear of mining equipment parts for various types of wear by hard (more than 1100 HV and soft rock. A unique ability of that steel to resist shock wear is noted. It is shown that this steel exhibits low resistance to abrasive rock wear. Meanwhile wear by rock of hardness lower than steel (less than 1100 HV, may be substantially increased by pre-hardening of samples (up to 10-fold. In case of wear by high hardness rocks, shock impact that should contribute to hardening of the material, fails  to increase abrasive wear resistance of Hadfield steel, and in that parameter it does not differ from the conventional medium carbon steel 45. Also, the authors of this article describe a technique they developed of high-temperature thermomechanical treatment of specimen of Hadfield steel (free forging at 1150-950ºC and subsequent quenching in water and experiments in their abrasion. The results of tests show that hardness and wear resistance of Hadfield steel to hard abrasive (corundum 25A with aggregate hardness of ~2500 HV increases with plastic deformation at HTMT. For maximum plastic deformation intensity (deformation magnitude of α = 2.25, reached in the experiments by the authors, wear resistance grew by 70% as compared to undeformed steel. The dependence is presented of wear resistance of steel on hardness, HV, achieved in the result of plastic deformation. Since a similar positive effect was obtained earlier by the authors for 35HGSA steel, also used in mining machinery, they conclude that the HTMT technique may be recommended for treating short lived parts of the mining and mineral processing equipment to increase their service life.

  13. A SINE in the genome of the cephalochordate amphioxus is an Alu element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Linda Z.

    2006-01-01

    Transposable elements of about 300 bp, termed “short interspersed nucleotide elements or SINEs are common in eukaryotes. However, Alu elements, SINEs containing restriction sites for the AluI enzyme, have been known only from primates. Here I report the first SINE found in the genome of the cephalochordate, amphioxus. It is an Alu element of 375 bp that does not share substantial identity with any genomic sequences in vertebrates. It was identified because it was located in the FoxD regulatory region in a cosmid derived from one individual, but absent from the two FoxD alleles of BACs from a second individual. However, searches of sequences of BACs and genomic traces from this second individual gave an estimate of 50-100 copies in the amphioxus genome. The finding of an Alu element in amphioxus raises the question of whether Alu elements in amphioxus and primates arose by convergent evolution or by inheritance from a common ancestor. Genome-wide analyses of transposable elements in amphioxus and other chordates such as tunicates, agnathans and cartilaginous fishes could well provide the answer. PMID:16733535

  14. Aberrant methylation and associated transcriptional mobilization of Alu elements contributes to genomic instability in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arnab; Srivastava, Tapasya; Sharma, Manish K; Mehndiratta, Mohit; Das, Prerna; Sinha, Subrata; Chattopadhyay, Parthaprasad

    2010-11-01

    Hypoxia is an integral part of tumorigenesis and contributes extensively to the neoplastic phenotype including drug resistance and genomic instability. It has also been reported that hypoxia results in global demethylation. Because a majority of the cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) islands are found within the repeat elements of DNA, and are usually methylated under normoxic conditions, we suggested that retrotransposable Alu or short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) which show altered methylation and associated changes of gene expression during hypoxia, could be associated with genomic instability. U87MG glioblastoma cells were cultured in 0.1% O₂ for 6 weeks and compared with cells cultured in 21% O₂ for the same duration. Real-time PCR analysis showed a significant increase in SINE and reverse transcriptase coding long interspersed nuclear element (LINE) transcripts during hypoxia. Sequencing of bisulphite treated DNA as well as the Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis (COBRA) assay showed that the SINE loci studied underwent significant hypomethylation though there was patchy hypermethylation at a few sites. The inter-alu PCR profile of DNA from cells cultured under 6-week hypoxia, its 4-week revert back to normoxia and 6-week normoxia showed several changes in the band pattern indicating increased alu mediated genomic alteration. Our results show that aberrant methylation leading to increased transcription of SINE and reverse transcriptase associated LINE elements could lead to increased genomic instability in hypoxia. This might be a cause of genetic heterogeneity in tumours especially in variegated hypoxic environment and lead to a development of foci of more aggressive tumour cells. © 2009 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Association of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) elements with specific serotypes and virulence potential of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Magaly; Cao, Guojie; Ju, Wenting; Allard, Marc; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Zhao, Shaohua; Brown, Eric; Meng, Jianghong

    2014-02-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains (n = 194) representing 43 serotypes and E. coli K-12 were examined for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) arrays to study genetic relatedness among STEC serotypes. A subset of the strains (n = 81) was further analyzed for subtype I-E cas and virulence genes to determine a possible association of CRISPR elements with potential virulence. Four types of CRISPR arrays were identified. CRISPR1 and CRISPR2 were present in all strains tested; 1 strain also had both CRISPR3 and CRISPR4, whereas 193 strains displayed a short, combined array, CRISPR3-4. A total of 3,353 spacers were identified, representing 528 distinct spacers. The average length of a spacer was 32 bp. Approximately one-half of the spacers (54%) were unique and found mostly in strains of less common serotypes. Overall, CRISPR spacer contents correlated well with STEC serotypes, and identical arrays were shared between strains with the same H type (O26:H11, O103:H11, and O111:H11). There was no association identified between the presence of subtype I-E cas and virulence genes, but the total number of spacers had a negative correlation with potential pathogenicity (P CRISPR-cas system and potential virulence needs to be determined on a broader scale, and the biological link will need to be established.

  16. Intricate interactions between the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and foreign genetic elements, revealed by diversified clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, Sotaro; Yoshida, Takashi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2012-08-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) confer sequence-dependent, adaptive resistance in prokaryotes against viruses and plasmids via incorporation of short sequences, called spacers, derived from foreign genetic elements. CRISPR loci are thus considered to provide records of past infections. To describe the host-parasite (i.e., cyanophages and plasmids) interactions involving the bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, we investigated CRISPR in four M. aeruginosa strains and in two previously sequenced genomes. The number of spacers in each locus was larger than the average among prokaryotes. All spacers were strain specific, except for a string of 11 spacers shared in two closely related strains, suggesting diversification of the loci. Using CRISPR repeat-based PCR, 24 CRISPR genotypes were identified in a natural cyanobacterial community. Among 995 unique spacers obtained, only 10 sequences showed similarity to M. aeruginosa phage Ma-LMM01. Of these, six spacers showed only silent or conservative nucleotide mutations compared to Ma-LMM01 sequences, suggesting a strategy by the cyanophage to avert CRISPR immunity dependent on nucleotide identity. These results imply that host-phage interactions can be divided into M. aeruginosa-cyanophage combinations rather than pandemics of population-wide infectious cyanophages. Spacer similarity also showed frequent exposure of M. aeruginosa to small cryptic plasmids that were observed only in a few strains. Thus, the diversification of CRISPR implies that M. aeruginosa has been challenged by diverse communities (almost entirely uncharacterized) of cyanophages and plasmids.

  17. 'Sleeping reactor' irradiations. The use of a shut-down reactor for the determination of elements with short-lived activation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerde, E.A.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN; Glasgow, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis utilizing the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) immediately following SCRAM is a workable solution to obtaining data for ultra-short lived species, principally Al, Ti, Mg, and V. Neutrons are produced in the HFIR core within the beryllium reflector due to gamma-ray bombardment from the spent fuel elements. This neutron flux is not constant, varying by over two orders of magnitude during the first 24 hours. The problems associated with irradiation in a changing neutron flux are removed through the use of a specially tailored activation equation. This activation equation is applicable to any irradiation at HFIR in the firs 24 hours after SCRAM since the fuel elements are identical from cycle to cycle, and the gamma-emitting nuclides responsible for the neutrons reach saturation during the fuel cycle. Reference material tests demonstrate that this method is successful, and detection limit estimates reveal that it should be applicable to materials of widely ranging mass and composition. (author)

  18. Comparison of SHOX and associated elements duplications distribution between patients (Lėri-Weill dyschondrosteosis/idiopathic short stature) and population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeldova, Katerina; Solc, Roman

    2017-09-05

    The effect of heterozygous duplications of SHOX and associated elements on Lėri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and idiopathic short stature (ISS) development is less distinct when compared to reciprocal deletions. The aim of our study was to compare frequency and distribution of duplications within SHOX and associated elements between population sample and LWD (ISS) patients. A preliminary analysis conducted on Czech population sample of 250 individuals compared to our previously reported sample of 352 ISS/LWD Czech patients indicated that rather than the difference in frequency of duplications it is the difference in their distribution. Particularly, there was an increased frequency of duplications residing to the CNE-9 enhancer in our LWD/ISS sample. To see whether the obtained data are consistent across published studies we made a literature survey to get published cases with SHOX or associated elements duplication and formed the merged LWD, the merged ISS, and the merged population samples. Relative frequency of particular region duplication in each of those merged samples were calculated. There was a significant difference in the relative frequency of CNE-9 enhancer duplications (11 vs. 3) and complete SHOX (exon1-6b) duplications (4 vs. 24) (p-value 0.0139 and p-value 0.000014, respectively) between the merged LWD sample and the merged population sample. We thus propose that partial SHOX duplications and small duplications encompassing CNE-9 enhancer could be highly penetrant alleles associated with ISS and LWD development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The genomic landscape shaped by selection on transposable elements across 18 mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellåker, Christoffer; Keane, Thomas M; Yalcin, Binnaz; Wong, Kim; Agam, Avigail; Belgard, T Grant; Flint, Jonathan; Adams, David J; Frankel, Wayne N; Ponting, Chris P

    2012-06-15

    Transposable element (TE)-derived sequence dominates the landscape of mammalian genomes and can modulate gene function by dysregulating transcription and translation. Our current knowledge of TEs in laboratory mouse strains is limited primarily to those present in the C57BL/6J reference genome, with most mouse TEs being drawn from three distinct classes, namely short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) and the endogenous retrovirus (ERV) superfamily. Despite their high prevalence, the different genomic and gene properties controlling whether TEs are preferentially purged from, or are retained by, genetic drift or positive selection in mammalian genomes remain poorly defined. Using whole genome sequencing data from 13 classical laboratory and 4 wild-derived mouse inbred strains, we developed a comprehensive catalogue of 103,798 polymorphic TE variants. We employ this extensive data set to characterize TE variants across the Mus lineage, and to infer neutral and selective processes that have acted over 2 million years. Our results indicate that the majority of TE variants are introduced though the male germline and that only a minority of TE variants exert detectable changes in gene expression. However, among genes with differential expression across the strains there are twice as many TE variants identified as being putative causal variants as expected. Most TE variants that cause gene expression changes appear to be purged rapidly by purifying selection. Our findings demonstrate that past TE insertions have often been highly deleterious, and help to prioritize TE variants according to their likely contribution to gene expression or phenotype variation.

  20. Ultrathin Carbon with Interspersed Graphene/Fullerene-like Nanostructures: A Durable Protective Overcoat for High Density Magnetic Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Satyanarayana, Nalam; Yeo, Reuben J; Xu, Hai; Ping Loh, Kian; Tripathy, Sudhiranjan; Bhatia, Charanjit S

    2015-06-25

    One of the key issues for future hard disk drive technology is to design and develop ultrathin (Forming carbon overcoats (COCs) having interspersed nanostructures by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) process can be an effective approach to achieve the desired target. In this work, by employing a novel bi-level surface modification approach using FCVA, the formation of a high sp(3) bonded ultrathin (~1.7 nm) amorphous carbon overcoat with interspersed graphene/fullerene-like nanostructures, grown on magnetic hard disk media, is reported. The in-depth spectroscopic and microscopic analyses by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Raman spectroscopy support the observed findings. Despite a reduction of ~37% in COC thickness, the FCVA-processed thinner COC (~1.7 nm) shows promising functional performance in terms of lower coefficient of friction (~0.25), higher wear resistance, lower surface energy, excellent hydrophobicity and similar/better oxidation corrosion resistance than current commercial COCs of thickness ~2.7 nm. The surface and tribological properties of FCVA-deposited COC was further improved after deposition of lubricant layer.

  1. Transposable elements are enriched within or in close proximity to xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xianchun

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposons, i.e. transposable elements (TEs, are the major internal spontaneous mutation agents for the variability of eukaryotic genomes. To address the general issue of whether transposons mediate genomic changes in environment-adaptation genes, we scanned two alleles per each of the six xenobiotic-metabolizing Helicoverpa zea cytochrome P450 loci, including CYP6B8, CYP6B27, CYP321A1, CYP321A2, CYP9A12v3 and CYP9A14, for the presence of transposon insertions by genome walking and sequence analysis. We also scanned thirteen Drosophila melanogaster P450s genes for TE insertions by in silico mapping and literature search. Results Twelve novel transposons, including LINEs (long interspersed nuclear elements, SINEs (short interspersed nuclear elements, MITEs (miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements, one full-length transib-like transposon, and one full-length Tcl-like DNA transpson, are identified from the alleles of the six H. zea P450 genes. The twelve transposons are inserted into the 5'flanking region, 3'flanking region, exon, or intron of the six environment-adaptation P450 genes. In D. melanogaster, seven out of the eight Drosophila P450s (CYP4E2, CYP6A2, CYP6A8, CYP6A9, CYP6G1, CYP6W1, CYP12A4, CYP12D1 implicated in insecticide resistance are associated with a variety of transposons. By contrast, all the five Drosophila P450s (CYP302A1, CYP306A1, CYP307A1, CYP314A1 and CYP315A1 involved in ecdysone biosynthesis and developmental regulation are free of TE insertions. Conclusion These results indicate that TEs are selectively retained within or in close proximity to xenobiotic-metabolizing P450 genes.

  2. cAMP response element-binding protein in the amygdala is required for long- but not short-term conditioned taste aversion memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, R; Hazvi, S; Dudai, Y

    1997-11-01

    In conditioned taste aversion (CTA) organisms learn to avoid a taste if the first encounter with that taste is followed by transient poisoning. The neural mechanisms that subserve this robust and long-lasting association of taste and malaise have not yet been elucidated, but several brain areas have been implicated in the process, including the amygdala. In this study we investigated the role of amygdala in general, and the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the amygdala in particular, in CTA learning and memory. Toward that end, we combined antisense technology in vivo with behavioral, molecular, and histochemical analysis. Local microinjection of phosphorothioate-modified oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) antisense to CREB into the rat amygdala several hours before CTA training transiently reduced the level of CREB protein during training and impaired CTA memory when tested 3-5 d later. In comparison, sense ODNs had no effect on memory. The effect of antisense was not attributable to differential tissue damage and was site-specific. CREB antisense in the amygdala had no effect on retrieval of CTA memory once it had been formed, and did not affect short-term CTA memory. We propose that the amygdala, specifically the central nucleus, is required for the establishment of long-term CTA memory in the behaving rat; that the process involves long-term changes, subserved by CRE-regulated gene expression, in amygdala neurons; and that the amygdala may retain some CTA-relevant information over time rather than merely modulating the gustatory trace during acquisition of CTA.

  3. Molecular reconstruction of extinct LINE-1 elements and their interaction with nonautonomous elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Bradley J; Kroutter, Emily N; Derbes, Rebecca S; Belancio, Victoria P; Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2013-01-01

    Non-long terminal repeat retroelements continue to impact the human genome through cis-activity of long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) and trans-mobilization of Alu. Current activity is dominated by modern subfamilies of these elements, leaving behind an evolutionary graveyard of extinct Alu and L1 subfamilies. Because Alu is a nonautonomous element that relies on L1 to retrotranspose, there is the possibility that competition between these elements has driven selection and antagonistic coevolution between Alu and L1. Through analysis of synonymous versus nonsynonymous codon evolution across L1 subfamilies, we find that the C-terminal ORF2 cys domain experienced a dramatic increase in amino acid substitution rate in the transition from L1PA5 to L1PA4 subfamilies. This observation coincides with the previously reported rapid evolution of ORF1 during the same transition period. Ancestral Alu sequences have been previously reconstructed, as their short size and ubiquity have made it relatively easy to retrieve consensus sequences from the human genome. In contrast, creating constructs of extinct L1 copies is a more laborious task. Here, we report our efforts to recreate and evaluate the retrotransposition capabilities of two ancestral L1 elements, L1PA4 and L1PA8 that were active ~18 and ~40 Ma, respectively. Relative to the modern L1PA1 subfamily, we find that both elements are similarly active in a cell culture retrotransposition assay in HeLa, and both are able to efficiently trans-mobilize Alu elements from several subfamilies. Although we observe some variation in Alu subfamily retrotransposition efficiency, any coevolution that may have occurred between LINEs and SINEs is not evident from these data. Population dynamics and stochastic variation in the number of active source elements likely play an important role in individual LINE or SINE subfamily amplification. If coevolution also contributes to changing retrotransposition rates and the progression of

  4. The application of Westcott Formalism k0 NAA method to estimate short and medium lived elements in some Ghanaian herbal medicines complemented by AAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayivor, J. E.; Okine, L. K. N.; Dampare, S. B.; Nyarko, B. J. B.; Debrah, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    The epithermal neutron shape factor, α of the inner and outer irradiation sites of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) was determined obtaining results of 0.105 for the inner (Channel 1) Irradiation site and 0.020 for the outer (channel 6) irradiation site. The neutron temperatures for the inner and outer irradiation sites were 27 °C and 20 °C, respectively. The α values used in Westcott Formalism k0 INAA was applied to determine multi elements in 13 Ghanaian herbal medicines used by the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) for the management of various diseases complemented by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. They are namely Mist. Antiaris, Mist. Enterica, Mist. Morazia, Mist. Nibima, Mist. Modium, Mist. Ninger, Mist Sodenia, Mist. Tonica, Chardicca Powder, Fefe Powder, Olax Powder, Sirrapac powder and Lippia Tea. Concentrations of Al, As, Br, K, Cl, Cu, Mg, Mn, Na and V were determined by short and medium irradiations at a thermal neutron flux of 5×1011 ncm-2 s-1. Fe, Cr, Pb, Co, Ni, Sn, Ca, Ba, Li and Sb were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Ba, Cu, Li and V were present at trace levels whereas Al, Cl, Na, Ca were present at major levels. K, Br, Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Fe and Sb were also present at minor levels. Arsenic was not detected in all samples. Standard Reference material, IAEA-V-10 Hay Powder was simultaneously analysed with samples. The precision and accuracy of the method using real samples and standard reference materials were evaluated and within ±10% of the reported value. Multivariate analytical techniques, such as cluster analysis (Q-mode and R-mode CA) and principal component analysis (PCA)/factor analysis (FA), have been applied to evaluate the chemical variations in the herbal medicine dataset. All the 13 samples may be grouped into 2 statistically significant clusters (liquid based and powdered herbal medicines), reflecting the different chemical compositions. R-mode CA and PCA suggest common

  5. The Upper Limit of the Periodic Table of Elements Points out to the "Long" Version of the Table, Instead of the "Short" One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we present an analysis of the internal constitution of the “short” and “long” forms of the Periodic Table of Elements. As a result, we conclude that the second (long version is more correct. We also suggest a long version of the Table consisting of 8 periods and 18 groups, with the last (heaviest element being element No. 155, which closes the Table.

  6. GREAM: A Web Server to Short-List Potentially Important Genomic Repeat Elements Based on Over-/Under-Representation in Specific Chromosomal Locations, Such as the Gene Neighborhoods, within or across 17 Mammalian Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshan Shimoga Chandrashekar

    Full Text Available Genome-wide repeat sequences, such as LINEs, SINEs and LTRs share a considerable part of the mammalian nuclear genomes. These repeat elements seem to be important for multiple functions including the regulation of transcription initiation, alternative splicing and DNA methylation. But it is not possible to study all repeats and, hence, it would help to short-list before exploring their potential functional significance via experimental studies and/or detailed in silico analyses.We developed the 'Genomic Repeat Element Analyzer for Mammals' (GREAM for analysis, screening and selection of potentially important mammalian genomic repeats. This web-server offers many novel utilities. For example, this is the only tool that can reveal a categorized list of specific types of transposons, retro-transposons and other genome-wide repetitive elements that are statistically over-/under-represented in regions around a set of genes, such as those expressed differentially in a disease condition. The output displays the position and frequency of identified elements within the specified regions. In addition, GREAM offers two other types of analyses of genomic repeat sequences: a enrichment within chromosomal region(s of interest, and b comparative distribution across the neighborhood of orthologous genes. GREAM successfully short-listed a repeat element (MER20 known to contain functional motifs. In other case studies, we could use GREAM to short-list repetitive elements in the azoospermia factor a (AZFa region of the human Y chromosome and those around the genes associated with rat liver injury. GREAM could also identify five over-represented repeats around some of the human and mouse transcription factor coding genes that had conserved expression patterns across the two species.GREAM has been developed to provide an impetus to research on the role of repetitive sequences in mammalian genomes by offering easy selection of more interesting repeats in various

  7. A SINE-derived element constitutes a unique modular enhancer for mammalian diencephalic Fgf8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Nakanishi

    Full Text Available Transposable elements, including short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs, comprise nearly half the mammalian genome. Moreover, they are a major source of conserved non-coding elements (CNEs, which play important functional roles in regulating development-related genes, such as enhancing and silencing, serving for the diversification of morphological and physiological features among species. We previously reported a novel SINE family, AmnSINE1, as part of mammalian-specific CNEs. One AmnSINE1 locus, named AS071, showed an enhancer property in the developing mouse diencephalon. Indeed, AS071 appears to recapitulate the expression of diencephalic fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8. Here we established three independent lines of AS071-transgenic mice and performed detailed expression profiling of AS071-enhanced lacZ in comparison with that of Fgf8 across embryonic stages. We demonstrate that AS071 is a distal enhancer that directs Fgf8 expression in the developing diencephalon. Furthermore, enhancer assays with constructs encoding partially deleted AS071 sequence revealed a unique modular organization in which AS071 contains at least three functionally distinct sub-elements that cooperatively direct the enhancer activity in three diencephalic domains, namely the dorsal midline and the lateral wall of the diencephalon, and the ventral midline of the hypothalamus. Interestingly, the AmnSINE1-derived sub-element was found to specify the enhancer activity to the ventral midline of the hypothalamus. To our knowledge, this is the first discovery of an enhancer element that could be separated into respective sub-elements that determine regional specificity and/or the core enhancing activity. These results potentiate our understanding of the evolution of retroposon-derived cis-regulatory elements as well as the basis for future studies of the molecular mechanism underlying the determination of domain-specificity of an enhancer.

  8. The application of Westcott Formalism k0 NAA method to estimate short and medium lived elements in some Ghanaian herbal medicines complemented by AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayivor, J.E.; Okine, L.K.N.; Dampare, S.B.; Nyarko, B.J.B.; Debrah, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    The epithermal neutron shape factor, α of the inner and outer irradiation sites of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) was determined obtaining results of 0.105 for the inner (Channel 1) Irradiation site and 0.020 for the outer (channel 6) irradiation site. The neutron temperatures for the inner and outer irradiation sites were 27 °C and 20 °C, respectively. The α values used in Westcott Formalism k 0 INAA was applied to determine multi elements in 13 Ghanaian herbal medicines used by the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) for the management of various diseases complemented by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. They are namely Mist. Antiaris, Mist. Enterica, Mist. Morazia, Mist. Nibima, Mist. Modium, Mist. Ninger, Mist Sodenia, Mist. Tonica, Chardicca Powder, Fefe Powder, Olax Powder, Sirrapac powder and Lippia Tea. Concentrations of Al, As, Br, K, Cl, Cu, Mg, Mn, Na and V were determined by short and medium irradiations at a thermal neutron flux of 5×10 11 ncm −2 s −1 . Fe, Cr, Pb, Co, Ni, Sn, Ca, Ba, Li and Sb were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Ba, Cu, Li and V were present at trace levels whereas Al, Cl, Na, Ca were present at major levels. K, Br, Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Fe and Sb were also present at minor levels. Arsenic was not detected in all samples. Standard Reference material, IAEA-V-10 Hay Powder was simultaneously analysed with samples. The precision and accuracy of the method using real samples and standard reference materials were evaluated and within ±10% of the reported value. Multivariate analytical techniques, such as cluster analysis (Q-mode and R-mode CA) and principal component analysis (PCA)/factor analysis (FA), have been applied to evaluate the chemical variations in the herbal medicine dataset. All the 13 samples may be grouped into 2 statistically significant clusters (liquid based and powdered herbal medicines), reflecting the different chemical compositions. R-mode CA and PCA suggest

  9. Evaluation of short-term effects of rare earth and other elements used in magnesium alloys on primary cells and cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, Frank; Fischer, Janine; Holtz, Jakob; Witte, Frank; Willumeit, Regine; Drücker, Heiko; Vogt, Carla; Hort, Norbert

    2010-05-01

    Degradable magnesium alloys for biomedical application are on the verge of being used clinically. Rare earth elements (REEs) are used to improve the mechanical properties of the alloys, but in more or less undefined mixtures. For some elements of this group, data on toxicity and influence on cells are sparse. Therefore in this study the in vitro cytotoxicity of the elements yttrium (Y), neodymium (Nd), dysprosium (Dy), praseodymium (Pr), gadolinium (Gd), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), europium (Eu), lithium (Li) and zirconium (Zr) was evaluated by incubation with the chlorides (10-2000 microM); magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) were tested at higher concentrations (200 and 50mM, respectively). The influence on viability of human osteosarcoma cell line MG63, human umbilical cord perivascular (HUCPV) cells and mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) was determined, as well as the induction of apoptosis and the expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha). Significant differences between the applied cells could be observed. RAW exhibited the highest and HUCPV the lowest sensitivity. La and Ce showed the highest cytotoxicity of the analysed elements. Of the elements with high solubility in magnesium alloys, Gd and Dy seem to be more suitable than Y. The focus of magnesium alloy development for biomedical applications should include most defined alloy compositions with well-known tissue-specific and systemic effects. Copyright (c) 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diversity, evolution, and functionality of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) regions in the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Smits, Theo H M; Duffy, Brion

    2011-06-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas system confers acquired heritable immunity against mobile nucleic acid elements in prokaryotes, limiting phage infection and horizontal gene transfer of plasmids. In CRISPR arrays, characteristic repeats are interspersed with similarly sized nonrepetitive spacers derived from transmissible genetic elements and acquired when the cell is challenged with foreign DNA. New spacers are added sequentially and the number and type of CRISPR units can differ among strains, providing a record of phage/plasmid exposure within a species and giving a valuable typing tool. The aim of this work was to investigate CRISPR diversity in the highly homogeneous species Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. A total of 18 CRISPR genotypes were defined within a collection of 37 cosmopolitan strains. Strains from Spiraeoideae plants clustered in three major groups: groups II and III were composed exclusively of bacteria originating from the United States, whereas group I generally contained strains of more recent dissemination obtained in Europe, New Zealand, and the Middle East. Strains from Rosoideae and Indian hawthorn (Rhaphiolepis indica) clustered separately and displayed a higher intrinsic diversity than that of isolates from Spiraeoideae plants. Reciprocal exclusion was generally observed between plasmid content and cognate spacer sequences, supporting the role of the CRISPR/Cas system in protecting against foreign DNA elements. However, in several group III strains, retention of plasmid pEU30 is inconsistent with a functional CRISPR/Cas system.

  11. Fine typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates using direct repeat unit and staphylococcal interspersed repeat unit typing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cheng-Mao; Ho, Mao-Wang; Li, Chi-Yuan; Lu, Jang-Jih

    2015-08-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) typing is an important epidemiologic tool for monitoring trends and preventing outbreaks. However, the efficiency of various MRSA typing methods for each SCCmec MRSA isolate is rarely evaluated. A total of 157 MRSA isolates from four different regions in Taiwan were typed with five different molecular methods, including SCCmec typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, mec-associated direct repeat unit (dru) copy number determination, and staphylococcal interspersed repeat unit (SIRU) profiling. There were four SCCmec types, eight MLST types, 15 spa types, 11 dru types, and 31 SIRU profiles. The most common type determined by each molecular typing method was SCCmec III (115 isolates, 73.2%), ST239 (99 isolates, 63.1%), t037 (107 isolates, 68.2%), 14 dru copies (76 isolates, 48.4%), and SIRU profile 3013722 (102 isolates, 65%), respectively. When using the combination of MLST, spa typing, and dru copy number, ST5-t002-4 (n = 8), ST239-t037-14 (n = 68), ST59-t437-9 (n = 9), and ST59-t437-11 (n = 6) were found to be the most common types of SCCmec types II (n = 9), III (n = 115), IV (n = 21), and VT (n = 11) isolates, respectively. SCCmec type III isolates were further classified into 11 dru types. Of the 21 SCCmec type IV isolates, 14 SIRU profiles were found. Seven SIRU patterns were observed in the 11 SCCmec type VT isolates. Different typing methods showed a similar Hunter-Gaston discrimination index among the 157 MRSA isolates. However, dru and SIRU typing methods had a better discriminatory power for SCCmec type III and SCCmec types IV and VT isolates, respectively, suggesting that dru and SIRU can be used to further type these isolates. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Sixty-five radiation hybrids for the short arm of human chromosome 6: their value as a mapping panel and as a source for rapid isolation of new probes using repeat element-mediated PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoghbi, H.Y.; McCall, A.E.; LeBorgne-Demarquoy, F.

    1991-01-01

    We have used an irradiation and fusion procedure to generate somatic cell hybrids that retain fragments of the short arm of human chromosome 6 (6p). To identify hybrids retaining human material, we performed repeat element-mediated PCR on crude lysates of cells from individual clones. Sixty-five hybrids were shown to contain human material and fifty of those contained one or more 6p-specific probes. Detailed characterization of these hybrids identified a subset that divides 6p into ten mapping intervals. Using repeat element-mediated PCR, we were able to isolate and map 61 new DNA fragments from specific regions of 6p. Fifteen of these fragments were used to screen for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), and nine identified RFLPs with one or more enzymes. The radiation hybrids described in this study provide a valuable resource for high-resolution mapping of 6p and for the rapid isolation of region-specific markers

  13. Clustured regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) genetic diversity studies as a mean to reconstruct the evolution of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Christophe

    2015-06-01

    The natural history of tuberculosis may be tackled by various means, among which the record of molecular scars that have been registered by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genomes transmitted from patient to patient for tens of thousands years and possibly more. Recently discovered polymorphic loci, the CRISPR sequences, are indirect witnesses of the historical phage-bacteria struggle, and may be related to the time when the ancestor of today's tubercle bacilli were environmental bacteria, i.e. before becoming intracellular parasites. In this article, we present what are CRISPRs and try to summarize almost 20 years of research results obtained using the genetic diversity of the CRISPR loci in MTBC as a perspective for studying new models. We show that the study of the diversity of CRISPR sequences, thanks to «spoligotyping», has played a great role in our global understanding of the population structure of MTBC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Short-term influence of Cu, Zn, Ni and Cd excess on metabolism, ultrastructure and distribution of elements in lichen Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovár, J; Weidinger, M; Bačkor, M; Bačkorová, M; Lichtscheidl, I

    2017-11-01

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms that are very sensitive to heavy metal pollution. However, there is little evidence of how heavy metal pollution affects the physiological status, ultrastructural changes and distribution of elements in the layers of lichen thalli. For this purpose we simulated metal pollution to lichens and studied its impact on Xanthoria parietina. Thalli were treated with the heavy metals Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd in the form of sulfates at concentrations of 100µM and 500µM during 24, 48 and 72h. Untreated lichens served as controls. We assessed the status of physiological parameters (fluorescence and integrity of chlorophyll a, content of soluble proteins and ergosterol), ultrastructural changes, especially to the photobiont, and the distribution of elements in the layers of thalli in relation to treatment with heavy metals. We found positive correlations between the content of all tested heavy metals and the physiological response. We assessed the toxicity of the selected metals as follows: Cd >= Cu >= Ni > Zn, based on the effects on the photobiont layer in the lichen thallus and physiological measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Formation of short-lived positron emitters in reactions of protons of energies up to 200 MeV with the target elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen

    CERN Document Server

    Kettern, K; Qaim, S M; Shubin, Yu N; Steyn, G F; Van der Walt, T N; 10.1016/j.apradiso.2004.02.007

    2004-01-01

    Excitation functions were measured by the stacked-foil technique for proton induced reactions on carbon, nitrogen and oxygen leading to the formation of the short-lived positron emitters /sup 11/C (T/sub 1 /2/=20.38 min) and /sup 13/N (T/sub 1/2/=9.96 min). The energy region covered extended up to 200 MeV. The product activity was measured non-destructively via gamma -ray spectrometry. A careful decay curve analysis of the positron annihilation radiation was invariably performed. The experimental results were compared with theoretical data obtained using the modified hybrid nuclear model code ALICE-IPPE for intermediate energies. The agreement was found to be generally satisfactory. The data are of importance in proton therapy.

  16. TFIIIC bound DNA elements in nuclear organization and insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Jacob G; Raab, Jesse R; Kamakaka, Rohinton T

    2013-01-01

    tRNA genes (tDNAs) have been known to have barrier insulator function in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for over a decade. tDNAs also play a role in genome organization by clustering at sites in the nucleus and both of these functions are dependent on the transcription factor TFIIIC. More recently TFIIIC bound sites devoid of pol III, termed Extra-TFIIIC sites (ETC) have been identified in budding yeast and these sites also function as insulators and affect genome organization. Subsequent studies in Schizosaccharomyces pombe showed that TFIIIC bound sites were insulators and also functioned as Chromosome Organization Clamps (COC); tethering the sites to the nuclear periphery. Very recently studies have moved to mammalian systems where pol III genes and their associated factors have been investigated in both mouse and human cells. Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) that bind TFIIIC, function as insulator elements and tDNAs can also function as both enhancer - blocking and barrier insulators in these organisms. It was also recently shown that tDNAs cluster with other tDNAs and with ETCs but not with pol II transcribed genes. Intriguingly, TFIIIC is often found near pol II transcription start sites and it remains unclear what the consequences of TFIIIC based genomic organization are and what influence pol III factors have on pol II transcribed genes and vice versa. In this review we provide a comprehensive overview of the known data on pol III factors in insulation and genome organization and identify the many open questions that require further investigation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Transcription by Odd Pols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies on the separation of rare earth elements and the nuclear decay properties of short lived rare-earth nuclides in U-235 fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyoshi, Akira; Ohyoshi, Emiko.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of a complex-forming agent, with which rare earths consecutively form the complexes, on the separation of a pair of adjacent rare earths by electromigration has been investigated. The relation between the separation factor for two complexes and the ligand-ion concentration was examined in the separation of La-Ce and Ce-Pr pairs with nitrilotriacetic acid. Rare earths were able to be isolated rapidly at the optimum ligand-ion concentration in lower one, and this method was applied to study the nuclear decay properties of the short lived isotopes of La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Yt formed in the fission of U-235. This method permits the direct measurement of the decay of La-144 without the interference from the radiation of other fission products. The gamma-ray spectrum of La-144 was measured with a high resolution Ge(Li) detector, and the gamma-transition was observed. From the decay plots of two strong photopeaks, the half-life of La-144 was determined. In the case of Ce fraction, the photopeaks assigned to respective isotopes were observed. In the studies on the decay properties of Pr-148 and Pr-149, the decay plot of the strong photopeak showed good linearity, and the accurate half-life of Pr-148 was determined. Similarly, the half-life of Pr-149 was longer than the previously reported value. (Kako, I.)

  18. Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium helical interspersed subtelomeric proteins contribute to cytoadherence and anchor P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 to the host cell cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oberli, Alexander; Zurbrügg, Laura; Rusch, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    is anchored to the cytoskeleton, and the Plasmodium helical interspersed subtelomeric (PHIST) gene family plays a role in many host cell modifications including binding the intracellular domain of PfEMP1. Here, we show that conditional reduction of the PHIST protein PFE1605w strongly reduces adhesion...... interacts with both the intracellular segment of PfEMP1 and with cytoskeletal components. This is the first report of a PHIST protein interacting with key molecules of the cytoadherence complex and the host cytoskeleton, and this functional role seems to play an essential role in the pathology of P...

  19. Binding of TFIIIC to sine elements controls the relocation of activity-dependent neuronal genes to transcription factories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Crepaldi

    Full Text Available In neurons, the timely and accurate expression of genes in response to synaptic activity relies on the interplay between epigenetic modifications of histones, recruitment of regulatory proteins to chromatin and changes to nuclear structure. To identify genes and regulatory elements responsive to synaptic activation in vivo, we performed a genome-wide ChIPseq analysis of acetylated histone H3 using somatosensory cortex of mice exposed to novel enriched environmental (NEE conditions. We discovered that Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs located distal to promoters of activity-dependent genes became acetylated following exposure to NEE and were bound by the general transcription factor TFIIIC. Importantly, under depolarizing conditions, inducible genes relocated to transcription factories (TFs, and this event was controlled by TFIIIC. Silencing of the TFIIIC subunit Gtf3c5 in non-stimulated neurons induced uncontrolled relocation to TFs and transcription of activity-dependent genes. Remarkably, in cortical neurons, silencing of Gtf3c5 mimicked the effects of chronic depolarization, inducing a dramatic increase of both dendritic length and branching. These findings reveal a novel and essential regulatory function of both SINEs and TFIIIC in mediating gene relocation and transcription. They also suggest that TFIIIC may regulate the rearrangement of nuclear architecture, allowing the coordinated expression of activity-dependent neuronal genes.

  20. Binding of TFIIIC to sine elements controls the relocation of activity-dependent neuronal genes to transcription factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepaldi, Luca; Policarpi, Cristina; Coatti, Alessandro; Sherlock, William T; Jongbloets, Bart C; Down, Thomas A; Riccio, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In neurons, the timely and accurate expression of genes in response to synaptic activity relies on the interplay between epigenetic modifications of histones, recruitment of regulatory proteins to chromatin and changes to nuclear structure. To identify genes and regulatory elements responsive to synaptic activation in vivo, we performed a genome-wide ChIPseq analysis of acetylated histone H3 using somatosensory cortex of mice exposed to novel enriched environmental (NEE) conditions. We discovered that Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) located distal to promoters of activity-dependent genes became acetylated following exposure to NEE and were bound by the general transcription factor TFIIIC. Importantly, under depolarizing conditions, inducible genes relocated to transcription factories (TFs), and this event was controlled by TFIIIC. Silencing of the TFIIIC subunit Gtf3c5 in non-stimulated neurons induced uncontrolled relocation to TFs and transcription of activity-dependent genes. Remarkably, in cortical neurons, silencing of Gtf3c5 mimicked the effects of chronic depolarization, inducing a dramatic increase of both dendritic length and branching. These findings reveal a novel and essential regulatory function of both SINEs and TFIIIC in mediating gene relocation and transcription. They also suggest that TFIIIC may regulate the rearrangement of nuclear architecture, allowing the coordinated expression of activity-dependent neuronal genes.

  1. Transcription of Gypsy Elements in a Y-Chromosome Male Fertility Gene of Drosophila Hydei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstenbach, R.; Harhangi, H.; Schouren, K.; Bindels, P.; Suijkerbuijk, R.; Hennig, W.

    1996-01-01

    We have found that defective gypsy retrotransposons are a major constituent of the lampbrush loop pair Nooses in the short arm of the Y chromosome of Drosophila hydei. The loop pair is formed by male fertility gene Q during the primary spermatocyte stage of spermatogenesis, each loop being a single transcription unit with an estimated length of 260 kb. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization, we show that throughout the loop transcripts gypsy elements are interspersed with blocks of a tandemly repetitive Y-specific DNA sequence, ay1. Nooses transcripts containing both sequence types show a wide size range on Northern blots, do not migrate to the cytoplasm, and are degraded just before the first meiotic division. Only one strand of ay1 and only the coding strand of gypsy can be detected in the loop transcripts. However, as cloned genomic DNA fragments also display opposite orientations of ay1 and gypsy, such DNA sections cannot be part of the Nooses. Hence, they are most likely derived from the flanking heterochromatin. The direction of transcription of ay1 and gypsy thus appears to be of a functional significance. PMID:8852843

  2. Neurotoxic Doses of Chronic Methamphetamine  Trigger Retrotransposition of the Identifier Element  in Rat Dorsal Dentate Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Moszczynska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Short interspersed elements (SINEs are typically silenced by DNA hypermethylation in somatic cells, but can retrotranspose in proliferating cells during adult neurogenesis. Hypomethylation caused by disease pathology or genotoxic stress leads to genomic instability of SINEs. The goal of the present investigation was to determine whether neurotoxic doses of binge or chronic methamphetamine (METH trigger retrotransposition of the identifier (ID element, a member of the rat SINE family, in the dentate gyrus genomic DNA. Adult male Sprague‐Dawley rats were treated with saline or high doses of binge or chronic METH and sacrificed at three different time points thereafter. DNA methylation analysis, immunohistochemistry and next‐generation sequencing (NGS were performed on the dorsal dentate gyrus samples. Binge METH triggered hypomethylation, while chronic METH triggered hypermethylation of the CpG‐2 site. Both METH regimens were associated with increased intensities in poly(A‐binding protein 1 (PABP1, a SINE regulatory protein‐like immunohistochemical staining in the dentate gyrus. The amplification of several ID element sequences was significantly higher in the chronic METH group than in the control group a week after METH, and they mapped to genes coding for proteins regulating cell growth and proliferation, transcription, protein function as well as for a variety of transporters. The results suggest that chronic METH induces ID element retrotransposition in the dorsal dentate gyrus and may affect hippocampal neurogenesis.

  3. Short philtrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm Short philtrum To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A short philtrum is a shorter than normal distance between ...

  4. Evolutionary dynamics and sites of illegitimate recombination revealed in the interspersion and sequence junctions of two nonhomologous satellite DNAs in cactophilic Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, G C S; Teo, C H; Schwarzacher, T; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2009-05-01

    Satellite DNA (satDNA) is a major component of genomes but relatively little is known about the fine-scale organization of unrelated satDNAs residing at the same chromosome location, and the sequence structure and dynamics of satDNA junctions. We studied the organization and sequence junctions of two nonhomologous satDNAs, pBuM and DBC-150, in three species from the neotropical Drosophila buzzatii cluster (repleta group). In situ hybridization to microchromosomes, interphase nuclei and extended DNA fibers showed frequent interspersion of the two satellites in D. gouveai, D. antonietae and, to a lesser extent, D. seriema. We isolated by PCR six pBuM x DBC-150 junctions: four are exclusive to D. gouveai and two are exclusive to D. antonietae. The six junction breakpoints occur at different positions within monomers, suggesting independent origin. Four junctions showed abrupt transitions between the two satellites, whereas two junctions showed a distinct 10 bp tandem duplication before the junction. Unlike pBuM, DBC-150 junction repeats are more variable than randomly cloned monomers and showed diagnostic features in common to a 3-monomer higher-order repeat seen in the sister species D. serido. The high levels of interspersion between pBuM and DBC-150 repeats suggest extensive rearrangements between the two satellites, maybe favored by specific features of the microchromosomes. Our interpretation is that the junctions evolved by multiples events of illegitimate recombination between nonhomologous satDNA repeats, with subsequent rounds of unequal crossing-over expanding the copy number of some of the junctions.

  5. Interspersion of highly repetitive DNA with single copy DNA in the genome of the red crab, Geryon quinquedens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, N.T. (Univ. of Tennessee, Oak Ridge); Skinner, D.M.

    1979-02-01

    Kinetic analysis of the reassociation of 420 nucleotide (NT) long fragments has shown that essentially all of the repetitive sequences of the DNA of the red crab Geryon quinquedens are highly repetitive. There are negligible amounts of low and intermediate repetitive DNAs. Though atypical of most eukaryotes, this pattern has been observed in al other brachyurans (true crabs) studied. The major repetitive component is subdivided into short runs of 300 NT and longer runs of greater than 1200 NT while the minor component has an average sequence length of 400 NT. Both components reassociate at rates commonly observed for satellite DNAs. Unique among eukaryotes the organization of the genome includes single copy DNA contiguous to short runs (300 NT) of both repetitive components. Although patent satellites are not present, subsets of the repetitive DNA have been isolated by either restriction endonuclease digestion or by centrifugation in Ag/sup +/ or Hg/sup 2 +//Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ density gradients.

  6. Standard elements; Elements standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Following his own experience the author recalls the various advantages, especially in the laboratory, of having pre-fabricated vacuum-line components at his disposal. (author) [French] A la suite de sa propre experience, l'auteur veut rappeler les divers avantages que presente, tout particulierement en laboratoire, le fait d'avoir a sa disposition des elements pre-fabriques de canalisations a vide. (auteur)

  7. The synthetic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered.

  8. The synthetic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered

  9. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  10. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF P.T. KAYE

    . SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...

  11. Galvanic element. Galvanisches Element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprengel, D.; Haelbig, H.

    1980-01-03

    The invention concerns a gas-tight sealed accumulator with positive and negative electrode plates and an auxillary electrode electroconductively bound to the latter for suppressing oxygen pressure. The auxillary electrode is an intermediate film electrode. The film catalysing oxygen reduction is hydrophilic in character and the other film is hydrophobic. A double coated foil has proved to be advantageous, the hydrophilic film being formed from polymer-bound activated carbon and the hydrophrobic film from porous polytetrafluoroethylene. A metallic network of silver or nickel is rolled into the outer side of the activated carbon film. This auxillary electrode can be used to advantage in all galvanic elements. Even primary cells fall within the scope of application for auxillary electrodes because many of these contain a highly oxidized electrodic material which tends to give off oxygen.

  12. Carbon-wrapped MnO nanodendrites interspersed on reduced graphene oxide sheets as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Boli; Li, Dan; Liu, Zhengjiao; Gu, Lili; Xie, Wenhe; Li, Qun; Guo, Pengqian; Liu, Dequan; He, Deyan, E-mail: hedy@lzu.edu.cn

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • The C-MnO/rGO composites were anchored on nickel foam by a facile vacuum filtration and a subsequent thermal treatment. • The novel architecture of anodes effectively improved the electrochemical performance of lithium ion battery. • The active MnO nanodendrites became smaller nanoparticles still wrapped in graphene sheets after cycles. - Abstract: Carbon-wrapped MnO nanodendrites interspersed on reduced graphene oxide sheets (C-MnO/rGO) were prepared on nickel foam by a facile vacuum filtration and a subsequent thermal treatment. As a binder-free anode of lithium-ion battery, the nanodendritic structure of C-MnO accommodates the huge volume expansion and shortens the diffusion length for lithium ion and electron, rGO sheets prevent C-MnO nanodendites from aggregation and offer a good electronic conduction. As a result, the electrode with such a novel architecture delivers superior electrochemical properties including high reversible capacity, excellent rate capability and cycle stability. Moreover, MnO nanodendrites change to nanoparticles wrapped in graphene sheets during the lithiation/delithiation process, which is a more beneficial microstructure to further increase the specific capacity and cycle life of the electrode.

  13. DNA Methylation Status of the Interspersed Repetitive Sequences for LINE-1, Alu, HERV-E, and HERV-K in Trabeculectomy Specimens from Glaucoma Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunee Chansangpetch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Epigenetic mechanisms via DNA methylation may be related to glaucoma pathogenesis. This study aimed to determine the global DNA methylation level of the trabeculectomy specimens among patients with different types of glaucoma and normal subjects. Methods. Trabeculectomy sections from 16 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, 12 primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG, 16 secondary glaucoma patients, and 10 normal controls were assessed for DNA methylation using combined-bisulfite restriction analysis. The percentage of global methylation level of the interspersed repetitive sequences for LINE-1, Alu, HERV-E, and HERV-K were compared between the 4 groups. Results. There were no significant differences in the methylation for LINE-1 and HERV-E between patients and normal controls. For the Alu marker, the methylation was significantly lower in all types of glaucoma patients compared to controls (POAG 52.19% versus control 52.83%, p=0.021; PACG 51.50% versus control, p=0.005; secondary glaucoma 51.95% versus control, p=0.014, whereas the methylation level of HERV-K was statistically higher in POAG patients compared to controls (POAG 49.22% versus control 48.09%, p=0.017. Conclusions. The trabeculectomy sections had relative DNA hypomethylation of Alu in all glaucoma subtypes and relative DNA hypermethylation of HERV-K in POAG patients. These methylation changes may lead to the fibrotic phenotype in the trabecular meshwork.

  14. Effect of study design and setting on tuberculosis clustering estimates using Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Jessica; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Cohen, Theodore; McHugh, Timothy D; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2015-01-21

    To systematically review the evidence for the impact of study design and setting on the interpretation of tuberculosis (TB) transmission using clustering derived from Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) strain typing. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, Web of Science and Scopus were searched for articles published before 21st October 2014. Studies in humans that reported the proportion of clustering of TB isolates by MIRU-VNTR were included in the analysis. Univariable meta-regression analyses were conducted to assess the influence of study design and setting on the proportion of clustering. The search identified 27 eligible articles reporting clustering between 0% and 63%. The number of MIRU-VNTR loci typed, requiring consent to type patient isolates (as a proxy for sampling fraction), the TB incidence and the maximum cluster size explained 14%, 14%, 27% and 48% of between-study variation, respectively, and had a significant association with the proportion of clustering. Although MIRU-VNTR typing is being adopted worldwide there is a paucity of data on how study design and setting may influence estimates of clustering. We have highlighted study design variables for consideration in the design and interpretation of future studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Short communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, S. Y.; Pastor, J. J.; Quintela, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Diarrhea episodes in dairy calves involve profound alterations in the mechanism controlling gut barrier function that ultimately compromise intestinal permeability to macromolecules, including pathogenic bacteria. Intestinal dysfunction models suggest that a key element of intestinal adaptation d...

  16. Short notice inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouchkarev, V.

    1998-01-01

    For 30 years the IAEA safeguards system have evolved and have been strengthened by the regular introduction of new methods and techniques, improving both its effectiveness and efficiency. The member States of the IAEA have indicated their willingness to accept new obligations and associated technical measure that greatly strengthen the nuclear safeguards system. One element of this is the extent to which the IAEA inspectors have physical access to relevant locations for the purpose of providing independent verification of the exclusively peaceful intent of a State nuclear program. The Protocol to Safeguards granted new legal authority with respect to information on, and short notice inspector access to, all buildings on a nuclear site and administrative agreements that improve the process of designating inspectors and IAEA access to modern means of communication. This report is a short description of unannounced or short notice inspections as measures on which the new strengthened and cost efficient system will be based

  17. Short Stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Boye Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie

    2016-01-01

    -scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below......The use of appropriate growth standards/references is of significant clinical importance in assessing the height of children with short stature as it may determine eligibility for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of using World Health Organization (WHO) instead...... of national growth standards/references on height assessment in short children. Data were collected from routine clinical practice (1998-2014) from nine European countries that have available national growth references and were enrolled in NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (NCT00960128), a large...

  18. A single whole-body low dose X-irradiation does not affect L1, B1 and IAP repeat element DNA methylation longitudinally.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R Newman

    Full Text Available The low dose radioadaptive response has been shown to be protective against high doses of radiation as well as aging-induced genomic instability. We hypothesised that a single whole-body exposure of low dose radiation would induce a radioadaptive response thereby reducing or abrogating aging-related changes in repeat element DNA methylation in mice. Following sham or 10 mGy X-irradiation, serial peripheral blood sampling was performed and differences in Long Interspersed Nucleic Element 1 (L1, B1 and Intracisternal-A-Particle (IAP repeat element methylation between samples were assessed using high resolution melt analysis of PCR amplicons. By 420 days post-irradiation, neither radiation- or aging-related changes in the methylation of peripheral blood, spleen or liver L1, B1 and IAP elements were observed. Analysis of the spleen and liver tissues of cohorts of untreated aging mice showed that the 17-19 month age group exhibited higher repeat element methylation than younger or older mice, with no overall decline in methylation detected with age. This is the first temporal analysis of the effect of low dose radiation on repeat element methylation in mouse peripheral blood and the first to examine the long term effect of this dose on repeat element methylation in a radiosensitive tissue (spleen and a tissue fundamental to the aging process (liver. Our data indicate that the methylation of murine DNA repeat elements can fluctuate with age, but unlike human studies, do not demonstrate an overall aging-related decline. Furthermore, our results indicate that a low dose of ionising radiation does not induce detectable changes to murine repeat element DNA methylation in the tissues and at the time-points examined in this study. This radiation dose is relevant to human diagnostic radiation exposures and suggests that a dose of 10 mGy X-rays, unlike high dose radiation, does not cause significant short or long term changes to repeat element or global DNA

  19. Short Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds...

  20. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  1. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  2. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: vani_chem@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.

  3. Short communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Vonk, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy veal calves (4-6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  4. The Epidemiological Significance and Temporal Stability of Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats-Based Method Applied to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to validate the epidemiological significance and temporal stability of Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing in a genetically and geographically diverse set of clinical isolates from patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis in China. Between 2010 and 2013, a total of 982 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected from four population-based investigations in China. Apart from the currently applied 24-locus MIRU-VNTR, six additional hypervariable loci were analyzed in order to validate the MIRU-VNTR combinations in terms of their epidemiological links, clustering time span, and paired geographic distance. In vitro temporal stability was analyzed for both individual MIRU-VNTR loci, and for several combinations of loci. In the present study, four MIRU-VNTR combinations, including the hypervariable loci 3820, 3232, 2163a, and 4120, were evaluated. All of these combinations obtained a Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index (HGDI value over 0.9900 with a reduced clustering proportion (from 32.0% to 25.6%. By comparing epidemiological links, clustering time span, and paired geographic distance, we found that the performances of the four MIRU-VNTR combinations were comparable to the insertion sequence 6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP, and significantly better than that of 24-locus MIRU-VNTR genotyping alone. The proportion of temporally stable loci ranged from 90.5% to 92.5% within the combined MIRU-VNTR genotyping, which is higher than IS6110-RFLP (85.4%. By adding four hypervariable loci to the standard 24-locus MIRU-VNTR genotyping, we obtained a high discriminatory power, stability and epidemiological significance. This algorithm could therefore be used to improve tuberculosis transmission surveillance and outbreak investigation in China.

  5. Proceedings of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The identification of the first synthetic elements was established by chemical evidence. Conclusive proof of the synthesis of the first artificial element, technetium, was published in 1937 by Perrier and Segre. An essential aspect of their achievement was the prediction of the chemical properties of element 43, which had been missing from the periodic table and which was expected to have properties similar to those of manganese and rhenium. The discovery of other artificial elements, astatine and francium, was facilitated in 1939-1940 by the prediction of their chemical properties. A little more than 50 years ago, in the spring of 1940, Edwin McMillan and Philip Abelson synthesized element 93, neptunium, and confirmed its uniqueness by chemical means. On August 30, 1940, Glenn Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, and the late Joseph Kennedy began their neutron irradiations of uranium nitrate hexahydrate. A few months later they synthesized element 94, later named plutonium, by observing the alpha particles emitted from uranium oxide targets that had been bombarded with deuterons. Shortly thereafter they proved that is was the second transuranium element by establishing its unique oxidation-reduction behavior. The symposium honored the scientists and engineers whose vision and dedication led to the discovery of the transuranium elements and to the understanding of the influence of 5f electrons on their electronic structure and bonding. This volume represents a record of papers presented at the symposium

  6. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Short Communication. QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural ...

  7. Transplutonium elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishnan, C. K.; Jadhav, A. V.; Reghuraman, K.; Mathew, K. A.; Nair, P. S.; Ramaniah, M. V.

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on studies of the transplutonium elements including recovery and purification of americium, preparation of /sup 238/Pu, extraction studies using diethylhexyl phosphate. (DHM)

  8. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  9. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element for nuclear reactors is proposed which has a higher corrosion resisting quality in reactor operations. The zirconium alloy coating around the fuel element (uranium or plutonium compound) has on its inside a protection layer of metal which is metallurgically bound to the substance of the coating. As materials are namned: Alluminium, copper, niobium, stainless steel, and iron. This protective metallic layer has another inner layer, also metallurgically bound to its surface, which consists usually of a zirconium alloy. (UWI) [de

  10. PELTIER ELEMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Tani, Laurits

    2015-01-01

    To control Peltier elements, temperature controller was used. I used TEC-1091 that was manufactured my Meerstetter Engineering. To gain control with the temperature controller, software had to be intalled on a controlling PC. There were different modes to control the Peltier: Tempererature controller to control temperature, Static current/voltage to control voltage and current and LIVE ON/OFF to auto-tune the controller respectively to the system. Also, since near the collision pipe there is much radiation, radiation-proof Peltier elements have to be used. To gain the best results, I had to find the most efficient Peltier elements and try to get their cold side to -40 degrees Celsius.

  11. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element wherein a stack of nuclear fuel is prevented from displacement within its sheath by a retainer comprising a tube member which is radially expanded into frictional contact with the sheath by means of a captive ball within a tapered bore. (author)

  12. Transactinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemingway, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The review is covered in sections, entitled: predicted nuclear properties - including closed shells, decay characteristics; predicted chemical properties - including electronic structure and calculated properties, X-radiation, extrapolated chemical properties, separation chemistry; methods of synthesis; the natural occurrence of superheavy elements. (U.K.)

  13. Neural Consequences of Chronic Short Sleep: Reversible or Lasting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqing Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one-third of adolescents and adults in developed countries regularly experience insufficient sleep across the school and/or work week interspersed with weekend catch up sleep. This common practice of weekend recovery sleep reduces subjective sleepiness, yet recent studies demonstrate that one weekend of recovery sleep may not be sufficient in all persons to fully reverse all neurobehavioral impairments observed with chronic sleep loss, particularly vigilance. Moreover, recent studies in animal models demonstrate persistent injury to and loss of specific neuron types in response to chronic short sleep (CSS with lasting effects on sleep/wake patterns. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the effects of chronic sleep disruption on neurobehavioral performance and injury to neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes and discuss what is known and what is not yet established for reversibility of neural injury. Recent neurobehavioral findings in humans are integrated with animal model research examining long-term consequences of sleep loss on neurobehavioral performance, brain development, neurogenesis, neurodegeneration, and connectivity. While it is now clear that recovery of vigilance following short sleep requires longer than one weekend, less is known of the impact of CSS on cognitive function, mood, and brain health long term. From work performed in animal models, CSS in the young adult and short-term sleep loss in critical developmental windows can have lasting detrimental effects on neurobehavioral performance.

  14. Chemistry of the superheavy elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädel, Matthias

    2015-03-13

    The quest for superheavy elements (SHEs) is driven by the desire to find and explore one of the extreme limits of existence of matter. These elements exist solely due to their nuclear shell stabilization. All 15 presently 'known' SHEs (11 are officially 'discovered' and named) up to element 118 are short-lived and are man-made atom-at-a-time in heavy ion induced nuclear reactions. They are identical to the transactinide elements located in the seventh period of the periodic table beginning with rutherfordium (element 104), dubnium (element 105) and seaborgium (element 106) in groups 4, 5 and 6, respectively. Their chemical properties are often surprising and unexpected from simple extrapolations. After hassium (element 108), chemistry has now reached copernicium (element 112) and flerovium (element 114). For the later ones, the focus is on questions of their metallic or possibly noble gas-like character originating from interplay of most pronounced relativistic effects and electron-shell effects. SHEs provide unique opportunities to get insights into the influence of strong relativistic effects on the atomic electrons and to probe 'relativistically' influenced chemical properties and the architecture of the periodic table at its farthest reach. In addition, they establish a test bench to challenge the validity and predictive power of modern fully relativistic quantum chemical models. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of long or short duration stimulus during high-intensity interval training on physical performance, energy intake, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Elaine Domingues; Salermo, Gabriela Pires; Panissa, Valéria Leme Gonçalves; Franchini, Emerson; Takito, Monica Yuri

    2017-08-01

    To compare the effects of 6 weeks of long or short high-intensity interval training (long- or short-HIIT) on body composition, hunger perception, food intake and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Twenty previously untrained women (25±5 years) were randomly assigned to do a long-HIIT (n=10) or a short-HIIT (n=10). The long-HIIT group performed fifteen 1-min bouts at 90% of maximum heart rate (HRmax), interspersed by 30-sec active recovery (60% HRmax). The short-HIIT group performed forty-five 20-sec bouts at 90% of HRmax, interspersed by 10-sec active recovery (60% HRmax). The training for both groups was conducted 3 times a week for 6 weeks. All subjects performed the Astrand cycle ergometer test to estimate maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2max ) 1 week before and after the training period, as well as body composition, which was estimated through circumferences and skinfold thicknesses. For all training sessions, the heart rate, visual scale of hunger, internal load, and RPE were recorded. In the first and last week of training, subjects were asked to record a 24-hr food diary for 3 days. Both training induced significant pre to post decreases for fat mass, fat percentage, waist circumference, sum of seven skinfolds and RPE. As expected estimated, the VO 2max increased in both groups. There were no differences for hunger perception, energy intake, and body mass. Long and short-HIIT resulted in fat loss, without altering the energy intake.

  16. New elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flerov, G.

    1976-01-01

    The history is briefly described of the investigation of superheavy elements at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna. The significance of the investigation is assessed from the point of view of the nuclear structure study and major problems encountered in experimental efforts are indicated. Current experimental methods aiming at the discovery or the production of superheavy nuclei with Z approximately 114 are listed. (I.W.)

  17. Characterization and distribution of repetitive elements in association with genes in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kai-Chiang; Tseng, Joseph T; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq; Sun, H Sunny

    2015-08-01

    Repetitive elements constitute more than 50% of the human genome. Recent studies implied that the complexity of living organisms is not just a direct outcome of a number of coding sequences; the repetitive elements, which do not encode proteins, may also play a significant role. Though scattered studies showed that repetitive elements in the regulatory regions of a gene control gene expression, no systematic survey has been done to report the characterization and distribution of various types of these repetitive elements in the human genome. Sequences from 5' and 3' untranslated regions and upstream and downstream of a gene were downloaded from the Ensembl database. The repetitive elements in the neighboring of each gene were identified and classified using cross-matching implemented in the RepeatMasker. The annotation and distribution of distinct classes of repetitive elements associated with individual gene were collected to characterize genes in association with different types of repetitive elements using systems biology program. We identified a total of 1,068,400 repetitive elements which belong to 37-class families and 1235 subclasses that are associated with 33,761 genes and 57,365 transcripts. In addition, we found that the tandem repeats preferentially locate proximal to the transcription start site (TSS) of genes and the major function of these genes are involved in developmental processes. On the other hand, interspersed repetitive elements showed a tendency to be accumulated at distal region from the TSS and the function of interspersed repeat-containing genes took part in the catabolic/metabolic processes. Results from the distribution analysis were collected and used to construct a gene-based repetitive element database (GBRED; http://www.binfo.ncku.edu.tw/GBRED/index.html). A user-friendly web interface was designed to provide the information of repetitive elements associated with any particular gene(s). This is the first study focusing on the gene

  18. Radiographic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, T.I.; Jones, C.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiographic elements are disclosed comprised of first and second silver halide emulsion layers separated by an interposed support capable of transmitting radiation to which the second image portion is responsive. At least the first imaging portion contains a silver halide emulsion in which thin tubular silver halide grains of intermediate aspect ratios (from 5:1 to 8:1) are present. Spectral sensitizing dye is adsorbed to the surface of the tubular grains. Increased photographic speeds can be realized at comparable levels of crossover. (author)

  19. Natural short sleeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep - natural short sleeper ... 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. Short sleepers sleep less than 75% of what is normal for their age. Natural short sleepers are different from people who chronically do ...

  20. Superheavy elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, S

    1999-01-01

    The outstanding aim of experimental investigations of heavy nuclei is the exploration of spherical 'SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). On the basis of the nuclear shell model, the next double magic shell-closure beyond sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb is predicted at proton numbers between Z=114 and 126 and at neutron number N=184. All experimental efforts aiming at identifying SHEs (Z>=114) were negative so far. A highly sensitive search experiment was performed in November-December 1995 at SHIP. The isotope sup 2 sup 9 sup 0 116 produced by 'radiative capture' was searched for in the course of a 33 days irradiation of a sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb target with sup 8 sup 2 Se projectiles, however, only cross-section limits were measured. Positive results were obtained in experiments searching for elements from 110 to 112 using cold fusion and the 1n evaporation channel. The produced isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of alpha-alpha correlations. Not fission, but alpha emission is the dominant decay mode. The measurement ...

  1. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yasuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the plenum space in a fuel element used for a liquid metal cooled reactor. Constitution: A fuel pellet is secured at one end with an end plug and at the other with a coil spring in a tubular container. A mechanism for fixing the coil spring composed of a tubular unit is mounted by friction with the inner surface of the tubular container. Accordingly, the recoiling force of the coil spring can be retained by fixing mechanism with a small volume, and since a large amount of plenum space can be obtained, the internal pressure rise in the cladding tube can be suppressed even if large quantities of fission products are discharged. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Chemical experiments with superheavy elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türler, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Unnoticed by many chemists, the Periodic Table of the Elements has been extended significantly in the last couple of years and the 7th period has very recently been completed with eka-Rn (element 118) currently being the heaviest element whose synthesis has been reported. These 'superheavy' elements (also called transactinides with atomic number > or = 104 (Rf)) have been artificially synthesized in fusion reactions at accelerators in minute quantities of a few single atoms. In addition, all isotopes of the transactinide elements are radioactive and decay with rather short half-lives. Nevertheless, it has been possible in some cases to investigate experimentally chemical properties of transactinide elements and even synthesize simple compounds. The experimental investigation of superheavy elements is especially intriguing, since theoretical calculations predict significant deviations from periodic trends due to the influence of strong relativistic effects. In this contribution first experiments with hassium (Hs, atomic number 108), copernicium (Cn, atomic number 112) and element 114 (eka-Pb) are reviewed.

  3. Why do probabilistic finite element analysis ?

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, Ben H

    2008-01-01

    The intention of this book is to provide an introduction to performing probabilistic finite element analysis. As a short guideline, the objective is to inform the reader of the use, benefits and issues associated with performing probabilistic finite element analysis without excessive theory or mathematical detail.

  4. Conceptual problems with remote element synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The notion of remote element synthesis has recently been modified to explain the presence of nucleogenetic isotopic anomalies and decay products of short-lived nuclides by injection of a small amount of exotic nucleogenetic material. Even with this modification, remote element synthesis seems inconsistent with the ...

  5. A mammalian conserved element derived from SINE displays enhancer properties recapitulating Satb2 expression in early-born callosal projection neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Tashiro

    Full Text Available Short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs are highly repeated sequences that account for a significant proportion of many eukaryotic genomes and are usually considered "junk DNA". However, we previously discovered that many AmnSINE1 loci are evolutionarily conserved across mammalian genomes, suggesting that they may have acquired significant functions involved in controlling mammalian-specific traits. Notably, we identified the AS021 SINE locus, located 390 kbp upstream of Satb2. Using transgenic mice, we showed that this SINE displays specific enhancer activity in the developing cerebral cortex. The transcription factor Satb2 is expressed by cortical neurons extending axons through the corpus callosum and is a determinant of callosal versus subcortical projection. Mouse mutants reveal a crucial function for Sabt2 in corpus callosum formation. In this study, we compared the enhancer activity of the AS021 locus with Satb2 expression during telencephalic development in the mouse. First, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is specifically activated in early-born Satb2(+ neurons. Second, we demonstrated that the activity of the AS021 enhancer recapitulates the expression of Satb2 at later embryonic and postnatal stages in deep-layer but not superficial-layer neurons, suggesting the possibility that the expression of Satb2 in these two subpopulations of cortical neurons is under genetically distinct transcriptional control. Third, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is activated in neurons projecting through the corpus callosum, as described for Satb2(+ neurons. Notably, AS021 drives specific expression in axons crossing through the ventral (TAG1(-/NPY(+ portion of the corpus callosum, confirming that it is active in a subpopulation of callosal neurons. These data suggest that exaptation of the AS021 SINE locus might be involved in enhancement of Satb2 expression, leading to the establishment of interhemispheric communication via the corpus callosum

  6. Isotopes a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ellam, Rob

    2016-01-01

    An isotope is a variant form of a chemical element, containing a different number of neutrons in its nucleus. Most elements exist as several isotopes. Many are stable while others are radioactive, and some may only exist fleetingly before decaying into other elements. In this Very Short Introduction, Rob Ellam explains how isotopes have proved enormously important across all the sciences and in archaeology. Radioactive isotopes may be familiar from their use in nuclear weapons, nuclear power, and in medicine, as well as in carbon dating. They have been central to establishing the age of the Earth and the origins of the solar system. Combining previous and new research, Ellam provides an overview of the nature of stable and radioactive isotopes, and considers their wide range of modern applications. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subjec...

  7. Chemistry of the heaviest elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of the chemical properties of the elements at the uppermost end of the periodic table are discussed. Some historical perspective is given, but major emphasis is on recent studies. Isotopes of these elements are short-lived and, therefore, must be studied near the site of production. They must be produced with charged-particle beams at accelerators rather than via neutron capture. The use of radioactive heavy actinide targets is often required and the number of atoms produced is so small that any chemistry to be performed must be done on an ''atom-at-a-time'' basis. Furthermore, a knowledge of their nuclear properties is required in order to identify and detect them. To date, both gas and aqueous phase properties of elements as heavy as element 104 (rutherfordium) and element 105 (hahnium) have been investigated, even though their longest-lived known isotopes have half-lives of only 65 and 35 seconds, respectively. The experimental results show that their chemical properties cannot be simply extrapolated from the known properties of their lighter homologs in the periodic table, emphasizing the importance of obtaining additional experimental information for the heaviest elements to compare with predictions and help assess the influence of relativistic effects. The feasibility of the extension of chemical studies to still heavier elements is also discussed. (orig.)

  8. Complexity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, John H

    2014-01-01

    The importance of complexity is well-captured by Hawking's comment: "Complexity is the science of the 21st century". From the movement of flocks of birds to the Internet, environmental sustainability, and market regulation, the study and understanding of complex non-linear systems has become highly influential over the last 30 years. In this Very Short Introduction, one of the leading figures in the field, John Holland, introduces the key elements and conceptual framework of complexity. From complex physical systems such as fluid flow and the difficulties of predicting weather, to complex adaptive systems such as the highly diverse and interdependent ecosystems of rainforests, he combines simple, well-known examples - Adam Smith's pin factory, Darwin's comet orchid, and Simon's 'watchmaker' - with an account of the approaches, involving agents and urn models, taken by complexity theory. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost eve...

  9. Development and validation of InnoQuant™, a sensitive human DNA quantitation and degradation assessment method for forensic samples using high copy number mobile elements Alu and SVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Gina M; Montgomery, Anne H; Thompson, Robyn; Indest, Brooke; Carroll, Marion; Sinha, Sudhir K

    2014-11-01

    There is a constant need in forensic casework laboratories for an improved way to increase the first-pass success rate of forensic samples. The recent advances in mini STR analysis, SNP, and Alu marker systems have now made it possible to analyze highly compromised samples, yet few tools are available that can simultaneously provide an assessment of quantity, inhibition, and degradation in a sample prior to genotyping. Currently there are several different approaches used for fluorescence-based quantification assays which provide a measure of quantity and inhibition. However, a system which can also assess the extent of degradation in a forensic sample will be a useful tool for DNA analysts. Possessing this information prior to genotyping will allow an analyst to more informatively make downstream decisions for the successful typing of a forensic sample without unnecessarily consuming DNA extract. Real-time PCR provides a reliable method for determining the amount and quality of amplifiable DNA in a biological sample. Alu are Short Interspersed Elements (SINE), approximately 300bp insertions which are distributed throughout the human genome in large copy number. The use of an internal primer to amplify a segment of an Alu element allows for human specificity as well as high sensitivity when compared to a single copy target. The advantage of an Alu system is the presence of a large number (>1000) of fixed insertions in every human genome, which minimizes the individual specific variation possible when using a multi-copy target quantification system. This study utilizes two independent retrotransposon genomic targets to obtain quantification of an 80bp "short" DNA fragment and a 207bp "long" DNA fragment in a degraded DNA sample in the multiplex system InnoQuant™. The ratio of the two quantitation values provides a "Degradation Index", or a qualitative measure of a sample's extent of degradation. The Degradation Index was found to be predictive of the observed loss

  10. Galaxies a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2008-01-01

    Galaxies: A Very Short Introduction explores the building blocks of the Universe. Standing like islands in space, each is made up of many hundreds of millions of stars in which the chemical elements are made, around which planets form, and where on at least one of those planets intelligent life has emerged. Our own galaxy, the Milky Way, is just one of several hundred million other galaxies. Yet it was only in the 1920s that we realised that there is more to the Universe. Since then, many exciting discoveries have been made about our own galaxy and about those beyond.

  11. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with air (called pneumotho- rax), it will hinder expansion of the lung, resulting in shortness of ... of Chest Physi- cians. Shortness of Breath: Patient Education. http: / / www. onebreath. org/ document. doc? id= 113. ...

  12. Two new miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements in the genome of the clam Donax trunculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šatović, Eva; Plohl, Miroslav

    2017-10-01

    Repetitive sequences are important components of eukaryotic genomes that drive their evolution. Among them are different types of mobile elements that share the ability to spread throughout the genome and form interspersed repeats. To broaden the generally scarce knowledge on bivalves at the genome level, in the clam Donax trunculus we described two new non-autonomous DNA transposons, miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs), named DTC M1 and DTC M2. Like other MITEs, they are characterized by their small size, their A + T richness, and the presence of terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). DTC M1 and DTC M2 are 261 and 286 bp long, respectively, and in addition to TIRs, both of them contain a long imperfect palindrome sequence in their central parts. These elements are present in complete and truncated versions within the genome of the clam D. trunculus. The two new MITEs share only structural similarity, but lack any nucleotide sequence similarity to each other. In a search for related elements in databases, blast search revealed within the Crassostrea gigas genome a larger element sharing sequence similarity only to DTC M1 in its TIR sequences. The lack of sequence similarity with any previously published mobile elements indicates that DTC M1 and DTC M2 elements may be unique to D. trunculus.

  13. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  14. "Fate: The short film"

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Quintana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    "Fate: The Short Film" is a four minute short film which reflects the idea that nobody can escape from the fate. It has a good picture and sound quality with an understandable message for all public and with the collaboration of actors, filmmaker, stylist, script advisor and media technician.

  15. [Shunt and short circuit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Abundis, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Shunt and short circuit are antonyms. In French, the term shunt has been adopted to denote the alternative pathway of blood flow. However, in French, as well as in Spanish, the word short circuit (court-circuit and cortocircuito) is synonymous with shunt, giving rise to a linguistic and scientific inconsistency. Scientific because shunt and short circuit made reference to a phenomenon that occurs in the field of the physics. Because shunt and short circuit are antonyms, it is necessary to clarify that shunt is an alternative pathway of flow from a net of high resistance to a net of low resistance, maintaining the stream. Short circuit is the interruption of the flow, because a high resistance impeaches the flood. This concept is applied to electrical and cardiovascular physiology, as well as to the metabolic pathways.

  16. Idiopathic short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaški Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a complex process and the basic characteristic of child- hood growth monitoring provides insight into the physiological and pathological events in the body. Statistically, the short stature means departure from the values of height for age and sex (in a particular environment, which is below -2 standard deviation score, or less than -2 standard deviation, i.e. below the third percentile. Advances in molecular genetics have contributed to the improvement of diagnostics in endocrinology. Analysis of patients’ genotypes should not be performed before taking a classical history, detailed clinical examination and appropriate tests. In patients with idiopathic short stature specific causes are excluded, such as growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, short stature due to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, dysmorphology syndromes and chronic childhood diseases. The exclusion of abovementioned conditions leaves a large number of children with short stature whose etiology includes patients with genetic short stature or familial short stature and those who are low in relation to genetic potential, and who could also have some unrecognized endocrine defect. Idiopathic short stature represents a short stature of unknown cause of heterogeneous etiology, and is characterized by a normal response of growth hormone during stimulation tests (>10 ng/ml or 20 mJ/l, without other disorders, of normal body mass and length at birth. In idiopathic short stature standard deviation score rates <-2.25 (-2 to -3 or <1.2 percentile. These are also criteria for the initiation of growth hormone therapy. In children with short stature there is also the presence of psychological and social suffering. Goals of treatment with growth hormone involve achieving normal height and normal growth rate during childhood.

  17. Discrete Element Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  18. Short-range correlations with pseudopotentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1976-01-01

    Short-range correlations in nuclei are considered on an unitary-model operator approach. Short-range pseudopotentials have been added to achieve healing in the correlated wave functions. With the introduction of the pseudopotentials, correlated basis wave functions are constructed. The matrix element for effective interaction in nuclei is developed. The required pseudopotentials have been calculated for the Hamda-Johnston, Yale and Reid potentials and for the nuclear nucleon-nucleon potential A calculated by us according to meson exchange between nucleons. (Osman, A.)

  19. Chemistry of the transactinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, Matthias

    1996-01-01

    Synthesis and decay of elements in the upper end of periodic table (z=104 to 111) are described. In view of very short half-life of about 1 s, the production of the transactinide isotopes and their transport to the separation and detection chamber are to be necessarily carried out employing fast and reliable techniques. Advances in microchemical separation techniques such as OLGA-II, HEVI, ARCA-II and SISAK, coupled to sensitive detection methods enable the detection of these heavier transactinide elements at atomic level. Their position in the periodic table and similarities, if any, with the corresponding lighter homologs are discussed based on their predicted and observed chemical behaviour. (author). 70 refs., 15 figs

  20. Advances in chemical investigations of the heaviest elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türler Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although somewhat in the shadow of the discoveries of new elements, experimental chemical investigations of the heaviest elements have made tremendous progress in the last decades. Indeed, it was possible to experimentally determine thermochemical properties of heavy transactinide elements such as copernicium or flerovium. But will it be possible to chemically study all currently known elements of the periodic table up to element 118? While it is experimentally feasible to work with single atoms, the short half-lives of even the longest currently known isotopes of elements 115 through 118 call for new experimental approaches.

  1. Imaging in short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2012-09-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  2. Imaging in short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  3. Chemistry of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, N.N.; Earnshaw, A.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook presents an account of the chemistry of the elements for both undergraduate and postgraduate students. It covers not only the 'inorganic' chemistry of the elements, but also analytical, theoretical, industrial, organometallic;, bio-inorganic and other areas of chemistry which apply. The following elements of special nuclear interest are included: Rb, Cs, Fr, Sr, Ba, Ra, Po, At, Rn, Sc, Y, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, Tc, Ru, the Lanthanide Elements, the Actinide Elements. (U.K.)

  4. A CW Gunn diode bistable switching element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, M.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments with a current-controlled bistable switching element using a CW Gunn diode are reported. Switching rates of the order of 10 MHz have been obtained. Switching is initiated by current pulses of short duration (5-10 ns). Rise times of the order of several nanoseconds could be obtained.

  5. International experience in conditioning spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, P.

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to compile and present in a clear form international experience (USA, Canada, Sweden, FRG, UK, Japan, Switzerland) gained to date in conditioning spent fuel elements. The term conditioning is here taken to mean the handling and packaging of spent fuel elements for short- or long-term storage or final disposal. Plants of a varying nature fall within this scope, both in terms of the type of fuel element treated and the plant purpose eg. experimental or production plant. Emphasis is given to plants which bear some similarity to the concept developed in Germany for direct disposal of spent fuel elements. Worldwide, however, relatively few conditioning plants are in existence or have been conceived. Hence additional plants have been included where aspects of the experience gained are also of relevance eg. plants developed for the consolidation of spent fuel elements. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Automated rapid chemistry in heavy element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    1994-01-01

    With the increasingly short half-lives of the heavy element isotopes in the transition region from the heaviest actinides to the transactinide elements the demand for automated rapid chemistry techniques is also increasing. Separation times of significantly less than one minute, high chemical yields, high repetition rates, and an adequate detection system are prerequisites for many successful experiments in this field. The development of techniques for separations in the gas phase and in the aqueous phase for applications of chemical or nuclear studies of the heaviest elements are briefly outlined. Typical examples of results obtained with automated techniques are presented for studies up to element 105, especially those obtained with the Automated Rapid Chemistry Apparatus, ARCA. The prospects to investigate the properties of even heavier elements with chemical techniques are discussed

  7. Short bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, L.G.J.B.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of short bowel syndrome. When approximately 1 m or less small bowel is retained after extensive resection, a condition called short bowel syndrome is present. Since the advent of parenteral nutrition, the prognosis of patients with a very short bowel has dramatically improved. Patients with 40 to 100 cm remaining jejunum and/or ileum can generally be maintained with oral nutrition due to increased absorption of the small bowel remnant as result of intestinal adaptation. This study reports clinical, biochemical and nutritional aspects of short bowel patients on oral or parenteral nutrition, emphasizing data on absorption of various nutrients and on bone metabolism. Furthermore, some technical apsects concerning long-term parenteral nutrition are discussed. (Auth.)

  8. Catapults fall short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    In reply to the news story "UK Catapults fall short, claims review of technology centres", which describes an independent review that criticized the management of the UK's network of technology innovation centres.

  9. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    1984-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  10. Densely ionizing radiation affects DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, Sara; Miousse, Isabelle R.; Nzabarushimana, Etienne; Pathak, Rupak; Skinner, Charles; Kutanzi, Kristy R.; Allen, Antiño R.; Raber, Jacob; Tackett, Alan J.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons are heavily methylated and are the most abundant transposable elements in mammalian genomes. Here, we investigated the differential DNA methylation within the LINE-1 under normal conditions and in response to environmentally relevant doses of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements in the lungs of C57BL6 mice is dependent on their evolutionary age, where the elder age of the element is associated with the lower extent of DNA methylation. Exposure to 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and methionine-deficient diet affected DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements in an age- and promoter type-dependent manner. Exposure to densely IR, but not sparsely IR, resulted in DNA hypermethylation of older LINE-1 elements, while the DNA methylation of evolutionary younger elements remained mostly unchanged. We also demonstrate that exposure to densely IR increased mRNA and protein levels of LINE-1 via the loss of the histone H3K9 dimethylation and an increase in the H3K4 trimethylation at the LINE-1 5′-untranslated region, independently of DNA methylation. Our findings suggest that DNA methylation is important for regulation of LINE-1 expression under normal conditions, but histone modifications may dictate the transcriptional activity of LINE-1 in response to exposure to densely IR. - Highlights: • DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements is dependent on their evolutionary age. • Densely ionizing radiation affects DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements. • Radiation-induced reactivation of LINE-1 is DNA methylation-independent. • Histone modifications dictate the transcriptional activity of LINE-1.

  11. Densely ionizing radiation affects DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, Sara; Miousse, Isabelle R. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Nzabarushimana, Etienne [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Department of Bioinformatics, School of Informatics and Computing, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Pathak, Rupak [Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Skinner, Charles; Kutanzi, Kristy R. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Allen, Antiño R. [Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Raber, Jacob [Departments of Behavioral Neuroscience, Neurology, and Radiation Medicine, Division of Neuroscience, ONPRC, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239 (United States); Tackett, Alan J. [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin [Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Nelson, Gregory A. [Department of Basic Sciences, Division of Radiation Research, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350 (United States); and others

    2016-10-15

    Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons are heavily methylated and are the most abundant transposable elements in mammalian genomes. Here, we investigated the differential DNA methylation within the LINE-1 under normal conditions and in response to environmentally relevant doses of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements in the lungs of C57BL6 mice is dependent on their evolutionary age, where the elder age of the element is associated with the lower extent of DNA methylation. Exposure to 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and methionine-deficient diet affected DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements in an age- and promoter type-dependent manner. Exposure to densely IR, but not sparsely IR, resulted in DNA hypermethylation of older LINE-1 elements, while the DNA methylation of evolutionary younger elements remained mostly unchanged. We also demonstrate that exposure to densely IR increased mRNA and protein levels of LINE-1 via the loss of the histone H3K9 dimethylation and an increase in the H3K4 trimethylation at the LINE-1 5′-untranslated region, independently of DNA methylation. Our findings suggest that DNA methylation is important for regulation of LINE-1 expression under normal conditions, but histone modifications may dictate the transcriptional activity of LINE-1 in response to exposure to densely IR. - Highlights: • DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements is dependent on their evolutionary age. • Densely ionizing radiation affects DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements. • Radiation-induced reactivation of LINE-1 is DNA methylation-independent. • Histone modifications dictate the transcriptional activity of LINE-1.

  12. Imaging in short stature

    OpenAIRE

    Vikas Chaudhary; Shahina Bano

    2012-01-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions ...

  13. Renormalon ambiguities in NRQCD operator matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodwin, G.T.; Chen, Y.

    1999-01-01

    We analyze the renormalon ambiguities that appear in factorization formulas in QCD. Our analysis contains a simple argument that the ambiguities in the short-distance coefficients and operator matrix elements are artifacts of dimensional-regularization factorization schemes and are absent in cutoff schemes. We also present a method for computing the renormalon ambiguities in operator matrix elements and apply it to a computation of the ambiguities in the matrix elements that appear in the NRQCD factorization formulas for the annihilation decays of S-wave quarkonia. Our results, combined with those of Braaten and Chen for the short-distance coefficients, provide an explicit demonstration that the ambiguities cancel in the physical decay rates. In addition, we analyze the renormalon ambiguities in the Gremm-Kapustin relation and in various definitions of the heavy-quark mass. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  14. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)

  15. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented

  16. A role for circadian evening elements in cold-regulated gene expression in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Michael D; Thomashow, Michael F

    2009-10-01

    The plant transcriptome is dramatically altered in response to low temperature. The cis-acting DNA regulatory elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the majority of cold-regulated genes are unknown. Previous bioinformatic analysis has indicated that the promoters of cold-induced genes are enriched in the Evening Element (EE), AAAATATCT, a DNA regulatory element that has a role in circadian-regulated gene expression. Here we tested the role of EE and EE-like (EEL) elements in cold-induced expression of two Arabidopsis genes, CONSTANS-like 1 (COL1; At5g54470) and a gene encoding a 27-kDa protein of unknown function that we designated COLD-REGULATED GENE 27 (COR27; At5g42900). Mutational analysis indicated that the EE/EEL elements were required for cold induction of COL1 and COR27, and that their action was amplified through coupling with ABA response element (ABRE)-like (ABREL) motifs. An artificial promoter consisting solely of four EE motifs interspersed with three ABREL motifs was sufficient to impart cold-induced gene expression. Both COL1 and COR27 were found to be regulated by the circadian clock at warm growth temperatures and cold-induction of COR27 was gated by the clock. These results suggest that cold- and clock-regulated gene expression are integrated through regulatory proteins that bind to EE and EEL elements supported by transcription factors acting at ABREL sequences. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the coupling of EE and EEL motifs with ABREL motifs is highly enriched in cold-induced genes and thus may constitute a DNA regulatory element pair with a significant role in configuring the low-temperature transcriptome.

  17. Data Element Registry Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data Element Registry Services (DERS) is a resource for information about value lists (aka code sets / pick lists), data dictionaries, data elements, and EPA data...

  18. Mean Orbital Elements for Geosynchronous Orbit - II - Orbital inclination, longitude of ascending node, mean longitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Hong Choi

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available The osculating orbital elements include the mean, secular, long period, and short period terms. The iterative algorithm used for conversion of osculating orbital elements to mean orbital elements is described. The mean orbital elements of Wc, Ws, and L are obtained.

  19. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Crotti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Short QT Syndrome is a recently described new genetic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT interval, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This autosomal dominant syndrome can afflict infants, children, or young adults; often a remarkable family background of cardiac sudden death is elucidated. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, with atrial fibrillation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. Gain of function mutations in three genes encoding K+ channels have been identified, explaining the abbreviated repolarization seen in this condition: KCNH2 for Ikr (SQT1, KCNQ1 for Iks (SQT2 and KCNJ2 for Ik1 (SQT3. The currently suggested therapeutic strategy is an ICD implantation, although many concerns exist for asymptomatic patients, especially in pediatric age. Pharmacological treatment is still under evaluation; quinidine has shown to prolong QT and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, but awaits additional confirmatory clinical data.

  20. Basic Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Hae

    1992-02-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.

  1. Detecting short circuits during assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Detector circuit identifies shorts between bus bars of electronic equipment being wired. Detector sounds alarm and indicates which planes are shorted. Power and ground bus bars are scanned continuously until short circuit occurs.

  2. Short wavelength FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs

  3. Short wavelength FELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Radiolabelled cellular blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzinger, H.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on radiolabelled cellular blood elements, covering new advances made during the past several years, in particular the use of Tc-99 as a tracer for blood elements. Coverage extends to several radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies that are specific for blood components and may label blood elements in vivo

  5. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  6. Generalized finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachspress, E.

    2009-01-01

    Triangles and rectangles are the ubiquitous elements in finite element studies. Only these elements admit polynomial basis functions. Rational functions provide a basis for elements having any number of straight and curved sides. Numerical complexities initially associated with rational bases precluded extensive use. Recent analysis has reduced these difficulties and programs have been written to illustrate effectiveness. Although incorporation in major finite element software requires considerable effort, there are advantages in some applications which warrant implementation. An outline of the basic theory and of recent innovations is presented here. (authors)

  7. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Antzelevitch

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Long QT intervals in the ECG have long been associated with sudden cardiac death. The congenital long QT syndrome was first described in individuals with structurally normal hearts in 1957.1 Little was known about the significance of a short QT interval. In 1993, after analyzing 6693 consecutive Holter recordings Algra et al concluded that an increased risk of sudden death was present not only in patients with long QT interval, but also in patients with short QT interval (<400 ms.2 Because this was a retrospective analysis, further evaluation of the data was not possible. It was not until 2000 that a short-QT syndrome (SQTS was proposed as a new inherited clinical syndrome by Gussak et al.3 The initial report was of two siblings and their mother all of whom displayed persistently short QT interval. The youngest was a 17 year old female presenting with several episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation requiring electrical cardioversion.3 Her QT interval measured 280 msec at a heart rate of 69. Her 21 year old brother displayed a QT interval of 272 msec at a heart rate of 58, whereas the 51 year old mother showed a QT of 260 msec at a heart rate of 74. The authors also noted similar ECG findings in another unrelated 37 year old patient associated with sudden cardiac death.

  8. SHORT COMMUNICATION POTENTIOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. POTENTIOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF K+ IONS USING A K+-SELECTIVE. ELECTRODE WITH MACROCYCLIC LIQUID MEMBRANE. Cezar Spinu*, Marian Isvoranu, Maria Pleniceanu and Cristian Tigae. Faculty of Chemistry, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza 13, Craiova, Romania. (Received ...

  9. Biorefineries: A Short Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemann, Kurt; Tippkötter, Nils

    2018-04-13

    The terms bioeconomy and biorefineries are used for a variety of processes and developments. This short introduction is intended to provide a delimitation and clarification of the terminology as well as a classification of current biorefinery concepts. The basic process diagrams of the most important biorefinery types are shown.

  10. Elements beyond uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.; Loveland, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    This book is the 12th volume in a series on transuranium elements. Varied techniques for production of these elements, the methods used in the identification, and the exquisitely refined microchemical techniques required to deal wth samples sometimes involving only a few atoms are described in detail. The chapter on synthesis of the new elements is liberally laced with reminiscences of the proud progenitors as well as the criteria for the discovery of a new chemical element. The authors lament that the superheavy elements (elements in the region of atomic number 114) still elude detection even though their creation should be possible, and some, at least, should survive long enough to be detected. One chapter in the book is devoted to practical applictions of uranium, and the transuranic elements

  11. Transposable element distribution, abundance and role in genome size variation in the genus Oryza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccolo, Andrea; Sebastian, Aswathy; Talag, Jayson; Yu, Yeisoo; Kim, HyeRan; Collura, Kristi; Kudrna, Dave; Wing, Rod A

    2007-08-29

    The genus Oryza is composed of 10 distinct genome types, 6 diploid and 4 polyploid, and includes the world's most important food crop - rice (Oryza sativa [AA]). Genome size variation in the Oryza is more than 3-fold and ranges from 357 Mbp in Oryza glaberrima [AA] to 1283 Mbp in the polyploid Oryza ridleyi [HHJJ]. Because repetitive elements are known to play a significant role in genome size variation, we constructed random sheared small insert genomic libraries from 12 representative Oryza species and conducted a comprehensive study of the repetitive element composition, distribution and phylogeny in this genus. Particular attention was paid to the role played by the most important classes of transposable elements (Long Terminal Repeats Retrotransposons, Long interspersed Nuclear Elements, helitrons, DNA transposable elements) in shaping these genomes and in their contributing to genome size variation. We identified the elements primarily responsible for the most strikingly genome size variation in Oryza. We demonstrated how Long Terminal Repeat retrotransposons belonging to the same families have proliferated to very different extents in various species. We also showed that the pool of Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposons is substantially conserved and ubiquitous throughout the Oryza and so its origin is ancient and its existence predates the speciation events that originated the genus. Finally we described the peculiar behavior of repeats in the species Oryza coarctata [HHKK] whose placement in the Oryza genus is controversial. Long Terminal Repeat retrotransposons are the major component of the Oryza genomes analyzed and, along with polyploidization, are the most important contributors to the genome size variation across the Oryza genus. Two families of Ty3-gypsy elements (RIRE2 and Atlantys) account for a significant portion of the genome size variations present in the Oryza genus.

  12. Regulatable elements in the high-level waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakley, D.

    1979-01-01

    Regulatable elements of a deep geological nuclear waste isolation system are those characteristics of a candidate system which need to be specified to achieve control of its performance. This report identifies the regulatable elements with respect to waste form, repository design, site suitability, and the modeling and decision analysis processes. Regulatable elements in each section are listed and described briefly as they affect the short-term and long-term performance of a deep geological repository

  13. Limitless Analytic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, O. D. L.

    2018-02-01

    We present equations for new limitless analytic line elements. These elements possess a virtually unlimited number of degrees of freedom. We apply these new limitless analytic elements to head-specified boundaries and to problems with inhomogeneities in hydraulic conductivity. Applications of these new analytic elements to practical problems involving head-specified boundaries require the solution of a very large number of equations. To make the new elements useful in practice, an efficient iterative scheme is required. We present an improved version of the scheme presented by Bandilla et al. (2007), based on the application of Cauchy integrals. The limitless analytic elements are useful when modeling strings of elements, rivers for example, where local conditions are difficult to model, e.g., when a well is close to a river. The solution of such problems is facilitated by increasing the order of the elements to obtain a good solution. This makes it unnecessary to resort to dividing the element in question into many smaller elements to obtain a satisfactory solution.

  14. Short pulse neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2016-08-02

    Short pulse neutron generators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the short pulse neutron generator includes a Blumlein structure. The Blumlein structure includes a first conductive plate, a second conductive plate, a third conductive plate, at least one of an inductor or a resistor, a switch, and a dielectric material. The first conductive plate is positioned relative to the second conductive plate such that a gap separates these plates. A vacuum chamber is positioned in the gap, and an ion source is positioned to emit ions in the vacuum chamber. The third conductive plate is electrically grounded, and the switch is operable to electrically connect and disconnect the second conductive plate and the third conductive plate. The at least one of the resistor or the inductor is coupled to the first conductive plate and the second conductive plate.

  15. Short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulouse, G.

    This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.

  16. The solar element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    2009-01-01

    of the nineteenth century. In the modest form of a yellow spectral line known as D3, 'helium' was sometimes supposed to exist in the Sun's atmosphere, an idea which is traditionally ascribed to J. Norman Lockyer. Did Lockyer discover helium as a solar element? How was the suggestion received by chemists, physicists...... and astronomers in the period until the spring of 1895, when William Ramsay serendipitously found the gas in uranium minerals? The hypothetical element helium was fairly well known, yet Ramsay's discovery owed little or nothing to Lockyer's solar element. Indeed, for a brief while it was thought that the two...... elements might be different. The complex story of how helium became established as both a solar and terrestrial element involves precise observations as well as airy speculations. It is a story that is unique among the discovery histories of the chemical elements....

  17. Fuel element loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P; s.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element loading system is described which conveys a plurality of fuel rods to longitudinal passages in fuel elements. Conveyor means successively position the fuel rods above the longitudinal passages in axial alignment therewith and adapter means guide the fuel rods from the conveyor means into the longitudinal passages. The fuel elements are vibrated to cause the fuel rods to fall into the longitudinal passages through the adapter means

  18. Elements in biological AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. 14 C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth's biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed

  19. Analogs for transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.; Laul, J.C.; Kutt, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental approach is being used to estimate the long-term environmental and biogeochemical behaviors of selected transuranic elements. The objective of this research is to estimate the effect that long-term (hundreds of years) environmental weathering has on the behavior of the transuranic elements americium and curium. This is achieved by investigating the actual behavior of naturally occurring rare earth elements, especially neodymium, that serve as transuranic analogs. Determination of the analog element behavior provides data that can be used to estimate the ultimate availability to man of transuranic materials released into the environment

  20. Chemistry of superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    2012-01-01

    The chemistry of superheavy elements - or transactinides from their position in the Periodic Table - is summarized. After giving an overview over historical developments, nuclear aspects about synthesis of neutron-rich isotopes of these elements, produced in hot-fusion reactions, and their nuclear decay properties are briefly mentioned. Specific requirements to cope with the one-atom-at-a-time situation in automated chemical separations and recent developments in aqueous-phase and gas-phase chemistry are presented. Exciting, current developments, first applications, and future prospects of chemical separations behind physical recoil separators ('pre-separator') are discussed in detail. The status of our current knowledge about the chemistry of rutherfordium (Rf, element 104), dubnium (Db, element 105), seaborgium (Sg, element 106), bohrium (Bh, element 107), hassium (Hs, element 108), copernicium (Cn, element 112), and element 114 is discussed from an experimental point of view. Recent results are emphasized and compared with empirical extrapolations and with fully-relativistic theoretical calculations, especially also under the aspect of the architecture of the Periodic Table. (orig.)

  1. Short QT syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenzo Gaita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The short QT syndrome (SQTS is a recently described genetic arrhythmogenic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT intervals on surface electrocardiogram (ECG and a high incidence of sudden death (SD during life, including the first months of life. The inheritance of SQTS is autosomal dominant, with genetic heterogeneity. Gain-of-function mutations in 3 genes encoding potassium channels have been associated to the disease: KCNH2 encoding IKr (SQT1, KCNQ1 encoding IKs (SQT2, and KCNJ2 encoding IK1 (SQT3. Loss-of-function mutations in 3 genes encoding the cardiac L-type calcium channel, CACNA1C, CACNB2b and CACNA2D1 may underlie a mixed phenotype of Brugada pattern ECG (or non-specific repolarization changes in case of CACNA2D1 and shorter than normal QT intervals. Clinical presentation is often severe, as cardiac arrest represents the first clinical presentation in most subjects. Moreover, often a noticeable family history of cardiac SD is present. Atrial fibrillation may be observed, also in young individuals. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, and atrial and ventricular fibrillation are easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. The outcome of patients with SQTS becomes relatively safe when they are identified and treated. Currently, the suggested therapeutic strategy is an implantable cardioverter- defibrillator (ICD in patients with personal history of aborted SD or syncope. In asymptomatic adult patients from highly symptomatic families and in newborn children pharmacological treatment with hydroquinidine, which has been shown to prolong the QT interval and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, may be proposed.

  2. Seagrass leaf element content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, J.A.; Smulders, Fee O.H.; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A.; Govers, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on the role of seagrass leaf elements and in particular micronutrients and their ranges is limited. We present a global database, consisting of 1126 unique leaf values for ten elements, obtained from literature and unpublished data, spanning 25 different seagrass species from 28 countries.

  3. Berkeley new element program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiorso, A.

    1975-09-01

    The work done with element 106 is reviewed, and a new experiment which bears on the properties of the isotope of mass 260 with atomic number 104 is discussed. It is noted that in the case of element 106 a link is demonstrated to the granddaughter as well as the daughter

  4. Elemental Food for Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Susan

    2005-01-01

    One of the first tasks students learn in chemistry is to pronounce and spell the names of elements and learn their corresponding chemical symbols. Repetitive oral recitation is commonly used to learn this information, but games and puzzles can make this task creative, variable, and fun. Elemental Food for Thought is a puzzlelike activity that…

  5. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogard, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in power producing nuclear reactors, comprising a plurality of axially aligned ceramic cylindrical fuel bodies of the sintered type, and a cladding tube of metal or metal alloys, wherein said cladding tube on its cylindrical inner surface is provided with a plurality of slightly protruding spacing elements distributed over said inner surface

  6. Influence of acute high-intensity aerobic interval exercise bout on selective attention and short-term memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Christiano R R; Tessaro, Victor H; Teixeira, Luis A C; Murakava, Karina; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Takito, Monica Y

    2014-02-01

    Acute moderate intensity continuous aerobic exercise can improve specific cognitive functions, such as short-term memory and selective attention. Moreover, high-intensity interval training (HIT) has been recently proposed as a time-efficient alternative to traditional cardiorespiratory exercise. However, considering previous speculations that the exercise intensity affects cognition in a U-shaped fashion, it was hypothesized that a HIT session may impair cognitive performance. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of an acute HIT session on selective attention and short-term memory tasks. 22 healthy middle-aged individuals (M age = 53.7 yr.) engaged in both (1) a HIT session, 10 1 min. cycling bouts at the intensity corresponding to 80% of the reserve heart rate interspersed by 1 min. active pauses cycling at 60% of the reserve heart rate and (2) a control session, consisting of an active condition with low-intensity active stretching exercise. Before and after each experimental session, cognitive performance was assessed by the Victoria Version of the Stroop test (a selective attention test) and the Digit Span test (a short-term memory test). Following the HIT session, the time to complete the Stroop "Color word" test was significantly lower when compared with that of the control session. The performances in the other subtasks of the Stroop test as well as in the Digit Span test were not significantly different. A HIT session can improve cognitive function.

  7. Separation of short-lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Tadaharu; Ohyoshi, Emiko; Ohyoshi, Akira; Kiso, Yoshiyuki; Shinagawa, Mutsuaki.

    1976-01-01

    A rbief review is presented on the various methods of separation available for both gaseous and liquid states, for the separation of short-lived fission products formed by binary fission of neutron irradiated uranium. The means available for gaseous state are the hot atom reaction, the hydride method and on-line mass separation. For liquid state, use can be made of precipitation, ionic or atomic exchange, solvent extraction and paper electrophoresis. Particular reference is made to electrophoretic separation of ions produced by fission in aqueous solution of uranium. The principle of electrophoretic separation and the procedures for separating the element of interest from the other fission products are outlined, with reference made to the results obtained with the method by the present authors. The elements in question are alkalines, alkaline earths, rare earths, halogens, selenium and

  8. Short bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2012-02-01

    The short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a state of malabsorption following intestinal resection where there is less than 200 cm of intestinal length. The management of short bowel syndrome can be challenging and is best managed by a specialised multidisciplinary team. A good understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of resection of different portions of the small intestine is necessary to anticipate and prevent, where possible, consequences of SBS. Nutrient absorption and fluid and electrolyte management in the initial stages are critical to stabilisation of the patient and to facilitate the process of adaptation. Pharmacological adjuncts to promote adaptation are in the early stages of development. Primary restoration of bowel continuity, if possible, is the principle mode of surgical treatment. Surgical procedures to increase the surface area of the small intestine or improve its function may be of benefit in experienced hands, particularly in the paediatric population. Intestinal transplant is indicated at present for patients who have failed to tolerate long-term parenteral nutrition but with increasing experience, there may be a potentially expanded role for its use in the future.

  9. Short circuit detection in the winding and operation of superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    Three categories of shorts will be discussed: (1) shorts to the metallic bobbin or other structural elements, (2) shorts between turns caused by instrumentation wires that are deliberately connected to a turn at the end (e.g., voltage taps) and that short out to another turn but are not completely severed in the process, and (3) short circuits between turns caused by direct contact due to insulation failure by chips of metal bridging turns and by instrumentation wires that bridge turns but are severed in the process of shorting

  10. Pigmentation and temporal effects on trace elements in hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aufreiter, S.; Hancock, R.G.V.

    1990-01-01

    Variations in trace element concentration in the head and facial hair of five individuals with ever-increasing amounts of white hair were examined. Hair was collected from the scalp, cheeks, and chin from one donor on a regular basis since 1984. Samples were separated into white and pigmented fractions, and analyzed at SLOWPOKE-Toronto by INAA for the short-lived, isotope-producing elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, I, Mg, Mn, Na, S, and Zn. Temporal concentration variations of these elements over time, and variations of the elemental concentrations in pigmented and white hair were established

  11. Stability of short wavelength tearing and twisting modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelbroeck, F.L.

    1998-01-01

    The stability and mutual interaction of tearing and twisting modes in a torus is governed by matrices that generalize the well-known Δ' stability index. The diagonal elements of these matrices determine the intrinsic stability of modes that reconnect the magnetic field at a single resonant surface. The off-diagonal elements indicate the strength of the coupling between the different modes. The author shows how the elements of these matrices can be evaluated, in the limit of short wavelength, from the free energy driving radially extended ballooning modes. The author applies the results by calculating the tearing and twisting Δ' for a model high-beta equilibrium with circular flux surfaces

  12. Discovery of element 112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The new elements 110, 111, and 112 were synthesized and unambiguously identified in experiments at SHIP. Due to strong shell effects the dominant decay mode is not fission, but emission of alpha particles. Theoretical investigations predict that maximum shell effects should exist in nuclei near proton number 114 and neutron number 184. Measurements give hope that isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical Superheavy Elements could be produced by fusion reactions using {sup 118}Pb as target. systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that transfer of nucleons is the important process to initiate the fusion.

  13. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.N.; Levin, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an alloy having the essential components of nickel, titanium and zirconium, and the alloy reacts with water, water vapor and reactive gases at reactor ambient temperatures. The alloy is disposed in the plenum of the fuel element in the form of particles in a hollow gas permeable container having a multiplicity of openings of size smallr than the size of the particles. The container is preferably held in the spring in the plenum of the fuel element. (E.C.B.)

  14. Elemental diffusion in stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, Georges; Montmerle, Thierry

    1977-01-01

    This paper is dealing with the origin of the elements in the universe. The scheme of nucleosynthesis is kept to explain the stellar generation of helium, carbon, etc... from the initial hydrogen; but a nonlinear theory is then elaborated to account for the anomalous abundances which were observed. The chemical elements would diffuse throughout the outer layers of a star under the action of the opposite forces of gravitation and radiation. This theory, with completing the nucleosynthesis, would contribute to give a consistent scheme of the elemental origin and abundances [fr

  15. Cell short circuit, preshort signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, C.

    1980-01-01

    Short-circuit events observed in ground test simulations of DSCS-3 battery in-orbit operations are analyzed. Voltage signatures appearing in the data preceding the short-circuit event are evaluated. The ground test simulation is briefly described along with performance during reconditioning discharges. Results suggest that a characteristic signature develops prior to a shorting event.

  16. Bridge element deterioration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the development of bridge element deterioration rates using the NYSDOT : bridge inspection database using Markov chains and Weibull-based approaches. It is observed : that Weibull-based approach is more reliable for developing b...

  17. 2. Transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Methods of sample collection, sample storage, sample procedures and radioanalytical procedures for transuranic elements in marine environment are reviewed and recommended. Alpha spectrometry and scintillation techniques are used for measurement of isotopic content. Separation processes for samples are described

  18. Heavy element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Heavy element research activities in metallurgy and ceramics during 1976 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are reviewed. Topics include: microstructure, properties and alloy design; ceramic alloy program; high resolution and high voltage electron microscopy; and powder metallurgy

  19. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    An array of rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurised water reactor is claimed. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  20. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel elements for a pressurised water reactor comprise arrays of rods of zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  1. Divergent picornavirus IRES elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements were first identified about 20 years ago within the 5' untranslated region of picornavirus RNAs. They direct a cap-independent mechanism of translation initiation on the viral RNA. Within the picornavirus family it is now known that there are four...... classes of IRES element which vary in size (450-270nt), they also have different, complex, secondary structures and distinct requirements for cellular proteins to allow them to function. This review describes the features of each class of picornavirus IRES element but focuses on the characteristics...... of the most recently described group, initially identified within the porcine teschovirus-1 RNA, which has strong similarities to the IRES elements from within the genomes of hepatitis C virus and the pestiviruses which are members of the flavivirus family. The selection of the initiation codon...

  2. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  3. Fuel element store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, R.

    1987-01-01

    The spherical fuel elements are stored dry in cans. The cans themselves are stacked in parallel storage shafts, which are combined into a rectangular storage space. The storage space is made earthquake-proof by surrounding it with concrete. It consists of a ceiling assembled from several steel parts, which is connected to the floor by support elements. A cooling air ventilation station supplies the individual storage shaft and therefore the cans with cooling air via incoming and outgoing pipes. (DG) [de

  4. Intrusion detection system elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.; Mangan, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    This report highlights elements required for an intrusion detection system and discusses problems which can be encountered in attempting to make the elements effective. Topics discussed include: sensors, both for exterior detection and interior detection; alarm assessment systems, with the discussion focused on video assessment; and alarm reporting systems, including alarm communication systems and dislay/console considerations. Guidance on careful planning and design of a new or to-be-improved system is presented

  5. Structural elements design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Draycott, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Gives clear explanations of the logical design sequence for structural elements. The Structural Engineer says: `The book explains, in simple terms, and with many examples, Code of Practice methods for sizing structural sections in timber, concrete,masonry and steel. It is the combination into one book of section sizing methods in each of these materials that makes this text so useful....Students will find this an essential support text to the Codes of Practice in their study of element sizing'.

  6. Atoms, molecules & elements

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Young scientists will be thrilled to explore the invisible world of atoms, molecules and elements. Our resource provides ready-to-use information and activities for remedial students using simplified language and vocabulary. Students will label each part of the atom, learn what compounds are, and explore the patterns in the periodic table of elements to find calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), and helium (He) through hands-on activities.

  7. Short generators without quantum computers : the case of multiquadratics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauch, J.; Bernstein, D.J.; de Valence, H.; Lange, T.; van Vredendaal, C.; Coron, J.-S.; Nielsen, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    Finding a short element g of a number field, given the ideal generated by g, is a classic problem in computational algebraic number theory. Solving this problem recovers the private key in cryptosystems introduced by Gentry, Smart–Vercauteren, Gentry–Halevi, Garg– Gentry–Halevi, et al. Work over the

  8. Investigation of faulted tunnel models by combined photoelasticity and finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladkany, S.G.; Huang, Yuping

    1994-01-01

    Models of square and circular tunnels with short faults cutting through their surfaces are investigated by photoelasticity. These models, when duplicated by finite element analysis can predict the stress states of square or circular faulted tunnels adequately. Finite element analysis, using gap elements, may be used to investigate full size faulted tunnel system

  9. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.T.; Thompson, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of protecting the cladding of a nuclear fuel element from internal attack and a nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor are disclosed. The nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an additive of a barium-containing material and the barium-containing material collects reactive gases through chemical reaction or adsorption at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to fuel element plenum temperatures. The additive is located in the plenum of the fuel element and preferably in the form of particles in a hollow container having a multiplicity of gas permeable openings in one portion of the container with the openings being of a size smaller than the size of the particles. The openings permit gases and liquids entering the plenum to contact the particles. The additive is comprised of elemental barium or a barium alloy containing one or more metals in addition to barium such as aluminum, zirconium, nickel, titanium and combinations thereof. 6 claims, 3 drawing figures

  10. Neural processing of short-term recurrence in songbird vocal communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriël J L Beckers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many situations involving animal communication are dominated by recurring, stereotyped signals. How do receivers optimally distinguish between frequently recurring signals and novel ones? Cortical auditory systems are known to be pre-attentively sensitive to short-term delivery statistics of artificial stimuli, but it is unknown if this phenomenon extends to the level of behaviorally relevant delivery patterns, such as those used during communication. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recorded and analyzed complete auditory scenes of spontaneously communicating zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata pairs over a week-long period, and show that they can produce tens of thousands of short-range contact calls per day. Individual calls recur at time scales (median interval 1.5 s matching those at which mammalian sensory systems are sensitive to recent stimulus history. Next, we presented to anesthetized birds sequences of frequently recurring calls interspersed with rare ones, and recorded, in parallel, action and local field potential responses in the medio-caudal auditory forebrain at 32 unique sites. Variation in call recurrence rate over natural ranges leads to widespread and significant modulation in strength of neural responses. Such modulation is highly call-specific in secondary auditory areas, but not in the main thalamo-recipient, primary auditory area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support the hypothesis that pre-attentive neural sensitivity to short-term stimulus recurrence is involved in the analysis of auditory scenes at the level of delivery patterns of meaningful sounds. This may enable birds to efficiently and automatically distinguish frequently recurring vocalizations from other events in their auditory scene.

  11. Setting and changing feature priorities in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulou, Zampeta; Jagadeesh, Akshay V; Ohl, Sven; Rolfs, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Many everyday tasks require prioritizing some visual features over competing ones, both during the selection from the rich sensory input and while maintaining information in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Here, we show that observers can change priorities in VSTM when, initially, they attended to a different feature. Observers reported from memory the orientation of one of two spatially interspersed groups of black and white gratings. Using colored pre-cues (presented before stimulus onset) and retro-cues (presented after stimulus offset) predicting the to-be-reported group, we manipulated observers' feature priorities independently during stimulus encoding and maintenance, respectively. Valid pre-cues reliably increased observers' performance (reduced guessing, increased report precision) as compared to neutral ones; invalid pre-cues had the opposite effect. Valid retro-cues also consistently improved performance (by reducing random guesses), even if the unexpected group suddenly became relevant (invalid-valid condition). Thus, feature-based attention can reshape priorities in VSTM protecting information that would otherwise be forgotten.

  12. Short- or long-rest intervals during repeated-sprint training in soccer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Fiorenza, Matteo; Larghi, Luca; Alberti, Giampietro; Millet, Grégoire P.; Girard, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of two repeated-sprint training (RST) programs, differing in duration of the between-sprint rest intervals, on various soccer-related exercise performances. For 5 weeks during the competitive season, twenty-nine young trained male soccer players either replaced two of their habitual fitness conditioning sessions with RST characterized by short (5–15; n = 9) or long (5–30; n = 10) rest intervals, or served as control (n = 10). The 5–15 and 5–30 protocols consisted of 6 repetitions of 30-m (~5 s) straight-line sprints interspersed with 15 s or 30 s of passive recovery, respectively. 5–15 improved 200-m sprint time (2.0±1.5%; pRecovery Test Level 2 increased following 5–15 (11.4±5.0%; psoccer players, RST over a 5-week in-season period is an efficient means to simultaneously develop different components of fitness relevant to match performance, with different benefits induced by shorter compared to longer rest intervals. PMID:28199402

  13. Ultra-short silicon MMI duplexer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Huaxiang; Huang, Yawen; Wang, Xingjun; Zhou, Zhiping

    2012-11-01

    The fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) systems are growing fast these days, where two different wavelengths are used for upstream and downstream traffic, typically 1310nm and 1490nm. The duplexers are the key elements to separate these wavelengths into different path in central offices (CO) and optical network unit (ONU) in passive optical network (PON). Multimode interference (MMI) has some benefits to be a duplexer including large fabrication tolerance, low-temperature dependence, and low-polarization dependence, but its size is too large to integrate in conventional case. Based on the silicon photonics platform, ultra-short silicon MMI duplexer was demonstrated to separate the 1310nm and 1490nm lights. By studying the theory of self-image phenomena in MMI, the first order images are adopted in order to keep the device short. A cascaded MMI structure was investigated to implement the wavelength splitting, where both the light of 1310nm and 1490nm was input from the same port, and the 1490nm light was coupling cross the first MMI and output at the cross-port in the device while the 1310nm light was coupling through the first and second MMI and output at the bar-port in the device. The experiment was carried on with the SOI wafer of 340nm top silicon. The cascaded MMI was investigated to fold the length of the duplexer as short as 117μm with the extinct ratio over 10dB.

  14. Short and long term maintenance strategy for reactor vessel head penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissier, A.; Heuze, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents elements based on : surveys, operating inspection, theoretical studies, safety analysis, laboratory results, that enabled to determine maintenance options and short and long term strategies for processing on reactor vessel head leaks. (TEC). 1 tab

  15. Fuel element transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benna, P.; Neuenfeldt, W.

    1979-01-01

    The reprocessing system includes a large number of waterfilled ponds next to each other for the intermediate storage of fuel elements from LWR's. The fuel element transport device is allocated to a middle pond. The individual ponds are separated from each other by walls, and are only accessible from the middle pond via narrow passages. The transport device includes a telescopic running rail for a trolley with a grab device for the fuel element. The running rail is supported in turn by a second trolley, which can be moved by wheels on rails. Part of the drive of the first trolley is arranged on the second one. Using this transport device, adjacent ponds can be served through the passage openings. (DG) [de

  16. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Satoshi; Kawada, Toshiyuki; Matsuzaki, Masayoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a fuel element for reducing the mechanical interactions between a fuel-cladding tube and the fuel element and for alleviating the limits of the operating conditions of a reactor. Constitution: A fuel element having mainly uranium dioxide consists of a cylindrical outer pellet and cylindrical inner pellet inserted into the outer pellet. The outer pellet contains two or more additives selected from aluminium oxide, beryllium oxide, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, sodium oxide, phosphorus oxide, calcium oxide and iron oxide, and the inner pellet contains nuclear fuel substance solely or one additive selected from calcium oxide, silicon oxide, aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide, zirconium oxide and iron oxide. The outer pellet of the fuel thus constituted is reduced in mechanical strength and also in the mechanical interactions with the cladding tube, and the plastic fluidity of the entire pellet is prevented by the inner pellet increased in the mechanical strength. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Creativity Management Key Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Fuchs Ángeles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are constantly looking towards innovation. In order to reach it they must foment creativity. This paper analyzes a series of elements considered in the organizational creativity management and proposes a model with the indispensable factors that organizations should consider to reach it. These elements are: culture and organizational environment, strategy, structure, communication, relation with customers, human resources (recruiting, training, job design, compensation, promotion, and performance evaluation, long term orientation and the organizational life cycle. Having the analysis of those elements as a basis, the indispensable pillars on management creativity are identified. The proposed model is based on 5 pillars: the alignment between strategic, culture and organizational structure, called by the authors 'Holy Trinity'; intern publicity; customer’s voice; recognition and a look towards future. Finally, the case of an innovative Peruvian enterprise is presented from the model’s perspective and the study conclusions.

  18. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, H.H. [ed.

    1956-08-01

    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  19. Elements of social security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security is a comparative study of important elements of the social security systems in Denmark (DK), Sweden (S), Finland (FIN), Austria (A), Germany (D), the Netherlands (NL), Great Britain (GB) and Canada (CAN). It should be emphasized that Germany is the former West Germany...... (Alte Länder). This is the 9th and last edition of the publication,covering income levels and rules for social security and personal taxation for 1999. Basis for the projections to 1999 income levels is the 1998 data (in some cases 1999 data)for OECD's Taxing Wages as reported by national experts....

  20. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  1. Bibliography on transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    A selective bibliography of prominent publications on transuranium elements is compiled. Heading papers, symposia proceedings and the textbooks are included in the bibliography. The bibliography is arranged under the headings: (1)Books, Symposia Proceedings, Reviews etc., (2)Discovery, (3)Weighable Isolation, (4)Metal Preparation, (5)Nuclear Properties, (6)Plutonium as Reactor Fuel, (7)Fuel Reprocessing, (8)Solid State Chemistry, Thermochemistry and Spectroscopy, (9)Radiation Safety, (10)Applications, and (11)Some Typical Indian Papers. Total number of references cited are 298. The bibliography, though selective, will serve as a starting point for comprehensive literature search on transuranium elements. (author)

  2. Finite elements and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zienkiewicz, O C

    2006-01-01

    A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o

  3. Coupling of smooth particle hydrodynamics with the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaway, S.W.; Heinstein, M.W.; Swegle, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A gridless technique called smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) has been coupled with the transient dynamics finite element code ppercase[pronto]. In this paper, a new weighted residual derivation for the SPH method will be presented, and the methods used to embed SPH within ppercase[pronto] will be outlined. Example SPH ppercase[pronto] calculations will also be presented. One major difficulty associated with the Lagrangian finite element method is modeling materials with no shear strength; for example, gases, fluids and explosive biproducts. Typically, these materials can be modeled for only a short time with a Lagrangian finite element code. Large distortions cause tangling of the mesh, which will eventually lead to numerical difficulties, such as negative element area or ''bow tie'' elements. Remeshing will allow the problem to continue for a short while, but the large distortions can prevent a complete analysis. SPH is a gridless Lagrangian technique. Requiring no mesh, SPH has the potential to model material fracture, large shear flows and penetration. SPH computes the strain rate and the stress divergence based on the nearest neighbors of a particle, which are determined using an efficient particle-sorting technique. Embedding the SPH method within ppercase[pronto] allows part of the problem to be modeled with quadrilateral finite elements, while other parts are modeled with the gridless SPH method. SPH elements are coupled to the quadrilateral elements through a contact-like algorithm. ((orig.))

  4. Lasers with intra-cavity phase elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulses, A. Alkan; Kurtz, Russell; Islas, Gabriel; Anisimov, Igor

    2018-02-01

    Conventional laser resonators yield multimodal output, especially at high powers and short cavity lengths. Since highorder modes exhibit large divergence, it is desirable to suppress them to improve laser quality. Traditionally, such modal discriminations can be achieved by simple apertures that provide absorptive loss for large diameter modes, while allowing the lower orders, such as the fundamental Gaussian, to pass through. However, modal discrimination may not be sufficient for short-cavity lasers, resulting in multimodal operation as well as power loss and overheating in the absorptive part of the aperture. In research to improve laser mode control with minimal energy loss, systematic experiments have been executed using phase-only elements. These were composed of an intra-cavity step function and a diffractive out-coupler made of a computer-generated hologram. The platform was a 15-cm long solid-state laser that employs a neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystal rod, producing 1064 nm multimodal laser output. The intra-cavity phase elements (PEs) were shown to be highly effective in obtaining beams with reduced M-squared values and increased output powers, yielding improved values of radiance. The utilization of more sophisticated diffractive elements is promising for more difficult laser systems.

  5. Newnes short wave listening handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pritchard, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Short Wave Listening Handbook is a guide for starting up in short wave listening (SWL). The book is comprised of 15 chapters that discuss the basics and fundamental concepts of short wave radio listening. The coverage of the text includes electrical principles; types of signals that can be heard in the radio spectrum; and using computers in SWL. The book also covers SWL equipment, such as receivers, converters, and circuits. The text will be of great use to individuals who want to get into short wave listening.

  6. Trace elements record complex histories in diogenites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, J. B.; Beck, A. W.; McSween, H. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Diogenite meteorites are cumulate rocks composed mostly of orthopyroxene and chemically linked to eucrites (basaltic) and howardites (brecciated mixtures of diogenites and eucrites). Together, they represent the largest single family of achondrite meteorites delivered to Earth, and have been spectrally linked to the asteroid 4 Vesta, the largest remaining basaltic protoplanet. However, this spectral link is non-unique as many basaltic asteroids likely formed and were destroyed in the early solar system. Recent work suggested that Vesta may be an unlikely parent body for the diogenites based on correlations between trace elements and short-lived isotope decay products, which would be unlikely to survive on a body as large as Vesta due to its long cooling history [1]. Recent analyses of terrestrial and martian olivines have demonstrated that trace element spatial distributions can preserve evidence of their crystallization history even when major elements have been homogenized [2]. We have mapped minor elements including Cr, Al, and Ti in seemingly homogeneous diogenite orthopyroxenes and found a variety of previously unobserved textures. The pyroxenes in one sample (GRA 98108) are seemingly large grains of variable shapes and sizes, but the trace elements reveal internal grain boundaries between roughly-equal sized original subgrains, with equilibrated metamorphic triple junctions between them and trace element depletions at the boundaries. These trends suggest extraction of trace elements by a magma along those relict grain boundaries during a reheating event. Two other samples show evidence of fracturing and annealing, with trace element mobility within grains. One sample appears to have remained a closed system during annealing (MET 01084), while the other has interacted with a fluid or magma to move elements along annealed cracks (LEW 88679). These relict features establish that the history of diogenite pyroxenes is more complex than their homogeneous major

  7. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable...

  8. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  9. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  10. Water, the intangible element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotting, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Water is the key to life. No living creature can survive without water. Too much water or polluted water are serious threats to mankind. Managing this intangible element is complex, not only in wet deltaic regions but also in the (semi-)arid regions of the world. Combined efforts of the

  11. Movies and Literary Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rodney D.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends using movie clips to stimulate students' interest in reading a novel as well as to teach elements of fiction such as plot, character, setting, symbol, irony, and theme. Describes each clip and provides study questions. Includes a listing of movies made from books. (NH)

  12. Elements of Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elements of Architecture explores new ways of engaging architecture in archaeology. It conceives of architecture both as the physical evidence of past societies and as existing beyond the physical environment, considering how people in the past have not just dwelled in buildings but have existed...

  13. Inside finite elements

    CERN Document Server

    Weiser, Martin

    2016-01-01

    All relevant implementation aspects of finite element methods are discussed in this book. The focus is on algorithms and data structures as well as on their concrete implementation. Theory is covered as far as it gives insight into the construction of algorithms. Throughout the exercises a complete FE-solver for scalar 2D problems will be implemented in Matlab/Octave.

  14. Plants' essential chemical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Every garden center and hardware store sells fertilizer guaranteed to "feed" plants. In a strict sense, we can't feed plants. Food contains an energy source. Green plants capture solar energy and make their own food through photosynthesis! Photosynthesis and other metabolic processes require chemical elements in appropriate doses for plants to survive...

  15. Elements of relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawden, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    The book on elements of relativity theory is intended for final year school students or as an early university course in mathematical physics. Special principle of relativity, lorentz transformation, velocity transformations, relativistic mechanics, and general theory of relativity, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  16. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips

  17. Rare earth elements during diagenesis of abyssal sediments: analogies with a transuranic element americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boust, D.

    1987-03-01

    One of the possibilities for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes consists in burying them into abyssal sediments, the sediments being supposed to barrier out radionuclides migration. The objective of the work was to estimate the efficiency of sediment barrier with respect to americium. As there is no americium in abyssal sediments, an indirect approach was used: the behaviour of the rare earth elements, the best natural analogs of americium. They were analysed in a 15 m long core, from the Cap Verde abyssal plateau. The terrigenous phase derived from the African continent was modified by short-term processes (1-1000 years); the intermediate rare earth elements were dissolved. Mineral coatings, enriched in rare earth appeared. After burial, the evolution continued at a much slower rate (10 5 - 10 6 years). The rare elements of the mineral coatings derived from the dissolution of the terrigenous phase and from an additional source, deeper in the sediment column. The fluxes of rare earth elements from sediment to water column were estimated. In suboxic sediments, the dissolved particulate equilibrium was related to redox conditions. The short-term reactivity of americium was studied in laboratory experiments. Simple americium migration models showed that the sediments barrier was totally efficient with respect to americium. In the conditions, neptunium 237 a daughter product of americium 241 could induce fluxes of 10 16 atoms per year per ton of stored waste (10 -8 Ci y-1), during millions years, towards the water column [fr

  18. Short-circuit impedance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2003-01-01

    Methods for estimating the short-circuit impedance in the power grid are investigated for various voltage levels and situations. The short-circuit impedance is measured, preferably from naturally occurring load changes in the grid, and it is shown that such a measurement system faces different...

  19. Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.

  20. Sodium removal of fuel elements by vacuum distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, E.; Haubold, W.; Jansing, W.; Kirchner, G.

    1978-01-01

    Cleaning of sodium-wetted core components can be performed by using either lead, moist nitrogen, or alcohol. The advantages of these methods for cleaning fuel elements without causing damage are well known. The disadvantage is that large amounts of radioactive liquids are formed during handling in the latter two cases. In this paper a new method to clean components is described. The main idea is to remove all liquid metal from the core components within a comparatively short period of time. Fuel elements removed from the reactor must be cooled because of high decay heat release. To date, vacuum distillation of fuel elements has not yet been applied

  1. Resistive RAMs as analog trimming elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziza, H.; Perez, A.; Portal, J. M.

    2018-04-01

    This work investigates the use of Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) as an analog trimming device. The analog storage feature of the RRAM cell is evaluated and the ability of the RRAM to hold several resistance states is exploited to propose analog trim elements. To modulate the memory cell resistance, a series of short programming pulses are applied across the RRAM cell allowing a fine calibration of the RRAM resistance. The RRAM non volatility feature makes the analog device powers up already calibrated for the system in which the analog trimmed structure is embedded. To validate the concept, a test structure consisting of a voltage reference is evaluated.

  2. Mean-field models and superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, P.G.; Bender, M.; Maruhn, J.A.; Frankfurt Univ.

    2001-03-01

    We discuss the performance of two widely used nuclear mean-field models, the relativistic mean-field theory (RMF) and the non-relativistic Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach (SHF), with particular emphasis on the description of superheavy elements (SHE). We provide a short introduction to the SHF and RMF, the relations between these two approaches and the relations to other nuclear structure models, briefly review the basic properties with respect to normal nuclear observables, and finally present and discuss recent results on the binding properties of SHE computed with a broad selection of SHF and RMF parametrisations. (orig.)

  3. Timber Elements: Traditional and Modern Strengthening Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Hohan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this paper is to analyse the means for the rehabilitation of our cultural heritage timber structures. Several methods together with their application techniques are described, and also, the reasons for what these strengthening operations become imminent at a point. First of all, the necessity of the timber structural elements strengthening is explained through a short presentation of the factors which are degrading the material. Then, certain precautions and strengthening procedures are presented, all involving the usage of traditional materials like wood, metal, or concrete, and of modern materials like fiber reinforced polymeric composite.

  4. Stylistic Analysis of the Short Story "The Last Word" by Dr. A. R. Tabassum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari Khan, Abdul; Ahmad, Madiha; Ahmad, Sofia; Ijaz, Nida

    2015-01-01

    In this article stylistic analysis of short story "The Last Word" by Dr. A. R. Tabassum is performed. The formative elements of the story, such as point of view, characters and allegorical element, are discussed in detail so as to give a better insight of the story. The story is analyzed stylistically in terms of figures of speech where…

  5. Archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haina; Peng, Nan; Shah, Shiraz Ali

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes, such as spind......SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes...... on archaeal ECEs has just started to unravel the molecular biology of these genetic entities and their interactions with archaeal hosts, it is expected to accelerate in the next decade....

  6. Nuclear fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, J S; Coffing, L F

    1979-04-05

    The fuel element with circular cross-section for BWR and PWR consists of a core surrounded by a compound jacket container where there is a gap between the core and jacket during operation in the reactor. The core consists of U, Pu, Th compounds and mixtures of these. The compound jacket consists of zircaloy 2 or 4. In order to for example prevent the corrosion of the compound jacket, its inner surface has a metal barrier with smaller neutron absorbers than the jacket material in the form of a zirconium sponge. The zirconium of this metal barrier has impurities of various elements in the order of magnitude of 1000 to 5000 ppm. The oxygen content is in the range of 200 to 1200 ppm and the thickness of the metal barrier is 1-30% of the thickness of the jacket.

  7. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Eye, R.W.M.; Shennan, J.V.; Ford, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel element with particles from ceramic fissionable material (e.g. uranium carbide), each one being coated with pyrolitically deposited carbon and all of them being connected at their points of contact by means of an individual crossbar. The crossbar consists of silicon carbide produced by reaction of silicon metal powder with the carbon under the influence of heat. Previously the silicon metal powder together with the particles was kneaded in a solvent and a binder (e.g. epoxy resin in methyl ethyl ketone plus setting agent) to from a pulp. The reaction temperature lies at 1750 0 C. The reaction itself may take place in a nitrogen atmosphere. There will be produced a fuel element with a high overall thermal conductivity. (DG) [de

  8. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. A heat conducting fission product retaining metal liner of a refractory metal is incorporated in the fuel element between the cladding and the nuclear fuel to inhibit mechanical interaction between the nuclear fuel and the cladding, to isolate fission products and nuclear fuel impurities from contacting the cladding, and to improve the axial thermal peaking gradient along the length of the fuel rod. The metal liner can be in the form of a tube or hollow cylindrical column, a foil of single or multiple layers in the shape of a hollow cylindrical column, or a coating on the internal surface of the cladding. Preferred refractory metal materials are molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, niobium and alloys of the foregoing metals

  9. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Rowland, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. A heat conducting, fission product retaining metal liner of a refractory metal is incorporated in the fuel element between the cladding and the nuclear fuel to inhibit mechanical interaction between the nuclear fuel and the cladding, to isolate fission products and nuclear fuel impurities from contacting the cladding and to improve the axial thermal peaking gradient along the length of the fuel rod. The metal liner can be in the form of a tube or hollow cylindrical column, a foil of single or multiple layers in the shape of a hollow cylindrical column, or a coating on the internal surface of the cladding. Preferred refractory metal materials are molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, niobium and alloys of the foregoing metals

  10. Elements of quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Meystre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Elements of Quantum Optics gives a self-contained and broad coverage of the basic elements necessary to understand and carry out research in laser physics and quantum optics, including a review of basic quantum mechanics and pedagogical introductions to system-reservoir interactions and to second quantization. The text reveals the close connection between many seemingly unrelated topics, such as probe absorption, four-wave mixing, optical instabilities, resonance fluorescence and squeezing. It also comprises discussions of cavity quantum electrodynamics and atom optics. The 4th edition includes a new chapter on quantum entanglement and quantum information, as well as added discussions of the quantum beam splitter, electromagnetically induced transparency, slow light, and the input-output formalism needed to understand many problems in quantum optics. It also provides an expanded treatment of the minimum-coupling Hamiltonian and a simple derivation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, an important gateway to rese...

  11. Periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluck, E.; Heumann, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups of the periodic table shall be numbered from 1 to 18, instead of I to VIII as before. The recommendations has been approved of by the Committee on Nomenclature of the American Chemical Society. The new system abandons the distinction between main groups (a) and auxiliary groups (b), which in the past frequently has been the reason for misunderstandings between European and American chemists, due to different handling. The publishing house VCH Verlagsgesellschaft recently produced a new periodic table that shows the old and the new numbering system together at a glance, so that chemists will have time to get familiar with the new system. In addition the new periodic table represents an extensive data compilation arranged by elements. The front page lists the chemical properties of elements, the back page their physical properties. (orig./EF) [de

  12. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawada, Toshiyuki; Hirayama, Satoshi; Yoneya, Katsutoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable load-depending operation as well as moderation for the restriction of operation conditions in the present nuclear reactors, by specifying the essential ingredients and the total weight of the additives to UO 2 fuel substances. Constitution: Two or more additives selected from Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O, CaO, MgO, SiO 2 , Na 2 O and P 2 O 5 are added by the total weight of 2 - 5% to fuel substances consisting of UO 2 or a mixture of UO 2 and PuO 2 . When the mixture is sintered, the strength of the fuel elements is decreased and the fuel-cladding interactions due to the difference in the heat expansion coefficients between the ceramic fuel elements and the metal claddings are decreased to a substantially harmless degree. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Keiichi

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the tensile stresses resulted in a fuel can as well as prevent decladding of fuel pellets into the bore holes by decreasing the inner pressure within the nuclear fuel element. Constitution: A fuel can is filled with hollow fuel pellets, inserted with a spring for retaining the hollow fuel pellets with an appropriate force and, thereafter, closely sealed at the both ends with end plugs. A cylindrical body is disposed into the bore holes of the hollow fuel pellets. Since initial sealing gases and/or gaseous nuclear fission products can thus be excluded from the bore holes where the temperature is at the highest level, the inner pressure of the nuclear fuel element can be reduced to decrease the tensile strength resulted to the fuel can. Furthermore, decladding of fuel pellets into the bore holes can be prevented. (Moriyama, K.)

  14. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, K.F.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is described having a cluster of nuclear fuel pins supported in parallel, spaced apart relationship by transverse cellular braces within coaxial, inner and outer sleeves, the inner sleeve being in at least two separate axial lengths, each of the transverse braces having a peripheral portion which is clamped peripherally between the ends of the axial lengths of the inner sleeve. (author)

  15. Sensor for ionizable elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkey, E.; Reed, W.A. III; Hickam, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Sensor to detect thermally ionizable elements or molucules in air, water vapour or oxygen or to be used as alkali leak detector in vacuum systems, e.g. in the pipe system of a liquid-metal cooled FBR. The sensor consists of an filament made of thorium-containing iridium as cathode with a temperature upto 1000 0 C and an anode sheet of molybdenum, nickel or stainless steal. (ORU) [de

  16. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, C.E.; Waite, E.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element comprising a column of vibration compacted fuel which is retained in consolidated condition by a thimble shaped plug. The plug is wedged into gripping engagement with the wall of the sheath by a wedge. The wedge material has a lower coefficient of expansion than the sheath material so that at reactor operating temperature the retainer can relax sufficient to accommodate thermal expansion of the column of fuel. (author)

  17. OXIDATION OF TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-02-17

    A method is reported for oxidizing neptunium or plutonium in the presence of cerous values without also oxidizing the cerous values. The method consists in treating an aqueous 1N nitric acid solution, containing such cerous values together with the trivalent transuranic elements, with a quantity of hydrogen peroxide stoichiometrically sufficient to oxidize the transuranic values to the hexavalent state, and digesting the solution at room temperature.

  18. Transportation of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thubert, Francis; Rentien, Guy; Jacquet, Michel

    1981-01-01

    The production and marketing of artificial radioactive elements engaged in by the 'Office des Rayonnements Ionisants' requires the use of specially designed packagings and assorted means of transport. The authors begin by describing the different kinds of products involved and the forms of packagings needed, and go on to discuss the various means of transport used, underlining the fact that, in terms of number and gravity, the incidents that have occurred to date have indeed been few and far between [fr

  19. Vented nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, M.; Hirose, Y.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a vented nuclear fuel element having a plenum for accumulation of fission product gases and plug means for delaying the release of the fission product gases from the plenum, the plug means comprising a first porous body wettable with a liquid metal and a second porous body non-wettable with the liquid metal, the first porous body being impregnated with the liquid metal and in contact with the liquid metal

  20. Helium the disappearing element

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Wheeler M

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the book is helium, the element, and its use in myriad applications including MRI machines, particle accelerators, space telescopes, and of course balloons and blimps. It was at the birth of our Universe, or the Big Bang, where the majority of cosmic helium was created; and stellar helium production continues. Although helium is the second most abundant element in the Universe, it is actually quite rare here on Earth and only exists because of radioactive elements deep within the Earth. This book includes a detailed history of the discovery of helium, of the commercial industry built around it, how the helium we actually encounter is produced within the Earth, and the state of the helium industry today. The gas that most people associate with birthday party balloons is running out. “Who cares?” you might ask. Well, without helium, MRI machines could not function, rockets could not go into space, particle accelerators such as those used by CERN could not operate, fiber optic cables would not...

  1. Elements of quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Elements of Quantum Information introduces the reader to the fascinating field of quantum information processing, which lives on the interface between computer science, physics, mathematics, and engineering. This interdisciplinary branch of science thrives on the use of quantum mechanics as a resource for high potential modern applications. With its wide coverage of experiments, applications, and specialized topics - all written by renowned experts - Elements of Quantum Information provides and indispensable, up-to-date account of the state of the art of this rapidly advancing field and takes the reader straight up to the frontiers of current research. The articles have first appeared as a special issue of the journal 'Fortschritte der Physik / Progress of Physics'. Since then, they have been carefully updated. The book will be an inspiring source of information and insight for anyone researching and specializing in experiments and theory of quantum information. Topics addressed in Elements of Quantum Information include - Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics - Segmented Paul Traps - Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates in Microtraps, Optical Lattices, and on Atom Chips - Rydberg Gases - Factorization of Numbers with Physical Systems - Entanglement of Continuous Variables - NMR and Solid State Quantum Computation - Quantum Algorithms and Quantum Machines - Complexity Theory - Quantum Crytography. (orig.)

  2. Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.R. Ghoreishy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This research work is devoted to the footprint analysis of a steel-belted radial tyre (185/65R14 under vertical static load using finite element method. Two models have been developed in which in the first model the tread patterns were replaced by simple ribs while the second model was consisted of details of the tread blocks. Linear elastic and hyper elastic (Arruda-Boyce material models were selected to describe the mechanical behavior of the reinforcing and rubbery parts, respectively. The above two finite element models of the tyre were analyzed under inflation pressure and vertical static loads. The second model (with detailed tread patterns was analyzed with and without friction effect between tread and contact surfaces. In every stage of the analysis, the results were compared with the experimental data to confirm the accuracy and applicability of the model. Results showed that neglecting the tread pattern design not only reduces the computational cost and effort but also the differences between computed deformations do not show significant changes. However, more complicated variables such as shape and area of the footprint zone and contact pressure are affected considerably by the finite element model selected for the tread blocks. In addition, inclusion of friction even in static state changes these variables significantly.

  3. Study of Superheavy Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Sigurd

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear shell model predicts that the next doubly magic shell-closure beyond 208 Pb is at a proton number Z = 114, 120, or 126 and at a neutron number N = 172 or 184. The outstanding aim of experimental investigations is the exploration of this region of spherical 'SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). Experimental methods are described, which allowed for the identification of elements produced on a cross-section level of about 1 pb. The decay data reveal that for the heaviest elements, the dominant decay mode is alpha emission, not fission. Decay properties as well as reaction cross-sections are compared with results of theoretical investigations. Finally, plans are presented for the further development of the experimental set-up and the application of new techniques, as for instance the precise mass measurement of the produced nuclei using ion traps. At increased sensitivity, the detailed exploration of the region of spherical SHEs will start, after first steps on the island were made in recent years. (Author)

  4. Probabilistic finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belytschko, Ted; Wing, Kam Liu

    1987-01-01

    In the Probabilistic Finite Element Method (PFEM), finite element methods have been efficiently combined with second-order perturbation techniques to provide an effective method for informing the designer of the range of response which is likely in a given problem. The designer must provide as input the statistical character of the input variables, such as yield strength, load magnitude, and Young's modulus, by specifying their mean values and their variances. The output then consists of the mean response and the variance in the response. Thus the designer is given a much broader picture of the predicted performance than with simply a single response curve. These methods are applicable to a wide class of problems, provided that the scale of randomness is not too large and the probabilistic density functions possess decaying tails. By incorporating the computational techniques we have developed in the past 3 years for efficiency, the probabilistic finite element methods are capable of handling large systems with many sources of uncertainties. Sample results for an elastic-plastic ten-bar structure and an elastic-plastic plane continuum with a circular hole subject to cyclic loadings with the yield stress on the random field are given.

  5. New functionalities in abundant element oxides: ubiquitous element strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Hideo; Hayashi, Katsuro; Kamiya, Toshio; Atou, Toshiyuki; Susaki, Tomofumi

    2011-01-01

    While most ceramics are composed of ubiquitous elements (the ten most abundant elements within the Earth's crust), many advanced materials are based on rare elements. A 'rare-element crisis' is approaching owing to the imbalance between the limited supply of rare elements and the increasing demand. Therefore, we propose a 'ubiquitous element strategy' for materials research, which aims to apply abundant elements in a variety of innovative applications. Creation of innovative oxide materials and devices based on conventional ceramics is one specific challenge. This review describes the concept of ubiquitous element strategy and gives some highlights of our recent research on the synthesis of electronic, thermionic and structural materials using ubiquitous elements. (topical review)

  6. Deterministic nonlinear systems a short course

    CERN Document Server

    Anishchenko, Vadim S; Strelkova, Galina I

    2014-01-01

    This text is a short yet complete course on nonlinear dynamics of deterministic systems. Conceived as a modular set of 15 concise lectures it reflects the many years of teaching experience by the authors. The lectures treat in turn the fundamental aspects of the theory of dynamical systems, aspects of stability and bifurcations, the theory of deterministic chaos and attractor dimensions, as well as the elements of the theory of Poincare recurrences.Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the generation of periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic self-sustained oscillations and to the issue of synchronization in such systems.  This book is aimed at graduate students and non-specialist researchers with a background in physics, applied mathematics and engineering wishing to enter this exciting field of research.

  7. Short range order in liquid pnictides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, M; Makov, G; Yahel, E; Greenberg, Y

    2013-01-01

    Liquid pnictides have anomalous physical properties and complex radial distribution functions. The quasi-crystalline model of liquid structure is applied to interpret the three-dimensional structure of liquid pnictides. It is shown that all the column V elements can be characterized by a short range order lattice symmetry similar to that of the underlying solid, the A7 structure, which originates from a Peierls distorted simple cubic lattice. The evolution of the liquid structure down the column as well as its temperature and pressure dependence is interpreted by means of the effect of thermodynamic parameters on the Peierls distortion. Surprisingly, it is found that the Peierls effect increases with temperature and the nearest neighbour distances exhibit negative thermal expansion. (paper)

  8. Methodology for substantiation of the fast reactor fuel element serviceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsykanov, V.A.; Maershin, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Methodological aspects of fast reactor fuel element serviceability substantiation are presented. The choice of the experimental program and strategies of its realization to solve the problem set in short time, taking into account available experimental means, are substantiated. Factors determining fuel element serviceability depending on parameters and operational conditions are considered. The methodological approach recommending separate studing of the factors, which points to the possibility of data acquisition, required for the development of calculational models and substantiation of fuel element serviceability in pilot and experimental reactors, is described. It is shown that the special-purpose data are more useful for the substantiation of fuel element serviceability and analytical method development than unsubstantial and expensive complex tests of fuel elements and fuel assemblies, which should be conducted only at final stages for the improvement of the structure on the whole

  9. Superconducting cyclotron magnet coil short

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, M.L.; Blosser, H.G.; Clark, D.J.; Launer, H.; Lawton, D.; Miller, P.; Resmini, F.

    1982-01-01

    In February 1981, a short circuit appeared in the superconducting coil of the K500 cyclotron. The short is resistive in character and therefore has no effect on steady state operation of the magnet. The resistance of the short varies, sometimes being below threshold of detection as a heat load on the cooling system and sometimes being significant. The resistance under certain conditions shows approximately cyclic phenomena with time constants in the range of seconds and other approximately cyclic phenomena which correlate with gross operating parameters of the magnet (shifting current from one coil to another at high field and lowering and raising the liquid helium level). A number of diagnostic studies of the short have been made, using 1) an array of flux sensing loops to sense the magnetic effect of the short, 2) voltage comparisons between upper and lower sections of the coil, 3) comparisons of forces in the nine member coil support system and 4) the effect of the short on the thermal charactersitics of the coil. Insulation failure or a metal chip shorting out turns have been explored in some detail but a convincing determination of the exact cause of the short may never be available, (even the extreme step of unwinding the coil having a significant probability that an imperfection with the observed characteristics would pass unnoticed). Analysis of the characteristics of the short indicated that the most serious consequence would be failure of the coils mechanical support system in the event that the magnet was quickly discharged, as in a dump or quench. To deal with this hazard, the support system has been modified by installing solid supports which prevent the coil from moving by an amount sufficient to damage the support system. We have also reexamined the data and calculations used in the original coil design and have made some additional measurements of the properties of the materials (yield strength, friction coefficient, Young's modulus) used in the

  10. The transuranium elements: From neptunium and plutonium to element 112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Beginning in the 1930's, both chemists and physicists became interested in synthesizing new artificial elements. The first transuranium element, Np, was synthesized in 1940. Over the past six decades, 20 transuranium elements have been produced. A review of the synthesis is given. The procedure of naming the heavy elements is also discussed. It appears feasible to produce elements 113 and 114. With the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator, it should be possible to reach the superheavy elements in the region of the spherical Z=114 shell, but with fewer neutrons than the N=184 spherical shell. 57 refs, 6 figs

  11. A Short Introduction to Semitic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Agostini

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to provide a succinct introduction to Semitic studies. The name "Semitic" derives from Shem or Sem, Noah's eldest son, from whom most of the Semits were said to descend. It is believed that Semitic languages evolved from hypothetical proto-Semitic. The place of origin of proto-Semitic is disputed: Africa, Arabia and Mesopotamia are possible locations. Unique to Semitic is a triconsonantal root, which carries the basic meaning. Superimposed is a pattern of vowels (or vowels and consonants, indicating variations in meaning or serving in inflection. Another feature is that related consonants typically fall into three subtypes: voiced, unvoiced and emphatic. The Semitic languages are closely interrelated − about as much as Slavic, Germanic or Romanic. Semitic divides into three groups: I. Northeast or East Semitic; 2. Northwest or West Semitic; 3. Southwest or South Semitic. East Semitic includes only Akkadian, the oldest attested Semitic language. Akkadian is known from cuneiform texts and was spoken in Mesopotamia between cca 3000 BC and 100 CE, but remained in written usage until the 2nd-3rd century CE. From cca 2000 BC, two dialects developed: Babylonian in the south and Assyrian in the north (both succeeded by Aramaic in the 6th century BC. The main differences between East and Northwest (West Semitic are in the verb system. Northwest Semitic includes: 1. Amorite and Ugaritic, 2. Canaanite and 3. Aramaic. Also, some twenty years ago, another language was found at the site of Elba, south of Aleppo in Syria. Passages in this language were interspersed with Sumerian texts from cca 2400 BC. Although heavily influenced by Akkadian, Eblaite shows similarities to Northwest Semitic. Amorite is a general term for a language attested from the first half of the 2nd millennium BC by proper nouns inserted into Akkadian and Egyptian texts. The first Amorites were probably nomads. Ugaritic appears to be an early form of Canaanite. It was

  12. Elements of social action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the significant analytical advantages, the author prefers social action as initial sociological concept in the relation to social phenomenon. Its basic elements are: actors, subjects and tools, needs and interests, values and norms, positions and roles. Actors set in motion and unify the rest of elements, guide to the magic triangle of sociology (movement, change, order, reaffirm actor paradigm to systemic paradigm. Subjects and tools materialize an action and its overestimate results in technological determinism or (by means of property as institutional appropriation of nature in the (unclassed historical type of society. Needs and interests are the basis of person's motivation and starting point for depth analysis of sociability. The expansion of legitimate interests circle develops techniques of normative regulation. Values and norms guide to institutional-organizational, positions to vertical and roles to horizontal structure. Values give the meaning to the action as well as to human existence, they are orientations of motivate system of personality but also basic aspect of society. As abstractions, values are latent background of norms and they tell to us what to do, and norms how to do something. Norms are specified instructions for suitable behavior Without normative order, not to be possible the satisfying of needs and the conciliation of interests. Riches, power and prestige are components of social position, and legal status is the determination of rights and obligations of the position. Roles are normative expectation of behavior. Toward kinds of sanctions roles are classified. Roles but also other elements of social action are starting point for sociological analysis of legal norms and institutes. On the other side, the observation of legal component of social actions enriches, strengths and precises sociological analysis of them.

  13. Activation analysis with neutron generators using short-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salma, I.

    1993-01-01

    The short half-life involves a number of important differences in production, transportation and measurement of radionuclides, and in counting statistics as compared with those in traditional activation analysis. Experiments were performed to investigate the analytical possibilities and prospective utilization of short-lived radionuclides produced by 14-MeV neutron irradiation. A rapid pneumatic transfer system for use with neutron generators was installed and applied for detecting radionuclides with a half-life from 300 ms to 30 s. The transport time for samples with a total mass of 1-4 g is between 130 and 160 ms for pressurized air of 0.1-0.4 MPa. 11 elements were studied by the conventional activation method using both a typical pneumatic transport system (run time 3 s) and the fast pneumatic transport facility. The effect of the cyclic activation technique on the elemental sensitivities was also investigated. (orig.)

  14. Analytical elements of mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Analytical Elements of Mechanics, Volume 1, is the first of two volumes intended for use in courses in classical mechanics. The books aim to provide students and teachers with a text consistent in content and format with the author's ideas regarding the subject matter and teaching of mechanics, and to disseminate these ideas. The book opens with a detailed exposition of vector algebra, and no prior knowledge of this subject is required. This is followed by a chapter on the topic of mass centers, which is presented as a logical extension of concepts introduced in connection with centroids. A

  15. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepfer, H.H.

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is described which comprises: 1) an elongated clad container, 2) a layer of high lubricity material being disposed in and adjacent to the clad container, 3) a low neutron capture cross section metal liner being disposed in the clad container and adjacent to the layer, 4) a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material disposed in and partially filling the container and forming an internal cavity in the container, 5) an enclosure integrally secured and sealed at each end of the container, and a nuclear fuel material retaining means positioned in the cavity. (author)

  16. Elements of real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sprecher, David A

    2010-01-01

    This classic text in introductory analysis delineates and explores the intermediate steps between the basics of calculus and the ultimate stage of mathematics: abstraction and generalization.Since many abstractions and generalizations originate with the real line, the author has made it the unifying theme of the text, constructing the real number system from the point of view of a Cauchy sequence (a step which Dr. Sprecher feels is essential to learn what the real number system is).The material covered in Elements of Real Analysis should be accessible to those who have completed a course in

  17. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    An array of rods is assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurized water reactor, the rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets and containing helium. The helium gas pressure is selected for each rod so that it differs substantially from the helium gas pressure in its closest neighbors. In a preferred arrangement the rods are arranged in a square lattice and the helium gas pressure alternates between a relatively high value and a relatively low value so that each rod has as its closest neighbors up to four rods containing helium gas at the other pressure value

  18. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, E. D.

    1984-10-16

    An array of rods is assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurized water reactor, the rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets and containing helium. The helium gas pressure is selected for each rod so that it differs substantially from the helium gas pressure in its closest neighbors. In a preferred arrangement the rods are arranged in a square lattice and the helium gas pressure alternates between a relatively high value and a relatively low value so that each rod has as its closest neighbors up to four rods containing helium gas at the other pressure value.

  19. Osteoporosis and trace elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, J.; Boivin, G.; Andersen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    More than 200 million people are affected by osteoporosis worldwide, as estimated by 2 million annual hip fractures and other debilitating bone fractures (vertebrae compression and Colles' fractures). Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disease with potential contributions from genetic, endocrine...... in new bone and results in a net gain in bone mass, but may be associated with a tissue of poor quality. Aluminum induces impairment of bone formation. Gallium and cadmium suppresses bone turnover. However, exact involvements of the trace elements in osteoporosis have not yet been fully clarified...

  20. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions.

  1. Technical Elements (CCT1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    Many of the aspects dealt with in the CA EPBD are closely interlinked with each other and may refer to both new and existing buildings, as well as to inspection and certification. This is also true for technical aspects, such as the calculation methodologies, and how to include technical systems......’ efficiency or how to integrate renewable energy within them. The central team for Technical Elements deals with issues of a technical nature, which are common to new and existing buildings, and/or with minimum demands, certification and inspection. This report focuses on the implementation of Articles 3, 4...

  2. Optical Finite Element Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David; Taylor, Bradley K.

    1986-01-01

    A new high-accuracy optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) with many advantageous features is described. It achieves floating point accuracy, handles bipolar data by sign-magnitude representation, performs LU decomposition using only one channel, easily partitions and considers data flow. A new application (finite element (FE) structural analysis) for OLAPs is introduced and the results of a case study presented. Error sources in encoded OLAPs are addressed for the first time. Their modeling and simulation are discussed and quantitative data are presented. Dominant error sources and the effects of composite error sources are analyzed.

  3. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  4. Shorts due to diagnostic leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.F.; Lubell, M.S.; Pillsbury, R.D.; Shen, S.S.; Thome, R.J.; Walstrom, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The superconducting toroidal field coils that are being tested in the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) are heavily instrumented. General Electric coil, a lead wire of an internal sensor became shorted across an estimated three or four turns of the pancake winding. This short occurred during the final stages of the winding fabrication and was not accessible for repair. Resistance, voltage gradient, and transient voltage decay measurements were performed to characterize the short and the magnetic damping of the large steel bobbin and outer structural ring. The 32-gage wire causing the short was estimated to be about 10 cm long, with a resistance of 55 mΩ. As a safety measure, we decided to burn out the shorted wire at room temperature before installing the coil in LCTF. Tests were made to determine the energy needed to vaporize a small wire. Computer calculations indicated that within the voltage limits set for the coil, it was not feasible to burn out the wire by rapidly dumping the coil from a low-current dc charge-up. We accomplished the burnout by applying 800 V at 3.25 A, and 60 Hz for about 1 s. Transient voltage decay measurements made after the burnout and compared with those made before the attempt confirmed that the short had indeed been opened

  5. Variable amplitude fatigue crack growth behavior - a short overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Konjengbam Darunkumar; Parry, Matthew Roger; Sinclair, Ian

    2011-01-01

    A short overview concerning variable amplitude (VA) fatigue crack growth behavior is presented in this paper. The topics covered in this review encompass important issues pertaining to both single and repeated overload transients. Reviews on transient post overload effects such as plasticity induced crack closure, crack tip blunting, residual stresses, crack deflection and branching, activation of near threshold mechanisms, strain hardening are highlighted. A brief summary on experimental trends and finite element modelling of overload induced crack closure is also presented

  6. Variable amplitude fatigue crack growth behavior - a short overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Konjengbam Darunkumar [Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati (India); Parry, Matthew Roger [Airbus Operations Ltd, Bristol (United Kingdom); Sinclair, Ian [University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    A short overview concerning variable amplitude (VA) fatigue crack growth behavior is presented in this paper. The topics covered in this review encompass important issues pertaining to both single and repeated overload transients. Reviews on transient post overload effects such as plasticity induced crack closure, crack tip blunting, residual stresses, crack deflection and branching, activation of near threshold mechanisms, strain hardening are highlighted. A brief summary on experimental trends and finite element modelling of overload induced crack closure is also presented.

  7. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwano, Yoshihiko.

    1993-01-01

    Microfine cracks having a depth of less than 10% of a pipe thickness are disposed radially from a central axis each at an interval of less than 100 micron over the entire inner circumferential surface of a zirconium alloy fuel cladding tube. For manufacturing such a nuclear fuel element, the inside of the cladding tube is at first filled with an electrolyte solution of potassium chloride. Then, electrolysis is conducted using the cladding tube as an anode and the electrolyte solution as a cathode, and the inner surface of the cladding tube with a zirconium dioxide layer having a predetermined thickness. Subsequently, the cladding tube is laid on a smooth steel plate and lightly compressed by other smooth steel plate to form microfine cracks in the zirconium dioxide layer on the inner surface of the cladding tube. Such a compressing operation is continuously applied to the cladding tube while rotating the cladding tube. This can inhibit progress of cracks on the inner surface of the cladding tube, thereby enabling to prevent failure of the cladding tube even if a pellet/cladding tube mechanical interaction is applied. Accordingly, reliability of the nuclear fuel elements is improved. (I.N.)

  8. Heavy-element nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    New measurements and theoretical studies of nuclear properties, together with new astronomical data on the growth of heavy-element abundances during the early history of the Galaxy, now provide a clearer picture of where in nature the elements heavier than iron are produced by rapid (r-process) and show (s-process) neutron capture reactions. The nuclear data suggest that the r-process involves a high-neutron-density beta-flow equilibrium environment and that the s-process may have occurred at a temperature and neutron density consistent with a 13 C(α,n) 16 0 neutron source. The astronomical data, when compared with simple galactic chemical evolution modes, suggests that the r-process is associated with type II supernovae and that the neutron source must be manufactured by the star. Low-mass type II supernovae are proposed as the most important contributors to the r-process. A 13 C neutron source in intermediate-mass stars is proposed for the s-process. 64 refs., 7 figs

  9. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The invention is of a nuclear fuel element which comprises a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material selected from the group consisting of compounds of uranium, plutonium, thorium and mixtures thereof, and an elongated composite cladding container comprising a zirconium alloy tube containing constituents other than zirconium in an amount greater than about 5000 parts per million by weight and an undeformed metal barrier of moderate purity zirconium bonded to the inside surface of the alloy tube. The container encloses the core so as to leave a gap between the container and the core during use in a nuclear reactor. The metal barrier is of moderate purity zirconium with an impurity level on a weight basis of at least 1000ppm and less than 5000ppm. Impurity levels of specific elements are given. Variations of the invention are also specified. The composite cladding reduces chemical interaction, minimizes localized stress and strain corrosion and reduces the likelihood of a splitting failure in the zirconium alloy tube. Other benefits are claimed. (U.K.)

  10. Connectivity Measures in EEG Microstructural Sleep Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Dimitris; Koupparis, Andreas M; Kokkinos, Vasileios; Koutroumanidis, Michalis; Kostopoulos, George K

    2016-01-01

    During Non-Rapid Eye Movement sleep (NREM) the brain is relatively disconnected from the environment, while connectedness between brain areas is also decreased. Evidence indicates, that these dynamic connectivity changes are delivered by microstructural elements of sleep: short periods of environmental stimuli evaluation followed by sleep promoting procedures. The connectivity patterns of the latter, among other aspects of sleep microstructure, are still to be fully elucidated. We suggest here a methodology for the assessment and investigation of the connectivity patterns of EEG microstructural elements, such as sleep spindles. The methodology combines techniques in the preprocessing, estimation, error assessing and visualization of results levels in order to allow the detailed examination of the connectivity aspects (levels and directionality of information flow) over frequency and time with notable resolution, while dealing with the volume conduction and EEG reference assessment. The high temporal and frequency resolution of the methodology will allow the association between the microelements and the dynamically forming networks that characterize them, and consequently possibly reveal aspects of the EEG microstructure. The proposed methodology is initially tested on artificially generated signals for proof of concept and subsequently applied to real EEG recordings via a custom built MATLAB-based tool developed for such studies. Preliminary results from 843 fast sleep spindles recorded in whole night sleep of 5 healthy volunteers indicate a prevailing pattern of interactions between centroparietal and frontal regions. We demonstrate hereby, an opening to our knowledge attempt to estimate the scalp EEG connectivity that characterizes fast sleep spindles via an "EEG-element connectivity" methodology we propose. The application of the latter, via a computational tool we developed suggests it is able to investigate the connectivity patterns related to the occurrence

  11. Exonization of an Intronic LINE-1 Element Causing Becker Muscular Dystrophy as a Novel Mutational Mechanism in Dystrophin Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana; Oliveira, Jorge; Coelho, Teresa; Taipa, Ricardo; Melo-Pires, Manuel; Sousa, Mário; Santos, Rosário

    2017-10-03

    A broad mutational spectrum in the dystrophin ( DMD ) gene, from large deletions/duplications to point mutations, causes Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (D/BMD). Comprehensive genotyping is particularly relevant considering the mutation-centered therapies for dystrophinopathies. We report the genetic characterization of a patient with disease onset at age 13 years, elevated creatine kinase levels and reduced dystrophin labeling, where multiplex-ligation probe amplification (MLPA) and genomic sequencing failed to detect pathogenic variants. Bioinformatic, transcriptomic (real time PCR, RT-PCR), and genomic approaches (Southern blot, long-range PCR, and single molecule real-time sequencing) were used to characterize the mutation. An aberrant transcript was identified, containing a 103-nucleotide insertion between exons 51 and 52, with no similarity with the DMD gene. This corresponded to the partial exonization of a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE-1), disrupting the open reading frame. Further characterization identified a complete LINE-1 (~6 kb with typical hallmarks) deeply inserted in intron 51. Haplotyping and segregation analysis demonstrated that the mutation had a de novo origin. Besides underscoring the importance of mRNA studies in genetically unsolved cases, this is the first report of a disease-causing fully intronic LINE-1 element in DMD , adding to the diversity of mutational events that give rise to D/BMD.

  12. Exonization of an Intronic LINE-1 Element Causing Becker Muscular Dystrophy as a Novel Mutational Mechanism in Dystrophin Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana; Coelho, Teresa; Melo-Pires, Manuel; Sousa, Mário

    2017-01-01

    A broad mutational spectrum in the dystrophin (DMD) gene, from large deletions/duplications to point mutations, causes Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (D/BMD). Comprehensive genotyping is particularly relevant considering the mutation-centered therapies for dystrophinopathies. We report the genetic characterization of a patient with disease onset at age 13 years, elevated creatine kinase levels and reduced dystrophin labeling, where multiplex-ligation probe amplification (MLPA) and genomic sequencing failed to detect pathogenic variants. Bioinformatic, transcriptomic (real time PCR, RT-PCR), and genomic approaches (Southern blot, long-range PCR, and single molecule real-time sequencing) were used to characterize the mutation. An aberrant transcript was identified, containing a 103-nucleotide insertion between exons 51 and 52, with no similarity with the DMD gene. This corresponded to the partial exonization of a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE-1), disrupting the open reading frame. Further characterization identified a complete LINE-1 (~6 kb with typical hallmarks) deeply inserted in intron 51. Haplotyping and segregation analysis demonstrated that the mutation had a de novo origin. Besides underscoring the importance of mRNA studies in genetically unsolved cases, this is the first report of a disease-causing fully intronic LINE-1 element in DMD, adding to the diversity of mutational events that give rise to D/BMD. PMID:28972564

  13. Revisiting play elements and self-handicapping in play: a comparative ethogram of five Old World monkey species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrů, Milada; Spinka, Marek; Charvátová, Veronika; Lhota, Stanislav

    2009-08-01

    Play behavior has been viewed as a mixture of elements drawn from "serious" behavior, interspersed by ritualized play signals. Two other types of play behaviors have been overlooked: patterns that are dissimilar from any serious behavior and patterns with self-handicapping character, that is, those that put the animal into unnecessary disadvantageous positions or situations. Here the authors show that these 2 types of patterns can constitute a major part of play repertoire. From our own videorecordings and observations, we constructed play ethograms of 5 monkey species (Semnopithecus entellus, Erythrocebus patas, Chlorocebus pygerythrus, Cercopithecus neglectus, and Cercopithecus diana). The authors evaluated the self-handicapping character of each pattern and in Hanuman langurs also the (dis)similarity to serious behavior. Of the 74 patterns in the 5 species, 33 (45%) were judged to have a self-handicapping character. Of 48 patterns observed in langurs, 16 (33%) were totally dissimilar to any serious langur behavior known to us. The authors discuss the possibility that the different types of play elements may have different functions in play. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Application of short-time activation analysis in the sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.

    1991-01-01

    Short-time activation analysis has proved to be a valuable tool in nearly all fields of science. To take full advantage of this technique, it is favorable to use a fast transfer system and a high resolution high rate gamma-spectroscopy system for short lived gamma-emitters and a Cherenkov detector for the determination of hard beta-emitters. It is then possible to utilize sub-minute nuclides Li-8 (740 ms), B-12 (20 ms), F-20 (11.1 s), Y-89m (16 s), and Pb-207m (800 ms) for the determination of these elements. Besides these sub-minute nuclides which constitute the only possibility for neutron activation analysis of these elements there are a number of other elements which form longer lived nuclides on short irradiation. The analysis of the halogenides F, Cl, Br, I in waste water of a sewage incineration plant can be achieved with a single 20 s irradiation and two consecutive measurement of 20 and 600 s using Cl-38m, F-20, Br-79m as well as the longer lived Cl-38, Br-80, I-128

  15. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  16. Joining elements of silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method of joining together at least two silicon carbide elements (e.g.in forming a heat exchanger) is described, comprising subjecting to sufficiently non-oxidizing atmosphere and sufficiently high temperature, material placed in space between the elements. The material consists of silicon carbide particles, carbon and/or a precursor of carbon, and silicon, such that it forms a joint joining together at least two silicon carbide elements. At least one of the elements may contain silicon. (author)

  17. Evolutionary applications of MIRs and SINEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, F; Crawford, A; Strobeck, C; Palsboll, P; Plante, Y

    It is believed that short interspersed elements (SINEs) are irreversibly inserted into genomes. We use this concept to try to deduce the evolution of whales using sequence and hybridization studies. The observation that microsatellites are associated with SINEs lead us to screen sequences

  18. Trace element emissions from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    Trace elements are emitted during coal combustion. The quantity, in general, depends on the physical and chemical properties of the element itself, the concentration of the element in the coal, the combustion conditions and the type of particulate control device used, and its collection efficiency as a function of particle size. Some trace elements become concentrated in certain particle streams following combustion such as bottom ash, fly ash, and flue gas particulate matter, while others do not. Various classification schemes have been developed to describe this partitioning behaviour. These classification schemes generally distinguish between: Class 1: elements that are approximately equally concentrated in the fly ash and bottom ash, or show little or no fine particle enrichment, examples include Mn, Be, Co and Cr; Class 2: elements that are enriched in the fly ash relative to bottom ash, or show increasing enrichment with decreasing particle size, examples include As, Cd, Pb and Sb; Class 3: elements which are emitted in the gas phase (primarily Hg (not discussed in this review), and in some cases, Se). Control of class 1 trace elements is directly related to control of total particulate matter emissions, while control of the class 2 elements depends on collection of fine particulates. Due to the variability in particulate control device efficiencies, emission rates of these elements can vary substantially. The volatility of class 3 elements means that particulate controls have only a limited impact on the emissions of these elements.

  19. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  20. Accelerator vacuum system elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivokon', V.V.; Kobets, A.F.; Shvetsov, V.A.; Sivokon', L.V.

    1980-01-01

    Some elements of vacuum systems are investigated. Considerable attention has been given to the investigation into peculiarities in pumping out of a ionoguide for transportation of an accelerated charged particles beam the spread of which often attains a considerable length. The number of pumps over the ionoguide length is experimentally determined. It is shown that as a result of ionoguide warm-up the pumping out time is considerably reduced maximum permissible pressure is decreased by two orders and lesser rate of pump pumping out is required. The investigations have shown that when operating the ionoguide there is no necessity in setting up seals between the ionoguide and magnetodischarged pump. The causes of the phenomenon in which the pressure near the pump is greater than in the end of the ionoguide, are impurities carried in by the pump into the ionoguide volume and the pumping out capacity of the pressure converter

  1. Ucla, escuela elemental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1962-03-01

    Full Text Available La Escuela Elemental de Preparación de la Universidad de California, en Los Angeles, está dedicada a la educación e investigación y preparación del profesorado de la infancia. Se ha construido en un paraje maravilloso, de frondosa vegetación, frente a un terreno bastante quebrado, circunstancia que presta mayor encanto al conjunto, construido con gran pericia y adaptación al paisaje a base de una dominante horizontalidad, con materiales sencillos (ladrillos, hierro y madera y gran comunicación con la naturaleza mediante grandes cristaleras correderas que ensanchan las clases y las suplementan hacia el jardín de acuerdo con las nuevas normas y prácticas docentes.

  2. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a metal liner disposed between the cladding and the nuclear fuel material and a high lubricity material in the form of a coating disposed between the liner and the cladding. The liner preferably has a thickness greater than the longest fission product recoil distance and is composed of a low neutron capture cross-section material. The liner is preferably composed of zirconium, an alloy of zirconium, niobium or an alloy of niobium. The liner serves as a preferential reaction site for volatile impurities and fission products and protects the cladding from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The high lubricity material acts as an interface between the liner and the cladding and reduces localized stresses on the cladding due to fuel expansion and cracking of the fuel

  3. Probabilistic fracture finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Lua, Y. J.

    1991-05-01

    The Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics (PFM) is a promising method for estimating the fatigue life and inspection cycles for mechanical and structural components. The Probability Finite Element Method (PFEM), which is based on second moment analysis, has proved to be a promising, practical approach to handle problems with uncertainties. As the PFEM provides a powerful computational tool to determine first and second moment of random parameters, the second moment reliability method can be easily combined with PFEM to obtain measures of the reliability of the structural system. The method is also being applied to fatigue crack growth. Uncertainties in the material properties of advanced materials such as polycrystalline alloys, ceramics, and composites are commonly observed from experimental tests. This is mainly attributed to intrinsic microcracks, which are randomly distributed as a result of the applied load and the residual stress.

  4. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Hiroshi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress iodine release thereby prevent stress corrosion cracks in fuel cans by dispersing ferrous oxide at the outer periphery of sintered uranium dioxide pellets filled and sealed within zirconium alloy fuel cans of fuel elements. Constitution: Sintered uranium dioxide pellets to be filled and sealed within a zirconium alloy fuel can are prepared either by mixing ferric oxide powder in uranium dioxide powder, sintering and then reducing at low temperature or by mixing iron powder in uranium dioxide powder, sintering and then oxidizing at low temperature. In this way, ferrous oxide is dispersed on the outer periphery of the sintered uranium dioxide pellets to convert corrosive fission products iodine into iron iodide, whereby the iodine release is suppressed and the stress corrosion cracks can be prevented in the fuel can. (Moriyama, K.)

  5. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirama, H.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element comprises an elongated tube having upper and lower end plugs fixed to both ends thereof and nuclear fuel pellets contained within the tube. The fuel pellets are held against the lower end plug by a spring which is supported by a setting structure. The setting structure is maintained at a proper position at the middle of the tube by a wedge effect caused by spring force exerted by the spring against a set of balls coacting with a tapered member of the setting structure thereby wedging the balls against the inner wall of the tube, and the setting structure is moved free by pushing with a push bar against the spring force so as to release the wedge effect

  6. Finite element modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonks, M.R.; Williamson, R.; Masson, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a numerical technique for finding approximate solutions to boundary value problems. While FEM is commonly used to solve solid mechanics equations, it can be applied to a large range of BVPs from many different fields. FEM has been used for reactor fuels modelling for many years. It is most often used for fuel performance modelling at the pellet and pin scale, however, it has also been used to investigate properties of the fuel material, such as thermal conductivity and fission gas release. Recently, the United Stated Department Nuclear Energy Advanced Modelling and Simulation Program has begun using FEM as the basis of the MOOSE-BISON-MARMOT Project that is developing a multi-dimensional, multi-physics fuel performance capability that is massively parallel and will use multi-scale material models to provide a truly predictive modelling capability. (authors)

  7. Heavy-element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The status is reported of studies on the solid-state chemistry of the actinides and lanthanides, spectroscopy of actinide compounds, and dynamic chemical description of actinide elements in solution. Phase studies were done on Rb 2 UO 4 , K 2 UO 4 , Li 2 UO 4 , and Es 2 U 2 O 7 . The lithium neptunate (VI) system was investigated and the existence of Li 2 NpO 4 was established. In oxidation-reduction studies it was shown that Am(III) can be electrolytically oxidized to Am(IV) in strong H 3 PO 4 , but Cf(III) and Pr(III) do not oxidize. The low-temperature absorption spectrum of thin films of NpBr 3 was investigated. (U.S.)

  8. ELEMENTAL FORMS OF HOSPITALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Emanuel Korstanje

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern studies emphasized on the needs of researching the hospitality as relevant aspects of tourism and hospitality fields. Anyway, these approaches are inextricably intertwined to the industry of tourism and do not take seriously the anthropological and sociological roots of hospitality. In fact, the hotel seems to be a partial sphere of hospitality at all. Under this context, the present paper explores the issue of hospitality enrooted in the political and economic indo-European principle of free-transit which is associated to a much broader origin.  Starting from the premise etymologically hostel and hospital share similar origins, we follow the contributions of J Derrida to determine the elements that formed the hospitality up to date.

  9. Photo-switching element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaki, Yuichi

    1987-10-31

    Photo-input MOS transistor (Photo-switching element) cannot give enough ON/OFF ratio but requires an auxiliary condenser for a certain type of application. In addition, PN junction of amorphous silicon is not practical because it gives high leak current resulting in low electromotive force. In this invention, a solar cell was constructed with a lower electrode consisting of a transparent electro-conducting film, a photosensitive part consisting of an amorphous Si layer of p-i-n layer construction, and an upper metal electrode consisting of Cr or Nichrome, and a thin film transistor was placed on the solar cell, and further the upper metal electrode was co-used as a gate electrode of the thin film transistor; this set-up of this invention enabled to attain an efficient photo-electric conversion of the incident light, high electromotive force of the solar cell, and the transistor with high ON/OFF ratio. (3 figs)

  10. Improved combination of photosensitivity elements for use in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorselaer, M.K.

    1975-01-01

    It is stated that manufacturers of photosensitive elements incorporating silver halide emulsions for use in radiography are often faced with performance requirements that place conflicting demands on the composition of the photosensitive elements. Amongst such performance requirements are a minimum photographic speed, a short processing time, and a minimum standard of image density and resolution. With a view to achieving some degree of reconciliation between maximum optical image density requirements and economy in processing time, and in particular fixing time, it is advantageous to have the total silver halide content distributed in emulsion layers on opposite sides of the emulsion layer support. Such 'double sided' elements are usually exposed between two intensifying screens, that may be separate elements of integral parts of a single element that also incorporates the silver halide emulsion layers. During exposure of these 'double sided' elements light from one intensifying screen irradiates the adjacent emulsion layer and also that on the opposite side of the support; this is referred to as 'cross over'. Due to refraction and other light deflection processes within the photosensitive element this, however, impairs image definition. In commercial systems a relatively high concentration of siver halide is usually employed in order to obtain good contrast and maximum image density, but this adversely affects processing time. Instead of such high silver halide concentrations emulsions of small silver halide grain size may be used, but this lowers the photographic speed. Elements having properties that mitigate these difficulties are described, and examples of their application are given. (U.K.)

  11. Identification, characterization and distribution of transposable elements in the flax (Linum usitatissimum L. genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Leonardo Galindo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is an important crop for the production of bioproducts derived from its seed and stem fiber. Transposable elements (TEs are widespread in plant genomes and are a key component of their evolution. The availability of a genome assembly of flax (Linum usitatissimum affords new opportunities to explore the diversity of TEs and their relationship to genes and gene expression. Results Four de novo repeat identification algorithms (PILER, RepeatScout, LTR_finder and LTR_STRUC were applied to the flax genome assembly. The resulting library of flax repeats was combined with the RepBase Viridiplantae division and used with RepeatMasker to identify TEs coverage in the genome. LTR retrotransposons were the most abundant TEs (17.2% genome coverage, followed by Long Interspersed Nuclear Element (LINE retrotransposons (2.10% and Mutator DNA transposons (1.99%. Comparison of putative flax TEs to flax transcript databases indicated that TEs are not highly expressed in flax. However, the presence of recent insertions, defined by 100% intra-element LTR similarity, provided evidence for recent TE activity. Spatial analysis showed TE-rich regions, gene-rich regions as well as regions with similar genes and TE density. Monte Carlo simulations for the 71 largest scaffolds (≥ 1 Mb each did not show any regional differences in the frequency of TE overlap with gene coding sequences. However, differences between TE superfamilies were found in their proximity to genes. Genes within TE-rich regions also appeared to have lower transcript expression, based on EST abundance. When LTR elements were compared, Copia showed more diversity, recent insertions and conserved domains than the Gypsy, demonstrating their importance in genome evolution. Conclusions The calculated 23.06% TE coverage of the flax WGS assembly is at the low end of the range of TE coverages reported in other eudicots, although this estimate does not include

  12. Identification, characterization and distribution of transposable elements in the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Leonardo Galindo; Deyholos, Michael K

    2012-11-21

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important crop for the production of bioproducts derived from its seed and stem fiber. Transposable elements (TEs) are widespread in plant genomes and are a key component of their evolution. The availability of a genome assembly of flax (Linum usitatissimum) affords new opportunities to explore the diversity of TEs and their relationship to genes and gene expression. Four de novo repeat identification algorithms (PILER, RepeatScout, LTR_finder and LTR_STRUC) were applied to the flax genome assembly. The resulting library of flax repeats was combined with the RepBase Viridiplantae division and used with RepeatMasker to identify TEs coverage in the genome. LTR retrotransposons were the most abundant TEs (17.2% genome coverage), followed by Long Interspersed Nuclear Element (LINE) retrotransposons (2.10%) and Mutator DNA transposons (1.99%). Comparison of putative flax TEs to flax transcript databases indicated that TEs are not highly expressed in flax. However, the presence of recent insertions, defined by 100% intra-element LTR similarity, provided evidence for recent TE activity. Spatial analysis showed TE-rich regions, gene-rich regions as well as regions with similar genes and TE density. Monte Carlo simulations for the 71 largest scaffolds (≥ 1 Mb each) did not show any regional differences in the frequency of TE overlap with gene coding sequences. However, differences between TE superfamilies were found in their proximity to genes. Genes within TE-rich regions also appeared to have lower transcript expression, based on EST abundance. When LTR elements were compared, Copia showed more diversity, recent insertions and conserved domains than the Gypsy, demonstrating their importance in genome evolution. The calculated 23.06% TE coverage of the flax WGS assembly is at the low end of the range of TE coverages reported in other eudicots, although this estimate does not include TEs likely found in unassembled repetitive regions of

  13. Molecular genetics and epigenetics of CACTA elements

    KAUST Repository

    Fedoroff, Nina V.

    2013-08-21

    The CACTA transposons, so named for a highly conserved motif at element ends, comprise one of the most abundant superfamilies of Class 2 (cut-and-paste) plant transposons. CACTA transposons characteristically include subterminal sequences of several hundred nucleotides containing closely spaced direct and inverted repeats of a short, conserved sequence of 14-15 bp. The Supressor-mutator (Spm) transposon, identified and subjected to detailed genetic analysis by Barbara McClintock, remains the paradigmatic element of the CACTA family. The Spm transposon encodes two proteins required for transposition, the transposase (TnpD) and a regulatory protein (TnpA) that binds to the subterminal repeats. Spm expression is subject to both genetic and epigenetic regulation. The Spm-encoded TnpA serves as an activator of the epigenetically inactivated, methylated Spm, stimulating both transient and heritable activation of the transposon. TnpA also serves as a negative regulator of the demethylated active element promoter and is required, in addition to the TnpD, for transposition. © Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2013.

  14. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of V˙O2peak. V˙O2peak, body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in V˙O2peak (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p=0.062. The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p=0.042. Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  15. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods . Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of [Formula: see text]. [Formula: see text], body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results . Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in [Formula: see text] (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention ( p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT ( p = 0.042). Conclusion . Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  16. The novel as short story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Schlueter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent history, the novel has been thought of and defined primarily as a long prose narrative. However, this has not been the case historically, as the original meaning of "novel" was for "a piece of news" or "a short story or novella." Returning to this original definition, I propose a new way of viewing the work known contemporarily as the novel as a collection, or sequence, of united short stories rather than a single indivisible work, with the component short stories or novellas comprising the sequence renamed as "novels." A brief examination of several classic works traditionally considered novels serves to illustrate how this change in definition will affect reading.

  17. Infantile Short Bowel Syndrome: short and long term evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Olieman (Joanne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractInfantile short bowel syndrome is a condition which is characterized by malabsorption of nutrients, as a result of congenital intestinal shortening or massive small bowel resection. Survival rates have improved over the years, but morbidity remains high and clinical management of these

  18. Short-range fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Baessler, S.; Buchner, M.; Fedorov, V.V.; Hoedl, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces; 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments

  19. The Chemistry of Superheavy Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Schädel, M

    2003-01-01

    The chemistry of transactinide or superheavy elements has reached element 108. Preparations are under way to leap to element 112 and beyond. The current status of this atom-at-a-time chemical research and its future perspectives are reviewed from an experimental point of view together with some of the interesting results from n -rich nuclides near and at the N=162 neutron shell. Experimental techniques and important results enlightening typical chemical properties of elements 104 through 108 are presented in an exemplary way. From the results of these experiments it is justified to place these elements in the Periodic Table of the Elements in to groups 4 through 8, respectively. However, mainly due to the influence of relativistic effects, it is no longer possible to deduce detailed chemical properties of these superheavy elements simply from this position.

  20. Transplutonium elements - a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, C.K.; Jadhav, A.V.

    1974-01-01

    The report surveys reported work on the discovery of transplutonium elements and their production through various methods like bombardment of heavy elements with charged ions, successive neutron captures on heavy elements in reactors and multiple neutron captures by heavy elements during nuclear explosions. Estimated yields of transplutonium elements in special targets irradiated in reactors, and also as byproducts from spent power reactor fuels are quoted. Various chemical procedures adopted for recovery of these elements from irradiated target and also from power reactor fuel reprocessing streams are described. A brief survey of shielded facilities available at various centres for transplutonium programmes is also included. Major uses of some of these heavy elements are described. (author)

  1. Dynamic relaxation method in analysis of reinforced concrete bent elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szcześniak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for the analysis of nonlinear behaviour of reinforced concrete bent elements subjected to short-term static load. The considerations in the range of modelling of deformation processes of reinforced concrete element were carried out. The method of structure effort analysis was developed using the finite difference method. The Dynamic Relaxation Method, which — after introduction of critical damping — allows for description of the static behaviour of a structural element, was used to solve the system of nonlinear equilibrium equations. In order to increase the method effectiveness in the range of the post-critical analysis, the Arc Length Parameter on the equilibrium path was introduced into the computational procedure.[b]Keywords[/b]: reinforced concrete elements, physical nonlinearity, geometrical nonlinearity, dynamic relaxation method, arc-length method

  2. Examination of irradiated fuel elements using gamma scanning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichim, O.; Mincu, M.; Man, I.; Stanica, M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to validate the gamma scanning technique used to calculate the activity of gamma fission products from CANDU/TRIGA irradiated fuel elements. After a short presentation of the equipments used and their characteristics, the paper describes the calibration technique for the devices and how computed tomography reconstruction is done. Following the previously mentioned steps is possible to obtain the axial and radial profiles and the computed tomography reconstruction for calibration sources and for the irradiated fuel elements. The results are used to validate the gamma scanning techniques as a non-destructive examination method. The gamma scanning techniques will be used to: identify the fission products in the irradiated CANDU/TRIGA fuel elements, construct the axial and radial distributions of fission products, get the distribution in cross section through computed tomography reconstruction, and determine the nuclei number and the fission products activity of the irradiated CANDU/TRIGA fuel elements. (authors)

  3. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs): the hallmark of an ingenious antiviral defense mechanism in prokaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Attar, S.; Westra, E.R.; Oost, van der J.; Brouns, S.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Many prokaryotes contain the recently discovered defense system against mobile genetic elements. This defense system contains a unique type of repetitive DNA stretches, termed Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs). CRISPRs consist of identical repeated DNA sequences

  4. Astronomical Spectroscopy A Short History

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 5. Astronomical Spectroscopy A Short History. J C Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 3 Issue 5 May 1998 pp 24-29. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/05/0024-0029 ...

  5. A Short Term Analogue Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan

    1992-01-01

    A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...

  6. Towards short wavelengths FELs workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.

    1993-01-01

    This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FELs offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FELs will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program

  7. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND REPORTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    1976). Among raptors there are those species where only the female incubates, those where the male may also incubate for short to longer periods, and those in which females and males equally share the incubation (Newton 1979). It is well known that both sexes incubate the clutch in vultures, both in the wild (Mundy et al.

  8. Towards short wavelengths FELs workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.

    1993-11-01

    This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FEL's offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FEL's will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program.

  9. EAF optimal managing elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Dragna, E. C.

    2017-01-01

    Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF) is an important and complex aggregate. We present elements of EAF operating efficiency. The reliability of the EAF is mainly determined by electric circuit reliability and especially of the transformator of the furnace. This due to the fact that, in an electric steel plant, the objective „24 tapping/day” involves. Due to the complexity of the process, the EAF operation needs a computer usage and, in his componence, it must have two independent calculation units (UC1) and (UC2). Based on these two input sets (Σi1) and ((Σi2), the calculation unit (UC1) builds the general operation procedure based on mathematical methods. For that purpose, there are used the results of the 5 mathematical methods: the mathematical model to write-off the function objective (M.F.O.); the mathematical model of calculating the charge (M.C.C.); the mathematical model of conducting the effective melt (M.C.M.); the mathematical model of reheating the charge (M.R.C.); the mathematical model of blasting the reactive dusts (M.B.R.D.).

  10. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed which has a composite cladding having a substrate, a metal barrier metallurgically bonded to the inside surface of the substrate and an inner layer metallurgically bonded to the inside surface of the metal barrier. In this composite cladding, the inner layer and the metal barrier shield the substrate from any impurities or fission products from the nuclear fuel material held within the composite cladding. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 4 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of a metal selected from the group consisting of niobium, aluminum, copper, nickel, stainless steel, and iron. The inner layer and then the metal barrier serve as reaction sites for volatile impurities and fission products and protect the substrate from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The substrate and the inner layer of the composite cladding are selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably are a zirconium alloy. Also in a preferred embodiment the substrate and the inner layer are comprised of the same material, preferably a zirconium alloy. 19 claims, 2 figures

  11. Neutron absorbing element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Shigeo.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a neutron absorbing element of a neutron shielding member used for an LMFBR type reactor. The inside of a fuel can sealed at both of the upper and the lower ends thereof with plugs is partitioned into an upper and a lower chambers by an intermediate plug. A discharging hole is disposed at the upper end plug, which is in communication with the outside. A communication tube is disposed at the intermediate end plug and it is in communication with the lower chamber containing B 4 C pellets. A cylindrical support member having three porous plugs connected in series is disposed at the lower surface of the discharging hole provided at the upper end plug. Further, the end of the discharging hole is sealed with high temperature solder and He atmosphere is present at the inside of the fuel can. With such a constitution, the supporting differential pressure of the porous plugs can be made greater while discharging He gases generated from B 4 C to the outside. Further, the porous plugs can be surely wetted by coolants. Accordingly, it is possible to increase life time and shorten the size. (I.N.)

  12. Chemistry of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The half-wave amalgamation potential of No (element 102) was determined. Studies on the preparation and properties of Cf are reported; previously reported results on Es were confirmed. The heat of solution of Bk was measured. Spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction studies of Es-253 bromides are reported. Salicylate complexes with Sm(III), Am(III), Th(IV), and U(IV)O 2 were prepared; crystal data are given. Results of studies on the effect of secondary bonds on the strength of O double bond Np double bond O bonds are reported. The M series x rays of Np were measured. Anomalous spin--orbit splitting of the 4f level in the actinide series is reported. Progress is reported in studies on the Cf oxide system for oxygen pressures up to 760 mm and temperatures between 25 and 1000 0 C, as well as structural parameters of transplutonium oxysulfates and oxysulfides and actinide and lanthanide hydroxides. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of 253 Es 2+ was observed in the cubic monocrystal hosts BaF 2 and SrCl 2

  13. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Bernot

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO 2 as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with 231 Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise

  14. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or

  15. Experimental Study of Elements Promoting Mixing in Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, Nicolas; Juanico, Luis; Delmastro, Dario

    2003-01-01

    In the present work a thermal tracing technique is used to measure the increase of the mixing between subchannels in the presence of different mixing elements.As representative elements a spacer, a spacer with mixing vanes and turbulence promoter buttons were considered.The performance of these elements was evaluated by studying the behavior of a thermal trace in each case.Also the pressure drop for each case is presented.The results present a qualitative and quantitative guide for the application of each one of these appendages in future nuclear elements

  16. The Important Elements of a Science Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, D. A.; Moorman, M.; McMahon, G.

    2012-12-01

    New technologies have revolutionized use of video as a means of communication. Films have become easier to create and to distribute. Video is omnipresent in our culture and supplements or even replaces writing in many applications. How can scientists and educators best use video to communicate scientific results? Video podcasts are being used in addition to journal, print, and online publications to communicate the relevance of scientific findings of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program to general audiences such as resource managers, educational groups, public officials, and the general public. In an effort to improve the production of science videos a survey was developed to provide insight into effective science communication with video. Viewers of USGS podcast videos were surveyed using Likert response- scaling to identify the important elements of science videos. The surveys were of 120 scientists and educators attending the 2010 and 2011 Fall Meetings of the American Geophysical Union and the 2012 meeting of the National Monitoring Council. The median age of the respondents was 44 years, with an education level of a Bachelor's Degree or higher. Respondents reported that their primary sources for watching science videos were YouTube and science websites. Video length was the single most important element associated with reaching the greatest number of viewers. The surveys indicated a median length of 5 minutes as appropriate for a web video, with 5-7 minutes the 25th-75th percentiles. An illustration of the effect of length: a 5-minute and a 20-minute version of a USGS film on the effect of urbanization on water-quality was made available on the same website. The short film has been downloaded 3 times more frequently than the longer film version. The survey showed that the most important elements to include in a science film are style elements including strong visuals, an engaging story, and a simple message, and

  17. SHORT COMMUNICATION SYNTHESIS AND CRYSTAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The title compound 1-[2-(3-ethyl-2,2-dimethylcyclobutyl)acetyl]-3-phenylthiourea has been synthesized and ... residue was added dropwise to the mixture of KSCN (3.0 g, 0.030 mol) and acetonitrile (30. mL). .... 111. Note. Elements of symmetry transformation: a 1-x, -y, 1-z;b intermolecular hydrogen bond; c intramolecular.

  18. Analog elements for transuranic chemistries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The analytical technique for measuring trace concentrations of the analog rare earth elements has been refined for optimal detection. The technique has been used to determine the rare earth concentrations in a series of geological and biological materials, including samples harvested from controlled lysimeter investigations. These studies have demonstrated that any of the trivalent rare earth elements may be used as analog elements for the trivalent transuranics, americium and curium

  19. Short-term flow induced crystallization in isotactic polypropylene : how short is short?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Z.; Balzano, L.; Portale, G.; Peters, G.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The so-called "short-term flow" protocol is widely applied in experimental flow-induced crystallization studies on polymers in order to separate the nucleation and subsequent growth processes [Liedauer et al. Int. Polym. Proc. 1993, 8, 236–244]. The basis of this protocol is the assumption that

  20. Photoshop Elements 10 For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Obermeier, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Perfect your photos and images with this "focused" guide to the latest version of Photoshop Elements For most of us, the professional-level Photoshop is overkill for our needs. Amateur photographers and photo enthusiasts turn to Photoshop Elements for a powerful but simpler way to edit and retouch their snapshots. Photoshop Elements 10 For Dummies, fully updated and revised for the latest release of this software product, helps you navigate Elements to create, edit, fix, share, and organize the high-quality images you desire. Full color pages bring the techniques to life and make taking great

  1. Sorting signed permutations by short operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Gustavo Rodrigues; Lee, Orlando; Dias, Zanoni

    2015-01-01

    During evolution, global mutations may alter the order and the orientation of the genes in a genome. Such mutations are referred to as rearrangement events, or simply operations. In unichromosomal genomes, the most common operations are reversals, which are responsible for reversing the order and orientation of a sequence of genes, and transpositions, which are responsible for switching the location of two contiguous portions of a genome. The problem of computing the minimum sequence of operations that transforms one genome into another - which is equivalent to the problem of sorting a permutation into the identity permutation - is a well-studied problem that finds application in comparative genomics. There are a number of works concerning this problem in the literature, but they generally do not take into account the length of the operations (i.e. the number of genes affected by the operations). Since it has been observed that short operations are prevalent in the evolution of some species, algorithms that efficiently solve this problem in the special case of short operations are of interest. In this paper, we investigate the problem of sorting a signed permutation by short operations. More precisely, we study four flavors of this problem: (i) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals of length at most 2; (ii) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals of length at most 3; (iii) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals and transpositions of length at most 2; and (iv) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals and transpositions of length at most 3. We present polynomial-time solutions for problems (i) and (iii), a 5-approximation for problem (ii), and a 3-approximation for problem (iv). Moreover, we show that the expected approximation ratio of the 5-approximation algorithm is not greater than 3 for random signed permutations with more than 12 elements. Finally, we present experimental results that show

  2. Review of short wavelength lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references

  3. Optimal short-sighted rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha eBourgeois-Gironde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the relevance of methodological transfers from behavioral ecology to experimental economics with respect to the elicitation of intertemporal preferences. More precisely our discussion will stem from the analysis of Stephens and Anderson’s (2001 seminal article. In their study with blue jays they document that foraging behavior typically implements short sighted choice rules which are beneficial in the long-run. Such long term profitability of short-sighted behavior cannot be evidenced when using a self-control paradigm (one which contrasts in a binary way sooner smaller and later larger payoffs but becomes apparent when ecological patch-paradigms (replicating economic situations in which the main trade-off consists in staying on a food patch or leaving for another patch are implemented. We transfer this methodology in view of contrasting foraging strategies and self-control in human intertemporal choices.

  4. Review of short wavelength lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1985-03-18

    There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references.

  5. Statistical inference a short course

    CERN Document Server

    Panik, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    A concise, easily accessible introduction to descriptive and inferential techniques Statistical Inference: A Short Course offers a concise presentation of the essentials of basic statistics for readers seeking to acquire a working knowledge of statistical concepts, measures, and procedures. The author conducts tests on the assumption of randomness and normality, provides nonparametric methods when parametric approaches might not work. The book also explores how to determine a confidence interval for a population median while also providing coverage of ratio estimation, randomness, and causal

  6. Short-range communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  7. An Analysis on Effects of Story Mapping in Writing Short Stories in EFL Classes, Iraqi Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Bala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is investigated that how much story map graphic organizers contribute to foster writing short stories. Eighteen EFL students from foundation year were randomly chosen and provided eight writing courses. First, the writing teacher provided a topic to the students for each course, and asked them to write three short stories about given topics. In the following two lessons, the instructor introduced graphic organizers and taught the elements of short story to the students. Later, they were given another three topics for the following three courses to create short stories using story map graphic organizers created by writing teacher. Then, the researcher selected two of their first and second pieces randomly and developed a scale to assess the students’ first and second products. The results were classified by including story elements.in two tables as percentage.

  8. Rare-earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Long, Keith R.; Gambogi, Joseph; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    The rare-earth elements (REEs) are 15 elements that range in atomic number from 57 (lanthanum) to 71 (lutetium); they are commonly referred to as the “lanthanides.” Yttrium (atomic number 39) is also commonly regarded as an REE because it shares chemical and physical similarities and has affinities with the lanthanides. Although REEs are not rare in terms of average crustal abundance, the concentrated deposits of REEs are limited in number.Because of their unusual physical and chemical properties, the REEs have diverse defense, energy, industrial, and military technology applications. The glass industry is the leading consumer of REE raw materials, which are used for glass polishing and as additives that provide color and special optical properties to the glass. Lanthanum-based catalysts are used in petroleum refining, and cerium-based catalysts are used in automotive catalytic converters. The use of REEs in magnets is a rapidly increasing application. Neodymium-iron-boron magnets, which are the strongest known type of magnets, are used when space and weight are restrictions. Nickel-metal hydride batteries use anodes made of a lanthanum-based alloys.China, which has led the world production of REEs for decades, accounted for more than 90 percent of global production and supply, on average, during the past decade. Citing a need to retain its limited REE resources to meet domestic requirements as well as concerns about the environmental effects of mining, China began placing restrictions on the supply of REEs in 2010 through the imposition of quotas, licenses, and taxes. As a result, the global rare-earth industry has increased its stockpiling of REEs; explored for deposits outside of China; and promoted new efforts to conserve, recycle, and substitute for REEs. New mine production began at Mount Weld in Western Australia, and numerous other exploration and development projects noted in this chapter are ongoing throughout the world.The REE-bearing minerals are

  9. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Reis Milagres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

  10. Rack for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, H.J.; Gordon, C.B.; Robison, A.; Clark, P.M.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements in which a plurality of aligned rows of upright enclosures of generally square cross-sectional areas contain vertically disposed spent fuel elements. Each fuel element is supported at the lower end thereof by a respective support that rests on the floor of the spent fuel pool for a nuclear power plant. An open rack frame is employed as an upright support for the enclosures containing the spent fuel elements. Legs at the lower corners of the frame rest on the floor of the pool to support the frame. In one exemplary embodiment, the support for the fuel element is in the form of a base on which a fuel element rests and the base is supported by legs. In another exemplary embodiment, each fuel element is supported on the pool floor by a self-adjusting support in the form of a base on which a fuel element rests and the base rests on a ball or swivel joint for self-alignment. The lower four corners of the frame are supported by legs adjustable in height for leveling the frame. Each adjustable frame leg is in the form of a base resting on the pool floor and the base supports a threaded post. The threaded post adjustably engages a threaded column on which rests the lower end of the frame. 16 claims, 14 figures

  11. Thermal insulation of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovcak, P.; Pec, V.; Pitonak, J.

    1978-01-01

    The claim of the invention concerns thermal insulation of fuel elements heated for measurement of uranium fuel physical properties. For this, layers of aluminium film and of glass fibre are wound onto the inner tube of the element cladding. The space between the inner and the outer tubes is evacuated and the tubes are spaced using spacer wires. (M.S.)

  12. On symmetric pyramidal finite elements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, L.; Davies, K. B.; Yuan, K.; Křížek, Michal

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, 1-2 (2004), s. 213-227 ISSN 1492-8760 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : mesh generation * finite element method * composite elements Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.108, year: 2004

  13. Fluid element in SAP IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, C.; Akkas, N.

    1979-01-01

    In previous studies a fluid element is incorporated in the widely used general purpose finite element program SAPIV. This type of problem is of interest in the design of nuclear components involving geometric complexities and nonlinearities. The elasticity matrix of a general-purpose finite element program is modified in such a way that it becomes possible to idealize fluid as a structural finite element with zero shear modulus and a given bulk modules. Using the modified version of SAPIV, several solid-fluid interactions problems are solved. The numerical solutions are compared with the available analytical solutions. They are shown to be in reasonable aggrement. It is also shown that by solving an exterior-fluid interaction problem, the pressure wave propagation in the acoustic medium can be solved with the same approach. In this study, two of the problem not studied in the previous work will be presented. These problems are namely the effects of the link elements used at solid-fluid interfaces and of the concentrated loads on the response of the fluid medium. Truss elements are used as the link elements. After these investigations, it is decided that general purpose finite element programs with slight modifications can be used in the safety analysis of nuclear reactor plants. By this procedure it is possible to handle two-dimensional plane strain and tridimensional axisymmetric problems of this type. (orig.)

  14. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  15. ESOL facility for the generation and radiochemical separation of short half-life fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Baker, J.D.; Anderl, R.A.; Novick, V.J.; Greenwood, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    A facility has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the generation and rapid radiochemical separation of short half-life mixed fission products. This facility, referred to as the Idaho Elemental Separation On Line (ESOL), consists of electro-plated sources of spontaneously fissioning 252 Cf with a helium jet transport arrangement to continuously deliver short half-life, mixed fission products to the radiochemistry laboratory for rapid, computer controlled, radiochemical separations. 18 refs., 13 figs

  16. How high is visual short-term memory capacity for object layout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanocki, Thomas; Sellers, Eric; Mittelstadt, Jeff; Sulman, Noah

    2010-05-01

    Previous research measuring visual short-term memory (VSTM) suggests that the capacity for representing the layout of objects is fairly high. In four experiments, we further explored the capacity of VSTM for layout of objects, using the change detection method. In Experiment 1, participants retained most of the elements in displays of 4 to 8 elements. In Experiments 2 and 3, with up to 20 elements, participants retained many of them, reaching a capacity of 13.4 stimulus elements. In Experiment 4, participants retained much of a complex naturalistic scene. In most cases, increasing display size caused only modest reductions in performance, consistent with the idea of configural, variable-resolution grouping. The results indicate that participants can retain a substantial amount of scene layout information (objects and locations) in short-term memory. We propose that this is a case of remote visual understanding, where observers' ability to integrate information from a scene is paramount.

  17. The effect of short-range spatial variability on soil sampling uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perk, Marcel van der [Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.vanderperk@geo.uu.nl; De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Laboratori, Misure ed Attivita di Campo, Via di Castel Romano, 100-00128 Roma (Italy); Fajgelj, Ales; Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Jeran, Zvonka; Jacimovic, Radojko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-11-15

    This paper aims to quantify the soil sampling uncertainty arising from the short-range spatial variability of elemental concentrations in the topsoils of agricultural, semi-natural, and contaminated environments. For the agricultural site, the relative standard sampling uncertainty ranges between 1% and 5.5%. For the semi-natural area, the sampling uncertainties are 2-4 times larger than in the agricultural area. The contaminated site exhibited significant short-range spatial variability in elemental composition, which resulted in sampling uncertainties of 20-30%.

  18. The effect of short-range spatial variability on soil sampling uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Perk, Marcel; de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Sansone, Umberto; Jeran, Zvonka; Jaćimović, Radojko

    2008-11-01

    This paper aims to quantify the soil sampling uncertainty arising from the short-range spatial variability of elemental concentrations in the topsoils of agricultural, semi-natural, and contaminated environments. For the agricultural site, the relative standard sampling uncertainty ranges between 1% and 5.5%. For the semi-natural area, the sampling uncertainties are 2-4 times larger than in the agricultural area. The contaminated site exhibited significant short-range spatial variability in elemental composition, which resulted in sampling uncertainties of 20-30%.

  19. Preferred Hosts for Short-Period Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to learn more about how planets form around their host stars, a team of scientists has analyzed the population of Kepler-discovered exoplanet candidates, looking for trends in where theyre found.Planetary OccurrenceSince its launch in 2009, Kepler has found thousands of candidate exoplanets around a variety of star types. Especially intriguing is the large population of super-Earths and mini-Neptunes planets with masses between that of Earth and Neptune that have short orbital periods. How did they come to exist so close to their host star? Did they form in situ, or migrate inwards, or some combination of both processes?To constrain these formation mechanisms, a team of scientists led by Gijs Mulders (University of Arizona and NASAs NExSS coalition) analyzed the population of Kepler planet candidates that have orbital periods between 2 and 50 days.Mulders and collaborators used statistical reconstructions to find the average number of planets, within this orbital range, around each star in the Kepler field. They then determined how this planet occurrence rate changed for different spectral types and therefore the masses of the host stars: do low-mass M-dwarf stars host more or fewer planets than higher-mass, main-sequence F, G, or K stars?Challenging ModelsAuthors estimates for the occurrence rate for short-period planets of different radii around M-dwarfs (purple) and around F, G, and K-type stars (blue). [Mulders et al. 2015]The team found that M dwarfs, compared to F, G, or K stars, host about half as many large planets with orbital periods of P 50 days. But, surprisingly, they host significantly more small planets, racking up an average of 3.5 times the number of planets in the size range of 12.8 Earth-radii.Could it be that M dwarfs have a lower total mass of planets, but that mass is distributed into more, smaller planets? Apparently not: the authors show that the mass of heavy elements trapped in short-orbital-period planets is higher for M

  20. Trace elements in human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, R M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Life Sciences

    1983-06-01

    Trace elements are those elements having a concentration lower than 10 ppm in body fluids or tissues. A total of 24 elements, both trace and minor elements, present in human milk have been analysed in this study, employing neutron activation analysis and absorption spectroscopy. The analyses have been carried out collaboratively by several different laboratories and the Agency which has also served as a coordinating centre. Although the evaluation of the results, altogether 8500 separate values, is still in progress, enough evidence is already available, however, to show some very interesting differences between different study areas and, in some cases, between different socio-economic groups within a single country. The main value of these data will probably be to throw new light on the nutritional requirements of young babies for trace elements.

  1. Massively Parallel Finite Element Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Heister, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Today\\'s large finite element simulations require parallel algorithms to scale on clusters with thousands or tens of thousands of processor cores. We present data structures and algorithms to take advantage of the power of high performance computers in generic finite element codes. Existing generic finite element libraries often restrict the parallelization to parallel linear algebra routines. This is a limiting factor when solving on more than a few hundreds of cores. We describe routines for distributed storage of all major components coupled with efficient, scalable algorithms. We give an overview of our effort to enable the modern and generic finite element library deal.II to take advantage of the power of large clusters. In particular, we describe the construction of a distributed mesh and develop algorithms to fully parallelize the finite element calculation. Numerical results demonstrate good scalability. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Massively Parallel Finite Element Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Heister, Timo; Kronbichler, Martin; Bangerth, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Today's large finite element simulations require parallel algorithms to scale on clusters with thousands or tens of thousands of processor cores. We present data structures and algorithms to take advantage of the power of high performance computers in generic finite element codes. Existing generic finite element libraries often restrict the parallelization to parallel linear algebra routines. This is a limiting factor when solving on more than a few hundreds of cores. We describe routines for distributed storage of all major components coupled with efficient, scalable algorithms. We give an overview of our effort to enable the modern and generic finite element library deal.II to take advantage of the power of large clusters. In particular, we describe the construction of a distributed mesh and develop algorithms to fully parallelize the finite element calculation. Numerical results demonstrate good scalability. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Searching for a possible fuel element leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, B.; Johnson, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    A gamma spectrum analysis of a filter paper from an Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor (OSTR) continuous air monitor (CAM) which routinely monitors the air directly over the reactor tank revealed just-detectable levels of several short-lived particulate fission products typically associated with a fuel cladding failure. This prompted an intensive.search to determine the origin of these radionuclides. A number of methods were used, including a fuel element rotation program designed to ultimately remove all of the fuel elements from the core in groups of three, and a scheme to selectively sample bubbles from different parts of the core during operation. Determination of the source was made very difficult by the fact that its presence was erratic in nature and because radioactivity levels found on filter papers were on the border of detectability even when the reactor was operated at the maximum allowable power level of 1MW. The origin and source of the fission product activity was not found, no other abnormality was identified and the reactor was therefore returned to normal operation. In addition to continuing the routine operation of the reactor-top CAM, further surveillance designed to detect a positive reappearance of the source was also implemented and currently involves a complete gamma spectrum analysis of a CAM filter paper each week after a standard (controlled) 3 hour reactor run at 1 MW. (author)

  4. Trace element distribution in the rat cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Long, G.J.; Pounds, J.G.; Reuhl, K.R.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.

    1989-10-01

    Spatial distributions and concentrations of trace elements (TE) in the brain are important because TE perform catalytic structural functions in enzymes which regulate brain function and development. We have investigated the distributions of TE in rat cerebellum. Structures were sectioned and analyzed by the Synchrotron Radiation Induced X-ray Emission (SRIXE) method using the NSLS X-26 white-light microprobe facility. Advantages important for TE analysis of biological specimens with x-ray microscopy include short time of measurement, high brightness and flux, good spatial resolution, multielemental detection, good sensitivity, and non-destructive irradiation. Trace elements were measured in thin rat brain sections of 20-micrometers thickness. The analyses were performed on sample volumes as small as 0.2 nl with Minimum Detectable Limits (MDL) of 50 ppb wet weight for Fe, 100 ppb wet weight for Cu, and Zn, and 1 ppM wet weight for Pb. The distribution of TE in the molecular cell layer, granule cell layer and fiber tract of rat cerebella was investigated. Both point analyses and two-dimensional semi-quantitative mapping of the TE distribution in a section were used

  5. Apparatus including a plurality of spaced transformers for locating short circuits in cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, R. L.; Mcstay, J. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A cable fault locator is described for sensing faults such as short circuits in power cables. The apparatus includes a plurality of current transformers strategically located along a cable. Trigger circuits are connected to each of the current transformers for placing a resistor in series with a resistive element responsive to an abnormally high current flowing through that portion of the cable. By measuring the voltage drop across the resistive element, the location of the fault can be determined.

  6. Platinum-group elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Loferski, Patricia J.; Parks, Heather L.; Schulte, Ruth F.; Seal, Robert R.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    The platinum-group elements (PGEs)—platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium—are metals that have similar physical and chemical properties and tend to occur together in nature. PGEs are indispensable to many industrial applications but are mined in only a few places. The availability and accessibility of PGEs could be disrupted by economic, environmental, political, and social events. The United States net import reliance as a percentage of apparent consumption is about 90 percent.PGEs have many industrial applications. They are used in catalytic converters to reduce carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nitrous oxide emissions in automobile exhaust. The chemical industry requires platinum or platinum-rhodium alloys to manufacture nitric oxide, which is the raw material used to manufacture explosives, fertilizers, and nitric acid. In the petrochemical industry, platinum-supported catalysts are needed to refine crude oil and to produce aromatic compounds and high-octane gasoline. Alloys of PGEs are exceptionally hard and durable, making them the best known coating for industrial crucibles used in the manufacture of chemicals and synthetic materials. PGEs are used by the glass manufacturing industry in the production of fiberglass and flat-panel and liquid crystal displays. In the electronics industry, PGEs are used in computer hard disks, hybridized integrated circuits, and multilayer ceramic capacitors.Aside from their industrial applications, PGEs are used in such other fields as health, consumer goods, and finance. Platinum, for example, is used in medical implants, such as pacemakers, and PGEs are used in cancer-fighting drugs. Platinum alloys are an ideal choice for jewelry because of their white color, strength, and resistance to tarnish. Platinum, palladium, and rhodium in the form of coins and bars are also used as investment commodities, and various financial instruments based on the value of these PGEs are traded on major exchanges

  7. Short Stature Diagnosis and Referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Maghnie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The “360° GH in Europe” meeting, which examined various aspects of GH diseases, was held in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 2016. The Merck KGaA (Germany funded meeting comprised three sessions entitled “Short Stature Diagnosis and Referral,” “Optimizing Patient Management,” and “Managing Transition.” Each session had three speaker presentations, followed by a discussion period, and is reported as a manuscript, authored by the speakers. The first session examined current processes of diagnosis and referral by endocrine specialists for pediatric patients with short stature. Requirements for referral vary widely, by country and by patient characteristics such as age. A balance must be made to ensure eligible patients get referred while healthcare systems are not over-burdened by excessive referrals. Late referral and diagnosis of non-GH deficiency conditions can result in increased morbidity and mortality. The consequent delays in making a diagnosis may compromise the effectiveness of GH treatment. Algorithms for growth monitoring and evaluation of skeletal disproportions can improve identification of non-GH deficiency conditions. Performance and validation of guidelines for diagnosis of GH deficiency have not been sufficiently tested. Provocative tests for investigation of GH deficiency remain equivocal, with insufficient information on variations due to patient characteristics, and cutoff values for definition differ not only by country but also by the assay used. When referring and diagnosing causes of short stature in pediatric patients, clinicians need to rely on many factors, but the most essential is clinical experience.

  8. Relativity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Stannard, F Russell

    2008-01-01

    Relativity: A Very Short Introduction makes the theory of relativity understandable and accessible. 100 years ago, Einstein's theory of relativity shattered the world of physics. Our comforting Newtonian ideas of space and time were replaced by bizarre and counterintuitive conclusions: if you move at high speed, time slows down, space squashes up and you get heavier; travel fast enough and you could weigh as much as a jumbo jet, be squashed thinner than a CD without feeling a thing - and live forever. And that was just the special theory. With the general theory came even stranger ideas of curved space-time, which changed our understanding of gravity and the cosmos.

  9. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  10. Nothing a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Frank

    2009-01-01

    What is 'nothing'? What remains when you take all the matter away? Can empty space - a void - exist? This Very Short Introduction explores the science and the history of the elusive void: from Aristotle who insisted that the vacuum was impossible, via the theories of Newton and Einstein, to our very latest discoveries and why they can tell us extraordinary things about the cosmos. Frank Close tells the story of how scientists have explored the elusive void, and the rich discoveries that they have made there. He takes the reader on a lively and accessible history through ancient ideas and cultural superstitions to the frontiers of current research

  11. Superconductivity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Superconductivity is one of the most exciting areas of research in physics today. Outlining the history of its discovery, and the race to understand its many mysterious and counter-intuitive phenomena, this Very Short Introduction explains in accessible terms the theories that have been developed, and how they have influenced other areas of science, including the Higgs boson of particle physics and ideas about the early Universe. It is an engaging and informative accountof a fascinating scientific detective story, and an intelligible insight into some deep and beautiful ideas of physics

  12. Planets a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rothery, David A

    2010-01-01

    Planets: A Very Short Introduction demonstrates the excitement, uncertainties, and challenges faced by planetary scientists, and provides an overview of our Solar System and its origins, nature, and evolution. Terrestrial planets, giant planets, dwarf planets and various other objects such as satellites (moons), asteroids, trans-Neptunian objects, and exoplanets are discussed. Our knowledge about planets has advanced over the centuries, and has expanded at a rapidly growing rate in recent years. Controversial issues are outlined, such as What qualifies as a planet? What conditions are required for a planetary body to be potentially inhabited by life? Why does Pluto no longer have planet status? And Is there life on other planets?

  13. Radioactivity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tuniz, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity: A Very Short Introduction explains radioactivity and discusses its fundamental role in nature. Radioactivity remains misunderstood and feared perhaps because nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses, and can undoubtedly do great harm if appropriate precautions are not taken. Radioactivity in the stars and in the Earth and its wide range of applications in biomedicine, science, industry, agriculture are described, as well as the mechanisms of nuclear fission and fusion, and the harnessing of nuclear power. The issues surrounding safety and security and the increasing concerns about nuclear terrorism are also considered.

  14. Short recovery time NMR probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramia, M.E.; Martin, C.A.; Jeandrevin, S.

    2011-01-01

    A NMR probe for low frequency and short recovery time is presented in this work. The probe contains the tuning circuit, diode expanders and quarter wavelength networks to protect the receiver from both the amplifier noise and the coil ringing following the transmitter power pulse. It also possesses a coil damper which is activated by of non active components. The probe performance shows a recovery time of about of 15μs a sensitive Q factor reduction and an increase of the signal to noise ratio of about 68% during the reception at a work frequency of 2 MHz. (author)

  15. Moons a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rothery, David A

    2015-01-01

    Moons: A Very Short Introduction introduces the reader to the varied and fascinating moons of our Solar System. Beginning with the early discoveries of Galileo and others, it describes their variety of mostly mythological names, and the early use of Jupiter’s moons to establish position at sea and to estimate the speed of light. It discusses the structure, formation, and profound influence of our Moon, those of the other planets, and ends with the recent discovery of moons orbiting asteroids, whilst looking forward to the possibility of discovering microbial life beyond Earth and of finding moons of exoplanets in planetary systems far beyond our own.

  16. Magnetism a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Magnetism: A Very Short Introduction explains the mysteries and importance of magnetism. For centuries magnetism has been used for various exploits: as a great healer, a navigation aid through compasses, and through motors, generators, and turbines it has given us power. Our understanding of electricity and magnetism, from the work of Galvani, Ampère, Faraday, and Tesla is explored, and how Maxwell and Faraday's work led to the unification of electricity and magnetism is explained. With a discussion of the relationship between magnetism and relativity, quantum magnetism, and its impact on computers and information storage, how magnetism has changed our fundamental understanding of the Universe is shown.

  17. [Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy - short form of the German guideline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, O; Burchert, W; Hacker, M; Schaefer, W; Schmidt, M; Schober, O; Schwaiger, M; vom Dahl, J; Zimmermann, R; Schäfers, M

    2013-01-01

    This guideline is a short summary of the guideline for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy published by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Ger-many (AWMF). The purpose of this guideline is to provide practical assistance for indication and examination procedures as well as image analysis and to present the state-of-the-art of myocardial-perfusion-scintigraphy. After a short introduction on the fundamentals of imaging, precise and detailed information is given on the indications, patient preparation, stress testing, radiopharmaceuticals, examination protocols and techniques, radiation exposure, data reconstruction as well as information on visual and quantitative image analysis and interpretation. In addition possible pitfalls, artefacts and key elements of reporting are described.

  18. A Secure and Efficient Certificateless Short Signature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cheng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Certificateless public key cryptography combines advantage of traditional public key cryptography and identity-based public key cryptography as it avoids usage of certificates and resolves the key escrow problem. In 2007, Huang et al. classified adversaries against certificateless signatures according to their attack power into normal, strong and super adversaries (ordered by their attack power. In this paper, we propose a new certificateless short signature scheme and prove that it is secure against both of the super type I and the super type II adversaries. Our new scheme not only achieves the strongest security level but also has the shortest signature length (one group element. Compared with the other short certificateless signature schemes which have a similar security level, our new scheme has less operation cost.

  19. Quasifission Dynamics in the Formation of Superheavy Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinde D.J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Superheavy elements are created through the fusion of two heavy nuclei. The large Coulomb energy that makes superheavy elements unstable also makes fusion forming a compact compound nucleus very unlikely. Instead, after sticking together for a short time, the two nuclei usually come apart, in a process called quasifission. Mass-angle distributions give the most direct information on the characteristics and time scales of quasifission. A systematic study of carefully chosen mass-angle distributions has provided information on the global trends of quasifission. Large deviations from these systematics at beam energies near the capture barrier reveal the major role played by the nuclear structure of the two colliding nuclei in determining the reaction outcome, and thus implicitly in hindering or favouring superheavy element synthesis.

  20. Quasifission in heavy and superheavy element formation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinde, D.J.; Dasgupta, M.; Jeung, D.Y.; Mohanto, G.; Prasad, E.; Simenel, C.; Walshe, J.; Wahkle, A.; Williams, E.; Carter, I.P.; Cook, K.J.; Kalkal, Sunil; Rafferty, D.C.; Rietz, R. du; Simpson, E.C.; David, H.M.; Düllmann, Ch.E.; Khuyagbaatar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Superheavy elements are created in the laboratory by the fusion of two heavy nuclei. The large Coulomb repulsion that makes superheavy elements decay also makes the fusion process that forms them very unlikely. Instead, after sticking together for a short time, the two nuclei usually come apart, in a process called quasifission. Mass-angle distributions give the most direct information on the characteristics and time scales of quasifission. A systematic study of carefully chosen mass-angle distributions has provided information on the global trends of quasifission. Large deviations from these systematics reveal the major role played by the nuclear structure of the two colliding nuclei in determining the reaction outcome, and thus implicitly in hindering or favouring superheavy element production.

  1. Wet deposition flux of trace elements to the Adirondack region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.; Keskin, S.S.; Gullu, G.; Olmez, I.

    2001-01-01

    Wet deposition samples from two locations in the Adirondack region of New York were analyzed for trace elemental composition by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Annual fluxes of the measured species were determined by precipitation-weighted and linear-regression methods. Despite several episodes of high deposition fluxes, the cumulative areal wet deposition of trace elements increased fairly linearly (r 2 > 0.9) over the two year sampling period at both sites. This implies that short duration sampling programs may be used to estimate long-term fluxes and cumulative wet deposition impacts. Based on the magnitude of their fluxes, the measured species have been divided into four groups: acidic anions, electroneutral balancing cations, and minor and trace elements of anthropogenic origin. (author)

  2. Complete genome analysis of three Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates in China for insight into the diversification of drug resistance elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingxiang; Yan, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Zhaojun; Zhou, Qiming; Zhou, Jinchun; Wakeland, Edward K; Fang, Xiangdong; Xuan, Zhenyu; Shen, Dingxia; Li, Quan-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    The emergence and rapid spreading of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains has become a major health threat worldwide. To better understand the genetic recombination related with the acquisition of drug-resistant elements during bacterial infection, we performed complete genome analysis on three newly isolated multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains from Beijing using next-generation sequencing technology. Whole genome comparison revealed that all 3 strains share some common drug resistant elements including carbapenem-resistant bla OXA-23 and tetracycline (tet) resistance islands, but the genome structures are diversified among strains. Various genomic islands intersperse on the genome with transposons and insertions, reflecting the recombination flexibility during the acquisition of the resistant elements. The blood-isolated BJAB07104 and ascites-isolated BJAB0868 exhibit high similarity on their genome structure with most of the global clone II strains, suggesting these two strains belong to the dominant outbreak strains prevalent worldwide. A large resistance island (RI) of about 121-kb, carrying a cluster of resistance-related genes, was inserted into the ATPase gene on BJAB07104 and BJAB0868 genomes. A 78-kb insertion element carrying tra-locus and bla OXA-23 island, can be either inserted into one of the tniB gene in the 121-kb RI on the chromosome, or transformed to conjugative plasmid in the two BJAB strains. The third strains of this study, BJAB0715, which was isolated from spinal fluid, exhibit much more divergence compared with above two strains. It harbors multiple drug-resistance elements including a truncated AbaR-22-like RI on its genome. One of the unique features of this strain is that it carries both bla OXA-23 and bla OXA-58 genes on its genome. Besides, an Acinetobacter lwoffii adeABC efflux element was found inserted into the ATPase position in BJAB0715. Our comparative analysis on currently completed Acinetobacter baumannii

  3. Complete genome analysis of three Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates in China for insight into the diversification of drug resistance elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxiang Zhu

    Full Text Available The emergence and rapid spreading of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains has become a major health threat worldwide. To better understand the genetic recombination related with the acquisition of drug-resistant elements during bacterial infection, we performed complete genome analysis on three newly isolated multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains from Beijing using next-generation sequencing technology.Whole genome comparison revealed that all 3 strains share some common drug resistant elements including carbapenem-resistant bla OXA-23 and tetracycline (tet resistance islands, but the genome structures are diversified among strains. Various genomic islands intersperse on the genome with transposons and insertions, reflecting the recombination flexibility during the acquisition of the resistant elements. The blood-isolated BJAB07104 and ascites-isolated BJAB0868 exhibit high similarity on their genome structure with most of the global clone II strains, suggesting these two strains belong to the dominant outbreak strains prevalent worldwide. A large resistance island (RI of about 121-kb, carrying a cluster of resistance-related genes, was inserted into the ATPase gene on BJAB07104 and BJAB0868 genomes. A 78-kb insertion element carrying tra-locus and bla OXA-23 island, can be either inserted into one of the tniB gene in the 121-kb RI on the chromosome, or transformed to conjugative plasmid in the two BJAB strains. The third strains of this study, BJAB0715, which was isolated from spinal fluid, exhibit much more divergence compared with above two strains. It harbors multiple drug-resistance elements including a truncated AbaR-22-like RI on its genome. One of the unique features of this strain is that it carries both bla OXA-23 and bla OXA-58 genes on its genome. Besides, an Acinetobacter lwoffii adeABC efflux element was found inserted into the ATPase position in BJAB0715.Our comparative analysis on currently completed

  4. Hydrogen in CANDU fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejnoha, R.; Manzer, A.M.; Surette, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Unirradiated and irradiated CANDU fuel cladding was tested to compare the role of stress-corrosion cracking and of hydrogen in the development of fuel defects. The results of the tests are compared with information on fuel performance in-reactor. The role of hydriding (deuteriding) from the coolant and from the fuel element inside is discussed, and the control of 'hydrogen gas' content in the element is confirmed as essential for defect-free fuel performance. Finally, implications for fuel element design are discussed. (author)

  5. Origin of the chemical elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayler, R J

    1984-05-01

    The subject is discussed in relation to the composition of initially created matter and changes which have occurred during the life history of the universe, with particular reference to our galaxy and nearby galaxies. Headings are: observations of element abundances (stars, gas clouds in our own and nearby galaxies, hot gas in galaxy clusters, the solar system); the originally created matter (Big Bang theory and early nuclear reactions); processes changing observed composition (galactic evolution; nuclear fusion reactions in stellar interiors; chemical composition of a highly evolved massive star); supernovae (production of heavy elements); chemical evolution of the galaxy; production of very heavy elements (s process, r process).

  6. Increased burnup of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlf, J.

    1983-01-01

    The specialists' group for fuel elements of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft e.V. held a meeting on ''Increased Burnup of Fuel Elements'' on 9th and 10th of November 1982 at the GKSS Research Center Geesthacht. Most papers dealt with the problems of burnup increase of fuel elements for light water reactors with respect to fuel manufacturing, power plant operation and reprocessing. Review papers were given on the burnup limits for high temperature gas cooled reactors and sodium fast breeder reactors. The meeting ended with a presentation of the technical equipment of the hot laboratory of the GKSS and the programs which are in progress there. (orig.) [de

  7. Dissociating Contents of Consciousness from Contents of Short-Term Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Staugaard, Camilla Funch

    2014-01-01

    The contents of consciousness and of short-term memory are hard to disentangle. As it seems intuitive that we represent attended objects in short-term memory and in experience, to many, it also seems intuitive to equate this content. Here we investigated memory resolution for orientation......” to a “clear experience” of a probed target. To assess memory resolution we used a Landolt-variation on the visual short-term memory (VSTM) resolution paradigm (e.g. Wilken & Ma, 2004). Set-sizes in the memory display were varied between 1, 2, or 4 elements. With increasing set-size we found that both...

  8. On self-heating in piezoresistive microcantilevers with short piezoresistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Mohd Zahid; Cho, Chongdu, E-mail: cdcho@inha.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-Ku, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-20

    This work presents an analytical model for studying the effects of short piezoresistors on self-heating phenomena in piezoresistive microcantilevers. The model is verified using commercial finite element software for predicting the temperature profile in the 4-layer silicon dioxide cantilever with silicon piezoresistor commonly used in biosensors. The numerical analysis involved thermo-electric, thermal and surface-stress studies on the cantilever models. Results show good agreement between analytical and numerical results with average deviation about 3%. Further, the temperatures increase more rapidly with the width than the length of the piezoresistor and narrow piezoresistors are helpful in reducing resistance change due to self-heating.

  9. On self-heating in piezoresistive microcantilevers with short piezoresistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Mohd Zahid; Cho, Chongdu

    2011-01-01

    This work presents an analytical model for studying the effects of short piezoresistors on self-heating phenomena in piezoresistive microcantilevers. The model is verified using commercial finite element software for predicting the temperature profile in the 4-layer silicon dioxide cantilever with silicon piezoresistor commonly used in biosensors. The numerical analysis involved thermo-electric, thermal and surface-stress studies on the cantilever models. Results show good agreement between analytical and numerical results with average deviation about 3%. Further, the temperatures increase more rapidly with the width than the length of the piezoresistor and narrow piezoresistors are helpful in reducing resistance change due to self-heating.

  10. Construction techniques for short iron-free dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    A method was developed for economically fabricating short, wire-wound, steering magnets with maximum length, cosine-distributed, axial elements. This method utilizes multifunctional tooling to precisely flat-wind two-layer dipole halves that are subsequently reformed and encapsulated into semicylindrical form with confinement of the end turns into thin, half discs normal to the magnet axis. This paper addresses the magnet fabrication in detail, highlighting the inherent quality control features of the tooling, overall construction costs, and contemplated manufacturing enhancements

  11. Improving the Short-Circuit Reliability in IGBTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Rahimo, Munaf

    2018-01-01

    takes place during the IGBT short-circuit, whose time-varying element is the Miller capacitance, which is involved in the amplification mechanism. This hypothesis has been validated through simulations and its mitigation is possible by increasing the electric field at the emitter of the IGBT......In this paper, the oscillation mechanism limiting the ruggedness of IGBTs is investigated through both circuit and device analysis. The work presented here is based on a time-domain approach for two different IGBT cell structures (i.e., trench-gate and planar), illustrating the 2-D effects during...

  12. Capacitive effects in IGBTs limiting their reliability under short circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Rahimo, Munaf

    2017-01-01

    The short-circuit oscillation mechanism in IGBTs is investigated in this paper by the aid of semiconductor device simulation tools. A 3.3-kV IGBT cell has been used for the simulations demonstrating that a single IGBT cell is able to oscillate together with the external circuit parasitic elements....... The work presented here through both circuit and device analysis, confirms that the oscillations can be understood with focus on the device capacitive effects coming from the interaction between carrier concentration and the electric field. The paper also shows the 2-D effects during one oscillation cycle...

  13. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  14. Elemental balance in soy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Yoshida, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured the elemental concentrations of soy sauce and its actual raw materials which are used in a certain soy sauce factory. In the present measurement, we measured de-fatted soybean, wheat and salt as raw materials and soy sauce and soy sauce waste as final products. Five kinds of elements, such as Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br, were detected. We obtained elemental concentrations of them except for Mn in each materials. The measured elemental concentration in soy sauce agreed well each other with the calculated one within the experimental errors using the measured concentration in the raw materials and their weight in actual producing process. Contrary to our expectation, it was found that wheat contributes to soy sauce bromine concentration dominantly in the present case. (author)

  15. Elements of Tiny Plasma Spectrometers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to advance major elements of a miniaturized plasma spectrometer for flight on future missions. This type of instrument has been developed and successfully...

  16. Finite element computational fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    This book analyzes finite element theory as applied to computational fluid mechanics. It includes a chapter on using the heat conduction equation to expose the essence of finite element theory, including higher-order accuracy and convergence in a common knowledge framework. Another chapter generalizes the algorithm to extend application to the nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. Other chapters are concerned with the analysis of a specific fluids mechanics problem class, including theory and applications. Some of the topics covered include finite element theory for linear mechanics; potential flow; weighted residuals/galerkin finite element theory; inviscid and convection dominated flows; boundary layers; parabolic three-dimensional flows; and viscous and rotational flows

  17. Nuclear reactor fuel element assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawiec, D.M.; Bevilacqua, F.

    1974-01-01

    The fuel elements of each fuel element group are separated from each other by means of a multitude of thin, intersecting plates in the from of grid strips. Flow deflectors near the surface of the fuel elements are used in order to make the coolant flow more turbulent. They are designed as vanes and arranged at a distance on the grid strips. Each deflector vane has two arms stretching in opposite directions, each one into a neighbouring channel. In outward direction, the deflector vanes are converging. The strips with the vanes can be put on the supporting grid of the fuel elements. The vane structure can be reinforced by providing distortions in the strip material near the vanes. (DG) [de

  18. Elemental ABAREX -- a user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    ELEMENTAL ABAREX is an extended version of the spherical optical-statistical model code ABAREX, designed for the interpretation of neutron interactions with elemental targets consisting of up to ten isotopes. The contributions from each of the isotopes of the element are explicitly dealt with, and combined for comparison with the elemental observables. Calculations and statistical fitting of experimental data are considered. The code is written in FORTRAN-77 and arranged for use on the IBM-compatible personal computer (PC), but it should operate effectively on a number of other systems, particularly VAX/VMS and IBM work stations. Effort is taken to make the code user friendly. With this document a reasonably skilled individual should become fluent with the use of the code in a brief period of time

  19. The evolution of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.M.

    1978-01-01

    It is believed that only the lightest elements, hydrogen and helium, were created during the 'Big Bang' origin of the Universe and that all heavier elements were synthesized by nuclear reactions in stars, the interstellar medium and possibly in 'little bangs' in the nuclei of galaxies. The composition of the interstellar medium has evolved through enrichment by processed material shed by evolving stars and the composition of the Solar System reflects that of the interstellar medium at the time of its formation. Differentiation processes during the evolution of the Solar System and individual planets account for the different compositions of the Sun and the planets. The measurement of the abundance distribution of the elements has become a very powerful tool in the elucidation of the evolution of the Solar System, stars and the Galaxy. This review attempts to trace the formation of the elements in stars and their subsequent evolution. (author)

  20. Environmental research on actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers

  1. Electromagnetic matrix elements in baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.; Moinester, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Some simple symmetry relations between matrix elements of electromagnetic operators are investigated. The implications are discussed for experiments to study hyperon radiative transitions and polarizabilities and form factors. (orig.)

  2. Economic impact analysis of short line railroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This research project assesses the economic role and impact of short line railroads in the state of Louisiana. While relatively small in : scope, with 11 operators and approximately 500 miles of track, short line railroads play a significant role in ...

  3. Programming the finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, I M; Margetts, L

    2013-01-01

    Many students, engineers, scientists and researchers have benefited from the practical, programming-oriented style of the previous editions of Programming the Finite Element Method, learning how to develop computer programs to solve specific engineering problems using the finite element method. This new fifth edition offers timely revisions that include programs and subroutine libraries fully updated to Fortran 2003, which are freely available online, and provides updated material on advances in parallel computing, thermal stress analysis, plasticity return algorithms, convection boundary c

  4. Pipeline robots with elastic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Matuliauskas

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article constructions of the pipeline robots with elastic elements are reviewed and the scheme of new original construction is presented. The mathematical models of a robot with one-dimensional vibration exciter with two degrees of freedom were developed and the equations of movement were formed and written. The mathematical model of the pipeline robot with circular elements is formed and its motion equations are presented.

  5. ELEMENTS OF SAFETY IN PARAGLIDING

    OpenAIRE

    Janez Mekinc; Katarina Mušič

    2016-01-01

    Paragliding is an opportunity for tourism development, depending on what position the sport has place in the local community, the restrictions for paragliders and the safety components of the region. The paper explores the phenomenon of paragliding and safety elements in the Upper Soča region, one of ten best paragliding sites in the world (Placestoseeinyourlifetime, 2015). The purpose of the research is to analyse the safety elements, the development and the risk of paragliding.The goals of ...

  6. Fuel element box inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortmayer, R.M.; Pick, W.

    1985-01-01

    The invention concerns a device for inspecting the outer geometry of a long fuel element box by measuring the surface contours over its longitudinal crossection and along its length by sensors. These are kept in a sledge which can be moved along the fuel element guide in a slot guide. The measurement signals reach an evaluation device outside the longitudinal box. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Nuclear fuel elements and assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shozo; Maki, Hideo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the attainment of the uranium enrichment or gadolinia enrichment of a pellet filled in a fuel element. Constitution: The axial length of a pellet filled in a fuel element is set to predetermined sizes according to the uranium enrichment factor, gadolinia enrichment or their combination. Thus, the uranium enrichment factor or gadolinia enrichment can be identified by attaining the axial length of the pellet by using such a pellt. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Nuclear reactor fuel element splitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, D.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for removing nuclear fuel from a clad fuel element. The fuel element is power driven past laser beams which simultaneously cut the cladding lengthwise into at least two longitudinal pieces. The axially cut lengths of cladding are then separated, causing the nuclear fuel contained therein to drop into a receptacle for later disposition. The cut lengths of cladding comprise nuclear waste which is disposed of in a suitable manner. 6 claims, 10 drawing figures

  9. Phase diagrams of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of the pressure-temperature phase diagrams of the elements is presented, with graphs of the experimentally determined solid-solid phase boundaries and melting curves. Comments, including theoretical discussion, are provided for each diagram. The crystal structure of each solid phase is identified and discussed. This work is aimed at encouraging further experimental and theoretical research on phase transitions in the elements

  10. Nuclear chemistry of transactinide elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagame, Yuichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    The current status on the nuclear chemistry studies of transactinide elements is reviewed. The production of transactinides in heavy ion reactions is briefly discussed, and nuclear properties on the stability of transactinides are presented. Chemical properties of the trans-actinide elements 104, 105 and 106, and a typical experimental technique used to study these properties on an atom-at-a-time base are introduced. (author)

  11. Chemistry of the transactinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    1995-01-01

    The experimentally known chemical properties of the transactinide elements 104 and 105, and the experimental techniques used to study these properties on an atom-at-a-time base, are reviewed. The production of transactinides in heavy ion reactions and the specific aspects of chemical separations with single atoms is briefly discussed. The chemical properties of the first two transactinide elements are compared with the lighter element homologs in group 4 and 5 of the Periodic Table and with the expected behaviour obtained from most recent atomic and molecular calculations which take the increasingly strong relativistic effect into account. Elements 104 and 105 behave as transactinide elements and, in general, exhibit properties characteristic of their position in group 4 and 5 of the Periodic Table. However, surprising deviations of the chemical properties from expectations based on simple extrapolations have been observed. It is shown that the chemical properties of the heaviest elements cannot reliably be predicted by simple extrapolations. Prospects to extend our chemical knowledge at the top end of the Periodic Table are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Short Pulse Laser Applications Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Town, R.J.; Clark, D.S.; Kemp, A.J.; Lasinski, B.F.; Tabak, M.

    2008-01-01

    We are applying our recently developed, LDRD-funded computational simulation tool to optimize and develop applications of Fast Ignition (FI) for stockpile stewardship. This report summarizes the work performed during a one-year exploratory research LDRD to develop FI point designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These results were sufficiently encouraging to propose successfully a strategic initiative LDRD to design and perform the definitive FI experiment on the NIF. Ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will begin in 2010 using the central hot spot (CHS) approach, which relies on the simultaneous compression and ignition of a spherical fuel capsule. Unlike this approach, the fast ignition (FI) method separates fuel compression from the ignition phase. In the compression phase, a laser such as NIF is used to implode a shell either directly, or by x rays generated from the hohlraum wall, to form a compact dense (∼300 g/cm 3 ) fuel mass with an areal density of ∼3.0 g/cm 2 . To ignite such a fuel assembly requires depositing ∼20kJ into a ∼35 (micro)m spot delivered in a short time compared to the fuel disassembly time (∼20ps). This energy is delivered during the ignition phase by relativistic electrons generated by the interaction of an ultra-short high-intensity laser. The main advantages of FI over the CHS approach are higher gain, a lower ignition threshold, and a relaxation of the stringent symmetry requirements required by the CHS approach. There is worldwide interest in FI and its associated science. Major experimental facilities are being constructed which will enable 'proof of principle' tests of FI in integrated subignition experiments, most notably the OMEGA-EP facility at the University of Rochester's Laboratory of Laser Energetics and the FIREX facility at Osaka University in Japan. Also, scientists in the European Union have recently proposed the construction of a new FI facility, called HiPER, designed to

  13. Coulomb repulsion in short polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzy, Amir; Assaf, Khaleel I; Zhang, Shuai; Jacob, Maik H; Nau, Werner M

    2015-01-08

    Coulomb repulsion between like-charged side chains is presently viewed as a major force that impacts the biological activity of intrinsically disordered polypeptides (IDPs) by determining their spatial dimensions. We investigated short synthetic models of IDPs, purely composed of ionizable amino acid residues and therefore expected to display an extreme structural and dynamic response to pH variation. Two synergistic, custom-made, time-resolved fluorescence methods were applied in tandem to study the structure and dynamics of the acidic and basic hexapeptides Asp6, Glu6, Arg6, Lys6, and His6 between pH 1 and 12. (i) End-to-end distances were obtained from the short-distance Förster resonance energy transfer (sdFRET) from N-terminal 5-fluoro-l-tryptophan (FTrp) to C-terminal Dbo. (ii) End-to-end collision rates were obtained for the same peptides from the collision-induced fluorescence quenching (CIFQ) of Dbo by FTrp. Unexpectedly, the very high increase of charge density at elevated pH had no dynamical or conformational consequence in the anionic chains, neither in the absence nor in the presence of salt, in conflict with the common view and in partial conflict with accompanying molecular dynamics simulations. In contrast, the cationic peptides responded to ionization but with surprising patterns that mirrored the rich individual characteristics of each side chain type. The contrasting results had to be interpreted, by considering salt screening experiments, N-terminal acetylation, and simulations, in terms of an interplay of local dielectric constant and peptide-length dependent side chain charge-charge repulsion, side chain functional group solvation, N-terminal and side chain charge-charge repulsion, and side chain-side chain as well as side chain-backbone interactions. The common picture that emerged is that Coulomb repulsion between water-solvated side chains is efficiently quenched in short peptides as long as side chains are not in direct contact with each

  14. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability of 7% to 15% after ingestion; they are also irritants and cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Upon entering the body, inorganic mercury compounds are accumulated mainly in the kidneys and produce kidney damage. In contrast, human exposure to elemental mercury is mainly by inhalation, followed by rapid absorption and distribution in all major organs. Elemental mercury from ingestion is poorly absorbed with a bioavailability of less than 0.01%. The primary target organs of elemental mercury are the brain and kidney. Elemental mercury is lipid soluble and can cross the blood-brain barrier, while inorganic mercury compounds are not lipid soluble, rendering them unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. Elemental mercury may also enter the brain from the nasal cavity through the olfactory pathway. The blood mercury is a useful biomarker after short-term and high-level exposure, whereas the urine mercury is the ideal biomarker for long-term exposure to both elemental and inorganic mercury, and also as a good indicator of body burden. This review discusses the common sources of mercury exposure, skin lightening products containing mercury and mercury release from dental amalgam filling, two issues that happen in daily life, bear significant public health importance, and yet undergo extensive debate on their safety. PMID:23230464

  15. Review of even element super-heavy nuclei and search for element 120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Institut fuer Physik, Frankfurt (Germany); Heinz, S.; Mann, R.; Maurer, J.; Barth, W.; Burkhard, H.G.; Dahl, L.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lang, R.; Lommel, B.; Runke, J.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schoett, H.J.; Tinschert, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Muenzenberg, G. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Manipal University, Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Antalic, S.; Saro, S. [Comenius University, Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Eberhardt, K.; Thoerle-Pospiech, P.; Trautmann, N. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Grzywacz, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hamilton, J.H. [Vanderbuilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States); Henderson, R.A.; Kenneally, J.M.; Moody, K.J.; Shaughnessy, D.A.; Stoyer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Miernik, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Miller, D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Morita, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Nishio, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Popeko, A.G.; Yeremin, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Roberto, J.B.; Rykaczewski, K.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2016-06-15

    The reaction {sup 54}Cr + {sup 248}Cm was investigated at the velocity filter SHIP at GSI, Darmstadt, with the intention to study production and decay properties of isotopes of element 120. Three correlated signals were measured, which occurred within a period of 279ms. The heights of the signals correspond with the expectations for a decay sequence starting with an isotope of element 120. However, a complete decay chain cannot be established, since a signal from the implantation of the evaporation residue cannot be identified unambiguously. Measured properties of the event chain are discussed in detail. The result is compared with theoretical predictions. Previously measured decay properties of even element super-heavy nuclei were compiled in order to find arguments for an assignment from the systematics of experimental data. In the course of this review, a few tentatively assigned data could be corrected. New interpretations are given for results which could not be assigned definitely in previous studies. The discussion revealed that the cross-section for production of element 120 could be high enough so that a successful experiment seems possible with presently available techniques. However, a continuation of the experiment at SHIP for a necessary confirmation of the results obtained in a relatively short irradiation of five weeks is not possible at GSI presently. Therefore, we decided to publish the results of the measurement and of the review as they exist now. In the summary and outlook section we also present concepts for the continuation of research in the field of super-heavy nuclei. (orig.)

  16. 46 CFR 15.725 - Sailing short.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sailing short. 15.725 Section 15.725 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.725 Sailing short. Whenever a vessel is deprived of the service of a... vessel is sufficiently manned for the voyage. A report of sailing short must be filed in writing with the...

  17. Copernicus a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Gingerich, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) was the astronomer whose shocking vision of a sun-centered universe turned out to be the essential blueprint for a physical understanding of celestial motions. Copernicus: A Very Short Introduction offers a fascinating portrayal of the man who launched the modern vision of the universe. It sets Copernicus in the context of a rapidly changing world, where the recent invention of printing with movable type not only made sources more readily available to him, but also fueled Martin Luther’s transformation of the religious landscape. Copernicus’s heliocentric revolution is revealed as an aesthetic achievement not dictated by observational “proofs,” but another new way of looking at the ancient cosmos.

  18. Infinity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Infinity is an intriguing topic, with connections to religion, philosophy, metaphysics, logic, and physics as well as mathematics. Its history goes back to ancient times, with especially important contributions from Euclid, Aristotle, Eudoxus, and Archimedes. The infinitely large (infinite) is intimately related to the infinitely small (infinitesimal). Cosmologists consider sweeping questions about whether space and time are infinite. Philosophers and mathematicians ranging from Zeno to Russell have posed numerous paradoxes about infinity and infinitesimals. Many vital areas of mathematics rest upon some version of infinity. The most obvious, and the first context in which major new techniques depended on formulating infinite processes, is calculus. But there are many others, for example Fourier analysis and fractals. In this Very Short Introduction, Ian Stewart discusses infinity in mathematics while also drawing in the various other aspects of infinity and explaining some of the major problems and insights ...

  19. Downlink Transmission of Short Packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    Cellular wireless systems rely on frame-based transmissions. The frame design is conventionally based on heuristics, consisting of a frame header and a data part. The frame header contains control information that provides pointers to the messages within the data part. In this paper, we revisit...... the principles of frame design and show the impact of the new design in scenarios that feature short data packets, which are central to various 5G and Internet of Things applications. We~treat framing for downlink transmission in an AWGN broadcast channel with $K$ users, where the sizes of the messages....... This requires changes in the way control information is sent, and it requires that the users need to spend power decoding other messages, thereby increasing the average power consumption. We~show that the common heuristic design is only one point on a curve that represents the tradeoff between latency and power...

  20. Shapeable short circuit resistant capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ralph S.; Myers, John D.; Baney, William J.

    2015-10-06

    A ceramic short circuit resistant capacitor that is bendable and/or shapeable to provide a multiple layer capacitor that is extremely compact and amenable to desirable geometries. The capacitor that exhibits a benign failure mode in which a multitude of discrete failure events result in a gradual loss of capacitance. Each event is a localized event in which localized heating causes an adjacent portion of one or both of the electrodes to vaporize, physically cleaning away electrode material from the failure site. A first metal electrode, a second metal electrode, and a ceramic dielectric layer between the electrodes are thin enough to be formed in a serpentine-arrangement with gaps between the first electrode and the second electrode that allow venting of vaporized electrode material in the event of a benign failure.

  1. Astrophysics a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Binney, James

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysics is the physics of the stars, and more widely the physics of the Universe. It enables us to understand the structure and evolution of planetary systems, stars, galaxies, interstellar gas, and the cosmos as a whole. In this Very Short Introduction, the leading astrophysicist James Binney shows how the field of astrophysics has expanded rapidly in the past century, with vast quantities of data gathered by telescopes exploiting all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, combined with the rapid advance of computing power, which has allowed increasingly effective mathematical modelling. He illustrates how the application of fundamental principles of physics - the consideration of energy and mass, and momentum - and the two pillars of relativity and quantum mechanics, has provided insights into phenomena ranging from rapidly spinning millisecond pulsars to the collision of giant spiral galaxies. This is a clear, rigorous introduction to astrophysics for those keen to cut their teeth on a conceptual trea...

  2. Short Course in the Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Falana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, it has become evident that the microbiome is an important environmental factor that affects many physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and differentiation, behaviour, immune function and metabolism. More importantly, it may contribute to a wide variety of diseases, including cancer, inflammatory diseases, metabolic diseases and responses to pathogens. We expect that international, integrative and interdisciplinary translational research teams, along with the emergence of FDA-approved platforms, will set the framework for microbiome-based therapeutics and diagnostics. We recognize that the microbiome ecosystem offers new promise for personalized/precision medicine and targeted treatment for a variety of diseases. The short course was held as a four-session webinar series in April 2015, taught by pioneers and experts in the microbiome ecosystem, covering a broad range of topics from the healthy microbiome to the effects of an altered microbiome from neonates to adults and the long term effects as it is related to disease, from asthma to cancer. We have learned to appreciate how beneficial our microbes are in breaking down our food, fighting off infections and nurturing our immune system, and this information provides us with ideas as to how we can manipulate our microbiome to prevent certain diseases. However, given the variety of applications, there are scientific challenges, though there are very promising areas in reference to the clinical benefits of understanding more about our microbiome, whether in our gut or on our skin: the outlook is bright. A summary of the short course is presented as a meeting dispatch.

  3. Techniques for Presenting the Short Story in the Advanced ESL Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Julia

    1989-01-01

    Suggestions are made for introducing students, especially those at the college level, to American short stories. An anthology of stories, chronologically presented, is noted as a useful text. Three approaches for presentation include historical sequencing, grouping according to salient elements of fiction, and grouping by theme. Pre-reading…

  4. Development of the k0-based cyclic neutron activation analysis for short-lived radionuclides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, H.M.; Blaauw, M.; Beasley, D.; Freitas, M.D.C.

    2011-01-01

    The k0-based cyclic neutron activation analysis (k0-CNAA) technique has been studied to explore the applicability at the Portuguese research reactor (RPI). In particular, for the determination of elements which form short-lived radionuclides, particularly fluorine (20F, 11.16 s half-life) and

  5. New elements - approaching Z=114

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, S.

    1998-03-01

    The search for new elements is part of the broader field of investigations of nuclei at the limits of stability. In two series of experiments at SHIP, six new elements (Z=107-112) were synthesized via fusion reactions using 1n-deexcitation channels and lead or bismuth targets. The isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of α-α correlations. Not fission, but alpha decay is the dominant decay mode. The collected decay data establish a means of comparison with theoretical data. This aids in the selection of appropriate models that describe the properties of known nuclei. Predictions based on these models are useful in the preparation of the next generation of experiments. Cross-sections decrease by two orders of magnitude from bohrium (Z=107) to element 112, for which a cross-section of 1 pb was measured. The development of intense beam currents and sensitive detection methods is essential for the production and identification of still heavier elements and new isotopes of already known elements, as well as the measurement of small α-, β- and fission-branching ratios. An equally sensitive set-up is needed for the measurement of excitation functions at low cross-sections. Based on our results, it is likely that the production of isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical super heavy elements (SHE) could be achieved by fusion reactions using 208 Pb targets. Systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that the transfer of nucleons is an important process for the initiation of fusion. The data allow for the fixing of a narrow energy window for the production of SHE using 1n-emission channels. (orig.)

  6. TECHNICAL AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF SHORT SELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu BORES

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing insight into some of the implication of short selling for markets, investors as well as regulators. Findings show that capital flows are adversely affected by strict regulation and bans of short sales, while market liquidity, and bid-ask spread can be improved by allowing short selling. Additionally portfolios that incorporate short selling strategies can have lower volatility in returns. The informational content of short sales can provide important feedback for informed investors and lead to better price discovery.

  7. Finite element modeling of piezoelectric elements with complex electrode configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, R; Schläpfer, B

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the material properties of piezoelectric materials strongly depend on the state of polarization of the individual element. While an unpolarized material exhibits mechanically isotropic material properties in the absence of global piezoelectric capabilities, the piezoelectric material properties become transversally isotropic with respect to the polarization direction after polarization. Therefore, for evaluating piezoelectric elements the material properties, including the coupling between the mechanical and the electromechanical behavior, should be addressed correctly. This is of special importance for the micromechanical description of piezoelectric elements with interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). The best known representatives of this group are active fiber composites (AFCs), macro fiber composites (MFCs) and the radial field diaphragm (RFD), respectively. While the material properties are available for a piezoelectric wafer with a homogeneous polarization perpendicular to its plane as postulated in the so-called uniform field model (UFM), the same information is missing for piezoelectric elements with more complex electrode configurations like the above-mentioned ones with IDEs. This is due to the inhomogeneous field distribution which does not automatically allow for the correct assignment of the material, i.e. orientation and property. A variation of the material orientation as well as the material properties can be accomplished by including the polarization process of the piezoelectric transducer in the finite element (FE) simulation prior to the actual load case to be investigated. A corresponding procedure is presented which automatically assigns the piezoelectric material properties, e.g. elasticity matrix, permittivity, and charge vector, for finite element models (FEMs) describing piezoelectric transducers according to the electric field distribution (field orientation and strength) in the structure. A corresponding code has been

  8. Brain trace elements and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebbrecht, Geert; Maenhaut, Willy; Reuck, Jacques de

    1999-01-01

    Degenerative mechanisms involved in the aging process of the brain are to a certain extent counteracted by repair mechanisms. In both degenerative and recovery processes, trace elements are involved. The present study focused on the role of two minor (i.e., K and Ca) and six trace elements (i.e., Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Rb) in the aging process. The elements were determined by PIXE in cerebral cortex and white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem and cerebellar cortex of 18 postmortem human brains, from persons without a history of neurologic or psychiatric disease who deceased between the age of 7 and 79. This age range allowed us to study the relationship between elemental concentrations and age. The most prominent findings were a concentration decrease for K and Rb and a concentration increase for the elements Ca, Fe, Zn and Se. The study supports recent findings that Ca and Fe are involved in brain degenerative processes initiated by oxygen free radicals, whereas Zn and Se are involved in immunological reactions counteracting the aging process

  9. MetaSINEs: Broad Distribution of a Novel SINE Superfamily in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Plazzi, Federico; Passamonti, Marco; Okada, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (short interspersed elements) are transposable elements that typically originate independently in each taxonomic clade (order/family). However, some SINE families share a highly similar central sequence and are thus categorized as a SINE superfamily. Although only four SINE superfamilies (CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, DeuSINEs, and Ceph-SINEs) have been reported so far, it is expected that new SINE superfamilies would be discovered by deep exploration of new SINEs in metazoan genomes. Here we de...

  10. Geochemistry of trace elements and Sr- Nd isotopes of foraminifera shell from the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Trace elemental associations and Sr - Nd isotopic compositions are of important to recognition of biogenic material from mixed marine sediments. The foraminifera shell from the Okinawa Trough strongly enrichesSr, P, Mn andBa, enriches Li, U, Th, Sc, Co, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Rb, Y, Sb and light rare earth elements, slightly enriches V, Ga, Zr, Nb, Cd and middle rare earth elements,is short of Mo, In, Sn, Cs, Hf, Ta, W, Ti, Bi and heavy rare earth elements. The mechanism of elemental enrichment in forminifera is the concentrations of trace elements in sea water and selective absorption of trace elements during foraminifera living, as well as the geochemical affinity between major elements and trace elements. The REE (rare earth elements) partition pattern of foraminifera shell of the Okinawa Trough shows enrichment of middle rare earth elements with slightly negative Ce anomaly,which are different from those of foraminifera of the Pacific Ocean. The Sr, Nd isotopic ratios of the Okinawa Trough foraminifera are 0.709 769 and 0.512 162, respectively, which are different not only from those of oceanic water, but also from those of river water of China's Mainland, the former is slightly higher than those of oceanic water, but much lower than those of river water; the latter is slightly lower than those of oceanic water, but higher than those of river water, demonstrating that the Okinawa Trough sea water has been influenced by river water of China's Mainland.

  11. Stylistic Analysis of the Short Story ‘The Last Word’ by Dr. A. R. Tabassum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Bari Khan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article stylistic analysis of short story ‘The Last Word’ by Dr. A. R. Tabassum is performed.  The formative elements of the story, such as point of view, characters and allegorical element, are discussed in detail so as to give a better insight of the story. The story is analyzed stylistically in terms of figures of speech where grammatical, lexical and phonological schemes are considered, following the checklist of linguistic and stylistic categories proposed by Leech and Short. Features of repetition, parallelism, alliteration, consonance, assonance and rhyme are focused on. Finally, the findings and conclusion is given to sum up the discussion. Keywords: stylistics, analysis, short story, last word, allegory, Tabassum

  12. Intestino Corto Short bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Matilde Socarrás Suárez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El intestino corto está asociado a pérdida o disfunción del intestino delgado por resección del mismo, que causa diarreas, tránsito intestinal acelerado, malabsorción intestinal, y eventualmente la pérdida de peso y el desgaste muscular. El objetivo de este trabajo fue actualizar el conocimiento acerca de este síndrome. Se realiza una revisión del tema de intestino corto donde se refiere a su definición, causas fundamentales frecuentes e infrecuentes en el niño y en el adulto, cómo se adapta el intestino a la resección de diferentes extensiones, las funciones del íleon terminal. Se hacen una valoración clínica inicial, con el interrogatorio médico, revisión minuciosa de la historia clínica para cuantificar la capacidad de absorción. Se habla de los síntomas y signos de deficiencia nutricional. Se explican las estrategias del tratamiento, que tienen 3 etapas de evolución clínica. Se concluye que se indica la dietoterapia adecuada según el estado nutricional del paciente y la resección intestinal realizada, evitando las complicaciones para lograr una calidad máxima de vidaShort bowel is associated with loss or dysfunction of the small bowel due to its resection, which causes diarrheas, accelerated intestinal transit, intestinal malabsorption and, eventually, weight loss ansd muscular waste. The objective of this paper was to update knowledge about this syndrome. A review of the short intestine topic is made, making reference to its definition, common and uncommon main cuases in the child and adult, how the bowel adapts itslef to resection of different extensions, and the functions of the terminal ileum. An initial clinical assessment is made with the medical questionnaire and a detailed review of the medical history to quantify the absorption capacity. The symptoms and signs of nutritional deficiency are dealt with. The strategies of the treatment consisting of 3 stages of clinical evolution are explained. It is concluded

  13. Fuel element tomography by gammametry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.; Pineira, T.

    1982-03-01

    As from transversal gamma determinations of a cylindrical fuel element, the TOMOGAM program reconstitutes the distribution of fission products in a section. This direct, fast and non destructive method, makes it possible to have access to the behaviour of the fuel at any time: - the soluble fission products in the matrix represent the fuel itself and the distribution of the fissions, - the migrating elements inform on the temperature reached in accordance with the permitted powers, - the volatile nuclides build up in particular points where physical-chemical phenomena of fuel-cladding interaction are liable to corrode the latter. Hence, gamma spectrometry extends its possibilities of analysis relative to the performance of reactor elements [fr

  14. Physical model of Nernst element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Satarou

    1998-08-01

    Generation of electric power by the Nernst effect is a new application of a semiconductor. A key point of this proposal is to find materials with a high thermomagnetic figure-of-merit, which are called Nernst elements. In order to find candidates of the Nernst element, a physical model to describe its transport phenomena is needed. As the first model, we began with a parabolic two-band model in classical statistics. According to this model, we selected InSb as candidates of the Nernst element and measured their transport coefficients in magnetic fields up to 4 Tesla within a temperature region from 270 K to 330 K. In this region, we calculated transport coefficients numerically by our physical model. For InSb, experimental data are coincident with theoretical values in strong magnetic field. (author)

  15. [Trace elements of bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, V M; Zaĭchik, V E; Bizer, V A

    1983-01-01

    Due to activation analysis involving the use of neutrons from a nuclear reactor, the concentrations of 11 trace elements: scandium, iron, cobalt, mercury, rubidium, selenium, silver, antimony, chrome, zinc and terbium in intact bone and skeletal tumors were measured. 76 specimens of bioptates and resected material of operations for bone tumors and 10 specimens of normal bone tissue obtained in autopsies of cases of sudden death were examined. The concentrations of trace elements and their dispersion patterns in tumor tissue were found to be significantly higher than those in normal bone tissue. Also, the concentrations of some trace elements in tumor differed significantly from those in normal tissue; moreover, they were found to depend on the type and histogenesis of the neoplasm.

  16. Marine oligotrophy and element biogeochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffree, R.A.; Szymczak, R.

    1999-01-01

    A biogeochemical model has been developed that explains the inverse and non-linear relationship between Po-210 concentration in zooplankton and their biomass, under oligotrophic conditions in French Polynesia. This study identified other elements with comparable accumulatory behaviours to Po-210 in phytoplankton, seston and zooplankton, that are proposed to be critical to its enhanced environmental levels under oligotrophy. Field investigation in the Gulf of Papua showed that four of these a priori identified elements viz Cd, Co, Pb and Mn, as well as Cr and Ni, showed elevated water concentrations with reduced biological productivity, results that are consistent with those previously obtained for Po-210 and the proposed explanatory model. These findings point to the enhanced susceptibility of oligotrophic systems to contamination from particle-reactive elements. (author)

  17. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF A FREE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    the stairs and to compare the finite element ana ... tual three dimensional behavior of the stair slab system. ..... due to its close relation of output with the propo .... flights. It is best not to consider any open well when .... thermodynamics of solids.

  18. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  19. Gravity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Clifton, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Gravity is one of the four fundamental interactions that exist in nature. It also has the distinction of being the oldest, weakest, and most difficult force to quantize. Understanding gravity is not only essential for understanding the motion of objects on Earth, but also the motion of all celestial objects, and even the expansion of the Universe itself. It was the study of gravity that led Einstein to his profound realizations about the nature of space and time. Gravity is not only universal, it is also essential for understanding the behavior of the Universe, and all astrophysical bodies within it. In this Very Short Introduction Timothy Clifton looks at the development of our understanding of gravity since the early observations of Kepler and Newtonian theory. He discusses Einstein's theory of gravity, which now supplants Newton's, showing how it allows us to understand why the frequency of light changes as it passes through a gravitational field, why GPS satellites need their clocks corrected as they orbi...

  20. Light a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Walmsley, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Light enables us to see the world around us. Our sense of sight provides us with direct information about space and time, the physical arrangement of the world, and how it changes. This almost universal shared sensation of vision has led to a fascination with the nature and properties of light across the ages. But the light we see is just a small part of the whole spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, ranging from radio waves to gamma rays. In this Very Short Introduction Ian Walmsley discusses early attempts to explain light, and the development of apparently opposing particulate and wave theories by scientists such as Isaac Newton and Christiaan Huygens. He shows how light was recognized as an electromagnetic wave in the 19th century, and the development of the quantum mechanics view of wave-particle duality in the 20th century. He also describes the many applications of light, domestic and scientific, such as microwaves, DVDs, and lasers. We now use the whole range of electromagnetic radiation to peer bot...