WorldWideScience

Sample records for short initial period

  1. Shannon Entropy in a European Seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax System during the Initial Recovery Period after a Short-Term Exposure to Methylmercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harkaitz Eguiraun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is an environmental contaminant of increasing relevance as a seafood safety hazard that affects the health and welfare of fish. Non-invasive, on-line methodologies to monitor and evaluate the behavior of a fish system in aquaculture may make the identification of altered systems feasible—for example, due to the presence of agents that compromise their welfare and wholesomeness—and find a place in the implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points and Fish Welfare Assurance Systems. The Shannon entropy (SE of a European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax system has been shown to differentiate MeHg-treated from non-treated fish, the former displaying a lower SE value than the latter. However, little is known about the initial evolution of the system after removal of the toxicant. To help to cover this gap, the present work aims at providing information about the evolution of the SE of a European seabass system during a recuperation period of 11 days following a two-week treatment with 4 µg·MeHg/L. The results indicate that the SE of the system did not show a recovery trend during the examined period, displaying erratic responses with daily fluctuations and lacking a tendency to reach the initial SE values.

  2. Southern hemisphere searches for short period pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchester, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    Two searches of the southern sky for short period pulsars are briefly described. The first, made using the 64-m telescope at Parkes, is sensitive to pulsars with periods greater than about 10 ms and the second, made using the Molonglo radio telescope, has sensitivity down to periods of about 1.5 ms. Four pulsars were found in the Parkes survey and none in the Molonglo survey, although analysis of the latter is as yet incomplete. 10 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  3. Field Optimization for short Period Undulators

    CERN Document Server

    Peiffer, P; Rossmanith, R; Schoerling, D

    2011-01-01

    Undulators dedicated to low energy electron beams, like Laser Wakefield Accelerators, require very short period lengths to achieve X-ray emission. However, at these short period length (LambdaU ~ 5 mm) it becomes difficult to reach magnetic field amplitudes that lead to a K parameter of >1, which is generally desired. Room temperature permanent magnets and even superconductive undulators using Nb-Ti as conductor material have proven insufficient to achieve the desired field amplitudes. The superconductor Nb$_{3}$Sn has the theoretical potential to achieve the desired fields. However, up to now it is limited by several technological challenges to much lower field values than theoretically predicted. An alternative idea for higher fields is to manufacture the poles of the undulator body from Holmium instead of iron or to use Nb-Ti wires with a higher superconductor/copper ratio. The advantages and challenges of the different options are compared in this contribution.

  4. Short period tidal variations of earth rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, C. F.; Williams, J. G.; Parke, M. E.; Dickey, J. O.

    1981-01-01

    It is explained that the tidal deformation of the earth's polar moment of inertia by the moon and sun cause periodic variations in rotation. The short period oscillations give rise to a meter-sized, diurnal signature in the lunar laser ranging data obtained at McDonald Observatory. A solution is given for the scale parameter k/C at fortnightly and monthly tidal frequencies. The results are compared with those obtained by other investigators and with a theoretical estimate which includes the effect of oceans and a decoupled fluid core.

  5. Preferred Hosts for Short-Period Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to learn more about how planets form around their host stars, a team of scientists has analyzed the population of Kepler-discovered exoplanet candidates, looking for trends in where theyre found.Planetary OccurrenceSince its launch in 2009, Kepler has found thousands of candidate exoplanets around a variety of star types. Especially intriguing is the large population of super-Earths and mini-Neptunes planets with masses between that of Earth and Neptune that have short orbital periods. How did they come to exist so close to their host star? Did they form in situ, or migrate inwards, or some combination of both processes?To constrain these formation mechanisms, a team of scientists led by Gijs Mulders (University of Arizona and NASAs NExSS coalition) analyzed the population of Kepler planet candidates that have orbital periods between 2 and 50 days.Mulders and collaborators used statistical reconstructions to find the average number of planets, within this orbital range, around each star in the Kepler field. They then determined how this planet occurrence rate changed for different spectral types and therefore the masses of the host stars: do low-mass M-dwarf stars host more or fewer planets than higher-mass, main-sequence F, G, or K stars?Challenging ModelsAuthors estimates for the occurrence rate for short-period planets of different radii around M-dwarfs (purple) and around F, G, and K-type stars (blue). [Mulders et al. 2015]The team found that M dwarfs, compared to F, G, or K stars, host about half as many large planets with orbital periods of P 50 days. But, surprisingly, they host significantly more small planets, racking up an average of 3.5 times the number of planets in the size range of 12.8 Earth-radii.Could it be that M dwarfs have a lower total mass of planets, but that mass is distributed into more, smaller planets? Apparently not: the authors show that the mass of heavy elements trapped in short-orbital-period planets is higher for M

  6. A short period undulator for MAX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahola, H.; Meinander, T.

    1992-01-01

    A hybrid undulator for generation of high brilliance synchrotron radiation in the photon energy range of 60--600 eV at the 550 MeV electron storage ring MAX in Lund, Sweden has been designed and built at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in close collaboration with MAX-lab of Lund University. At the rather modest electron energy of MAX this photon energy range can be reached only by an undulator featuring a fairly short period and the smallest possible magnetic gap. Even then, higher harmonics (up to the 13th) of the radiation spectrum must be utilized. An optimization of the magnetic design resulted in a hybrid configuration of NdFeB magnets and soft iron poles with a period of 24 mm and a minimum magnetic gap of 7--10 mm. A variable-gap vacuum chamber allows reduction of the vacuum gap from a maximum of 20 mm, needed for injection, down to 6 mm during stored beam operation. A special design of this chamber permits a magnetic gap between pole tips that is only 1 mm larger than the vacuum gap. Adequate field uniformity was ensured by calibration of magnets to equal strength at their true operating point and verification of the homogeneity of their magnetization. Magnetic measurements included Hall probe scans of the undulator field and flip coil evaluations of the field integral

  7. Theoretical study of nitride short period superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, N. E.; Svane, A.

    2018-02-01

    Discussion of band gap behavior based on first principles calculations of electronic band structures for various short period nitride superlattices is presented. Binary superlattices, as InN/GaN and GaN/AlN as well as superlattices containing alloys, as InGaN/GaN, GaN/AlGaN, and GaN/InAlN are considered. Taking into account different crystallographic directions of growth (polar, semipolar and nonpolar) and different strain conditions (free-standing and pseudomorphic) all the factors influencing the band gap engineering are analyzed. Dependence on internal strain and lattice geometry is considered, but the main attention is devoted to the influence of the internal electric field and the hybridization of well and barrier wave functions. The contributions of these two important factors to band gap behavior are illustrated and estimated quantitatively. It appears that there are two interesting ranges of layer thicknesses; in one (few atomic monolayers in barriers and wells) the influence of the wave function hybridization is dominant, whereas in the other (layers thicker than roughly five to six monolayers) dependence of electric field on the band gaps is more important. The band gap behavior in superlattices is compared with the band gap dependence on composition in the corresponding ternary and quaternary alloys. It is shown that for superlattices it is possible to exceed by far the range of band gap values, which can be realized in ternary alloys. The calculated values of the band gaps are compared with the photoluminescence emission energies, when the corresponding data are available. Finally, similarities and differences between nitride and oxide polar superlattices are pointed out by comparison of wurtzite GaN/AlN and ZnO/MgO.

  8. CLATHRATE HYDRATES FORMATION IN SHORT-PERIOD COMETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marboeuf, Ulysse; Mousis, Olivier; Petit, Jean-Marc; Schmitt, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The initial composition of current models of cometary nuclei is only based on two forms of ice: crystalline ice for long-period comets and amorphous ice for short-period comets. A third form of ice, i.e., clathrate hydrate, could exist within the short-period cometary nuclei, but the area of formation of this crystalline structure in these objects has never been studied. Here, we show that the thermodynamic conditions in the interior of short-period comets allow the existence of clathrate hydrates in Halley-type comets. We show that their existence is viable in the Jupiter family comets only when the equilibrium pressure of CO clathrate hydrate is at least 1 order of magnitude lower than the usually assumed theoretical value. We calculate that the amount of volatiles that could be trapped in the clathrate hydrate layer may be orders of magnitude greater than the daily amount of gas released at the surface of the nucleus at perihelion. The formation and the destruction of the clathrate hydrate cages could then explain the diversity of composition of volatiles observed in comets, as well as some pre-perihelion outbursts. We finally show that the potential clathrate hydrate layer in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko would, unfortunately, be deep inside the nucleus, out of reach of the Rosetta lander. However, such a clathrate hydrate layer would show up by the gas composition of the coma.

  9. On the short periods oscillation in relativistic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilano, R.; Morales, S.; Navone, H.; Sevilla, D.; Zorzi, A.

    2009-01-01

    We expand the study of neutron and strange matter stars with general relativistic formalism. We analyze the correlation with the observational data short periods oscillations in these stars, and we intend to discriminate between them.

  10. Origin of very-short orbital-period binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaji, S.

    1983-01-01

    Recent observations of four close binaries have established that there is a group of very-short orbital-period (VSOP) binaries whose orbital periods are less than 60 minutes. The VSOP binaries consist of both X-ray close binaries and cataclysmic variables. Their orbital periods are too short to have a main-sequence companion. However, four binaries, none of which belongs to any globular cluster, are too abundant to be explained by the capturing mechanism of a white dwarf. Therefore it seemed to be worthwhile to present an evolutionary scenario from an original binary system which can be applied for all VSOP binaries. (Auth.)

  11. How Do Earth-Sized, Short-Period Planets Form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    Matching theory to observation often requires creative detective work. In a new study, scientists have used a clever test to reveal clues about the birth of speedy, Earth-sized planets.Former Hot Jupiters?Artists impression of a hot Jupiter with an evaporating atmosphere. [NASA/Ames/JPL-Caltech]Among the many different types of exoplanets weve observed, one unusual category is that of ultra-short-period planets. These roughly Earth-sized planets speed around their host stars at incredible rates, with periods of less than a day.How do planets in this odd category form? One popular theory is that they were previously hot Jupiters, especially massive gas giants orbiting very close to their host stars. The close orbit caused the planets atmospheres to be stripped away, leaving behind only their dense cores.In a new study, a team of astronomers led by Joshua Winn (Princeton University) has found a clever way to test this theory.Planetary radius vs. orbital period for the authors three statistical samples (colored markers) and the broader sample of stars in the California Kepler Survey. [Winn et al. 2017]Testing MetallicitiesStars hosting hot Jupiters have an interesting quirk: they typically have metallicities that are significantly higher than an average planet-hosting star. It is speculated that this is because planets are born from the same materials as their host stars, and hot Jupiters require the presence of more metals to be able to form.Regardless of the cause of this trend, if ultra-short-period planets are in fact the solid cores of former hot Jupiters, then the two categories of planets should have hosts with the same metallicity distributions. The ultra-short-period-planet hosts should therefore also be weighted to higher metallicities than average planet-hosting stars.To test this, the authors make spectroscopic measurements and gather data for a sample of stellar hosts split into three categories:64 ultra-short-period planets (orbital period shorter than a

  12. Design issues for cryogenic cooling of short period superconducting undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Dietderich, D.R.; Marks, S.; Prestemon, S.O.; Schlueter, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting insertion devices, which produce periodic magnetic fields, have been built and installed in a number of synchrotron-light source storage-rings. For the most part, these devices have been wigglers, which have relatively long period lengths. This report concerns itself with the special cryogenic issues associated with short period undulators. The motivation for considering the incorporation of superconducting technology in insertion device designs is to achieve higher magnetic fields than can be achieved with more conventional permanent magnet technology. Since the peak field decreases sharply with increased magnet gap to period ratio, the cryogenic design of the magnet system is crucial. In particular, the insulation required for a warm vacuum bore device is impractical for short period undulators. This report describes the issues that are related to a cold bore (∼4 K) and an intermediate temperature bore (30 to 70 K) designs. The criteria for the use of small cryocoolers for cooling a short period undulator are presented. The problems associated with connecting small coolers to an undulator at 4.2 K are discussed

  13. Response of phytoplankton assemblages isolated for short periods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of phytoplankton assemblages isolated in enclosures for short periods of time was examined in hyper-eutrophic Lake Chivero (Harare, Zimbabwe), to determine the factors that influenced the structure of the phytoplankton community, after noticing a marked decline in the dominance of Microcystis aeruginosa ...

  14. Magnetospheric Truncation, Tidal Inspiral, and the Creation of Short-period and Ultra-short-period Planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    Sub-Neptunes around FGKM dwarfs are evenly distributed in log orbital period down to ∼10 days, but dwindle in number at shorter periods. Both the break at ∼10 days and the slope of the occurrence rate down to ∼1 day can be attributed to the truncation of protoplanetary disks by their host star magnetospheres at corotation. We demonstrate this by deriving planet occurrence rate profiles from empirical distributions of pre-main-sequence stellar rotation periods. Observed profiles are better reproduced when planets are distributed randomly in disks—as might be expected if planets formed in situ—rather than piled up near disk edges, as would be the case if they migrated in by disk torques. Planets can be brought from disk edges to ultra-short (<1 day) periods by asynchronous equilibrium tides raised on their stars. Tidal migration can account for how ultra-short-period planets are more widely spaced than their longer-period counterparts. Our picture provides a starting point for understanding why the sub-Neptune population drops at ∼10 days regardless of whether the host star is of type FGK or early M. We predict planet occurrence rates around A stars to also break at short periods, but at ∼1 day instead of ∼10 days because A stars rotate faster than stars with lower masses (this prediction presumes that the planetesimal building blocks of planets can drift inside the dust sublimation radius).

  15. Magnetospheric Truncation, Tidal Inspiral, and the Creation of Short-period and Ultra-short-period Planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail: evelee@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2017-06-10

    Sub-Neptunes around FGKM dwarfs are evenly distributed in log orbital period down to ∼10 days, but dwindle in number at shorter periods. Both the break at ∼10 days and the slope of the occurrence rate down to ∼1 day can be attributed to the truncation of protoplanetary disks by their host star magnetospheres at corotation. We demonstrate this by deriving planet occurrence rate profiles from empirical distributions of pre-main-sequence stellar rotation periods. Observed profiles are better reproduced when planets are distributed randomly in disks—as might be expected if planets formed in situ—rather than piled up near disk edges, as would be the case if they migrated in by disk torques. Planets can be brought from disk edges to ultra-short (<1 day) periods by asynchronous equilibrium tides raised on their stars. Tidal migration can account for how ultra-short-period planets are more widely spaced than their longer-period counterparts. Our picture provides a starting point for understanding why the sub-Neptune population drops at ∼10 days regardless of whether the host star is of type FGK or early M. We predict planet occurrence rates around A stars to also break at short periods, but at ∼1 day instead of ∼10 days because A stars rotate faster than stars with lower masses (this prediction presumes that the planetesimal building blocks of planets can drift inside the dust sublimation radius).

  16. Planetary perturbations and the origins of short-period comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, T.; Tremaine, S.; Duncan, M.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the dynamical plausibility of possible sources for the short-period comets, a representative sample of comet orbits in the field of the sun and the giant planets was integrated, with the aim to determine whether the distribution of orbits from a proposed source that reach observable perihelia (q less than 2.5 AU) matches the observed distribution of short-period orbits. It is found that the majority of the short-period comets, those with orbital period P less than 20 yr (the Jupiter family), cannot arise from isotropic orbits with perihelia near Jupiter's orbit, because the resulting observable comet orbits have the wrong distribution in period, inclination, and argument of perihelion. The simulations also show that Jupiter-family comets cannot arise from isotropic orbits with perihelia in the Uranus-Neptune region. On the other hand, a source of low-inclination Neptune-crossing orbits yields a distribution of observable Jupiter-family comets that is consistent with the data in all respects. These results imply that the Jupiter-family comets arise from a disk source in the outer solar system rather than from the Oort comet cloud. 30 refs

  17. Short-Period Surface Wave Based Seismic Event Relocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Gaynor, A.; Cleveland, M.; Nyblade, A.; Kintner, J. A.; Homman, K.; Ammon, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate and precise seismic event locations are essential for a broad range of geophysical investigations. Superior location accuracy generally requires calibration with ground truth information, but superb relative location precision is often achievable independently. In explosion seismology, low-yield explosion monitoring relies on near-source observations, which results in a limited number of observations that challenges our ability to estimate any locations. Incorporating more distant observations means relying on data with lower signal-to-noise ratios. For small, shallow events, the short-period (roughly 1/2 to 8 s period) fundamental-mode and higher-mode Rayleigh waves (including Rg) are often the most stable and visible portion of the waveform at local distances. Cleveland and Ammon [2013] have shown that teleseismic surface waves are valuable observations for constructing precise, relative event relocations. We extend the teleseismic surface wave relocation method, and apply them to near-source distances using Rg observations from the Bighorn Arche Seismic Experiment (BASE) and the Earth Scope USArray Transportable Array (TA) seismic stations. Specifically, we present relocation results using short-period fundamental- and higher-mode Rayleigh waves (Rg) in a double-difference relative event relocation for 45 delay-fired mine blasts and 21 borehole chemical explosions. Our preliminary efforts are to explore the sensitivity of the short-period surface waves to local geologic structure, source depth, explosion magnitude (yield), and explosion characteristics (single-shot vs. distributed source, etc.). Our results show that Rg and the first few higher-mode Rayleigh wave observations can be used to constrain the relative locations of shallow low-yield events.

  18. Preparing for the future today: The findings of the NEA RK and M initiative for the short term (This period covers several decades and likely more than 100 years. The actual duration will vary across national programmes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Jantine

    2015-01-01

    The NEA initiative on Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) across Generations is an initiative that expresses, supports and aims to answer to an evolution in long-term radioactive waste management (RWM) thinking over the past decades. In the earlier days, the vision seems to have been that waste management ends with the closure of disposal sites. Oversight after closure was not an issue that was studied, (tacitly) assuming safe oblivion of geological repositories, or that archives, markers and other similar tools would suffice, e.g. to avoid human intrusion and/or to understand the nature of the underground facility. Today, it is recognised that oversight should take place for as long as practicable. The new vision includes the preservation of information to be used by future generations. In this paper we want to highlight that such a vision shift with regard to the future requires an accompanying shift with regard to present thinking and practices. To this aim, we will outline some of the studies undertaken within the RK and M initiative that substantiate this finding that the future starts today, and offer suggestions to support its concretization. societal oversight as long as practicable, we should acknowledge the fact that RK and M loss takes place rapidly if it is not acted upon in a conscious and ongoing manner that involves various actors and does more than dumping records into archives. The success of RK and M preservation cannot be judged today by whether they will last for one or ten thousand years. Instead, it lies in establishing and maintaining awareness of the need and responsibility for RK and M preservation in the minds of regulators, operators, stakeholders and, especially in the longer term, the local and regional authorities and general public. Therefore, we should not only think about future activities, but act upon the idea that the long term starts today, and that RK and M preservation needs to be prepared for in the present, while the

  19. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie-Anne Marquet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low” the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1, whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON. Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05 compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism.

  20. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Hausswirth, Christophe; Molle, Odeline; Hawley, John A.; Burke, Louise M.; Tiollier, Eve; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2016-01-01

    Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low”) the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1), whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON). Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05) compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism. PMID:27897989

  1. Surface electron structure of short-period semiconductor superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, I.; Czech Academy Science, Prague,; Strasser, T.; Schattke, W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Semiconductor superlattices represent man-made crystals with unique physical properties. By means of the directed layer-by-layer molecular epitaxy growth their electric properties can be tailored (band structure engineering). Longer translational periodicity in the growth direction is responsible for opening of new electron energy gaps (minigaps) with surface states and resonances localized at superlattice surfaces. Similarly as for the electron structure of the bulk, a procedure enabling to modify the surface electron structure of superlattices is desirable. Short-period superlattice (GaAs) 2 (AlAs) 2 with unreconstructed (100) surface is investigated in detail. Theoretical description in terms of full eigenfunctions of individual components has to be used. The changes of electron surface state energies governed by the termination of a periodic crystalline potential, predicted on simple models, are confirmed for this system. Large surface state shifts are found in the lowest minigap of the superlattice when this is terminated in four different topmost layer configurations. The changes should be observable in angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy as demonstrated in calculations based on the one step model of photoemission. Surface state in the center of the two dimensional Brillouin zone moves from the bottom of the minigap (for the superlattice terminated by two bilayers of GaAs) to its top (for the superlattice terminated by two bilayers of AlAs) where it becomes a resonance. No surface state/resonance is found for a termination with one bilayer of AlAs. The surface state bands behave similarly in the corresponding gaps of the k-resolved section of the electron band structure. The molecular beam epitaxy, which enables to terminate the superlattice growth with atomic layer precision, provides a way of tuning the superlattice surface electron structure by purely geometrical means. The work was supported by the Grant Agency of the Academy of Sciences

  2. New serial time codes for seismic short period and long period data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.; Rao, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses a new time code for time indexing multichannel short period (1 to 25 hz) seismic event data recorded on a single track of magnetic tape in digital format and discusses its usefulness in contrast to Vela time code used in continuous analog multichannel data recording system on multitrack instrumentation tape deck. This paper also discusses another time code, used for time indexing of seismic long period (DC to 2.5 seconds) multichannel data recorded on a single track of magnetic tape in digital format. The time code decoding and display system developed to provide quick access to any desired portion of the tape in both data recording and repro duce system is also discussed. (author). 7 figs

  3. Detectability of periodic gravitational waves by initial interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Benjamin J

    2006-01-01

    I review three recent theoretical developments in neutron star physics predicting that rotating neutron stars could be very strong emitters of periodic gravitational waves. These imply a small but nonzero chance that ground-based interferometers could detect their first periodic signal in the next few years rather than after advanced upgrades. They also imply that upper limits will become astrophysically interesting before advanced upgrades. I discuss the implications for near-future searches and for the astrophysical payoffs of proposed small upgrades to initial interferometers

  4. Ocular discomfort responses after short periods of contact lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Eric; Tilia, Daniel; McNally, John; de la Jara, Percy Lazon

    2015-06-01

    To investigate if contact lens-related discomfort is a function of the time of day at which lenses are worn. This was a randomized, crossover, open-label clinical trial where subjective responses, with and without contact lenses, were assessed every 2 hours during five stages (A to E). Each stage began at the time when subjects would normally have inserted their contact lenses (T0). During stage A, no lenses were worn, whereas in stage B, lenses were worn continuously for 12 hours. In stages C to E, lenses were worn for only 4 hours. Contact lenses were inserted at T0 for stage C, but for stages D and E, lenses were not inserted until T0 + 4 and T0 + 8 hours, respectively. Mixed linear models were used for statistical analysis. In the absence of contact lenses, ocular comfort and dryness remained reasonably constant throughout the observation period. Ocular comfort and dryness decreased during 12 hours of continuous lens wear and became significantly worse from the 8-hour time onward compared with insertion (p 0.05) to the first 4 hours of continuous contact lens wear. Comparing the scores of each of these stages with the no-lens response at the corresponding time showed no significant differences for comfort (p > 0.23) or dryness (p > 0.37). Short periods of wear can be experienced at any time of day without significant change in ocular discomfort and dryness. This suggests that subjective responses at the end of the day are determined by the length of time lenses are in contact with the eye, rather than the time of day at which lenses are worn.

  5. Short-Period Binary Stars: Observations, Analyses, and Results

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F; Hobill, David W

    2008-01-01

    Short-period binaries run the gamut from widely separated stars to black-hole pairs; in between are systems that include neutron stars and white dwarfs, and partially evolved systems such as tidally distorted and over-contact systems. These objects represent stages of evolution of binary stars, and their degrees of separation provide critical clues to how their evolutionary paths differ from that of single stars. The widest and least distorted systems provide astronomers with the essential precise data needed to study all stars: mass and radius. The interactions of binary star components, on the other hand, provide a natural laboratory to observe how the matter in these stars behaves under different and often varying physical conditions. Thus, cataclysmic variables with and without overpoweringly strong magnetic fields, and stars with densities from that found in the Sun to the degenerate matter of white dwarfs and the ultra-compact states of neutron stars and black holes are all discussed. The extensive inde...

  6. Short initial length quench on CICC of ITER TF coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicollet, S.; Ciazynski, D.; Duchateau, J.-L.; Lacroix, B.; Bessette, D.; Rodriguez-Mateos, F.; Coatanea-Gouachet, M.; Gauthier, F.

    2014-01-01

    Previous quench studies performed for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Toroidal Field (TF) Coils have led to identify two extreme families of quench: first 'severe' quenches over long initial lengths in high magnetic field, and second smooth quenches over short initial lengths in low field region. Detailed analyses and results on smooth quench propagation and detectability on one TF Cable In Conduit Conductor (CICC) with a lower propagation velocity are presented here. The influence of the initial quench energy is shown and results of computations with either a Fast Discharge (FD) of the magnet or without (failure of the voltage quench detection system) are reported. The influence of the central spiral of the conductor on the propagation velocity is also detailed. In the cases of a regularly triggered FD, the hot spot temperature criterion of 150 K (with helium and jacket) is fulfilled for an initial quench length of 1 m, whereas this criterion is exceed (Tmax ≈ 200 K) for an extremely short length of 5 cm. These analyses were carried out using both the Supermagnet(trade mark, serif) and Venecia codes and the comparisons of the results are also discussed

  7. Short initial length quench on CICC of ITER TF coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicollet, S.; Ciazynski, D.; Duchateau, J.-L.; Lacroix, B. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bessette, D.; Rodriguez-Mateos, F. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Coatanea-Gouachet, M. [ELC Engineering, 350 chemin du Verladet, F-13290 Les Milles (France); Gauthier, F. [Soditech Ingenierie, 4 bis allée des Gabians, ZI La Frayère, 06150 Cannes (France)

    2014-01-29

    Previous quench studies performed for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Toroidal Field (TF) Coils have led to identify two extreme families of quench: first 'severe' quenches over long initial lengths in high magnetic field, and second smooth quenches over short initial lengths in low field region. Detailed analyses and results on smooth quench propagation and detectability on one TF Cable In Conduit Conductor (CICC) with a lower propagation velocity are presented here. The influence of the initial quench energy is shown and results of computations with either a Fast Discharge (FD) of the magnet or without (failure of the voltage quench detection system) are reported. The influence of the central spiral of the conductor on the propagation velocity is also detailed. In the cases of a regularly triggered FD, the hot spot temperature criterion of 150 K (with helium and jacket) is fulfilled for an initial quench length of 1 m, whereas this criterion is exceed (Tmax ≈ 200 K) for an extremely short length of 5 cm. These analyses were carried out using both the Supermagnet(trade mark, serif) and Venecia codes and the comparisons of the results are also discussed.

  8. The first orbital parameters and period variation of the short-period eclipsing binary AQ Boo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Liyun; Pi, Qingfeng; Han, Xianming L.; Zhang, Xiliang; Lu, Hongpeng; Wang, Daimei; Li, TongAn

    2016-10-01

    We obtained the first VRI CCD light curves of the short-period contact eclipsing binary AQ Boo, which was observed on March 22 and April 19 in 2014 at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, and on January 20, 21 and February 28 in 2015 at Kunming station of Yunnan Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. Using our six newly obtained minima and the minima that other authors obtained previously, we revised the ephemeris of AQ Boo. By fitting the O-C (observed minus calculated) values of the minima, the orbital period of AQ Boo shows a decreasing tendency P˙ = - 1.47(0.17) ×10-7 days/year. We interpret the phenomenon by mass transfer from the secondary (more massive) component to the primary (less massive) one. By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we also derived the photometric orbital parameters of AQ Boo for the first time. We conclude that AQ Boo is a near contact binary with a low contact factor of 14.43%, and will become an over-contact system as the mass transfer continues.

  9. Precessional Periods of Long and Short Foucault Pendulums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Michitoshi

    1978-01-01

    Derives the precessional period of a Foucault pendulum without using small oscillation amplitudes. Shows that if the path of the pendulum passes through the origin, the periods for differing amplitudes are essentially the same. (GA)

  10. Short periodic oscillations of the dwarf nova VW Hydri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefner, R.; Schoembs, R.

    1977-01-01

    A coherent oscillation of approximately 88 s period and 0.m005 amplitude was detected during the decline stage at the end of the long eruption of VW Hyi in December 1975. The period changed erratically between 86 and 90 s during eight nights. There are indications that the amplitude depends on the phase of the orbital revolution. The new period favours models in which such oscillations are caused by the orbital motion of inhomogeneities in the disc. (orig.) [de

  11. Studying Short-Period Comets and Long-Period Comets Detected by WISE/NEOWISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Emily A.; Fernández, Yanga R.; Bauer, James M.; Stevenson, Rachel; Mainzer, Amy K.; Grav, Tommy; Masiero, Joseph; Walker, Russell G.; Lisse, Carey M.

    2014-11-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission surveyed the sky in four infrared wavelength bands (3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22-micron) between January 2010 and February 2011 [1, 2]. During the mission, WISE serendipitously observed 160 comets, including 21 newly discovered objects. About 89 of the comets observed by WISE displayed a significant dust tail in the 12 and 22-micron (thermal emission) bands, showing a wide range of activity levels and dust morphology. Since the observed objects are a mix of both long-period comets (LPCs) and short-period comets (SPCs), differences in their activity can be used to better understand the thermal evolution that each of these populations has undergone. For the comets that displayed a significant dust tail, we have estimated the sizes and ages of the particles using dynamical models based on the Finson-Probstein method [3, 4]. For a selection of 40 comets, we have then compared these models to the data using a novel tail-fitting method that allows the best-fit model to be chosen analytically rather than subjectively. For comets that were observed multiple times by WISE, the dust tail particle properties were estimated separately, and then compared. We find that the dust tails of both LPCs and SPCs are primarily comprised of ~mm to cm sized particles, which were the result of emission that occurred several months to several years prior to the observations. The LPCs nearly all have strong dust emission close to the comet's perihelion distance, and the SPCs mostly have strong dust emission close to perihelion, but some have strong dust emission well before perihelion. Acknowledgments: This publication makes use of data products from (1) WISE, which is a joint project of UCLA and JPL/Caltech, funded by NASA; and (2) NEOWISE, which is a project of JPL/Caltech, funded by the Planetary Science Division of NASA. EK was supported by a NASA Earth and Space Sciences Fellowship. RS gratefully acknowledges support from the NASA

  12. THE SHORT ROTATION PERIOD OF HI’IAKA, HAUMEA’S LARGEST SATELLITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, Danielle M.; Margot, Jean-Luc [University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ragozzine, Darin [Florida Institute of Technology, Department of Physics and Space Sciences, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Burkhart, Luke D.; Holman, Matthew [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fuentes, Cesar [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Santiago (Chile); Brown, Michael E., E-mail: dhastings@g.ucla.edu [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, MC 150-21, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Hi’iaka is the larger outer satellite of the dwarf planet Haumea. Using relative photometry from the Hubble Space Telescope and Magellan and a phase dispersion minimization analysis, we have identified the rotation period of Hi’iaka to be ∼9.8 hr (double peaked). This is ∼120 times faster than its orbital period, creating new questions about the formation of this system and possible tidal evolution. The rapid rotation suggests that Hi’iaka could have a significant obliquity and spin precession that could be visible in light curves within a few years. We then turn to an investigation of what we learn about the (currently unclear) formation of the Haumea system and family based on this unexpectedly rapid rotation rate. We explore the importance of the initial semimajor axis and rotation period in tidal evolution theory and find that they strongly influence the time required to despin to synchronous rotation, relevant to understanding a wide variety of satellite and binary systems. We find that despinning tides do not necessarily lead to synchronous spin periods for Hi’iaka, even if it formed near the Roche limit. Therefore, the short rotation period of Hi’iaka does not rule out significant tidal evolution. Hi’iaka’s spin period is also consistent with formation near its current location and spin-up due to Haumea-centric impactors.

  13. Short-Period RF Undulator for a SASE Nanometer source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis is described towards development of a RF undulator with a period < 1 cm, an undulator parameter K of the order of unity, and a gap greater than 2.25 mm. The application for the undulator is for a SASE source to produce 1 nm wavelength radiation using a low energy electron beam in the range 1-2 GeV. Particle orbit calculations in a conventional standing-wave resonator configuration show that the presence of a co-propagating component of RF field can cause deleterious motion for the undulating electrons that can seriously degrade their radiation spectrum. To obviate this problem, resonator designs were devised in which only the counter-propagating field components interact with the particles. Two resonator configurations with the same undulator parameter K = 0.4 have been devised and are described in this report.

  14. Beamline front end for in-vacuum short period undulator at the photon factory storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyauchi, Hiroshi, E-mail: hiroshi.miyauchi@kek.jp [Accelerator Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Accelerator Science, School of High Energy Accelerator Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Tahara, Toshihiro, E-mail: ttahara@post.kek.jp; Asaoka, Seiji, E-mail: seiji.asaoka@kek.jp [Accelerator Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    The straight-section upgrade project of the Photon Factory created four new short straight sections capable of housing in-vacuum short period undulators. The first to fourth short period undulators SGU#17, SGU#03, SGU#01 and SGU#15 were installed at the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory storage ring in 2005, 2006, 2009 and 2013, respectively. The beamline front end for SGU#15 is described in this paper.

  15. Long-period and short-period variations of ionospheric parameters studied from complex observations performed on Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laso, B; Lobachevskii, L A; Potapova, N I; Freizon, I A; Shapiro, B S

    1980-09-01

    Cuban data from 1978 are used to study long-period (i.e., diurnal) variations of Doppler shift on a 3000 km path at frequencies of 10 and 15 MHz these variations are related to variations of parameters on the ionospheric path. Short-period variations were also studied on the basis of Doppler shift data and vertical sounding data in the 0.000111-0.00113 Hz frequency range. The relation between the observed variations and internal gravity waves are discussed.

  16. Medical aid in the initial period of radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selidovkin, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The main tasks of medical arrangements on the initial stage of rendering aid after radiation accident are the prime medical classification of the injured persons among the personnel of the plant and population, and realization of measures to avoid the increase of doses. The volume of medical aid depends on the type of accident, on the after-accident radiation situation, on the influence of hazardous factors, on the number of people involved in accident situation and the spectrum of sanitary losses, etc., which is to be predicted in advance and to be taken into consideration when rendering aid. The proper and sufficient aid on the initial stage will build the foundation of the ultimate efficiency of medical aid after radiation accident. 14 refs

  17. The effect of short recovery period investment on least-cost generation system expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiqun He; David, A.K.; Fernando, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of the short recovery period of private investment on least-cost generation system expansion is analysed, and a trade-off method for generation system expansion, which gives consideration to both the least-cost strategy and the short recovery period of private investment, is presented. First, the optimal mix of generation units under a standard recovery period for all units is established, and then the surcharge, due to the difference between the short recovery period and the standard recovery period, is calculated and shared between all units. The former is an optimization to make best use of natural resources, and the latter is a trade-off method to spread the surcharge throughout the system. (Author)

  18. A survey for very short-period planets in the Kepler data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Brian; Stark, Christopher C.; Chambers, John [Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Adams, Elisabeth R. [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Deming, Drake, E-mail: bjackson@dtm.ciw.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    We conducted a search for very short-period transiting objects in the publicly available Kepler data set. Our preliminary survey has revealed four planetary candidates, all with orbital periods less than 12 hr. We have analyzed the data for these candidates using photometric models that include transit light curves, ellipsoidal variations, and secondary eclipses to constrain the candidates' radii, masses, and effective temperatures. Even with masses of only a few Earth masses, the candidates' short periods mean that they may induce stellar radial velocity signals (a few m s{sup –1}) detectable by currently operating facilities. The origins of such short-period planets are unclear, but we discuss the possibility that they may be the remnants of disrupted hot Jupiters. Whatever their origins, if confirmed as planets, these candidates would be among the shortest-period planets ever discovered. Such planets would be particularly amenable to discovery by the planned TESS mission.

  19. A survey for very short-period planets in the Kepler data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Brian; Stark, Christopher C.; Chambers, John; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Deming, Drake

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a search for very short-period transiting objects in the publicly available Kepler data set. Our preliminary survey has revealed four planetary candidates, all with orbital periods less than 12 hr. We have analyzed the data for these candidates using photometric models that include transit light curves, ellipsoidal variations, and secondary eclipses to constrain the candidates' radii, masses, and effective temperatures. Even with masses of only a few Earth masses, the candidates' short periods mean that they may induce stellar radial velocity signals (a few m s –1 ) detectable by currently operating facilities. The origins of such short-period planets are unclear, but we discuss the possibility that they may be the remnants of disrupted hot Jupiters. Whatever their origins, if confirmed as planets, these candidates would be among the shortest-period planets ever discovered. Such planets would be particularly amenable to discovery by the planned TESS mission.

  20. Staggered and short-period solutions of the saturable discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khare, A.; Rasmussen, K.O.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    2009-01-01

    We point out that the nonlinear Schrodinger lattice with a saturable nonlinearity also admits staggered periodic aswell as localized pulse-like solutions. Further, the same model also admits solutions with a short period. We examine the stability of these solutions and find that the staggered as ...

  1. Spectra of short-period pulsars according to the hypothesis of the two types of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malov, I.F.

    1985-01-01

    The lack of low-frequency turnovers in the spectra of PSR 0531+21 and 1937+21 may be expl ned if the generation of radio emission in these pulsars occurs near the light cylinder. Differences of high frequency cut-offs and spectral inoices for long-period pulsars and short-period ones are discussed

  2. A Search for Exoplanets in Short-Period Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Kaitchuck

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the progress of a search for exoplanets with S-type orbits in short-period binary star systems. The selected targets have stellar orbital periods of just a few days. These systems are eclipsing binaries so that exoplanet transits, if planets exist, will be highly likely. We report the results for seven binary star systems.

  3. Short interval overnight laser scanning suggest sub-circadian periodicity of tree turgor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlinszky, Andras; Barfod, Anders

    2018-01-01

    in amplitude and 2-6hour periodicity. Sub-circadian process dynamics of plants were so far not in focus of research, but here we compare the findings with other published cases of short-term periodicity in leaf turgor, sap flow and especially trunk diameter. Several authors have noted overnight variations...

  4. Short interval overnight laser scanning suggests sub-circadian periodicity of tree turgor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlinszky, Andras; Barfod, Anders

    2018-01-01

    in amplitude and 2-6hour periodicity. Sub-circadian process dynamics of plants were so far not in focus of research, but here we compare the findings with other published cases of short-term periodicity in leaf turgor, sap flow and especially trunk diameter. Several authors have noted overnight variations...

  5. Initial results from 50mm short SSC dipoles at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Carson, J.A.; Coulter, K.; Delchamps, S.; Ewald, K.D.; Fulton, H.; Gonczy, I.; Gourlay, S.A.; Jaffery, T.S.; Kinney, W.; Koska, W.; Lamm, M.J.; Strait, J.B.; Wake, M.; Gordon, M.; Hassan, N.; Sims, R.; Winters, M.

    1991-03-01

    Several short model SSC 50 mm bore dipoles are being built and tested at Fermilab. Mechanical design of these magnets has been determined from experience involved in the construction and testing of 40 mm dipoles. Construction experience includes coil winding, curing and measuring, coil end part design and fabrication, ground insulation, instrumentation, collaring and yoke assembly. Fabrication techniques are explained and construction problems are discussed. Similarities and differences from the 40 mm dipole tooling and management components are outlined. Test results from the first models are presented. 19 refs., 12 figs

  6. Coherent Phonon Dynamics in Short-Period InAs/GaSb Superlattices

    OpenAIRE

    Noe, G. T.; Haugan, H. J.; Brown, G. J.; Sanders, G. D.; Stanton, C. J.; Kono, J.

    2011-01-01

    We have performed ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy studies on a series of InAs/GaSb-based short-period superlattice (SL) samples with periods ranging from 46 \\AA to 71 \\AA. We observe two types of oscillations in the differential reflectivity with fast ($\\sim$ 1- 2 ps) and slow ($\\sim$ 24 ps) periods. The period of the fast oscillations changes with the SL period and can be explained as coherent acoustic phonons generated from carriers photoexcited within the SL. This mode provides an accura...

  7. Effects of age, gender, and stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimi, Mitsunobu

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on age-related changes in visual short-term memory using visual stimuli that did not allow verbal encoding. Experiment 1 examined the effects of age and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. Experiment 2 examined the effects of age, gender, and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. The worst memory performance and the largest performance difference between the age groups were observed in the shortest stimulus presentation period conditions. The performance difference between the age groups became smaller as the stimulus presentation period became longer; however, it did not completely disappear. Although gender did not have a significant effect on d' regardless of the presentation period in the young group, a significant gender-based difference was observed for stimulus presentation periods of 500 ms and 1,000 ms in the older group. This study indicates that the decline in visual short-term memory observed in the older group is due to the interaction of several factors.

  8. Population Turnover in Remote Oceania Shortly after Initial Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Mark; Skoglund, Pontus; Spriggs, Matthew; Valentin, Frederique; Bedford, Stuart; Shing, Richard; Buckley, Hallie; Phillip, Iarawai; Ward, Graeme K; Mallick, Swapan; Rohland, Nadin; Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen; Cheronet, Olivia; Ferry, Matthew; Harper, Thomas K; Michel, Megan; Oppenheimer, Jonas; Sirak, Kendra; Stewardson, Kristin; Auckland, Kathryn; Hill, Adrian V S; Maitland, Kathryn; Oppenheimer, Stephen J; Parks, Tom; Robson, Kathryn; Williams, Thomas N; Kennett, Douglas J; Mentzer, Alexander J; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David

    2018-04-02

    Ancient DNA from Vanuatu and Tonga dating to about 2,900-2,600 years ago (before present, BP) has revealed that the "First Remote Oceanians" associated with the Lapita archaeological culture were directly descended from the population that, beginning around 5000 BP, spread Austronesian languages from Taiwan to the Philippines, western Melanesia, and eventually Remote Oceania. Thus, ancestors of the First Remote Oceanians must have passed by the Papuan-ancestry populations they encountered in New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, and the Solomon Islands with minimal admixture [1]. However, all present-day populations in Near and Remote Oceania harbor >25% Papuan ancestry, implying that additional eastward migration must have occurred. We generated genome-wide data for 14 ancient individuals from Efate and Epi Islands in Vanuatu from 2900-150 BP, as well as 185 present-day individuals from 18 islands. We find that people of almost entirely Papuan ancestry arrived in Vanuatu by around 2300 BP, most likely reflecting migrations a few hundred years earlier at the end of the Lapita period, when there is also evidence of changes in skeletal morphology and cessation of long-distance trade between Near and Remote Oceania [2, 3]. Papuan ancestry was subsequently diluted through admixture but remains at least 80%-90% in most islands. Through a fine-grained analysis of ancestry profiles, we show that the Papuan ancestry in Vanuatu derives from the Bismarck Archipelago rather than the geographically closer Solomon Islands. However, the Papuan ancestry in Polynesia-the most remote Pacific islands-derives from different sources, documenting a third stream of migration from Near to Remote Oceania. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Short-period AM CVn systems as optical, X-ray and gravitational-wave sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, G.; Yungelson, L.; Portegies Zwart, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    We model the population of AM CVn systems in the Galaxy and discuss the detectability of these systems with optical, X-ray and gravitational-wave detectors. We concentrate on the short-period (P < 1500 s) systems, some of which are expected to be in a phase of direct-impact accretion. Using a

  10. Evaluation of short-period rainfall estimates from Kalpana-1 satellite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The INSAT Multispectral Rainfall Algorithm (IMSRA) technique for rainfall estimation, has recently been developed to meet the shortcomings of the Global Precipitation Index (GPI) technique of rainfall estimation from the data of geostationary satellites; especially for accurate short period rainfall estimates. This study ...

  11. PLANET HUNTERS: ASSESSING THE KEPLER INVENTORY OF SHORT-PERIOD PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Lintott, Chris J.; Lynn, Stuart; Smith, Arfon M.; Simpson, Robert J.; Fischer, Debra A.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Brewer, John M.; Parrish, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We present the results from a search of data from the first 33.5 days of the Kepler science mission (Quarter 1) for exoplanet transits by the Planet Hunters citizen science project. Planet Hunters enlists members of the general public to visually identify transits in the publicly released Kepler light curves via the World Wide Web. Over 24,000 volunteers reviewed the Kepler Quarter 1 data set. We examine the abundance of ≥2 R ⊕ planets on short-period ( ⊕ Planet Hunters ≥85% efficient at identifying transit signals for planets with periods less than 15 days for the Kepler sample of target stars. Our high efficiency rate for simulated transits along with recovery of the majority of Kepler ≥4 R ⊕ planets suggests that the Kepler inventory of ≥4 R ⊕ short-period planets is nearly complete.

  12. Ultra-short period X-ray mirrors: Production and investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibishkin, M.S.; Chkhalo, N.I.; Fraerman, A.A.; Pestov, A.E.; Prokhorov, K.A.; Salashchenko, N.N.; Vainer, Yu.A.

    2005-01-01

    Technological problems that deal with manufacturing of highly effective ultra-short (d=0.7-3.2 nm) period X-ray multilayer mirrors (MLM) are discussed in the article. In an example of Cr/Sc and W/B 4 C MLM it is experimentally shown, that the problem of periodicity and selectivity for multilayer dispersive X-ray elements has been generally solved by now. However, the problem of short-period MLM reflectivity increase related to existing of transitive borders between layers in structures remains rather urgent. The new technique of tungsten deposition using the RF source in order to decrease roughness in borders is discussed and tested. The results of measurements on wavelengths of 0.154, 0.834 and 1.759 nm are given. The RbAP crystals ordinary used in experiments and short-period W/B 4 C MLM produced are compared. The specular and non-specular characteristics of scattering on the 0.154 nm wavelengths are also measured in order to study transitive borders structures

  13. Complexity analyses show two distinct types of nonlinear dynamics in short heart period variability recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Alberto; Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Cysarz, Dirk; Van Leeuwen, Peter; Takahashi, Anielle C. M.; Catai, Aparecida M.; Gnecchi-Ruscone, Tomaso

    2015-01-01

    Two diverse complexity metrics quantifying time irreversibility and local prediction, in connection with a surrogate data approach, were utilized to detect nonlinear dynamics in short heart period (HP) variability series recorded in fetuses, as a function of the gestational period, and in healthy humans, as a function of the magnitude of the orthostatic challenge. The metrics indicated the presence of two distinct types of nonlinear HP dynamics characterized by diverse ranges of time scales. These findings stress the need to render more specific the analysis of nonlinear components of HP dynamics by accounting for different temporal scales. PMID:25806002

  14. Design of a short-period superconducting undulator at KEK-PF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmi, K.; Ikeda, N.; Ishii, S.

    1998-06-01

    A short-period undulator using a superconducting magnet is proposed. This undulator has been designed to install in the KEK-Photon Factory 2.5-GeV or 6.5-GeV storage ring. The idea of a staggered wiggler, developed in Stanford university, is used in this undulator. The target of the period and K value of the undulator are set to be 1 cm and 1, respectively. We can obtain monochromatic photons with an energy of {approx} 5keV or {approx} 40 keV by using the undulator. (author)

  15. A superconducting short period undulator for a harmonic generation FEL experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingold, G.; Solomon, L.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Krinsky, S.; Li, D.; Lynch, D.; Sheehan, J.; Woodle, M.; Qiu, X.Z.; Yu, L.H.

    1993-01-01

    A three stage superconducting (SC) undulator for a high gain harmonic generation (HGE) FEL experiment in the infrared is under construction at the NSLS in collaboration with Grumman Corporation. A novel undulator technology suitable for short period (6-40mm) undulators will be employed for all three stages, the modulator, the dispersive section and the radiator. The undulator triples the frequency of a 10.4μm CO 2 seed laser. So far a 27 period (one third of the final radiator) prototype radiator has been designed, built and tested

  16. Short-rotation woody-crops program. Quarterly progress report for period ending May 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, J.H.; Ranney, J.W.

    1982-04-01

    Progress of twenty projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program is summarized for the period March 1 through May 31, 1981. Individual quarterly reports included from each of the projects discuss accomplishments within specific project objectives and identify recent papers and publications resulting from the research. The major project activities are species screening and genetic selection, stand establishment and cultural treatment, and harvest, collection, transportation, and storage.

  17. Short-rotation woody-crops program. Quarterly progress report for period ending August 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, J.H.; Ranney, J.W.

    1982-04-01

    Progress of twenty-one projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program is summarized for the period June 1 through August 31, 1981. Individual quarterly reports included from each of the projects discuss accomplishments within specific project objectives and identify recent papers and publications resulting from the research. The major program activities are species screening and genetic selection, stand establishment and cultural treatment, and harvest, collection, transportation, and storage.

  18. Magnetoresistance calculations for a two-dimensional electron gas with unilateral short-period strong modulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Výborný, Karel; Smrčka, Ludvík

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 20 (2002), s. 205318-1 - 205318-8 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : magnetoresistance * short-period superlattices * two-dimensional electron gas Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2002

  19. Hydrostatic pressure and strain effects in short period InN/GaN superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, Niels Egede

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structures of short-period pseudomorphically grown superlattices (SLs) of the form mInN/nGaN are calculated and the band gap variation with the well and the barrier thicknesses is discussed including hydrostatic pressure effects. The calculated band gap shows a strong dependence...... strongly on the strain conditions and SL geometry, but weakly on the applied external hydrostatic pressure....

  20. Observation of short period fluctuation of CygX-1 with balloon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Michio; Sakurai, Takahisa; Uchida, Masayoshi

    1977-01-01

    CygX-1 presents very complex short period fluctuation of X-ray, therefore the hard X-ray was especially observed in 1972 and 1973 with large balloons, and the data were analyzed. This short period fluctuation and energy spectra of CygX-1 in the normal and flare time bands were compared. The observing apparatuses consisted of the 3 in diameter NaI detector and a high pressure proportional counter. The observing method is to turn the gondora alternately to the directions of source (ON) and background (OFF). As for the data analysis, the events at ON and OFF in the observation data in 1972 and 1973 were plotted for time interval. The background component is in agreement with Poisson's distribution, but source component is not. This difference for Poisson's distribution means the behavior of CygX-1. The power spectrum was analyzed, and the strong power density was observed at 5.4 x 10 -2 Hz in ON, but such power density was not observed in OFF. Accordingly this is presumed to be caused by CygX-1. The events for time interval in flare time are shown. The rise of about 2.9 σ exists at 80 msec. The count rates were compared for photon energy in the normal and flare times. The short period fluctuation of hard X-ray from CygX-1 deviates from Poisson's distribution and is different in the normal and flare times. (Nakai, Y.)

  1. Captive rearing initiative for Salmon River chinook salmon; Report period: January 1998-January 1999; Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassemer, Peter; Kline, Paul; Heindel, Jeff; Plaster, Kurtis

    1999-01-01

    The IDFG initiated a captive rearing program for populations at high risk of extinction to maintain metapopulation structure. Captive rearing is a short-term approach to species preservation. The main goal of the captive rearing approach is to avoid demographic and environmental risks of cohort extinction; maintaining the genetic identity of the breeding unit is an important but secondary objective

  2. Anomalous short period geomagnetic variations at two stations in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunaratnam, K.

    1986-08-01

    An analysis of the rates of change in the geomagnetic field components in the period range 20-600 sec recorded at Kondavil and Hikkaduwa, two stations in the equatorial electrojet belt near the northern and south western coasts respectively of Sri Lanka, shows anomalous variations. The results confirm induced current concentration in the Palk Strait and deflection of induced currents around the southerncoast of Sri Lanka postulated by earlier workers from observations of SSC and Bay events at Indian stations and from analogue and numerical model studies. At Kondavil, which is situated close to the geomagnetic equator, no appreciable difference in the night-time and day-time values of ΔZ/ΔH and ΔD/ΔH ratios was noticed while at Hikkaduwa, a station situated under the edge of the equatorial electrojet belt, a day-time enhancement of ΔZ/ΔH ratios was found at all periods in the observed range. An enhancement of the H component at Colombo over that at Hikkaduwa was also found at short periods, the enhancement being greater at day-time. The day-time enhancement in the ΔZ/ΔH ratios at Hikkaduwa and in the ratio of the H components at Colombo and Hikkaduwa could be due to the effect of the equatorial electrojet on the short period variations. (author)

  3. Survival of a planet in short-period Neptunian desert under effect of photoevaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionov, Dmitry E.; Pavlyuchenkov, Yaroslav N.; Shematovich, Valery I.

    2018-06-01

    Despite the identification of a great number of Jupiter-like and Earth-like planets at close-in orbits, the number of `hot Neptunes' - the planets with 0.6-18 times of Neptune mass and orbital periods less than 3 d - turned out to be very small. The corresponding region in the mass-period distribution was assigned as the `short-period Neptunian desert'. The common explanation of this fact is that the gaseous planet with few Neptune masses would not survive in the vicinity of host star due to intensive atmosphere outflow induced by heating from stellar radiation. To check this hypothesis, we performed numerical simulations of atmosphere dynamics for a hot Neptune. We adopt the previously developed self-consistent 1D model of hydrogen-helium atmosphere with suprathermal electrons accounted. The mass-loss rates as a function of orbital distances and stellar ages are presented. We conclude that the desert of short-period Neptunes could not be entirely explained by evaporation of planet atmosphere caused by the radiation from a host star. For the less massive Neptune-like planet, the estimated upper limits of the mass-loss may be consistent with the photoevaporation scenario, while the heavier Neptune-like planets could not lose the significant mass through this mechanism. We also found the significant differences between our numerical results and widely used approximate estimates of the mass-loss.

  4. Multi-band photometric study of the short-period eclipsing binary GR Boo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daimei; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Lu, Hongpeng

    2017-05-01

    We present BVRI light curves with complete phase coverage for the short-period (p = 0.377day) eclipsing binary star GR Boo. We carried out the observations using the SARA 90 cm telescope located at Kitt Peak National Observatory. We obtained six new light curve minimum times. By fitting all of the available O-C minimum times, we obtained an updated ephemeris that shows the orbital period of GR Boo is decreasing at a rate of P˙ = - 2.36 ×10-7 days/year. This decrease in its period can be explained by either mass transfer from the more massive component to the less massive one, or angular momentum exchange due to magnetic activities. We also obtained a set of revised orbital parameters using the Wilson & Devinney program. And finally, we concluded that GR Boo is a contact binary with a dark spot.

  5. Short-period oscillations in photoemission from thin films of Cr(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyalikh, Denis V.; Zahn, Peter; Richter, Manuel; Dedkov, Yu. S.; Molodtsov, S. L.

    2005-07-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission (PE) study of thin films of Cr grown on Fe(100) reveals thickness-dependent short-period oscillations of the PE intensity close to the Fermi energy at k‖˜0 . The oscillations are assigned to quantum-well states (QWS) caused by the nesting between the Fermi-surface sheets around the Γ and the X points in the Brillouin zone of antiferromagnetic Cr. The experimental data are confirmed by density-functional calculations applying a screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green’s function method. The period of the experimentally observed QWS oscillations amounts to about 2.6 monolayers and is larger than the fundamental 2-monolayer period of antiferromagnetic coupling in Cr.

  6. A comparison of conventional local approach and the short crack approach to fatigue crack initiation at a notch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, Narayanaswami; Leroy, Rene; Tougui, Abdellah [Laboratoire de Mecanique et Rheologie, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Polytech Tours, Departement Mecanique et Conception de Systemes, Tours (France)

    2009-09-15

    Methods to estimate fatigue crack initiation life at a notch tip are compared. The methods used determine the strain amplitudes at the notch tip using Neuber's or Glinka's approximation. In conventional approaches, equivalent-damage levels are determined, using appropriate strain-life relationships coupled with damage-summation models. In the short-crack approach, a crack-like defect is assumed to exist at the notch tip. It is shown that the short-crack concept can be successfully applied to predict crack-initiation behavior at a notch. Model predictions are compared with carefully designed experiments. It is shown that model predictions are very close to experimentally measured lives under an aircraft-wing loading spectrum. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Note on nonlinear seismic response of reinforced concrete structures with low initial periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozen, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This note was prepared to illustrate by specific examples an opinion on the seismic response of reinforced concrete structures with low initial periods. The object is to point out what the writer considers to be important in relation to the behavior of such structures at levels of ground shaking higher than indicated by design criteria. Structures of concern are assumed to have low initial periods. A structure with a low initial period is assumed to have both of two attributes: (a) its flexural stiffness is high so that its total overall lateral deformation is not dominated by flexural deformation and (b) its calculated period is below the one at which the calculated response spectrum may be idealized to change from the nearly-constant acceleration to the nearly-constant velocity response range

  8. Entrainment to periodic initiation and transition rates in a computational model for gene translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Margaliot

    Full Text Available Periodic oscillations play an important role in many biomedical systems. Proper functioning of biological systems that respond to periodic signals requires the ability to synchronize with the periodic excitation. For example, the sleep/wake cycle is a manifestation of an internal timing system that synchronizes to the solar day. In the terminology of systems theory, the biological system must entrain or phase-lock to the periodic excitation. Entrainment is also important in synthetic biology. For example, connecting several artificial biological systems that entrain to a common clock may lead to a well-functioning modular system. The cell-cycle is a periodic program that regulates DNA synthesis and cell division. Recent biological studies suggest that cell-cycle related genes entrain to this periodic program at the gene translation level, leading to periodically-varying protein levels of these genes. The ribosome flow model (RFM is a deterministic model obtained via a mean-field approximation of a stochastic model from statistical physics that has been used to model numerous processes including ribosome flow along the mRNA. Here we analyze the RFM under the assumption that the initiation and/or transition rates vary periodically with a common period T. We show that the ribosome distribution profile in the RFM entrains to this periodic excitation. In particular, the protein synthesis pattern converges to a unique periodic solution with period T. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first proof of entrainment in a mathematical model for translation that encapsulates aspects such as initiation and termination rates, ribosomal movement and interactions, and non-homogeneous elongation speeds along the mRNA. Our results support the conjecture that periodic oscillations in tRNA levels and other factors related to the translation process can induce periodic oscillations in protein levels, and may suggest a new approach for re-engineering genetic

  9. An advanced analysis method of initial orbit determination with too short arc data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binzhe; Fang, Li

    2018-02-01

    This paper studies the initial orbit determination (IOD) based on space-based angle measurement. Commonly, these space-based observations have short durations. As a result, classical initial orbit determination algorithms give poor results, such as Laplace methods and Gauss methods. In this paper, an advanced analysis method of initial orbit determination is developed for space-based observations. The admissible region and triangulation are introduced in the method. Genetic algorithm is also used for adding some constraints of parameters. Simulation results show that the algorithm can successfully complete the initial orbit determination.

  10. Short-term Risk of Serious Fall Injuries in Older Adults Initiating and Intensifying Treatment with Antihypertensive Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Daichi; Bowling, C. Barrett; Levitan, Emily B.; Deng, Luqin; Sim, John J.; Huang, Lei; Reynolds, Kristi; Muntner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Antihypertensive medication use has been associated with an increased risk of falls in some but not all studies. Few data are available on the short-term risk of falls following antihypertensive medication initiation and intensification. Methods and Results We examined the association between initiating and intensifying antihypertensive medication and serious fall injuries in a case-crossover study of 90,127 Medicare beneficiaries who were ≥65 years old and had a serious fall injury between July 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012, based on emergency department and inpatient claims. Antihypertensive medication initiation was defined by a prescription fill with no fills in the prior year. Intensification was defined by the addition of a new antihypertensive class, and, separately, titration by the addition of a new class or increase in dosage of a current class. Exposures were ascertained for the 15 days before the fall (case period) and six 15-day earlier periods (control periods). Overall, 272, 1508, and 3113 Medicare beneficiaries initiated, added a new class of antihypertensive medication or titrated therapy, respectively, within 15 days of their serious fall injury. The odds for a serious fall injury was increased during the 15 days following antihypertensive medication initiation [odds ratio, OR, 1.36 (95% CI 1.19, 1.55)], adding a new class [OR 1.16 (95% CI 1.10, 1.23)], and titration [OR 1.13 (95% CI 1.08, 1.18)]. These associations were attenuated beyond 15 days. Conclusions Antihypertensive medication initiation and intensification was associated with a short-term, but not long-term, increased risk of serious fall injuries among older adults. PMID:27166208

  11. QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS AND BROADBAND VARIABILITY IN SHORT MAGNETAR BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppenkothen, Daniela; Watts, Anna L.; Uttley, Phil; Van der Horst, Alexander J.; Van der Klis, Michiel [Astronomical Institute ' ' Anton Pannekoek' ' , University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090-GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kouveliotou, Chryssa [Office of Science and Technology, ZP12, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Goegues, Ersin [Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Orhanl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I -Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Granot, Jonathan [The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Ra' anana 43537 (Israel); Vaughan, Simon [X-Ray and Observational Astronomy Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Finger, Mark H., E-mail: D.Huppenkothen@uva.nl [Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in magnetar giant flares has opened up prospects for neutron star asteroseismology. However, with only three giant flares ever recorded, and only two with data of sufficient quality to search for QPOs, such analysis is seriously data limited. We set out a procedure for doing QPO searches in the far more numerous, short, less energetic magnetar bursts. The short, transient nature of these bursts requires the implementation of sophisticated statistical techniques to make reliable inferences. Using Bayesian statistics, we model the periodogram as a combination of red noise at low frequencies and white noise at high frequencies, which we show is a conservative approach to the problem. We use empirical models to make inferences about the potential signature of periodic and QPOs at these frequencies. We compare our method with previously used techniques and find that although it is on the whole more conservative, it is also more reliable in ruling out false positives. We illustrate our Bayesian method by applying it to a sample of 27 bursts from the magnetar SGR J0501+4516 observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and we find no evidence for the presence of QPOs in any of the bursts in the unbinned spectra, but do find a candidate detection in the binned spectra of one burst. However, whether this signal is due to a genuine quasi-periodic process, or can be attributed to unmodeled effects in the noise is at this point a matter of interpretation.

  12. Absence of a Metallicity Effect for Ultra-short-period Planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, Joshua N.; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Isaacson, Howard; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Rogers, Leslie; Petigura, Erik A.; Howard, Andrew W.; Schlaufman, Kevin C.; Cargile, Phillip; Hebb, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Ultra-short-period (USP) planets are a newly recognized class of planets with periods shorter than one day and radii smaller than about 2  R ⊕ . It has been proposed that USP planets are the solid cores of hot Jupiters that have lost their gaseous envelopes due to photo-evaporation or Roche lobe overflow. We test this hypothesis by asking whether USP planets are associated with metal-rich stars, as has long been observed for hot Jupiters. We find the metallicity distributions of USP-planet and hot-Jupiter hosts to be significantly different ( p = 3 × 10 −4 ) based on Keck spectroscopy of Kepler stars. Evidently, the sample of USP planets is not dominated by the evaporated cores of hot Jupiters. The metallicity distribution of stars with USP planets is indistinguishable from that of stars with short-period planets with sizes between 2 and 4  R ⊕ . Thus, it remains possible that the USP planets are the solid cores of formerly gaseous planets that are smaller than Neptune.

  13. Absence of a Metallicity Effect for Ultra-short-period Planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, Joshua N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Isaacson, Howard; Marcy, Geoffrey W. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rogers, Leslie [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Petigura, Erik A.; Howard, Andrew W. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schlaufman, Kevin C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cargile, Phillip [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hebb, Leslie [Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Ultra-short-period (USP) planets are a newly recognized class of planets with periods shorter than one day and radii smaller than about 2  R {sub ⊕}. It has been proposed that USP planets are the solid cores of hot Jupiters that have lost their gaseous envelopes due to photo-evaporation or Roche lobe overflow. We test this hypothesis by asking whether USP planets are associated with metal-rich stars, as has long been observed for hot Jupiters. We find the metallicity distributions of USP-planet and hot-Jupiter hosts to be significantly different ( p = 3 × 10{sup −4}) based on Keck spectroscopy of Kepler stars. Evidently, the sample of USP planets is not dominated by the evaporated cores of hot Jupiters. The metallicity distribution of stars with USP planets is indistinguishable from that of stars with short-period planets with sizes between 2 and 4  R {sub ⊕}. Thus, it remains possible that the USP planets are the solid cores of formerly gaseous planets that are smaller than Neptune.

  14. Variational data assimilation for the optimized ozone initial state and the short-time forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-Y. Park

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we apply the four-dimensional variational (4D-Var data assimilation to optimize initial ozone state and to improve the predictability of air quality. The numerical modeling systems used for simulations of atmospheric condition and chemical formation are the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model. The study area covers the capital region of South Korea, where the surface measurement sites are relatively evenly distributed. The 4D-Var code previously developed for the CMAQ model is modified to consider background error in matrix form, and various numerical tests are conducted. The results are evaluated with an idealized covariance function for the appropriateness of the modified codes. The background error is then constructed using the NMC method with long-term modeling results, and the characteristics of the spatial correlation scale related to local circulation are analyzed. The background error is applied in the 4D-Var research, and a surface observational assimilation is conducted to optimize the initial concentration of ozone. The statistical results for the 12 h assimilation periods and the 120 observatory sites show a 49.4 % decrease in the root mean squared error (RMSE, and a 59.9 % increase in the index of agreement (IOA. The temporal variation of spatial distribution of the analysis increments indicates that the optimized initial state of ozone concentration is transported to inland areas by the clockwise-rotating local circulation during the assimilation windows. To investigate the predictability of ozone concentration after the assimilation window, a short-time forecasting is carried out. The ratios of the RMSE (root mean squared error with assimilation versus that without assimilation are 8 and 13 % for the +24 and +12 h, respectively. Such a significant improvement in the forecast accuracy is obtained solely by using the optimized initial state. The potential

  15. Epitaxial nanowire formation in metamorphic GaAs/GaPAs short-period superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nan; Ahrenkiel, S. Phillip

    2017-07-01

    Metamorphic growth presents routes to novel nanomaterials with unique properties that may be suitable for a range of applications. We discuss self-assembled, epitaxial nanowires formed during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of metamorphic GaAs/GaPAs short-period superlattices. The heterostructures incorporate strain-engineered GaPAs compositional grades on 6°-B miscut GaAs substrates. Lateral diffusion within the SPS into vertically aligned, three-dimensional columns results in nanowires extending along A directions with a lateral period of 70-90 nm. The microstructure is probed by transmission electron microscopy to confirm the presence of coherent GaAs nanowires within GaPAs barriers. The compositional profile is inferred from analysis of {200} dark-field image contrast and lattice images.

  16. Role of short periodic orbits in quantum maps with continuous openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Carlos A.; Carlo, Gabriel G.; Benito, R. M.; Borondo, F.

    2018-04-01

    We apply a recently developed semiclassical theory of short periodic orbits to the continuously open quantum tribaker map. In this paradigmatic system the trajectories are partially bounced back according to continuous reflectivity functions. This is relevant in many situations that include optical microresonators and more complicated boundary conditions. In a perturbative regime, the shortest periodic orbits belonging to the classical repeller of the open map—a cantor set given by a region of exactly zero reflectivity—prove to be extremely robust in supporting a set of long-lived resonances of the continuously open quantum maps. Moreover, for steplike functions a significant reduction in the number needed is obtained, similarly to the completely open situation. This happens despite a strong change in the spectral properties when compared to the discontinuous reflectivity case. In order to give a more realistic interpretation of these results we compare with a Fresnel-type reflectivity function.

  17. Cooperative learning combined with short periods of lecturing: A good alternative in teaching biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Santander, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The informal activities of cooperative learning and short periods of lecturing has been combined and used in the university teaching of biochemistry as part of the first year course of Optics and Optometry in the academic years 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. The lessons were previously elaborated by the teacher and included all that is necessary to understand the topic (text, figures, graphics, diagrams, pictures, etc.). Additionally, a questionnaire was prepared for every chapter. All lessons contained three parts: objectives, approach and development, and the assessment of the topic. Team work, responsibility, and communication skills were some of the abilities developed with this new methodology. Students worked collaboratively in small groups of two or three following the teacher's instructions with short periods of lecturing that clarified misunderstood concepts. Homework was minimized. On comparing this combined methodology with the traditional one (only lecture), students were found to exhibit a higher satisfaction with the new method. They were more involved in the learning process and had a better attitude toward the subject. The use of this new methodology showed a significant increase in the mean score of the students' academic results. The rate of students who failed the subject was significantly inferior in comparison with those who failed in the previous years when only lecturing was applied. This combined methodology helped the teacher to observe the apprenticeship process of students better and to act as a facilitator in the process of building students' knowledge. Copyright © 2008 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Determination of circulation and short period fluctuation in Ilha Grande Bay (RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimine Ikeda

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available A mesosoale study was made of the Ilha Grande area. The local circulation described through -progressive vector diagrams showed a clochwise bottom circulation determined in June 1976, while in the upper 10 m the direction of the flow entering the Ilha Grande Bay was towards the center in the west and towards the Marambaia sandbank in the east side of the Bay. Short periods and amplitude fluctuations were evaluted using power spectral analysis, Fourier and Maximum Entropy Method, which showed that in the upper 10 m predominant periods decrease from 1.1h (A = 6.3cm sec-1 (position = 3C to 1.0h (A = 7.4 cm sec-1 (position = 2D and increase to 5.8h (A = 6.8 cm., sec-1 (position = ID, while at the bottom layer the predominant period increases from 0.4 h (A = 5.0 cm sec-1 (position = 3G to 6.4h (A = 7.0 cm sec-1 (position = 2G and to 4.4h (A = 7.9 cm sec-1 (position = 1G . From the original data it has been possible to determine an "intense pulsation" between 30-70 cm sec-1 in the upper 10 m with about 1.0h period and 10-20 min duration in all the stations.

  19. THE FREQUENCY OF LOW-MASS EXOPLANETS. III. TOWARD η+ AT SHORT PERIODS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Tinney, C. G.; Bailey, J.; Horner, J.; Butler, R. P.; O'Toole, Simon J.; Jones, H. R. A.; Carter, B. D.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the occurrence rate of 'super-Earth' planets (m sin i + ) is a critically important step on the path toward determining the frequency of Earth-like planets (η + ), and hence the uniqueness of our solar system. Current radial-velocity surveys, achieving precisions of 1 m s -1 , are now able to detect super-Earths and provide meaningful estimates of their occurrence rate. We present an analysis of 67 solar-type stars from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search specifically targeted for very high precision observations. When corrected for incompleteness, we find that the planet occurrence rate increases sharply with decreasing planetary mass. Our results are consistent with those from other surveys: in periods shorter than 50 days, we find that 3.0% of stars host a giant (msin i > 100 M + ) planet, and that 17.4% of stars host a planet with msin i + . The preponderance of low-mass planets in short-period orbits is in conflict with formation simulations in which the majority of super-Earths reside at larger orbital distances. This work gives a hint as to the size of η + , but to make meaningful predictions on the frequency of terrestrial planets in longer, potentially habitable orbits, low-mass terrestrial planet searches at periods of 100-200 days must be made an urgent priority for ground-based Doppler planet searches in the years ahead.

  20. SOHO/SWAN OBSERVATIONS OF SHORT-PERIOD SPACECRAFT TARGET COMETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combi, M. R.; Lee, Y.; Patel, T. S.; Maekinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quemerais, E.

    2011-01-01

    SWAN, the Solar Wind ANisotropies all-sky hydrogen Lyα camera on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft that makes all-sky images of interplanetary neutral hydrogen, has an ongoing campaign to make special observations of comets, both short- and long-period ones, in addition to the serendipitous observations of comets as part of the all-sky monitoring program. We report here on a study of several short-period comets that were detected by SWAN: 21P/Giacobini-Zinner (1998 and 2005 apparitions), 19P/Borrelly (2001 apparition), 81P/Wild 2 (1997 apparition), and 103P/Hartley 2 (1997 apparition). SWAN observes comets over long continuous stretches of their visible apparitions and therefore provides excellent temporal coverage of the water production. For some of the observations we are also able to analyze an entire sequence of images over many days to several weeks/months using our time-resolved model and extract daily average water production rates over continuous periods of several days to months. The short-term (outburst) and long-term behavior can be correlated with other observations. The overall long-term variation is examined in light of seasonal effects seen in the pre- to post-perihelion differences. For 21P/Giacobini-Zinner and 81P/Wild 2 the activity variations over each apparition were more continuously monitored but nonetheless consistent with previous observations. For 19P/Borrelly we found a very steep variation of water production rates, again consistent with some previous observations, and a variation over six months around perihelion that was reasonably consistent with the spin-axis model of Schleicher et al. and the illumination of the main active areas. During the 1997-1998 apparition of 103P/Hartley 2, the target comet of the EPOXI mission (the Deep Impact extended mission), we found a variation with heliocentric distance (∼r -3.6 ) that was almost as steep as 19P/Borrelly and, given the small measured radius near aphelion, this places

  1. Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Pivovaroff, Mike J.; Soufli, Regina; Alameda, Jennifer; Mirkarimi, Paul; Descalle, Marie-Anne; Baker, Sherry L.; McCarville, Tom; Ziock, Klaus; Hornback, Donald; Romaine, Suzanne; Bruni, Ric; Zhong, Zhong; Honkimäki, Veijo; Ziegler, Eric; Christensen, Finn E.; Jakobsen, Anders C.

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer coatings enhance x-ray mirror performance at incidence angles steeper than the critical angle, allowing for improved flux, design flexibility and facilitating alignment. In an attempt to extend the use of multilayer coatings to photon energies higher than previously achieved, we have developed multilayers with ultra-short periods between 1 and 2 nm based on the material system WC/SiC. This material system was selected because it possesses very sharp and stable interfaces. In this article, we show highlights from a series of experiments performed in order to characterize the stress, microstructure and morphology of the multilayer films, as well as their reflective performance at photon energies from 8 to 384 keV

  2. The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE): Observing Mass Loss on Short-Period Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Arika; Fleming, Brian; France, Kevin

    2018-06-01

    The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE) is an NUV spectrograph packaged into a 6U CubeSat, designed to characterize the interaction between exoplanetary atmospheres and their host stars. CUTE will conduct a transit spectroscopy survey, gathering data over multiple transits on more than 12 short-period exoplanets with a range of masses and radii. The instrument will characterize the spectral properties of the transit light curves to atomic and molecular absorption features predicted to exist in the upper atmospheres of these planets, including Mg I, Mg II, Fe II, and OH. The shape and evolution of these spectral light curves will be used to quantify mass loss rates, the stellar drives of that mass loss, and the possible existence of exoplanetary magnetic fiends. This poster presents the science motivation for CUTE, planned observation and data analysis methods, and expected results.

  3. THE VERY SHORT PERIOD M DWARF BINARY SDSS J001641-000925

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, James R. A.; Becker, Andrew C.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Gunning, Heather C.; Munshi, Ferah A.; Albright, Meagan [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); West, Andrew A. [Astronomy Department, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Bochanski, John J. [Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Hilton, Eric J., E-mail: jrad@astro.washington.edu [Department of Geology and Geophysics and Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    We present follow-up observations and analysis of the recently discovered short period low-mass eclipsing binary, SDSS J001641-000925. With an orbital period of 0.19856 days, this system has one of the shortest known periods for an M dwarf binary system. Medium-resolution spectroscopy and multi-band photometry for the system are presented. Markov Chain Monte Carlo modeling of the light curves and radial velocities yields estimated masses for the stars of M {sub 1} = 0.54 {+-} 0.07 M {sub Sun} and M {sub 2} = 0.34 {+-} 0.04 M {sub Sun }, and radii of R {sub 1} = 0.68 {+-} 0.03 R {sub Sun} and R {sub 2} = 0.58 {+-} 0.03 R {sub Sun }, respectively. This solution places both components above the critical Roche overfill limit, providing strong evidence that SDSS J001641-000925 is the first verified M-dwarf contact binary system. Within the follow-up spectroscopy we find signatures of non-solid body rotation velocities, which we interpret as evidence for mass transfer or loss within the system. In addition, our photometry samples the system over nine years, and we find strong evidence for period decay at the rate of P-dot {approx} 8 s yr{sup -1}. Both of these signatures raise the intriguing possibility that the system is in over-contact, and actively losing angular momentum, likely through mass loss. This places SDSS J001641-000925 as not just the first M-dwarf over-contact binary, but one of the few systems of any spectral type known to be actively undergoing coalescence. Further study of SDSS J001641-000925 is ongoing to verify the nature of the system, which may prove to be a unique astrophysical laboratory.

  4. Short-term Periodization Models: Effects on Strength and Speed-strength Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Hagen; Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Mickel, Christoph; Sander, Andre; Szilvas, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Dividing training objectives into consecutive phases to gain morphological adaptations (hypertrophy phase) and neural adaptations (strength and power phases) is called strength-power periodization (SPP). These phases differ in program variables (volume, intensity, and exercise choice or type) and use stepwise intensity progression and concomitant decreasing volume, converging to peak intensity (peaking phase). Undulating periodization strategies rotate these program variables in a bi-weekly, weekly, or daily fashion. The following review addresses the effects of different short-term periodization models on strength and speed-strength both with subjects of different performance levels and with competitive athletes from different sports who use a particular periodization model during off-season, pre-season, and in-season conditioning. In most periodization studies, it is obvious that the strength endurance sessions are characterized by repetition zones (12-15 repetitions) that induce muscle hypertrophy in persons with a low performance level. Strictly speaking, when examining subjects with a low training level, many periodization studies include mainly hypertrophy sessions interspersed with heavy strength/power sessions. Studies have demonstrated equal or statistically significant higher gains in maximal strength for daily undulating periodization compared with SPP in subjects with a low to moderate performance level. The relatively short intervention period and the lack of concomitant sports conditioning call into question the practical value of these findings for competitive athletes. Possibly owing to differences in mesocycle length, conditioning programs, and program variables, competitive athletes either maintained or improved strength and/or speed-strength performance by integrating daily undulating periodization and SPP during off-season, pre-season and in-season conditioning. In high-performance sports, high-repetition strength training (>15) should be

  5. Detection and closure measurement of short fatigue crack initiated at notch root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-Hyung; Kobayashi, Hideo

    1985-01-01

    Short fatigue cracks initiated at the notch root were successfully detected at a fairly high accuracy by the ultrasonic amplitude calibration method for the notched compact specimens of an A508-3 steel. Crack closure measurements by the ultrasonic and back-face strain compliance methods were also performed. Crack growth characteristics at the notch root are similar to those of delyed retardation caused by a single peak overload. Also, transitional behavior from short cracks to long cracks was interpreted in terms of effective stress intensity ΔKsub(eff). The relation between crack growth rate da/dN and ΔKsub(eff) for short cracks shows a fairly good agreement with those for long cracks. (author)

  6. Born dry in the photoevaporation desert: Kepler's ultra-short-period planets formed water-poor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Eric D.

    2017-11-01

    Recent surveys have uncovered an exciting new population of ultra-short-period (USP) planets with orbital periods less than a day. These planets typically have radii ≲1.5 R⊕, indicating that they likely have rocky compositions. This stands in contrast to the overall distribution of planets out to ∼100 d, which is dominated by low-density sub-Neptunes above 2 R⊕, which must have gaseous envelopes to explain their size. However, on the USP orbits, planets are bombarded by intense levels of photoionizing radiation and consequently gaseous sub-Neptunes are extremely vulnerable to losing their envelopes to atmospheric photoevaporation. Using models of planet evolution, I show that the rocky USP planets can easily be produced as the evaporated remnants of sub-Neptunes with H/He envelopes and that we can therefore understand the observed dearth of USP sub-Neptunes as a natural consequence of photoevaporation. Critically however, planets on USP orbits could often retain their envelopes if they are formed with very high-metallicity water-dominated envelopes. Such water-rich planets would commonly be ≳2 R⊕ today, which is inconsistent with the observed evaporation desert, indicating that most USP planets likely formed from water-poor material within the snow-line. Finally, I examine the special case of 55 Cancri e and its possible composition in the light of recent observations, and discuss the prospects for further characterizing this population with future observations.

  7. Raman analysis of phonon modes in a short period AlN/GaN superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Ketaki; Datta, Debopam; Gosztola, David J.; Shi, Fengyuan; Nicholls, Alan; Stroscio, Michael A.; Dutta, Mitra

    2018-03-01

    AlN/GaN-based optoelectronic devices have been the subject of intense research underlying the commercialization of efficient devices. Areas of considerable interest are the study of their lattice dynamics, phonon transport, and electron-phonon interactions specific to the interface of these heterostructures which results in additional optical phonon modes known as interface phonon modes. In this study, the framework of the dielectric continuum model (DCM) has been used to compare and analyze the optical phonon modes obtained from experimental Raman scattering measurements on AlN/GaN short-period superlattices. We have observed the localized E2(high), A1(LO) and the E1(TO) modes in superlattice measurements at frequencies shifted from their bulk values. To the best of our knowledge, the nanostructures used in these studies are among the smallest yielding useful Raman signatures for the interface modes. In addition, we have also identified an additional spread of interface phonon modes in the TO range resulting from the superlattice periodicity. The Raman signature contribution from the underlying AlxGa1-xN ternary has also been observed and analyzed. A temperature calibration was done based on Stokes/anti-Stokes ratio of A1(LO) using Raman spectroscopy in a broad operating temperature range. Good agreement between the experimental results and theoretically calculated calibration plot predicted using Bose-Einstein statistics was obtained.

  8. Initial Resuscitation at Delivery and Short Term Neonatal Outcomes in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Su Jin; Shin, Jeonghee; Namgung, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Survival of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) depends on professional perinatal management that begins at delivery. Korean Neonatal Network data on neonatal resuscitation management and initial care of VLBWI of less than 33 weeks gestation born from January 2013 to June 2014 were reviewed to investigate the current practice of neonatal resuscitation in Korea. Antenatal data, perinatal data, and short-term morbidities were analyzed. Out of 2,132 neonates, 91.7% needed resuscitation at birt...

  9. Use of 7Be to document soil erosion associated with a short period of extreme rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda, A.; Schuller, P.; Walling, D.E.; Castillo, A.

    2008-01-01

    Intensification and expansion of agricultural production since the 1970s have increased soil erosion problems in south-central Chile. Quantitative information on soil loss is needed for erosion risk assessment and to establish the effectiveness of improved land management practices. Since information from traditional sources, such as erosion plots, is limited, attention has been directed to the use of environmental radionuclides for documenting erosion rates. Cs-137 has been successfully utilised for this purpose, but only provides information on medium-term erosion rates. There is also a need to document event-related soil erosion. This paper outlines the basis for using 7 Be measurements to document short-term erosion and reports its successful use for quantifying the erosion that occurred within an arable field, as a result of a period of heavy rainfall (400 mm in 27 days) occurring in May 2005. The study field had been under a no-till, no-burning system for 18 years, but immediately prior to the period of heavy rainfall the harvest residues were burnt. The erosion recorded therefore reflected both the extreme nature of the rainfall and the effects of the burning in increasing surface runoff and erosion. The sampled area corresponded to that used previously by the authors to document the medium-term erosion rates associated with both conventional tillage and the subsequent switch to a no-till system. Comparisons between the erosion documented for the period of heavy rainfall in 2005 with these medium-term erosion rates permits some tentative conclusions regarding the importance of extreme events and the impact of burning in increasing the erosion associated with the no-till system

  10. Dynamics of Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} MIC combustion from short single-pulse photothermal initiation and time-resolved spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiegman, Albert E.; Park, Chi-Dong; Mileham, Melissa; Van de Burgt, Lambertus J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University Tallahassee, FL (United States); Kramer, Michael P. [AFRL/MNME Eglin AFB, FL (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Time-resolved spectroscopy was used to study the dynamics of the photothermal ignition of Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} metastable intermolecular composites after single short-pulse laser initiation. The dynamics were recorded in several time domains from nanosecond to microsecond to quantify the dynamics from initial laser excitation to combustion. Time-averaged spectral data were also collected for the overall emission occurring during combustion. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Genome variability of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the short period of the 2010 epidemic in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Tatsuya; Yamada, Manabu; Fukai, Katsuhiko; Shimada, Nobuaki; Morioka, Kazuki; Yoshida, Kazuo; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Kanno, Toru; Yamakawa, Makoto

    2017-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is highly contagious and has a high mutation rate, leading to extensive genetic variation. To investigate how FMDV genetically evolves over a short period of an epidemic after initial introduction into an FMD-free area, whole L-fragment sequences of 104 FMDVs isolated from the 2010 epidemic in Japan, which continued for less than three months were determined and phylogenetically and comparatively analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of whole L-fragment sequences showed that these isolates were classified into a single group, indicating that FMDV was introduced into Japan in the epidemic via a single introduction. Nucleotide sequences of 104 virus isolates showed more than 99.56% pairwise identity rates without any genetic deletion or insertion, although no sequences were completely identical with each other. These results indicate that genetic substitutions of FMDV occurred gradually and constantly during the epidemic and generation of an extensive mutant virus could have been prevented by rapid eradication strategy. From comparative analysis of variability of each FMDV protein coding region, VP4 and 2C regions showed the highest average identity rates and invariant rates, and were confirmed as highly conserved. In contrast, the protein coding regions VP2 and VP1 were confirmed to be highly variable regions with the lowest average identity rates and invariant rates, respectively. Our data demonstrate the importance of rapid eradication strategy in an FMD epidemic and provide valuable information on the genome variability of FMDV during the short period of an epidemic. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Towards a Fundamental Understanding of Short Period Eclipsing Binary Systems Using Kepler Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Andrej

    Kepler's ultra-high precision photometry is revolutionizing stellar astrophysics. We are seeing intrinsic phenomena on an unprecedented scale, and interpreting them is both a challenge and an exciting privilege. Eclipsing binary stars are of particular significance for stellar astrophysics because precise modeling leads to fundamental parameters of the orbiting components: masses, radii, temperatures and luminosities to better than 1-2%. On top of that, eclipsing binaries are ideal physical laboratories for studying other physical phenomena, such as asteroseismic properties, chromospheric activity, proximity effects, mass transfer in close binaries, etc. Because of the eclipses, the basic geometry is well constrained, but a follow-up spectroscopy is required to get the dynamical masses and the absolute scale of the system. A conjunction of Kepler photometry and ground- based spectroscopy is a treasure trove for eclipsing binary star astrophysics. This proposal focuses on a carefully selected set of 100 short period eclipsing binary stars. The fundamental goal of the project is to study the intrinsic astrophysical effects typical of short period binaries in great detail, utilizing Kepler photometry and follow-up spectroscopy to devise a robust and consistent set of modeling results. The complementing spectroscopy is being secured from 3 approved and fully funded programs: the NOAO 4-m echelle spectroscopy at Kitt Peak (30 nights; PI Prsa), the 10- m Hobby-Eberly Telescope high-resolution spectroscopy (PI Mahadevan), and the 2.5-m Sloan Digital Sky Survey III spectroscopy (PI Mahadevan). The targets are prioritized by the projected scientific yield. Short period detached binaries host low-mass (K- and M- type) components for which the mass-radius relationship is sparsely populated and still poorly understood, as the radii appear up to 20% larger than predicted by the population models. We demonstrate the spectroscopic detection viability in the secondary

  13. The Very Short Period M Dwarf Binary SDSS J001641-000925

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, James R. A.; Becker, Andrew C.; West, Andrew A.; Bochanski, John J.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Holtzman, Jon; Gunning, Heather C.; Hilton, Eric J.; Munshi, Ferah A.; Albright, Meagan

    2013-02-01

    We present follow-up observations and analysis of the recently discovered short period low-mass eclipsing binary, SDSS J001641-000925. With an orbital period of 0.19856 days, this system has one of the shortest known periods for an M dwarf binary system. Medium-resolution spectroscopy and multi-band photometry for the system are presented. Markov Chain Monte Carlo modeling of the light curves and radial velocities yields estimated masses for the stars of M 1 = 0.54 ± 0.07 M ⊙ and M 2 = 0.34 ± 0.04 M ⊙, and radii of R 1 = 0.68 ± 0.03 R ⊙ and R 2 = 0.58 ± 0.03 R ⊙, respectively. This solution places both components above the critical Roche overfill limit, providing strong evidence that SDSS J001641-000925 is the first verified M-dwarf contact binary system. Within the follow-up spectroscopy we find signatures of non-solid body rotation velocities, which we interpret as evidence for mass transfer or loss within the system. In addition, our photometry samples the system over nine years, and we find strong evidence for period decay at the rate of \\dot{P}\\sim 8 s yr-1. Both of these signatures raise the intriguing possibility that the system is in over-contact, and actively losing angular momentum, likely through mass loss. This places SDSS J001641-000925 as not just the first M-dwarf over-contact binary, but one of the few systems of any spectral type known to be actively undergoing coalescence. Further study of SDSS J001641-000925 is ongoing to verify the nature of the system, which may prove to be a unique astrophysical laboratory. Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. Support for the design and construction of the Magellan Echellette Spectrograph was received from the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, the

  14. Estimating return periods of extreme values from relatively short time series of winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Kristjan; Agustsson, Halfdan; Rognvaldsson, Olafur; Arfeuille, Gilles

    2013-04-01

    An important factor for determining the prospect of individual wind farm sites is the frequency of extreme winds at hub height. Here, extreme winds are defined as the value of the highest 10 minutes averaged wind speed with a 50 year return period, i.e. annual exceeding probability of 2% (Rodrigo, 2010). A frequently applied method to estimate winds in the lowest few hundred meters above ground is to extrapolate observed 10-meter winds logarithmically to higher altitudes. Recent study by Drechsel et al. (2012) showed however that this methodology is not as accurate as interpolating simulated results from the global ECMWF numerical weather prediction (NWP) model to the desired height. Observations of persistent low level jets near Colima in SW-Mexico also show that the logarithmic approach can give highly inaccurate results for some regions (Arfeuille et al., 2012). To address these shortcomings of limited, and/or poorly representative, observations and extrapolations of winds one can use NWP models to dynamically scale down relatively coarse resolution atmospheric analysis. In the case of limited computing resources one has typically to make a compromise between spatial resolution and the duration of the simulated period, both of which can limit the quality of the wind farm siting. A common method to estimate maximum winds is to fit an extreme value distribution (e.g. Gumbel, gev or Pareto) to the maximum values of each year of available data, or the tail of these values. If data are only available for a short period, e.g. 10 or 15 years, then this will give a rather inaccurate estimate. It is possible to deal with this problem by utilizing monthly or weekly maxima, but this introduces new problems: seasonal variation, autocorrelation of neighboring values, and increased discrepancy between data and fitted distribution. We introduce a new method to estimate return periods of extreme values of winds at hub height from relatively short time series of winds, simulated

  15. Compensatory growth response of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum following short starvation periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodi, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Eisa; Farhadian, Omidvar; Mahboobi-Soofiani, Nasrollah; Morshedi, Vahid

    2015-07-01

    This sixty-day study was performed to determine the effects of short-term starvation and re-feeding cycles on growth, feeding performances and body composition of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss). Three hundred trout fingerlings with an average initial weight of 17.5±0.06 g were randomly distributed in 15 circular fiberglass tanks. The fish were exposed to 5 different feeding regimes; control: continuously fed twice daily to apparent satiation; T1: starved for 1 day and re-fed for 2 days; T2: starved for 1 day and re-fed for 4 days; T3: starved for 3 days and re-fed for 12 days; T4: starved for 4 days and re-fed for 16 days. At the end of the experiment, growth performance, feed utilization, whole body ash and moisture contents were not significantly ( P>0.05) different among the treatments. However, whole body protein content in T3 was significantly higher than other treatments ( Ptrout culture.

  16. Textured dysprosium and gadolinium poles for high-field, short-period hybrid undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murokh, Alex; Solovyov, Vyacheslav; Agustsson, Ron; O'Shea, Finn H.; Chubar, Oleg; Chen, Yung; Grandsaert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the feasibility of enhancement of the gap field in a short-period hybrid undulator by using pole inserts with the saturation inductance B s , over that of iron, 2 T. Dysprosium metal, with the saturation inductance of 3.4 T below 90 K, and Gadolinium with B s =2.7 T, appear as good candidates as the optimized pole material. However, due to the high magnetic anisotropy of Dy, such a high level of magnetization can only be realized when the external field lies in the basal plane. This implies that the pole has to be single-crystalline or highly textured. Considering that growing large, >10mm, Dy single crystals is difficult, we propose secondary recrystallization as a method to induce the required texture in thin Dy and Gd foils. The textured foils can be stacked to produce pole inserts of the desired geometry and orientation. Results of small-scale processing and magnetic measurements of thin (20–60 μ) foils provide evidence that the required texture quality can be achieved by a relatively simple sequence of heat-treatments and cold rolling. The advantage of textured Dy and Gd poles is demonstrated in a several period test undulator. -- Highlights: • Textured rare-earth materials for use as undulator pole materials. • We measure the development of texture in Dy and Gd. • We compare the rare-earth materials with high saturation steel in undulators. • Thin sheets of Dy and Gd materials perform similar to single crystals

  17. Observation of a Short Period Quasi-periodic Pulsation in Solar X-Ray, Microwave, and EUV Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Cho, Kyung-Suk [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Nakariakov, Valery M., E-mail: pankaj@kasi.re.kr [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-10

    This paper presents the multiwavelength analysis of a 13 s quasi-periodic pulsation (QPP) observed in hard X-ray (12–300 keV) and microwave (4.9–34 GHz) emissions during a C-class flare that occurred on 2015 September 21. Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA) 304 and 171 Å images show an emerging loop/flux tube (L1) moving radially outward, which interacts with the preexisting structures within the active region (AR). The QPP was observed during the expansion of and rising motion of L1. The Nobeyama Radioheliograph microwave images in 17/34 GHz channels reveal a single radio source that was co-spatial with a neighboring loop (L2). In addition, using AIA 304 Å images, we detected intensity oscillations in the legs of L2 with a period of about 26 s. A similar oscillation period was observed in the GOES soft X-ray flux derivative. This oscillation period seems to increase with time. We suggest that the observed QPP is most likely generated by the interaction between L2 and L3 observed in the AIA hot channels (131 and 94 Å). The merging speed of loops L2 and L3 was ∼35 km s{sup −1}. L1 was destroyed possibly by its interaction with preexisting structures in the AR, and produced a cool jet with the speed of ∼106–118 km s{sup −1} associated with a narrow CME (∼770 km s{sup −1}). Another mechanism of the QPP in terms of a sausage oscillation of the loop (L2) is also possible.

  18. A neutral network based technique for short-term forecasting of anomalous load periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sforna, M [ENEL, s.p.a, Italian Power Company (Italy); Lamedica, R; Prudenzi, A [Rome Univ. ` La Sapienza` , Rome (Italy); Caciotta, M; Orsolini Cencelli, V [Rome Univ. III, Rome (Italy)

    1995-01-01

    The paper illustrates a part of the research activity conducted by authors in the field of electric Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF) based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) architectures. Previous experiences with basic ANN architectures have shown that, even though these architecture provide results comparable with those obtained by human operators for most normal days, they evidence some accuracy deficiencies when applied to `anomalous` load conditions occurring during holidays and long weekends. For these periods a specific procedure based upon a combined (unsupervised/supervised) approach has been proposed. The unsupervised stage provides a preventive classification of the historical load data by means of a Kohonen`s Self Organizing Map (SOM). The supervised stage, performing the proper forecasting activity, is obtained by using a multi-layer percept ron with a back propagation learning algorithm similar to the ones above mentioned. The unconventional use of information deriving from the classification stage permits the proposed procedure to obtain a relevant enhancement of the forecast accuracy for anomalous load situations.

  19. Ontogeny of sensorimotor gating and short-term memory processing throughout the adolescent period in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja A. Goepfrich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence and puberty are highly susceptible developmental periods during which the neuronal organization and maturation of the brain is completed. The endocannabinoid (eCB system, which is well known to modulate cognitive processing, undergoes profound and transient developmental changes during adolescence. With the present study we were aiming to examine the ontogeny of cognitive skills throughout adolescence in male rats and clarify the potential modulatory role of CB1 receptor signalling. Cognitive skills were assessed repeatedly every 10th day in rats throughout adolescence. All animals were tested for object recognition memory and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. Although cognitive performance in short-term memory as well as sensorimotor gating abilities were decreased during puberty compared to adulthood, both tasks were found to show different developmental trajectories throughout adolescence. A low dose of the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716 was found to improve recognition memory specifically in pubertal animals while not affecting behavioral performance at other ages tested. The present findings demonstrate that the developmental trajectory of cognitive abilities does not occur linearly for all cognitive processes and is strongly influenced by pubertal maturation. Developmental alterations within the eCB system at puberty onset may be involved in these changes in cognitive processing.

  20. Control quantum evolution speed of a single dephasing qubit for arbitrary initial states via periodic dynamical decoupling pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ya-Ju; Tan, Qing-Shou; Kuang, Le-Man

    2017-03-08

    We investigate the possibility to control quantum evolution speed of a single dephasing qubit for arbitrary initial states by the use of periodic dynamical decoupling (PDD) pulses. It is indicated that the quantum speed limit time (QSLT) is determined by initial and final quantum coherence of the qubit, as well as the non-Markovianity of the system under consideration during the evolution when the qubit is subjected to a zero-temperature Ohmic-like dephasing reservoir. It is shown that final quantum coherence of the qubit and the non-Markovianity of the system can be modulated by PDD pulses. Our results show that for arbitrary initial states of the dephasing qubit with non-vanishing quantum coherence, PDD pulses can be used to induce potential acceleration of the quantum evolution in the short-time regime, while PDD pulses can lead to potential speedup and slow down in the long-time regime. We demonstrate that the effect of PDD on the QSLT for the Ohmic or sub-Ohmic spectrum (Markovian reservoir) is much different from that for the super-Ohmic spectrum (non-Markovian reservoir).

  1. Planet X as the source of the periodic and steady-state flux of short period comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matese, J.J.; Whitmire, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The cratering and fossil records suggest that impacts on the earth have been modulated with a period of roughly 30 Myr. In the Planet X model, this modulation is the result of the interaction of Planet X with a primordial disk of planetesimals lying beyond the orbit of Neptune. In this paper, observational and theoretical evidence supporting the existence of Planet X and the planetesimal disk is briefly reviewed, and the constraints on the orbit parameters of Planet X and the disk parameters which must be satisfied to ensure consistency with observational limits are discussed

  2. Magneto-transport studies of InAs/GaSb short period superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadley, Victoria Jane

    2002-01-01

    This thesis studies the transport properties of short period semiconducting InAs/GaSb superlattices in the presence of strong electric and magnetic fields applied parallel to the growth axis. Electrical transport parallel to the growth axis occurs through the superlattice miniband, which have widths varying from three to 30meV. Resonant scattering between confined Landau levels and Stark levels is observed at low temperatures (4.2K). In addition LO-phonon assisted scattering between Landau levels is observed in both type-I GaAs/AIAs and type-ll inAs/GaSb superlattices, which are enhanced in the type-ll system due to the strong interband coupling. K·p band structure calculations show that the interband coupling causes the superlattice miniband energy dispersion to be strongly dependent on the in-plane wavevector and the applied magnetic field. For large applied electric fields, where the miniband is split into discrete Stark levels, strong stark-cyclotron resonance (SCR) features are observed, which occur when the Landau level separation equals to the stark level separation. These resonances are enhanced when compared to SCR in type-I superlattices due to the suppression of miniband conduction in higher lying Landau levels. At low electric fields electrical transport through the superlattice miniband yields characteristic miniband transport features, which are modelled using the Esaki-Tsu miniband transport model. Strong electron - LO-phonon scattering is also observed in InAs/GaSb superlattices, where we report the first observation of miniband transport assisted via the emission of LO-phonons between stark levels in adjacent wells. Below 50K thermally activated behaviour is reported and at high magnetic fields (in the quantum limit) complete localisation of carriers is observed. In this regime LO-phonon delocalised transport in also observed. (author)

  3. Nitrogen fertilization and yield formation of potato during a short growing period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. MUSTONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects various rates of nitrogen application on accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. were studied during a short growing period of 140–180 days, at MTT Agrifood Research Finland in 2000–2001. The treatments were 0, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 and the potato cultivars tested were Van Gogh and Nicola. Four successive harvests were made during the course of the experiment to monitor changes in the accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen over the season. Applications of nitrogen substantially increased haulm dry matter accumulation and to an even greater extent their nitrogen contents. The highest dry matter values were generally registered at 120 kg N ha-1. Dry matter and nitrogen content of haulms started to decline during the later part of season and most nitrogen was relocated to tubers. The results suggest that an application of only 60 kg N ha-1 was sufficient to promote rapid canopy development and there were only small reductions in dry matter and nitrogen accumulation until late in the season when the canopy started to senesce as nitrogen supply diminished. Tuber yield, plant dry matter and nitrogen accumulation at maturity were related to crop nitrogen supply. Although application of the high rate, 120 N kg ha-1, resulted in a significant increase in dry matter accumulation, this was not reflected in the profit because the higher nitrogen application reduced dry matter content of tubers by 2.6% in 2000 and by 1.1% in 2001 relative to the use of 60 kg N ha-1. Apparent fertilizer nitrogen recovery values on a whole plant basis ranged from 53 to 75%. The proportion of fertilizer recovered in tubers clearly declined with increase in nitrogen supply.;

  4. Initiation of growth hormone therapy in idiopathic short stature: do gender differences exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tal; Lebenthal, Yael; Phillip, Moshe; Lazar, Liora

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) registries indicate that boys receive preferential GH treatment for idiopathic short stature (ISS). The aim was to determine whether age, auxological parameters, pubertal status, and target height differ between genders at GH initiation. Review of the computerized files of the endocrine department of a tertiary pediatric medical center identified 184 patients who started GH therapy for ISS between 2003-2011. Data on auxologic parameters, predicted height, parental height, and pubertal status were collected and compared between boys and girls. Boys accounted for a significantly higher percentage of the study group (65.8%, pdeficit, and pubertal status at onset of GH treatment in boys and girls suggests that gender differences do not exist. Male predominance may stem from family preferences to treat boys. Future studies are warranted to assess the psychosocial aspects in the decision to initiate therapy.

  5. The association of 22 Y chromosome short tandem repeat loci with initiative-aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Ba, Huajie; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shuyou; Zhao, Hanqing; Yu, Haiying; Gao, Zhiqin; Wang, Binbin

    2018-05-15

    Aggressive behavior represents an important public concern and a clinical challenge to behaviorists and psychiatrists. Aggression in humans is known to have an important genetic basis, so to investigate the association of Y chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci with initiative-aggressive behavior, we compared allelic and haplotypic distributions of 22 Y-STRs in a group of Chinese males convicted of premeditated extremely violent crimes (n = 271) with a normal control group (n = 492). Allelic distributions of DYS533 and DYS437 loci differed significantly between the two groups (P initiative aggression in non-psychiatric subjects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Conceptual Model of Calculating the Return Period of the Costs for Creation of the Enterprise’s Economic Security Service in the Short-Term Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melikhova Tetiana O.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the return period of the costs, advanced for the creation of economic security service of enterprise during a year, involves consideration of interaction of the conditional money flow, accumulated for a certain number of months, and the constant costs. The main component of the constant costs are the annual depreciation deductions. The return period is considered as gross, net, valid, and specified. The gross (net, valid, and specified return period is the time, wherein the gross conditional money flow, equal to the advanced costs, will be accumulated. The gross return period, taking account of the effect of time factor, is proposed to be defined as the ratio of annual depreciation deductions increased by the annual compounding coefficient to the conditional average monthly gross money flow, increased by the average monthly inflation index. As for the short-term period, a relationship between the gross, net, valid, and specified return periods of the costs, advanced to the creation of the economic security service, has been identified. The net (valid, specified return period is equal to the gross period adjusted to the coefficient of excess of the gross conditional money flow, accumulated in the gross period, over the net (valid, specified conditional cash flow.

  7. Tidally distorted exoplanets: Density corrections for short-period hot-Jupiters based solely on observable parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J. R.; Watson, C. A.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Moulds, V. [Astrophysics Research Centre, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Pollacco, D.; Wheatley, P. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Littlefair, S. P., E-mail: jburton04@qub.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-10

    The close proximity of short-period hot-Jupiters to their parent star means they are subject to extreme tidal forces. This has a profound effect on their structure and, as a result, density measurements that assume that the planet is spherical can be incorrect. We have simulated the tidally distorted surface for 34 known short-period hot-Jupiters, assuming surfaces of constant gravitational equipotential for the planet, and the resulting densities have been calculated based only on observed parameters of the exoplanet systems. Comparing these results to the density values, assuming the planets are spherical, shows that there is an appreciable change in the measured density for planets with very short periods (typically less than two days). For one of the shortest-period systems, WASP-19b, we determine a decrease in bulk density of 12% from the spherical case and, for the majority of systems in this study, this value is in the range of 1%-5%. On the other hand, we also find cases where the distortion is negligible (relative to the measurement errors on the planetary parameters) even in the cases of some very short period systems, depending on the mass ratio and planetary radius. For high-density gas planets requiring apparently anomalously large core masses, density corrections due to tidal deformation could become important for the shortest-period systems.

  8. Patients' Experiences of Performing Self-care of Stomas in the Initial Postoperative Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Siew Hoon; Chan, Sally Wai Chi; He, Hong-Gu

    2015-01-01

    With the loss of an important bodily function and the distortion in body image, a stoma patient experiences physical, psychological, and social changes. With limited current studies exploring experiences of patients in the management of their stoma, there is a need to explore their experiences, their needs, and factors that influence their self-management. The aim of this study was to investigate patients' experiences of performing self-care of stomas in the initial postoperative period. This study adopted a descriptive qualitative approach from the interpretive paradigm. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 patients 1 month postoperatively in a colorectal ward in a hospital in Singapore. Thematic analysis was applied to the interview data. Five themes were identified: process of acceptance and self-management of stoma, physical limitations, psychological reactions, social support, and need for timely and sufficient stoma preparation and education. This study highlights the importance of health professionals' role in helping patients adjust preoperatively and postoperatively and accept the presence of a stoma. Health professionals need to be aware of the physical, psychological, and social impact of stoma on patients in the initial 30-day postoperative period. Research findings informed the type and level of assistance and support to be offered to patients by nurses and the importance of encouraging patients to be involved in stoma care at an early stage, which will ultimately contribute to effective and independent self-management. Patients can be prepared preoperatively to reduce the psychological and social impact of stoma after creation of their stoma.

  9. Toward 2D Seismic Wavefield Monitoring: Seismic Gradiometry for Long-Period Seismogram and Short-Period Seismogram Envelope applied to the Hi-net Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, T.; Nishida, K.; Takagi, R.; Obara, K.

    2015-12-01

    The high-sensitive seismograph network Japan (Hi-net) operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) has about 800 stations with average separation of 20 km. We can observe long-period seismic wave propagation as a 2D wavefield with station separations shorter than wavelength. In contrast, short-period waves are quite incoherent at stations, however, their envelope shapes resemble at neighbor stations. Therefore, we may be able to extract seismic wave energy propagation by seismogram envelope analysis. We attempted to characterize seismic waveform at long-period and its envelope at short-period as 2D wavefield by applying seismic gradiometry. We applied the seismic gradiometry to a synthetic long-period (20-50s) dataset prepared by numerical simulation in realistic 3D medium at the Hi-net station layout. Wave amplitude and its spatial derivatives are estimated by using data at nearby stations. The slowness vector, the radiation pattern and the geometrical spreading are extracted from estimated velocity, displacement and its spatial derivatives. For short-periods at shorter than 1 s, seismogram envelope shows temporal and spatial broadening through scattering by medium heterogeneity. It is expected that envelope shape may be coherent among nearby stations. Based on this idea, we applied the same method to the time-integration of seismogram envelope to estimate its spatial derivatives. Together with seismogram envelope, we succeeded in estimating the slowness vector from the seismogram envelope as well as long-period waveforms by synthetic test, without using phase information. Our preliminarily results show that the seismic gradiometry suits the Hi-net to extract wave propagation characteristics both at long and short periods. This method is appealing that it can estimate waves at homogeneous grid to monitor seismic wave as a wavefield. It is promising to obtain phase velocity variation from direct waves, and to grasp wave

  10. On catalysis of the initial period of methylcyclohexane oxidation by salts of nontransition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, P.A.; Syroezhko, A.M.; Potekhin, V.M.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to study the influence of salts formed by alkali and alkaline-earth metals with aliphatic acids on chain initiation during the initial period of methylcyclohexane oxidation by air. The oxidation was carried out in an autoclave under 10 kg/cm 2 pressure in the temperature range 120-150 0 C, at catalyst concentrations in the range 0.0-2.36.10 -2 M. The inhibitor concentration was varied in the range 0.0-9.5.10 -4 M. Sodium, cesium, barium lithium and calcium stearates and sodium pelargonate (Pe) were used as catalysts. It was found that salts formed by nontransition metals with aliphatic acids having acid radicals with 9-16 carbon atoms are active catalysts of chain initiation. The catalytic activity of the salts increases with the ionic radius of the cation in the series LiSt 2 2 < CsSt. Radical formation is a first-order process with respect to the catalyst and is due to the polar group of the salt

  11. Impact of high temperature and short period annealing on SnS films deposited by E-beam evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedi, Sreedevi; Reddy, Vasudeva Reddy Minnam; Kang, Jeong-yoon; Jeon, Chan-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparation SnS films using electron beam evaporation at room temperature. • SnS films were annealed at a high temperaure for different short period of times. • The films showed highly oriented (111) planes with orthorhombic crystal structure. • Surface morphology showed bigger and faceted grains embedded in orthorombic. • The TEM confirmed that big orthorombic slabs had single-crystalline nature. - Abstract: Thin films of SnS were deposited on Mo-substrate using electron beam evaporation at room temperature. As-deposited SnS films were annealed at a constant high temperaure of 860 K for different short period of times, 1 min, 3 min, and 5 min. The impact of heat treatment period on the physical properties of SnS films was investigated using appropriate characterization tools. XRD analysis revealed that the films were highly oriented along (111) plane with orthorhombic crystal structure. Surface morphology of as-deposited SnS films showed an identical leaf texture where as the annealed films showed large orthorombic slab shape grains in adidition to the leaf shape grains, which indicates the significance of short period annealing at high temperature. The transmission electron microscopy confirmed that those large orthorombic slabs had single-crystalline nature. The results emphasized that the short period annealing treatment at high temperature stimulated the growth of film towards the single crystallinity.

  12. Impact of high temperature and short period annealing on SnS films deposited by E-beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedi, Sreedevi; Reddy, Vasudeva Reddy Minnam; Kang, Jeong-yoon; Jeon, Chan-Wook, E-mail: cwjeon@ynu.ac.kr

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Preparation SnS films using electron beam evaporation at room temperature. • SnS films were annealed at a high temperaure for different short period of times. • The films showed highly oriented (111) planes with orthorhombic crystal structure. • Surface morphology showed bigger and faceted grains embedded in orthorombic. • The TEM confirmed that big orthorombic slabs had single-crystalline nature. - Abstract: Thin films of SnS were deposited on Mo-substrate using electron beam evaporation at room temperature. As-deposited SnS films were annealed at a constant high temperaure of 860 K for different short period of times, 1 min, 3 min, and 5 min. The impact of heat treatment period on the physical properties of SnS films was investigated using appropriate characterization tools. XRD analysis revealed that the films were highly oriented along (111) plane with orthorhombic crystal structure. Surface morphology of as-deposited SnS films showed an identical leaf texture where as the annealed films showed large orthorombic slab shape grains in adidition to the leaf shape grains, which indicates the significance of short period annealing at high temperature. The transmission electron microscopy confirmed that those large orthorombic slabs had single-crystalline nature. The results emphasized that the short period annealing treatment at high temperature stimulated the growth of film towards the single crystallinity.

  13. Communications with Mars During Periods of Solar Conjunction: Initial Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D.; Hastrup, R.

    2001-07-01

    During the initial phase of the human exploration of Mars, a reliable communications link to and from Earth will be required. The direct link can easily be maintained during most of the 780-day Earth-Mars synodic period. However, during periods in which the direct Earth-Mars link encounters increased intervening charged particles during superior solar conjunctions of Mars, the resultant effects are expected to corrupt the data signals to varying degrees. The purpose of this article is to explore possible strategies, provide recommendations, and identify options for communicating over this link during periods of solar conjunctions. A significant improvement in telemetry data return can be realized by using the higher frequency 32 GHz (Ka-band), which is less susceptible to solar effects. During the era of the onset of probable human exploration of Mars, six superior conjunctions were identified from 2015 to 2026. For five of these six conjunctions, where the signal source is not occulted by the disk of the Sun, continuous communications with Mars should be achievable. Only during the superior conjunction of 2023 is the signal source at Mars expected to lie behind the disk of the Sun for about one day and within two solar radii (0. 5 deg) for about three days.

  14. BVRI Photometric Study of the Short Period, Solar Type, Semi-Detached Binary, NSVS 10083189

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samec, Ronald G.; Caton, Daniel B.; Olsen, Amber; Faulkner, Danny R.; Hill, Robert L.

    2017-06-01

    Precision BVRcIc light curves of NSVS 5066754 were taken on 11 nights in February through April 2015 at Dark Sky Observatory in North Carolina with the 0.81-m reflector of Appalachian State University and on 1 night on the SARA 1-m reflector at Kitt Peak National Observatory in remote mode. It is an ~ F8V eclipsing binary with a period of 0.4542238 (2) d.Seven times of minimum light were calculated, for 5 primary and 2 secondary eclipses from our present observations:HJD I = 2457067.75453±0.0003, 2457088.64907±0.0001, 2457089.55708±0.0001, 2457098.64163±0.0004, 24557113.63117±0.0002HJD II = 2457066.61874±0.0008, 2457067.52329±0.0017.In addition, seven observations at minima were introduced as low weighted times of minimum light taken from archived NSVS Data.The following decreasing quadratic ephemeris was determined from all available times of minimum light in this study covering some 15 years:JD Hel MinI = 2457089.55665±0.00054d + 0.4542179±0. 0000006 X E -0.00000000049±0.00000000005 × E2We note that this result has a strong level of confidence. This again gives evidence that the components are coming into contact possibly due to magnetic braking as indicated by dark spot activity on the binary.We initially modeled the B,V,R,I curves simultaneously with the Wilson-Devinney program in a shallow contact configuration (mode 3) as indicated by our Binary Maker 3 fits. This led to a near but non-contact configuration. Next, the general Mode 2 was used to give clues regarding the configuration. During this investigation, the primary component came into contact while the secondary star remained detached. Next, a solution was determined in a semidetached, mode 4 state (larger component filling its critical lobe and the secondary under filing. This may indicate that NSVS 10083189 is coming into contact for the first time. The mode and the period change corroborate.Our semi-detached, near contact solution, gave a mass ratio of 0.58, with component temperatures of

  15. Seismic Site Effects from the Seafloor Motion Recorded by the Short-period Ocean Bottom Seismometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. Y.; Cheng, W. B.; Chin, S. J.; Hsu, S. K.; Dong, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    For decades, it has been mentioned that submarine slope failures are spatially linked to the presence of gas hydrates/gas-charged sediments. When triggered by earthquakes, oversteepen and instable sediments may prompt breakouts of the slopes containing gas hydrates and cause submarine landslides and tsunamis. Widely distributed BSRs have been observed in the area offshore of southwestern Taiwan where the active accretionary complex meets with the passive China continental margin. In the region, large or small scale landslides were also reported based on seismic interpretations. In order to clarify the link between earthquake, landslide and the presence of gas hydrate, we evaluate the response of seafloor sediments in regard to passive dynamic loads. Horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratios are used to characterize the local sediment response. Ambient noise as well as distant earthquakes are used as generators of the passive dynamic loads. Based on this study, we aim to characterize the site in terms of its physical properties and the local site effect produced by shallow marine sediments. The results show that the maximum H/V ratios appeared in the range of 5-10 Hz, where the horizontal amplitudes increased by an order of magnitude relative to the vertical amplitude. The stations located in the northwestern part of study area were characterized by another relatively small peak at proximately 2 Hz, which may indicates the presence of a discontinuity of sediments. For most stations, the H/V ratios estimated based on the earthquake (i.e. strong input signal) and noise (background, micro-seismic noise) records were characterized by different pattern. No distinct peak is observed for the H/V pattern calculated during earthquakes. This phenomenon may suggest that no clear sedimentary boundary exist when a stronger motion applies. Estimating H/V spectral ratios of data recorded by the seven short period OBSs (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) deployed in the southwest Taiwan

  16. Radiation damage to the thyroid and metabolic changes in cattle in the initial and remote period after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iljazov, R.G.; Yunousova, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    The initial period after the Chernobyl accident was the most dangerous for animals kept in the zone of radioactive contamination. Dose burdens from I-isotopes on the thyroid gland of cattle in the initial period after the accident contributed significantly into the alteration of the hormonal status, physiological state and productive, qualities of cattle on farms of the Gomel area of Belarus

  17. Development and validation of the measure of initial attraction- Short Interest Scale (MIA-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral initial attraction (UIA is a positive affective reaction following a unilateral perception of an unknown target, defining the first stage in developing a new interpersonal relationship. Although little attention is given to this construct, literature suggests it has a physiological activation component as well as an interpersonal interest component. However, this interest component emerges as necessary to willingly approach another person and eventually initiate interaction. Based on these evidences, we developed and validated the Measure of Initial Attraction - Interest Short Scale (MIA-I in a sample of Portuguese-speaking individuals (Study 1, N = 544. Results suggest the MIA-I is a valid and reliable instrument (Study 1; Study 2a, and show its capacity to discriminate UIA across different relationships (Study 1 and to differentiate UIA from passion and love (Study 1. Towards an unknown target, the MIA-I also distinguished UIA from liking (Study 2b. These results show that the MIA-I assesses a specific construct, differentiated from liking, passion and love, and suggest its importance to understand the UIA phenomenon.

  18. A short period of high-intensity interval training improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Jacobs, Robert A; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improvements in pulmonary V̇O2 kinetics following a short period of high-intensity training (HIT) would be associated with improved skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Ten untrained male volunteers (age: 26 ± 2; mean ± SD) performed six HIT...

  19. Capability of simultaneous Rayleigh LiDAR and O2 airglow measurements in exploring the short period wave characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taori, Alok; Raghunath, Karnam; Jayaraman, Achuthan

    We use combination of simultaneous measurements made with Rayleigh lidar and O2 airglow monitoring to improve lidar investigation capability to cover a higher altitude range. We feed instantaneous O2 airglow temperatures instead the model values at the top altitude for subsequent integration method of temperature retrieval using Rayleigh lidar back scattered signals. Using this method, errors in the lidar temperature estimates converges at higher altitudes indicating better altitude coverage compared to regular methods where model temperatures are used instead of real-time measurements. This improvement enables the measurements of short period waves at upper mesospheric altitudes (~90 km). With two case studies, we show that above 60 km the few short period wave amplitude drastically increases while, some of the short period wave show either damping or saturation. We claim that by using such combined measurements, a significant and cost effective progress can be made in the understanding of short period wave processes which are important for the coupling across the different atmospheric regions.

  20. Work situation and sickness absence in the initial period after breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Lena-Marie; Wennman-Larsen, Agneta; Nilsson, Marie; Olsson, Mariann; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2011-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in women, many of whom are of working age, and the five-year survival rate in Sweden is approaching 90%. Accordingly, aspects of working life and sickness absence are of increasing importance for breast cancer survivors and may have a long-term impact on health and quality of life of these women. The aim was to elucidate the work situation and sickness absence during the initial period after breast cancer surgery and to explore factors associated with sickness absence. This is a cross-sectional questionnaire study 4-6 weeks after breast cancer surgery of women aged 20-63 years, and living in Stockholm. A consecutive sample of 933 women were invited and 756 (81%) accepted to participate. Logistic regression analyses were computed to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios for associations between sick leave and other variables. Most women (86%) were employed (including self-employed) at diagnosis, and 91% of those worked ≥75% of full-time. At time of survey, 56% were on sick leave, the majority for full-time. Low self-rated health, poorer health than before diagnosis, having a strenuous work posture, and younger age were associated with sick leave during the initial period after breast cancer surgery in both univariate and multivariate analyses. The results of this study is not fully consistent compared to previous studies in this field, often performed in later phases after breast cancer surgery or after other cancer diagnoses. Therefore our results indicate that knowledge is needed during all phases of the breast cancer trajectory to determine factors of importance regarding sick leave and their impact throughout the disease trajectory.

  1. Initial color development in radiochromic dye films after a short intense pulse of accelerated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe, R.M.; Barcelo, M.; Rios, J.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Buenfil, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation response of different dye precursors in several host plastics has been investigated after a single short-pulse irradiation with 2.5-MeV electrons. It was observed that in most films the radiation-initiated color development proceeds mainly during the first 300 seconds, after such high dose-rate irradiation (∼ 10 12 Gy/s). Absorption spectra show that the main absorption band increases at the expense of a shorter-wavelength precursor absorption band, showing an isosbestic point approximately midway bwetwen the two absorption bands. It was found that a certain combination of dye precursor and host plastic (namely a polyamide containing an aromatic group) constitutes a film which shows a very fast increase in optical density of the main absorption band, making it suitable for immediate dosimetric analysis in very high dose-rate installations. (author)

  2. Development of Speech Fluency over a Short Period of Time: Effects of Pedagogic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Parvaneh; Campbell, Colin; McCormack, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a short-term pedagogic intervention on development of second language (L2) fluency among learners studying English for academic purposes at a UK university. It also examines the interaction between development of fluency and complexity and accuracy. Through a pretest and posttest design, data were collected…

  3. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  4. Production of well-matured compost from night-soil sludge by an extremely short period of thermophilic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Ohtaki, Akihito; Takemoto, Minoru; Fujiwara, Shunrokuro

    2011-03-01

    The effect of various operational conditions on the decomposition of organic material during the composting of night-soil treatment sludge was quantitatively examined. The optimum composting conditions were found to be a temperature of ca. 60°C and an initial pH value of 8. Rapid decomposition of organic matter ceased by the sixth day of composting under these optimum conditions, and the final value of the cumulative emission of carbon (E(C)), which represents the degree of organic matter decomposition, was less than 40%, indicating that the sludge contained only a small amount of easily degradable organic material. A plant growth assay using Komatsuna (Brassica campestris L. var. rapiferafroug) in a 1/5000a standard cultivation pot was then conducted for the compost at various degrees of organic matter decomposition: the raw composting material, the final compost obtained on day 6, and the 2 intermediate compost products (i.e., E(C)=10% and 20%). It was found that the larger the E(C), the greater the yield of Komatsuna growth. It was also found that 6 days of composting is sufficient to promote Komatsuna growth at the standard loading level, which is equivalent to a 1.5 g N/pot, since the promotion effect was as high as that obtained using chemical fertilizer. It can therefore be concluded that well-matured compost could be obtained in a short period of time (i.e., as early as 6 days), when night-soil sludge is composted under optimum conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. "Short Courses Shouldn't Be Short-Lived!" Enhancing Longer-Term Impact of Short English as a Foreign Language INSET Initiatives in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chunmei; He, Chuanjun

    2015-01-01

    Short in-service teacher development (INSET) programmes have been globally used as a form of teacher development, but their impact has been under question. This study sought to examine teacher participants' perceptions of short INSET programmes to come up with better solutions to enhancing their effect on teachers' professional learning. A…

  6. Nature of short-period microtremors on the cliff-like ground. part 6; Gakechi kinbo no tanshuki bido. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T; Kimura, Y [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Yasui, [Toda Corp., Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Short-period microtremors were observed on the cliff-like ground to discuss vibration characteristics of the ground. It is known that damage of an earthquake becomes especially serious in the vicinity of the cliff-like ground with steep slopes. The present investigation has performed observations on short-period microtremors in two cliff-like grounds, one with a height of about 17 m and an inclination angle of about 55 degrees, and another with a height of 11 m and an inclination angle of about 60 degrees. The areas of the investigation are the Musashino tableland of the Pleistocene era covered by the Kanto loam bed, and the Oritate area (a farm land) with the cliff-like ground which has been formed as a result of erosion of a river terrace consisted of a gravel bed. The observation was carried out with nine moving coil type vibration converters having a natural period of one second installed for horizontal movements and seven converters installed for vertical movements. The result of the investigation revealed that, at the Musashino tableland, no noticeable influence of the cliff-like ground was recognized in the short-period microtremors; at the Oritate area, the spectra of the horizontal movements vary largely with vibrating directions; and the cliff effect can be seen in microtremors with frequencies from 5 Hz to 9 Hz. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Predicting temperature drop rate of mass concrete during an initial cooling period using genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Santosh; Zhou, Yihong; Zhao, Chunju; Zhou, Huawei

    2018-02-01

    Thermal cracking on concrete dams depends upon the rate at which the concrete is cooled (temperature drop rate per day) within an initial cooling period during the construction phase. Thus, in order to control the thermal cracking of such structure, temperature development due to heat of hydration of cement should be dropped at suitable rate. In this study, an attempt have been made to formulate the relation between cooling rate of mass concrete with passage of time (age of concrete) and water cooling parameters: flow rate and inlet temperature of cooling water. Data measured at summer season (April-August from 2009 to 2012) from recently constructed high concrete dam were used to derive a prediction model with the help of Genetic Programming (GP) software “Eureqa”. Coefficient of Determination (R) and Mean Square Error (MSE) were used to evaluate the performance of the model. The value of R and MSE is 0.8855 and 0.002961 respectively. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the relative impact on the target parameter due to input parameters. Further, testing the proposed model with an independent dataset those not included during analysis, results obtained from the proposed GP model are close enough to the real field data.

  8. Short-term initiatives for enhancing cyber-safety within South African schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmarie Kritzinger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rate of technological development across the globe is dramatic. The decreasing cost and increasing availability of ICT devices means that its users are no longer exclusively industry or government employees – they are now also home users. Home users integrate ICT in their daily lives for education, socialising and information gathering. However, using ICT is associated with risks and threats, such as identity theft and phishing scams. Most home users of ICT do not have the necessary information technology and Internet skills to protect themselves and their information. School learners, in particular, are not sufficiently educated on how to use technological devices safely, especially in developing countries such as South Africa. The national school curriculum in South Africa currently does not make provision for cyber-safety education, and the availability of supporting material and training for ICT teachers in South Africa is limited, resulting in a lack of knowledge and skills regarding cyber-safety. The research in hand focuses on the situation concerning cyber-safety awareness in schools and has adopted a short-term approach towards cyber-safety among teachers and school learners in South Africa until a formal long-term national approach has been implemented. This study takes a quantitative approach to investigating the current options of teachers to enhance cyber-safety among learners in their schools. The research proposes that short-term initiatives (i.e. posters can increase learners’ awareness of cyber-safety until formal cyber-safety awareness methods have been introduced.

  9. Closeout of IE Bulletin 79-12: short-period scrams at boiling-water reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBevac, C.J.; Holland, R.A.

    1985-03-01

    IE Circular 77-07 was issued on April 14, 1977 because of the occurrence of short period scram events at Dresden Unit 2 on December 28, 1976 and at Monticello on February 23, 1977. The circular advised BWR plants to revise their control rod withdrawal sequences and operating procedures to reduce the likelihood of future short period scrams. However, similar events continued to occur. These included events at Oyster Creek on December 14, 1978; at Browns Ferry Unit 1 on January 18, 1979; and at Hatch Unit 1 on January 31, 1979. As a result of these events, IE Bulletin 79-12 was issued on May 31, 1979. This bulletin required a written response from licensees of GE-designed BWRs regarding specific actions listed in the bulletin. All of the licensees responded in a satisfactory manner. No similar events have been reported since IE Bulletin 79-12 was issued

  10. A high-average power tapered FEL amplifier at submillimeter frequencies using sheet electron beams and short-period wigglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidwell, S.W.; Radack, D.J.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Booske, J.H.; Carmel, Y.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Levush, B.; Latham, P.E.; Zhang, Z.X.

    1990-01-01

    A high-average-power FEL amplifier operating at submillimeter frequencies is under development at the University of Maryland. Program goals are to produce a CW, ∼1 MW, FEL amplifier source at frequencies between 280 GHz and 560 GHz. To this end, a high-gain, high-efficiency, tapered FEL amplifier using a sheet electron beam and a short-period (superconducting) wiggler has been chosen. Development of this amplifier is progressing in three stages: (1) beam propagation through a long length (∼1 m) of short period (λ ω = 1 cm) wiggler, (2) demonstration of a proof-of-principle amplifier experiment at 98 GHz, and (3) designs of a superconducting tapered FEL amplifier meeting the ultimate design goal specifications. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of phase-precipitation versus instability behavior in short period FeCr superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, F.J. [UCAM, Universidad Católica de Murcia, Campus de los Jerónimos, 30107 Guadalupe (Murcia) (Spain); Castejón-Mochón, J.F., E-mail: jfcastejon@ucam.edu [UCAM, Universidad Católica de Murcia, Campus de los Jerónimos, 30107 Guadalupe (Murcia) (Spain); Castrillo, P.; Berenguer-Vidal, R. [UCAM, Universidad Católica de Murcia, Campus de los Jerónimos, 30107 Guadalupe (Murcia) (Spain); Dopico, I.; Martin-Bragado, I. [IMDEA Materials Institute, Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe (Madrid) (Spain)

    2017-02-15

    The structural evolution of FeCr superlattices has been studied using a quasi-atomistic Object Kinetic Monte Carlo model. Superlattices with different spatial periods have been simulated for anneal durations from few hours to several months at 500 °C. Relatively-long period superlattices stabilize into Fe-rich and Cr-rich layers with compositions close to those of bulk α and α′ phases. In contrast, superlattices with very short periods (4, 5, 6 nm) are observed to undergo instability and, for long annealing times, evolve into three-dimensionally decomposed regions, in qualitative agreement to recent experimental observations. The instability onset is delayed as the spatial period increases, and it occurs via interface roughness. This evolution can be explained as a minimization of the free-energy associated to the α/α′ interfaces. A comprehensive description of the evolution dynamics of FeCr-based structures is obtained with our model.

  12. Physiological Responses of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) to Short Periods of Water Stress During Different Developmental Stages

    OpenAIRE

    R. Vurayai; V. Emongor and B. Moseki

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the responses of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) to short periods of water stress imposed at different growth stages, and the recuperative ability of the species from drought stress. A major problem associated with Bambara groundnut production is its very low yields due to intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal variability in rainfall in semi-arid regions. The response pattern of physiological processes to water stress imposed at different growth ...

  13. Short Term Strategies for a Dynamic Multi-Period Routing Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelelli, E.; Bianchessi, N.; Mansini, R.; Speranza, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a Dynamic Multi-Period Routing Problem (DMPRP) faced by a company which deals with on-line pick-up requests and has to serve them by a fleet of uncapacitated vehicles over a finite time horizon. When a request is issued, a deadline of a given number of days d ≤ 2 is associated to it: if

  14. Initial Resuscitation at Delivery and Short Term Neonatal Outcomes in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Su Jin; Shin, Jeonghee; Namgung, Ran

    2015-10-01

    Survival of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) depends on professional perinatal management that begins at delivery. Korean Neonatal Network data on neonatal resuscitation management and initial care of VLBWI of less than 33 weeks gestation born from January 2013 to June 2014 were reviewed to investigate the current practice of neonatal resuscitation in Korea. Antenatal data, perinatal data, and short-term morbidities were analyzed. Out of 2,132 neonates, 91.7% needed resuscitation at birth, chest compression was performed on only 104 infants (5.4%) and epinephrine was administered to 80 infants (4.1%). Infants who received cardiac compression and/or epinephrine administration at birth (DR-CPR) were significantly more acidotic (P CPR resulted in greater early mortality of less than 7 days (OR, 5.64; 95% CI 3.25-9.77) increased intraventricular hemorrhage ≥ grade 3 (OR, 2.71; 95% CI 1.57-4.68), periventricular leukomalacia (OR, 2.94; 95% CI 1.72-5.01), and necrotizing enterocolitis (OR, 2.12; 95% CI 1.15-3.91) compared with those infants who needed only PPV. Meticulous and aggressive management of infants who needed DR-CPR at birth and quality improvement of the delivery room management will result in reduced morbidities and early death for the vulnerable VLBWI.

  15. Short communication: study of immune parameters in three Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, G; Fragou, S; Chronopoulou, R; Kominakis, A; Rogdakis, E; Politis, I

    2007-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether immunosuppression occurs in 3 different Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period. A total of 33 ewes from 3 breeds [i.e., the low-producing Boutsiko breed (n = 11), which is highly adaptable to harsh environments; the high-producing but environmentally fragile Chios breed (n = 11); and an intermediate synthetic breed (50% Boutsiko, 25% Arta, and 25% Chios, n = 11)] were used. Blood samples were collected at 18 and 2 d before parturition and at 15 d after parturition. Total cell-associated and membrane-bound urokinase plasminogen activator (U-PA) activity, free U-PA binding sites on cellular membranes, and superoxide anion (SA) production by activated phagocytes were determined. Results indicated that all immune parameters measured remained constant during the periparturient period for the Boutsiko breed. In contrast, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils and in SA production by monocytes-macrophages at d 2 before parturition for the Chios breed. In the synthetic breed, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by monocytes-macrophages and in SA production by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils at d 15 after parturition. Thus, mild immunosuppression during the periparturient period was observed in the 2 breeds with the highest milk production.

  16. A large outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infection with short incubation period in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Bjørn Odd; Lingaas, Egil; Torfoss, Dag; Strøm, Erik H; Nordøy, Ingvild

    2010-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen with a high mortality rate. We report a large, nosocomial outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infection. Patients with L. monocytogenes isolated from a sterile site, or from faeces when diarrhoea and fever were present, were included. Clinical data were collected from the patient records. The incubation period was calculated as the time between exposure and start of symptoms. Seventeen patients (11 women, median age 64 years) were infected of whom 15 patients were at increased risk for listeriosis. Eleven patients received empiric antibiotic treatment, eight of them with cephalosporins. Three patients died with a resulting mortality rate of 18%. The source of the outbreak was a Camembert cheese made from pasteurised milk containing up to 360 million colony forming units per portion. The median incubation period was 3-4 days. The incubation period in this outbreak was significantly shorter than previously reported, a fact that may be due to the high number of ingested bacteria. Furthermore, food restrictions in hospitals seem warranted, as do treatment with antibiotics effective against L. monocytogenes in at-risk populations. Copyright © 2010 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preoperative short hookwire placement for small pulmonary lesions: evaluation of technical success and risk factors for initial placement failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Toshihiro; Hiraki, Takao; Matsui, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Masaoka, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takashi; Sato, Takuya; Gobara, Hideo; Toyooka, Shinichi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2018-05-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the technical success of computed tomography fluoroscopy-guided short hookwire placement before video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and to identify the risk factors for initial placement failure. In total, 401 short hookwire placements for 401 lesions (mean diameter 9.3 mm) were reviewed. Technical success was defined as correct positioning of the hookwire. Possible risk factors for initial placement failure (i.e., requirement for placement of an additional hookwire or to abort the attempt) were evaluated using logistic regression analysis for all procedures, and for procedures performed via the conventional route separately. Of the 401 initial placements, 383 were successful and 18 failed. Short hookwires were finally placed for 399 of 401 lesions (99.5%). Univariate logistic regression analyses revealed that in all 401 procedures only the transfissural approach was a significant independent predictor of initial placement failure (odds ratio, OR, 15.326; 95% confidence interval, CI, 5.429-43.267; p < 0.001) and for the 374 procedures performed via the conventional route only lesion size was a significant independent predictor of failure (OR 0.793, 95% CI 0.631-0.996; p = 0.046). The technical success of preoperative short hookwire placement was extremely high. The transfissural approach was a predictor initial placement failure for all procedures and small lesion size was a predictor of initial placement failure for procedures performed via the conventional route. • Technical success of preoperative short hookwire placement was extremely high. • The transfissural approach was a significant independent predictor of initial placement failure for all procedures. • Small lesion size was a significant independent predictor of initial placement failure for procedures performed via the conventional route.

  18. Propagation of short-period gravity waves at high-latitudes during the MaCWAVE winter campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nielsen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending Vertically winter campaign an all-sky monochromatic CCD imager has been used to investigate the properties of short-period mesospheric gravity waves at high northern latitudes. Sequential measurements of several nightglow emissions were made from Esrange, Sweden, during a limited period from 27–31 January 2003. Coincident wind measurements over the altitude range (~80–100 km using two meteor radar systems located at Esrange and Andenes have been used to perform a novel investigation of the intrinsic properties of five distinct wave events observed during this period. Additional lidar and MSIS model temperature data have been used to investigate their nature (i.e. freely propagating or ducted. Four of these extensive wave events were found to be freely propagating with potential source regions to the north of Scandinavia. No evidence was found for strong orographic forcing by short-period waves in the airglow emission layers. The fifth event was most unusual exhibiting an extensive, but much smaller and variable wavelength pattern that appeared to be embedded in the background wind field. Coincident wind measurements indicated the presence of a strong shear suggesting this event was probably due to a large-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

  19. Non-radial oscillations of rotating stars and their relevance to the short-period oscillations of cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaloizou, J.; Pringle, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The usual hypothesis, that the short-period coherent oscillations seen in cataclysmic variables are attributable to g modes in a slowly rotating white dwarf, is considered. It is shown that this hypothesis is untenable for three main reasons: (i) the observed periods are too short for reasonable white dwarf models, (ii) the observed variability of the oscillations is too rapid and (iii) the expected rotation of the white dwarf, due to accretion, invalidates the slow rotation assumption on which standard g-mode theory is based. The low-frequency spectrum of a rotating pulsating star is investigated taking the effects of rotation fully into account. In this case there are two sets of low-frequency modes, the g modes, and modes similar to Rossby waves in the Earth's atmosphere and oceans, which are designated r modes. Typical periods for such modes are 1/m times the rotation period of the white dwarfs outer layers (m is the aximuthal wavenumber). It is concluded that non-radial oscillations of rotating white dwarfs can account for the properties of the oscillations seen in dwarf novae. Application of these results to other systems is also discussed. (author)

  20. First Kepler results on compact pulsators - V. Slowly pulsating subdwarf B stars in short-period binaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaler, Stephen D.; Reed, Michael D.; Østensen, Roy H.

    2010-01-01

    of sdB stars with a close M-dwarf companion with orbital periods of less than half a day. Because the orbital period is so short, the stars should be in synchronous rotation, and if so, the rotation period should imprint itself on the multiplet structure of the pulsations. However, we do not find clear......The survey phase of the Kepler Mission includes a number of hot subdwarf B (sdB) stars to search for non-radial pulsations. We present our analysis of two sdB stars that are found to be g-mode pulsators of the V1093 Her class. These two stars also display the distinct irradiation effect typical...... evidence for such rotational splitting. Though the stars do show some frequency spacings that are consistent with synchronous rotation, they also display multiplets with splittings that are much smaller. Longer-duration time series photometry will be needed to determine if those small splittings...

  1. Short-period atmospheric gravity waves - A study of their statistical properties and source mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedzelman, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Gravity waves for the one year period beginning 19 October 1976 around Palisades, New York, are investigated to determine their statistical properties and sources. The waves have typical periods of 10 min, pressure amplitudes of 3 Pa and velocities of 30 m/s. In general, the largest, amplitude waves occur during late fall and early winter when the upper tropospheric winds directly overhead are fastest and the static stability of the lower troposphere is greatest. Mean wave amplitudes correlate highly with the product of the mean maximum wind speed and the mean low level stratification directly aloft. A distinct diurnal variation of wave amplitudes with the largest waves occurring in the pre-dawn hours is also observed as a result of the increased static stability then. The majority of waves are generated by shear instability; however, a number of waves are generated by distant sources such as nuclear detonations or large thunderstorms. The waves with distant sources can be distinguished on the basis of their generally much higher coherency across the grid and velocities that depart markedly from the wind velocity at any point in the sounding.

  2. Non-thyroid cancer in Northern Ukraine in the post-Chernobyl period: Short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, M; Ostroumova, E; Brenner, A; Federenko, Z; Gorokh, Y; Zvinchuk, O; Shpak, V; Tereschenko, V; Tronko, M; Mabuchi, K

    2015-06-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Ukraine in 1986 led to widespread radioactive releases into the environment - primarily of radioiodines and cesium - heavily affecting the northern portions of the country, with settlement-averaged thyroid doses estimated to range from 10 mGy to more than 10 Gy. The increased risk of thyroid cancer among exposed children and adolescents is well established but the impact of radioactive contamination on the risk of other types of cancer is much less certain. To provide data on a public health issue of major importance, we have analyzed the incidence of non-thyroid cancers during the post-Chernobyl period in a well-defined cohort of 13,203 individuals who were <18 years of age at the time of the accident. The report is based on standardized incidence ratio (SIR) analysis of 43 non-thyroid cancers identified through linkage with the National Cancer Registry of Ukraine for the period 1998 through 2009. We compared the observed and expected number of cases in three cancer groupings: all solid cancers excluding thyroid, leukemia, and lymphoma. Our analyses found no evidence of a statistically significant elevation in cancer risks in this cohort exposed at radiosensitive ages, although the cancer trends, particularly for leukemia (SIR=1.92, 95% confidence interval: 0.69; 4.13), should continue to be monitored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Short period sound speed oscillation measured by intensive XBT survey and its role on GNSS/acoustic positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, M.; Matsui, R.; Imano, M.; Honsho, C.

    2017-12-01

    In the GNSS/acoustic measurement, sound speed in ocean plays a key role of accuracy of final positioning. We have shown than longer period sound speed undulation can be properly estimated from GNSS-A analysis itself in our previous work. In this work, we have carried out intensive XBT measurement to get temporal variation of sound speed in short period to be compared with GNSS-A derived one. In the individual temperature profile obtained by intensive XBT measurements (10 minutes interval up to 12 times of cast), clear vertical oscillation up to 20 m of amplitude in the shallow part were observed. These can be interpreted as gravitational internal wave with short-period and hence short wavelength anomaly. Kido et al. (2007) proposed that horizontal variation of the ocean structure can be considered employing five or more transponders at once if the structure is expressed by two quantities, i.e., horizontal gradient in x/y directions. However, this hypothesis requires that the variation must has a large spatial scale (> 2-5km) so that the horizontal variation can be regarded as linear within the extent of acoustic path to seafloor transponders. Therefore the wavelength of the above observed internal wave is getting important. The observed period of internal wave was 30-60 minute. However its wavelength cannot be directly measured. It must be estimate based on density profile of water column. In the comparison between sound speed change and positioning, the delay of their phases were 90 degree, which indicates that most steep horizontal slope of internal wave correspond to largest apparent positioning shift.

  4. Tailoring of the electrical and thermal properties using ultra-short period non-symmetric superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Komar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric modules based on half-Heusler compounds offer a cheap and clean way to create eco-friendly electrical energy from waste heat. Here we study the impact of the period composition on the electrical and thermal properties in non-symmetric superlattices, where the ratio of components varies according to (TiNiSnn:(HfNiSn6−n, and 0 ⩽ n ⩽ 6 unit cells. The thermal conductivity (κ showed a strong dependence on the material content achieving a minimum value for n = 3, whereas the highest value of the figure of merit ZT was achieved for n = 4. The measured κ can be well modeled using non-symmetric strain relaxation applied to the model of the series of thermal resistances.

  5. A Population of planetary systems characterized by short-period, Earth-sized planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze data from the Quarter 1–17 Data Release 24 (Q1–Q17 DR24) planet candidate catalog from NASA’s Kepler mission, specifically comparing systems with single transiting planets to systems with multiple transiting planets, and identify a population of exoplanets with a necessarily distinct system architecture. Such an architecture likely indicates a different branch in their evolutionary past relative to the typical Kepler system. The key feature of these planetary systems is an isolated, Earth-sized planet with a roughly 1-d orbital period. We estimate that at least 24 of the 144 systems we examined (≳17%) are members of this population. Accounting for detection efficiency, such planetary systems occur with a frequency similar to the hot Jupiters. PMID:27790984

  6. A Population of planetary systems characterized by short-period, Earth-sized planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Jason H; Coughlin, Jeffrey L

    2016-10-25

    We analyze data from the Quarter 1-17 Data Release 24 (Q1-Q17 DR24) planet candidate catalog from NASA's Kepler mission, specifically comparing systems with single transiting planets to systems with multiple transiting planets, and identify a population of exoplanets with a necessarily distinct system architecture. Such an architecture likely indicates a different branch in their evolutionary past relative to the typical Kepler system. The key feature of these planetary systems is an isolated, Earth-sized planet with a roughly 1-d orbital period. We estimate that at least 24 of the 144 systems we examined ([Formula: see text]17%) are members of this population. Accounting for detection efficiency, such planetary systems occur with a frequency similar to the hot Jupiters.

  7. Biomass production of dense direct-seeded lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) at short rotation periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backlund, I.; Bergsten, U.

    2012-07-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) is a fast-growing species that is suitable for producing woody biomass in Nordic countries. Direct seeding of this species is cheaper than planting and creates dense, stable stands. The objective of this study was to quantify the stem volume and biomass production of direct seeded lodgepole pine stands grown under different site conditions with different stem densities, at an age that would permit extensive harvesting of biomass. A circle-plot inventory was performed in 16 of the oldest direct seeded lodgepole pine stands in mid-northern Sweden. Stemwood production of almost 200 m{sup 3}/ha was achieved on average on the best sites, rising to about 300 m{sup 3}/ha for the best circle-plots within 30 years of direct seeding despite the fact that pre-commercial thinning was made once or twice. This corresponds to 100 and 140 tons of dry weight biomass/ha, respectively. Higher stand stem densities ({>=}3000 st/ha) yielded more biomass with only slight reductions in diameter at breast height. The development of stem volume with respect to dominant height in direct seeded stands was becoming comparable to that in planted stands with similar spacing. It therefore seems that there is an unutilized potential for cost-effectively growing lodgepole pine in dense stands for biomass production after direct seeding. It may be possible to devise regimes for short(er) rotation forestry that would yield substantial amount of inexpensive biomass for biorefineries within a few decades. (orig.)

  8. Short and long periodic atmospheric variations between 25 and 200 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, C. G.; Woodrum, A.

    1973-01-01

    Previously collected data on atmospheric pressure, density, temperature and winds between 25 and 200 km from sources including Meteorological Rocket Network data, ROBIN falling sphere data, grenade release and pitot tube data, meteor winds, chemical release winds, satellite data, and others were analyzed by a daily difference method and results on the distribution statistics, magnitude, and spatial structure of gravity wave and planetary wave atmospheric variations are presented. Time structure of the gravity wave variations were determined by the analysis of residuals from harmonic analysis of time series data. Planetary wave contributions in the 25-85 km range were discovered and found to have significant height and latitudinal variation. Long period planetary waves, and seasonal variations were also computed by harmonic analysis. Revised height variations of the gravity wave contributions in the 25 to 85 km height range were computed. An engineering method and design values for gravity wave magnitudes and wave lengths are given to be used for such tasks as evaluating the effects on the dynamical heating, stability and control of spacecraft such as the space shuttle vehicle in launch or reentry trajectories.

  9. Probability Estimates of Solar Proton Doses During Periods of Low Sunspot Number for Short Duration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William F.; Rojdev, Kristina; Matzkind, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    In an earlier paper presented at ICES in 2015, we investigated solar particle event (SPE) radiation exposures (absorbed dose) to small, thinly-shielded spacecraft during a period when the monthly smoothed sunspot number (SSN) was less than 30. Although such months are generally considered "solar-quiet", SPEs observed during these months even include Ground Level Events, the most energetic type of SPE. In this paper, we add to previous study those SPEs that occurred in 1973-2015 when the SSN was greater than 30 but less than 50. Based on the observable energy range of the solar protons, we classify the event as GLEs, sub-GLEs, and sub-sub-GLEs, all of which are potential contributors to the radiation hazard. We use the spectra of these events to construct a probabilistic model of the absorbed dose due to solar protons when SSN < 50 at various confidence levels for various depths of shielding and for various mission durations. We provide plots and tables of solar proton-induced absorbed dose as functions of confidence level, shielding thickness, and mission-duration that will be useful to system designers.

  10. Magnetic field topology of the cool, active, short-period binary system σ2 Coronae Borealis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, L.; Kochukhov, O.; Alecian, E.; Neiner, C.; Morin, J.; Wade, G. A.; BinaMIcS Collaboration

    2018-06-01

    Aims: The goal of this work is to study the cool, active binary star σ2 CrB, focussing on its magnetic field. The two F9-G0 components of this system are tidally locked and in a close orbit, increasing the chance of interaction between their magnetospheres. Methods: We used Stokes IV data from the twin spectropolarimeters Narval at the TBL and ESPaDOnS at the CFHT. The least-squares deconvolution multi-line technique was used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. We then applied a new binary Zeeman-Doppler imaging code to reconstruct simultaneously the magnetic topology and brightness distribution of both components of σ2 CrB. This analysis was carried out for two observational epochs in 2014 and 2017. Results: A previously unconfirmed magnetic field of the primary star has been securely detected. At the same time, the polarisation signatures of the secondary appear to have a systematically larger amplitude than that of the primary. This corresponds to a stronger magnetic field, for which the magnetic energy of the secondary exceeds that of the primary by a factor of 3.3-5.7. While the magnetic energy is similar for the secondary star in the two epochs, the magnetic energy is about twice as high in 2017 for the primary. The magnetic field topology of the two stars in the earlier epoch (2014) is very different. The fractions of energy in the dipole and quadrupole components of the secondary are similar and thereafter decrease with increasing harmonic angular degree ℓ. At the same time, for the primary the fraction of energy in the dipole component is low and the maximum energy contribution comes from ℓ = 4. However, in the 2017 epoch both stars have similar field topologies and a systematically decreasing energy with increasing ℓ. In the earlier epoch, the magnetic field at the visible pole appears to be of opposite polarity for the primary and secondary, suggesting linked magnetospheres. The apparent rotational periods of both σ2 Cr

  11. Interfacial electronic charge transfer and density of states in short period Cu/Cr multilayers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, T W; Bello, A F; Klepeis, J E; Van Buuren, T

    1999-01-01

    Nanometer period metallic multilayers are ideal structures to investigate electronic phenomena at interfaces between metal films since interfacial atoms comprise a large atomic fraction of the samples. The Cu/Cr binary pair is especially suited to study the interfaces in metals since these elements are mutually insoluble, thus eliminating mixing effects and compound formation and the lattice mismatch is very small. This allows the fabrication of high structural quality Cu/Cr multilayers that have a structure which can be approximated in calculations based on idealized atomic arrangements. The electronic structure of the Cu and the Cr layers in several samples of thin Cu/Cr multilayers were studied using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Total electron yield was measured and used to study the white lines at the Cu L(sub 2) and L(sub 3) absorption edges. The white lines at the Cu absorption edges are strongly related to the unoccupied d-orbitals and are used to calculate the amount of charge transfer between the Cr and Cu atoms in interfaces. Analysis of the Cu white lines show a charge transfer of 0.026 electrons/interfacial Cu atom to the interfacial Cr atoms. In the Cu XAS spectra we also observe a van Hove singularity between the L(sub 2) and L(sub 3) absorption edges as expected from the structural analysis. The absorption spectra are compared to partial density of states obtained from a full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital calculation. The calculations support the presence of charge transfer and indicate that it is localized to the first two interfacial layers in both Cu and Cr

  12. Influence of temperature of the short-period heat treatment on mechanical properties of the NiTi alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Čapek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The equiatomic alloy of nickel and titanium, known as nitinol, possesses unique properties such as superelasticity, pseudoplasticity, shape memory, while maintaining good corrosion resistance and sufficient biocompatibility. Therefore it is used for production of various devices including surgery implants. Heat treatment of nickel-rich NiTi alloys can result in precipitation of nickel-rich phases, which strongly influence tensile and fatigue behaviour of the material.In this work we have studied influence of short-period heat treatment on tensile behaviour and fatigue life of the NiTi (50.9 at. % Ni wire intended for fabrication of surgery stents.

  13. Magnetic Activity and Period Variation Studies of the Short-period Eclipsing Binaries. II. V1101 Her, AD Phe, and NSV 455 (J011636.15-394955.7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Qing-feng; Zhang, Li-yun; Bi, Shao-lan; Han, Xianming L.; Wang, Dai-mei; Lu, Hong-peng

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present new BVRI light curves of short-period contact eclipsing binaries V1101 Her and AD Phe from our observations carried out from 2014 to 2015 using the SARA KP and SARA CT telescopes. There is an eclipsing binary located at α(2000) = 01h16m36.ˢ15 and δ(2000) = -39°49‧55.″7 in the field of view of AD Phe. We derived an updated ephemeris and found there a cyclic variation overlaying a continuous period increase (V1101 Her) and decrease (AD Phe). This kind of cyclic variation may be attributed to the light time effect via the presence of the third body or magnetic activity cycle. The orbital period increase suggests that V1101 Her is undergoing a mass-transfer from the primary to the secondary component (dM 1/dt = 2.64(±0.11) × 10-6 M ⊙ yr-1) with the third body (P 3 = 13.9(±1.9) years), or 2.81(±0.07) × 10-6 M ⊙ yr-1 for an increase andmagnetic cycle (12.4(±0.5) years). The long-term period decrease suggests that AD Phe is undergoing a mass-transfer from the secondary component to the primary component at a rate of -8.04(±0.09) × 10-8 M ⊙ yr-1 for a period decrease and the third body (P 3 = 56.2(±0.8) years), or -7.11(±0.04) × 10-8 M ⊙ yr-1 for a decrease and magnetic cycle (50.3(±0.5) years). We determined their orbital and geometrical parameters. For AD Phe, we simultaneously analyzed our BVRI light curves and the spectroscopic observations obtained by Duerbeck & Rucinski. The spectral type of V1101 Her was classified as G0 ± 2V by LAMOST stellar spectra survey. The asymmetry of the R-band light curve of AD Phe obtained by McFarlane & Hilditch in 1987 is explained by a cool spot on the primary component.

  14. The importance of stakeholder-initiatives for business models in short food supply chains: the case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, E.F.M.; Fondse, M.; Pascucci, S.

    2013-01-01

    While the interest in Short Food Supply Chains (SFSCs) is growing, we still await management studies that explore the impact of stakeholders of SFSCs in substantial numbers. This article investigates the differences in the business models of SFSCs that may be attributed to the initiator-stakeholder,

  15. Interfacial intermixing in InAs/GaSb short-period-superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, E.; Satpati, B.; Trampert, A.; Rodriguez, J. B.; Baranov, A. N.; Tournie, E.

    2010-01-01

    The unique properties of the noncommon-atom InAs/GaSb short-period-superlattices (SPSL) strongly depend on the interface structure. These interfaces are characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The compositional sharpness is obtained from the comparison of the experimental contrast in g 002 two-beam dark-field TEM images with simulated intensity profiles, which are calculated assuming that the element distribution profiles are described by sigmoidal functions. The interfacial intermixing, defined by the chemical width, is obtained for SPSL with different periods and layer thicknesses, even in the extreme case of nominally less than 3 ML thick InAs layers. Nominal 1 ML InSb layers intentionally inserted are also identified.

  16. On the use of volumetric strain meters to infer additional characteristics of short-period seismic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Glassmoyer, G.

    1989-01-01

    Volumetric strain meters (Sacks-Evertson design) are installed at 15 sites along the San Andreas fault system, to monitor long-term strain changes for earthquake prediction. Deployment of portable broadband, high-resolution digital recorders (GEOS) at several of the sites extends the detection band for volumetric strain to periods shorter than 5 ?? 10-2 sec and permits the simultaneous observation of seismic radiation fields using conventional short-period pendulum seismometers. Recordings of local and regional earthquakes indicate that dilatometers respond to P energy but not direct shear energy and that straingrams can be used to resolve superimposed reflect P and S waves for inference of wave characteristics not permitted by either sensor alone. Simultaneous measurements of incident P- and S-wave amplitudes are used to introduce a technique for single-station estimates of wave field inhomogeneity, free-surface reflection coefficients and local material P velocity. -from Authors

  17. Layering of Structure in the North American Upper Mantle: Combining Short Period Constraints and Full Waveform Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, C.; Calo, M.; Bodin, T.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Recent receiver function (RF) studies of the north American craton suggest the presence of layering within the cratonic lithosphere with significant lateral variations in the depth. However, the location and character of these discontinuities depends on assumptions made on a background 3D velocity model. On the other hand, the implementation of the Spectral Element Method (SEM) for the computation of the seismic wavefield in 3D structures is allowing improved resolution of volumetric structure in full waveform tomography. The corresponding computations are however very heavy and limit our ability to attain short enough periods to resolve short scale features such as the existence and lateral variations of discontinuities. In order to overcome these limitations, we have developed a methodology that combines full waveform inversion tomography and information provided by short period seismic observables. In a first step we constructed a 3D discontinuous radially anisotropic starting model combining 1D models calculated using RF and L and R wave dispersion data in a Bayesian framework using trans-dimensional MCMC inversion at a collection of 30 stations across the north American continent (Calò et al., 2016). This model was then interpolated and smoothed using a procedure based on residual homogenization (Capdeville et al. 2013) and serves as input model for full waveform tomography using a three-component waveform dataset previously collected (Yuan et al., 2014). The homogenization is necessary to avoid meshing problems and heavy SEM computations. In a second step, several iterations of the full waveform inversion are performed until convergence, using a regional SEM code for forward computations (RegSEM, Cupillard et al., 2012). Results of the inversion are volumetric velocity perturbations around the homogenized starting model, which are then added to the discontinuous 3D starting model. The final result is a multiscale discontinuous model containing both short and

  18. Early Outcomes of Endoscopic Vein Harvesting during the Initial Learning Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Yeon Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH method has been used in coronary artery bypass surgery in many countries. We started using the EVH method recently, and investigated the results during the early learning period. Methods: Between March 2012 and June 2014, 75 patients (31 patients in the EVH method group, and 44 patients in the open method group who underwent isolated first-time coronary artery bypass grafting using vein grafts were retrospectively analyzed with respect to the early outcomes including graft patency and risk factors for leg wound complications. For assessing the patency of vein graft, we performed coronary computed tomography angiography during the immediate postoperative period and 6 months later. Results: Mean harvesting time of endoscopic method was about 15 minutes. Patency rate during the immediate operative period and the 6-month patency rate were similar between the two groups (postoperative period: EVH 100% vs. open method 94.4%, p=0.493; at 6 months: EVH 93.3% vs. open method 90.9%, p=0.791. Leg wound complications occurred more frequently in the open method group (EVH 3.2% vs. open method 13.6%, p=0.127. According to the analysis, age was an independent risk factor for leg wound complications. Conclusion: EVH is a feasible method even for beginners and can be performed satisfactorily during their learning period.

  19. Short-period volcanic gas precursors to phreatic eruptions: Insights from Poás Volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Maarten; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Pacheco, Javier; Avard, Geoffroy; Kern, Christoph; Liuzzo, Marco; Martinez, Maria; Giudice, Gaetano; Fischer, Tobias P.

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions involving interaction with water are amongst the most violent and unpredictable geologic phenomena on Earth. Phreatic eruptions are exceptionally difficult to forecast by traditional geophysical techniques. Here we report on short-term precursory variations in gas emissions related to phreatic blasts at Poás volcano, Costa Rica, as measured with an in situ multiple gas analyzer that was deployed at the edge of the erupting lake. Gas emitted from this hyper-acid crater lake approaches magmatic values of SO2/CO2 1–6 days prior to eruption. The SO2 flux derived from magmatic degassing through the lake is measureable by differential optical absorption spectrometry (sporadic campaign measurements), which allows us to constrain lake gas output and input for the major gas species during eruptive and non-eruptive periods. We can further calculate power supply to the hydrothermal system using volatile mass balance and thermodynamics, which indicates that the magmatic heat flux into the shallow hydrothermal system increases from ∼27 MW during quiescence to ∼59 MW during periods of phreatic events. These transient pulses of gas and heat from the deeper magmatic system generate both phreatic eruptions and the observed short-term changes in gas composition, because at high gas flux scrubbing of sulfur by the hydrothermal system is both kinetically and thermodynamically inhibited whereas CO2gas is always essentially inert in hyperacid conditions. Thus, the SO2/CO2 of lake emissions approaches magmatic values as gas and power supply to the sub-limnic hydrothermal system increase, vaporizing fluids and priming the hydrothermal system for eruption. Our results suggest that high-frequency real-time gas monitoring could provide useful short-term eruptive precursors at volcanoes prone to phreatic explosions.

  20. A Study on the Frequency of Initiating Event of OPR-1000 during Outage Periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Jae Beol; Jae, Moo Sung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    These sources of data did not reflect the latest event data which have occurred during the PWR outage to the frequencies of initiating event Electric Power Research Institute(EPRI) in USA collected the data of loss of decay heat removal during outage from 1989 to 2009 and published technical report. Domestic operating experiences for LOOP is gathered in Operational Performance Information System for Nuclear Power Plant(OPIS). To reduce conservatism and obtain completeness for LPSD PSA, those data should be collected and used to update the frequencies. The frequencies of LOSDC and LOOP are reevaluated using the data of EPRI and OPIS in this paper. Quantification is conducted to recalculate core damage frequency(CDF), since the rate is changed. The results are discussed below. To make an accurate estimate of the initiating events of LPSD PSA, the event data were collected and the frequencies of initiating events were updated using Bayesian approach. CDF was evaluated through quantification. Δ CDF is -40% and the dominant contributor is pressurizer PSV stuck open event. The most of the event data in EPRI TR were collected from US nuclear power plant industry. Those data are not enough to evaluate outage risk precisely. Therefore, to reduce conservatism and obtain completeness for LPSD PSA, the licensee event report and domestic data should be collected and reflected to the frequencies of the initiating events during outage.

  1. 42 CFR 409.63 - Reduction of inpatient psychiatric benefit days available in the initial benefit period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction of inpatient psychiatric benefit days available in the initial benefit period. 409.63 Section 409.63 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Scope of...

  2. Asymptotics of linear initial boundary value problems with periodic boundary data on the half-line and finite intervals

    KAUST Repository

    Dujardin, G. M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the asymptotic behaviour of the solutions of linear initial boundary value problems with constant coefficients on the half-line and on finite intervals. We assume that the boundary data are periodic in time and we investigate

  3. Asymptotics of linear initial boundary value problems with periodic boundary data on the half-line and finite intervals

    KAUST Repository

    Dujardin, G. M.

    2009-08-12

    This paper deals with the asymptotic behaviour of the solutions of linear initial boundary value problems with constant coefficients on the half-line and on finite intervals. We assume that the boundary data are periodic in time and we investigate whether the solution becomes time-periodic after sufficiently long time. Using Fokas\\' transformation method, we show that, for the linear Schrödinger equation, the linear heat equation and the linearized KdV equation on the half-line, the solutions indeed become periodic for large time. However, for the same linear Schrödinger equation on a finite interval, we show that the solution, in general, is not asymptotically periodic; actually, the asymptotic behaviour of the solution depends on the commensurability of the time period T of the boundary data with the square of the length of the interval over. © 2009 The Royal Society.

  4. Corrosion fatigue initiation and short crack growth behaviour of austenitic stainless steels under light water reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, H.P.; Ritter, S.; Leber, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion fatigue in austenitic stainless steels under light water reactor conditions. ► Identification of major parameters of influence on initiation and short crack growth. ► Critical system conditions for environmental reduction of fatigue initiation life. ► Comparison with the environmental factor (F env ) approach. - Abstract: The corrosion fatigue initiation and short crack growth behaviour of different wrought low-carbon and stabilised austenitic stainless steels was characterised under simulated boiling water reactor and pressurised water reactor primary water conditions by cyclic fatigue tests with sharply notched fracture mechanics specimens. The special emphasis was placed to the behaviour at low corrosion potentials and, in particular, to hydrogen water chemistry conditions. The major parameter effects and critical conjoint threshold conditions, which result in relevant environmental reduction and acceleration of fatigue initiation life and subsequent short crack growth, respectively, are discussed and summarised. The observed corrosion fatigue behaviour is compared with the fatigue evaluation procedures in codes and regulatory guidelines.

  5. Effect of initial lactate level on short-term survival in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Sarıaydın, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study evaluated whether serum lactate levels (SLL at admission in patients with cardiac arrest (CA can predict successful return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC or short-term survival, especially within the first 24 h. Materials and methods: This prospective, observational study was conducted in the emergency department (ED of a training and research hospital from April 2015 through February 2016. It included all patients older than 18 years who presented to the ED during the study period with non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA. The study measured two outcomes: whether ROSC was achieved and whether short-term survival was achieved. ROSC was defined as the presence of spontaneous circulation for the first hour after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Survival was defined as having survived for a minimum of 24 h after ROSC. Results: The study included 140 patients who were admitted to the ED with OHCA. ROSC was achieved in 55 patients (39.3%, and survival for 24 h following CA was achieved in 42 patients (30%. The mean SLL in the ROSC (+ and ROSC (- groups were 9.1 ± 3.2 mmol/L and 9.8 ± 2.9 mmol/L, respectively. The mean SLL in the survivor and non-survivor groups were 8.6 ± 2.9 mmol/L and 10 ± 3.1 mmol/L, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.1. A multivariate regression model assessing the factors that predicted both ROSC and 24-h survival showed the odds ratio (OR of initial SLL was 1.3 (95% CI: 1.05–1.6 and 1.1 (95% CI: 0.9–1.3, respectively. Conclusions: This study showed that in OHCA patients, SLL on admission was not associated with increased ROSC achievement or 24-h survival. Keywords: Cardiac arrest, Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA, Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, Serum lactate, Emergency department

  6. CSI 2264: CHARACTERIZING YOUNG STARS IN NGC 2264 WITH SHORT-DURATION PERIODIC FLUX DIPS IN THEIR LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; Rebull, Luisa; Plavchan, Peter; Carey, Sean [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McGinnis, Pauline; Alencar, Silvia H. P. [Departamento de Física—ICEx—UFMG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, 30270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Turner, Neal J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Terebey, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Morales-Calderón, María [Centro de Astrobiología, Dpto. de Astrofísica, INTA-CSIC, PO BOX 78, E-28691, ESAC Campus, Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Bouvier, Jerome; Venuti, Laura [Université de Grenoble, Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134, Palermo (Italy); Song, Inseok [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602–2451 (United States); Gutermuth, Rob, E-mail: stauffer@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    We identify nine young stellar objects (YSOs) in the NGC 2264 star-forming region with optical CoRoT light curves exhibiting short-duration, shallow periodic flux dips. All of these stars have infrared excesses that are consistent with their having inner disk walls near the Keplerian co-rotation radius. The repeating photometric dips have FWHMs generally less than 1 day, depths almost always less than 15%, and periods (3 < P < 11 days) consistent with dust near the Keplerian co-rotation period. The flux dips vary considerably in their depth from epoch to epoch, but usually persist for several weeks and, in two cases, were present in data collected in successive years. For several of these stars, we also measure the photospheric rotation period and find that the rotation and dip periods are the same, as predicted by standard “disk-locking” models. We attribute these flux dips to clumps of material in or near the inner disk wall, passing through our line of sight to the stellar photosphere. In some cases, these dips are also present in simultaneous Spitzer IRAC light curves at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. We characterize the properties of these dips, and compare the stars with light curves exhibiting this behavior to other classes of YSOs in NGC 2264. A number of physical mechanisms could locally increase the dust scale height near the inner disk wall, and we discuss several of those mechanisms; the most plausible mechanisms are either a disk warp due to interaction with the stellar magnetic field or dust entrained in funnel-flow accretion columns arising near the inner disk wall.

  7. CSI 2264: CHARACTERIZING YOUNG STARS IN NGC 2264 WITH SHORT-DURATION PERIODIC FLUX DIPS IN THEIR LIGHT CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; Rebull, Luisa; Plavchan, Peter; Carey, Sean; McGinnis, Pauline; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John; Turner, Neal J.; Terebey, Susan; Morales-Calderón, María; Bouvier, Jerome; Venuti, Laura; Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria; Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore; Song, Inseok; Gutermuth, Rob

    2015-01-01

    We identify nine young stellar objects (YSOs) in the NGC 2264 star-forming region with optical CoRoT light curves exhibiting short-duration, shallow periodic flux dips. All of these stars have infrared excesses that are consistent with their having inner disk walls near the Keplerian co-rotation radius. The repeating photometric dips have FWHMs generally less than 1 day, depths almost always less than 15%, and periods (3 < P < 11 days) consistent with dust near the Keplerian co-rotation period. The flux dips vary considerably in their depth from epoch to epoch, but usually persist for several weeks and, in two cases, were present in data collected in successive years. For several of these stars, we also measure the photospheric rotation period and find that the rotation and dip periods are the same, as predicted by standard “disk-locking” models. We attribute these flux dips to clumps of material in or near the inner disk wall, passing through our line of sight to the stellar photosphere. In some cases, these dips are also present in simultaneous Spitzer IRAC light curves at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. We characterize the properties of these dips, and compare the stars with light curves exhibiting this behavior to other classes of YSOs in NGC 2264. A number of physical mechanisms could locally increase the dust scale height near the inner disk wall, and we discuss several of those mechanisms; the most plausible mechanisms are either a disk warp due to interaction with the stellar magnetic field or dust entrained in funnel-flow accretion columns arising near the inner disk wall

  8. PHOTOMETRIC STUDIES OF THREE NEGLECTED SHORT-PERIOD CONTACT BINARIES GN BOOTIS, BL LEONIS, AND V1918 CYGNI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Qian, S.-B.

    2013-01-01

    We present new photometry for three short-period contact binaries, GN Boo, BL Leo, and V1918 Cyg, observed from 2008 December to 2012 April using several small telescopes in China. Photometric models were deduced from new observations using the updated Wilson-Devinney Code. The results show that GN Boo and BL Leo are W-type contact binaries, while V1918 Cyg is an A-type one. The mass ratios and fill-out factors are q = 0.320(± 0.002) and f = 5.8(± 0.1)% for GN Boo, q = 0.476(± 0.005) and f = 21.3(± 1.1)% for BL Leo, q = 0.264(± 0.002), and f = 49.7(± 0.7)% for V1918 Cyg, respectively. From the (O – C) curves, it is discovered that the orbital periods of three binaries have varied in a complicated way, i.e., cyclic oscillation for GN Boo, long-term period decrease for BL Leo, and both for V1918 Cyg. The cyclic variations for GN Boo and V1918 Cyg may probably be attributed to the magnetic activity of the primary component or light-time effect due to the third body. Meanwhile, the secular period decreases for BL Leo and V1918 Cyg may result from mass transfer from the primary to the secondary, accompanying the mass and angular momentum loss from the central system. Finally, GN Boo, BL Leo, and V1918 Cyg will evolve into deep contact binaries. Additionally, a statistical study of 37 contact binaries with decreasing periods is given. We obtained the relations of q – f and q – dln P/dt, and preliminarily determined the mass loss rate of dln M/dt from the binary system.

  9. PG 0308 + 096 and PG 1026 + 002 - Two new short period binary stars resulting from common-envelope evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Rex A.; Wade, Richard A.; Liebert, James; Green, Richard F.; Sion, Edward M.; Bechtold, J.; Foss, Diana; Kidder, K.

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry have been used to study the excess UV stars PG 0308 + 096 and PG 1026 + 002. Both objects are short-period binary systems, each containing a DA white dwarf star and a dM star. Orbital periods of approximately 0.284 day for PG 0308 + 096, and aproximately 0.597 day for PG 1026, have been found by spectroscopic analysis of the H-alpha emission line. Ly-alpha and Balmer line profile fitting were used to estimate the mass of white dwarf stars; mass estimates for the dM stars are based on their spectral types. The orbital inclinations are derived from these masses, the periods, and amplitudes of the H-alpha radial velocity curves. The equivalent width of the H-alpha emission line, in each binary system, varies with the orbital phase in such a manner as to imply that it arises, in large part at least, from the hemisphere of the M star that faces the white dwarf star.

  10. Exercise during Short-Term and Long-Term Continuous Exposure to Hypoxia Exacerbates Sleep-Related Periodic Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Morrison, Shawnda A.; Neyt, Xavier; Mairesse, Olivier; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Macdonald-Nethercott, Eoin; Pangerc, Andrej; Dolenc-Groselj, Leja; Eiken, Ola; Pattyn, Nathalie; Mekjavic, Igor B.; Meeusen, Romain

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Exposure to hypoxia elevates chemosensitivity, which can lead to periodic breathing. Exercise impacts gas exchange, altering chemosensitivity; however, interactions between sleep, exercise and chronic hypoxic exposure have not been examined. This study investigated whether exercise exacerbates sleep-related periodic breathing in hypoxia. Methods: Two experimental phases. Short-Term Phase: a laboratory controlled, group-design study in which 16 active, healthy men (age: 25 ± 3 y, height: 1.79 ± 0.06 m, mass: 74 ± 8 kg) were confined to a normobaric hypoxic environment (FIO2 = 0.139 ± 0.003, 4,000 m) for 10 days, after random assignment to a sedentary (control, CON) or cycle-exercise group (EX). Long-Term Phase: conducted at the Concordia Antarctic Research Station (3,800 m equivalent at the Equator) where 14 men (age: 36 ± 9 y, height: 1.77 ± 0.09 m, mass: 75 ± 10 kg) lived for 12–14 months, continuously confined. Participants were stratified post hoc based on self-reported physical activity levels. We quantified apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and physical activity variables. Results: Short-Term Phase: mean AHI scores were significantly elevated in the EX group compared to CON (Night1 = CON: 39 ± 51, EX: 91 ± 59; Night10 = CON: 32 ± 32, EX: 92 ± 48; P = 0.046). Long-Term Phase: AHI was correlated to mean exercise time (R2 = 0.4857; P = 0.008) and the coefficient of variation in night oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2; R2 = 0.3062; P = 0.049). Conclusions: Data indicate that exercise (physical activity) per se affects night SpO2 concentrations and AHI after a minimum of two bouts of moderate-intensity hypoxic exercise, while habitual physical activity in hypobaric hypoxic confinement affects breathing during sleep, up to 13+ months' duration Citation: Tellez HF, Morrison SA, Neyt X, Mairesse O, Piacentini MF, Macdonald-Nethercott E, Pangerc A, Dolenc-Groselj L, Eiken O, Pattyn N, Mekjavic IB, Meeusen R. Exercise during short-term and long

  11. Initial formation of channels and shoals in a short tidal embayment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaars, H.M.; Swart, H.E. de

    1997-01-01

    It is demonstrated by using a simple model that bedforms in a short tidal embayment can develop due to a positive feedback between tidal currents sediment transport and bedforms The system is forced by a prescribed free surface elevations at the entrance of the embayment The water motions are

  12. Using Ensemble Short-Term Initialized Coupled NASA GEOS5 Climate Model Integrations to Study Convective Bias Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Charlie; Robertson, Franklin; Molod, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    SST gradients, associated PBL baroclinicity enabled by turbulent mixing, the ensuing PBL moisture convergence, and how changes in these processes relate to convective precipitation bias growth over this short period.

  13. Validation and Initial Characterization of the Long-period Planet Kepler-1654 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichman, C. A.; Giles, H. A. C.; Akeson, R.; Ciardi, D.; Christiansen, J.; Isaacson, H.; Marcy, G. M.; Sinukoff, E.; Greene, T.; Fortney, J. J.; Crossfield, I.; Hu, R.; Howard, A. W.; Petigura, E. A.; Knutson, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    Fewer than 20 transiting Kepler planets have periods longer than one year. Our early search of the Kepler light curves revealed one such system, Kepler-1654b (originally KIC 8410697b), which shows exactly two transit events and whose second transit occurred only five days before the failure of the second of two reaction wheels brought the primary Kepler mission to an end. A number of authors have also examined light curves from the Kepler mission searching for long-period planets and identified this candidate. Starting in 2014 September, we began an observational program of imaging, reconnaissance spectroscopy, and precision radial velocity (RV) measurements that confirm with a high degree of confidence that Kepler-1654b is a bona fide transiting planet orbiting a mature G5V star (T eff = 5580 K, [Fe/H] = ‑0.08) with a semimajor axis of 2.03 au, a period of 1047.84 days, and a radius of 0.82 ± 0.02 R Jup. RV measurements using Keck’s HIRES spectrometer obtained over 2.5 years set a limit to the planet’s mass of <0.5 (3σ) M Jup. The bulk density of the planet is similar to that of Saturn or possibly lower. We assess the suitability of temperate gas giants like Kepler-1654b for transit spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope, as their relatively cold equilibrium temperatures (T pl ∼ 200 K) make them interesting from the standpoint of exoplanet atmospheric physics. Unfortunately, these low temperatures also make the atmospheric scale heights small and thus transmission spectroscopy challenging. Finally, the long time between transits can make scheduling JWST observations difficult—as is the case with Kepler-1654b.

  14. A passive method for the determination of the equilibrium factor between radon gas and its short period progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Fabio O.; Canoba, Analia C.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the radiological importance of 222 Rn gas and its progeny of short period it is extremely necessary to count with an adequate methodology for the determination of its concentration in the different atmospheres in which human activity is developed. In this work a method was developed to determine the concentration of 222 Rn gas and the equilibrium factor between the concentration of the gas and its descendants, by means of a single device that has two Makrofol passive tracks detector. This device is completely passive and integrating, conditions that make it very appropriate to be used in any atmospheres in which human activity is developed, for example in houses, schools, places of work, underground mines, etc. (author)

  15. Short-range order in alloys of nickel with the elements of group VIII of the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, F.A.

    1981-08-01

    Experimental measurements of the diffuse X-ray scattering intensity were performed on alloys of Ni with Rh and Os. The atomic short-range order (SRO) parameters αsub(i) and the size-effect parameters βsub(i) were calculated from these measurements. It is established that SRO and size-effect exist in Ni-Rh and Ni-Os alloys analogously as in a few other alloys of Ni with the elements of group VIII of the periodic table. The experimental data was interpreted theoretically by calculating the interaction energies from the pseudo-potentials and the effective valencies of the individual components of the systems studied. It was found that theoretically calculated values of the interaction energies for these alloys are inconsistent with the experimentally determined sign of the SRO parameter. (author)

  16. Quasi-periodic oscillations in short recurring bursts of the soft gamma repeater J1550–5418

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppenkothen, D.; D' Angelo, C.; Watts, A. L.; Heil, L.; Van der Klis, M.; Van der Horst, A. J. [Astronomical Institute " Anton Pannekoek," University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kouveliotou, C. [Astrophysics Office, ZP 12, NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Baring, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Göğüş, E.; Kaneko, Y. [SabancıUniversity, Orhanlı-Tuzla, İstanbul 34956 (Turkey); Granot, J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Ra' anana 43537 (Israel); Lin, L. [François Arago Centre, APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris (France); Von Kienlin, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Younes, G., E-mail: D.Huppenkothen@uva.nl [NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in magnetar giant flares has opened up prospects for neutron star asteroseismology. The scarcity of giant flares makes a search for QPOs in the shorter, far more numerous bursts from soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) desirable. In Huppenkothen et al., we developed a Bayesian method for searching for QPOs in short magnetar bursts, taking into account the effects of the complicated burst structure, and have shown its feasibility on a small sample of bursts. Here we apply the same method to a much larger sample from a burst storm of 286 bursts from SGR J1550–5418. We report a candidate signal at 260 Hz in a search of the individual bursts, which is fairly broad. We also find two QPOs at ∼93 Hz, and one at 127 Hz, when averaging periodograms from a number of bursts in individual triggers, at frequencies close to QPOs previously observed in magnetar giant flares. Finally, for the first time, we explore the overall burst variability in the sample and report a weak anti-correlation between the power-law index of the broadband model characterizing aperiodic burst variability and the burst duration: shorter bursts have steeper power-law indices than longer bursts. This indicates that longer bursts vary over a broader range of timescales and are not simply longer versions of the short bursts.

  17. Study of short-period RS Canum Venaticorum and W Ursae Majoris binary systems: The global nature of Hα

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barden, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    I present the rotation versus emission characteristics of the Hα line for several short-period (P -5 ) and the Rossby number (the ratio between the rotational period and the convective time scale) is seen for those components showing emission. Such a correlation suggests that the Hα line is a good diagnostic for the study of the magnetic-related activity in late-type stellar systems. Plotting the L/sub Halpha//L/sub bol/ against a measure of the tidal amplitude of Scharlemann shows that the activity of the W UMa secondary components may be shut off by the tidal forces of the primaries. The shut-off appears in those components having a tidal amplitude > or approx. =0.02. It is, however, unclear whether the tidal damping of the differential rotation is the sole mechanism responsible for the shut-off of the Hα emission, as the activity damping may also be attributable to the contact nature of the W UMa systems

  18. Performance of a reactor containing denitrifying immobilized biomass in removing ethanol and aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) in a short operating period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusmao, Valquiria Ribeiro; Chinalia, Fabio Alexandre; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amancio

    2007-01-01

    A horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass reactor (HAIB) containing denitrifying biomass was evaluated with respect to its ability to remove, separately and in a short operating period (30 days), organic matter, nitrate, and the hydrocarbons benzene (41.4 mg L -1 ), toluene (27.8 mg L -1 ), ethylbenzene (31.1 mg L -1 ), o-xylene (28.5 mg L -1 ), m-xylene (28.4 mg L -1 ) and p-xylene (32.1 mg L -1 ). The purified culture, which was grown in the presence of the specific hydrocarbon, was used as the source of cells to be immobilized in the polyurethane foam. After 30 days of operation, the foam was removed and a new immobilized biomass was grown in the presence of another hydrocarbon. The average hydrocarbon removal efficiency attained was 97%. The organic matter, especially ethanol, was removed with an average efficiency of 83% at a mean influent concentration of 1185.0 mg L -1 . A concomitant removal of 97% of nitrate was observed for a mean influent concentration of 423.4 mg L -1 . The independent removal of each hydrocarbon demonstrated that these contaminants can be biodegraded separately, without the need for a compound to be the primary substrate for the degradation of another. This study proposes the application of the system for treatment of areas contaminated with these compounds, with substitution and formation of a biofilm in a 30-day period

  19. The Discovery and Mass Measurement of a New Ultra-short-period Planet: K2-131b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fei; Winn, Joshua N.; Gandolfi, Davide; Wang, Sharon X.; Teske, Johanna K.; Burt, Jennifer; Albrecht, Simon; Barragán, Oscar; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Fridlund, Malcolm; Hatzes, Artie P.; Hirano, Teruyuki; Hirsch, Lea A.; Johnson, Marshall C.; Justesen, Anders Bo; Livingston, John; Persson, Carina M.; Prieto-Arranz, Jorge; Vanderburg, Andrew; Alonso, Roi; Antoniciello, Giuliano; Arriagada, Pamela; Butler, R. P.; Cabrera, Juan; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Cusano, Felice; Csizmadia, Szilárd; Deeg, Hans; Dieterich, Sergio B.; Eigmüller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Everett, Mark E.; Fukui, Akihiko; Grziwa, Sascha; Guenther, Eike W.; Henry, Gregory W.; Howell, Steve B.; Johnson, John Asher; Korth, Judith; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Narita, Norio; Nespral, David; Nowak, Grzegorz; Palle, Enric; Pätzold, Martin; Rauer, Heike; Montañés Rodríguez, Pilar; Shectman, Stephen A.; Smith, Alexis M. S.; Thompson, Ian B.; Van Eylen, Vincent; Williamson, Michael W.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.

    2017-12-01

    We report the discovery of a new ultra-short-period planet and summarize the properties of all such planets for which the mass and radius have been measured. The new planet, K2-131b, was discovered in K2 Campaign 10. It has a radius of {1.81}-0.12+0.16 {R}\\oplus and orbits a G dwarf with a period of 8.9 hr. Radial velocities obtained with Magellan/PFS and TNG/HARPS-N show evidence for stellar activity along with orbital motion. We determined the planetary mass using two different methods: (1) the “floating chunk offset” method, based only on changes in velocity observed on the same night; and (2) a Gaussian process regression based on both the radial velocity and photometric time series. The results are consistent and lead to a mass measurement of 6.5+/- 1.6 {M}\\oplus and a mean density of {6.0}-2.7+3.0 g cm-3.

  20. Reconstruction of dose loads on population in the initial period of the Chernobyl accident and estimation of thyroid cancer risk in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchko, K.; Naumov, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident caused significant long-term consequences to the environment, public health, and economic status of Belarus. The contamination from short-lived radionuclides, in particular iodine 131, was so high that the subsequent exposure of millions of people has been termed 'iodine shock'. During the first days of the accident, the majority of the dose of radiation received by the residents of Belarus was to the thyroid gland. This will affect the health of the population for a long time to come. The resulting epidemic of childhood thyroid cancer is the first indisputable health after-effect of the Chernobyl accident. Thyroid cancer morbidity among children increased more than 10 fold in the post-Chernobyl period. Maps of cesium 137, which has a half life of 37 years, have been published, but it is evident, that the distribution of thyroid cancer morbidity differs from the known distribution of cesium 137 in soil. Territorial distribution of thyroid cancer morbidity is often compared to distribution of cesium 137 in the soil. This practice is inaccurate but often utilized since no maps of iodine 131 contamination exist, due to its short half life of 8.04 days. Reconstruction of the spatial distribution of short-lived isotopes in the first days after the accident, could clarify the impact of radiation on human health and allow for a spatial and temporal prognosis of the development of the cancer epidemic, particularly, thyroid cancer. Due to the unfortunate fact that the measuring equipment was inadequate to properly monitor the scale of radiation exposure during the early period of the accident, detailed direct information on the deposition of the short-lived radionuclides and the doses to the population has been irretrievably lost. Now the only way to reconstruct the dynamics of the radioecological situation of the initial period of the Chernobyl accident is to make a retrospective assessment of radiation exposures related to the short

  1. Flexible fuel cycle initiative for the transition period from current reactors to next generation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Junichi; Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Hoshino, Kuniyoshi; Kawamura, Fumio; Shiina, Kouji; Sasahira, Akira

    2005-01-01

    A sustainable electricity supply by fast breeder reactors (FBRs) is essential to ensure energy security and prevent global warming. Transition from light water reactors (LWRs) to FBRs and establishment of an FBR cycle are indispensable, which requires plutonium (Pu) for the introduction of FBRs. The authors propose advanced system called 'Flexible Fuel Cycle Initiative (FFCI)' which can respond flexibly the future expected technical and social uncertainties, can hold no surplus Pu, and can achieve an economical FBR cycle. In the new concept of FFCI, 2nd LWR reprocessing which would succeed Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant is a simple facility to carry out only uranium (U) removal and residual 'recycle material' is stored or utilized. According to FBRs introduction status, recycle material is immediately treated in an FBR reprocessing to fabricate FBR fuel or temporarily stored for the utilization in FBRs at necessary timing. FFCI has high flexibility by having several options for future uncertainties by the introduction of recycle material as a buffer material between LWR and FBR cycles. (author)

  2. Adaptive characteristics of main muscular groups’ static endurance in 6 years children in initial school period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Bondarenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study adaptation of 6 years children’s muscular skeletal apparatus to learning work by indicators of static endurance dynamic. Material: in the research 6 years children participated (n=64, boys - n=36, girls- n=28. Indicators of main muscular groups’ static endurance were studied. Results: we determined comparative topography of 13 muscular groups’ static endurance and substantial sex dimorphism was found. In 9 muscular groups the boys advantage was 11.7 - 50.2% (р < 0.05 ÷ 0.01. The level and correlation of muscles-antagonists’ static endurance from the point of evolutionary and ontogeny development of muscular-skeletal apparatus were substantiated. At the end of semester we found significant (р < 0.001 reduction of static endurance indicators as well as the fact that torso muscles were the most sensitive to influence of learning work’s static component. The level of static endurance weakening, under which syndrome of static over-tension appears, was determined. Conclusions: the research results permit to balance the volumes of learning load at initial stage of school work. Organizational-methodic principles of learning and physical education system for children shall be oriented on overcoming muscular-skeletal apparatus’s dysfunctions.

  3. Lithospheric layering in the North American craton revealed by including Short Period Constraints in Full Waveform Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, C.; Calo, M.; Bodin, T.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent receiver function studies of the North American craton suggest the presence of significant layering within the cratonic lithosphere, with significant lateral variations in the depth of the velocity discontinuities. These structural boundaries have been confirmed recently using a transdimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach (TMCMC), inverting surface wave dispersion data and converted phases simultaneously (Calò et al., 2016; Roy and Romanowicz 2017). The lateral resolution of upper mantle structure can be improved with a high density of broadband seismic stations, or with a sparse network using full waveform inversion based on numerical wavefield computation methods such as the Spectral Element Method (SEM). However, inverting for discontinuities with strong topography such as MLDS's or LAB, presents challenges in an inversion framework, both computationally, due to the short periods required, and from the point of view of stability of the inversion. To overcome these limitations, and to improve resolution of layering in the upper mantle, we are developing a methodology that combines full waveform inversion tomography and information provided by short period seismic observables. We have extended the 30 1D radially anisotropic shear velocity profiles of Calò et al. 2016 to several other stations, for which we used a recent shear velocity model (Clouzet et al., 2017) as constraint in the modeling. These 1D profiles, including both isotropic and anisotropic discontinuities in the upper mantle (above 300 km depth) are then used to build a 3D starting model for the full waveform tomographic inversion. This model is built after 1) homogenization of the layered 1D models and 2) interpolation between the 1D smooth profiles and the model of Clouzet et al. 2017, resulting in a smooth 3D starting model. Waveforms used in the inversion are filtered at periods longer than 30s. We use the SEM code "RegSEM" for forward computations and a quasi-Newton inversion

  4. Rapid detonation initiation by sparks in a short duct: a numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z. M.; Dou, H. S.; Khoo, B. C.

    2010-06-01

    Rapid onset of detonation can efficiently increase the working frequency of a pulse detonation engine (PDE). In the present study, computations of detonation initiation in a duct are conducted to investigate the mechanisms of detonation initiation. The governing equations are the Euler equations and the chemical kinetic model consists of 19 elementary reactions and nine species. Different techniques of initiation have been studied for the purpose of accelerating detonation onset with a relatively weak ignition energy. It is found that detonation ignition induced by means of multiple sparks is applicable to auto-ignition for a PDE. The interaction among shock waves, flame fronts and the strip of pre-compressed fresh (unburned) mixture plays an important role in rapid onset of detonation.

  5. A dearth of short-period massive binaries in the young massive star forming region M 17. Evidence for a large orbital separation at birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, H.; Ramírez-Tannus, M. C.; de Koter, A.; Kaper, L.; Tramper, F.; Bik, A.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: The formation of massive stars remains poorly understood and little is known about their birth multiplicity properties. Here, we aim to quantitatively investigate the strikingly low radial-velocity dispersion measured for a sample of 11 massive pre- and near-main-sequence stars (σ1D= 5.6 ± 0.2 km s-1) in the very young massive star forming region M 17, in order to obtain first constraints on the multiplicity properties of young massive stellar objects. Methods: We compute the radial-velocity dispersion of synthetic populations of massive stars for various multiplicity properties and we compare the obtained σ1D distributions to the observed value. We specifically investigate two scenarios: a low binary fraction and a dearth of short-period binary systems. Results: Simulated populations with low binary fractions () or with truncated period distributions (Pcutoff > 9 months) are able to reproduce the low σ1D observed within their 68%-confidence intervals. Furthermore, parent populations with fbin > 0.42 or Pcutoff < 47 d can be rejected at the 5%-significance level. Both constraints are in stark contrast with the high binary fraction and plethora of short-period systems in few Myr-old, well characterized OB-type populations. To explain the difference in the context of the first scenario would require a variation of the outcome of the massive star formation process. In the context of the second scenario, compact binaries must form later on, and the cut-off period may be related to physical length-scales representative of the bloated pre-main-sequence stellar radii or of their accretion disks. Conclusions: If the obtained constraints for the M 17's massive-star population are representative of the multiplicity properties of massive young stellar objects, our results may provide support to a massive star formation process in which binaries are initially formed at larger separations, then harden or migrate to produce the typical (untruncated) power-law period

  6. MARVELS-1b: A SHORT-PERIOD, BROWN DWARF DESERT CANDIDATE FROM THE SDSS-III MARVELS PLANET SEARCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Brian L.; Ge Jian; Fleming, Scott W.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Stassun, Keivan G.; Gary, Bruce; Pepper, Joshua; Gaudi, B. Scott; Eastman, Jason D.; Siverd, Robert J.; Barnes, Rory; Laws, Chris; Wisniewski, John P.; Wright, Jason; Ghezzi, Luan; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Da Costa, Luiz Nicolaci; Porto de Mello, G. F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new short-period brown dwarf (BD) candidate around the star TYC 1240-00945-1. This candidate was discovered in the first year of the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanets Large-area Survey (MARVELS), which is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) III, and we designate the BD as MARVELS-1b. MARVELS uses the technique of dispersed fixed-delay interferometery to simultaneously obtain radial velocity (RV) measurements for 60 objects per field using a single, custom-built instrument that is fiber fed from the SDSS 2.5 m telescope. From our 20 RV measurements spread over a ∼370 day time baseline, we derive a Keplerian orbital fit with semi-amplitude K = 2.533 ± 0.025 km s -1 , period P = 5.8953 ± 0.0004 days, and eccentricity consistent with circular. Independent follow-up RV data confirm the orbit. Adopting a mass of 1.37 ± 0.11 M sun for the slightly evolved F9 host star, we infer that the companion has a minimum mass of 28.0 ± 1.5 M Jup , a semimajor axis 0.071 ± 0.002 AU assuming an edge-on orbit, and is probably tidally synchronized. We find no evidence for coherent intrinsic variability of the host star at the period of the companion at levels greater than a few millimagnitudes. The companion has an a priori transit probability of ∼14%. Although we find no evidence for transits, we cannot definitively rule them out for companion radii ∼ Jup .

  7. Undesirable financial effects of head and neck cancer radiotherapy during the initial treatment period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Egestad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare cost and reforms are at the forefront of international debates. One of the current discussion themes in oncology is whether and how patients’ life changes due to costs of cancer care. In Norway, the main part of the treatment costs is supported by general taxpayer revenues. Objectives: The objective of this study was to clarify whether head and neck cancer patients (n=67 in northern Norway experienced financial health-related quality of life (HRQOL deterioration due to costs associated with treatment. Design: HRQOL was examined by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ-C30 in the beginning and in the end of radiation treatment in patients treated at the University Hospital in Northern Norway. Changes in financial HRQOL were calculated and compared by paired sample T-tests. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine correlations among gender, marital status, age and treatment with or without additional chemotherapy and changes in the HRQOL domain of financial difficulties. Results: The majority of score results at both time points were in the lower range (mean 15–25, indicating limited financial difficulties. We observed no statistically significant differences by gender, marital status and age. Increasing financial difficulties during treatment were reported by male patients and those younger than 65, that is, patients who were younger than retirement age. The largest effect was seen in singles. However, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: During the initial phase of the disease trajectory, no significant increase in financial difficulties was found. This is in line with the aims of the Norwegian public healthcare model. However, long-term longitudinal studies should be performed, especially with regard to the trends we observed in single, male and younger patients.

  8. Short pulse duration shock initiation experiments plus ignition and growth modeling on Composition B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, Chadd M; Tarver, Craig M

    2014-01-01

    Composition B (63% RDX, 36% TNT, 1% wax) is still a widely used energetic material whose shock initiation characteristics are necessary to understand. It is now possible to shock initiate Composition B and other secondary explosives at diameters well below their characteristic failure diameters for unconfined self-sustaining detonation. This is done using very high velocity, very thin, small diameter flyer plates accelerated by electric or laser power sources. Recently experimental detonation versus failure to detonate threshold flyer velocity curves for Composition B using several Kapton TM flyer thicknesses and diameters were measured. Flyer plates with diameters of 2 mm successfully detonated Composition B, which has a nominal failure diameter of 4.3 mm. The shock pressures required for these initiations are greater than the Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) pressure in self-sustaining Composition B detonation waves. The initiation process is two-dimensional, because both rear and side rarefactions can affect the shocked Composition B reaction rates. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for Composition B is extended to yield accurate simulations of this new threshold velocity data for various flyer thicknesses.

  9. Training Load, Physical Performance, Biochemical Markers, and Psychological Stress During A Short Preparatory Period in Brazilian Elite Male Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Thiago A G; Bara Filho, Maurício G; Coimbra, Danilo R; Miranda, R; Werneck, Francisco Z

    2017-12-11

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between training load (TL) and physical performance, biochemical markers, and psychological stress during a short preparatory period (PP) in Brazilian elite male volleyball players. Twelve volleyball players from a team competing in the Brazilian Men's Volleyball Super League were enrolled (26.9 ± 4.6 years). Countermovement Jump (CMJ), Creatine Kinase (CK), Testosterone (T), Cortisol (Cr), T/Cr ratio, and Recovery and Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport) were collected at baseline, after 2, 4, and 6 week. TL was quantified daily using the Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE). Differences were noted between Total Weekly TL (TWTL) (F3,33 = 50.907; p = 0.0001), CK (F3,33 = 16.157; p = 0.0001), and T (F3,33 = 3.283; p = 0.03). No differences were seen in CMJ (F3,33 = 1.821; p = 0.16), Cr (F3,33 = 2.409; p = 0.08), or T/Cr ratio (F3,33 = 1.527; p = 0.23). The RESTQ-Sport demonstrated differences between moments in Social Stress (F3,33 = 2.297; p = 0.04; Eta = 0.25), Success (F3,33 = 4.350; p = 0.01; Eta = 0.19), General Well-being (F3,33 = 4.465; p = 0.01; Eta = 0.36), and Injury (F3,33 = 2.792; p = 0.05; Eta = 0.62). The results showed a significant correlations of small to moderate magnitude between TWTL and CK (r = 0.32; p = 0.05). In conclusion, a short PP in volleyball leads to increased TL, CK level, and psychological stress. TL was related with the increase of CK, suggesting muscle damage without increased of physical performance.

  10. Initial Free Recall Data Characterized and Explained By Activation Theory of Short Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Dr Eugen

    2011-01-01

    The initial recall distribution in a free recall experiment is shown to be predictably different from the overall free recall distribution including an offset which can cause the least remembered items to be almost completely absent from the first recall. Using the overall free recall distribution as input and a single parameter describing the probability of simultaneous reactivated items per number of items in the presented list, activation theory not only qualitatively but quantitatively d...

  11. Development and initial validation of a short three-dimensional inventory of character strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjie; Bu, He

    2017-09-01

    Character strength is described as a positive and organized pattern of emotions, thoughts, and behaviors. It serves as a schema that organizes categories of information toward the self, others, and the world, and provides the self-aware knowledge that facilitates the pursuit of goals, values, and ethical principles. Recent research has suggested that three reliable factors emerge from the measures of character strengths: caring, inquisitiveness, and self-control. The goal of this paper is to develop a psychometrically sound short measure of character strength. The questions were addressed in two studies using two independent samples: a cross-cultural (i.e., 518 Asians and 556 Westerners) sample, and a cross-population (i.e., 175 community participants and 171 inpatients) sample in China. Findings from the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis suggested a cross-cultural three-factor model of character strength that could be measured by the Three-dimensional Inventory of Character Strengths (TICS). A multigroup confirmatory factor analysis further indicated that the number of factors and factor loadings was invariant in the medical and community samples. This result indicated that the brief inventory could be applied to a medical context. Internal reliability, content validity, and predictive validity were good, although the predictive validity of the three character strengths for psychological symptoms in the medical sample was more modest than that in the community sample. TICS is expected to be used for screening populations at risk, and a tool to aid mental health professionals in group-based treatment/intervention planning. It also should be noted that this short inventory should be used with caution for individual decision making.

  12. Waveform correlation and coherence of short-period seismic noise within Gauribidanur array with implications for event detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadauria, Y.S.; Arora, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    In continuation with our effort to model the short-period micro seismic noise at the seismic array at Gauribidanur (GBA), we have examined in detail time-correlation and spectral coherence of the noise field within the array space. This has implications of maximum possible improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) relevant to event detection. The basis of this study is about a hundred representative wide-band noise samples collected from GBA throughout the year 1992. Both time-structured correlation as well as coherence of the noise waveforms are found to be practically independent of the inter element distances within the array, and they exhibit strong temporal and spectral stability. It turns out that the noise is largely incoherent at frequencies ranging upwards from 2 Hz; the coherency coefficient tends to increase in the lower frequency range attaining a maximum of 0.6 close to 0.5 Hz. While the maximum absolute cross-correlation also diminishes with increasing frequency, the zero-lag cross-correlation is found to be insensitive to frequency filtering regardless of the pass band. An extremely small value of -0.01 of the zero-lag correlation and a comparatively higher year-round average estimate at 0.15 of the maximum absolute time-lagged correlation yields an SNR improvement varying between a probable high of 4.1 and a low of 2.3 for the full 20-element array. 19 refs., 6 figs

  13. Nature of short-period microtremors on the cliff-like ground. 3; Gakechi kinbo no tanshuki bido . 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T; Matsuzawa, H [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Vibration characteristics were investigated of the ground in the vicinity of a cliff-like sharp slope. Short-period microtremors were observed in the vicinity of an artificially made cliff-like test ground, height 8m and inclination 90{degree}, and a natural cliff, height approximately 9m and inclination approximately 35{degree}. The artificial cliff was reinforced by a virtually vertical retaining wall of concrete, and the ground was prepared for testing with a belt approximately 20m wide and 50m long along the cliff face. All the vibration components were simultaneously measured at measuring spots that were located 5-40m apart from the cliff end and orientated perpendicular to the cliff face. It was then found that in case of artificial cliff there is a conspicuous 3.1Hz prevalent ground vibration in the component squarely meeting the cliff face, that the prevalent ground vibration is not particularly great near the cliff end because the retaining wall and the ground are artificially prepared, that there is no influence of the cliff-like ground in the ground vibration parallel to or vertical along the cliff face, and that in case of natural ground there are no vibration characteristic proper to a cliff-like ground in any of the vibration components. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Evidence of negative electrorefraction in type-II GaAs/GaAlAs short-period superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchukin, V A; Ledentsov, N N; Karachinsky, L Ya; Novikov, I I; Egorov, A Yu; Blokhin, S A; Maximov, M V; Gordeev, N Yu; Kulagina, M M; Ustinov, V M

    2015-01-01

    A type-II GaAs/GaAlAs short-period superlattice (SPSL) used as an electro-optic medium for the spectral range 820–850 nm is studied in a vertical microcavity geometry. SPSL is sandwiched between two GaAlAs distributed Bragg reflectors. Optical power reflectance (OR) spectra are measured as a function of applied reverse bias at different tilt angles and temperatures. All spectra reveal a blue shift of the reflectivity dip upon applied voltage which evidences a negative electrorefraction of the electro-optic medium. The shift enhances up to ∼0.6 nm once the exciton resonance is brought close to the wavelength of the reflectivity dip. As opposed to those modulators based on quantum–confined Stark effect, no increased absorption is observed at an applied bias, because the integrated intensity of the reflectivity dip in the OR spectra is virtually constant. This indicates a low absorption loss with applied bias and consequently a high potential for the increased dynamic range of the related modulator. (paper)

  15. Nature of short-period microtremors on the cliff-like ground. Part 4; Gakechi kinbo no tanshuki bido. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T; Yoshiike, T [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Microtremors were measured on the cliff-like ground with a height about 10 m, to examine the vibration characteristics. Test field-1 near Akabane, Kita-ku, Tokyo is located in a part of Musashino plateau covered with Kanto loam on its surface, and has relatively sound ground. Test field-2 at Machida is located in the western part of Tama hills, and also has Kanto loam on its surface. For the cliff-like ground with inclined angle 70{degree} at Akabane, remarkably predominant frequency 3.2 Hz was observed for the microtremors in the direction perpendicular to the cliff surface. However, this predominant vibration did not become larger due to the damping effects of the reinforcement walls near the end of cliff and the large trees on the cliff. Influence of the cliff-like ground was scarcely observed in the microtremors spectrum in both the directions parallel and vertical to the cliff-surface. From the observation of microtremors with short period on the cliff-like ground with inclined angle around 32{degree} at Machida, influence of cliff-like ground was not observed in the microtremors spectrum in all of the vibrating directions perpendicular, parallel and vertical to the cliff surface. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Optical properties of spontaneous lateral composition modulation in AlAs/InAs short-period superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francoeur, S.; Zhang, Yong; Norman, A. G.; Alsina, F.; Mascarenhas, A.; Reno, J. L.; Jones, E. D.; Lee, S. R.; Follstaedt, D. M.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of lateral composition modulation, spontaneously generated during the epitaxial growth of an AlAs/InAs short-period superlattice, on the electronic band structure is investigated using phototransmission and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Compared with uniform layers of identical average composition, the presence of the composition modulation considerably reduces the band-gap energy and produces strongly polarized emission and absorption spectra. We demonstrate that the dominant polarization direction can selectively be aligned along the [1(bar sign)10] or [010] crystallographic directions. In compressively strained samples, the use of (001) InP substrates slightly miscut toward (111)A or (101) resulted in modulation directions along [110] or [100], respectively, and dominant polarization directions along a direction orthogonal to the respective composition modulation. Band-gap reductions as high as 350 and 310 meV are obtained for samples with composition modulation along [110] and [100], respectively. Ratios of polarized intensities up to 26 are observed in transmission spectra. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  17. Impact of streamflow data assimilation and length of the verification period on the quality of short-term ensemble hydrologic forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianasolo, A.; Thirel, G.; Ramos, M. H.; Martin, E.

    2014-11-01

    Data assimilation has gained wide recognition in hydrologic forecasting due mainly to its capacity to improve the quality of short-term forecasts. In this study, a comparative analysis is conducted to assess the impact of discharge data assimilation on the quality of streamflow forecasts issued by two different modeling conceptualizations of catchment response. The sensitivity of the performance metrics to the length of the verification period is also investigated. The hydrological modeling approaches are: the coupled physically-based hydro-meteorological model SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU, a distributed model with a data assimilation procedure that uses streamflow measurements to assess the initial state of soil water content that optimizes discharge simulations, and the lumped soil moisture-accounting type rainfall-runoff model GRP, which assimilates directly the last observed discharge to update the state of the routing store. The models are driven by the weather ensemble prediction system PEARP of Météo-France, which is based on the global spectral ARPEGE model zoomed over France. It runs 11 perturbed members for a forecast range of 60 h. Forecast and observed data are available for 86 catchments over a 17-month period (March 2005-July 2006) for both models and for 82 catchments over a 52-month period (April 2005-July 2009) for the GRP model. The first dataset is used to investigate the impact of streamflow data assimilation on forecast quality, while the second is used to evaluate the impact of the length of the verification period on the assessment of forecast quality. Forecasts are compared to daily observed discharges and scores are computed for lead times 24 h and 48 h. Results indicate an overall good performance of both hydrological models forced by the PEARP ensemble predictions when the models are run with their data assimilation procedures. In general, when data assimilation is performed, the quality of the forecasts increases: median differences between

  18. InN/GaN short-period superlattices as ordered InGaN ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Imai, Daichi; Wang, Ke; Yoshikawa, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Coherent (InN) 1 /(GaN) n short-period superlattices (SPSs) were successfully grown through dynamic atomic layer epitaxy (D-ALEp) mode by RF-plasma molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), where GaN layer thicknesses n were thinned down to 4 monolayer (ML). After this achievement, we demonstrated quasi-ternary InGaN behavior in their photoluminescence (PL) spectra for the first time. It was found interestingly that GaN layer thickness of n = 4 ML was the criterion both for structural control and continuum-band formation. Although highly lattice-mismatched InN/GaN interfaces easily introduce relaxation in (InN) 1 /(GaN) 4 SPSs during growth depending on the dynamic surface stoichiometry condition, this problem was overcome by precise control/removal of fluid-like residual In/Ga metals on the growth front with in-situ monitoring method. The (InN) 1 /(GaN) n SPSs with n ≥ 7 ML showed a constant PL peak energy around 3.2 eV at 12 K, reflecting discrete electron/hole wavefunctions. On the other hand, the (InN) 1 /(GaN) 4 SPSs indicated the red-shifted PL peak at 2.93 eV at 12 K, which was attributed to the continuum-band state with increasing in the overlap of electrons/hole wavefunctions. This result is concluded that the (InN) 1 /(GaN) 4 SPSs can be considered as ordered InGaN alloys. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Predictive risk factors of postoperative urinary incontinence following holmium laser enucleation of the prostate during the initial learning period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichiro Kobayashi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the predictive factors for postoperative urinary incontinence (UI following holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP during the initial learning period. Patients and Methods: We evaluated 127 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia who underwent HoLEP between January 2011 and December 2013. We recorded clinical variables, including blood loss, serum prostate-specific antigen levels, and the presence or absence of UI. Blood loss was estimated as a decline in postoperative hemoglobin levels. The predictive factors for postoperative UI were determined using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: Postoperative UI occurred in 31 patients (24.4%, but it cured in 29 patients (93.5% after a mean duration of 12 weeks. Enucleation time >100 min (p=0.043 and blood loss >2.5g/dL (p=0.032 were identified as significant and independent risk factors for postoperative UI. Conclusions: Longer enucleation time and increased blood loss were independent predictors of postoperative UI in patients who underwent HoLEP during the initial learning period. Surgeons in training should take care to perform speedy enucleation maneuver with hemostasis.

  20. Why Do Participants Initiate Free Recall of Short Lists of Words with the First List Item? Toward a General Episodic Memory Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Jessica; Ward, Geoff; Matthews, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Participants who are presented with a short list of words for immediate free recall (IFR) show a strong tendency to initiate their recall with the 1st list item and then proceed in forward serial order. We report 2 experiments that examined whether this tendency was underpinned by a short-term memory store, of the type that is argued by some to…

  1. Simulation of channeling and radiation of 855 MeV electrons and positrons in a small-amplitude short-period bent crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korol, Andrei V., E-mail: korol@mbnexplorer.com [MBN Research Center, Altenhöferallee 3, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bezchastnov, Victor G. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politechnicheskaya Str. 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Politechnicheskaya 29, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sushko, Gennady B.; Solov’yov, Andrey V. [MBN Research Center, Altenhöferallee 3, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Channeling and radiation are studied for the relativistic electrons and positrons passing through a Si crystal periodically bent with a small amplitude and a short period. Comprehensive analysis of the channeling process for various bending amplitudes is presented on the grounds of numerical simulations. The features of the channeling are highlighted and elucidated within an analytically developed continuous potential approximation. The radiation spectra are computed and discussed.

  2. How Hydroclimate Influences the Effectiveness of Particle Filter Data Assimilation of Streamflow in Initializing Short- to Medium-range Streamflow Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, E.; Wood, A.; Nijssen, B.; Clark, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    Short- to medium-range (1- to 7-day) streamflow forecasts are important for flood control operations and in issuing potentially life-save flood warnings. In the U.S., the National Weather Service River Forecast Centers (RFCs) issue such forecasts in real time, depending heavily on a manual data assimilation (DA) approach. Forecasters adjust model inputs, states, parameters and outputs based on experience and consideration of a range of supporting real-time information. Achieving high-quality forecasts from new automated, centralized forecast systems will depend critically on the adequacy of automated DA approaches to make analogous corrections to the forecasting system. Such approaches would further enable systematic evaluation of real-time flood forecasting methods and strategies. Toward this goal, we have implemented a real-time Sequential Importance Resampling particle filter (SIR-PF) approach to assimilate observed streamflow into simulated initial hydrologic conditions (states) for initializing ensemble flood forecasts. Assimilating streamflow alone in SIR-PF improves simulated streamflow and soil moisture during the model spin up period prior to a forecast, with consequent benefits for forecasts. Nevertheless, it only consistently limits error in simulated snow water equivalent during the snowmelt season and in basins where precipitation falls primarily as snow. We examine how the simulated initial conditions with and without SIR-PF propagate into 1- to 7-day ensemble streamflow forecasts. Forecasts are evaluated in terms of reliability and skill over a 10-year period from 2005-2015. The focus of this analysis is on how interactions between hydroclimate and SIR-PF performance impact forecast skill. To this end, we examine forecasts for 5 hydroclimatically diverse basins in the western U.S. Some of these basins receive most of their precipitation as snow, others as rain. Some freeze throughout the mid-winter while others experience significant mid-winter melt

  3. αII Spectrin Forms a Periodic Cytoskeleton at the Axon Initial Segment and Is Required for Nervous System Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Claire Yu-Mei; Zhang, Chuansheng; Ho, Tammy Szu-Yu; Oses-Prieto, Juan; Burlingame, Alma L; Lalonde, Joshua; Noebels, Jeffrey L; Leterrier, Christophe; Rasband, Matthew N

    2017-11-22

    Spectrins form a submembranous cytoskeleton proposed to confer strength and flexibility to neurons and to participate in ion channel clustering at axon initial segments (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. Neuronal spectrin cytoskeletons consist of diverse β subunits and αII spectrin. Although αII spectrin is found in neurons in both axonal and somatodendritic domains, using proteomics, biochemistry, and superresolution microscopy, we show that αII and βIV spectrin interact and form a periodic AIS cytoskeleton. To determine the role of spectrins in the nervous system, we generated Sptan1 f/f mice for deletion of CNS αII spectrin. We analyzed αII spectrin-deficient mice of both sexes and found that loss of αII spectrin causes profound reductions in all β spectrins. αII spectrin-deficient mice die before 1 month of age and have disrupted AIS and many other neurological impairments including seizures, disrupted cortical lamination, and widespread neurodegeneration. These results demonstrate the importance of the spectrin cytoskeleton both at the AIS and throughout the nervous system. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spectrin cytoskeletons play diverse roles in neurons, including assembly of excitable domains such as the axon initial segment (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. However, the molecular composition and structure of these cytoskeletons remain poorly understood. Here, we show that αII spectrin partners with βIV spectrin to form a periodic cytoskeleton at the AIS. Using a new αII spectrin conditional knock-out mouse, we show that αII spectrin is required for AIS assembly, neuronal excitability, cortical lamination, and to protect against neurodegeneration. These results demonstrate the broad importance of spectrin cytoskeletons for nervous system function and development and have important implications for nervous system injuries and diseases because disruption of the spectrin cytoskeleton is a common molecular pathology. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3711311-12$15.00/0.

  4. Periodic Paralysis and Encephalopathy as Initial Manifestations of Graves' Disease: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsironis, Theocharis; Tychalas, Athanasios; Kiourtidis, Dimitrios; Kountouras, Jannis; Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Rudolf, Jobst; Deretzi, Georgia

    2017-07-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is an uncommon complication of Graves' disease, characterized by the triad of acute hypokalemia without total body potassium deficit, episodic muscle paralysis, and thyrotoxicosis. Graves' encephalopathy is an extremely rare form of encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (EAATD), characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms, increased antithyroid antibodies and cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration, nonspecific electroencephalogram abnormalities, and cortico-responsiveness. Coexistence of both these complications in the same patient has not been reported before. We herein present a 48-year-old white male patient with TPP and encephalopathy as initial presentations of Graves' disease. Flaccid tetraparesis was reversed a few hours after potassium level correction and the patient did not suffer any relapse with the successful pharmaceutical management of the thyroid function. One month later, the patient presented with dizziness and behavioral symptoms, such as inappropriate laughter and anger. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed meningeal enhancement and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed a mild protein increase, with a blood-brain barrier disruption. With the suspicion of EAATD, the patient was treated with high doses of corticosteroids and improved dramatically. To our knowledge this is the first reported coexistence of potentially treatable TPP and EAATD as initial neurological manifestations of Graves' disease, thereby underscoring the necessity of suspicion of possible underlying Graves' disease in patients with acute paralysis and encephalopathy of unclear origin.

  5. Assessment of thought-shape fusion: initial validation of a short version of the trait thought-shape fusion scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Jennifer S; Baeyens, Céline; Purdon, Christine; Shafran, Roz; Roulin, Jean-Luc; Bouvard, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Thought-shape fusion (TSF) is a cognitive distortion that has been linked to eating pathology. Two studies were conducted to further explore this phenomenon and to establish the psychometric properties of a French short version of the TSF scale. In Study 1, students (n = 284) completed questionnaires assessing TSF and related psychopathology. In Study 2, the responses of women with eating disorders (n = 22) and women with no history of an eating disorder (n = 23) were compared. The French short version of the TSF scale has a unifactorial structure, with convergent validity with measures of eating pathology, and good internal consistency. Depression, eating pathology, body dissatisfaction, and thought-action fusion emerged as predictors of TSF. Individuals with eating disorders have higher TSF, and more clinically relevant food-related thoughts than do women with no history of an eating disorder. This research suggests that the shortened TSF scale can suitably measure this construct, and provides support for the notion that TSF is associated with eating pathology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. POSITION AND CHARACTER (Ɖ OR X) OF ENERGY STATES IN SHORT-PERIOD (GaAs)m(AlAs)n SUPERLATTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Nagle , J.; Garriga , M.; Stolz , W.; Isu , T.; Ploog , K.

    1987-01-01

    We have grown a series of (GaAs)m(AlAs)n short period superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy including samples with m=n and m≠n. Low temperature photoluminescence, excitation spectroscopy and ellipsometry measurements have been performed to determine the positions and origins of the different electronic states.

  7. Stress modulation of earthquakes: A study of long and short period stress perturbations and the crustal response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher W.

    attributed to shallow fluid injection associated with energy production. As hydrocarbon extraction continues to increase in the U.S. the deformation and induced seismicity from wastewater injection is providing new avenues to explore crustal properties. The large magnitude events associated with regions of high rate injection support the notion that the crust is critically stressed. Seismic data in these areas provides the opportunity to delineate fault structures in the crust using precise earthquake locations. To augment the studies of transient loading cycles I investigated induced seismicity at The Geysers geothermal field in northern California. Using high-resolution hypocenter data I implement an epidemic type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model to develop seismicity rate time series in the active geothermal field and characterize the migration of fluids from high volume water injection. Subtle stress changes induced by thermo- and poroelastic strains trigger seismicity for 5 months after peak injection at depths 3 km below the main injection interval. This suggests vertical migration paths are maintained in the geothermal field that allows fluid propagation on annual time scales. Fully describing the migration pattern of fluids in the crust and the associated stresses are applicable to tectonic related faulting and triggered seismic activity. Seasonal hydrological loading is a source of annual periodic transient deformation that is ideal for investigating the modulation of seismicity. The initial step in exploring the modulation of seismicity is to validate that a significant annual period does exist in California earthquake records. The periodicity results [Dutilleul et al., 2015] motivate continued investigation of seismically active regions that experience significant seasonal mass loading, i.e. high precipitation and snowfall rates, to quantify the magnitude of seasonal stress changes and possible correlation with seismicity modulation. The implication of this

  8. Does short-term virologic failure translate to clinical events in antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in clinical practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugavero, Michael J; May, Margaret; Harris, Ross; Saag, Michael S; Costagliola, Dominique; Egger, Matthias; Phillips, Andrew; Günthard, Huldrych F; Dabis, Francois; Hogg, Robert; de Wolf, Frank; Fatkenheuer, Gerd; Gill, M John; Justice, Amy; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Lampe, Fiona; Miró, Jose M; Staszewski, Schlomo; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Niesters, Bert

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether differences in short-term virologic failure among commonly used antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens translate to differences in clinical events in antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating ART. DESIGN: Observational cohort study of patients initiating ART between

  9. Incidence and risk factors for lower limb lymphedema after gynecologic cancer surgery with initiation of periodic complex decongestive physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deura, Imari; Shimada, Muneaki; Hirashita, Keiko; Sugimura, Maki; Sato, Seiya; Sato, Shinya; Oishi, Tetsuro; Itamochi, Hiroaki; Harada, Tasuku; Kigawa, Junzo

    2015-06-01

    Lower limb lymphedema (LLL) is one of the most frequent postoperative complications of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for gynecologic cancer. LLL often impairs quality of life, activities of daily living, sleep, and sex in patients with gynecologic cancer. We conducted this study to evaluate the incidence and risk factors for LLL after gynecologic cancer surgery in patients who received assessment and periodic complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). We retrospectively reviewed 126 cases of gynecologic cancer that underwent surgery involving retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy at Tottori University Hospital between 2009 and 2012. All patients received physical examinations to detect LLL and underwent CDP by nurse specialists within several months after surgery. The International Society of Lymphology staging of lymphedema severity was used as the diagnostic criteria. Of 126 patients, 57 (45.2%) had LLL, comprising 45 and 12 patients with stage 1 and stage 2 LLL, respectively. No patient had stage 3 LLL. LLL was present in 37 (29.4%) patients at the initial physical examination. Multivariate analysis revealed that adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy and age ≥ 55 years were independent risk factors for ≥ stage 2 LLL. To minimize the incidence of ≥ stage 2 LLL, gynecologic oncologists should be vigilant for this condition in patients who are ≥ 55 years and in those who undergo adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Patients should be advised to have a physical assessment for LLL and to receive education about CDP immediately after surgery involving retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for gynecologic cancer.

  10. The association between short periods of everyday life activities and affective states: a replication study using ambulatory assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eBossmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Regularly conducted exercise programs effectively influence affective states. Studies suggest that this is also true for short bouts of physical activity of ten minutes or less. Accordingly, everyday life activities of short duration might be used to regulate affective states. However, this association has rarely been studied in reference to unstructured activities in ongoing real-life situations. The current study examined the influence of various everyday life activities on three dimensions of mood (valence, calmness, energetic arousal in a predominantly inactive sample. Ambulatory Assessment (AA was used to investigate the association between actual physical activity (aPA and affective states during the course of one day. Seventy-seven students ages 19 - 30 participated in the study. aPA was assessed with accelerometers, and affective state assessments were conducted hourly using an e-diary with a six-item mood scale that was specially designed for AA. Multilevel analyses indicated that the mood dimensions energetic arousal (p = .001 and valence (p = .005 were positively influenced by the intensity of the activity carried out in the ten minutes prior to the assessment. As their activity increased, the participants’ positive feelings and energetic arousal increased. However, the students’ calmness was not affected by their activity levels. The findings highlight the importance of integrating short activity intervals of 10 minutes or less into everyday life routines to improve affective states.

  11. The relative kicking frequency of infants born full-term and preterm during learning and short-term and long-term memory periods of the mobile paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcock, Jill C; Bhat, Anjana N; Lobo, Michele A; Galloway, James C

    2005-01-01

    Infants born preterm differ in their spontaneous kicking, as well as their learning and memory abilities in the mobile paradigm, compared with infants born full-term. In the mobile paradigm, a supine infant's ankle is tethered to a mobile so that leg kicks cause a proportional amount of mobile movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative kicking frequency of the tethered (right) and nontethered (left) legs in these 2 groups of infants. Ten infants born full-term and 10 infants born preterm (infants participated in the study. The relative kicking frequencies of the tethered and nontethered legs were analyzed during learning and short-term and long-term memory periods of the mobile paradigm. Infants born full-term showed an increase in the relative kicking frequency of the tethered leg during the learning period and the short-term memory period but not for the long-term memory period. Infants born preterm did not show a change in kicking pattern for learning or memory periods, and consistently kicked both legs in relatively equal amounts. Infants born full-term adapted their baseline kicking frequencies in a task-specific manner to move the mobile and then retained this adaptation for the short-term memory period. In contrast, infants born preterm showed no adaptation, suggesting a lack of purposeful leg control. This lack of control may reflect a general decrease in the ability of infants born preterm to use their limb movements to interact with their environment. As such, the mobile paradigm may be clinically useful in the early assessment and intervention of infants born preterm and at risk for future impairment.

  12. Response of Aspergillus niger Inoculated on Tomatoes Exposed to Vapor Phase Mustard Essential Oil for Short or Long Periods and Sensory Evaluation of Treated Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elena Aguilar-González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of mustard essential oil (EO in vapor phase against Aspergillus niger was evaluated in vitro and in vivo (in tomatoes. Mold response in tomatoes exposed for short or long periods to selected concentrations of mustard EO was also evaluated. Furthermore, a sensory evaluation was also performed among treated tomatoes and compared with nontreated ones. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for the studied EO was determined by the inverted Petri dish method. MIC for the in vitro and in vivo tests for mustard EO was of 3.08 μL/Lair. In vitro and in vivo results demonstrate the effectiveness of vapors of mustard EO against A. niger. The studied EO contains highly volatile organic compounds with strong inhibitory effects, even when applied for short periods, and can consequently be considered a good alternative to traditional synthetic antimicrobials without detriment of selected sensory attributes.

  13. X-RAY AND EUV OBSERVATIONS OF SIMULTANEOUS SHORT AND LONG PERIOD OSCILLATIONS IN HOT CORONAL ARCADE LOOPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Nakariakov, Valery M.

    2015-01-01

    We report decaying quasi-periodic intensity oscillations in the X-ray (6–12 keV) and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) channels (131, 94, 1600, 304 Å) observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), respectively, during a C-class flare. The estimated periods of oscillation and decay time in the X-ray channel (6–12 keV) were about 202 and 154 s, respectively. A similar oscillation period was detected at the footpoint of the arcade loops in the AIA 1600 and 304 Å channels. Simultaneously, AIA hot channels (94 and 131 Å) reveal propagating EUV disturbances bouncing back and forth between the footpoints of the arcade loops. The period of the oscillation and decay time were about 409 and 1121 s, respectively. The characteristic phase speed of the wave is about 560 km s −1 for about 115 Mm of loop length, which is roughly consistent with the sound speed at the temperature about 10–16 MK (480–608 km s −1 ). These EUV oscillations are consistent with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation Doppler-shift oscillations interpreted as the global standing slow magnetoacoustic wave excited by a flare. The flare occurred at one of the footpoints of the arcade loops, where the magnetic topology was a 3D fan-spine with a null-point. Repetitive reconnection at this footpoint could have caused the periodic acceleration of non-thermal electrons that propagated to the opposite footpoint along the arcade and that are precipitating there, causing the observed 202 s periodicity. Other possible interpretations, e.g., the second harmonics of the slow mode, are also discussed

  14. X-RAY AND EUV OBSERVATIONS OF SIMULTANEOUS SHORT AND LONG PERIOD OSCILLATIONS IN HOT CORONAL ARCADE LOOPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Cho, Kyung-Suk [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Nakariakov, Valery M., E-mail: pankaj@kasi.re.kr [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    We report decaying quasi-periodic intensity oscillations in the X-ray (6–12 keV) and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) channels (131, 94, 1600, 304 Å) observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), respectively, during a C-class flare. The estimated periods of oscillation and decay time in the X-ray channel (6–12 keV) were about 202 and 154 s, respectively. A similar oscillation period was detected at the footpoint of the arcade loops in the AIA 1600 and 304 Å channels. Simultaneously, AIA hot channels (94 and 131 Å) reveal propagating EUV disturbances bouncing back and forth between the footpoints of the arcade loops. The period of the oscillation and decay time were about 409 and 1121 s, respectively. The characteristic phase speed of the wave is about 560 km s{sup −1} for about 115 Mm of loop length, which is roughly consistent with the sound speed at the temperature about 10–16 MK (480–608 km s{sup −1}). These EUV oscillations are consistent with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation Doppler-shift oscillations interpreted as the global standing slow magnetoacoustic wave excited by a flare. The flare occurred at one of the footpoints of the arcade loops, where the magnetic topology was a 3D fan-spine with a null-point. Repetitive reconnection at this footpoint could have caused the periodic acceleration of non-thermal electrons that propagated to the opposite footpoint along the arcade and that are precipitating there, causing the observed 202 s periodicity. Other possible interpretations, e.g., the second harmonics of the slow mode, are also discussed.

  15. CSI 2264: Characterizing Young Stars In NGC 2264 With Short-Duration Periodic Flux Dips in Their Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    excess presumably due to circumstellar Table 1 Basic Information for YSOs with Short Duration Flux Dips Mon IDa 2MASS ID CoRoTb CoRoTc SpTd Hα EWd FR4.5e...reported in Venuti et al. (2014); the JHKs data are from the on line 2MASS all-sky point source catalog; the IRAC data are from Sung et al. (2009), or...little additional reddening as inferred from their mean 2MASS photometry. One exception is Mon-6975, whose IR colors of H − Ks = 0.42, J −H = 0.90

  16. Short communication: Effect of heat stress on markers of autophagy in the mammary gland during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, S E; Ramirez-Lee, Y; Tao, S; Monteiro, A P A; Ahmed, B M; Dahl, G E

    2016-06-01

    Heat stress (HT) during the dry period compromises mammary gland (MG) growth, thus negatively affecting subsequent milk yield. Cooling during the late dry period, when mammary tissue proliferates, is a common management practice. However, it neglects MG involution during the early dry period, a process that is accomplished by both apoptosis and autophagy. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of HT on MG autophagy during the early dry period. Holstein cows were dried off ~45d before expected calving and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: HT or cooling (CL). All cows were housed in the same free stall barn during the dry period, but only the stall area for CL cows was equipped with soakers and fans. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were measured daily during the dry period. Mammary gland biopsies were collected from each cow 3d before dry-off and on d 3, 7, 14, and 22±2 after dry-off. Autophagy in the MG was determined by measuring protein expression of 2 autophagic markers, autophagy-related protein 7 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3). The average temperature-humidity index during the dry period was 77.7, which indicated that HT and CL cows were exposed to significant heat stress. However, the cooling system effectively alleviated heat strain in CL cows by decreasing the rectal temperature (39.0 vs. 39.4°C) and respiration rate (47.3 vs. 71.2 breaths per minute) relative to HT cows. Protein expression of autophagy-related protein 7, a marker for early autophagosome formation, did not change within or between groups. In contrast, protein expression of LC3-II, a marker of autophagosomes, and its precursor LC3-I showed a dynamic expression pattern in MG from CL cows during the early dry period. Relative to HT cows, MG from CL cows displayed higher expression of LC3-I and LC3-II on d 7 and lower expression of LC3-II on d 14 and 22 after dry-off. Collectively, our data provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the impairment of

  17. A short 2 week dose titration regimen reduces the severity of flu-like symptoms with initial interferon gamma-1b treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devane, John G; Martin, Mary L; Matson, Mark A

    2014-06-01

    during week 1 treatment, indicating an early peak in FLS severity during the No Titration treatment and subsequent development of tolerance. In contrast, titration results in near baseline severity scores throughout the treatment period. Similar trends were seen for 4 and 12 hour FLS severity scores. Of the individual FLS, difference in fever severity was most marked. Safety profiles for both regimens were consistent with the approved prescribing information for interferon gamma-1b. Study limitations included the use of healthy subjects rather than disease subjects, the lack of a validated assessment tool for evaluating FLS and the relatively high discontinuation rate. A short 2 week, dose-titration regimen reduces FLS severity following interferon gamma-1b treatment initiation in normal subjects.

  18. RADIAL VELOCITY PLANETS DE-ALIASED: A NEW, SHORT PERIOD FOR SUPER-EARTH 55 Cnc e

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    Radial velocity measurements of stellar reflex motion have revealed many extrasolar planets, but gaps in the observations produce aliases, spurious frequencies that are frequently confused with the planets' orbital frequencies. In the case of Gl 581 d, the distinction between an alias and the true frequency was the distinction between a frozen, dead planet and a planet possibly hospitable to life. To improve the characterization of planetary systems, we describe how aliases originate and present a new approach for distinguishing between orbital frequencies and their aliases. Our approach harnesses features in the spectral window function to compare the amplitude and phase of predicted aliases with peaks present in the data. We apply it to confirm prior alias distinctions for the planets GJ 876 d and HD 75898 b. We find that the true periods of Gl 581 d and HD 73526 b/c remain ambiguous. We revise the periods of HD 156668 b and 55 Cnc e, which were afflicted by daily aliases. For HD 156668 b, the correct period is 1.2699 days and the minimum mass is (3.1 ± 0.4) M + . For 55 Cnc e, the correct period is 0.7365 days-the shortest of any known planet-and the minimum mass is (8.3 ± 0.3) M + . This revision produces a significantly improved five-planet Keplerian fit for 55 Cnc, and a self-consistent dynamical fit describes the data just as well. As radial velocity techniques push to ever-smaller planets, often found in systems of multiple planets, distinguishing true periods from aliases will become increasingly important.

  19. Forecast demand and supply of energy in the short period. Its forecast and sensitivity analysis until the 2004 fiscal year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Yukari; Suehiro, Shigeru; Yanagisawa, Akira; Imaeda, Toshiya; Komiyama, Ryouichi

    2004-01-01

    The object of this report is forecast demand and supply of energy in the 2003 and 2004 fiscal year, which correspond to a business recovery period. A macroeconomics model and an energy supply model are calculated by changing actual GNP, crude oil rate and the rerunning period of nuclear power plants. The calculation results are compared with the reference case. In the first chapter, forecast Japanese economy until the 2004 fiscal year is explained. In the second chapter, the results of energy demand and supply in the first chapter are investigated by the home supply and consumption of primary energy (the reference case) and each energy resources. The sensitivity analytical results of actual GNP, consumer price index, home supply of the primary energy, energy expenditure, sales account of electric power, city gas and fuel by five cases such as reference, increase and decrease of oil cost and increase and decrease of economic growth are investigated. The effects of fast rerunning period of nuclear power plant and atmosphere temperature on these above demands of energies are indicated in the third chapter. (S.Y.)

  20. THE ACS LCID PROJECT. I. SHORT-PERIOD VARIABLES IN THE ISOLATED DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES CETUS AND TUCANA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Edouard J.; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme

    2009-01-01

    We present the first study of the variable star populations in the isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) Cetus and Tucana. Based on Hubble Space Telescope images obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys in the F475W and F814W bands, we identified 180 and 371 variables in Cetus and Tucana, respectively. The vast majority are RR Lyrae stars. In Cetus, we also found three anomalous Cepheids (ACs), four candidate binaries and one candidate long-period variable (LPV), while six ACs and seven LPV candidates were found in Tucana. Of the RR Lyrae stars, 147 were identified as fundamental mode (RRab) and only eight as first-overtone mode (RRc) in Cetus, with mean periods of 0.614 and 0.363 day, respectively. In Tucana, we found 216 RRab and 82 RRc giving mean periods of 0.604 and 0.353 day. These values place both galaxies in the so-called Oosterhoff Gap, as is generally the case for dSph. We calculated the distance modulus to both galaxies using different approaches based on the properties of RRab and RRc, namely, the luminosity-metallicity and period-luminosity-metallicity relations, and found values in excellent agreement with previous estimates using independent methods: (m - M) 0,Cet = 24.46 ± 0.12 and (m - M) 0,Tuc = 24.74 ± 0.12, corresponding to 780 ± 40 kpc and 890 ± 50 kpc. We also found numerous RR Lyrae variables pulsating in both modes simultaneously (RRd): 17 in Cetus and 60 in Tucana. Tucana is, after Fornax, the second dSph in which such a large fraction of RRd (∼17%) has been observed. We provide the photometry and pulsation parameters for all the variables, and compare the latter with values from the literature for well studied dSph of the Local Group and Galactic globular clusters. The parallel WFPC2 fields were also searched for variables, as they lie well within the tidal radius of Cetus, and at its limit in the case of Tucana. No variables were found in the latter, while 15 were discovered in the outer field of Cetus (11 RRab, three RRc

  1. Norepinephrine transporter: a candidate gene for initial ethanol sensitivity in inbred long-sleep and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughey, Heather M; Kaiser, Alan L; Johnson, Thomas E; Bennett, Beth; Sikela, James M; Zahniser, Nancy R

    2005-10-01

    Altered noradrenergic neurotransmission is associated with depression and may contribute to drug abuse and alcoholism. Differential initial sensitivity to ethanol is an important predictor of risk for future alcoholism, making the inbred long-sleep (ILS) and inbred short-sleep (ISS) mice a useful model for identifying genes that may contribute to alcoholism. In this study, molecular biological, neurochemical, and behavioral approaches were used to test the hypothesis that the norepinephrine transporter (NET) contributes to the differences in ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) in ILS and ISS mice. We used these mice to investigate the NET as a candidate gene contributing to this phenotype. The ILS and ISS mice carry different DNA haplotypes for NET, showing eight silent differences between allelic coding regions. Only the ILS haplotype is found in other mouse strains thus far sequenced. Brain regional analyses revealed that ILS mice have 30 to 50% lower [3H]NE uptake, NET binding, and NET mRNA levels than ISS mice. Maximal [3H]NE uptake and NET number were reduced, with no change in affinity, in the ILS mice. These neurobiological changes were associated with significant influences on the behavioral phenotype of these mice, as demonstrated by (1) a differential response in the duration of ethanol-induced LORR in ILS and ISS mice pretreated with a NET inhibitor and (2) increased ethanol-induced LORR in LXS recombinant inbred (RI) strains, homozygous for ILS in the NET chromosomal region (44-47 cM), compared with ISS homozygous strains. This is the first report to suggest that the NET gene is one of many possible genetic factors influencing ethanol sensitivity in ILS, ISS, and LXS RI mouse strains.

  2. A Conceptual Model for Calculating the Return of Costs Invested in the Creation of an Economic Security Service, During a Short-Term Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melikhova Tetiana O.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at suggesting methods for calculating the short-term period of return of costs invested in creation of an economic security service. The article considers approaches to calculation of the period of return of costs, advanced at the level of enterprise, which build the methodical basis for definition of such period. At the level of structural subdivisions of enterprise, which do not produce products, it is suggested to use conditional money flow as a source of financing advanced costs. The calculation of the short-term return on investment at the enterprise level provides for: allocation of expenses for the permanent and the replacement parts during the year; determination of the production of money flow and the money flow accumulated during the year. Annual depreciation payments are the basis of fixed costs. Methods of determination of the gross, net, valid, and specified periods of return of costs, advanced during the year for introduction of an economic security service at enterprise, have been suggested.

  3. Exercise following a short immobilization period is detrimental to tendon properties and joint mechanics in a rat rotator cuff injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, Cathryn D; Sarver, Joseph J; Dourte, Leann M; Würgler-Hauri, Carola C; Williams, Gerald R; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2010-07-01

    Rotator cuff tears are a common clinical problem that can result in pain and disability. Previous studies in a rat model showed enhanced tendon to bone healing with postoperative immobilization. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of postimmobilization activity level on insertion site properties and joint mechanics in a rat model. Our hypothesis was that exercise following a short period of immobilization will cause detrimental changes in insertion site properties compared to cage activity following the same period of immobilization, but that passive shoulder mechanics will not be affected. We detached and repaired the supraspinatus tendon of 22 Sprague-Dawley rats, and the injured shoulder was immobilized postoperatively for 2 weeks. Following immobilization, rats were prescribed cage activity or exercise for 12 weeks. Passive shoulder mechanics were determined, and following euthanasia, tendon cross-sectional area and mechanical properties were measured. Exercise following immobilization resulted in significant decreases compared to cage activity in range of motion, tendon stiffness, modulus, percent relaxation, and several parameters from both a structurally based elastic model and a quasi-linear viscoelastic model. Therefore, we conclude that after a short period of immobilization, increased activity is detrimental to both tendon mechanical properties and shoulder joint mechanics, presumably due to increased scar production. (c) 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  4. Does short-term virologic failure translate to clinical events in antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in clinical practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Mugavero, Michael J; May, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    , nevirapine, lopinavir/ritonavir, nelfinavir, or abacavir as third drugs in combination with a zidovudine and lamivudine nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Short-term (24-week) virologic failure (>500 copies/ml) and clinical events within 2 years of ART initiation.......58-2.22), lopinavir/ritonavir (1.32, 95% CI = 1.12-1.57), nelfinavir (3.20, 95% CI = 2.74-3.74), and abacavir (2.13, 95% CI = 1.82-2.50). However, the rate of clinical events within 2 years of ART initiation appeared higher only with nevirapine (adjusted hazard ratio for composite outcome measure 1.27, 95% CI = 1......OBJECTIVE: To determine whether differences in short-term virologic failure among commonly used antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens translate to differences in clinical events in antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating ART. DESIGN: Observational cohort study of patients initiating ART between...

  5. A non-accelerating foreshock sequence followed by a short period of quiescence for a large inland earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, I.; Kawakata, H.

    2012-12-01

    Laboratory experiments [e.g. Scholz, 1968; Lockner et al., 1992] and field observations [e.g. Dodge et al., 1996; Helmstetter and Sornette, 2003; Bouchon et al., 2011] have elucidated part of foreshock behavior and mechanism, but we cannot identify foreshocks while they are occurring. Recently, in Japan, a dense seismic network, Hi-net (High Sensitivity Seismograph Network), provides continuous waveform records for regional seismic events. The data from this network enable us to analyze small foreshocks which occur on long period time scales prior to a major event. We have an opportunity to grasp the more detailed pattern of foreshock generation. Using continuous waveforms recorded at a seismic station located in close proximity to the epicenter of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi inland earthquake, we conducted a detailed investigation of its foreshocks. In addition to the two officially recognized foreshocks, calculation of cross-correlation coefficients between the continuous waveform record and one of the previously recognized foreshocks revealed that 20 micro foreshocks occurred within the same general area. Our analysis also shows that all of these foreshocks occurred within the same general area relative to the main event. Over the two week period leading up to the Iwate-Miyagi earthquake, such foreshocks only occurred during the last 45 minutes, specifically over a 35 minute period followed by a 10 minute period of quiescence just before the mainshock. We found no evidence of acceleration of this foreshock sequence. Rock fracturing experiments using a constant loading rate or creep tests have consistently shown that the occurrence rate of small fracturing events (acoustic emissions; AEs) increases before the main rupture [Scholz, 1968]. This accelerative pattern of preceding events was recognized in case of the 1999 Izmit earthquake [Bouchon et al., 2011]. Large earthquakes however need not be accompanied by acceleration of foreshocks if a given fault's host rock

  6. Limitation of the Predominant-Period Estimator for Earthquake Early Warning and the Initial Rupture of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.; Ide, S.

    2007-12-01

    Earthquake early warning is an important and challenging issue for the reduction of the seismic damage, especially for the mitigation of human suffering. One of the most important problems in earthquake early warning systems is how immediately we can estimate the final size of an earthquake after we observe the ground motion. It is relevant to the problem whether the initial rupture of an earthquake has some information associated with its final size. Nakamura (1988) developed the Urgent Earthquake Detection and Alarm System (UrEDAS). It calculates the predominant period of the P wave (τp) and estimates the magnitude of an earthquake immediately after the P wave arrival from the value of τpmax, or the maximum value of τp. The similar approach has been adapted by other earthquake alarm systems (e.g., Allen and Kanamori (2003)). To investigate the characteristic of the parameter τp and the effect of the length of the time window (TW) in the τpmax calculation, we analyze the high-frequency recordings of earthquakes at very close distances in the Mponeng mine in South Africa. We find that values of τpmax have upper and lower limits. For larger earthquakes whose source durations are longer than TW, the values of τpmax have an upper limit which depends on TW. On the other hand, the values for smaller earthquakes have a lower limit which is proportional to the sampling interval. For intermediate earthquakes, the values of τpmax are close to their typical source durations. These two limits and the slope for intermediate earthquakes yield an artificial final size dependence of τpmax in a wide size range. The parameter τpmax is useful for detecting large earthquakes and broadcasting earthquake early warnings. However, its dependence on the final size of earthquakes does not suggest that the earthquake rupture is deterministic. This is because τpmax does not always have a direct relation to the physical quantities of an earthquake.

  7. Task-irrelevant distractors in the delay period interfere selectively with visual short-term memory for spatial locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Francesco; Scott, Jerry; Aron, Adam R; Ester, Edward F

    2017-07-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables the representation of information in a readily accessible state. VSTM is typically conceptualized as a form of "active" storage that is resistant to interference or disruption, yet several recent studies have shown that under some circumstances task-irrelevant distractors may indeed disrupt performance. Here, we investigated how task-irrelevant visual distractors affected VSTM by asking whether distractors induce a general loss of remembered information or selectively interfere with memory representations. In a VSTM task, participants recalled the spatial location of a target visual stimulus after a delay in which distractors were presented on 75% of trials. Notably, the distractor's eccentricity always matched the eccentricity of the target, while in the critical conditions the distractor's angular position was shifted either clockwise or counterclockwise relative to the target. We then computed estimates of recall error for both eccentricity and polar angle. A general interference model would predict an effect of distractors on both polar angle and eccentricity errors, while a selective interference model would predict effects of distractors on angle but not on eccentricity errors. Results showed that for stimulus angle there was an increase in the magnitude and variability of recall errors. However, distractors had no effect on estimates of stimulus eccentricity. Our results suggest that distractors selectively interfere with VSTM for spatial locations.

  8. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. (a) General timeframe. A QIO or... initial denial determination or a change as a result of a DRG validation. (b) Extended timeframes. (1) An...

  9. Why do participants initiate free recall of short lists of words with the first list item? Toward a general episodic memory explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Jessica; Ward, Geoff; Matthews, William J

    2014-11-01

    Participants who are presented with a short list of words for immediate free recall (IFR) show a strong tendency to initiate their recall with the 1st list item and then proceed in forward serial order. We report 2 experiments that examined whether this tendency was underpinned by a short-term memory store, of the type that is argued by some to underpin recency effects in IFR. In Experiment 1, we presented 3 groups of participants with lists of between 2 and 12 words for IFR, delayed free recall, and continuous-distractor free recall. The to-be-remembered words were simultaneously spoken and presented visually, and the distractor task involved silently solving a series of self-paced, visually presented mathematical equations (e.g., 3 + 2 + 4 = ?). The tendency to initiate recall at the start of short lists was greatest in IFR but was also present in the 2 other recall conditions. This finding was replicated in Experiment 2, where the to-be-remembered items were presented visually in silence and the participants spoke aloud their answers to computer-paced mathematical equations. Our results necessitate that a short-term buffer cannot be fully responsible for the tendency to initiate recall from the beginning of a short list; rather, they suggest that the tendency represents a general property of episodic memory that occurs across a range of time scales. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Reference values for maternal total and differential leukocyte counts in different trimesters of pregnancy and the initial postpartum period in western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanci, Muzaffer; Töz, Emrah; Ince, Onur; Özcan, Aykut; Polater, Kevser; Inan, Abdurrahman Hamdi; Beyan, Emrah; Akkaya, Emrah

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in the leukocyte and differential leukocyte counts in different trimesters of pregnancy and the initial postpartum period. The study population consisted of 40,325 pregnant women. A full blood count and automated differential leukocyte count were performed and all the haemogram results in the different trimesters of pregnancy were recorded. Percentiles were calculated using statistical software. A total of 82,786 complete blood count evaluations were performed in 40,325 subjects from the 6th to 41st week of pregnancy and in the initial postpartum period. The leukocyte counts increased from the 1st to the 3rd trimester and peaked in the initial postpartum period. Our reference values for the total and differential leukocyte counts may assist clinicians in distinguishing between leukocytosis and pathological elevation of the white blood cell count during pregnancy and the initial postpartum period. Impact statement Pregnancy requires profound adaptation by multiple systems to accommodate the demands of the developing foetus. Similar to all other systems, many haematological changes occur during pregnancy. Studies of normal variation in leukocyte counts were insufficient to distinguish normal from abnormal leukocyte counts during pregnancy and in the initial postpartum period, due to small numbers of patients and a lack of differential leukocyte counts. Without reference leukocyte levels, infections may be more difficult to assess during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. In this study, we report the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 50th, 95th and 99th percentile values for the total and differential leukocyte counts according to trimester in normal pregnancy and the initial postpartum period. Our reference values for the total and differential leukocyte counts in each trimester and the initial postpartum period may assist clinicians in distinguishing between normal leukocytosis and pathological elevation of the white blood

  11. Analisis Parameter Gap Dalam Tahapan Dekonvolusi Prediktif Guna Mereduksi Short Period Multiple dan Meningkatkan S/N Ratio pada Pengolahan Data Seismik Refleksi 2D Marine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella Chintia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan nilai gap terbaik dari salah satu parameter gap yang digunakan untuk mereduksi short-period multiple dengan metode dekonvolusi prediktif. Variasi Nilai gap yang digunakan adalah 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, dan 64 ms. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, diketahui bahwa gap 12 merupakan gap terbaik. Nilai gap 12 menghasilkan sp gather, penampang stack dan NTG (Near Trace Gather yang lebih tajam dibandingkan dengan gap lainnya. Selain itu, dari spectrum analysis didapatkan sp gather dan penampang stack yang menunjukkan bahwa frekuensi terletak pada rentang nilai 10 - 80 Hz, dan nilai spectrum amplitude seismik yang terkecil berkisar -21 s.d 0 dB.

  12. Numerical doubly-periodic solution of the (2+1)-dimensional Boussinesq equation with initial conditions by the variational iteration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inc, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter, a scheme is developed to study numerical doubly-periodic solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional Boussinesq equation with initial condition by the variational iteration method. As a result, the approximate and exact doubly-periodic solutions are obtained. For different modulus m, comparison between the approximate solution and the exact solution is made graphically, revealing that the variational iteration method is a powerful and effective tool to non-linear problems

  13. K2-111 b - a short period super-Earth transiting a metal poor, evolved old star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlund, Malcolm; Gaidos, Eric; Barragán, Oscar; Persson, Carina M.; Gandolfi, Davide; Cabrera, Juan; Hirano, Teruyuki; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Csizmadia, Sz.; Nowak, Grzegorz; Endl, Michael; Grziwa, Sascha; Korth, Judith; Pfaff, Jeremias; Bitsch, Bertram; Johansen, Anders; Mustill, Alexander J.; Davies, Melvyn B.; Deeg, Hans J.; Palle, Enric; Cochran, William D.; Eigmüller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Guenther, Eike; Hatzes, Artie P.; Kiilerich, Amanda; Kudo, Tomoyuki; MacQueen, Phillip; Narita, Norio; Nespral, David; Pätzold, Martin; Prieto-Arranz, Jorge; Rauer, Heike; Van Eylen, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Context. From a light curve acquired through the K2 space mission, the star K2-111(EPIC 210894022) has been identified as possibly orbited by a transiting planet. Aims: Our aim is to confirm the planetary nature of the object and derive its fundamental parameters. Methods: We analyse the light curve variations during the planetary transit using packages developed specifically for exoplanetary transits. Reconnaissance spectroscopy and radial velocity observations have been obtained using three separate telescope and spectrograph combinations. The spectroscopic synthesis package SME has been used to derive the stellar photospheric parameters that were used as input to various stellar evolutionary tracks in order to derive the parameters of the system. The planetary transit was also validated to occur on the assumed host star through adaptive imaging and statistical analysis. Results: The star is found to be located in the background of the Hyades cluster at a distance at least 4 times further away from Earth than the cluster itself. The spectrum and the space velocities of K2-111 strongly suggest it to be a member of the thick disk population. The co-added high-resolution spectra show that that it is a metal poor ([Fe/H] = - 0.53 ± 0.05 dex) and α-rich somewhat evolved solar-like star of spectral type G3. We find Teff = 5730 ± 50 K, log g⋆ = 4.15 ± 0.1 cgs, and derive a radius of R⋆ = 1.3 ± 0.1 R⊙ and a mass of M⋆ = 0.88 ± 0.02 M⊙. The currently available radial velocity data confirms a super-Earth class planet with a mass of 8.6 ± 3.9 M⊕ and a radius of 1.9 ± 0.2 R⊕. A second more massive object with a period longer than about 120 days is indicated by a long-term radial velocity drift. Conclusions: The radial velocity detection together with the imaging confirms with a high level of significance that the transit signature is caused by a planet orbiting the star K2-111. This planet is also confirmed in the radial velocity data. A second more

  14. Influence of the interface on growth rates in AlN/GaN short period superlattices via metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, L. E.; Korakakis, D.

    2011-11-01

    AlN/GaN short period superlattices are well suited for a number of applications including, but not limited to, digital alloys, intersubband devices, and emitters. In this work, AlN/GaN superlattices with periodicities ranging from 10 to 20 Å have been grown via metal organic vapor phase epitaxy in order to investigate the influence of the interface on the binary alloy growth rates. The GaN growth rate at the interface was observed to decrease with increasing GaN thickness while the AlN growth rate remained constant. This has been attributed to a decrease in the decomposition rate of GaN at the hetero-interface as seen in other III-V hetero-structures.

  15. Effects of feeding strategy during a short finishing period on performance, carcass and meat quality in previously-grazed young bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeño, A; Vieira, C; Serrano, E; Lavín, P; Mantecón, A R

    2006-04-01

    Twenty-one Brown Swiss×Limousin young bulls reared on pasture were housed for a short finishing period (60 days). CA group (concentrate-ad libitum group) received concentrate and straw ad libitum for the whole finishing period. CR group (concentrate-restricted group) received 4kg of concentrate/animal per day and ad libitum alfalfa hay throughout the 60days. CRA group (concentrate-restricted/ad libitum group) received the same diet as CR group for the first 30days and the same diet as CA group for the last 30days. CA and CRA groups presented higher fatness values. Myoglobin concentration in muscle was highest in CA group (P0.05). It is concluded that, in this type of young animal, 4kg concentrate plus ad libitum alfalfa hay for a 60-day finishing period, despite lower fatness, provides carcasses and meat with acceptable quality characteristics, similar to those obtained from ad libitum fed animals for the same period.

  16. Effects of Pre - Season Short - Term Daily Undulating Periodized Training on Muscle Strength and Sprint Performance of Under - 20 Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ricardo L OPES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of daily undulating training periodization designed for maximal lower limb muscle strength and sprint performance in under - 20 soccer players. Twenty - four male athletes (age = 19.1 ± 1.2 yr; mass = 71.1 ± 6. 8 kg; height = 178.0 ± 0.1 cm participated in four weeks of a daily undulating periodized (DUP training soccer program. During the pre - and post - training periods the subjects performed a one repetition maximum (1 RM half back squat test and a 15 - meter s print. Significant training - induced changes were observed in sprint times (pre = 2.38 ± 0.01 s; post = 2.31 ± 0.02 s and 1 RM tests (pre = 107.0 ± 2.0 kg; post = 128.0 ± 2.2 kg. These results indicate that a DUP program is efficient in promoting positive neuromuscular adaptations in soccer players, even with a short - term preseason training period.

  17. Influence of intermetallic particles on short fatigue crack initiation in AA2050-T8 and AA7050-T7451

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizery Erembert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue crack initiation at particles is studied in hot rolled 2050-T8 and 7050-T7451 material, using 1 to 4 mm cross section specimens. Both size and aspect ratio of particles are observed to affect their probability of being damaged. In 2050-T8 material, the probability that a matrix crack initiate at a cracked particle increases with its size, and no effect of aspect ratio is observed. In 2050-T8 specimens, matrix cracks initiate at both precracked (Al, Cu, Fe, Mn particles and particles cracked during cycling. Initiation in 7050-T74 specimens occur on Mg2Si particles which may be cracked or debonded, and Al7Cu2Fe particles that are cracked during cyclic loading.

  18. Groundwater-quality data in 12 GAMA study units: Results from the 2006–10 initial sampling period and the 2008–13 trend sampling period, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.

    2017-03-09

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board. From 2004 through 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples and assessed the quality of groundwater resources that supply public drinking water in 35 study units across the State. Selected sites in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. Twelve of the study units, initially sampled during 2006–11 (initial sampling period) and sampled a second time during 2008–13 (trend sampling period) to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies in the 12 study units. In these study units, 550 sampling sites were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide spatially unbiased representation of the areas assessed (grid sites, also called “status sites”). After the initial sampling period, 76 of the previously sampled status sites (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for trend sampling (“trend sites”). The 12 study units sampled both during the initial sampling and during the trend sampling period were distributed among 6 hydrogeologic provinces: Coastal (Northern and Southern), Transverse Ranges and Selected Peninsular Ranges, Klamath, Modoc Plateau and Cascades, and Sierra Nevada Hydrogeologic Provinces. For the purposes of this trend report, the six hydrogeologic provinces were grouped into two hydrogeologic regions based on location: Coastal and Mountain.The groundwater samples were analyzed for a number of synthetic organic

  19. Retention of a 24-hour time memory in Syrian hamsters carrying the 20-hour short circadian period mutation in casein kinase-1ε (ck1εtau/tau).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Sean W; Yoon, Jeena; Shrestha, Tenjin C; Ralph, Martin R

    2014-10-01

    Circadian rhythmic expression of conditioned place avoidance (CPA) was produced in Syrian hamsters homozygous for the circadian short period mutation, tau. In constant dim red light neither the 20 h endogenous period, nor a 20 h place conditioning schedule eliminated the 24 h modulation of CPA behavior described previously for wild type (wt) hamsters and other species. Tau mutants exhibited a 20 h rhythm superimposed on the 24 h modulation. The 20 h component was removed selectively with lesions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Wt animals conditioned on a 20 h schedule did not produce a 20 h rhythm, but still expressed the 24 h modulation. The results show that the context entrainable oscillator (CEO) underlying memory for the timing of an unconditioned stimulus, retains a period of about 24 h regardless of clock gene background (tau mutation) and/or the conditioning schedule (24 vs 20 h). Therefore the CEO responsible for time memory is distinct from the biological clock controlling activity; the underlying circadian molecular mechanisms may differ from the ubiquitous transcription-translation feedback oscillator; and time memory itself is not classically conditioned. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk of Porphyromonas gingivalis recolonization during the early period of periodontal maintenance in initially severe periodontitis sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujise, Osamu; Miura, Mayumi; Hamachi, Takafumi; Maeda, Katsumasa

    2006-08-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered a critical pathogen of periodontal diseases including recurrent periodontitis. The profound effects of active periodontal treatment (APT) on P. gingivalis elimination were previously demonstrated and revealed that the subsequent P. gingivalis-free or -suppressed status seems to be maintained during early periodontal maintenance (PMT). The aim of the present study was to show the occurrence of microbial recolonization during this early PMT period. In total, 128 sites from 11 generalized chronic periodontitis patients and one generalized aggressive periodontitis patient underwent clinical and microbiologic examination at baseline (Exam-I), after APT (Exam-II), and in PMT (Exam-III). Exam-III was carried out an average of 4.5 +/- 3.5 months after Exam-II. Detection and quantification of putative pathogens were performed using a polymerase chain reaction-based method. The PMT used was effective in maintaining the clinical conditions improved by APT. However, in microbiological examinations, Exam-III showed higher detection frequency and levels of P. gingivalis than Exam-II. This suggests that a P. gingivalis recolonization started in the early PMT period. P. gingivalis-increased sites then showed significantly more severe signs of periodontitis in Exam-I than P. gingivalis-stable sites (bleeding on probing frequency: 76.7% versus 56.5%; suppuration frequency: 41.9% versus 12.9%). On the other hand, in Exam-II, no significant differences of clinical parameters were noted between P. gingivalis-increased and -stable sites. Severe periodontitis sites before APT seemed to place them at risk of P. gingivalis recolonization in the early PMT period, and this microbial restoration could be a cause of recurrent periodontitis.

  1. Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Hunter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Childbirth Experiences Survey, which explored key topics such as (1 breastfeeding initiation, (2 early post-partum breastfeeding, (3 breastfeeding plan, (4 post-partum breastfeeding support and (5 breast feeding duration. This was a voluntary self-reported questionnaire. The surveys were completed by the mothers during the post-partum period. Results: 45.9% (n=67 of mothers received helped from their husband or partner with breastfeeding while in the hospital, while 54.1% (n=79 of mothers did not receive support from their partners. Mothers who received early post-partum breastfeeding support were more likely to continue breastfeeding after leaving the hospital. Conclusion: First-time mothers who identified as having breastfeeding support from their partners, the infant’s father, during the early post-partum period were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and had longer breastfeeding durations.

  2. IUE spectrophotometry of the DA4 primary in the short-period white dwarf-red dwarf spectroscopic binary Case 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sion, E. M.; Guinan, E. F.; Wesemael, F.

    1984-01-01

    Low-resolution ultraviolet International Ultraviolet Explorer spectra of the DA white dwarf Case 1 are presented. The spectra show the presence of the 1400 A feature, already discovered in several other DA stars, and of a shallower trough in the 1550-1700 A range. A model atmosphere analysis of the ultraviolet energy distribution of the Ly-alpha red wing yields T(e) = 13,000 + or - 500 K. Possible interpretations of the 1400 A feature are reviewed. Case 1 is the coolest white dwarf found in a short-period, detached white dwarf-red dwarf binary, and its cooling time is consistent with estimates of the efficiency of angular momentum removal mechanisms in the phases subsequent to common envelope binary evolution.

  3. THE MAXIMUM AMOUNTS OF RAINFALL FALLEN IN SHORT PERIODS OF TIME IN THE HILLY AREA OF CLUJ COUNTY - GENESIS, DISTRIBUTION AND PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLAGA IRINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The maximum amounts of rainfall are usually characterized by high intensity, and their effects on the substrate are revealed, at slope level, by the deepening of the existing forms of torrential erosion and also by the formation of new ones, and by landslide processes. For the 1971-2000 period, for the weather stations in the hilly area of Cluj County: Cluj- Napoca, Dej, Huedin and Turda the highest values of rainfall amounts fallen in 24, 48 and 72 hours were analyzed and extracted, based on which the variation and the spatial and temporal distribution of the precipitation were analyzed. The annual probability of exceedance of maximum rainfall amounts fallen in short time intervals (24, 48 and 72 hours, based on thresholds and class values was determined, using climatological practices and the Hyfran program facilities.

  4. A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis as initial manifestation of Graves' disease in a 16-year-old Korean adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Yong Jung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP is a rare complication of hyperthyroidism, with recurrent muscle paralysis and hypokalemia that are caused by an intracellular shift of potassium. TPP is relatively common in Asian males, but is extremely rare in children and adolescents, even for those of Asian descent. We describe a 16-year-old Korean adolescent presenting with a two-week history of episodic leg weakness in the morning. He showed sinus tachycardia, lower leg weakness, and hypokalemia. Thyroid function test showed hyperthyroidism, and thyroid ultrasonography revealed a diffuse enlarged thyroid with increased vascularity, consistent with Graves' disease. He was treated with β-adrenergic blocker and antithyroid drugs. He has been symptom free for one year, as his hyperthyroidism has been controlled well with antithyroid drugs. TPP should be considered in children and adolescents with acute paralysis of the lower extremities and hypokalemia.

  5. TRACnet Internet and Short Message Service Technology Improves Time to Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Among HIV-infected Infants in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayumba, Kizito; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Binagwaho, Agnes; Mugwaneza, Placidie; Rusine, John; Remera, Eric; Koama, Jean Baptiste; Ndahindwa, Vedaste; Johnson, Pamela; Riedel, David J; Condo, Jeanine

    2016-07-01

    Delays in testing HIV-exposed infants and obtaining results in resource-limited settings contribute to delays for initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in infants. To overcome this challenge, Rwanda expanded its national mobile and Internet-based HIV/AIDS informatics system, called TRACnet, to include HIV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results in 2010. This study was performed to evaluate the impact of TRACnet technology on the time to delivery of test results and the subsequent initiation of ART in HIV-infected infants. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 380 infants who initiated ART in 190 health facilities in Rwanda from March 2010 to June 2013. Program data collected by the TRACnet system were extracted and analyzed. Since the introduction of TRACnet for processing PCR results, the time to receive results has significantly decreased from a median of 144 days [interquartile range (IQR): 121-197 days] to 23 days (IQR: 17-43 days). The number of days between PCR sampling and health facility receipt of results decreased substantially from a median of 90 days (IQR: 83-158 days) to 5 days (IQR: 2-8 days). After receiving PCR results at a health facility, it takes a median of 44 days (IQR: 32-77 days) before ART initiation. Result turnaround time was significantly associated with time to initiating ART (P technology for communication of HIV PCR results, coupled with well-trained and skilled personnel, can reduce delays in communicating results to providers. Such reductions may improve timely ART initiation in resource-limited settings.

  6. HATS-43b, HATS-44b, HATS-45b, and HATS-46b: Four Short-period Transiting Giant Planets in the Neptune–Jupiter Mass Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahm, R.; Hartman, J. D.; Jordán, A.; Bakos, G. Á.; Espinoza, N.; Rabus, M.; Bhatti, W.; Penev, K.; Sarkis, P.; Suc, V.; Csubry, Z.; Bayliss, D.; Bento, J.; Zhou, G.; Mancini, L.; Henning, T.; Ciceri, S.; de Val-Borro, M.; Shectman, S.; Crane, J. D.; Arriagada, P.; Butler, P.; Teske, J.; Thompson, I.; Osip, D.; Díaz, M.; Schmidt, B.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2018-03-01

    We report the discovery of four short-period extrasolar planets transiting moderately bright stars from photometric measurements of the HATSouth network coupled to additional spectroscopic and photometric follow-up observations. While the planet masses range from 0.26 to 0.90 {M}{{J}}, the radii are all approximately a Jupiter radii, resulting in a wide range of bulk densities. The orbital period of the planets ranges from 2.7 days to 4.7 days, with HATS-43b having an orbit that appears to be marginally non-circular (e = 0.173 ± 0.089). HATS-44 is notable for having a high metallicity ([{Fe}/{{H}}] = 0.320 ± 0.071). The host stars spectral types range from late F to early K, and all of them are moderately bright (13.3 Carnegie Institute is operated by PU in conjunction with PUC, the station at the High Energy Spectroscopic Survey (H.E.S.S.) site is operated in conjunction with MPIA, and the station at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) is operated jointly with ANU. This paper includes data gathered with the MPG 2.2 m and ESO 3.6 m telescopes at the ESO Observatory in La Silla. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  7. Attenuation of short-period P, PcP, ScP, and pP waves in the earth's mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, G.; Clements, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The parameter t* (ratio of body wave travel time to the average quality factor Q) was estimated under various assumptions of the nature of the earthquake sources for short-period P, PcP, and ScP phases originating from earthquakes in the Fiji-Tonga region and recorded at the Warramunga Seismic Array at Tennant Creek (Northern Territory, Australia). Spectral ratios were calculated for the amplitudes of PcP to P and of pP to P. The data reveal a laterally varying Q structure in the Fiji-Tonga region. The high-Q lithosphere descending beneath the Tonga Island arc is overlain above 350 km depth by a wedgelike zone of high attenuation with an average Q/sub α/ between 120 and 200 at short periods. The upper mantle farther to the west of the Tonga island arc is less attenuating, with Q/sub α/, between 370 and 560. Q/sub α/ is about 500 in the upper mantle on the oceanic side of the subduction zone. The t* estimates of this study are much smaller than estimates from the free oscillation model SL8. This can be partly explained by regional variations of Q in the upper mantle. If no lateral Q variations occur in the lower mantle, a frequency-dependent Q can make the PcP and ScP observations consistent with model SL8. Adopting the absorption band model to describe the frequency dependence of Q, the parameter tau 2 , the cut-off period of the high-frequency end of the absorption band, was determined. For different source models with finite corner frequencies, the average tau 2 for the mantle is between 0.01 and 0.10 s (corresponding to frequencies between 16 and 1.6 Hz) as derived from the PcP data, and between 0.06 and 0.12 s (2.7 and 1.3 Hz), as derived from the ScP data

  8. [The effects of 16-weeks pilates mat program on anthropometric variables and body composition in active adult women after a short detraining period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco; Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel

    2015-04-01

    previous studies have analysed the effect of mat Pilates practice on anthropometric variables and body composition in sedentaries. To date no researchs have investigated the benefits of Pilates on these variables after a short detraining period. to determine the effect of a 16-week mat Pilates program on anthropometric variables, body composition and somatotype of women with previous practice experience after three weeks of detraining period. twenty-one women underwent a complete anthropometric assessment according with ISAK guidelines before and after a 16 week mat Pilates program (two days, one hour). All women had one to three years of mat Pilates experience and came to three weeks of detraining period (Christmas holiday). women showed significant decreases for body mass, BMI, upper limb (biceps and triceps) and trunk (subscapular, iliac crest, supraspinale and abdominal) individual skinfolds, 6 and 8 skinfold sums, endomorphy and fat mass; and a significant increases for muscle mass. The mean somatotype was classified as mesomorphic endomorph in the pre- (4.91, 4.01, 1.47) and post-test (4.68, 4.16, 1.69). Eight women changed their somatotype clasification after the intervention program. the practice of mat Pilates for 16 weeks caused changes associated with health state improvements on anthropometric variables, especially on skinfolds which significantly decreased, body composition (fat and muscle masses decreased and increased, respectively) and somatotype (there was a significantly decreased on the endomorph component in experienced women after three week of detraning. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental investigation of void distribution in Suppression Pool during the initial blowdown period of a Loss of Coolant Accident using air–water two-phase mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassame, Somboon; Griffiths, Matthew; Yang, Jun; Lee, Doo Yong; Ju, Peng; Choi, Sung Won; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Basic understanding of the venting phenomena in the SP during a LOCA was obtained. • A series of experiment is carried out using the PUMA-E test facility. • Two phases of experiments, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase were observed. • The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. - Abstract: During the initial blowdown period of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the non-condensable gas initially contained in the BWR containment is discharged to the pressure suppression chamber through the blowdown pipes. The performance of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) can be degraded due to the released gas ingestion into the suction intakes of the ECCS pumps. The understanding of the relevant phenomena in the pressure suppression chamber is important in analyzing potential gas intrusion into the suction intakes of ECCS pumps. To obtain the basic understanding of the relevant phenomena and the generic data of void distribution in the pressure suppression chamber during the initial blowdown period of a LOCA, tests with various blowdown conditions were conducted using the existing Suppression Pool (SP) tank of the integral test facility, called Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly for ESBWR applications (PUMA-E) facility, a scaled downcomer pipe installed in the PUMA-E SP, and air discharge pipe system. Two different diameter sizes of air injection pipe (0.076 and 0.102 m), a range of air volumetric flux (7.9–24.7 m/s), initial void conditions in an air injection pipe (fully void, partially void, and fully filled with water) and different air velocity ramp rates (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 s) are used to investigate the impact of the blowdown conditions to the void distribution in the SP. Two distinct phases of experiments, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase were observed. The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. The quasi-steady phase provided less void

  10. Short-term weight gain after antiretroviral therapy initiation and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achhra, A C; Mocroft, A; Reiss, P

    2016-01-01

    -naïve individuals initiating ART with no history of CVD or diabetes (for respective outcomes). BMI [weight (kg)/(height (m))(2) ] was categorized as underweight ( 30). Poisson regression models were fitted stratified for each pre-ART BMI category to allow...... for category-specific estimates of incidence rate ratio (IRR). Models were adjusted for pre-ART BMI and CD4 count, key known risk factors (time-updated where possible) and calendar year. RESULTS: A total of 97 CVD events occurred in 43 982 person-years (n = 9321) and 125 diabetes events in 43 278 person...

  11. Short and intermediate economic impacts of a terrorist-initiated loss of electric power: Case study of New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, Michael; Mantell, Nancy; Lahr, Michael; Felder, Frank; Zimmerman, Rae

    2007-01-01

    The economic impacts of potential terrorist attacks on the New Jersey electric power system are examined using a regional econometric model. The magnitude and duration of the effects vary by type of business and income measure. We assume damage is done during in the summer 2005 quarter, a peak period for energy use. The state economy recovers within a year, if we assume that economic activity is restored in the next time period. However, if the attacks prompt an absolute of loss of activity due to firm relocation, closing, and geographical changes in expansion plans, then the economy does not fully recover by the year 2010. Hence, the electrical power system's resiliency to damage is the key to the extent and duration of any economic consequences of a terrorist attack, at least in New Jersey. The policy implication is that the costs and benefits of making the electric power system more resilient to plausible attacks should be weighed and that the restorative capacity of the system should be strengthened

  12. Short and intermediate economic impacts of a terrorist-initiated loss of electric power: case study of New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, M.; Mantell, N.; Lahr, M.; Felder, F. [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Edward J. Bloustein School; Zimmerman, R. [New York University (United States). Robert F. Wagner School of Public Service

    2007-01-15

    The economic impacts of potential terrorist attacks on the New Jersey electric power system are examined using a regional econometric model. The magnitude and duration of the effects vary by type of business and income measure. We assume damage is done during in the summer 2005 quarter, a peak period for energy use. The state economy recovers within a year, if we assume that economic activity is restored in the next time period. However, if the attacks prompt an absolute of loss of activity due to firm relocation, closing, and geographical changes in expansion plans, then the economy does not fully recover by the year 2010. Hence, the electrical power system's resiliency to damage is the key to the extent and duration of any economic consequences of a terrorist attack, at least in New Jersey. The policy implication is that the costs and benefits of making the electric power system more resilient to plausible attacks should be weighed and that the restorative capacity of the system should be strengthened. (author)

  13. Joint analysis of short-period variations of ionospheric parameters in Siberia and the Far East and processes of the tropical cyclogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernigovskaya, M. A.; Kurkin, V. I.; Orlov, I. I.; Sharkov, E. A.; Pokrovskaya, I. V.

    2009-04-01

    In this work a possibility of manifestation of strong meteorological disturbances in the Earth lower atmosphere in variations of ionospheric parameters in the zone remote from the disturbance source has been studied. The spectral analysis of short-period variations (about ten minutes, hours) in maximum observed frequencies (MOF) of one-skip signals of oblique sounding has been carried out. These variations were induced by changes in the upper atmosphere parameters along the Magadan-Irkutsk oblique-incidence sounding path on the background of diurnal variations in the parameter under study. Data on MOF measurements with off-duty factor approximately 5 min in equinoxes (September, March) of 2005-2007 were used. The analysis was made using the improved ISTP-developed technique of determining periodicities in time series. The increase of signal spectrum energy at certain frequencies is interpreted as manifestation of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID) associated with propagation of internal gravity waves in the atmosphere. The analysis revealed TIDs of temporal scales under consideration. The question concerning localization of possible sources of revealed disturbances is discussed. Troposphere meteorological disturbances giant in their energy (tropical cyclones, typhoon) are considered as potential sources of observable TIDs. The needed information on tropical cyclones that occurred in the north area of the Indian Ocean, south-west and central areas of the Pacific Ocean in 2005-2007 is taken from the electron base of satellite data on the global tropical cyclogenesis "Global-TC" (ISR RAS). In order to effectively separate disturbances associated with the magnetospheric-ionospheric interaction and disturbances induced by the lower atmosphere influence on the upper atmosphere, we analyze the tropical cyclogenesis events that occurred in quiet helio-geomagnetic conditions. The study was supported by the Program of RAS Presidium N 16 (Part 3) and the RFBR Grant N 08-05-00658.

  14. Origin of short-period (30-300 s) Doppler frequency fluctuations of lower F region reflections in the equatorial electrojet region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastri, J.H.; Ramesh, K.B.; Rao, J.V.S.V.; Somayajulu, V.V.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of phase path P of lower F-region reflections at normal incidence at Kodaikanal revealed the ubiquitous presence of 30-300-s quasi-sinusoidal variations in the time rate of change of phase path, P (Doppler frequency shift) during day time. A study is made of the influence of the irregularities in the equatorial electrojet on the P fluctuations using simultaneous observations of F-region phase path at Kodaikanal and of equatorial electrojet with the VHF-backscatter radar at Thumba. It is shown that the spectral content of the Doppler fluctuations (quantified in terms of variance, sigma squared computed from P time series synthesized through FFT exp -1 (FFT) in the chosen period bands, 30-300 s/30-120 s of the FFT of original P times series) bears a significant positive linear relationship to the horizontal phase velocity of electrojet irregularities (3-m scale size) on a hourly basis. This result is in consonance with earlier findings (Sastri et al., 1990) of a significant linear relationship of sigma squared to the electrojet strength (estimated from H-field data) and a practical cessation of the P fluctuations at times of disappearance of Esq on ionograms (partial/complete counterelectrojet). The present work substantiates the interpretation that the short-period Doppler-frequency fluctuations are due to phase-path changes imposed on lower F region reflections by the refractive-index variations associated with the convective motions of plasma density irregularities (type I and II) in the daytime equatorial electrojet. 49 refs

  15. Quantum state engineering with ultra-short-period (AlN)m/(GaN)n superlattices for narrowband deep-ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Na; Lin, Wei; Chen, Xue; Huang, Kai; Li, Shuping; Li, Jinchai; Chen, Hangyang; Yang, Xu; Ji, Li; Yu, Edward T; Kang, Junyong

    2014-12-21

    Ultra-short-period (AlN)m/(GaN)n superlattices with tunable well and barrier atomic layer numbers were grown by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy, and employed to demonstrate narrowband deep ultraviolet photodetection. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray reciprocal space mapping confirm that superlattices containing well-defined, coherently strained GaN and AlN layers as thin as two atomic layers (∼ 0.5 nm) were grown. Theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that an optical absorption band as narrow as 9 nm (210 meV) at deep-ultraviolet wavelengths can be produced, and is attributable to interband transitions between quantum states along the [0001] direction in ultrathin GaN atomic layers isolated by AlN barriers. The absorption wavelength can be precisely engineered by adjusting the thickness of the GaN atomic layers because of the quantum confinement effect. These results represent a major advance towards the realization of wavelength selectable and narrowband photodetectors in the deep-ultraviolet region without any additional optical filters.

  16. A Bright Short Period M-M Eclipsing Binary from the KELT Survey: Magnetic Activity and the Mass-Radius Relationship for M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Jack B.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Zhou, George; Conroy, Kyle E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Collins, Karen; Stevens, Daniel J.; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Stockdale, Christopher; Myers, Gordon; Colón, Knicole D.; Bento, Joao; Kehusmaa, Petri; Petrucci, Romina; Jofré, Emiliano; Quinn, Samuel N.; Lund, Michael B.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Siverd, Robert J.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Harlingten, Caisey; Pepper, Joshua; Gaudi, B. Scott; James, David; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Reichart, Daniel; Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna; Bailey, Jeremy; Melville, Graeme

    2017-08-01

    We report the discovery of KELT J041621-620046, a moderately bright (J ˜ 10.2) M-dwarf eclipsing binary system at a distance of 39 ± 3 pc. KELT J041621-620046 was first identified as an eclipsing binary using observations from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) survey. The system has a short orbital period of ˜1.11 days and consists of components with {M}1={0.447}+0.052-0.047 {M}⊙ and {M}2={0.399}+0.046-0.042 {M}⊙ in nearly circular orbits. The radii of the two stars are {R}1={0.540}+0.034-0.032 {R}⊙ and {\\text{}}{R}2=0.453+/- 0.017 {R}⊙ . Full system and orbital properties were determined (to ˜10% error) by conducting an EBOP (Eclipsing Binary Orbit Program) global modeling of the high precision photometric and spectroscopic observations obtained by the KELT Follow-up Network. Each star is larger by 17%-28% and cooler by 4%-10% than predicted by standard (non-magnetic) stellar models. Strong Hα emission indicates chromospheric activity in both stars. The observed radii and temperature discrepancies for both components are more consistent with those predicted by empirical relations that account for convective suppression due to magnetic activity.

  17. Initial Operative Experience and Short-term Hearing Preservation Results With a Mid-scala Cochlear Implant Electrode Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svrakic, Maja; Roland, J Thomas; McMenomey, Sean O; Svirsky, Mario A

    2016-12-01

    To describe our initial operative experience and hearing preservation results with the Advanced Bionics (AB) Mid Scala Electrode (MSE). Retrospective review. Tertiary referral center. Sixty-three MSE implants in pediatric and adult patients were compared with age- and sex-matched 1j electrode implants from the same manufacturer. All patients were severe to profoundly deaf. Cochlear implantation with either the AB 1j electrode or the AB MSE. The MSE and 1j electrodes were compared in their angular depth of insertion and pre to postoperative change in hearing thresholds. Hearing preservation was analyzed as a function of angular depth of insertion. Secondary outcome measures included operative time, incidence of abnormal intraoperative impedance and telemetry values, and incidence of postsurgical complications. Depth of insertion was similar for both electrodes, but was more consistent for the MSE array and more variable for the 1j array. Patients with MSE electrodes had better hearing preservation. Thresholds shifts at four audiometric frequencies ranging from 250 to 2000 Hz were 10, 7, 2, and 6 dB smaller for the MSE electrode than for the 1j (p < 0.05). Hearing preservation at low frequencies was worse with deeper insertion, regardless of array. Secondary outcome measures were similar for both electrodes. The MSE electrode resulted in more consistent insertion depth and somewhat better hearing preservation than the 1j electrode. Differences in other surgical outcome measures were small or unlikely to have a meaningful effect.

  18. Cirugía ambulatoria y de corta hospitalización en el cáncer de mama Ambulatory breast cancer surgery with short hospitalization period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Cantero Ronquillo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La cirugía mayor ambulatoria y de corta estadía constituye un método eficaz y seguro si se hace una selección adecuada de los enfermos y se utilizan técnicas quirúrgicas depuradas con la creación consecuente de la infraestructura para tales fines. Tradicionalmente, el cáncer de mama ha requerido ingreso hospitalario por el riesgo de hemorragia posoperatoria, la necesidad del control de los drenajes quirúrgicos, etc. Internacionalmente esto ha cambiado tras la introducción de nuevas técnicas quirúrgicas como la biopsia del ganglio centinela, la estandarización de las técnicas preservadoras de tejido mamario, así como la especialización de grupos de cirugía en afecciones de la mama. La creación de un grupo de mastología en nuestro centro permitió incursionar en esta modalidad y ya podamos contar 31 pacientes operadas entre enero de 2004 y junio de 2006. Fueron utilizadas diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas con cirugía de corta estadía, previo establecimiento de los criterios de selección. Pudimos concluir que el tratamiento ambulatorio del cáncer de mama en casos seleccionados es factible, dado que se garantiza la seguridad de la paciente, la calidad asistencial y la continuidad en la atención, que además facilita la recuperación psicológica de la enferma y su reinserción temprana en la familiaAmbulatory major surgery with short hospitalization period is an efficient and safe method if a proper selection of patients is made and refined surgical techniques are used, all supported on adequate infrastructure to this end. Traditionally, breast cancer has required admission at hospital due to postsurgical hemorrhage risk, need for surgical drainage control, etc. This has changed worlwide after the introduction of new surgical techniques as sentinel node biopsy, standardization of preserving techniques for breast tissue and specialization of surgeon teams in breast illnesses. The creation of a mastology group in our center

  19. Initial Operative Experience and Short Term Hearing Preservation Results with a Mid-Scala Cochlear Implant Electrode Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svrakic, Maja; Roland, J. Thomas; McMenomey, Sean O.; Svirsky, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe our initial operative experience and hearing preservation results with the Advanced Bionics (AB) Mid Scala Electrode (MSE) STUDY DESIGN Retrospective review. SETTING Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS Sixty-three MSE implants in pediatric and adult patients were compared to age- and gender-matched 1j electrode implants from the same manufacturer. All patients were severe to profoundly deaf. INTERVENTION Cochlear implantation with either the AB 1j electrode or the AB MSE. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The MSE and 1j electrode were compared in their angular depth of insertion (aDOI) and pre- to post-operative change in hearing thresholds. Hearing preservation was analyzed as a function of aDOI. Secondary outcome measures included operative time, incidence of abnormal intraoperative impedance and telemetry values, and incidence of postsurgical complications. RESULTS Depth of insertion was similar for both electrodes, but was more consistent for the MSE array and more variable for the 1j array. Patients with MSE electrodes had better hearing preservation. Thresholds shifts at four audiometric frequencies ranging from 250 to 2,000 Hz were 10 dB, 7 dB, 2 dB and 6 dB smaller for the MSE electrode than for the 1j (p<0.05). Hearing preservation at low frequencies was worse with deeper insertion, regardless of array. Secondary outcome measures were similar for both electrodes. CONCLUSIONS The MSE electrode resulted in more consistent insertion depth and somewhat better hearing preservation than the 1j electrode. Differences in other surgical outcome measures were small or unlikely to have a meaningful effect. PMID:27755356

  20. Retrospective Evaluation of the Short-Term Sustainability of the Locally Grown Produce Initiative of the Hunger Prevention and Nutrition Assistance Program in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsopp, Marie A K; Hosler, Akiko S

    2018-03-27

    The Hunger Prevention and Nutrition Assistance Program (HPNAP) is a New York State Department of Health program. The HPNAP improves nutritional quality of food available at food banks, food pantries, soup kitchens, and emergency shelters through contractual relationships to fund the purchase, delivery, storage, and service of nutritious food. To determine whether a one-time fiscal stimulus of the Locally Grown Produce Initiative to HPNAP contractors in 2012-2013 would result in a short-term sustainable increase in the proportion of dollars spent on New York State Grown (NYSG) produce. Quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control group design. We analyzed New York State Department of Health administrative data regarding expenditures on all produce and NYSG produce by HPNAP contractors. New York State. The proportion of dollars spent on NYSG produce during 2011-2012 (preintervention) and 2013-2014 (postintervention) was compared between HPNAP food bank contractors (recipients of stimulus money, n = 8) and non-food bank contractors (nonrecipients, n = 34) using nonparametric methods. The HPNAP Locally Grown Produce Initiative was associated with an increased proportion of NYSG produce spending by food bank contractors that received a fiscal stimulus 1 year later. Upstate food banks had the largest increase (median 31.6%) among all HPNAP contractors. The results of this study revealed that the Locally Grown Produce Initiative fiscal stimulus had a positive, year-long and statewide effect on the proportion of expenditure on NYSG produce by food banks. We hope that the initial success seen in New York State may encourage other states to adopt similar initiatives in future.

  1. Effect of re-expansion after short-period lung collapse on pulmonary capillary permeability and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in isolated rabbit lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, T; Ishibe, Y; Okazaki, N; Miura, K; Liu, R; Nagai, S; Minami, Y

    2004-04-01

    Re-expansion pulmonary oedema is a rare complication caused by rapid re-expansion of a chronically collapsed lung. Several cases of pulmonary oedema associated with one-lung ventilation (OLV) have been reported recently. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in pulmonary oedema fluid are suggested to play important roles in its development. Activation of cytokines after re-expansion of collapsed lung during OLV has not been thoroughly investigated. Here we investigated the effects of re-expansion of the collapsed lung on pulmonary oedema formation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Lungs isolated from female white Japanese rabbits were perfused and divided into a basal (BAS) group (n=7, baseline measurement alone), a control (CONT) group (n=9, ventilated without lung collapse for 120 min) and an atelectasis (ATEL) group (n=9, lung collapsed for 55 min followed by re-expansion and ventilation for 65 min). Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and the coefficient of filtration (Kfc) were measured at baseline and 60 and 120 min. At the end of perfusion, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid/plasma protein ratio (B/P), wet/dry lung weight ratio (W/D) and mRNA expressions of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were determined. TNF-alpha and IL-1beta mRNA were significantly up-regulated in lungs of the ATEL group compared with BAS and CONT, though no significant differences were noted in PVR, Kfc, B/P and W/D within and between groups. MPO increased at 120 min in CONT and ATEL groups. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated upon re-expansion and ventilation after short-period lung collapse, though no changes were noted in pulmonary capillary permeability.

  2. Short-period strain (0.1-105 s): Near-source strain field for an earthquake (M L 3.2) near San Juan Bautista, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. J. S.; Borcherdt, R. D.; Linde, A. T.

    1986-10-01

    Measurements of dilational earth strain in the frequency band 25-10-5 Hz have been made on a deep borehole strainmeter installed near the San Andreas fault. These data are used to determine seismic radiation fields during nuclear explosions, teleseisms, local earthquakes, and ground noise during seismically quiet times. Strains of less than 10-10 on these instruments can be clearly resolved at short periods (< 10 s) and are recorded with wide dynamic range digital recorders. This permits measurement of the static and dynamic strain variations in the near field of local earthquakes. Noise spectra for earth strain referenced to 1 (strain)2/Hz show that strain resolution decreases at about 10 dB per decade of frequency from -150 dB at 10-4 Hz to -223 dB at 10 Hz. Exact expressions are derived to relate the volumetric strain and displacement field for a homogeneous P wave in a general viscoelastic solid as observed on colocated dilatometers and seismometers. A rare near-field recording of strain and seismic velocity was obtained on May 26, 1984, from an earthquake (ML 3.2) at a hypocentral distance of 3.2 km near the San Andreas fault at San Juan Bautista, California. While the data indicate no precursory strain release at the 5 × 10-11 strain level, a coseismic strain release of 1.86 nanostrain was observed. This change in strain is consistent with that calculated from a simple dislocation model of the event. Ground displacement spectra, determined from the downhole strain data and instrument-corrected surface seismic data, suggest that source parameters estimated from surface recordings may be contaminated by amplification effects in near-surface low-velocity materials.

  3. „CONSTITUTIONAL COURT OF THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA AND CITIZEN-INITIATED REFERENDA IN THE 2013-2015 PERIOD: ANALYSIS AND PROPOSALS“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Horvat Vuković

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia regarding citizen-initiated referenda, adopted in the period between 2013 and 2015. From the referendum on the definition of marriage, through the Court’s ruling on the referendum on the Cyrillic script, to the most recent cases dealing with outsourcing in the public administration and monetization of Croatian highways, she outlines a trend of growing limitations to the popular referendum institute. Paying particular attention to the decision on outsourcing from 8 April 2015, she highlights the problem areas of constitutional jurisprudence and suggests their corrections. Regarding the cogent nature of the obligation to substantiate the initiative with a statement of circumstances that provoked it, she holds that question as falling in the area of legislative discretion. Regarding the “premature nature” of an initiative, she argues that the Court may not tie its destiny to the existence of a Government’s program not yet formalized as a concrete bill. It also cannot clairvoyantly assess the impact of a referendum on the system of public finances. In balancing the right to referendum with budgetary stability, it may only take account of foreseeable consequences and measurable data, and withhold the right to referendum only in cases of decisions whose impact on the state’s fiscal stability would violate the guarantees of the Constitution’s Arts.3 and 16. Finally, she concludes on the impermissibility of applying stricter scrutiny to citizen-initiated referenda then to identical texts adopted by the Croatian Parliament. She holds such escalation of standards of review untenable in the light of a grammatical and teleological interpretation of the Constitution, as well as due to its punitive effect.

  4. Effect of a short-term HAART on SIV load in macaque tissues is dependent on time of initiation and antiviral diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Lucie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV reservoirs are rapidly established after infection, and the effect of HAART initiated very early during acute infection on HIV reservoirs remains poorly documented, particularly in tissue known to actively replicate the virus. In this context, we used the model of experimental infection of macaques with pathogenic SIV to assess in different tissues: (i the effect of a short term HAART initiated at different stages during acute infection on viral dissemination and replication, and (ii the local concentration of antiviral drugs. Results Here, we show that early treatment with AZT/3TC/IDV initiated either within 4 hours after intravenous infection of macaques with SIVmac251 (as a post exposure prophylaxis or before viremia peak (7 days post-infection [pi], had a strong impact on SIV production and dissemination in all tissues but did not prevent infection. When treatment was initiated after the viremia peak (14 days pi or during early chronic infection (150 days pi, significant viral replication persists in the peripheral lymph nodes and the spleen of treated macaques despite a strong effect of treatment on viremia and gut associated lymphoid tissues. In these animals, the level of virus persistence in tissues was inversely correlated with local concentrations of 3TC: high concentrations of 3TC were measured in the gut whereas low concentrations were observed in the secondary lymphoid tissues. IDV, like 3TC, showed much higher concentration in the colon than in the spleen. AZT concentration was below the quantification threshold in all tissues studied. Conclusions Our results suggest that limited antiviral drug diffusion in secondary lymphoid tissues may allow persistent viral replication in these tissues and could represent an obstacle to HIV prevention and eradication.

  5. High-Precision Locations and the Stress Field from Instrumental Seismicity, Moment Tensors, and Short-Period Mechanisms through the Mina Deflection, Central Walker Lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, C. J.; Smith, K. D.

    2012-12-01

    well as available and developed short-period focal mechanisms are compiled to evaluate the stress field to assess mechanisms of slip accommodation. Based on the complex distribution of fault orientations, the stress field varies locally northward from the SWL throughout the MD; however, in many cases, fault plane alignments can be isolated from high-precision locations, providing better constraints on stress and slip orientations.

  6. Short period strain balanced gallium arsenide nitride/indium arsenide nitride superlattice lattice matched to indium phosphide for mid-infrared photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhusal, Lekhnath

    Dilute nitrogen-containing III-V-N alloys have been intensively studied for their unusual electronic and optical behavior in the presence of a small amount of nitrogen. Those behaviors can further be manipulated, with a careful consideration of the strain and strain balancing, for example, in the context of a strain-balanced superlattice (SL) based on those alloys. In this work, the k.p approximation and the band anti-crossing model modified for the strain have been used to describe the electronic states of the strained bulk-like GaAs1-xNx and InAs 1-yNy ternaries in the vicinity of the center of the Brillouin zone (Gamma-point). Band-offsets between the conduction and valence bands of GaAs1-xNx and InAs1-yN y have also been evaluated, before implementing them into the SL structure. By minimizing the total mechanical energy of the stack of the alternating layers of GaAs1-xNx and InAs1-yNy in the SL, the ratio of the thicknesses of the epilayers is determined to make the structure lattice-matching on the InP(001), through the strain-balancing. Mini-band energies of the strain-balanced GaAs1-xNx/InAs 1-yNy short-period SL on InP(001) is then investigated using the transfer matrix formalism. This enabled identifying the evolution of the band edge transition energies of the superlattice structure for different nitrogen compositions. Results show the potential of the new proposed design to exceed the existing limits of bulk-like InGaAsN alloys and offer the applications for photon absorption/emission energies in the range of ~0.65-0.35eV at 300K for a typical nitrogen composition of ≤5%. The optical absorption coefficient of such a SL is then estimated under the anisotropic medium approximation, where the optical absorption of the bulk structure is modified according to the anisotropy imposed by the periodic potential in the growth direction. As an application, the developed SL structure is used to investigate the performance of double, triple and quadruple junction

  7. ON THE POSSIBLE EXISTENCE OF SHORT-PERIOD g-MODE INSTABILITIES POWERED BY NUCLEAR-BURNING SHELLS IN POST-ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH H-DEFICIENT (PG1159-TYPE) STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Gonzalez Perez, J. M.; Kepler, S. O.

    2009-01-01

    We present a pulsational stability analysis of hot post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) H-deficient pre-white dwarf stars with active He-burning shells. The stellar models employed are state-of-the-art equilibrium structures representative of PG1159 stars derived from the complete evolution of the progenitor stars, through the thermally pulsing AGB phase and born-again episode. On the basis of fully nonadiabatic pulsation computations, we confirmed theoretical evidence for the existence of a separate PG1159 instability strip in the log T eff -log g diagram characterized by short-period g-modes excited by the ε-mechanism. This instability strip partially overlaps the already known GW Vir instability strip of intermediate/long-period g-modes destabilized by the classical κ-mechanism acting on the partial ionization of C and/or O in the envelope of PG1159 stars. We found that PG1159 stars characterized by thick He-rich envelopes and located inside this overlapping region could exhibit both short and intermediate/long periods simultaneously. As a natural application of our results, we study the particular case of VV 47, a pulsating planetary nebula nucleus (PG1159 type) that is particularly interesting because it has been reported to exhibit a rich and complex pulsation spectrum including a series of unusually short pulsation periods. We found that the long periods exhibited by VV 47 can be readily explained by the classical κ-mechanism, while the observed short-period branch below ∼300 s could correspond to modes triggered by the He-burning shell through the ε-mechanism, although more observational work is needed to confirm the reality of these short-period modes. Were the existence of short-period g-modes in this star convincingly confirmed by future observations, VV 47 could be the first known pulsating star in which both the κ-mechanism and the ε-mechanism of mode driving are simultaneously operating.

  8. Short-term alpha-tocopherol treatment during neonatal period modulates pro-inflammatory response to endotoxin (LPS) challenge in the same calves several months later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin E, a major natural antioxidant, has been previously shown to attenuate pro-inflammatory response to immune challenge in cattle. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of short-term treatment with alpha-tocopherol in newborn calves on selected elements of the pro-inflamatory response to LPS...

  9. Student Teachers of Technology and Design: Can Short Periods of STEM-Related Industrial Placement Change Student Perceptions of Engineering and Technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Ken S.

    2012-01-01

    This is a report, on a small-scale case study, of a programme of short industrial placements (5 day block) for student teachers of technology and design in Northern Ireland. Such placements increase student awareness and understanding of the nature of Engineering and Technology and therefore better prepare them to teach these subjects, as integral…

  10. The dynamics of dry matter accumulation in the initial period of growth of four varieties of the "stay-green"type of maize (zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulc, P.; Michalski, T.; Bocianowski, J.; Nowosad, K.; Zajac, M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of weather conditions (temperature, precipitation) on the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen nutritional status of maize plants in the type of "stay-green"Four varieties were evaluated: NK Cooler, Delitop, NK Gazelle, NK Ravello. Thermal conditions and humidity in the period from sowing to the phase of 5-6 leaves (BBCH 15/16) shaped the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen nutritional status of plants. The differences were found in tested varieties of "stay-green"in terms of the dynamics of initial growth, expressed by the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and their nitrogen nutritional status. In most of the analyzed characteristics, the variety of NK Cooler was characterized by favorable values of these characteristics, as compared to other varieties. The genetic variation of tested varieties is derived from the heterosis cultivation process of F1 hybrids. Currently, cultivated maize varieties (including "stay-green") are F1 hybrids characterized by identical genotype and varietal differences arise from components of parental hybrid genotype (paternal and maternal), as presented in the paper

  11. Aortic aneurysm sac pressure measurements after endovascular repair using an implantable remote sensor: initial experience and short-term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Hanno; Kaufman, John A.; Segall, Jocelyn A.; Liem, Timothy K.; Landry, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this single-center study was to report our initial experience with an implantable remote pressure sensor for aneurysm sac pressure measurement in patients post-endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) including short-term follow-up. A pressure sensor (EndoSure, Atlanta, GA) was implanted in 12 patients treated with different commercially available aortic endografts for EVAR. Pressure was read pre- and post-EVAR in the operating room. One-month follow-up (30 days ± 6 days) was performed including sac pressure readings and IV contrast CT scans. Variables were compared using the paired Student's t test. An intraprocedure type-I endoleak and a type-III endoleak were successfully treated resulting in decreasing sac pressures. In all patients, post-EVAR systolic sac pressure decreased by an average of 33% (P ≤ 0.005) compared to pre-EVAR measurements. One-month follow-up demonstrated a 47% decrease in systolic sac pressure (P ≤ 0.05). On follow-up CT scans, the average maximum aneurysm diameter pre-EVAR was 6.3 ± 1.6 cm and post-EVAR 6.0 ± 1.7 cm (P≤0.05). The diameter of the aneurysm sac was larger only in one patient with a type-III endoleak. Remote sac pressure measurement may provide important information in addition to imaging and may help to reduce the number of follow-up CT scans. (orig.)

  12. Thermal fatigue of a 304L austenitic stainless steel: simulation of the initiation and of the propagation of the short cracks in isothermal and aniso-thermal fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddar, N.

    2003-04-01

    The elbow pipes of thermal plants cooling systems are submitted to thermal variations of short range and of variable frequency. These variations bound to temperature changes of the fluids present a risk of cracks and leakages. In order to solve this problem, EDF has started the 'CRECO RNE 808' plan: 'thermal fatigue of 304L austenitic stainless steels' to study experimentally on a volume part, the initiation and the beginning of the propagation of cracks in thermal fatigue on austenitic stainless steels. The aim of this study is more particularly to compare the behaviour and the damage of the material in mechanic-thermal fatigue (cycling in temperature and cycling in deformation) and in isothermal fatigue (the utmost conditions have been determined by EDF for the metal: Tmax = 165 degrees C and Tmin = 90 degrees C; the frequency of the thermal variations can reach a Hertz). A lot of experimental results are given. A model of lifetime is introduced and validated. (O.M.)

  13. Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeij, R J; Dijkstra, J; Bruckmaier, R M; Gross, J J; Lam, T J G M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2017-10-01

    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source-glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)-and energy level-standard (std) or low-on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH); and lactation curve characteristics between wk 1 and 44 postpartum in cows after a 0-d or 30-d DP. Cows (n = 110) were assigned randomly to 3 transition treatments: a 30-d DP with a standard energy level required for expected milk yield [30-d DP(std)], a 0-d DP with the same energy level as cows with a 30-d DP [0-d DP(std)], and a 0-d DP with a low energy level [0-d DP(low)]. In wk 1 to 7, cows were fed the same basal ration but the level of concentrate increased to 6.7 kg/d for cows fed the low energy level and to 8.5 kg/d for cows fed the standard energy level in wk 4. From wk 8 postpartum onward, cows received a G ration (mainly consisting of corn silage and grass silage) or an L ration (mainly consisting of grass silage and sugar beet pulp) with the same energy level contrast (low or std) as in early lactation. Cows fed the G ration had greater milk, lactose, and protein yields, lower milk fat percentage, greater dry matter and energy intakes, and greater plasma IGF-1 concentration compared with cows fed the L ration. Dietary energy source did not affect EB or lactation curve characteristics. In cows with a 0-d DP, the reduced energy level decreased energy intake, EB, and weekly body weight gain, but did not affect milk production or lactation curve characteristics. A 30-d DP resulted in a greater total predicted lactation yield, initial milk yield after calving, peak milk yield, energy intake, energy output in milk, days to conception [only when compared with 0-d DP(low)], plasma GH concentration [only when compared with 0-d DP(std)], and decreased weekly body weight gain compared with a 0-d DP. A

  14. The Upper Limit of the Periodic Table of Elements Points out to the "Long" Version of the Table, Instead of the "Short" One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we present an analysis of the internal constitution of the “short” and “long” forms of the Periodic Table of Elements. As a result, we conclude that the second (long version is more correct. We also suggest a long version of the Table consisting of 8 periods and 18 groups, with the last (heaviest element being element No. 155, which closes the Table.

  15. A quantitative longitudinal study to explore factors which influence maternal self-efficacy among Chinese primiparous women during the initial postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xujuan; Morrell, Jane; Watts, Kim

    2018-04-01

    significant effect of postnatal depression symptoms in negatively impacting on first-time mothers' MSE; they should pay more attention to primiparous women with less education, unemployed mothers, women with unskilled occupations, women with an unhealthy baby, and women with a baby with a difficult temperament to improve their comparatively lower MSE levels during the initial postnatal period. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. RADIO FLARING FROM THE T6 DWARF WISEPC J112254.73+255021.5 WITH A POSSIBLE ULTRA-SHORT PERIODICITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Route, Matthew; Wolszczan, Alexander, E-mail: mroute@purdue.edu, E-mail: alex@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-04-20

    We present new results from a continuing 5 GHz search for flaring radio emission from a sample of L and T brown dwarfs, conducted with the 305 m Arecibo radio telescope. In addition to the previously reported flaring from the T6.5 dwarf 2MASS J10475385+212423, we have detected and confirmed circularly polarized flares from another T6 dwarf, WISEPC J112254.73+255021.5. Although the flares are sporadic, they appear to occur at a stable period of 0.288 hr. Given the current constraints, periods equal to its second and third subharmonic cannot be ruled out. The stability of this period over the eight-month timespan of observations indicates that, if real, it likely reflects the star’s rapid rotation. If confirmed, any of the three inferred periodicities would be much shorter than the shortest, 1.41 hr, rotation period of a brown dwarf measured so far. This finding would place a new observational constraint on the angular momentum evolution and rotational stability of substellar objects. The detection of radio emission from the sixth ∼1000 K dwarf further demonstrates that the coolest brown dwarfs and, possibly, young giant planets, can be efficiently investigated using radio observations at centimeter wavelengths as a tool.

  17. The Attitude to War Prisoners in the USSR in the Initial Period of Captivity (on the Materials of Stalingrad and the Stalingrad Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Polyakov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the attitude of soldiers and officers of the Red Army, local population and authorities to the prisoners of war in Stalingrad. The historical sources verified by V.G. Polyakov are represented by the official documents from the Archive of Federal Security Service of Russia in the Volgograd region, memories of the Soviet and German parties involved in the events. These materials allow assessing the condition of war prisoners of Stalingrad in military camps. After the victory in the battle on the Volga tens of thousands of enemy soldiers of different nationalities were captured: Germans, Romanians, Italians and Poles. Their survival depended not only on the policy of the Soviet Command, but also on the specific actions of servants at distribution points and camps. The methodology proposed by M.P. Nazarova made it possible to determine the complex causes of high mortality of war prisoners at the initial stage of their captivity: grave malnutrition and diseases, cruel treatment, lack of food and water, difficulties of reception, transportation, accommodation and medical care. Stalingrad was heavily damaged, and there was a lack of resources for the organization of military camps. The sources of personal origin, reviewed by E.P. Vorobyev, reveal the change for the better attitude of both camp administration and residents to former soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht. The compassion and help let many war prisoners survive. Many years later they retained vivid memories of the most tragic period in their life. Today the study of the fate of war prisoners in Stalingrad and in the Stalingrad region is an important aspect of preserving the historical memory about the events of World War II both in Russia and abroad.

  18. 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) Versus Gait Speed As Predictor of Preclinical Mobility Disability in Older Women: The Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddu, Deepika R; Wertheim, Betsy C; Garcia, David O; Woods, Nancy F; LaMonte, Michael J; Chen, Bertha; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Cauley, Jane A; Chlebowski, Rowan; Manson, JoAnn E; Thomson, Cynthia A; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2018-04-01

    To compare the value of clinically measured gait speed with that of the self-reported Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Survey Physical Function Index (SF-36 PF) in predicting future preclinical mobility disability (PCMD) in older women. Prospective cohort study. Forty clinical centers in the United States. Women aged 65 to 79 enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trials with gait speed and SF-36 assessed at baseline (1993-1998) and follow-up Years 1, 3, and 6 (N = 3,587). Women were categorized as nondecliners or decliners based on changes (from baseline to Year 1) in gait speed and SF-36 PF scores. Logistic regression models were used to estimate incident PCMD (gait speed 36 PF with that of measured gait speed. Slower baseline gait speed and lower SF-36 PF scores were associated with higher adjusted odds of PCMD at Years 3 and 6 (all P 36, decliners were 1.42 times as likely to have developed PCMD by Year 3 and 1.49 times as likely by Year 6. Baseline gait speed (AUC = 0.713) was nonsignificantly better than SF-36 (AUC = 0.705) at predicting PCMD over 6 years (P = .21); including measures at a second time point significantly improved model discrimination for predicting PCMD (all P 36 PF did, although the results may be limited given that gait speed served as a predictor and to define the PCMD outcome. Nonetheless, monitoring trajectories of change in mobility are better predictors of future mobility disability than single measures. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeij, R J; Dijkstra, J; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Gross, James J; Lam, T J G M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, A.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source-glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)-and energy level-standard (std) or low-on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones

  20. Udder health of dairy cows fed different dietary energy levels after a short or no dry period without use of dry cow antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeij, van R.J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Dijkstra, J.; Remmelink, G.J.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2018-01-01

    Reports on the effects of length of dry period (DP) on udder health of cows that were not treated with dry cow antibiotics are scarce. Additionally, the effects of a reduced dietary energy level for cows with a 0-d DP on udder health have not yet been studied. The aims of this study were (1) to

  1. Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeij, van R.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Gross, J.J.; Lam, Theo J.G.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source—glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)—and energy level—standard (std) or low—on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones

  2. Influence of winds on temporally varying short and long period gravity waves in the near shore regions of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Glejin, J.; SanilKumar, V.; Nair, T.M.B.; Singh, J.

    pro- vided by the NOAA-CIRES (Cooperative Institute for Re- search in the Environmental Sciences) Climate Diagnostics Center in Boulder, Colorado (http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/). To determine the sea/land breeze system at Ratnagiri during the study period...

  3. Ultra-short-period W/B4C multilayers for x-ray optics-microstructure limits on reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Christopher Charles [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

    1997-12-01

    Multilayer thin films are used as Bragg reflectors for soft x-rays in the energy range 50eV < E < 1000eV in many x-ray optics applications such as x-ray microscopes and telescopes, reducing optics for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, and x-ray polarizers and phase retarders. Applications often depend critically on reflectivity, which has not been systematically characterized for multilayer periods below 20Å. For this study, W/B4C multilayers were fabricated by magnetron sputtering on Si(111), with periods from 48Å to as little as 4.7Å. The x-ray reflectivity measured at λ = 1.54Å and at 45° incidence (289 eV < E < 860 eV) was found to decrease sharply for multilayer periods less than 15-20Å. Examination by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) showed an expansion of the thickness of the W-rich layers of 30-40% from the nominal values, consistent with intermixture of the two materials during sputter growth, and discontinuous W-rich layers for multilayer periods below about 15Å. The experimental data for the specular reflectivity in the hard and soft x-ray regimes and the diffuse scattering fit well to a model of multilayer roughness. The model is expressed as a power-law dependence of roughness on spatial frequency. Analysis of small-angle scattering in transmission from multilayers grown on freestanding Si3N4 membranes confirms the onset of discontinuity at periods between 14Å and 22Å. Spectroscopy studies by x-ray absorption (NEXAFS) and electron energy loss (EELS) at the boron K-edge (188eV) are consistent with changes in the average boron bonding environment, as the multilayer period decreases and the W-rich layers are increasingly thin and dispersed. A discrete W-rich phase is present for periods at least as small as 6.3Å.

  4. The effects of short work vs. longer work periods within intermittent exercise on V̇o2p kinetics, muscle deoxygenation, and energy system contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrudden, Michael C; Keir, Daniel A; Belfry, Glen R

    2017-06-01

    We examined the effects of inserting 3-s recovery periods during high-intensity cycling exercise at 25-s and 10-s intervals on pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇o 2p ), muscle deoxygenation [deoxyhemoglobin (HHb)], their associated kinetics (τ), and energy system contributions. Eleven men (24 ± 3 yr) completed two trials of three cycling protocols: an 8-min continuous protocol (CONT) and two 8-min intermittent exercise protocols with work-to-rest periods of 25 s to 3 s (25INT) and 10 s to 3 s (10INT). Each protocol began with a step-transition from a 20-W baseline to a power output (PO) of 60% between lactate threshold and maximal V̇o 2p (Δ60). This PO was maintained for 8 min in CONT, whereas 3-s periods of 20-W cycling were inserted every 10 s and 25 s after the transition to Δ60 in 10INT and 25INT, respectively. Breath-by-breath gas exchange measured by mass spectrometry and turbine and vastus lateralis [HHb] measured by near-infrared spectroscopy were recorded throughout. Arterialized-capillary lactate concentration ([Lac - ]) was obtained before and 2 min postexercise. The τV̇o 2p was lowest ( P 0.05) between conditions. Postexercise [Lac - ] was lowest ( P exercise speeded V̇o 2p kinetics and reduced overall V̇o 2p , suggesting an increased reliance on PCr-derived phosphorylation during the work period of INT compared with an identical PO performed continuously. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We report novel observations on the effects of differing heavy-intensity work durations between 3-s recovery periods on pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇o 2p ) kinetics, muscle deoxygenation, and energy system contributions. Relative to continuous exercise, V̇o 2p kinetics are faster in intermittent exercise, and increased frequency of 3-s recovery periods improves microvascular O 2 delivery and reduces V̇o 2p and arterialized-capillary lactate concentration. The metabolic burden of identical intensity work is altered when performed intermittently vs. continuously. Copyright

  5. Early feeding of carnivorous rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with a hyperglucidic diet during a short period: effect on dietary glucose utilization in juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, I; Aramendi, M; Zambonino-Infante, J; Panserat, S

    2007-06-01

    Based on the concept of nutritional programming in higher vertebrates, we tested whether an acute hyperglucidic stimulus during early life could induce a long-lasting effect on carbohydrate utilization in carnivorous rainbow trout. The trout were fed a hyperglucidic diet (60% dextrin) at two early stages of development: either at first feeding (3 days, stimulus 1) or after yolk absorption (5 days, stimulus 2). Before and after the hyperglucidic stimulus, they received a commercial diet until juvenile stage (>10 g). Fish that did not experience the hyperglucidic stimuli served as controls. The short- and long-term effects of the stimuli were evaluated by measuring the expression of five key genes involved in carbohydrate utilization: alpha-amylase, maltase (digestion), sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter (SGLT1; intestinal glucose transport), and glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase, involved in the utilization and production of glucose, respectively. The hyperglucidic diet rapidly increased expressions of maltase, alpha-amylase, and glucokinase in stimulus 1 fish and only of maltase in stimulus 2 fish, probably because of a lower plasticity at this later stage of development. In the final challenge test with juveniles fed a 25% dextrin diet, both digestive enzymes were upregulated in fish that had experienced the hyperglucidic stimulus at first feeding, confirming the possibility of modification of some long-term physiological functions in rainbow trout. In contrast, no persistent molecular adaptations were found for the genes involved in glucose transport or metabolism. In addition, growth and postprandial glycemia were unaffected by the stimuli. In summary, our data show that a short hyperglucidic stimulus during early trout life may permanently influence carbohydrate digestion.

  6. Studies of self focusing and filamentation instabilities in short wavelength laser fusion: Final technical report for the period 29 May 1986-28 April 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Chan.

    1988-04-01

    Azimuthal periodic breakup of a radially modulated 0.35 μm laser beam has been inferred in plasmas produced from solid targets. The breakup is more severe in gold plasmas compared to glass or aluminum plasmas and occurs at rather modest laser intensities of /approximately/5 /times/ 10 12 Wcm 2 . Thermal filamentation is suggested as the mechanism for the observed beam breakup

  7. Changes in maternal self-efficacy, postnatal depression symptoms and social support among Chinese primiparous women during the initial postpartum period: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xujuan; Morrell, Jane; Watts, Kim

    2018-07-01

    There are many parenting problems during infancy for Chinese primiparous women. As an important determinant of good parenting, maternal self-efficacy (MSE) should be paid more attention by researchers. At present, the limitations of previous research examining MSE during infancy are that most studies were conducted with a homogeneous sample and there were few studies with Chinese women. Secondly, the trajectory of change in MSE, postnatal depression symptoms and social support for Chinese primiparous women was not clear during the initial postpartum period in earlier studies. This study aimed to describe changes in MSE, postnatal depression symptoms and social support among Chinese primiparous women in the first three months postnatally. A quantitative longitudinal study using questionnaires was conducted. Obstetric wards at three hospitals in Xiamen City, South-East China. In total, 420 Chinese primiparous women were recruited. Initial baseline questionnaires to measure socio-demographic and clinical characteristics at three days postnatally were distributed to participants face-to-face by the researcher on the postnatal ward. Follow-up questionnaires at six and 12 weeks postnatally were sent via e-mail by the researcher to participants, including the Self-efficacy in Infant Care Scale (SICS), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Postpartum Social Support Scale (PSSS) to measure MSE, postnatal depression symptoms and social support, respectively. These were returned by participants via e-mail. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS. The mean MSE score at six weeks postnatally was 74.92 (SD = 11.05), and increased to 77.78 (SD = 11.13) at 12 weeks postnatally. The mean social support scores at six and 12 weeks postnatally were 40.99 (SD = 9.31) and 43.00 (SD = 9.55). The mean EPDS scores decreased from 9.09 (SD = 4.33) at six weeks postnatally to 8.63 (SD = 4.40) at 12 weeks postnatally; the proportion of women with an

  8. Short- and long-term effects of forage supplementation of calves during the preweaning period on performance, reproduction, and milk yield at first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Ll; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2015-07-01

    Sixty female Holstein calves [body weight (BW)=39.5±3.76kg] were fed a ground starter concentrate [19% crude protein, 19% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] during the preweaning period. Furthermore, oats hay (68% NDF) was supplemented only during the postweaning period (CON) or during both pre- and postweaning periods (OH) to evaluate performance until first breeding, diet digestibility after weaning, reproductive performance, and milk yield at first lactation. Calves were individually housed and bedded with wood shavings. All calves were offered 6 L/d of milk replacer (MR) at 12% dry matter (DM) in 2 feedings until 28d of age, 3 L/d of MR at 12% DM in 2 feedings from 29 to 44d of age calves, and 1.5 L of MR at 12% DM in 1 feeding from 45 to 51d of age. Animals were weaned at 52d of age. Starter concentrate and forage intake were recorded daily and BW weekly until 65d of age. Two weeks after weaning, total-tract apparent digestibility was determined in 6 calves per treatment. Heifer BW was recorded at 10 mo of age. Breeding and milk yield at first lactation were also recorded. Starter concentrate intake was greater in OH compared with CON animals during the preweaning period. As a result, calves in the OH treatment had greater average daily gain (ADG) than CON animals during the preweaning period. After weaning, OH calves consumed more forage than CON animals, but we found no differences between treatments in ADG and starter concentrate intake. Similarly, total-tract apparent digestibility did not differ between treatments, and BW and ADG from 2wk after weaning to 10mo of age did not differ between treatments. Moreover, no differences in reproductive performance [age at first artificial insemination (AI), age at fertile insemination, conception rate at first AI, and number of AI] or milk yield at first lactation were observed between treatments, although a positive relationship between growth rate early in life and future energy-corrected milk yield was found. We

  9. A role for eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) in taste memory consolidation and in thermal control establishment during the critical period for sensory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Sharon; Elkobi, Alina; Rosenblum, Kobi; Meiri, Noam

    2007-05-01

    All species exhibit critical periods for sensory development, yet very little is known about the molecules involved in the changes in the network wiring that underlies this process. Here the role of transcription regulation of the translation machinery was determined by evaluating the expression of eIF2Bepsilon, an essential component of translation initiation, in both taste-preference development and thermal control establishment in chicks. Analysis of the expression pattern of this gene after passive-avoidance training revealed clear induction of eIF2Bepsilon in both the mesopallium intermediomediale (IMM) and in the striatum mediale (StM). In addition, a correlation was found between the concentration of methylanthranilate (MeA), which was the malaise substrate in the passive-avoidance training procedure, the duration of memory, and the expression level of eIF2Bepsilon. Training chicks on a low concentration of MeA induced short-term memory and low expression level of eIF2Bepsilon, whereas a high concentration of MeA induced long-term memory and a high expression level of eIF2Bepsilon in both the IMM and StM. Furthermore, eIF2Bepsilon-antisense "knock-down" not only reduced the amount of eIF2Bepsilon but also attenuated taste memory formation. In order to determine whether induction of eIF2Bepsilon is a general feature of neuronal plasticity, we checked whether it was induced in other forms of neuronal plasticity, with particular attention to its role in temperature control establishment, which represents hypothalamic-related plasticity. It was established that eIF2Bepsilon-mRNA was induced in the preopotic anterior hypothalamus during heat conditioning. Taken together, these results correlate eIF2Bepsilon with sensory development.

  10. Short periods of high temperature during meiosis prevent normal meiotic progression and reduce grain number in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draeger, Tracie; Moore, Graham

    2017-09-01

    Exposure of wheat to high temperatures during male meiosis prevents normal meiotic progression and reduces grain number. We define a temperature-sensitive period and link heat tolerance to chromosome 5D. This study assesses the effects of heat on meiotic progression and grain number in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Chinese Spring), defines a heat-sensitive stage and evaluates the role of chromosome 5D in heat tolerance. Plants were exposed to high temperatures (30 or 35 °C) in a controlled environment room for 20-h periods during meiosis and the premeiotic interphase just prior to meiosis. Examination of pollen mother cells (PMCs) from immature anthers immediately before and after heat treatment enabled precise identification of the developmental phases being exposed to heat. A temperature-sensitive period was defined, lasting from premeiotic interphase to late leptotene, during which heat can prevent PMCs from progressing through meiosis. PMCs exposed to 35 °C were less likely to progress than those exposed to 30 °C. Grain number per spike was reduced at 30 °C, and reduced even further at 35 °C. Chinese Spring nullisomic 5D-tetrasomic 5B (N5DT5B) plants, which lack chromosome 5D, were more susceptible to heat during premeiosis-leptotene than Chinese Spring plants with the normal (euploid) chromosome complement. The proportion of plants with PMCs progressing through meiosis after heat treatment was lower for N5DT5B plants than for euploids, but the difference was not significant. However, following exposure to 30 °C, in euploid plants grain number was reduced (though not significantly), whereas in N5DT5B plants the reduction was highly significant. After exposure to 35 °C, the reduction in grain number was highly significant for both genotypes. Implications of these findings for the breeding of thermotolerant wheat are discussed.

  11. Surface hardness evaluation of different composite resin materials: influence of sports and energy drinks immersion after a short-term period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Erdemir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study evaluated the effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of different composite resin restorative materials over a 1-month period. Material and Methods: A total of 168 specimens: Compoglass F, Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, and Premise were prepared using a customized cylindrical metal mould and they were divided into six groups (N=42; n=7 per group. For the control groups, the specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C and the water was renewed daily. For the experimental groups, the specimens were immersed in 5 mL of one of the following test solutions: Powerade, Gatorade, X-IR, Burn, and Red Bull, for two minutes daily for up to a 1-month test period and all the solutions were refreshed daily. Surface hardness was measured using a Vickers hardness measuring instrument at baseline, after 1-week and 1-month. Data were statistically analyzed using Multivariate repeated measure ANOVA and Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests (α=0.05. Results: Multivariate repeated measures ANOVA revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the hardness of the restorative materials in different immersion times (p<0.001 in different solutions (p<0.001. The effect of different solutions on the surface hardness values of the restorative materials was tested using Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests, and it was observed that specimens stored in distilled water demonstrated statistically significant lower mean surface hardness reductions when compared to the specimens immersed in sports and energy drinks after a 1-month evaluation period (p<0.001. The compomer was the most affected by an acidic environment, whereas the composite resin materials were the least affected materials. Conclusions: The effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of a restorative material depends on the duration of exposure time, and the composition of the material.

  12. Study of niobium isotopes having excess neutrons and a short half-life; Etude des isotopes du niobium excedentaires en neutrons et de courte periode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebenthal, K [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-02-01

    By irradiating Mo with 14 MeV neutrons isomers have been found for {sup 98}Nb (2.8 s half-life) {sup 99}Nb (9 s) and {sup 100}Nb (2.4 s). No isomer of this type seems to exist for {sup 96}Nb. Rapid separation methods are developed for isolating {sup 98}Zr from fission products, and for separating Zr and Nb. The half-life of {sup 98}Zr is measured (31 s) and the formation of {sup 98}Nb (2.8 s) from {sup 98}Zr (31 s) is shown by milking. Rough {beta} and {gamma} measurements of these nuclei are described. The {gamma} spectrum of {sup 98}Nb (51 mn) is studied with a high-resolution Ge/Li - detector. (authors) [French] Des irradiations des isotopes de molybdene avec des neutrons de 14 MeV ont mis en evidence l'existence des isomeres de {sup 98}Nb (periode 2.8 s) {sup 99}Nb (9 s) et {sup 100}Nb (2.4 s). Pour le {sup 96}Nb un isomere de ce type ne semble pas exister. Des methodes rapides de separation sont mises au point pour isoler le zirconium 98 des produits de fission, et pour separer ensuite le niobium du zirconium. La periode du {sup 98}Zr est de 3l s, et on demontre la formation du {sup 98}Nb (2.8 s) a partir du Zr (31 s). Ces corps sont etudies sommairement en spectroscopie {beta} et {gamma}. Le spectre gamma de {sup 98}Nb (periode 51 mn) est etudie avec un detecteur Ge/Li de haute resolution. (auteurs)

  13. Characterization by Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy of (AlAs)m(InAs)m short period superlattices grown by migration enhanced epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradshaw, J.; Song, X.J.; Shealy, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    We report growth of (InAs)1(AlAs)1 and (InAs)2(AlAs)2 strained layer superlattices by migration enhanced epitaxy. The samples were grown on InP (001) substrates and characterized by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Satellite peaks in the x-ray data...... confirm the intended periodicity and indicate the presence of some disorder in the monolayer sample. The energies of the zone folded and quantum confined optic phonons are in reasonable agreement with calculations based on one-dimensional elastic continuum and linear chain models. Journal of Applied...

  14. Short communication: concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in dairy cows are not well correlated during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M M; Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Overton, T R; McArt, J A A

    2015-09-01

    The objective was to use longitudinal data of blood nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations to describe the relationship between NEFA and BHBA in dairy cows during the periparturient period. Blood NEFA and BHBA concentration data collected from d 21 prepartum to 21 postpartum for 269 multiparous Holstein cows were selected from 4 different studies carried out within our research groups. Overall, NEFA concentrations were increased beginning near parturition with a relatively steady elevation of NEFA through d 9, after which concentrations gradually decreased. Prepartum BHBA concentrations began to increase beginning several days before parturition, continued to increase during the first week after parturition, and remained elevated through d 21 postpartum. Of the 269 cows included in the data set, 117 cows (43.5%) had at least one postpartum hyperketonemic event (BHBA ≥1.2mmol/L), and 202 cows (75.1%) had at least one event of elevated postpartum NEFA concentrations (≥0.70mmol/L) between 3 and 21 d in milk. Area under the curve (AUC) was used to investigate relationships between metabolites over time. Overall, the correlations between transition period NEFA and BHBA AUC were weak. We detected a negative correlation between prepartum BHBA AUC and postpartum NEFA AUC (r=-0.26). A positive correlation existed between postpartum NEFA AUC and postpartum BHBA AUC; however, the correlation coefficient was low (r=0.26). Large variation was found between the day of maximum NEFA concentration within the first 21 d in milk and day of maximum BHBA concentration for the same period. The mean and median times of maximum NEFA concentration were 6.8 and 6 d, respectively, whereas the mean and median times of maximum BHBA were 9.6 and 8 d, respectively; however, the range in days for both the mean and median day of maximum concentrations was very large. Overall, our data set indicates a weak relationship between blood concentrations of NEFA

  15. Short-wavelength multiline erbium-doped fiber ring laser by a broadband long-period fiber grating inscribed in a taper transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzueto-Sánchez, G; Martínez-Rios, A

    2014-01-01

    A stable multiwavelength all-fiber erbium-doped fiber ring laser (EDFRL) based on a broadband long-period fiber grating (LPFG) inscribed in a fiber taper transition is presented. The LPFG’s characteristics were engineered to provide a higher loss at the natural lasing wavelength of the laser cavity. The LPFG inscribed on a taper transition provided a depth greater than 25 dB, and posterior chemical etching provided a broad notch band to inhibit laser generation on the long-wavelength side of the EDF gain. Up to four simultaneous laser wavelengths are generated in the range of 1530–1535 nm. (paper)

  16. An Ultra-short Period Rocky Super-Earth with a Secondary Eclipse and a Neptune-like Companion around K2-141

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malavolta, Luca; Mayo, Andrew W.; Louden, Tom

    2018-01-01

    of USP planets, and it is therefore extremely important to increase the still limited sample of USP planets with precise and accurate mass and density measurements. We report here the characterization of a USP planet with a period of 0.28 days around K2-141 (EPIC 246393474), and the validation...... of an outer planet with a period of 7.7 days in a grazing transit configuration. We derived the radii of the planets from the K2 light curve and used high-precision radial velocities gathered with the HARPS-N spectrograph for mass measurements. For K2-141b, we thus inferred a radius of 1.51 ± 0.05 R......⊕ and a mass of 5.08 ± 0.41 M ⊕, consistent with a rocky composition and lack of a thick atmosphere. K2-141c is likely a Neptune-like planet, although due to the grazing transits and the non-detection in the RV data set, we were not able to put a strong constraint on its density. We also report the detection...

  17. Mechanisms controlling primary and new production in a global ecosystem model – Part II: The role of the upper ocean short-term periodic and episodic mixing events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Popova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of 6 h, daily, weekly and monthly atmospheric forcing resulted in dramatically different predictions of plankton productivity in a global 3-D coupled physical-biogeochemical model. Resolving the diurnal cycle of atmospheric variability by use of 6 h forcing, and hence also diurnal variability in UML depth, produced the largest difference, reducing predicted global primary and new production by 25% and 10% respectively relative to that predicted with daily and weekly forcing. This decrease varied regionally, being a 30% reduction in equatorial areas primarily because of increased light limitation resulting from deepening of the mixed layer overnight as well as enhanced storm activity, and 25% at moderate and high latitudes primarily due to increased grazing pressure resulting from late winter stratification events. Mini-blooms of phytoplankton and zooplankton occur in the model during these events, leading to zooplankton populations being sufficiently well developed to suppress the progress of phytoplankton blooms. A 10% increase in primary production was predicted in the peripheries of the oligotrophic gyres due to increased storm-induced nutrient supply end enhanced winter production during the short term stratification events that are resolved in the run forced by 6 h meteorological fields. By resolving the diurnal cycle, model performance was significantly improved with respect to several common problems: underestimated primary production in the oligotrophic gyres; overestimated primary production in the Southern Ocean; overestimated magnitude of the spring bloom in the subarctic Pacific Ocean, and overestimated primary production in equatorial areas. The result of using 6 h forcing on predicted ecosystem dynamics was profound, the effects persisting far beyond the hourly timescale, and having major consequences for predicted global and new production on an annual basis.

  18. 德國中小學學生法律地位之萌芽期 The Initial Period of German Students’ Legal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    張源泉 Yuan-Chuan Chang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available 歷史上,臺灣的教育法體系主要繼受於德國法,為釐清其歷史根源,本文探討德國中小學學生法律地位之萌芽期,先由歷史發展的角度,闡釋德國公共教育之濫觴;而後再進一步說明公共教育興起後,學生法律地位之相關理論,此包含國家概念與法律保留原則等;最後探討學生法律地位之內涵。德國教育體制的建立,源自教會之學習機構;至十八世紀末,普魯士在啟蒙運動與開明專制的背景下,建立了義務教育制度,以此促使學者展開對於學生法律地位之研究。傳統的德國在學關係是一種「營造物關係」;營造物被視為國家的一部分,其使用與管理均屬於國家內部事宜,無須受到法律規範;行政機關有權制定特殊的內部規則,亦無須符合法律保留原則。學生處於營造物關係之特別權力關係中,必須受到校規的特別管束,從而喪失其獨立的公民主體身分。 Taiwan inherited a system of educational law from Germany long ago. This study was aimed to discuss the initial period of German students’ legal status of in middle and elementary schools. Firstly, this study analyzed the sources of German public education from a historic viewpoint. Then, it explained related theories of students’ legal status, including the concept of state and the principle of legal retention. Finally, this study explored the contents of students’ legal status. The establishment of German educational system derived from churches. Due to the background of Enlightenment and enlightened absolutism, Prussia established the system of mandatory education in late 18 century and stimulated researches on students’ legal status. The tradition relationship in German schools was a kind of institute-relationship. Institutes were regarded as a part of the country. Their usage and management belonged to internal affairs of the country without

  19. Energy compensation in the real world: good compensation for small portions of chocolate and biscuits over short time periods in complicit consumers using commercially available foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Katherine M; McKeown, Pascal P; Woodside, Jayne V

    2015-02-01

    While investigations using covert food manipulations tend to suggest that individuals are poor at adjusting for previous energy intake, in the real world adults rarely consume foods of which they are ill-informed. This study investigated the impact in fully complicit consumers of consuming commercially available dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits and fruit bars on subsequent appetite. Using a repeated measures design, participants received four small portions (4 × 10-11 g) of either dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits, fruit bars or no food throughout five separate study days (counterbalanced in order), and test meal intake, hunger, liking and acceptability were measured. Participants consumed significantly less at lunch following dark chocolate, milk chocolate and sweet biscuits compared to no food (smallest t(19) = 2.47, p = 0.02), demonstrating very good energy compensation (269-334%). No effects were found for fruit bars (t(19) = 1.76, p = 0.09), in evening meal intakes (F(4,72) = 0.62, p = 0.65) or in total intake (lunch + evening meal + food portions) (F(4,72) = 0.40, p = 0.69). No differences between conditions were found in measures of hunger (largest F(4,76) = 1.26, p = 0.29), but fruit bars were significantly less familiar than all other foods (smallest t(19) = 3.14, p = 0.01). These findings demonstrate good compensation over the short term for small portions of familiar foods in complicit consumers. Findings are most plausibly explained as a result of participant awareness and cognitions, although the nature of these cognitions cannot be discerned from this study. These findings however, also suggest that covert manipulations may have limited transfer to real world scenarios. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. FORECASTING ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM PERIOD BY USING ARIMAX MODEL IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS SECTOR IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the forecasting of energy consumption in the Construction and Materials sectors. The scope of the study covers the forecasting periods of energy consumption for the next 10 years, 2017-2026, 20 years, 2017-2036, and 30 years, 2017-2046, by using ARIMAX Model. The prediction results show that these models are effective in the forecast measured by RMSE, MAE, and MAPE. The results show that from the first model (2,1,1, which predicted the duration of 10 years, 2017-2026, indicates that Thailand has increased an energy consumption rate with the average of 18.09%, while the second model (2,1,2 with the prediction of 20 years, 2017-2036, Thailand arises its energy consumption up to 37.32%. In addition, the third model (2,1,3 predicted the duration of 30 years from 2017 to 2046, and it has found that Thailand increases its energy consumption up to 49.72%.

  1. Probability Estimates of Solar Particle Event Doses During a Period of Low Sunspot Number for Thinly-Shielded Spacecraft and Short Duration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William; Rojdev, Kristina; Matzkind, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    In an earlier paper (Atwell, et al., 2015), we investigated solar particle event (SPE) radiation exposures (absorbed dose) to small, thinly-shielded spacecraft during a period when the sunspot number (SSN) was less than 30. These SPEs contain Ground Level Events (GLE), sub-GLEs, and sub-sub-GLEs (Tylka and Dietrich, 2009, Tylka and Dietrich, 2008, and Atwell, et al., 2008). GLEs are extremely energetic solar particle events having proton energies extending into the several GeV range and producing secondary particles in the atmosphere, mostly neutrons, observed with ground station neutron monitors. Sub-GLE events are less energetic, extending into the several hundred MeV range, but do not produce secondary atmospheric particles. Sub-sub GLEs are even less energetic with an observable increase in protons at energies greater than 30 MeV, but no observable proton flux above 300 MeV. In this paper, we consider those SPEs that occurred during 1973-2010 when the SSN was greater than 30 but less than 50. In addition, we provide probability estimates of absorbed dose based on mission duration with a 95% confidence level (CL). We also discuss the implications of these data and provide some recommendations that may be useful to spacecraft designers of these smaller spacecraft.

  2. Short-term results of microhook ab interno trabeculotomy, a novel minimally invasive glaucoma surgery in Japanese eyes: initial case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanito, Masaki; Sano, Ichiya; Ikeda, Yoshifumi; Fujihara, Etsuko

    2017-08-01

    To report the first early postoperative results and safety profile after microhook ab interno trabeculotomy (μLOT). This initial retrospective observational case series included 24 consecutive glaucomatous eyes of 17 Japanese patients (7 men, 10 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 66.7 ± 17.9 years) who underwent μLOT. The trabeculotomy extent, surgical time, perioperative complications, interventions for complications and additional glaucoma surgeries during the follow-up for more than 3 months were collected by reviewing the medical and surgical records. The intraocular pressure (IOP), numbers of antiglaucoma medications, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity (VA), anterior chamber (AC) flare and corneal endothelial cell density (CECD) were compared preoperatively and postoperatively. The trabecular meshwork was incised for a mean of 3.6 ± 0.5 clock hours temporally, 3.7 ± 0.5 clock hours nasally and total 7.3 ± 0.6 clock hours during the 6.2 ± 1.6-min surgery. The mean preoperative IOP of 25.9 ± 14.3 mmHg and number of antiglaucoma medication of 3.3 ± 1.0 decreased significantly (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.005, respectively) to 14.7 ± 3.6 mmHg and 2.8 ± 0.8 at the final visit at 188.6 ± 68.8 days postoperatively. Compared with preoperatively, the final VA, AC flare and CECD did not change significantly. Hyphema with niveau formation (nine eyes, 38%) and washout of hyphema (two eyes, 8%) were the most common postoperative complication and intervention, respectively. At the final visit, 19 eyes (79%) achieved successful IOP control of 18 mmHg or less and a 15% reduction or greater. Microhook trabeculotomy normalizes the IOP during the early postoperative period in patients with glaucoma. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Cumhuriyet Tarihi Üzerine Kısa Bir Dönemlendirme Denemesi / A Short Essay on Periodization of History of Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz SUNAY

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarihi, bir asra yaklaşan geçmişiyle oldukça keskin dönüşümlerin gözlendiği bir süreci ifade ediyor. Bu dönüşümlerin içeride ve dışarıdaki hangi değişimler ekseninde meydana geldiği konusunda, nesnel araştırmaların yapıldığı bilinmekle birlikte; son tahlilde, cumhuriyet tarihinde olan bitenleri ileri-geri; devrimci-karşı devrimci şeklindeki öznel değerlendirmelerin belirlediği de söylenebilir. Geçmişte, nelerin olup bittiğine dair çoğu anlatımın, örtülü de olsa bu zaafla malul olduğu söylenebilir; bu çerçevede, tarihin bilimden ziyade, ideoloji olduğuna ilişkin tezler üzerinde düşünmek gerekiyor. Tarihin bilim olduğu kabul edilse bile, güçlünün kaleminden okunduğu, bu nedenle bilimlerin en Darwinist’i olduğu tezi, ihmal edilebilir gibi gözükmüyor. Bu çalışmada, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarihinin ana hatları üzerinden kuşbakışı bir gözlem deneniyor; ek okumalar öneriliyor. Son doksan beş yılda nelerin olup, nelerin bittiğine ilişkin kimi zaman alternatif bir perspektiften bakılmaya çalışılıyor. / History of the Turkish Republic expresses a period with considerably sharp transformations with its past which almost reaches one century. It is known that objective studies have been made on the axises on which these transformations took place at home and abroad; nevertheless, in the last analysis, it can be claimed that the occurrences in republican history are determined by subjective evaluations such as forward-backward, revolutionary-counter revolutionary etc. It can be said that most narrations as to what happened in the past suffer from this weakness albeit implicitly; within this framework, the thesis that history is more an ideology than a science should be contemplated. Even if it is accepted that history is science, it is hardly negligible that it is read from the pen of the mighty, for which reason it is the most Darwinist of all sciences

  4. Evaluasi Hasil Implementasi the Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative Against Trafficking Sub-regional Plan of Action (Commit Spa) Dalam Menangani Human Trafficking Di Thailand Periode 2011-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmahwati, Isti Nur; Windiani, Reni; Putranti, Ika Riswanti

    2015-01-01

    Thailand, Laos, Myanmar, China, Vietnam, and Cambodia createdCOMMIT and COMMIT SPA. During COMMIT SPAimplementation period 2011-2013, the number of human traffickingincreased in Thailand. Most of human trafficking victims in Thailandare exploited into sexual exploitation and forced labor. The studyaims to analyze causes of human trafficking increased duringCOMMIT SPA implementation. The study result is the increase ofhuman trafficking is caused by Thailand's interests by using sextrafficking ...

  5. Red blood cell aggregation changes are depended on its initial value: Effect of long-term drug treatment and short-term cell incubation with drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravyov, A V; Tikhomirova, I A; Maimistova, A A; Bulaeva, S V; Mikhailov, P V; Kislov, N V

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the red cell aggregation depends on its initial level under drug therapy or cell incubation with bioactive chemical compounds. Sixty six subjects were enrolled onto this study, and sub-divided into two groups: the first group of patients (n = 36) with cerebral atherosclerosis received pentoxifylline therapy (400 mg, thrice daily) for 4 weeks. The patients of the second group were initially treated with Epoetin beta 10,000 units subcutaneously thrice a week, for 4 weeks. The second group - adult anemic patients (n = 30) with the confirmed diagnosis of solid cancer (Hb treatment the red cell aggregation increased (p treatment with pentoxifylline reduced it markedly (p treatment 75% the anemic patients with initially high RBCA had an aggregation lowering. The drop of aggregation was about 34% (p treatment. The initially low red cell aggregation after incubation with epoetin-beta was markedly increased by 122% (p drugs depend markedly on the initial, pre-treatment aggregation status of the patients. These results demonstrate that the different red blood cell aggregation responses to the biological stimuli depend strongly on the initial, pre-treatment status of the subject and the most probably it is connected with the crosstalk between the adenylyl cyclase signaling pathway and Ca2+ regulatory mechanism.

  6. Sikap Bangladesh Dalam Menanggapi Program Unhcr €œUnited Nations Joint Initiative€ Terhadap Penanganan Pengungsi Rohingya (Periode 2006-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia, Yessy; ", Mery

    2014-01-01

    This research explains Bangladesh€™s response about UNHCR€™s €œUnited Nations Joint Initiative€ in handling Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is now home to 29.016 Rohingyas. The refugees has caused social and economic problems for Bangladeshi goverment over 33 years. UNJI was proposed by UNHCR to help Rohingyas ang Bangladeshis.The research applies qualitative methods, and case study in this research the data collected through library research, literature studies, official documen...

  7. Construct validity of adolescents' self-reported big five personality traits: importance of conceptual breadth and initial validation of a short measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizot, Julien

    2014-10-01

    While there are a number of short personality trait measures that have been validated for use with adults, few are specifically validated for use with adolescents. To trust such measures, it must be demonstrated that they have adequate construct validity. According to the view of construct validity as a unifying form of validity requiring the integration of different complementary sources of information, this article reports the evaluation of content, factor, convergent, and criterion validities as well as reliability of adolescents' self-reported personality traits. Moreover, this study sought to address an inherent potential limitation of short personality trait measures, namely their limited conceptual breadth. In this study, starting with items from a known measure, after the language-level was adjusted for use with adolescents, items tapping fundamental primary traits were added to determine the impact of added conceptual breadth on the psychometric properties of the scales. The resulting new measure was named the Big Five Personality Trait Short Questionnaire (BFPTSQ). A group of expert judges considered the items to have adequate content validity. Using data from a community sample of early adolescents, the results confirmed the factor validity of the Big Five structure in adolescence as well as its measurement invariance across genders. More important, the added items did improve the convergent and criterion validities of the scales, but did not negatively affect their reliability. This study supports the construct validity of adolescents' self-reported personality traits and points to the importance of conceptual breadth in short personality measures. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. An initial investigation on developing a new method to predict short-term breast cancer risk based on deep learning technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Wang, Yunzhi; Yan, Shiju; Tan, Maxine; Cheng, Samuel; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2016-03-01

    In order to establish a new personalized breast cancer screening paradigm, it is critically important to accurately predict the short-term risk of a woman having image-detectable cancer after a negative mammographic screening. In this study, we developed and tested a novel short-term risk assessment model based on deep learning method. During the experiment, a number of 270 "prior" negative screening cases was assembled. In the next sequential ("current") screening mammography, 135 cases were positive and 135 cases remained negative. These cases were randomly divided into a training set with 200 cases and a testing set with 70 cases. A deep learning based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme was then developed for the risk assessment, which consists of two modules: adaptive feature identification module and risk prediction module. The adaptive feature identification module is composed of three pairs of convolution-max-pooling layers, which contains 20, 10, and 5 feature maps respectively. The risk prediction module is implemented by a multiple layer perception (MLP) classifier, which produces a risk score to predict the likelihood of the woman developing short-term mammography-detectable cancer. The result shows that the new CAD-based risk model yielded a positive predictive value of 69.2% and a negative predictive value of 74.2%, with a total prediction accuracy of 71.4%. This study demonstrated that applying a new deep learning technology may have significant potential to develop a new short-term risk predicting scheme with improved performance in detecting early abnormal symptom from the negative mammograms.

  9. Localization of Short Duration Periodic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    TDOA m, referenced to the hydrophone that is common between TDOA l and m. This measure is effectively a count of the number of matching click times...the localization of multiple interfering sperm whales using multi- sensor time difference of arrival”, 130 Journal of the Acoustical Society of

  10. Pengaruh Profitabilitas Terhadap Intial Return Dilihat Dari Aspek Cash Basis Dan Accrual Basis (Studi Pada Perusahaan Yang Melakukan Initial Public Offering (Ipo Di Bursa Efek Indonesia Periode Januari 2011 – Agustus 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranti Dewi Febriani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to examine the effect of profitability on Initial Return based on cash basis and accrual basis. The population in this study is companies performing IPO in period of January 2011 – Augustus 2015 as many as 111 companies and are adjusted to several criteria in order to get as many as 70 companies for model 1, 72 companies for model 2, and 53 companies for model 3. It uses simple regression analysis technique assisted by Gretl Software. Interstingly, only ROE affect Initial Return and model 1 has highest R2.

  11. Impact of the initial classic section during a simulated cross-country skiing skiathlon on the cardiopulmonary responses during the subsequent period of skate skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourot, Laurent; Fabre, Nicolas; Andersson, Erik; Willis, Sarah J; Hébert-Losier, Kim; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential changes in the performance and cardiorespiratory responses of elite cross-country skiers following transition from the classic (CL) to the skating (SK) technique during a simulated skiathlon. Eight elite male skiers performed two 6 km (2 × 3 km) roller-skiing time trials on a treadmill at racing speed: one starting with the classic and switching to the skating technique (CL1-SK2) and another employing the skating technique throughout (SK1-SK2), with continuous monitoring of gas exchanges, heart rates, and kinematics (video). The overall performance times in the CL1-SK2 (21:12 ± 1:24) and SK1-SK2 (20:48 ± 2:00) trials were similar, and during the second section of each performance times and overall cardiopulmonary responses were also comparable. However, in comparison with SK1-SK2, the CL1-SK2 trial involved significantly higher increases in minute ventilation (V̇E, 89.8 ± 26.8 vs. 106.8 ± 17.6 L·min(-1)) and oxygen uptake (V̇O2; 3.1 ± 0.8 vs 3.5 ± 0.5 L·min(-1)) 2 min after the transition as well as longer time constants for V̇E, V̇O2, and heart rate during the first 3 min after the transition. This higher cardiopulmonary exertion was associated with ∼3% faster cycle rates. In conclusion, overall performance during the 2 time trials did not differ. The similar performance times during the second sections were achieved with comparable mean cardiopulmonary responses. However, the observation that during the initial 3-min post-transition following classic skiing cardiopulmonary responses and cycle rates were slightly higher supports the conclusion that an initial section of classic skiing exerts an impact on performance during a subsequent section of skate skiing.

  12. Prevalence of antiseptic resistance genes increases in staphylococcal isolates from orthokeratology lens wearers over initial six-month period of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang-Sen, Shi; Boost, Maureen; Cho, Pauline

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antiseptic-resistance (QAC) genes in staphylococci colonizing periorbital tissues and accessories of orthokeratology (ortho-k) lens wearers over a 6-month period and determine the effect of their presence on minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of disinfectants and log reduction of multipurpose contact lens solutions (MPS). Staphylococci were isolated from periorbital tissues and accessories of patients before commencing ortho-k therapy and at two subsequent visits. Presence of QAC genes in 116 S. aureus and 67 CNS isolates was determined by PCR and association with period of ortho-k use determined. MICs and MBCs of staphylococci gene-positive were compared with gene-negative strains and the effectiveness of four MPS for rigid contact lenses investigated. S. aureus carriage rates in the conjunctiva decreased significantly from 41.2 % (baseline) to 11.8 % (3-months), and 13.3 % (6-months) (p trend 0.03), while CNS increased from 58.8 %(baseline) to 94.1 % (3-months), and 93.3 % (6-months) (p trend 0.02). Prevalence of qacA/B increased considerably over time (S. aureus: 4.4 % to 15.4 %, CNS: 6.7 % to 25 %), but frequency of smr was relatively stable. Only five CNS isolates harboured qacH. MICs and MBCs of gene-positive isolates were significantly increased and three MPS did not achieve a 3-log reduction of many QAC-positive strains. Ortho-k lens wear contributed to changes of staphylococcal carriage rates in the conjunctival sac. Use of MPS containing quaternary ammonium compounds may select for the carriage of organisms harbouring QAC genes, as the low concentration of disinfecting agents is not adequate for killing gene-positive strains.

  13. The development of a short measure of physical function for knee OA KOOS-Physical Function Shortform (KOOS-PS) - an OARSI/OMERACT initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perruccio, A V; Stefan Lohmander, L; Canizares, M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a short measure of physical function for knee osteoarthritis (OA) using multi-national data from individuals with varying degrees of severity of knee OA. METHODS: Rasch analysis, based on the partial credit model, was conducted on Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score...... and Western Ontario McMaster Universities' Osteoarthritis Index data from individuals with knee OA, ranging from community to pre-total knee replacement samples from five countries. Fit of the data to the Rasch model was evaluated by overall model fit and item-level fit statistics (chi(2), size of residual, F....... RESULTS: Thirteen data sets were included (n=2145), with an age range of 26-95 years, and a male/female ratio of 1:1.4. The final model included seven of the original 22 items. From easiest to most difficult, the items (logit) were as follows: rising from bed (1.366), putting on socks/stockings (1...

  14. The Use of Indirect Estimates of Soil Moisture to Initialize Coupled Models and its Impact on Short-Term and Seasonal Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, William M.; Crosson, William; Dembek, Scott; Lakhtakia, Mercedes

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that soil moisture is a characteristic of the land surface that strongly affects the partitioning of outgoing radiation into sensible and latent heat which significantly impacts both weather and climate. Detailed land surface schemes are now being coupled to mesoscale atmospheric models in order to represent the effect of soil moisture upon atmospheric simulations. However, there is little direct soil moisture data available to initialize these models on regional to continental scales. As a result, a Soil Hydrology Model (SHM) is currently being used to generate an indirect estimate of the soil moisture conditions over the continental United States at a grid resolution of 36 Km on a daily basis since 8 May 1995. The SHM is forced by analyses of atmospheric observations including precipitation and contains detailed information on slope soil and landcover characteristics.The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the utility of initializing a detailed coupled model with the soil moisture data produced by SHM.

  15. VERY-LOW-MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. III. A SHORT-PERIOD BROWN DWARF CANDIDATE AROUND AN ACTIVE G0IV SUBGIANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Bo; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Wang Ji [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Barnes, Rory; Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Dutra-Ferreira, Leticia; Porto de Mello, G. F. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira do Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP: 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lctea S/N, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W Brooks St, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: boma@astro.ufl.edu [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2013-01-01

    We present an eccentric, short-period brown dwarf candidate orbiting the active, slightly evolved subgiant star TYC 2087-00255-1, which has effective temperature T{sub eff} = 5903 {+-} 42 K, surface gravity log (g) = 4.07 {+-} 0.16 (cgs), and metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.23 {+-} 0.07. This candidate was discovered using data from the first two years of the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanets Large-area Survey, which is part of the third phase of Sloan Digital Sky Survey. From our 38 radial velocity measurements spread over a two-year time baseline, we derive a Keplerian orbital fit with semi-amplitude K = 3.571 {+-} 0.041 km s{sup -1}, period P = 9.0090 {+-} 0.0004 days, and eccentricity e = 0.226 {+-} 0.011. Adopting a mass of 1.16 {+-} 0.11 M{sub Sun} for the subgiant host star, we infer that the companion has a minimum mass of 40.0 {+-} 2.5 M{sub Jup}. Assuming an edge-on orbit, the semimajor axis is 0.090 {+-} 0.003 AU. The host star is photometrically variable at the {approx}1% level with a period of {approx}13.16 {+-} 0.01 days, indicating that the host star spin and companion orbit are not synchronized. Through adaptive optics imaging we also found a point source 643 {+-} 10 mas away from TYC 2087-00255-1, which would have a mass of 0.13 M{sub Sun} if it is physically associated with TYC 2087-00255-1 and has the same age. Future proper motion observation should be able to resolve if this tertiary object is physically associated with TYC 2087-00255-1 and make TYC 2087-00255-1 a triple body system. Core Ca II H and K line emission indicate that the host is chromospherically active, at a level that is consistent with the inferred spin period and measured v{sub rot}sin i, but unusual for a subgiant of this T{sub eff}. This activity could be explained by ongoing tidal spin-up of the host star by the companion.

  16. Short cycle studies as an emerging paradigm for developing and evaluating educational technology products: The New York city iZone initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Ross

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With advances in cognitive neuroscience and the developing connection between neuroscience and education in recent years, new windows has been opened in the realm of teaching and learning for the education experts. So education has vastly benefited from the results of researches in neuroscience to improve learning. The study strived to investigate the effectiveness of “brain based teaching” on the executive functions of the students with mathematics learning disability in Isfahan city. To this end, three student with mathematic learning disability were selected using purposeful sampling. In this investing used a single subject with A-B design. Intervention was started after determining the base-line. The “brain based teaching” package were taught to each single participants for 26 intervention sessions. And 1 month after intervention period follow-up test was performed. The instruments used, included, Raven intelligence test, The Iran key math diagnostic arithmetic and Conner’s questionnaire neuropsychological. The gathered data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and visual analysis. Based on that, Results revealed that during the visual analysis of data graphs for executive functions deficits, the study intervention was significantly effective for all 3 participants. This study showed that brain based teaching improves the executive functions of the students and thus, could be used in educating children with learning disabilities.

  17. Growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN){sub 1}/(GaN){sub 1–20} short-period superlattices on +c-GaN template in dynamic atomic layer epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Hashimoto, Naoki; Wang, Ke; Imai, Daichi [Center for SMART Green Innovation Research, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Itoi, Takaomi [Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akihiko, E-mail: yoshi@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Center for SMART Green Innovation Research, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Kogakuin University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan)

    2016-04-11

    The growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN){sub 1}/(GaN){sub 1–20} short-period superlattices (SPSs) were investigated with their application to ordered alloys in mind. The SPSs were grown on +c-GaN template at 650 °C by dynamic atomic layer epitaxy in conventional plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It was found that coherent structured InN/GaN SPSs could be fabricated when the thickness of the GaN barrier was 4 ML or above. Below 3 ML, the formation of SPSs was quite difficult owing to the increased strain in the SPS structure caused by the use of GaN as a template. The effective or average In composition of the (InN){sub 1}/(GaN){sub 4} SPSs was around 10%, and the corresponding InN coverage in the ∼1 ML-thick InN wells was 50%. It was found that the effective InN coverage in ∼1 ML-thick InN wells could be varied with the growth conditions. In fact, the effective In composition could be increased up to 13.5%, i.e., the corresponding effective InN coverage was about 68%, by improving the capping/freezing speed by increasing the growth rate of the GaN barrier layer.

  18. Growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN)_1/(GaN)_1_–_2_0 short-period superlattices on +c-GaN template in dynamic atomic layer epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Hashimoto, Naoki; Wang, Ke; Imai, Daichi; Itoi, Takaomi; Yoshikawa, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    The growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN)_1/(GaN)_1_–_2_0 short-period superlattices (SPSs) were investigated with their application to ordered alloys in mind. The SPSs were grown on +c-GaN template at 650 °C by dynamic atomic layer epitaxy in conventional plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It was found that coherent structured InN/GaN SPSs could be fabricated when the thickness of the GaN barrier was 4 ML or above. Below 3 ML, the formation of SPSs was quite difficult owing to the increased strain in the SPS structure caused by the use of GaN as a template. The effective or average In composition of the (InN)_1/(GaN)_4 SPSs was around 10%, and the corresponding InN coverage in the ∼1 ML-thick InN wells was 50%. It was found that the effective InN coverage in ∼1 ML-thick InN wells could be varied with the growth conditions. In fact, the effective In composition could be increased up to 13.5%, i.e., the corresponding effective InN coverage was about 68%, by improving the capping/freezing speed by increasing the growth rate of the GaN barrier layer.

  19. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  20. Short philtrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm Short philtrum To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A short philtrum is a shorter than normal distance between ...

  1. Short-Circuit Degradation of 10-kV 10-A SiC MOSFET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eni, Emanuel-Petre; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2017-01-01

    The short-circuit behavior of power devices is highly relevant for converter design and fault protection. In this work, the degradation during short-circuit of a 10 kV 10 A 4H-SiC MOSFET is investigated at 6 kV DC-link voltage. The study aims to present the behavior of the device during short-circuit...... transients as it sustains increasing short-circuit pulses during its life-time. As the short-circuit pulse length increases, degradation of the device can be observed in periodically performed characterizations. The initial degradation seems to be associated with the channel region, and continuous stressing...

  2. Changes in the number and size of nucleoli of Chara vulgaris L. antheridial filament cells during the period preceding light-induced re-initiation of cell divisions following a mitodepressive effect of darkness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kwiatkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in number and size of nucleoli of Chara vulgaris antheridial filament cells were monitored with the use of Howell and Black's silver staining method. After a 3-day mitodepressive treatment with darkness the cells were exposed to light which reactivated mitotic activity after 18-20 hours. Eight-celled antheridial filaments were observed. In the period preceding light-induced re-initiation of mitoses a gradual reconstruction of the number and size of nucleoli characteristic of control, as well as their total area per nucleus appeared. The obtained results indicate that one of the important conditions for a cell to be able to divide is accumulation of nucleolus components characteristic of a given developmental stage and this controls nucleologenesis of the subsequent cell cycle.

  3. Quantification of pancreatic exocrine function with secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: normal values and short-term effects of pancreatic duct drainage procedures in chronic pancreatitis. Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bali, M.A.; Sztantics, A.; Metens, T.; Matos, C.; Arvanitakis, M.; Delhaye, M.; Deviere, J.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify pancreatic exocrine function in normal subjects and in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) before and after pancreatic duct drainage procedures (PDDP) with dynamic secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiopancreatography (S-MRCP). Pancreatic exocrine secretions [quantified by pancreatic flow output (PFO) and total excreted volume (TEV)] were quantified twice in ten healthy volunteers and before and after treatment in 20 CP patients (18 classified as severe, one as moderate, and one as mild according to the Cambridge classification). PFO and TEV were derived from a linear regression between MR-calculated volumes and time. In all subjects, pancreatic exocrine fluid volume initially increased linearly with time during secretin stimulation. In controls, the mean PFO and TEV were 6.8 ml/min and 97 ml; intra-individual deviations were 0.8 ml/min and 16 ml. In 10/20 patients with impaired exocrine secretions before treatment, a significant increase of PFO and TEV was observed after treatment (P<0.05); 3/20 patients presented post-procedural acute pancreatitis and a reduced PFO. The S-MRCP quantification method used in the present study is reproducible and provides normal values for PFO and TEV in the range of those obtained from previous published intubation studies. The initial results in CP patients have demonstrated non-invasively a significant short-term improvement of PFO and TEV after PDDP. (orig.)

  4. Middle Helladic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    and their quality was improved considerably toward the end of this period. The profound cultural innovations of the Middle Helladic period were initially interpreted as a result of violent population movement and troubles provoked by the coming of the first Indo-European races. However, this matter does no more...... Helladic period is considered as a period of economic and social decline it was the time during which the mainland features merged with the insular influence, that is all the Aegean elements which led to the creation of the Mycenaean civilization were mixed in a creative way....

  5. Short circuit in deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samura, Kazuhiro; Miyagi, Yasushi; Okamoto, Tsuyoshi; Hayami, Takehito; Kishimoto, Junji; Katano, Mitsuo; Kamikaseda, Kazufumi

    2012-11-01

    The authors undertook this study to investigate the incidence, cause, and clinical influence of short circuits in patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS). After the incidental identification of a short circuit during routine follow-up, the authors initiated a policy at their institution of routinely evaluating both therapeutic impedance and system impendence at every outpatient DBS follow-up visit, irrespective of the presence of symptoms suggesting possible system malfunction. This study represents a report of their findings after 1 year of this policy. Implanted DBS leads exhibiting short circuits were identified in 7 patients (8.9% of the patients seen for outpatient follow-up examinations during the 12-month study period). The mean duration from DBS lead implantation to the discovery of the short circuit was 64.7 months. The symptoms revealing short circuits included the wearing off of therapeutic effect, apraxia of eyelid opening, or dysarthria in 6 patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and dystonia deterioration in 1 patient with generalized dystonia. All DBS leads with short circuits had been anchored to the cranium using titanium miniplates. Altering electrode settings resulted in clinical improvement in the 2 PD cases in which patients had specific symptoms of short circuits (2.5%) but not in the other 4 cases. The patient with dystonia underwent repositioning and replacement of a lead because the previous lead was located too anteriorly, but did not experience symptom improvement. In contrast to the sudden loss of clinical efficacy of DBS caused by an open circuit, short circuits may arise due to a gradual decrease in impedance, causing the insidious development of neurological symptoms via limited or extended potential fields as well as shortened battery longevity. The incidence of short circuits in DBS may be higher than previously thought, especially in cases in which DBS leads are anchored with miniplates. The circuit impedance of DBS

  6. Contribution to the experimental survey of the nuclear isomerism. Application of the deferred coincidences method to research and to the survey of metastable states of short period; Contribution a l'etude experimentale de l'isomerie nucleaire. Application de la methode des coincidences differees a la recherche et a l'etude d'etats metastables de periode courte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-06-15

    Various methods of the physics brought many informations on the nuclear elements which one can arrange some ponderable quantities, what is the case of the steady elements and some, unsteady elements, as most of natural radioelements. On the other hand, elements of shorter life duration, and notably those that are carried to an excited state, are more badly known, and one can get information to their consideration that by the mediator of the properties of the transitions that they undergo, when they give birth has best-known nuclear cash: among these transitions represent the isomeric transitions. The goal of this work is the survey of the isomeric transitions from metastable states of short period, included in the domain of the microsecond to some milliseconds. The method of the deferred coincidences has been put to the point and applied in this goal while using the advantages of the selectors to several channels, under two main aspects where the device to several channels was either a selector of time, either a selector of amplitudes. This method served to study the working of Geiger-Muller counter and to measure with precision the period of {sup 181}Ta{sup *} in of the varied experimental conditions. The adopted value is 17,2 {+-}0,2 {mu}s. This work also found an immediate practical application to the setting in evidence of very weak quantities of hafnium in zirconium, of which it constitutes a tenacious and difficult impurity to analyze by the ordinary ways. (M.B.) [French] Les diverses methodes de la physique ont apporte de nombreux renseignements sur les especes nucleaires dont on peut disposer en quantites ponderables, ce qui est le cas des especes stables et de certaines especes instables, comme la plupart des radioelements naturels. Par contre, les noyaux de duree de vie plus courte, et notamment ceux qui sont portes a un etat excite, sont plus mal connus, et on ne peut obtenir de renseignements a leur egard que par l'intermediaire des proprietes des

  7. Problem Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ovary syndrome. Read our information on PCOS for teens , and see your doctor if you think you may have PCOS. Major weight loss. Girls who have anorexia will often stop having periods. When to see ...

  8. Supersymmetrically transformed periodic potentials

    OpenAIRE

    C, David J. Fernandez

    2003-01-01

    The higher order supersymmetric partners of a stationary periodic potential are studied. The transformation functions associated to the band edges do not change the spectral structure. However, when the transformation is implemented for factorization energies inside of the forbidden bands, the final potential will have again the initial band structure but it can have bound states encrusted into the gaps, giving place to localized periodicity defects.

  9. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  10. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF P.T. KAYE

    . SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...

  11. Idiopathic short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaški Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a complex process and the basic characteristic of child- hood growth monitoring provides insight into the physiological and pathological events in the body. Statistically, the short stature means departure from the values of height for age and sex (in a particular environment, which is below -2 standard deviation score, or less than -2 standard deviation, i.e. below the third percentile. Advances in molecular genetics have contributed to the improvement of diagnostics in endocrinology. Analysis of patients’ genotypes should not be performed before taking a classical history, detailed clinical examination and appropriate tests. In patients with idiopathic short stature specific causes are excluded, such as growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, short stature due to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, dysmorphology syndromes and chronic childhood diseases. The exclusion of abovementioned conditions leaves a large number of children with short stature whose etiology includes patients with genetic short stature or familial short stature and those who are low in relation to genetic potential, and who could also have some unrecognized endocrine defect. Idiopathic short stature represents a short stature of unknown cause of heterogeneous etiology, and is characterized by a normal response of growth hormone during stimulation tests (>10 ng/ml or 20 mJ/l, without other disorders, of normal body mass and length at birth. In idiopathic short stature standard deviation score rates <-2.25 (-2 to -3 or <1.2 percentile. These are also criteria for the initiation of growth hormone therapy. In children with short stature there is also the presence of psychological and social suffering. Goals of treatment with growth hormone involve achieving normal height and normal growth rate during childhood.

  12. Efeito de períodos de controle de plantas daninhas sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de plantas de eucalipto Effects of weed control periods on initial growth and development of eucalypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E.B. Toledo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos dos períodos de convivência e de controle de Brachiaria decumbens sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Para isso, um ensaio foi conduzido, no município de Três Lagoas-MS, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 1997. Os tratamentos experimentais consistiram de diferentes épocas e períodos de convivência das plantas daninhas na cultura do eucalipto. As épocas foram divididas em dois grupos. No primeiro, a convivência se iniciava no transplante das mudas e era estendida até 28, 56, 84, 112, 140, 168, 224, 252 e 364 dias após. No segundo grupo, a convivência se iniciava aos 0, 28, 56, 84, 112, 140, 168, 224 e 252 dias após o transplante e era estendida até o final de um ano. As principais plantas daninhas que ocorreram na área experimental foram Brachiaria decumbens e Spermacocea latifola. As plantas jovens de eucalipto foram bastante suscetíveis à interferência das plantas daninhas, apresentando um período anterior à interferência inferior a 14-28 dias. Para assegurar o desenvolvimento da cultura, o período total de prevenção à interferência foi de 140 dias, e o período crítico de prevenção à interferência, de 14-28 a 140 dias após o transplante, considerando o índice de 5% de redução em diâmetro.A field trial was carried out in Três Lagoas-MS, Brazil, from January to December of 1997, to study the effects of control and coexistence period of Brachiaria decumbens on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clones. The experimental design was a complete randomized block design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of different periods of weed-eucalypt association. The periods were divided in two groups. In the first one, the weed-eucalypt coexistence initiated during the eucalypt transplanting, continuing up to 28, 56, 112, 140, 168, 224, 252 and 364 days after it. In the second group, the

  13. Community-based short-course treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in a developing nation. Initial report of an eight-month, largely intermittent regimen in a population with a high prevalence of drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manalo, F; Tan, F; Sbarbaro, J A; Iseman, M D

    1990-12-01

    A community-based tuberculosis case-finding and short-course chemotherapy program was conducted in a suburb of Manila and featured 1 month of daily isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB), and pyrazinamide (PZA) followed by 7 months of twice-weekly, high dose, directly observed INH + EMB + PZA. Church-affiliated lay workers obtained 1,990 sputum specimens from subjects who complained of chronic cough or wasting symptoms; 207 of the specimens were positive on Ziehl-Neelsen smears. On culture, 176 yielded a significant growth of M. tuberculosis. Of these 176 patients, 144 were selected to enter the study; 10 were lost because of withdrawal or death and four (2.7%) because of drug toxicity. This left 130 patients who were followed long-term. Remarkably, 80% (104) were initially shedding drug-resistant organisms; 26% (34) were resistant to one drug, 30% (40) were resistant to two drugs, and 24% (30) were resistant to three or more drugs. Responses to therapy corresponded closely to the extent of drug resistance: 80% (48 of 60) of patients with drug-susceptible or single resistance had a favorable outcome; 43% (28 of 65) were resistant to two or three drugs, and 0% (0 of 5) of those were resistant to four or more drugs. Notable findings of this study were the success of a community-based program in conducting prolonged, directly observed treatment, the unexpectedly high prevalence of multiple-drug-resistant organisms in this population, and the inadequacy of INH + PZA + EMB during the continuation phase of therapy in this setting.

  14. Short Stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Boye Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie

    2016-01-01

    -scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below......The use of appropriate growth standards/references is of significant clinical importance in assessing the height of children with short stature as it may determine eligibility for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of using World Health Organization (WHO) instead...... of national growth standards/references on height assessment in short children. Data were collected from routine clinical practice (1998-2014) from nine European countries that have available national growth references and were enrolled in NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (NCT00960128), a large...

  15. Short Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds...

  16. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  17. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  18. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: vani_chem@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.

  19. Short communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Vonk, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy veal calves (4-6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  20. The language used in describing autobiographical memories prompted by life period visually presented verbal cues, event-specific visually presented verbal cues and short musical clips of popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zator, Krysten; Katz, Albert N

    2017-07-01

    Here, we examined linguistic differences in the reports of memories produced by three cueing methods. Two groups of young adults were cued visually either by words representing events or popular cultural phenomena that took place when they were 5, 10, or 16 years of age, or by words referencing a general lifetime period word cue directing them to that period in their life. A third group heard 30-second long musical clips of songs popular during the same three time periods. In each condition, participants typed a specific event memory evoked by the cue and these typed memories were subjected to analysis by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program. Differences in the reports produced indicated that listening to music evoked memories embodied in motor-perceptual systems more so than memories evoked by our word-cueing conditions. Additionally, relative to music cues, lifetime period word cues produced memories with reliably more uses of personal pronouns, past tense terms, and negative emotions. The findings provide evidence for the embodiment of autobiographical memories, and how those differ when the cues emphasise different aspects of the encoded events.

  1. The "Kiel Concept" of Long-Term Administration of Daily Low-Dose Sildenafil Initiated in the Immediate Post-Prostatectomy Period: Evaluation and Comparison With the International Literature on Penile Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmonov, Daniar K; Jünemann, Klaus P; Bannowsky, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) is the most common definitive invasive treatment option for localized prostate cancer. Although the different surgical procedures-open RP, laparoscopic RP, and robot-assisted laparoscopic RP-do not differ significantly for the results of postoperative erectile dysfunction (ED) and continence, the fear of losing erectile function (EF) is often an important factor for preoperatively sexually active men when deciding for or against a procedure. To review the available literature on rehabilitation of EF after RP and to evaluate the value of the "Kiel concept" against different strategies of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i) low-dose treatments. A review of the available literature up to January 2017 was undertaken using the key terms postsurgical ED, penile rehabilitation," PDE5i rehabilitation, and PDE5i daily dose treatment. As a main outcome measure we chose reviewed different concepts on the rehabilitation of EF after RP, taking into account the clinical background of the Kiel concept. The different therapeutic concepts for rehabilitation of EF after nerve-sparing RP are surprising. The most frequently applied method is application of different PDE5is. Despite different studies on efficacy, the issue of an optimal concept remains unresolved. The reason for this, among others, can be found in the difficulty of comparing different studies, which can vary with respect to the degree of nerve sparing, postoperative preservation of nocturnal erections, concomitant morbidity, and the number and experience of surgeons. In 86% of patients, the Kiel concept has been shown to support rehabilitation of EF after nerve-sparing RP with some form of therapeutic method. The Kiel concept is one therapeutic option among other comparable therapeutic options. Osmonov DK, Jünemann KP, Bannowsky A. The "Kiel Concept" of Long-Term Administration of Daily Low-Dose Sildenafil Initiated in the Immediate Post-Prostatectomy Period: Evaluation and

  2. The influence of short-time period of an adaptation to decreased ambient temperature on interleukin-6 and corticosterone levels in female Wistar strain rats in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Wójcik

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, there has been little research examining whether short-time changes of external environmental conditions exert any effects on immune responses. The activation of metabolic changes, release of hormones responsive for immunomodulation and the action of interleukins play an important role in interaction with hormones of an anterior pituitary gland in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of a short-time change of ambient temperature (30 minutes on interleukin-6 (IL-6 and corticosterone plasma concentration of female rats in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle. The climatic chamber with automatically adjustable and monitored internal environmental parameters (temperature, oxygenation, humidity was used during the experiment. The estimation of the vaginal lavage using a microscope was done to determine the estrous cycle. On the day of the experiment, animals were divided into 2 groups: the control group (ambient temperature 21 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C; normoxia 21% O2 and the test group (ambient temperature 10 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C; normoxia 21% O2 stayed in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes. The blood samples were collected before the experiment and after 30, 60, 90, 150 and 210 minutes from the beginning of the experiment. The concentrations of IL-6 and corticosterone were measured in blood plasma samples using ELISA method. There was a significant elevation of IL-6 levels after staying in 10 degrees C during the first 150 minutes from the beginning of the experiment, with the highest value occurring after 60 minutes (426.6 pg/ml; SE - 146.1 with comparison to the value at first sampling (108.5 pg/ml; SE - 29.5; p<0.05 and with comparison to the control group at the same time from the beginning of the experiment (87.6 pg/ml; SE - 2.3; p<0.05. The changed level of corticosterone in the test group in comparison to control group was observed but the differences were

  3. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Short Communication. QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural ...

  4. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Crotti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Short QT Syndrome is a recently described new genetic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT interval, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This autosomal dominant syndrome can afflict infants, children, or young adults; often a remarkable family background of cardiac sudden death is elucidated. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, with atrial fibrillation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. Gain of function mutations in three genes encoding K+ channels have been identified, explaining the abbreviated repolarization seen in this condition: KCNH2 for Ikr (SQT1, KCNQ1 for Iks (SQT2 and KCNJ2 for Ik1 (SQT3. The currently suggested therapeutic strategy is an ICD implantation, although many concerns exist for asymptomatic patients, especially in pediatric age. Pharmacological treatment is still under evaluation; quinidine has shown to prolong QT and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, but awaits additional confirmatory clinical data.

  5. Periodic orbits around areostationary points in the Martian gravity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaodong; Baoyin Hexi; Ma Xingrui

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the problem of areostationary orbits around Mars in three-dimensional space. Areostationary orbits are expected to be used to establish a future telecommunication network for the exploration of Mars. However, no artificial satellites have been placed in these orbits thus far. The characteristics of the Martian gravity field are presented, and areostationary points and their linear stability are calculated. By taking linearized solutions in the planar case as the initial guesses and utilizing the Levenberg-Marquardt method, families of periodic orbits around areostationary points are shown to exist. Short-period orbits and long-period orbits are found around linearly stable areostationary points, but only short-period orbits are found around unstable areostationary points. Vertical periodic orbits around both linearly stable and unstable areostationary points are also examined. Satellites in these periodic orbits could depart from areostationary points by a few degrees in longitude, which would facilitate observation of the Martian topography. Based on the eigenvalues of the monodromy matrix, the evolution of the stability index of periodic orbits is determined. Finally, heteroclinic orbits connecting the two unstable areostationary points are found, providing the possibility for orbital transfer with minimal energy consumption.

  6. Is adolescence a critical period for learning formal thinking skills? A case study investigating the development of formal thinking skills in a short-term inquiry-based intervention program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Forrest S.

    Current domestic and international comparative studies of student achievement in science are demonstrating that the U.S. needs to improve science education if it wants to remain competitive in the global economy. One of the causes of the poor performance of U.S. science education is the lack of students who have developed the formal thinking skills that are necessary to obtain scientific literacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that formal thinking skills can be taught to adolescents, however only 25% of incoming college freshman have these necessary skills. There is some evidence that adolescence (girls aged 11-13, boys aged 12-14) is a critical period where students must learn formal thinking skills, similar to the critical period that exists for young children learning languages. It is not known whether it is more difficult for students to learn formal thinking skills either prior to or following adolescence. The purpose of this quantitative case study is to determine whether adolescence is a critical period for students to learn formal thinking skills. The study also investigates whether a formal thinking skills focused program can improve students' intelligence. In this study 32 students who had not developed any formal thinking skills, ranging in age from 10-16, underwent an intensive four-week, inquiry-based, formal thinking skill intervention program that focused on two formal thinking skills: (1) the ability to control and exclude variables; and (2) the ability to manipulate ratios and proportionalities. The students undergoing the training were matched with control students by age, gender, formal thinking skill ability, and intelligence. The control group attended their traditional science course during the intervention periods. The results of the study showed that the intervention program was successful in developing students' formal thinking skills. The pre-adolescents (males, age 10-11, females, age 10) were unable to learn formal thinking skills

  7. NLM Emergency Access Initiative: FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facebook Visit us on Twitter Visit us on Youtube Emergency Access Initiative Home | Journals | Books | Online Databases | FAQs Take Short Survey FAQ What is the Emergency Access Initiative? The Emergency Access Initiative (EAI) is a collaborative partnership between NLM and participating publishers to

  8. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Antzelevitch

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Long QT intervals in the ECG have long been associated with sudden cardiac death. The congenital long QT syndrome was first described in individuals with structurally normal hearts in 1957.1 Little was known about the significance of a short QT interval. In 1993, after analyzing 6693 consecutive Holter recordings Algra et al concluded that an increased risk of sudden death was present not only in patients with long QT interval, but also in patients with short QT interval (<400 ms.2 Because this was a retrospective analysis, further evaluation of the data was not possible. It was not until 2000 that a short-QT syndrome (SQTS was proposed as a new inherited clinical syndrome by Gussak et al.3 The initial report was of two siblings and their mother all of whom displayed persistently short QT interval. The youngest was a 17 year old female presenting with several episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation requiring electrical cardioversion.3 Her QT interval measured 280 msec at a heart rate of 69. Her 21 year old brother displayed a QT interval of 272 msec at a heart rate of 58, whereas the 51 year old mother showed a QT of 260 msec at a heart rate of 74. The authors also noted similar ECG findings in another unrelated 37 year old patient associated with sudden cardiac death.

  9. Short communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Fehrmann-Cartes, K.; Íiguez-González, G.

    2015-01-01

    with soybean (SO) and hydrogenated vegetable (HVO) oils on chemical and FA composition of milk and cheese and sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine multiparous Holstein cows averaging 169 ± 24. d in milk at the beginning of the study were used in a replicated (n = 3) 3 × 3 Latin square design that included 3...... periods of 21. d. All cows received a basal diet formulated with a 56:44 forage:concentrate ratio. Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control; no fat supplement), and the basal diet supplemented with SO (unrefined oil; 500. g/d per cow) and HVO (manufactured from palm oil; 500. g/d per cow...

  10. Semantic and phonological contributions to short-term repetition and long-term cued sentence recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Jed A; Rose, Nathan S; Deschamps, Tiffany; Leigh, Rosie C; Panamsky, Lilia; Silberberg, Alexandra; Madani, Noushin; Links, Kira A

    2016-02-01

    The function of verbal short-term memory is supported not only by the phonological loop, but also by semantic resources that may operate on both short and long time scales. Elucidation of the neural underpinnings of these mechanisms requires effective behavioral manipulations that can selectively engage them. We developed a novel cued sentence recall paradigm to assess the effects of two factors on sentence recall accuracy at short-term and long-term stages. Participants initially repeated auditory sentences immediately following a 14-s retention period. After this task was complete, long-term memory for each sentence was probed by a two-word recall cue. The sentences were either concrete (high imageability) or abstract (low imageability), and the initial 14-s retention period was filled with either an undemanding finger-tapping task or a more engaging articulatory suppression task (Exp. 1, counting backward by threes; Exp. 2, repeating a four-syllable nonword). Recall was always better for the concrete sentences. Articulatory suppression reduced accuracy in short-term recall, especially for abstract sentences, but the sentences initially recalled following articulatory suppression were retained better at the subsequent cued-recall test, suggesting that the engagement of semantic mechanisms for short-term retention promoted encoding of the sentence meaning into long-term memory. These results provide a basis for using sentence imageability and subsequent memory performance as probes of semantic engagement in short-term memory for sentences.

  11. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  12. Progress in short period multilayer coatings for water window applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullikson, E.M.; Salmassi, F.; Aquila, A.L.; Dollar, F.

    2006-01-01

    Absolute photoionization cross-section measurements for a mixture of ground and metastable states of Xe4+, Xe5+, and Xe6+ are reported in the photon energy range of 4d-nf transitions, which occur within or adjacent to the 13.5 nm window for extreme ultraviolet lithography light source development. The reported values allow the quantification of opacity effects in xenon plasmas due to these 4d-4f autoionizing states. The oscillator strengths for the 4d-4f and 4d-5f transitions in Xeq+ (q=1-6) ions are calculated using nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock and random phase approximations. These are compared with published experimental values for Xe+ to Xe3+ and with the values obtained from the present experimental cross-section measurements for Xe4+ to Xe6+. The calculations assisted in the determination of the metastable content in the ion beams for Xe5+T and Xe6+. The experiments were performed by merging a synchrotron photon beam generated by an undulator beamline of the Advanced Light Source with an ion beam produced by an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

  13. The Chinese initial public offering market : underpricing, duration to listing and hot issue cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Haifeng

    2017-01-01

    This thesis conducts three empirical studies on the Chinese A-share initial public offering (IPO) market, specifically, underpricing and short-run underperformance, duration from offering to listing and hot and cold issuing cycles. Before the empirical analysis, the literature is reviewed associated with these three topics. In addition, this thesis presents an overview of the Chinese IPO market which is found to undergo an experiment period from 1984 to 1990, a transition period from 1991 to ...

  14. Analytical studies by activation. Part A and B: Counting of short half-life radio-nuclides. Part C: Analytical programs for decay curves; Etudes d'analyse par activation. Parties A et B: le comptage des radio-nucleides de periodes courtes. Partie C: programme de depouillement des courbes de decroissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junod, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-03-01

    Part A and B: Since a radio-nuclide of short half-life is characterized essentially by the decrease in its activity even while it is being measured, the report begins by recalling the basic relationships linking the half-life the counting time, the counting rate and the number of particles recorded. The second part is devoted to the problem of corrections for counting losses due to the idle period of multichannel analyzers. Exact correction formulae have been drawn up for the case where the short half-life radionuclide is pure or contains only a long half-life radio-nuclide. By comparison, charts have been drawn up showing the approximations given by the so-called 'active time' counting and by the counting involving the real time associated with a measurement of the overall idle period, this latter method proving to be more valid than the former. A method is given for reducing the case of a complex mixture to that of a two-component mixture. Part C: The problems connected with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the decay curves of a mixture of radioactive sources of which one at least has a short half-life are presented. A mathematical description is given of six basic processes for which some elements of Fortran programs are proposed. Two supplementary programs are drawn up for giving an overall treatment of problems of dosage in activation analysis: one on the basis of a simultaneous irradiation of the sample and of one or several known samples, the other with separate irradiation of the unknown and known samples, a dosimeter (activation, or external) being used for normalizing the irradiation flux conditions. (author) [French] Parties A et B: Un radionucleide de periode courte etant defini specialement par la decroissance de son activite pendant la duree meme du comptage, on rappelle en premiere partie de ce rapport les relations fondamentales qui lient periode, temps de comptage, taux de comptage et nombre d'impulsions enregistrees. La seconde partie

  15. Medicare Program: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment and Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment Systems and Quality Reporting Programs; Short Inpatient Hospital Stays; Transition for Certain Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospitals Under the Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment System; Provider Administrative Appeals and Judicial Review. Final rule with comment period; final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-13

    This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) and the Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system for CY 2016 to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare services paid under the OPPS and those paid under the ASC payment system. In addition, this final rule with comment period updates and refines the requirements for the Hospital Outpatient Quality Reporting (OQR) Program and the ASC Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program. Further, this document includes certain finalized policies relating to the hospital inpatient prospective payment system: Changes to the 2-midnight rule under the short inpatient hospital stay policy; and a payment transition for hospitals that lost their status as a Medicare-dependent, small rural hospital (MDH) because they are no longer in a rural area due to the implementation of the new Office of Management and Budget delineations in FY 2015 and have not reclassified from urban to rural before January 1, 2016. In addition, this document contains a final rule that finalizes certain 2015 proposals, and addresses public comments received, relating to the changes in the Medicare regulations governing provider administrative appeals and judicial review relating to appropriate claims in provider cost reports.

  16. Time to initial antibiotic administration, and short-term mortality among patients admitted with community-acquired severe infections with and without the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Laursen, Christian B; Hallas, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    (SIRS) at arrival, and to ascertain whether the presence of SIRS might affect the timing of antibiotic administration. METHODS: In this retrospective follow-up study, we included all adult patients (≥15 years) presenting to a medical emergency department in the period between September 2010 and August...... Medicine (ACCP/SCCM) definitions. Cases were identified by manual chart review using predefined criteria of infection. Data on vital signs, laboratory values and antibiotic treatment were obtained electronically. RESULTS: We included 1169 patients with infection and organ dysfunction, treated...

  17. Unilateral initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on arms control which is generally thought of in terms of formal negotiations with an opponent, with the resulting agreements embodied in a treaty. This is not surprising, since arms control discussions between opponents are both important and politically visible. There are, however, strong reasons for countries to consider and frequently take unilateral initiatives. To do so is entirely consistent with the established major precepts of arms control which state that arms control is designed to reduce the risk of war, the costs of preparing for war, and the death and destruction if war should come. Unilateral initiatives on what weapons are purchased, which ones are eliminated and how forces are deployed can all relate to these objectives. There are two main categories of motives for unilateral initiatives in arms control. In one category, internal national objectives are the dominant, often sole, driving force; the initiative is undertaken for our own good

  18. Ports Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Ports Initiative works in collaboration with the port industry, communities, and government to improve environmental performance and increase economic prosperity. This effort helps people near ports breath cleaner air and live better lives.

  19. Short dental implants: an emerging concept in implant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hashedi, Ashwaq Ali; Taiyeb Ali, Tara Bai; Yunus, Norsiah

    2014-06-01

    Short implants have been advocated as a treatment option in many clinical situations where the use of conventional implants is limited. This review outlines the effectiveness and clinical outcomes of using short implants as a valid treatment option in the rehabilitation of edentulous atrophic alveolar ridges. Initially, an electronic search was performed on the following databases: Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and DARE using key words from January 1990 until May 2012. An additional hand search was included for the relevant articles in the following journals: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, Clinical Oral Implants Research, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, International Journal of Periodontics, Journal of Periodontology, and Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research. Any relevant papers from the journals' references were hand searched. Articles were included if they provided detailed data on implant length, reported survival rates, mentioned measures for implant failure, were in the English language, involved human subjects, and researched implants inserted in healed atrophic ridges with a follow-up period of at least 1 year after implant-prosthesis loading. Short implants demonstrated a high rate of success in the replacement of missing teeth in especially atrophic alveolar ridges. The advanced technology and improvement of the implant surfaces have encouraged the success of short implants to a comparable level to that of standard implants. However, further randomized controlled clinical trials and prospective studies with longer follow-up periods are needed.

  20. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND REPORTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    1976). Among raptors there are those species where only the female incubates, those where the male may also incubate for short to longer periods, and those in which females and males equally share the incubation (Newton 1979). It is well known that both sexes incubate the clutch in vultures, both in the wild (Mundy et al.

  1. Initial kinetics of the direct sulfation of limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Shang, Lei; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    The initial kinetics of direct sulfation of Faxe Bryozo, a porous bryozoan limestone was studied in the temperature interval from 873 to 973 K in a pilot entrained flow reactor with very short reaction times (between 0.1 and 0.6 s). The initial conversion rate of the limestone - for conversions...... less than 0.3% - was observed to be significantly promoted by higher SO2 concentrations and lower CO2 concentrations, whereas 02 showed negligible influence. A mathematical model for the sulfation of limestone involving chemical reaction at calcite grain surfaces and solid-state diffusion of carbonate...... ions in calcite grains is established. The validity of the model is limited to the initial sulfation period, in which nucleation of the solid product calcium sulphate is not started. This theoretical reaction-diffusion model gives a good simulation of the initial kinetics of the direct sulfation...

  2. 26 CFR 1.6655-5 - Short taxable year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1.6655-5 Short taxable... beginning with its initial short taxable year to the time it files its tax return for its initial short...

  3. Periodically modulated dark states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenxian

    2018-04-01

    Phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency (PEIT) may be interpreted by the Autler-Townes Splitting (ATS), where the coupled states are split by the coupling laser field, or by the quantum destructive interference (QDI), where the atomic phases caused by the coupling laser and the probe laser field cancel. We propose modulated experiments to explore the PEIT in an alternative way by periodically modulating the coupling and the probe fields in a Λ-type three-level system initially in a dark state. Our analytical and numerical results rule out the ATS interpretation and show that the QDI interpretation is more appropriate for the modulated experiments. Interestingly, dark state persists in the double-modulation situation where control and probe fields never occur simultaneously, which is significant difference from the traditional dark state condition. The proposed experiments are readily implemented in atomic gases, artificial atoms in superconducting quantum devices, or three-level meta-atoms in meta-materials.

  4. Deciphering Periodic Methanol Masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklum, Bringfried; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus; Hopp, Ulrich; Kraus, Alex; Linz, Hendrik; Sanna, Alberto; Sobolev, Andrej; Wolf, Verena

    2018-05-01

    Impressive progress has been made in recent years on massive star formation, yet the involved high optical depths even at submm/mm wavelengths make it difficult to reveal its details. Recently, accretion bursts of massive YSOs have been identified to cause flares of Class II methanol masers (methanol masers for short) due to enhanced mid-IR pumping. This opens a new window to protostellar accretion variability, and implies that periodic methanol masers hint at cyclic accretion. Pinning down the cause of the periodicity requires joint IR and radio monitoring. We derived the first IR light curve of a periodic maser host from NEOWISE data. The source, G107.298+5.639, is an intermediate-mass YSO hosting methanol and water masers which flare every 34.5 days. Our recent joint K-band and radio observations yielded first but marginal evidence for a phase lag between the rise of IR and maser emission, respectively, and revealed that both NEOWISE and K-band light curves are strongly affected by the light echo from the ambient dust. Both the superior resolution of IRAC over NEOWISE and the longer wavelengths compared to our ground-based imaging are required to inhibit the distractive contamination by the light echo. Thus, we ask for IRAC monitoring of G107 to cover one flare cycle, in tandem with 100-m Effelsberg and 2-m Wendelstein radio and NIR observations to obtain the first high-quality synoptic measurements of this kind of sources. The IR-maser phase lag, the intrinsic shape of the IR light curves and their possible color variation during the cycle allow us to constrain models for the periodic maser excitation. Since methanol masers are signposts of intermediate-mass and massive YSOs, deciphering their variability offers a clue to the dynamics of the accretion-mediated growth of massive stars and their feedback onto the immediate natal environment. The Spitzer light curve of such a maser-hosting YSO would be a legacy science product of the mission.

  5. Equity Options During the Shorting Ban of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusret Cakici

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Securities and Exchange Commission’s 2008 emergency order introduced a shorting ban of some 800 financials traded in the US. This paper provides an empirical analysis of the options market around the ban period. Using transaction level data from OPRA (The Options Price Reporting Authority, we study the options volume, spreads, pricing measures and option trade volume informativeness during the ban. We also consider the put–call parity relationship. While mostly statistically significant, economic magnitudes of our results suggest that the impact of the ban on the equity options market was likely not as dramatic as initially thought.

  6. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  7. Natural short sleeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep - natural short sleeper ... 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. Short sleepers sleep less than 75% of what is normal for their age. Natural short sleepers are different from people who chronically do ...

  8. Short bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2012-02-01

    The short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a state of malabsorption following intestinal resection where there is less than 200 cm of intestinal length. The management of short bowel syndrome can be challenging and is best managed by a specialised multidisciplinary team. A good understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of resection of different portions of the small intestine is necessary to anticipate and prevent, where possible, consequences of SBS. Nutrient absorption and fluid and electrolyte management in the initial stages are critical to stabilisation of the patient and to facilitate the process of adaptation. Pharmacological adjuncts to promote adaptation are in the early stages of development. Primary restoration of bowel continuity, if possible, is the principle mode of surgical treatment. Surgical procedures to increase the surface area of the small intestine or improve its function may be of benefit in experienced hands, particularly in the paediatric population. Intestinal transplant is indicated at present for patients who have failed to tolerate long-term parenteral nutrition but with increasing experience, there may be a potentially expanded role for its use in the future.

  9. Short QT syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenzo Gaita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The short QT syndrome (SQTS is a recently described genetic arrhythmogenic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT intervals on surface electrocardiogram (ECG and a high incidence of sudden death (SD during life, including the first months of life. The inheritance of SQTS is autosomal dominant, with genetic heterogeneity. Gain-of-function mutations in 3 genes encoding potassium channels have been associated to the disease: KCNH2 encoding IKr (SQT1, KCNQ1 encoding IKs (SQT2, and KCNJ2 encoding IK1 (SQT3. Loss-of-function mutations in 3 genes encoding the cardiac L-type calcium channel, CACNA1C, CACNB2b and CACNA2D1 may underlie a mixed phenotype of Brugada pattern ECG (or non-specific repolarization changes in case of CACNA2D1 and shorter than normal QT intervals. Clinical presentation is often severe, as cardiac arrest represents the first clinical presentation in most subjects. Moreover, often a noticeable family history of cardiac SD is present. Atrial fibrillation may be observed, also in young individuals. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, and atrial and ventricular fibrillation are easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. The outcome of patients with SQTS becomes relatively safe when they are identified and treated. Currently, the suggested therapeutic strategy is an implantable cardioverter- defibrillator (ICD in patients with personal history of aborted SD or syncope. In asymptomatic adult patients from highly symptomatic families and in newborn children pharmacological treatment with hydroquinidine, which has been shown to prolong the QT interval and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, may be proposed.

  10. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  11. Kinetics of the direct sulfation of limestone at the initial stage of crystal growth of the solid product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2011-01-01

    The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a quartz bench scale fixed‐bed reactor with the technique of data deconvolution. The obtained results show that the direct sulfation of limestone has a two‐period kinetic behavior: a short initial sulfation period with high but fast decreasing...... such as SO2, O2, and CO2 and the temperature. The sulfation process in the initial stage of the period with product crystal growth can be described by the combination of the sulfation reaction at the gas–solid interface, diffusion of the product ions toward the product crystal grains, diffusion of carbonate...

  12. Cellular basis of the immunohematologic defects observed in short-term semiallogeneic B6C3F1→C3H chimeras: evidence for host-versus-graft reaction initiated by radioresistant T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, S.; Sado, T.; Kamisaku, H.; Kubo, E.

    1980-01-01

    Lethally irradiated C3Hf mice reconstituted with a relatively low dose (2 x 10 6 ) of B6C3F 1 bone marrow cells (B6C3F 1 →C3Hf chimeras) frequently manifest immunohematologic deficiencies during the first month following injection of bone marrow cells. They show slow recovery of antibody-forming potential to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as compared to that observed in syngeneic (C3Hf→C3Hf or B6C3F 1 →B6C3F 1 ) chimeras. They also show a deficiency of B-cell activity as assessed by antibody response to SRBC following further reconstitution with B6C3F 1 -derived thymus cells 1 week after injection of bone marrow cells. A significant fraction of B6C3F 1 →C3Hf chimeras was shown to manifest a sudden loss of cellularity of spleens during the second week following injection of bone marrow cells even though cellularity was restored to the normal level within 1 week. The splenic mononuclear cells recovered from such chimeras almost invariably showed strong cytotoxicity against target cells expressing donor-type specific H-2 antigens (H-2/sup b/) when assesed by 51 Cr-release assay in vitro. The effector cells responsible for the observed anti-donor specific cytotoxicity were shown to be residual host-derived T cells. These results indicate strongly that residual host T cells could develop anti-donor specific cytotoxicity even after exposure to a supralethal dose (1050 R) of radiation and that the immunohematologic disturbances observed in shortterm F 1 to parent bone marrow chimeras (B6C3F 1 →C3Hf) were due to host-versus-graft reaction (HVGR) initiated by residual host T cells. The implication of these findings on the radiobiological nature of the residual T cells and the persistence of potentially anti-donor reactive T-cell clones in long-surviving allogeneic bone marrow chimeras was discussed

  13. The Initial Period of War: A Soviet View,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    of definite operational -strategic importance for the Hitlerite command. They covered the rear of fascist Germany and made possible the extraction of...Kiev was thwarted. *Gen I. V. Boldin , showing the complexity of preparations for the attack planned by the Western Front against the enemy on the...there could not be any question of a counterattack ...... (t. V. Boldin , Stranitsy zhizni tPages of a Lifel (Moscow: Voyenizdat. 1961). p. 96). During

  14. Coder period - amplitude; Codeur periode - amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa Viera, D; Mourchou, R; Calvet, A; Pacchiani, L; Tattegrain, A

    1966-07-01

    For some flowmeters on nuclear reactors, apparatus which deliver an ac signal proportional to the flow, are usually used. This frequency information is converted into a continuous voltage with a coder. The described coder was studied for the Cabri reactor which was requiring a short response delay. (A.L.B.)

  15. Factors influencing initiation of breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwo, E E; Dusdieker, L B; Booth, B M

    1983-04-01

    We used the critical incidence method to study factors motivating 33 primigravidas and 39 multigravidas to initiate breast-feeding of their infants. Women chose breast-feeding because they believed that it would provide protection to the infant against infection, establish maternal-infant bonding, was convenient, provided better nutrition than cow's milk formula, was emotionally satisfying, and was the natural way to feed infants. The decision to breast-feed was made well in advance of pregnancy by primigravidas and shortly before pregnancy by multigravidas. Friends who had successfully nursed infants were as influential as immediate family members in influencing our study subjects in their decision to breast-feed. Prenatal counseling, though important, may not be the optimal period for motivating women to breast-feed.

  16. Student-initiated revision in child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaham, M; Gray, O P; Davies, D P

    1994-03-01

    Most teaching of child health in Cardiff takes place in block attachments of 8 weeks. There is an introductory seminar of 2 days followed by a 6-week clinical attachment in a district general hospital in Wales, and then a revision period of one week designed to help students formalize and structure their basic knowledge and to clarify aspects of child health which they may have had difficulty in understanding. The revision programme has to take into account: the short time available, the small number of teaching staff, the most relevant basic knowledge and active participation by the student. This paper describes how this week has been improved through the use of student-initiated revision (SIR). The students' appraisal of this revision and in particular SIR is presented.

  17. Perfluoroctano líquido como tamponante vitreorretiniano de curta duração no pós-operatório de portadores de descolamento de retina por ruptura gigante Perfluoroctane liquid as a short-term vitreous-retinal tamponade in the postoperative period in patients with retinal detachment due to giant tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carvalho Ventura

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Relatar os resultados de vitrectomia via pars plana com utilização de perfluocarbono líquido (Perfluoroctano-Ophtalmos®, como tamponante vítreo-retiniano de curta duração, no pós-operatório de portadores de descolamento de retina, por ruptura gigante. MÉTODOS: Estudaram-se dez desses pacientes. Todos os casos eram complicados por vitreorretinopatia proliferativa grau B ou pior com rupturas que variavam em extensão de 90º a 210º. O perfluorocarbono líquido foi introduzido, por via pars plana, com o volume necessário para ultrapassar o limite posterior da ruptura, permanecendo no pós-operatório por cinco dias, estando os pacientes em decúbito dorsal. Após esse período submetiam-se a segunda intervenção para troca do perfluorocarbono líquido para gás ou óleo de silicone. RESULTADOS: Após período de acompanhamento médio de 16,2 ± 12,4 meses (2 a 43 meses, 80% das retinas estavam aplicadas, sendo necessária a repetição desta técnica em 1 caso (10% caso e em 2 casos (20% não houve reaplicação da retina por vitreorretinopatia avançada. Houve melhora da acuidade visual em 5 casos (50%. CONCLUSÃO: Observaram-se bons resultados quanto à aplicação da retina (80% e melhora da acuidade visual (50% quando do uso do perfluorocarbono líquido como tamponante vitreorretiniano de curta duração no pós-operatório de cirurgias de descolamento de retina por rupturas gigantes.PURPOSE: To report pars plana vitrectomy results of intravitreous use of liquid perfluorocarbon as a short-term postoperative tamponade in retinal detachment due to giant tears in a series of patients. METHODS: Ten of those patients, all of them complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade B or worse, with tear extension varying from 90º to 210º were studied. Perfluorocarbon liquid was injected via pars plana until the posterior tear limit, remaining in the postoperative period during five days, with the patients in supine position

  18. Period of an Interrupted Pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bradley E.

    2002-11-01

    While demonstrating a classic conservation-of-energy problem to my AP Physics students, I became curious about the periodic motion that ensued for certain initial conditions. The original problem consists of releasing a mass at the end of a string from an initial position horizontal to the plane of a table. The string comes in contact with a peg some distance below the point where the string is attached at the top. One is asked to find what minimum fraction of the string's length should the peg be placed to have the mass complete a circle about the peg. However, when the mass is released from much lower heights, the system undergoes periodic motion that can be thought of as an interrupted pendulum.

  19. Initiating events frequency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Mikulicic, V.; Vukovic, I.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes work performed for the Nuclear Power Station (NPS). Work is related to the periodic initiating events frequency update for the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Data for all relevant NPS initiating events (IE) were reviewed. The main focus was on events occurring during most recent operating history (i.e., last four years). The final IE frequencies were estimated by incorporating both NPS experience and nuclear industry experience. Each event was categorized according to NPS individual plant examination (IPE) initiating events grouping approach. For the majority of the IE groups, few, or no events have occurred at the NPS. For those IE groups with few or no NPS events, the final estimate was made by means of a Bayesian update with general nuclear industry values. Exceptions are rare loss-of-coolant-accidents (LOCA) events, where evaluation of engineering aspects is used in order to determine frequency.(author)

  20. IUTAM a short history

    CERN Document Server

    Juhasz, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This book presents extensive information related to the history of IUTAM. The initial chapters focus on IUTAM’s history and selected organizational aspects. Subsequent chapters provide extensive data and statistics, while the closing section showcases photos from all periods of the Union’s history. The history of IUTAM, the International Union on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, began at a conference in 1922 in Innsbruck, Austria, where von Kármán put forward the idea of an international congress including the whole domain of applied mechanics. In 1946 IUTAM was then formally launched in Paris/France. IUTAM has since time organized more than 24 world congresses and 380 symposia, representing all fields of mechanics and highlighting advances by prominent international researchers. The efforts of IUTAM and its about 50 member countries serve to promote the mechanical sciences and the advancement of human society, addressing many key challenges. In this context, IUTAM preserves important traditions while...

  1. Short Communication: An Update on Initiatives to Reduce Prawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While prawn trawling contributes substantially to the economies of some Western Indian Ocean countries, there is usually a considerable bycatch, much of which is wastefully discarded. Conflict between trawlers and other fisheries sectors often occurs, for example when trawlers catch species which are targeted by these ...

  2. Stationarity and periodicities of linear speed of coronal mass ejection: a statistical signal processing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Anirban; Khondekar, Mofazzal Hossain; Bhattacharjee, Anup Kumar

    2017-09-01

    In this paper initiative has been taken to search the periodicities of linear speed of Coronal Mass Ejection in solar cycle 23. Double exponential smoothing and Discrete Wavelet Transform are being used for detrending and filtering of the CME linear speed time series. To choose the appropriate statistical methodology for the said purpose, Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution (SPWVD) has been used beforehand to confirm the non-stationarity of the time series. The Time-Frequency representation tool like Hilbert Huang Transform and Empirical Mode decomposition has been implemented to unearth the underneath periodicities in the non-stationary time series of the linear speed of CME. Of all the periodicities having more than 95% Confidence Level, the relevant periodicities have been segregated out using Integral peak detection algorithm. The periodicities observed are of low scale ranging from 2-159 days with some relevant periods like 4 days, 10 days, 11 days, 12 days, 13.7 days, 14.5 and 21.6 days. These short range periodicities indicate the probable origin of the CME is the active longitude and the magnetic flux network of the sun. The results also insinuate about the probable mutual influence and causality with other solar activities (like solar radio emission, Ap index, solar wind speed, etc.) owing to the similitude between their periods and CME linear speed periods. The periodicities of 4 days and 10 days indicate the possible existence of the Rossby-type waves or planetary waves in Sun.

  3. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with air (called pneumotho- rax), it will hinder expansion of the lung, resulting in shortness of ... of Chest Physi- cians. Shortness of Breath: Patient Education. http: / / www. onebreath. org/ document. doc? id= 113. ...

  4. Openness initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: open-quotes Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?close quotes To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts

  5. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  6. Initiative hard coal; Initiative Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, J.

    2007-08-02

    In order to decrease the import dependence of hard coal in the European Union, the author has submitted suggestions to the director of conventional sources of energy (directorate general for energy and transport) of the European community, which found a positive resonance. These suggestions are summarized in an elaboration 'Initiative Hard Coal'. After clarifying the starting situation and defining the target the presupposition for a better use of hard coal deposits as raw material in the European Union are pointed out. On that basis concrete suggestions for measures are made. Apart from the conditions of the deposits it concerns thereby also new mining techniques and mining-economical developments, connected with tasks for the mining-machine industry. (orig.)

  7. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  8. The Periodic Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  9. Book Reviews in Periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt, Harold J.

    All recent issues of periodicals found which contain indexed book reviews are listed in this compilation from Drake Memorial Library at the New York State University at Brockport. The periodicals are listed by 29 subject headings in this informal guide designed to be used at Drake Library. The number of reviews in the periodical in a recent year…

  10. Shock dynamics in layered periodic media

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.; Leveque, Randall J.

    2012-01-01

    of shock waves in a one-dimensional periodic layered medium by a computational study of time-reversibility and entropy evolution. We find that periodic layered media tend to inhibit shock formation. For small initial conditions and large impedance variation

  11. 5 CFR 9901.512 - Probationary periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9901.512 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY... Probationary periods. (a) Initial probationary period. (1) An employee who is given a career, career...

  12. Almost Periodicity in Time of Solutions of the Toda Lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Ilia; Damanik, David; Lukic, Milivoje; VandenBoom, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We study an initial value problem for the Toda lattice with almost periodic initial data. We consider initial data for which the associated Jacobi operator is absolutely continuous and has a spectrum satisfying a Craig-type condition, and show the boundedness and almost periodicity in time and space of solutions.

  13. Initial management of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinusas, K; Gagliardi, A

    2001-09-15

    Breast milk is widely accepted as the ideal source of nutrition for infants. In order to ensure success in breastfeeding, it is important that it be initiated as early as possible during the neonatal period. This is facilitated by skin-to-skin contact between the mother and infant immediately following birth. When possible, the infant should be allowed to root and latch on spontaneously within the first hour of life. Many common nursery routines such as weighing the infant, administration of vitamin K and application of ocular antibiotics can be safely delayed until after the initial breastfeeding. Postpartum care practices that improve breastfeeding rates include rooming-in, anticipatory guidance about breastfeeding problems and the avoidance of formula supplementation and pacifiers.

  14. Painful menstrual periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... into two groups, depending on the cause: Primary dysmenorrhea Secondary dysmenorrhea Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that ...

  15. Periodicity and repeatability in data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, D.

    Using magnetic data from the first two years in Saturn orbit, the basic periodicity of apparent is examined with the aim of elucidating the `cam' shaft model of Espinosa et al. (2003) identifying the nature of the `cam' and giving a definitive period for its rotation. An initial hypothesis, supported by the spectral analysis of analysis of the first 8 months in orbit Gianpieri et al. (2006), is made that the source of the period is linked to something inside the planet and therefore that the source inertia means that the period effectively does not change over the 2 years. Moreover one expects that the source phase is fixed. Using this approach, not only can the period identified by spectral analysis (647.1 + 0.6 min.) be verified but also by phase analysis between successive passes over the 2 years the period can be refined to 647.6 + 0.1 min. The signal itself is remarkably reproducible from pass to pass. It appears in all three components of the field and its polarisation is unambiguously not attributable to direct detection of an internal field. Not only does the signal not decay rapidly with distance from the planet, but although it has the m=1 symmetry of a tilted dipole, the field lines diverge from the planet indicating an exterior source. This feature led to the `cam' model. The polarisation and comparisons of passes with different latitude profiles show a surprising north-south symmetry in the azimuthal field. The absence of asymmetry with respect to the magnetic equator rules out a direct magnetospheric-ionospheric interaction source. Accordingly, it is proposed that the basic `cam' effect is generated by a single hemisphere anomaly which creates hemisphere to hemisphere field aligned currents. The existence of Saturn phase related anomaly appears to produce a basic asymmetry in the inner magnetosphere that sets the phase of both an inflowing and outflowing sector in a rotating circulation system.

  16. On some periodicity effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The talk is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of wave-guide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim o...

  17. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  18. Periods and Nori motives

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  19. Thermal fatigue of a 304L austenitic stainless steel: simulation of the initiation and of the propagation of the short cracks in isothermal and aniso-thermal fatigue; Fatigue thermique d'un acier inoxydable austenitique 304L: simulation de l'amorcage et de la croissance des fissures courtes en fatigue isotherme et anisotherme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddar, N

    2003-04-01

    The elbow pipes of thermal plants cooling systems are submitted to thermal variations of short range and of variable frequency. These variations bound to temperature changes of the fluids present a risk of cracks and leakages. In order to solve this problem, EDF has started the 'CRECO RNE 808' plan: 'thermal fatigue of 304L austenitic stainless steels' to study experimentally on a volume part, the initiation and the beginning of the propagation of cracks in thermal fatigue on austenitic stainless steels. The aim of this study is more particularly to compare the behaviour and the damage of the material in mechanic-thermal fatigue (cycling in temperature and cycling in deformation) and in isothermal fatigue (the utmost conditions have been determined by EDF for the metal: Tmax = 165 degrees C and Tmin = 90 degrees C; the frequency of the thermal variations can reach a Hertz). A lot of experimental results are given. A model of lifetime is introduced and validated. (O.M.)

  20. Next generation initiation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Tom; Derber, John; Zupanski, Milija; Cohn, Steve; Verlinde, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Four-dimensional data assimilation strategies can generally be classified as either current or next generation, depending upon whether they are used operationally or not. Current-generation data-assimilation techniques are those that are presently used routinely in operational-forecasting or research applications. They can be classified into the following categories: intermittent assimilation, Newtonian relaxation, and physical initialization. It should be noted that these techniques are the subject of continued research, and their improvement will parallel the development of next generation techniques described by the other speakers. Next generation assimilation techniques are those that are under development but are not yet used operationally. Most of these procedures are derived from control theory or variational methods and primarily represent continuous assimilation approaches, in which the data and model dynamics are 'fitted' to each other in an optimal way. Another 'next generation' category is the initialization of convective-scale models. Intermittent assimilation systems use an objective analysis to combine all observations within a time window that is centered on the analysis time. Continuous first-generation assimilation systems are usually based on the Newtonian-relaxation or 'nudging' techniques. Physical initialization procedures generally involve the use of standard or nonstandard data to force some physical process in the model during an assimilation period. Under the topic of next-generation assimilation techniques, variational approaches are currently being actively developed. Variational approaches seek to minimize a cost or penalty function which measures a model's fit to observations, background fields and other imposed constraints. Alternatively, the Kalman filter technique, which is also under investigation as a data assimilation procedure for numerical weather prediction, can yield acceptable initial conditions for mesoscale models. The

  1. "Fate: The short film"

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Quintana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    "Fate: The Short Film" is a four minute short film which reflects the idea that nobody can escape from the fate. It has a good picture and sound quality with an understandable message for all public and with the collaboration of actors, filmmaker, stylist, script advisor and media technician.

  2. [Shunt and short circuit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Abundis, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Shunt and short circuit are antonyms. In French, the term shunt has been adopted to denote the alternative pathway of blood flow. However, in French, as well as in Spanish, the word short circuit (court-circuit and cortocircuito) is synonymous with shunt, giving rise to a linguistic and scientific inconsistency. Scientific because shunt and short circuit made reference to a phenomenon that occurs in the field of the physics. Because shunt and short circuit are antonyms, it is necessary to clarify that shunt is an alternative pathway of flow from a net of high resistance to a net of low resistance, maintaining the stream. Short circuit is the interruption of the flow, because a high resistance impeaches the flood. This concept is applied to electrical and cardiovascular physiology, as well as to the metabolic pathways.

  3. Handgun waiting periods reduce gun deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Michael; Malhotra, Deepak; Poliquin, Christopher

    2017-11-14

    Handgun waiting periods are laws that impose a delay between the initiation of a purchase and final acquisition of a firearm. We show that waiting periods, which create a "cooling off" period among buyers, significantly reduce the incidence of gun violence. We estimate the impact of waiting periods on gun deaths, exploiting all changes to state-level policies in the Unites States since 1970. We find that waiting periods reduce gun homicides by roughly 17%. We provide further support for the causal impact of waiting periods on homicides by exploiting a natural experiment resulting from a federal law in 1994 that imposed a temporary waiting period on a subset of states. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  4. Mean-periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Berenstein

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.

  5. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2018-04-10

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  6. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  7. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  8. Super periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.

  9. The Periodic Table CD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  10. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  11. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan; Suresh Rama Chandran; Geetha Thirumalnesan; Nedumaran Doraisamy

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recove...

  12. Imaging in short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2012-09-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  13. Imaging in short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  14. Teaching Hemingway's "The Short Happy Life."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    Considers many ways to teach Hemingway's "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber." Explores the ironic implications of Macomber's experience and compares it with the experience of Sammy in another initiation story, John Updike's "A&P." Describes how he leads the discussion about this story, and ends the discussion by…

  15. Vlasov dynamics of periodically driven systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyadip; Shah, Kushal

    2018-04-01

    Analytical solutions of the Vlasov equation for periodically driven systems are of importance in several areas of plasma physics and dynamical systems and are usually approximated using ponderomotive theory. In this paper, we derive the plasma distribution function predicted by ponderomotive theory using Hamiltonian averaging theory and compare it with solutions obtained by the method of characteristics. Our results show that though ponderomotive theory is relatively much easier to use, its predictions are very restrictive and are likely to be very different from the actual distribution function of the system. We also analyse all possible initial conditions which lead to periodic solutions of the Vlasov equation for periodically driven systems and conjecture that the irreducible polynomial corresponding to the initial condition must only have squares of the spatial and momentum coordinate. The resulting distribution function for other initial conditions is aperiodic and can lead to complex relaxation processes within the plasma.

  16. Short bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, L.G.J.B.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of short bowel syndrome. When approximately 1 m or less small bowel is retained after extensive resection, a condition called short bowel syndrome is present. Since the advent of parenteral nutrition, the prognosis of patients with a very short bowel has dramatically improved. Patients with 40 to 100 cm remaining jejunum and/or ileum can generally be maintained with oral nutrition due to increased absorption of the small bowel remnant as result of intestinal adaptation. This study reports clinical, biochemical and nutritional aspects of short bowel patients on oral or parenteral nutrition, emphasizing data on absorption of various nutrients and on bone metabolism. Furthermore, some technical apsects concerning long-term parenteral nutrition are discussed. (Auth.)

  17. Catapults fall short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    In reply to the news story "UK Catapults fall short, claims review of technology centres", which describes an independent review that criticized the management of the UK's network of technology innovation centres.

  18. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    1984-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  19. Imaging in short stature

    OpenAIRE

    Vikas Chaudhary; Shahina Bano

    2012-01-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions ...

  20. Interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with under-dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodov, A.

    2000-12-01

    Different aspects of interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with underdense plasmas are studied analytically and numerically. These studies can be interesting for laser-driven electron acceleration in plasma, X-ray lasers, high-order harmonic generation, initial confinement fusion with fast ignition. For numerical simulations a fully-relativistic particle code WAKE was used, developed earlier at Ecole Polytechnique. It was modified during the work on the thesis in the part of simulation of ion motion, test electron motion, diagnostics for the field and plasma. The studies in the thesis cover the problems of photon acceleration in the plasma wake of a short intense laser pulse, phase velocity of the plasma wave in the Self-Modulated Laser Wake-Field Accelerator (SM LWFA), relativistic channeling of laser pulses with duration of the order of a plasma period, ion dynamics in the wake of a short intense laser pulse, plasma wave breaking. Simulation of three experiments on the laser pulse propagation in plasma and electron acceleration were performed. Among the main results of the thesis, it was found that reduction of the plasma wave phase velocity in the SM LWFA is crucial for electron acceleration, only if a plasma channel is used for the laser pulse guiding. Self-similar structures describing relativistic guiding of short laser pulses in plasmas were found and relativistic channeling of initially Gaussian laser pulses of a few plasma periods in duration was demonstrated. It was shown that ponderomotive force of a plasma wake excited by a short laser pulse forms a channel in plasma and plasma wave breaking in the channel was analyzed in detail. Effectiveness of electron acceleration by the laser field and plasma wave was compared and frequency shift of probe laser pulses by the plasma waves was found in conditions relevant to the current experiments. (author)

  1. The Discrete Beverton-Holt Model with Periodic Harvesting in a Periodically Fluctuating Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyad AlSharawi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of constant and periodic harvesting on the Beverton-Holt model in a periodically fluctuating environment. We show that in a periodically fluctuating environment, periodic harvesting gives a better maximum sustainable yield compared to constant harvesting. However, if one can also fix the environment, then constant harvesting in a constant environment can be a better option, especially for sufficiently large initial populations. Also, we investigate the combinatorial structure of the periodic sequence of carrying capacities and its effect on the maximum sustainable yield. Finally, we leave some questions worth further investigations.

  2. Short-timescale variability in cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, F.A.; Mason, K.O.

    1982-01-01

    Rapid variability, including flickering and pulsations, has been detected in cataclysmic binaries at optical and x-ray frequencies. In the case of the novalike variable TT Arietis, simultaneous observations reveal that the x-ray and optical flickering activity is strongly correlated, while short period pulsations are observed that occur at the same frequencies in both wavelength bands

  3. Periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluck, E.; Heumann, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups of the periodic table shall be numbered from 1 to 18, instead of I to VIII as before. The recommendations has been approved of by the Committee on Nomenclature of the American Chemical Society. The new system abandons the distinction between main groups (a) and auxiliary groups (b), which in the past frequently has been the reason for misunderstandings between European and American chemists, due to different handling. The publishing house VCH Verlagsgesellschaft recently produced a new periodic table that shows the old and the new numbering system together at a glance, so that chemists will have time to get familiar with the new system. In addition the new periodic table represents an extensive data compilation arranged by elements. The front page lists the chemical properties of elements, the back page their physical properties. (orig./EF) [de

  4. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recovery after the medical intervention and was discharged after 24 hours with no residual paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP is a complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common amongst males in Asia. It presents as acute flaccid paralysis in a case of hyperthyroidism with associated hypokalemia. The features of thyrotoxicosis may be subtle or absent. Thus, in cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to consider thyrotoxicosis as one of the possible causes, and take measures accordingly.

  5. Periodicity and Immortality in Reversible Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Kari , Jarkko; Ollinger , Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Additional material available on the web at http://www.lif.univ-mrs.fr/~nollinge/rec/gnirut/; We investigate the decidability of the periodicity and the immortality problems in three models of reversible computation: reversible counter machines, reversible Turing machines and reversible one-dimensional cellular automata. Immortality and periodicity are properties that describe the behavior of the model starting from arbitrary initial configurations: immortality is the property of having at le...

  6. Periodically poled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  7. Hereditary periodic fever syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermott, MF; Frenkel, J

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are defined by recurrent attacks of generalised inflammation for which no infectious or auto-immune cause can be identified. For most of these disorders, the molecular basis has recently been elucidated. This has opened the prospect of novel therapeutic

  8. Almost periodic Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissard, J.; Lima, R.

    1984-01-01

    These lectures are devoted to recent developments in the theory of almost-periodic Schroedinger Operators. We specially describe the algebraic point of view, with applications to gap-labelling theorems. Particular models are also presented which exhibit various spectral properties. (orig.)

  9. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed

  10. Periodic Table of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  11. A Modern Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  12. Multi-Period Trading via Convex Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Stephen; Busseti, Enzo; Diamond, Steve

    2017-01-01

    We consider a basic model of multi-period trading, which can be used to evaluate the performance of a trading strategy. We describe a framework for single-period optimization, where the trades in each period are found by solving a convex optimization problem that trades off expected return, risk......, transaction cost and holding cost such as the borrowing cost for shorting assets. We then describe a multi-period version of the trading method, where optimization is used to plan a sequence of trades, with only the first one executed, using estimates of future quantities that are unknown when the trades....... In this paper, we do not address a critical component in a trading algorithm, the predictions or forecasts of future quantities. The methods we describe in this paper can be thought of as good ways to exploit predictions, no matter how they are made. We have also developed a companion open-source software...

  13. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)

  14. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented

  15. Short Stature in Chronic Kidney Disease Treated with Growth Hormone and an Aromatase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan R. Mendley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an alternative strategy for management of severe growth failure in a 14-year-old child who presented with advanced chronic kidney disease close to puberty. The patient was initially treated with growth hormone for a year until kidney transplantation, followed immediately by a year-long course of an aromatase inhibitor, anastrozole, to prevent epiphyseal fusion and prolong the period of linear growth. Outcome was excellent, with successful transplant and anticipated complete correction of height deficit. This strategy may be appropriate for children with chronic kidney disease and short stature who are in puberty.

  16. Short-crested waves in deep water: a numerical investigation of recent laboratory experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2006-01-01

    A numerical study of quasi-steady, doubly-periodic monochromatic short-crested wave patterns in deep water is conducted using a high-order Boussinesq-type model. Simulations using linear wavemaker conditions in the nonlinear model are initially used to approximate conditions from recent laboratory...... experiments. The computed patterns share many features with those observed in wavetanks, including bending (both frontwards and backwards) of the wave crests, dipping at the crest centerlines, and a pronounced long modulation in the direction of propagation. A new and simple explanation for these features...

  17. Periodic folding of viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, Neil M.

    2003-09-01

    The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.

  18. Short notice inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouchkarev, V.

    1998-01-01

    For 30 years the IAEA safeguards system have evolved and have been strengthened by the regular introduction of new methods and techniques, improving both its effectiveness and efficiency. The member States of the IAEA have indicated their willingness to accept new obligations and associated technical measure that greatly strengthen the nuclear safeguards system. One element of this is the extent to which the IAEA inspectors have physical access to relevant locations for the purpose of providing independent verification of the exclusively peaceful intent of a State nuclear program. The Protocol to Safeguards granted new legal authority with respect to information on, and short notice inspector access to, all buildings on a nuclear site and administrative agreements that improve the process of designating inspectors and IAEA access to modern means of communication. This report is a short description of unannounced or short notice inspections as measures on which the new strengthened and cost efficient system will be based

  19. An association between initiation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and suicide - a nationwide register-based case-crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Björkenstam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI is one of the most common treatments for depression. It is however not clear whether or not there is an increased short-term suicide risk during initiation with SSRI. METHODS: A register-based nationwide case-crossover study including 5,866 suicides, 1,698 women and 4,168 men, from the Death Register 2007-2010 in Sweden. SSRI initiation was defined as a dispensed prescription of SSRI within 28 days prior to the date of suicide with no previous dispensed prescription of SSRI within 4 months prior that prescription. The control period took place one year earlier. Odds ratio (OR was estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULT: During the 28 day period prior to suicide 48 women and 138 men were exposed to SSRI initiation (while not being exposed in the control period and 22 women and 43 men were exposed in the control period (while not being exposed in the case period. The OR for suicide after initiation with SSRI was 2.7 (95% CI: 1.6-44 for women, and 4.3 (95% CI: 3.0-6.1 for men. The highest OR was found 8-11 days after initiation with SSRI 9.7 (95% CI: 3.0-31.7 for women and men combined. CONCLUSION: The main limitation in this study is confounding by indication, but the descriptive question is however not confounded by indication. Together with plausible biological mechanisms and previous clinical and epidemiological observations our findings, linking initiation of SSRI to increased short-term suicide risk, deserve further attention specifically in the clinical setting.

  20. Detecting short circuits during assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Detector circuit identifies shorts between bus bars of electronic equipment being wired. Detector sounds alarm and indicates which planes are shorted. Power and ground bus bars are scanned continuously until short circuit occurs.

  1. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself

  2. Short wavelength FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs

  3. Short wavelength FELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Periodic orbits near the particle resonance in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George

    1978-01-01

    Near the particle resonance of a spiral galaxy the almost circular periodic orbits that exist inside the resonance (direct) or outside it (retrograde) are replaced by elongated trapped orbits around the maxima of the potential L/sub 4/ and L/sub 5/. These are the long- period trapped periodic orbits. The long-period orbits shrink to the points L/sub 4/, L/sub 5/ for a critical value of the Hamiltonian h. For still larger h, a family of short-period trapped orbits appears, with continuously growing size. The evolution of the periodic orbits with h is followed, theoretically and numerically, from the untrapped orbits to the long-periodic orbits and then to the short-periodic orbits, mainly in the case of a bar. In a tight spiral case an explanation of the asymmetric periodic and banana orbits is given, and an example of short-period orbits not surrounding L/sub 4/ or L/sub 5/ is provided. Another family of periodic orbits reaching corotation is trapped at the inner Lindblad resonance. (5 refs).

  5. Short Stature Diagnosis and Referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Maghnie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The “360° GH in Europe” meeting, which examined various aspects of GH diseases, was held in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 2016. The Merck KGaA (Germany funded meeting comprised three sessions entitled “Short Stature Diagnosis and Referral,” “Optimizing Patient Management,” and “Managing Transition.” Each session had three speaker presentations, followed by a discussion period, and is reported as a manuscript, authored by the speakers. The first session examined current processes of diagnosis and referral by endocrine specialists for pediatric patients with short stature. Requirements for referral vary widely, by country and by patient characteristics such as age. A balance must be made to ensure eligible patients get referred while healthcare systems are not over-burdened by excessive referrals. Late referral and diagnosis of non-GH deficiency conditions can result in increased morbidity and mortality. The consequent delays in making a diagnosis may compromise the effectiveness of GH treatment. Algorithms for growth monitoring and evaluation of skeletal disproportions can improve identification of non-GH deficiency conditions. Performance and validation of guidelines for diagnosis of GH deficiency have not been sufficiently tested. Provocative tests for investigation of GH deficiency remain equivocal, with insufficient information on variations due to patient characteristics, and cutoff values for definition differ not only by country but also by the assay used. When referring and diagnosing causes of short stature in pediatric patients, clinicians need to rely on many factors, but the most essential is clinical experience.

  6. Periodic variations of cosmic ray intensity with period of -37 minute observed on April 25th, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takasuke; Kato, Masahito; Takei, Ryoji; Tamai, Eiji

    1985-01-01

    Existence of cosmic ray variation with period ranging from a few hours to seconds during geomagnetically quiet and perturb period at different altitude with different detector, was reported previously. As short period variation is thought to be transient with small amplitude fluctuation, consequently high counting rate of cosmic ray and appropriate method for finding short periodicity, is required. Further, there is similar phenomenon in which short variation, followed by storm sudden commencement (SSC) and/or Forbush decrease (FD) occurs. In 1979, Kato et al. used 3 minutes data at Mt. Norikura and obtained -6 x 10 5 count/min, and tried to find out short periodicity of cosmic ray around SSC, but no clear conclusion was obtained. T. Sakai, et al., used plastic scintillation counter of Akeno observatory, following their preceding work. The counter has an area about 154 m 2 . High counting rate of -2 x 10 6 counts/min. was observed at Akeno which revealed the existence of -37 minute periodical oscillation with an amplitude of 0.1 % in p-p during the time period of 1300 - 1900 UT on April 25th 1984, one day before FD. Observed periodical oscillation of cosmic ray counting rate may be the result of the changes in magnetic field. But, it must be noted that there remains possibility of oscillation of cosmic ray intensity in the interplanetary space during the period, independent of geomagnetic field. (author)

  7. 5 CFR 317.503 - Probationary period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (b) When a career appointee's executive qualification have been certified by a Qualifications Review... THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Career Appointments § 317.503 Probationary period. (a) An individual's initial appointment as an SES career appointee becomes final only after the individual has served a 1-year...

  8. Short-Term International Internship Experiences for Future Teachers and Other Child Development Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kari Knutson; Gonzalez, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines outcomes associated with participation in short-term, international internship experiences. Results suggest short-term international internship experiences contribute to rich personal and professional development outcomes. Findings highlight participant challenges associated with initial internship experiences, professional…

  9. SHORT COMMUNICATION POTENTIOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. POTENTIOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF K+ IONS USING A K+-SELECTIVE. ELECTRODE WITH MACROCYCLIC LIQUID MEMBRANE. Cezar Spinu*, Marian Isvoranu, Maria Pleniceanu and Cristian Tigae. Faculty of Chemistry, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza 13, Craiova, Romania. (Received ...

  10. Biorefineries: A Short Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemann, Kurt; Tippkötter, Nils

    2018-04-13

    The terms bioeconomy and biorefineries are used for a variety of processes and developments. This short introduction is intended to provide a delimitation and clarification of the terminology as well as a classification of current biorefinery concepts. The basic process diagrams of the most important biorefinery types are shown.

  11. Nature versus nurture? Consequences of short captivity in early stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horreo, Jose L; Valiente, America G; Ardura, Alba; Blanco, Aida; Garcia-Gonzalez, Claudia; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2018-01-01

    Biological changes occurring as a consequence of domestication and/or captivity are not still deeply known. In Atlantic salmon (S almo salar ), endangered (Southern Europe) populations are enhanced by supportive breeding, which involves only 6 months of captive rearing following artificial spawning of wild-collected adults. In this work, we assess whether several fitness-correlated life-history traits (migratory behavior, straying rate, age at maturity, and growth) are affected by early exposure to the captive environment within a generation, before reproduction thus before genetic selection. Results showed significant differences in growth and migratory behavior (including straying), associated with this very short period of captivity in natural fish populations, changing even genetic variability (decreased in hatchery-reared adults) and the native population structure within and between rivers of the species. These changes appeared within a single generation, suggesting very short time of captivity is enough for initiating changes normally attributed to domestication. These results may have potential implications for the long-term population stability/viability of species subjected to restoration and enhancement processes and could be also considered for the management of zoo populations.

  12. Polysheroidal periodic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truskova, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    Separation of variables in the Helmholtz N-dimensional (N≥4) equation in polyspheroidal coordinate systems leads to the necessity of solving equations going over into equations for polyspheroidal periodic functions used for solving the two-centre problem in quantum mechanics, the three-body problem with Coulomb interaction, etc. For these functions the expansions are derived in terms of the Jacobi polynomials and Bessel functions. Their basic properties, asymptotics are considered. The algorithm of their computer calculations is developed. The results of numerical calculations are given

  13. Confusion in the Periodic Table of the Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernelius, W. C.; Powell, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses long (expanded), short (condensed), and pyramidal periodic table formats and documents events leading to a periodic table in which subgroups (families) are designated with the letters A and B, suggesting that this format is confusing for those consulting the table. (JN)

  14. Changes in plant availability of Pu-238 during a nine year experimental period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Aa.

    1985-01-01

    A short description is given of the changes observed in the plant availability of Pu-238 in eight soils during a nine year experimental period. It was found that during the first four-year period with clover as test crop, the plant uptake of Pu-238 was reduced with availability half lives ranging from 0.8 to 2.0 years. The reduction rate seemed proportional to the initial uptake levels, except for lime rich clay soils, where the reduction rate was high regardless of the uptake level. In 1980 when the test crop clover was replaced by spring wheat, the necessary soil management operations caused intenser aeration and drying in one block of the replicates. As a consequence, the Pu-uptake in that block became considerably higher than in the others. This event can be interpreted as an indirect evidence for the reversibility of that process in soil, which has caused the reduced plant availability of Pu-238

  15. Quasi-periodic luminosity variations in dwarf novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, E.L.; Nather, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    We have identified quasi-periodic oscillations in the light curves of five dwarf novae--U Gem, SS Cyg, RU Peg, KT Per, and VW Hyi-- and in the light curve of the quasi-periodic X-ray source Sco X-1. The mean periods of the quasi-periodic oscillations range from 32 s in SS Cyg to 147 s in KT Per and 165 s in Sco X-l. Their amplitudes are typically 0.005--0.0l mag. The properties of the quasi-periodic oscillations are represented well by a second-order autoregressive process. Use of this representation shows that the length of time over which the quasi-periodic oscillations maintain coherence is very short, typically 3--5 cycles of the oscillations. Thus the quasi-periodic oscillations can be distinguished from the short-period coherent oscillations in dwarf novae, which are usually interpreted as white dwarf pulsations, because t the periods of the quasi-periodic oscillations are 3--4 times longer and their coherence time is much shorter. The quasi-periodic oscillations occur in dwarf novae only during their eruptions and occur in Sco X-l only when the system is bright. The presence of the oscillations does not depend on the subclass to which a dwarf nova belongs or on the morphology of the individual eruptions. We argue that their short periods, their short coherence times, and their presence in Sco X-l require that the quasi-periodic oscillations be produced by the accretion disk, and not by the stars or by the boundary between the a accretion disk and its central star

  16. Production and ecological aspects of short rotation poplars in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karacic, Almir

    2005-02-01

    Poplars (Populus sp.) are widely used in short rotation forestry for production of biomass for bioenergy, fibre and environmental services. Swedish short rotation forestry is based on Salix sp., and little is known about the production potential of poplar plantations and their effects on the environment. This thesis focuses on four aspects of intensive short rotation forestry with poplars: 1) Biomass production and partitioning at several initial densities and a range of latitudes and growing conditions in Sweden, 2) the effects of poplar plantation on floristic diversity in the Swedish agricultural landscape, 3) the pattern of wind damage and its effects on production in poplar plantations in southern Sweden, and 4) ecological characterisation of poplar varieties in short-term experiments with pot-grown plants. Annual biomass production in poplar plots and plantations over a rotation period of 9-14 years ranges between 3.3 and 9.2 Mg/ha/yr. These high production figures are achieved on relatively fertile, non-fertilised and non-irrigated agricultural land. The production assessments for commercial poplar plantations established at lower initial densities (1000 trees/ha) in southern Sweden indicate a similar production potential as in closely spaced cultures (5000 trees/ha), though at 3-5 years longer rotations. Lower initial densities enable higher pulpwood yields along with the production of biomass for bioenergy. A comparison among 21 poplar plots, 0.1-13 ha large and adjacent arable fields, indicates that small poplar plantations may increase floristic diversity on a landscape scale, mainly by providing a different type of habitat that may favour shade-tolerant and draught-sensitive species. This is reflected by a relatively low number of species shared by both types of habitat. Wind damage in two poplar plantations, 15 and 33 ha large, was assessed using wind damage classes based on leaning angle of individual trees on plots established before wind damage

  17. Short-term memories with a stochastic perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, Jose C.A. de; Batista, Antonio M.; Viana, Ricardo L.; Lopes, Sergio R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate short-term memories in linear and weakly nonlinear coupled map lattices with a periodic external input. We use locally coupled maps to present numerical results about short-term memory formation adding a stochastic perturbation in the maps and in the external input

  18. Magnetomechanically induced long period fiber gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causado-Buelvas, Jesus D.; Gomez-Cardona, Nelson D.; Torres, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we report a simple, flexible method to create long period fiber gratings mechanically by controlling the repulsion/attraction force between two magnets that pressing a plate with a periodic array of small glass cylinders to a short length of optical fiber. Via the photoelastic effect, the pressure points induce the required periodic refractive index modulation to create the LPFG. We found that the induced device exhibits spectral characteristics similar to those of other types of LPFG. As the optical properties of LPFGs are directly related to the nature of the applied perturbations, we show, to our knowledge for the frrst time, how is the evolution of birefringence effects in mechanically induced LPFGs

  19. Short pulse laser systems for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Kunal

    2017-01-01

    This book presents practical information on the clinical applications of short pulse laser systems and the techniques for optimizing these applications in a manner that will be relevant to a broad audience, including engineering and medical students as well as researchers, clinicians, and technicians. Short pulse laser systems are useful for both subsurface tissue imaging and laser induced thermal therapy (LITT), which hold great promise in cancer diagnostics and treatment. Such laser systems may be used alone or in combination with optically active nanoparticles specifically administered to the tissues of interest for enhanced contrast in imaging and precise heating during LITT. Mathematical and computational models of short pulse laser-tissue interactions that consider the transient radiative transport equation coupled with a bio-heat equation considering the initial transients of laser heating were developed to analyze the laser-tissue interaction during imaging and therapy. Experiments were first performe...

  20. Short-termism in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Therese

    2016-01-01

    The 2007–08 global financial crisis gave rise to an extensive debate in the United States (US) on short-termism and its influence on agency relationships, incentives, and fiduciary duties. This debate and the consecutive legal creativity of US policymakers display spillover effects and constitute...... an influential source of inspiration for politicians and lawmakers in foreign jurisdictions. The European Commission currently proposes to amend the Shareholder Rights Directive (2007/36/EC) to counterbalance the financial sector’s alleged triumph over industry. The initiative is motivated primarily...... that the short-termism concept, despite its contemporary authority in the post-financial crisis era on both sides of the Atlantic, is misguided, and even more so in the European context. The Article concludes that the proposed amendments should not be expected to solve short-termism problems or alter...

  1. Heterogeneity in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample comprises 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales - durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals - for EE bursts are factors of approx 2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts - the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width - continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/XRT. The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (approx 6 X 10(exp -10) erg / sq cm/ s) is approx > 20 x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (approx 60,000 s) is approx 30 x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into more dense environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently p()wers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  2. HETEROGENEITY IN SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels, Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample is comprised of 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales-durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals-for EE bursts are factors of ∼2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts-the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width-continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition, we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/X-Ray Telescope (XRT). The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (∼6x10 -10 erg cm -2 s -1 ) is ∼>20x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (∼60,000 s) is ∼30x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into denser environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently powers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  3. Short pulse neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2016-08-02

    Short pulse neutron generators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the short pulse neutron generator includes a Blumlein structure. The Blumlein structure includes a first conductive plate, a second conductive plate, a third conductive plate, at least one of an inductor or a resistor, a switch, and a dielectric material. The first conductive plate is positioned relative to the second conductive plate such that a gap separates these plates. A vacuum chamber is positioned in the gap, and an ion source is positioned to emit ions in the vacuum chamber. The third conductive plate is electrically grounded, and the switch is operable to electrically connect and disconnect the second conductive plate and the third conductive plate. The at least one of the resistor or the inductor is coupled to the first conductive plate and the second conductive plate.

  4. Abnormal temperature control after intoxication with short-acting barbiturates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villota, E D; Mosquera, J M; Shubin, H; Weil, M H

    1981-09-01

    Changes in rectal and toe temperatures were measured in 16 patients who had been intoxicated with short-acting barbiturates. The lowest temperatures observed in the group of 16 patients averaged 35.5 +/- 2.0 degrees C. In 11 patients, the interval between intoxication and admission was documented. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.83) between the time of estimated intoxication and hypothermia. Patients who were admitted soon after the ingestion of the barbiturates had the lowest rectal temperatures. These observations indicate that hypothermia is a usual clinical sign in the initial period after intoxication with a short-acting barbiturate. Except for 2 patients, rectal temperature exceeded 38 degrees C during the interval of recovery with the maximum rectal temperature averaging 39.0 +/- 0.8 degrees C. Hyperthermia was not related to infection of the airways, lungs, urinary tract, or bloodstream. In 11 patients, pathogenic organisms were recovered from the airway and/or urine, but there was no difference in the highest rectal temperature in these patients (39.0 +/- 0.9 degrees C) when compared with 5 patients from whom no pathogenic organisms were recovered (39.2 +/- 0.7 degrees C). Accordingly, there was no evidence that hyperthermia was due to infection. The skin temperatures of the ventrum of the first toe were not typically decreased during hypothermia. To the contrary, increases in skin temperatures were often observed during hypothermia. These observations provide evidence of altered thermoregulation with increased surface heat loss accounting for the hypothermia in the early course and heat conservation with hyperthermia during the later course of intoxication by short-acting barbiturates.

  5. Short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulouse, G.

    This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.

  6. European wind power integration study. Periodic report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This periodic report no. 1 describes the work done in the Danish part of the European Wind Power Integration Study in the period until 1.4.1991. The R and D project was initiated January 1, 1989 upon prior establishment of registration equipment at 7 wind farms and at the Tjaereborg turbine. ELSAM and the meteorological service centre in Karup (VTC-Karup) have supplied data for the task. Wind Predictability, Potential and Benefits, Wind Farm - Grid Interface, Distribution System Strength, Wind Farm Cost and Operation, and Co-generation Wind Turbines/Other renewables were measured and modelled. The statistical distribution of the wind speed variations (changes in wind speed from one period of time to another) has been established with great certainty in the report. The wind speed variations follow a Weibull distribution, irrespective of the time intervals with which the data are considered. Duration curves and power distributions for the 7 wind farms have been estimated. Registration equipment for one-minute measurements was chosen in order to clarify the short-term variations in the wind power production. The possibility of working out production forecasts, to be applied in the daily load dispatching, were to be assessed for the total amount of wind power production in Jutland and Funen. The report has examined whether it would be possible to have only one wind measurement and then let it be `guiding` for the total wind farm production. Some simulations are to be carried out in the attempt to set up guidelines for the connection between the strength of distribution systems and the requirements which must be made to the wind farms which are to be places in the system. (EG)

  7. Estimating the short-circuit impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1997-01-01

    A method for establishing a complex value of the short-circuit impedance from naturally occurring variations in voltage and current is discussed. It is the symmetrical three phase impedance at the fundamental grid frequency there is looked for. The positive sequence components in voltage...... and current are derived each period, and the short-circuit impedance is estimated from variations in these components created by load changes in the grid. Due to the noisy and dynamic grid with high harmonic distortion it is necessary to threat the calculated values statistical. This is done recursively...... through a RLS-algorithm. The algorithms have been tested and implemented on a PC at a 132 kV substation supplying a rolling mill. Knowing the short-circuit impedance gives the rolling mill an opportunity to adjust the arc furnace operation to keep flicker below a certain level. Therefore, the PC performs...

  8. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  9. Innovation: study of 'ultra-short' time reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    This short article presents the new Elyse facility of Orsay-Paris 11 university for the study of ultra-short chemical and biochemical phenomena. Elyse uses the 'pump-probe' technique which consists in two perfectly synchronized electron and photon pulses. It comprises a 3 to 9 MeV electron accelerator with a HF gun photo-triggered with a laser. Elyse can initiate reactions using ultra-short electron pulses (radiolysis) or ultra-short photon pulses (photolysis). (J.S.)

  10. Broiler adaptation to post-hatching period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiorka Alex

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the latest years more attention has been given to mechanisms for bird adaptation at post-hatching period by management of environmental conditions and formulations of diets offered during this period when digestive, immune, and thermo-regulating systems suffer slight changes. In post-hatching period, digestive system is anatomically complete, but its functionality is still immature in relation to adult birds. The chick immunity depends on maternal antibodies transferred to egg just before laying. In addition, variations within thermal comfort zone might affect initial development of chick. For example, high temperatures may induce hyperthermia with dehydration, while low temperatures may lead to hypothermia responsible by pulmonary hypertension syndrome. In conclusion, productivity might be enhanced when good conditions are offered to chicks during the period from last embryo development to first days after hatching.

  11. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  12. On complex periodic motions and bifurcations in a periodically forced, damped, hardening Duffing oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yu; Luo, Albert C.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, analytically predicted are complex periodic motions in the periodically forced, damped, hardening Duffing oscillator through discrete implicit maps of the corresponding differential equations. Bifurcation trees of periodic motions to chaos in such a hardening Duffing oscillator are obtained. The stability and bifurcation analysis of periodic motion in the bifurcation trees is carried out by eigenvalue analysis. The solutions of all discrete nodes of periodic motions are computed by the mapping structures of discrete implicit mapping. The frequency-amplitude characteristics of periodic motions are computed that are based on the discrete Fourier series. Thus, the bifurcation trees of periodic motions are also presented through frequency-amplitude curves. Finally, based on the analytical predictions, the initial conditions of periodic motions are selected, and numerical simulations of periodic motions are carried out for comparison of numerical and analytical predictions. The harmonic amplitude spectrums are also given for the approximate analytical expressions of periodic motions, which can also be used for comparison with experimental measurement. This study will give a better understanding of complex periodic motions in the hardening Duffing oscillator.

  13. Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Hart, Jeffrey D.; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both

  14. Short-term memory across eye blinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of eye blinks on short-term memory was examined in two experiments. On each trial, participants viewed an initial display of coloured, oriented lines, then after a retention interval they viewed a test display that was either identical or different by one feature. Participants kept their eyes open throughout the retention interval on some blocks of trials, whereas on others they made a single eye blink. Accuracy was measured as a function of the number of items in the display to determine the capacity of short-term memory on blink and no-blink trials. In separate blocks of trials participants were instructed to remember colour only, orientation only, or both colour and orientation. Eye blinks reduced short-term memory capacity by approximately 0.6-0.8 items for both feature and conjunction stimuli. A third, control, experiment showed that a button press during the retention interval had no effect on short-term memory capacity, indicating that the effect of an eye blink was not due to general motoric dual-task interference. Eye blinks might instead reduce short-term memory capacity by interfering with attention-based rehearsal processes.

  15. Periodic local MP2 method employing orbital specific virtuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usvyat, Denis; Schütz, Martin; Maschio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    We introduce orbital specific virtuals (OSVs) to represent the truncated pair-specific virtual space in periodic local Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of second order (LMP2). The OSVs are constructed by diagonalization of the LMP2 amplitude matrices which correspond to diagonal Wannier-function (WF) pairs. Only a subset of these OSVs is adopted for the subsequent OSV-LMP2 calculation, namely, those with largest contribution to the diagonal pair correlation energy and with the accumulated value of these contributions reaching a certain accuracy. The virtual space for a general (non diagonal) pair is spanned by the union of the two OSV sets related to the individual WFs of the pair. In the periodic LMP2 method, the diagonal LMP2 amplitude matrices needed for the construction of the OSVs are calculated in the basis of projected atomic orbitals (PAOs), employing very large PAO domains. It turns out that the OSVs are excellent to describe short range correlation, yet less appropriate for long range van der Waals correlation. In order to compensate for this bias towards short range correlation, we augment the virtual space spanned by the OSVs by the most diffuse PAOs of the corresponding minimal PAO domain. The Fock and overlap matrices in OSV basis are constructed in the reciprocal space. The 4-index electron repulsion integrals are calculated by local density fitting and, for distant pairs, via multipole approximation. New procedures for determining the fit-domains and the distant-pair lists, leading to higher efficiency in the 4-index integral evaluation, have been implemented. Generally, and in contrast to our previous PAO based periodic LMP2 method, the OSV-LMP2 method does not require anymore great care in the specification of the individual domains (to get a balanced description when calculating energy differences) and is in that sense a black box procedure. Discontinuities in potential energy surfaces, which may occur for PAO-based calculations if one is not

  16. Periodic local MP2 method employing orbital specific virtuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usvyat, Denis, E-mail: denis.usvyat@chemie.uni-regensburg.de; Schütz, Martin, E-mail: martin.schuetz@chemie.uni-regensburg.de [Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstraße 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Maschio, Lorenzo, E-mail: lorenzo.maschio@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, and Centre of Excellence NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces), Università di Torino, via Giuria 5, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2015-09-14

    We introduce orbital specific virtuals (OSVs) to represent the truncated pair-specific virtual space in periodic local Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of second order (LMP2). The OSVs are constructed by diagonalization of the LMP2 amplitude matrices which correspond to diagonal Wannier-function (WF) pairs. Only a subset of these OSVs is adopted for the subsequent OSV-LMP2 calculation, namely, those with largest contribution to the diagonal pair correlation energy and with the accumulated value of these contributions reaching a certain accuracy. The virtual space for a general (non diagonal) pair is spanned by the union of the two OSV sets related to the individual WFs of the pair. In the periodic LMP2 method, the diagonal LMP2 amplitude matrices needed for the construction of the OSVs are calculated in the basis of projected atomic orbitals (PAOs), employing very large PAO domains. It turns out that the OSVs are excellent to describe short range correlation, yet less appropriate for long range van der Waals correlation. In order to compensate for this bias towards short range correlation, we augment the virtual space spanned by the OSVs by the most diffuse PAOs of the corresponding minimal PAO domain. The Fock and overlap matrices in OSV basis are constructed in the reciprocal space. The 4-index electron repulsion integrals are calculated by local density fitting and, for distant pairs, via multipole approximation. New procedures for determining the fit-domains and the distant-pair lists, leading to higher efficiency in the 4-index integral evaluation, have been implemented. Generally, and in contrast to our previous PAO based periodic LMP2 method, the OSV-LMP2 method does not require anymore great care in the specification of the individual domains (to get a balanced description when calculating energy differences) and is in that sense a black box procedure. Discontinuities in potential energy surfaces, which may occur for PAO-based calculations if one is not

  17. Progresso da ferrugem e da cercosporiose em cafeeiro (coffea arabica l. Com diferentes épocas de início e parcelamentos da fertirrigação Progress of coffee rust and brown eye spot with differents periods at initial irrigation and fertirrigation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Talamini

    2003-02-01

    .Evaluations of incidence of rust (Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Br. and brown eye spot (Cercospora coffeicola Berk. & Cooke took place at intervals of 14 days, observing 6 leaves per plant during the period from March 21, 1998 to February 6, 1999 in a 'Catuai' culture. The objective was to evaluate the effect of irrigation and fertirrigation on the incidence of rust and in 12 year coffee plants and analyze the progress curve of these diseases and their correlation to climatic variables. The experimental design was the one of randomized blocks with four treatments of different fertilizer splitting (1: 12 hand applications, 2:12 applications via fertirrigation, 3: 24 fertirrigated applications, 4: 36 fertirrigated applications. The plots were divided in 3 subplots that received treatments in different periods at initial irrigation (subplots A: June 1, B: July 15, C: September 1, and 2 checks (additional treats 1: fertilized 4 times and not irrigated, additional treats 2: conventional fertilizer and not irrigated. The area under disease progress curve (AUDPC was calculated and submitted to variance analysis and Tukey's test at 5% probability. For the coffee rust, no treatment was significant. Curve progress showed maximum incidences in the months of July and September. There was a significant correlation at 1% probability among all the treatments and climatic variables, with the exception of the maximum temperature. For brown eye spot, the treatments attributed to the plots and to the subplots were significant at 1% of probability. However, the interaction between the two was non-significant. Greater AUDPC in splitting fertilizer 2 and 4 was observed. In the subplots, greater AUDPC in check E following for D was observed. Curve progress showed maximum incidences from May to July. There was a significant correlation of brown eye spot incidence in the majority of the treatments in relation to climatic variables.

  18. Short Pulse Laser Applications Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Town, R.J.; Clark, D.S.; Kemp, A.J.; Lasinski, B.F.; Tabak, M.

    2008-01-01

    We are applying our recently developed, LDRD-funded computational simulation tool to optimize and develop applications of Fast Ignition (FI) for stockpile stewardship. This report summarizes the work performed during a one-year exploratory research LDRD to develop FI point designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These results were sufficiently encouraging to propose successfully a strategic initiative LDRD to design and perform the definitive FI experiment on the NIF. Ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will begin in 2010 using the central hot spot (CHS) approach, which relies on the simultaneous compression and ignition of a spherical fuel capsule. Unlike this approach, the fast ignition (FI) method separates fuel compression from the ignition phase. In the compression phase, a laser such as NIF is used to implode a shell either directly, or by x rays generated from the hohlraum wall, to form a compact dense (∼300 g/cm 3 ) fuel mass with an areal density of ∼3.0 g/cm 2 . To ignite such a fuel assembly requires depositing ∼20kJ into a ∼35 (micro)m spot delivered in a short time compared to the fuel disassembly time (∼20ps). This energy is delivered during the ignition phase by relativistic electrons generated by the interaction of an ultra-short high-intensity laser. The main advantages of FI over the CHS approach are higher gain, a lower ignition threshold, and a relaxation of the stringent symmetry requirements required by the CHS approach. There is worldwide interest in FI and its associated science. Major experimental facilities are being constructed which will enable 'proof of principle' tests of FI in integrated subignition experiments, most notably the OMEGA-EP facility at the University of Rochester's Laboratory of Laser Energetics and the FIREX facility at Osaka University in Japan. Also, scientists in the European Union have recently proposed the construction of a new FI facility, called HiPER, designed to

  19. Long- and short-term trends in vessel conditioning of TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaMarche, P.H.; Dylla, H.F.; Bell, M.G.

    1986-10-01

    We have investigated trends in the conditioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) vacuum vessel during the May 1984 to April 1985 run period. The initial conditioning of the vessel, consisting of glow discharge cleaning (GDC) and pulse discharge cleaning (PDC) in concert with a 150 0 C vessel bakeout, is necessary to assure plasma operation after atmospheric venting. A long-term conditioning process, ascribed to limiter conditioning, effectively improves operational conditions during the course of the run. Over several thousand high power plasma discharges, the improvement was documented by using standard parameter (fiducial) plasma discharges. Several techniques demonstrated short-term improvements in vessel conditioning during this time period, including: Cr gettering and programming the plasma position relative to the limiter contact area

  20. The Effects of Price Stabilization on Short-Term Returns of IPOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Beserra Pinheiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the price stabilization in IPOs the underwriter repurchases part of the issue (ASC for aftermarket short covering. Such activity raises question about its real purpose: to keep price artificially high and deceive investors, or avoid price fluctuation resulting from the initial flow of information and the action of flippers. Our analysis indicates that in the post stabilization period stabilized IPOs underperform non-stabilized ones; the higher the intensity of the stabilization the lower are post-stabilization returns; IPOs for which the overallotment is fully covered in the ASC underperform non-stabilized IPOs in the post-stabilization period; the same does not happen when the ASC is only partial. Therefore, both views of the stabilization process are partially right: in some cases, stabilization is used to avoid price volatility and in other cases to keep price artificially high.

  1. Dynamical diffraction in periodic multilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, V F

    1997-01-01

    Exact reflectivity curves are calculated numerically for various periodic multilayers using the optical matrix method in order to test the dynamical theory of diffraction. The theory is generally valid for values of the bilayer thickness d up to about 100 A. For somewhat larger values of d, where the theory begins to break down, the initial discrepancy is in the phase of the oscillations in the wings of the peaks. For very large values of d, where the first-order Bragg peak approaches the edge of the mirror reflection, two general types of multilayers can be distinguished. In the first (typified in the present work by Ni/Ti), there is a large (30% or more) reduction in the actual value of the critical wave vector for total reflection while, in the second (typified here by Fe/Ge), there is very little reduction (3 % or so). The origin of these two very different types of behavior is explained. It is also shown that, within the dynamical theory of diffraction, the change in the position of the center of the Dar...

  2. Testing periodically integrated autoregressive models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPeriodically integrated time series require a periodic differencing filter to remove the stochastic trend. A non-periodic integrated time series needs the first-difference filter for similar reasons. When the changing seasonal fluctuations for the non-periodic integrated series can be

  3. Shock dynamics in layered periodic media

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Solutions of constant-coeffcient nonlinear hyperbolic PDEs generically develop shocks, even if the initial data is smooth. Solutions of hyperbolic PDEs with variable coeffcients can behave very differently. We investigate formation and stability of shock waves in a one-dimensional periodic layered medium by a computational study of time-reversibility and entropy evolution. We find that periodic layered media tend to inhibit shock formation. For small initial conditions and large impedance variation, no shock formation is detected even after times much greater than the time of shock formation in a homogeneous medium. Furthermore, weak shocks are observed to be dynamically unstable in the sense that they do not lead to significant long-term entropy decay. We propose a characteristic condition for admissibility of shocks in heterogeneous media that generalizes the classical Lax entropy condition and accurately predicts the formation or absence of shocks in these media.

  4. Diffuse scattering from periodic and aperiodic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, F.

    1997-01-01

    A (selective) review on diffuse scattering from periodic and aperiodic crystalline solids is given to demonstrate the wide field of applications in basic and applied research. After a general introduction in this field each topic is exemplified by one or two examples. Main emphasis is laid on recent work. More established work, e.g., on diffuse scattering from metals and alloys, polytypes, stacking disorder from layered structures, etc. is omitted due to the availability of excellent textbooks and reviews. Finally a short summary of recent developments of experimental methods and evaluation techniques is presented. (orig.)

  5. Dioxin Exposure Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dioxin Exposure Initiative (DEI) is no longer active. This page contains a summary of the dioxin exposure initiative with illustrations, contact and background information.Originally supported by scientist Matthew Lorber, who retired in Mar 2017.

  6. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4

  7. O plantão noturno em anestesia reduz a latência ao sono El plantón nocturno en anestesia reduce la latencia al sueño Short sleep latency in residents after a period on duty in anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Andrade da Silva Telles Mathias

    2004-10-01

    ñana, después 24 horas de trabajo, sin dormir, sin plantón en los 3 días anteriores (M2; a las 13 horas de la tarde, después de 30 horas de trabajo, sin dormir, sin plantón en los 3 días anteriores (M3. En todas esas situaciones fue realizado electroencefalograma (EEG continuo, en sala apropiada para registro de los señales de sueño, evaluándose la latencia del sueño (LS. RESULTADOS: Se Verificó reducción significativa de la LS entre los residentes, después de 24 ó 30 horas de plantón sin dormir. Entre los praticantes que tuvieron noche de sueño normal en la víspera del examen, 36,4% presentaron LS en nivel considerado patológico. CONCLUSIONES: La jornada de plantón de 24 ó 30 horas lleva a valores de LS menores que 5 minutos, considerados patológicos, reflejando la fatiga extrema de residentes de Anestesiologia. Pode ser importante la reglamentación del número de horas de descanso pos-plantón.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Physicians in general, and anesthesiologists in particular, have long working hours. Residents of Anesthesiology may present significant fatigue and stress. This study aimed at investigating first and second year residents’ sleep latency after a period on duty. METHODS: Participated in this study 11 residents in different situations: at 7:00 am, after a normal night sleep (> 7 h, without on duty period in the last 3 days (M1; at 7:00 am, after 24h of night work, without on duty period in the last 3 days (M2; and at 1:00 pm after 30h of work without on duty period in the last 3 days (M3. Continuous EEG was performed for all situations in adequate room to record sleep signals. Sleep latency (SL was evaluated. RESULTS: There has been significant shorter SL among residents after 24 or 30 hours without sleep. From residents after a normal night sleep the day before the evaluation, 36.4% presented pathological SL levels. CONCLUSIONS: Periods on duty for 24 or 30 hours lead to SL values below 5 minutes, which are considered pathologic and

  8. Direct laser initiation of open secondary explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assovskiy, I G; Melik-Gaikazov, G V; Kuznetsov, G P

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is experimental study of the mechanism of initiation of secondary explosives (SE) by short laser pulse. Laser initiation of SE is much more difficult in comparison with initiation of primary explosives. Using of some special methods is typically requested to realize laser initiation of SE: using of porous SE, putting it in a closed envelope, and using some optically dense additives. In this paper we consider interaction of laser pulse with open surface of non-porous, optically uniform SE. Only pure chemical methods were used to control the light sensitivity of SE. Implementation of the method of laser initiation is reduced to the optimization of composition and molecular structure of the explosives, along with the optimization of the laser pulse (its duration, energy density and wavelength). (paper)

  9. Tall Buildings Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initiative 2017 TBI Guidelines Version 2.03 Now Available Screen Shot 2017-10-10 at 3.05.10 PM PEER has just initiative to develop design criteria that will ensure safe and usable tall buildings following future earthquakes. Download the primary product of this initiative: Guidelines for Performance-Based Seismic Design

  10. Biotic and Abiotic factors governing nestling-period length in the ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Stodola; David Buehler; Daniel Kim; Kathleen Franzreb; Daniel Linder

    2010-01-01

    In many songbirds, the nesting period for a breeding attempt is extremely short, often lasting only a few weeks. Breeding adults can shorten this period by decreasing the number of eggs laid or reducing the length of the nestling period. Nestling-period length has received little attention in the literature but could have profound effects on annual fecundity, because...

  11. Cell short circuit, preshort signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, C.

    1980-01-01

    Short-circuit events observed in ground test simulations of DSCS-3 battery in-orbit operations are analyzed. Voltage signatures appearing in the data preceding the short-circuit event are evaluated. The ground test simulation is briefly described along with performance during reconditioning discharges. Results suggest that a characteristic signature develops prior to a shorting event.

  12. Renormalization transformation of periodic and aperiodic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macia, Enrique; Rodriguez-Oliveros, Rogelio

    2006-01-01

    In this work we introduce a similarity transformation acting on transfer matrices describing the propagation of elementary excitations through either periodic or Fibonacci lattices. The proposed transformation can act at two different scale lengths. At the atomic scale the transformation allows one to express the systems' global transfer matrix in terms of an equivalent on-site model one. Correlation effects among different hopping terms are described by a series of local phase factors in that case. When acting on larger scale lengths, corresponding to short segments of the original lattice, the similarity transformation can be properly regarded as describing an effective renormalization of the chain. The nature of the resulting renormalized lattice significantly depends on the kind of order (i.e., periodic or quasiperiodic) of the original lattice, expressing a delicate balance between chemical complexity and topological order as a consequence of the renormalization process

  13. Chaotic inflation as an attractor in initial-condition space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, J.H.; Brandenberger, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    We study the evolution of scalar field inhomogeneities in the preinflationary phase of an inflationary universe. We decompose the scalar field configuration in Fourier modes and consider initial conditions in which more than one mode is excited. We find that the long-wavelength modes are stable against perturbations due to short-wavelength excitations and that chaotic inflation results even if at the initial time the short waves contain most of the energy density

  14. Physical explanation of the periodic table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, V N

    2003-05-01

    The Periodic Table of the elements, the most important generalization in chemistry, is often considered as a representative special case in the study of the relation between chemistry and physics. Its quantum interpretation was initiated, but not completed, by Niels Bohr. In this paper, post-Bohr conceptual developments are discussed from historical and epistemological points of view. The difference between high-precision numerical calculations for individual atoms and the theory of the periodic system as a whole is emphasized. Periodic laws met in Nature are not restricted to the chemical Periodic Table. A comparative study of these laws makes it possible to single out essential features that define the particular pattern of periodicity. It is shown that the periodic system of neutral ground state atoms now has a firm nonempirical quantum-theoretical basis. Alternative approaches, based on group theory and other mathematical schemes, are briefly discussed. It is argued that, while quantum theory is capable of fully accurate calculations for relatively simple atoms or molecular objects, the complexity of polyatomic molecules and chemical reactions guarantees the flourishing of chemistry as a separate scientific discipline.

  15. 77 FR 48175 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Applications, Grants and Administration of Short...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... Collection for Applications, Grants and Administration of Short Time Compensation (STC) Provisions, Extension... act'') contains Subtitle D, Short-Time Compensation Program, also known as the ``Layoff Prevention Act..., or wish to initiate a new program in, a layoff aversion program known as short time compensation (STC...

  16. Periodic feedback stabilization for linear periodic evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Gengsheng

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a number of recent advances regarding periodic feedback stabilization for linear and time periodic evolution equations. First, it presents selected connections between linear quadratic optimal control theory and feedback stabilization theory for linear periodic evolution equations. Secondly, it identifies several criteria for the periodic feedback stabilization from the perspective of geometry, algebra and analyses respectively. Next, it describes several ways to design periodic feedback laws. Lastly, the book introduces readers to key methods for designing the control machines. Given its coverage and scope, it offers a helpful guide for graduate students and researchers in the areas of control theory and applied mathematics.

  17. Fourteen years of test experience with short-circuit withstand capability of large power transformers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, R.P.P.; Paske, te L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Experience is reported of short-circuit testing of large power transformers during the past 14 years by KEMA in the Netherlands. In total, 119 transformers > 25 MVA participated in the survey. KEMA shows that at initial access to standard IEC short-circuit tests, 28% failed initially in a wide range

  18. Sixteen years of test experiences with short-circuit withstand capability of large power transformers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, R.P.P.; Paske, te L.H.

    2012-01-01

    Experience is reported of short-circuit testing of large power transformers during the past 16 years by KEMA in the Netherlands. In total, 174 transformers > 25 MVA participated in the survey. KEMA shows that at initial access to standard IEC short-circuit tests, 24% failed initially in a wide range

  19. The Dynamics of Initiative in Communication Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Mollgaard

    Full Text Available Human social interaction is often intermittent. Two acquainted persons can have extended periods without social interaction punctuated by periods of repeated interaction. In this case, the repeated interaction can be characterized by a seed initiative by either of the persons and a number of follow-up interactions. The tendency to initiate social interaction plays an important role in the formation of social networks and is in general not symmetric between persons. In this paper, we study the dynamics of initiative by analysing and modeling a detailed call and text message network sampled from a group of 700 individuals. We show that in an average relationship between two individuals, one part is almost twice as likely to initiate communication compared to the other part. The asymmetry has social consequences and ultimately might lead to the discontinuation of a relationship. We explain the observed asymmetry by a positive feedback mechanism where individuals already taking initiative are more likely to take initiative in the future. In general, people with many initiatives receive attention from a broader spectrum of friends than people with few initiatives. Lastly, we compare the likelihood of taking initiative with the basic personality traits of the five factor model.

  20. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...