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Sample records for short form-36 health

  1. Women's health status in urban Ghana: dimensions and differentials using short form 36.

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    Frempong-Ainguah, Faustina; Bailey, Claire E; Hill, Allan G

    2018-04-24

    Global discourse on population, health and development have placed women's health issues at the top of development agenda. Women's reproductive health has received some attention in Ghana since the mid-1990s. However, studies on women's general health status, dimensions and the differentials in a rapidly growing urban setting is poorly understood and under-researched. This study sought to examine the various pathways in which individual socio-demographic factors, economic characteristics and endowment influence self-assessed health status among women living in the city of Accra, Ghana. The paper draws on a cross-sectional study carried out in 2008 and 2009 using a representative sample of urban women 20 years and older (n = 2814). Multivariate stepwise linear regression models were performed to investigate the influence of socio-demographic, economic and health indicators on health-related quality of life, measured by eight sub-scales of the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Interaction effects between some demographic and socio-economic variables were also performed. The analyses show diverse relationships between demographic, socio-economic and health indicators and health outcomes assessed using eight SF-36 sub-scales. Education, disease symptoms and age of the respondent were the most significant factors influencing good overall health status. Interestingly, age has no significant effect on mental health after controlling for all other explanatory variables. The findings show that health issues are multi-faceted requiring socio-cultural, health and economic policy interventions. Investing in women's education is important to improve health status. There is also the need for more effective collaboration across various sectors to improve the health and well-being of women in general. Ageing has increasing relationship with poor physical health status and the elderly should be given needed attention and support.

  2. An assessment of factorial structure and health-related quality of life in problem drug users using the Short Form 36 Health Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchholz, Angela; Krol, Anneke; Rist, Fred; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Schippers, Gerard M.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To confirm the factorial structure of the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) in problem drug users and to compare their health-related quality of life (HRQOL) with general Dutch population norms. METHOD: Data of 394 participants from the Amsterdam Cohort Study among drug users, who had

  3. Quality of life assessed with the medical outcomes study short form 36-item health survey of patients on renal replacement therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.S. Liem (Ylian Serina); J.L. Bosch (Johanna); L.R. Arends (Lidia); M.H. Heijenbrok-Kal (Majanka); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) is the most widely used generic instrument to estimate quality of life of patients on renal replacement therapy. Purpose of this study was to summarize and compare the published literature on quality of

  4. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation of yoruba version of the short-form 36 health survey.

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    Mbada, Chidozie Emmanuel; Adeogun, Gafar Atanda; Ogunlana, Michael Opeoluwa; Adedoyin, Rufus Adesoji; Akinsulore, Adesanmi; Awotidebe, Taofeek Oluwole; Idowu, Opeyemi Ayodiipo; Olaoye, Olumide Ayoola

    2015-09-14

    The Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) is a valid quality of life tool often employed to determine the impact of medical intervention and the outcome of health care services. However, the SF-36 is culturally sensitive which necessitates its adaptation and translation into different languages. This study was conducted to cross-culturally adapt the SF-36 into Yoruba language and determine its reliability and validity. Based on the International Quality of Life Assessment project guidelines, a sequence of translation, test of item-scale correlation, and validation was implemented for the translation of the Yoruba version of the SF-36. Following pilot testing, the English and the Yoruba versions of the SF-36 were administered to a random sample of 1087 apparently healthy individuals to test validity and 249 respondents completed the Yoruba SF-36 again after two weeks to test reliability. Data was analyzed using Pearson's product moment correlation analysis, independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance, multi trait scaling analysis and Intra-Class Correlation (ICC) at p Yoruba SF-36 ranges between 0.636 and 0.843 for scales; and 0.783 and 0.851 for domains. The data quality, concurrent and discriminant validity, reliability and internal consistency of the Yoruba version of the SF-36 are adequate and it is recommended for measuring health-related quality of life among Yoruba population.

  5. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves only some domains of health-related quality of life measured by the Short Form-36 questionnaire

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    Chok Limsuwat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR has inconsistent effects on health-related quality of life (HRQL in patients with chronic lung diseases. We evaluated the effect of PR on HRQL outcomes using the 36-item short form of the medical outcomes (SF-36. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the files of all patients who completed PR in 2010, 2011, and first half of 2012. We collected information on demographics, symptoms, pulmonary function tests, 6-minute walk tests (6-MWT, and responses on the SF-36 survey, including the physical component score (PCS and mental component score (MCS. Results: The study included 19 women and 22 men. The mean age was 69.8 ± 8.5 years. The diagnoses included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n = 31, asthma (n = 3, interstitial lung disease (n = 5, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; n = 2. The mean forced expiratory volume-one second (FEV1 was 1.16 ± 0.52 L (against 60.5 ± 15.9% of predicted value. There was a significant improvement in 6-MWT (P < 0.0001. The PCS improved post-PR from 33.8 to 34.5 (P = 0.02; the MCS did not change. Conclusion: These patients had low SF-36 scores compared to the general population; changes in scores after PR were low. These patients may need frequent HRQL assessment during rehabilitation, and PR programs should consider program modification in patients with small changes in mental health.

  6. Quality of Life Through Gender Role Perspective in Candidate Renal Transplant Recipients: A Report From Başkent University Using the Short Form 36 Health Survey.

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    Akyüz Özdemir, Aydan; Sayın, Cihat Burak; Erdal, Rengin; Özcan, Cihangir; Haberal, Mehmet

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of life of patients with end-stage renal disease through a "gender role perspective." Patients were on hemodialysis treatment and on a wait list for transplant. This study was conducted at the Başkent University Adana, Ankara, and Istanbul hemodialysis centers. Patients completed Short Form 36 Health Survey questionnaires voluntarily to evaluate quality of life. The questions were answered independently by patients while they were undergoing hemodialysis treatment. The mean age of participants was 54 ± 16.5 years. Quality of life was found to be higher in men (44.7 ± 19.2), and there was a negative correlation between quality of life and age in both sexes, as well as marriage age, number of pregnancies, and age of patient at the first live birth in women (P < .05). We found statistically significant differences between men and women regarding physical health and mental health dimensions. Quality of life scores increased with level of education (P < .001). In addition, patients in Ankara had the highest quality of life compared with Istanbul and Adana (P < .01). Average time on hemodialysis treatment, the number of weekly hemodialysis sessions, mean time of the disease, and mean duration of abandoning hemodialysis sessions were negatively associated with all components of quality of life (P < .05). We found that sex, education level, social status, and home city of patients had a high impact on quality of life. Thus, it is essential to educate both male and female patients regarding sex/gender and health issues before transplant to increase the recipient's physical and mental health dimensions.

  7. A Comparison of Back Pain Functional Scale with Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index and Short Form 36-Health Survey.

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    Koç, Meltem; Bayar, Banu; Bayar, Kılıçhan

    2017-10-03

    A comparison study of Back Pain Functional Scale (BPFS) with Roland Morris Questionnaire (RMQ), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Short Form 36-Health Survey (SF-36). The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation of BPFS with RMQ, ODI and SF-36. The primary goal in the treatment of patients with low back pain is to improve the patients' levels of activities and participation. Many questionnaires focusing on function have been developed in patients with low back pain. BPFS is one of these questionnaires. No studies have investigated the correlation of BPFS with ODI and SF-36. This study was conducted with 120 patients receiving outpatient and inpatient treatment in physiotherapy and rehabilitation units of a state hospital. BPFS, RMQ, ODI, SF-36 questionnaires were used to assess the disability in low back pain. Spearman and Pearson Correlation were used to compare the data obtained in the study. There was a good correlation among the five functional outcome measures (correlation r = -0.693 for BPFS/RMQ, r = -0.794 for BPFS/ODI, r = 0.697 for BPFS/SF-36 Physical function and r = 0.540 for BPFS/SF-36 Pain). BPFS demonstrated good correlation with RMQ, ODI, SF-36 physical function and SF-36 pain. 2.

  8. In vivo intervertebral disc characterization using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and T1ρ imaging: association with discography and Oswestry Disability Index and Short Form-36 Health Survey.

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    Zuo, Jin; Joseph, Gabby B; Li, Xiaojuan; Link, Thomas M; Hu, Serena S; Berven, Sigurd H; Kurhanewitz, John; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2012-02-01

    An in vivo study of intervertebral disc degeneration by using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). To quantify water and proteoglycan (PG) content in the intervertebral disc by using in vivo MRS and to evaluate the relationship between MRS-quantified water/PG content, T1ρ, Pfirrmann score, clinical self-assessment, and discography. Previous in vitro studies have investigated the relationship between MRS-quantified water/PG content and degenerative grade by using cadaveric intervertebral discs. T1ρ has been shown to relate to Pfirrmann grade and clinical self-assessment. However, the associations between MRS-quantified water/PG content, MRI-based T1ρ, self-assessment of health status, and clinical response to discography have not been studied in vivo. MRS and MRI were performed in 26 patients (70 discs) with symptomatic intervertebral degenerative disc (IVDD) and 23 controls (41 discs). Patients underwent evaluation of intervertebral discs with provocative discography. All subjects completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey and Oswestry Disability Index questionnaires. The water/PG peak area ratio was significantly elevated in (a) patients (compared with controls) and in (b) discs with positive discography (compared with negative discography). Magnetic resonance (MR) T1ρ exhibited similar trends. A significant association was found between T1ρ and normalized PG content (R = 0.61, P 0.05). The water/PG peak area ratio, normalized water, normalized PG, and Pfirrmann grade were significantly associated with patient self-assessment of disability and physical composite score, while disc height was not. This study demonstrated a relationship between in vivo MRS spectroscopy (water content and PG content), imaging parameters (T1ρ and Pfirrmann grade), discography results, and clinical self-assessment, suggesting that MRS-quantified water, PG, and MR T1ρ relaxation time may potentially serve as biomarkers of

  9. Reliability and validity of Short Form 36 Version 2 to measure health perceptions in a sub-group of individuals with fatigue.

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    Davenport, Todd E; Stevens, Staci R; Baroni, Katie; Van Ness, J Mark; Snell, Christopher R

    2011-01-01

    To determine the validity and reliability of Short Form 36 Version 2 (SF36v2) in sub-groups of individuals with fatigue. Thirty subjects participated in this study, including n = 16 subjects who met case definition criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and n = 14 non-disabled sedentary matched control subjects. SF36v2 and Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) were administered before two maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPETs) administered 24 h apart and an open-ended recovery questionnaire was administered 7 days after CPET challenge. The main outcome measures were self-reported time to recover to pre-challenge functional and symptom status, frequency of post-exertional symptoms and SF36v2 sub-scale scores. Individuals with CFS demonstrated significantly lower SF36v2 and MFI-20 sub-scale scores prior to CPET. Between-group differences remained significant post-CPET, however, there were no significant group by test interaction effects. Subjects with CFS reported significantly more total symptoms (p validity to identify subjects who recovered from CPET challenge within 1 day and 7 days (p reliability and validity for clinical and research applications. Adequacy of sensitivity to change of SF36v2 as a result of a fatiguing stressor should be the subject of additional study.

  10. Health-related quality of life of elderly living in the rural community and homes for the elderly in a district of India. Application of the short form 36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaire.

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    Varma, G R; Kusuma, Y S; Babu, B V

    2010-08-01

    The present investigation aimed to assess the health-related QoL (HRQoL) of elderly people living in two settings: (i) rural community and (ii) homes for the elderly in a district of South India. The data are drawn from elderly (>60 years of age) sampled from both settings. The short form 36-item health survey (SF-36) was administered to all respondents. The average scores for several domains, including total physical health, total mental health and overall health (total SF-36 score) were around 50, which can be interpreted as a moderate level of health-related QoL. Residents living in a home for the elderly scored better in all domains except for role-physical and role-emotional. Though univariate analysis revealed some associations between characteristics of elderly SF-36 scores, the multiple regression analysis indicated that working status yields a significant but negative coefficient for total SF-36 score among community dwelling elderly. The elderly report that their lives are better when they are staying in homes for the elderly. Hence, despite the socio-economic conditions, provision of a better and conducive environment by setting up more charity-based homes for the elderly may be one of the options for relative betterment of the QoL of the elderly, particularly those who are socially and economically deprived. Finally, the study warrants the need of normative values of SF-36 for various population groups in India.

  11. World Health Organization quality of life instrument-brief and Short Form-36 in patients with coronary artery disease: do they measure similar quality of life concepts?

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    Cruz, Luciane Nascimento; Camey, Suzi Alves; Fleck, Marcelo Pio; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument (WHOQOL)-brief and SF-36 in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Considering that depression is known to be associated with bad outcomes in CAD and it is highly associated with poor Quality of Life (QOL), we tested the correlation between WHOQOL and SF-36 and an instrument to screen depressive symptoms. It is a cross-sectional survey conducted in 103 patients with documented CAD. QOL was measured through WHOQOL-brief and SF-36 and depressive symptoms were assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). To evaluate convergent validity, the correlations between both QOL assessment instruments were examined; discriminant validity was assessed through BDI and QOL instruments correlations. Coefficient Cronbach's alpha was used to test reliability. Percentages of floor and ceiling effects were higher in SF-36 scores than the WHOQOL-brief ones. Although WHOQOL-brief showed a maximum of 1% of floor effect and 9% of ceiling effect, SF-36 presented 40 and 32%, respectively. Internal consistency reliability ranged from 0.65 to 0.85 for the WHOQOL-brief and 0.57 to 0.89 for the SF-36. Correlations between subscales of WHOQOL-brief and BDI ranged from -0.74 to -0.61 and correlations between subscales of SF-36 and BDI ranged from -0.68 to -0.26. SF-36 and WHOQOL-brief seem to be valid and consistent QOL measures in patients with CAD. Researchers should define the aims of their studies before choosing which instrument to use, because they appear to measure different constructs of QOL.

  12. Health-related quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a comparison with the general population using the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36).

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    Coffey, Sean; Bano, Gul; Mason, Helen D

    2006-02-01

    We examined whether women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL) than women in the general population and than patients with other medical conditions. Women with PCOS were recruited from an outpatient clinic and a control group was recruited from a family planning clinic. Both groups completed the Short Form-36 (SF-36) and the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ). SF-36 data from the Oxford Health and Lifestyle Survey were used to compare PCOS with other conditions. Twenty-two women with PCOS and 96 control women took part. Women with PCOS scored lower in both summary scores of the SF-36 and in all domains of the PCOSQ. After adjusting for body mass index, the differences between the groups in the SF-36 disappeared, while those in the PCOSQ remained. When compared with asthma, epilepsy, diabetes, back pain, arthritis and coronary heart disease, our PCOS group had the same or better physical HRQoL but poorer psychological HRQoL. The PCOSQ showed good internal reliability, good concurrent validity and good discriminant validity. PCOS has a negative impact on HRQoL even when compared with other serious health conditions. The PCOSQ is reliable and valid for clinical use.

  13. Normative data and discriminative properties of short form 36 (SF-36 in Turkish urban population

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    Akvardar Yildiz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SF-36 has been both translated into different languages and adapted to different cultures to obtain comparable data on health status internationally. However there have been only a limited number of studies focused on the discriminative ability of SF-36 regarding social and disease status in developing countries. The aim of this study was to obtain population norms of the short form 36 (SF-36 health survey and the association of SF-36 domains with demographic and socioeconomic variables in an urban population in Turkey. Methods A cross-sectional study. Face to face interviews were carried out with a sample of households. The sample was systematically selected from two urban Health Districts in Izmir, Turkey. The study group consisted of 1,279 people selected from a study population of 46,290 people aged 18 and over. Results Internal consistencies of the scales were high, with the exception of mental health and vitality. Physical health scales were associated with both age and gender. On the other hand, mental health scales were less strongly associated with age and gender. Women reported poorer health compared to men in general. Social risk factors (employment status, lower education and economic strain were associated with worse health profiles. The SF-36 was found to be capable of discriminating disease status. Conclusion Our findings, cautiously generalisable to urban population, suggest that the SF-36 can be a valuable tool for studies on health outcomes in Turkish population. SF-36 may also be a promising measure for research on health inequalities in Turkey and other developing countries.

  14. Psychometrics of the Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2) and the Quality of Life Scale for Drug Addicts (QOL-DAv2.0) in Chinese mainland patients with methadone maintenance treatment.

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    Zhou, Kaina; Zhuang, Guihua; Zhang, Hongmei; Liang, Peifeng; Yin, Juan; Kou, Lingling; Hao, Mengmeng; You, Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    To test psychometrics of the Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2) and the Quality of Life Scale for Drug Addicts (QOL-DAv2.0) in Chinese mainland patients with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). A total of 1,212 patients were recruited from two MMT clinics in Xi'an, China. Reliability was estimated with Cronbach's α and intra-class correlation (ICC). Convergent and discriminant validity was assessed using multitrait-multimethod correlation matrix. Sensitivity was measured with ANOVA and relative efficiency. Responsiveness was evaluated by pre-post paired-samples t-test and standardized response mean based on the patients' health status changes following 6-month period. Cronbach's α of the SF-36v2 physical and mental summary components were 0.80 and 0.86 (eight scales range 0.73-0.92) and the QOL-DAv2.0 was 0.96 (four scales range: 0.80-0.93). ICC of the SF-36v2 two components were 0.86 and 0.85 (eight scales range: 0.72-0.87) and the QOL-DAv2.0 was 0.94 (four scales range: 0.88-0.92). Convergent validity was lower between the two instruments (γ <0.70) while discriminant validity was acceptable within each instrument. Sensitivity was satisfied in self-evaluated health status (both instruments) and average daily methadone dose (SF-36v2 physical functioning and vitality scales; QOL-DAv2.0 except psychology scale). Responsiveness was acceptable in the improved health status change (SF-36v2 except vitality scale; QOL-DAv2.0 except psychology and symptoms scales) and deteriorated health status change (SF-36v2 except vitality, social functioning and mental health scales; QOL-DAv2.0 except society scale). The SF-36v2 and the QOL-DAv2.0 are valid tools and can be used independently or complementary according to different emphases of health-related quality of life evaluation in patients with MMT.

  15. Psychometrics of the Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2 and the Quality of Life Scale for Drug Addicts (QOL-DAv2.0 in Chinese mainland patients with methadone maintenance treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaina Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test psychometrics of the Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2 and the Quality of Life Scale for Drug Addicts (QOL-DAv2.0 in Chinese mainland patients with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT. METHODS: A total of 1,212 patients were recruited from two MMT clinics in Xi'an, China. Reliability was estimated with Cronbach's α and intra-class correlation (ICC. Convergent and discriminant validity was assessed using multitrait-multimethod correlation matrix. Sensitivity was measured with ANOVA and relative efficiency. Responsiveness was evaluated by pre-post paired-samples t-test and standardized response mean based on the patients' health status changes following 6-month period. RESULTS: Cronbach's α of the SF-36v2 physical and mental summary components were 0.80 and 0.86 (eight scales range 0.73-0.92 and the QOL-DAv2.0 was 0.96 (four scales range: 0.80-0.93. ICC of the SF-36v2 two components were 0.86 and 0.85 (eight scales range: 0.72-0.87 and the QOL-DAv2.0 was 0.94 (four scales range: 0.88-0.92. Convergent validity was lower between the two instruments (γ <0.70 while discriminant validity was acceptable within each instrument. Sensitivity was satisfied in self-evaluated health status (both instruments and average daily methadone dose (SF-36v2 physical functioning and vitality scales; QOL-DAv2.0 except psychology scale. Responsiveness was acceptable in the improved health status change (SF-36v2 except vitality scale; QOL-DAv2.0 except psychology and symptoms scales and deteriorated health status change (SF-36v2 except vitality, social functioning and mental health scales; QOL-DAv2.0 except society scale. CONCLUSIONS: The SF-36v2 and the QOL-DAv2.0 are valid tools and can be used independently or complementary according to different emphases of health-related quality of life evaluation in patients with MMT.

  16. Reliability of short form-36 in an Internet- and a pen-and-paper version

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basnov, Maja; Kongsved, Sissel Marie; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    Use of Internet versions of questionnaires may have several advantages in clinical and epidemiological research, but we know little about if Internet versions differ with respect to validity and reliability. We aimed to compare Internet- and pen-and-paper versions of short form-36 (SF-36......) with respect to test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Women referred to mammography (n = 782) were randomised to receive either a paper version with a prepaid return envelope or a guideline on how to fill in the Internet version. A subgroup was asked to answer the questionnaire once again...... in the alternative version. Test-retest reliability was assessed by the intra-class correlation coefficient. Internal consistency was calculated as Cronbach's alpha. The between-version test-retest reliability for the eight subscales were between 0.63 and 0.92. Cronbach's alpha for the two versions were all between...

  17. Interpreting Quality of Life after Brain Injury Scores: Cross-Walk with the Short Form-36.

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    Wilson, Lindsay; Marsden-Loftus, Isaac; Koskinen, Sanna; Bakx, Wilbert; Bullinger, Monika; Formisano, Rita; Maas, Andrew; Neugebauer, Edmund; Powell, Jane; Sarajuuri, Jaana; Sasse, Nadine; von Steinbuechel, Nicole; von Wild, Klaus; Truelle, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    The Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) instruments are traumatic brain injury (TBI)-specific assessments of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), with established validity and reliability. The purpose of the study is to help improve the interpretability of the two QOLIBRI summary scores (the QOLIBRI Total score and the QOLBRI Overall Scale [OS] score). An analysis was conducted of 761 patients with TBI who took part in the QOLIBRI validation studies. A cross-walk between QOLIBRI scores and the SF-36 Mental Component Summary norm-based scoring system was performed using geometric mean regression analysis. The exercise supports a previous suggestion that QOLIBRI Total scores GOSE), as a measure of global function, are presented in the form of means and standard deviations that allow comparison with other studies, and data on age and sex are presented for the QOLIBRI-OS. While bearing in mind the potential imprecision of the comparison, the findings provide a framework for evaluating QOLIBRI summary scores in relation to generic HRQoL that improves their interpretability.

  18. Analyzing the Psychometric Properties of the Short Form-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire in Patients with Obesity.

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    Al Amer, Rashed; Al Khalifa, Khalid; Alajlan, Safeyah Ali; Al Ansari, Ahmed

    2018-03-14

    The Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire is a valuable and easy-to-use tool for the measurement of quality of life in patients with obesity. To become a widely used tool, the questionnaire must be validated in many different contexts. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the construct validity and reliability of the SF-36 questionnaire among patients with obesity in Bahrain. The 36-item questionnaire was administered to a study cohort scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery at the Bahrain Defence Force Hospital in Bahrain. Demographic data were extracted. Principal component analysis was used to extract component factors. Factor analysis was used to determine construct validity and fit. The Cronbach's alpha value of the extracted factors was used to determine the internal consistency reliability. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 19.0 and IBM AMOS version 22.0. Most of the participants were female with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 43.24 kg/m 2 . A six-factor solution explaining 52.31% of variance was generated. The global fit parameter estimates indicated that the suggested model exhibited an acceptable-to-good fit. Overall, the internal consistency reliability estimate of the SF-36 questionnaire was greater than 0.70. The identified six-factor model of the SF-36 questionnaire is a valuable tool for the measurement of quality of life among patients with obesity in Bahrain.

  19. Psychometric properties of the Neck OutcOme Score, Neck Disability Index, and Short Form-36 were evaluated in patients with neck pain.

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    Juul, Tina; Søgaard, Karen; Davis, Aileen M; Roos, Ewa M

    2016-11-01

    To assess reliability, construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability for Neck OutcOme Score (NOOS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) in neck pain patients. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach alpha. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and measurement error was estimated from the standard error of measurement. Responsiveness was assessed as standardized response mean (SRM) and interpretability from the minimal important difference (MID). Construct validity was tested correlating subscale scores from NOOS and SF-36 and NDI items. At baseline, 196 neck pain patients were included. Cronbach α was adequate for most NOOS subscales, NDI, and SF-36 with few exceptions. Good to excellent reliability was found for NOOS subscales (ICC 0.88-0.95), for NDI, and for SF-36 with few exceptions. For NOOS, minimal detectable changes varied between 1.1 and 1.9, and construct validity was supported. SRMs were higher for NOOS subscales (0.19-0.42), compared to SF-36 and NDI. MID values varied between 15.0 and 24.1 for NOOS subscales. In conclusion, the NOOS is a reliable, valid, and responsive measure of self-reported disability in neck pain patients, performing at least as well or better than the commonly used SF-36 and NDI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Minimum clinically important difference in lumbar spine surgery patients: a choice of methods using the Oswestry Disability Index, Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire Short Form 36, and pain scales.

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    Copay, Anne G; Glassman, Steven D; Subach, Brian R; Berven, Sigurd; Schuler, Thomas C; Carreon, Leah Y

    2008-01-01

    The impact of lumbar spinal surgery is commonly evaluated with three patient-reported outcome measures: Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the physical component summary (PCS) of the Short Form of the Medical Outcomes Study (SF-36), and pain scales. A minimum clinically important difference (MCID) is a threshold used to measure the effect of clinical treatments. Variable threshold values have been proposed as MCID for those instruments despite a lack of agreement on the optimal MCID calculation method. This study has three purposes. First, to illustrate the range of values obtained by common anchor-based and distribution-based methods to calculate MCID. Second, to determine a statistically sound and clinically meaningful MCID for ODI, PCS, back pain scale, and leg pain scale in lumbar spine surgery patients. Third, to compare the discriminative ability of two anchors: a global health assessment and a rating of satisfaction with the results of the surgery. This study is a review of prospectively collected patient-reported outcomes data. A total of 454 patients from a large database of surgeries performed by the Lumbar Spine Study Group with a 1-year follow-up on either ODI or PCS were included in the study. Preoperative and 1-year postoperative scores for ODI, PCS, back pain scale, leg pain scale, health transition item (HTI) of the SF-36, and Satisfaction with Results scales. ODI, SF-36, and pain scales were administered before and 1 year after spinal surgery. Several candidate MCID calculation methods were applied to the data and the resulting values were compared. The HTI of the SF-36 was used as the anchor and compared with a second anchor (Satisfaction with Results scale). Potential MCID calculations yielded a range of values: fivefold for ODI, PCS, and leg pain, 10-fold for back pain. Threshold values obtained with the two anchors were very similar. The minimum detectable change (MDC) appears as a statistically and clinically appropriate MCID value. MCID values

  1. Psychometric properties of the Neck OutcOme Score, Neck Disability Index, and Short Form-36 were evaluated in patients with neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Tina; Søgaard, Karen; Davis, Aileen M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess reliability, construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability for Neck OutcOme Score (NOOS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Short Form–36 (SF-36) in neck pain patients. Study Design and Setting: Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach alpha. Test-retest reliabi...

  2. Reliability and validity of the English (Singapore) and Chinese (Singapore) versions of the Short-Form 36 version 2 in a multi-ethnic urban Asian population in Singapore.

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    Thumboo, Julian; Wu, Yi; Tai, E-Shyong; Gandek, Barbara; Lee, Jeannette; Ma, Stefan; Heng, Derrick; Wee, Hwee-Lin

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the measurement properties of the Singapore English and Chinese versions of the Short-Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2) Questionnaire, an improved version of the widely used SF-36, for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a multi-ethnic urban Asian population in Singapore. SF-36v2 scores and data on medical history, demographic and lifestyle factors from the Singapore Prospective Study Programme were analyzed. Convergent and divergent validity, internal consistency, floor and ceiling effects, known group validity and factor structure of the SF-36v2 were assessed for the English and Chinese versions, respectively. Complete data for 4,917 participants (45.8 %) out of 10,747 eligible individuals were analyzed (survey language: 4,115 English and 802 Chinese). Item-scale correlations exceeded 0.4 for all items of the English SF-36v2 and for all except one item of the Chinese SF-36v2 (bathe and dress: item-scale correlation: 0.36). In the English SF-36v2, Cronbach's alpha exceeded 0.70 for all scales. In the Chinese SF-36v2, Cronbach's alpha exceeded 0.7 on all scales except social functioning (Cronbach's alpha: 0.68). For known groups validity, respondents with chronic medical conditions expectedly reported lower SF-36v2 score on most English and Chinese SF-36v2 scales. In confirmatory factor analysis, the Singapore three-component model was favored over the United States two-component and Japan three-component models. The English and Chinese SF-36v2 are valid and reliable for assessing HRQoL among English and Chinese-speaking Singaporeans. Test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the English and Chinese SF-36v2 in Singapore remain to be evaluated.

  3. Sammenhaenge mellem risikoadfaerd for spiseforstyrrelser og Short Form-36 samt selvoplevet stress blandt 16-29-årige danske kvinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, Mette; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2009-01-01

    disorders and also to SF-36 and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). RESULTS: Women with risk behaviour for eating disorders have a lower score on all subscales of SF-36 than women without risk behaviour. The differences are significant for the subscales for mental health, vitality, social function and general...... health. They also have a higher mean score on PSS than women without risk behaviour. CONCLUSION: Women with risk behaviour for eating disorders have lower mental health-related life quality than women without risk behaviour. They also experience daily life as more unpredictable, stressful and difficult......INTRODUCTION: To improve the early identification of eating disorders the study tested whether women with risk behaviour for eating disorders have lower health-related life quality and more perceived stress than women without risk behaviour. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a representative...

  4. Sammenhaenge mellem risikoadfaerd for spiseforstyrrelser og Short Form-36 samt selvoplevet stress blandt 16-29-årige danske kvinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waadegaard, Mette; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To improve the early identification of eating disorders the study tested whether women with risk behaviour for eating disorders have lower health-related life quality and more perceived stress than women without risk behaviour. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a representative...... cross sectional survey of 16-29-year old women and was part of the Danish Health Interview Survey 2005. After the personal interviews, 487 returned the questionnaires, with a response rate of 53.3%. Participants responded to RiBED-8, a screening instrument for identification of risk behaviour for eating...... disorders and also to SF-36 and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). RESULTS: Women with risk behaviour for eating disorders have a lower score on all subscales of SF-36 than women without risk behaviour. The differences are significant for the subscales for mental health, vitality, social function and general...

  5. Comparison of the Asthma Health Questionnaire-33-Japan and the Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey for Measuring Quality of Life in Japanese Patients with Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Muraki

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results show that the AHQ-33 is useful as a disease-specific QOL instrument in Japanese patients with asthma and that it is better than the SF-36, which is a generic QOL instrument. In the future, the AHQ-33 should be compared to other asthma-specific questionnaires.

  6. Achieving Minimum Clinically Important Difference in Oxford Knee Score and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary Is Less Likely with Single-Radius Compared with Multiradius Total Knee Arthroplasty in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wu Chean; Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah; Allen, John Carson; Chong, Hwei Chi; Tan, Hwee Chye Andrew

    2018-04-10

    Single-radius (SR) and multiradius (MR) total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) have produced similar outcomes, albeit most studies originate from Western nations. There are known knee kinematic differences between Western and Asian patients after TKA. The aim of this study is to compare the short-term patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) of SR-TKA versus MR-TKA in Asians. Registry data of 133 SR-TKA versus 363 MR-TKA by a single surgeon were analyzed. Preoperative and 2-year postoperative range of motion (ROM) and PROMs were compared with Student's t -test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the odds of SR-TKA or MR-TKA achieving the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) of studied outcomes. Patients in both groups had similar age (65.7 ± 7.6 vs. 65.8 ± 8.2 years; p  = 0.317), gender proportion (71% females vs. 79% females; p  = 0.119), and ethnic distribution (80% Chinese vs. 84% Chinese; p  = 0.258). Preoperatively, there were no statistically significant differences between both groups for ROM, Knee Society Score (KSS), Oxford Knee Score (OKS), and Short Form (SF)-36 scores. At 2 years, all outcomes were statistically similar or failed to achieve a difference of MCID. Controlling for all preoperative variables, SR-TKA has significantly lower odds of achieving MCID for OKS (odds ratio [OR]: 0.275, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.114-0.663; p  = 0.004) and SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) (OR: 0.547; 95% CI: 0.316-0.946; p  = 0.031) compared with MR-TKA. In conclusion, there are no significant differences in the absolute PROMs between SR-TKA and MR-TKA at 2 years following TKA in Asians. However, SR-TKA has significantly lower odds of achieving the MCID for OKS and SF-36 PCS. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. An ethics curriculum for short-term global health trainees

    OpenAIRE

    DeCamp, Matthew; Rodriguez, Joce; Hecht, Shelby; Barry, Michele; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in short-term global health training and service programs continues to grow, yet they can be associated with a variety of ethical issues for which trainees or others with limited global health experience may not be prepared to address. Therefore, there is a clear need for educational interventions concerning these ethical issues. Methods We developed and evaluated an introductory curriculum, ?Ethical Challenges in Short-term Global Health Training.? The curriculum was deve...

  8. A short assessment of health literacy (SAHL) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pander Maat, Henk; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Leenaars, Karlijn E. F.; Fransen, Mirjam P.

    2014-01-01

    An earlier attempt to adapt the REALM (Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine) word recognition test to Dutch was not entirely successful due to ceiling effects. In contrast to REALM, the Short Assessment of Health Literacy (SAHL) assesses both word recognition and comprehension in the health

  9. Health problems in the short term: Casualty management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaf, A.

    1987-01-01

    The most extensive and detailed study of the health effects of a nuclear attack on a major urban centre has been recently made of London. Not only hospitals, physicians, nurses, all other health professionals and technicians would be in short supply, but antibiotics, parenteral fluids, bandages, surgical equipment and all the sophisticated medical technology would be similarly lacking. Disrupting of communications, locally and nationally, would contribute to the general chaos following a nuclear attack. 13 refs, 2 tabs

  10. A short assessment of health literacy (SAHL) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pander Maat, Henk; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Leenaars, Karlijn EF; Fransen, Mirjam P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: An earlier attempt to adapt the REALM (Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine) word recognition test to Dutch was not entirely successful due to ceiling effects. In contrast to REALM, the Short Assessment of Health Literacy (SAHL) assesses both word recognition and

  11. Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-speaking Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Apolinario

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a short health literacy assessment tool for Portuguese-speaking adults. METHODS: The Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-speaking Adults is an assessment tool which consists of 50 items that assess an individual's ability to correctly pronounce and understand common medical terms. We evaluated the instrument's psychometric properties in a convenience sample of 226 Brazilian older adults. Construct validity was assessed by correlating the tool scores with years of schooling, self-reported literacy, and global cognitive functioning. Discrimination validity was assessed by testing the tool's accuracy in detecting inadequate health literacy, defined as failure to fully understand standard medical prescriptions. RESULTS: Moderate to high correlations were found in the assessment of construct validity (Spearman's coefficients ranging from 0.63 to 0.76. The instrument showed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.93 and adequate test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.95. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for detection of inadequate health literacy was 0.82. A version consisting of 18 items was tested and showed similar psychometric properties. CONCLUSIONS: The instrument developed showed good validity and reliability in a sample of Brazilian older adults. It can be used in research and clinical settings for screening inadequate health literacy.

  12. Short- and long-term health consequences of sleep disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medic, Goran; Wille, Micheline; Hemels, Michiel Eh

    2017-01-01

    Sleep plays a vital role in brain function and systemic physiology across many body systems. Problems with sleep are widely prevalent and include deficits in quantity and quality of sleep; sleep problems that impact the continuity of sleep are collectively referred to as sleep disruptions. Numerous factors contribute to sleep disruption, ranging from lifestyle and environmental factors to sleep disorders and other medical conditions. Sleep disruptions have substantial adverse short- and long-term health consequences. A literature search was conducted to provide a nonsystematic review of these health consequences (this review was designed to be nonsystematic to better focus on the topics of interest due to the myriad parameters affected by sleep). Sleep disruption is associated with increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, metabolic effects, changes in circadian rhythms, and proinflammatory responses. In otherwise healthy adults, short-term consequences of sleep disruption include increased stress responsivity, somatic pain, reduced quality of life, emotional distress and mood disorders, and cognitive, memory, and performance deficits. For adolescents, psychosocial health, school performance, and risk-taking behaviors are impacted by sleep disruption. Behavioral problems and cognitive functioning are associated with sleep disruption in children. Long-term consequences of sleep disruption in otherwise healthy individuals include hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, weight-related issues, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and colorectal cancer. All-cause mortality is also increased in men with sleep disturbances. For those with underlying medical conditions, sleep disruption may diminish the health-related quality of life of children and adolescents and may worsen the severity of common gastrointestinal disorders. As a result of the potential consequences of sleep disruption, health care

  13. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  14. 48 CFR 1852.223-72 - Safety and Health (Short Form).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Safety and Health (Short... and Clauses 1852.223-72 Safety and Health (Short Form). As prescribed in 1823.7001(e), insert the following clause: Safety and Health (Short Form) (APR 2002) (a) Safety is the freedom from those conditions...

  15. Short- and long-term health consequences of sleep disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medic G

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Goran Medic,1,2 Micheline Wille,1 Michiel EH Hemels1 1Market Access, Horizon Pharma B.V., Utrecht, 2Unit of Pharmacoepidemiology & Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Abstract: Sleep plays a vital role in brain function and systemic physiology across many body systems. Problems with sleep are widely prevalent and include deficits in quantity and quality of sleep; sleep problems that impact the continuity of sleep are collectively referred to as sleep disruptions. Numerous factors contribute to sleep disruption, ranging from lifestyle and environmental factors to sleep disorders and other medical conditions. Sleep disruptions have substantial adverse short- and long-term health consequences. A literature search was conducted to provide a nonsystematic review of these health consequences (this review was designed to be nonsystematic to better focus on the topics of interest due to the myriad parameters affected by sleep. Sleep disruption is associated with increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, metabolic effects, changes in circadian rhythms, and proinflammatory responses. In otherwise healthy adults, short-term consequences of sleep disruption include increased stress responsivity, somatic pain, reduced quality of life, emotional distress and mood disorders, and cognitive, memory, and performance deficits. For adolescents, psychosocial health, school performance, and risk-taking behaviors are impacted by sleep disruption. Behavioral problems and cognitive functioning are associated with sleep disruption in children. Long-term consequences of sleep disruption in otherwise healthy individuals include hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, weight-related issues, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and colorectal cancer. All-cause mortality is also increased in men with sleep disturbances. For those with

  16. Medical assessment of the health effects of short leisure trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Masahiro; Makino, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Nagasawa, Shingo; Kitamura, Kazuyuki; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2004-12-01

    Using responses to questionnaires and results of saliva samples from 40 women, the authors assessed the effects on health of participation in a short leisure trip (2 nights, 3 d) to Kyushu Island in Japan. They addressed transportation, sightseeing, and group activities during the tour, which might differ from participants' usual activities. Levels of the salivary endocrinological stress markers cortisol and chromogranin A (CgA) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In each of the groups with characteristics considered healthy and related to lifestyle, patterns of behavior, perceived stressors, and stress reactions, a decrease in the cortisol levels and an increase in the CgA levels were apparent during the tour. The baseline for stress hormone changes was the levels on awakening on Day 1 (i.e., immediately before the tour). These findings suggest that even short periods of travel can bring about a reduction in di-stress and acquisition of eu-stress, experienced as feeling uplifted or fulfilled.

  17. Predictors of low self-rated health in patients aged 65+ after total hip replacement (THA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørdam, Britta; Hemmingsen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    predicting low self-rated health after surgery. Material and method: A cross-sectional study including 287 patients aged 65+, who had had THR within 12-months were performed. Patients from five Danish counties received a mailed questionnaire assessing health status and demographic data. Short Form-36...

  18. Short-term effect of two education methods on oral health among hearing impairment children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Pouradeli

    2016-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Both video and dental model effectively improve the oral health of children with HI in short term. Continuous school-based oral health education programs, particularly for HI children, need to be considered.

  19. Effects of Short Vacations, Vacation Activities and Experiences on Employee Health and Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bloom, Jessica; Geurts, Sabine A. E.; Kompier, Michiel A. J.

    2012-01-01

    It was investigated (1) whether employee health and well-being (H&W) improve during short vacations (45?days), (2) how long this improvement lasts after returning home and resuming work and (3) to what extent vacation activities and experiences explain health improvements during and after short

  20. Effects of Short Vacations, Vacation Activities and Experiences on Employee Health and Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, J. de; Geurts, S.A.E.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    It was investigated (1) whether employee health and well-being (H&W) improve during short vacations (4–5 days), (2) how long this improvement lasts after returning home and resuming work and (3) to what extent vacation activities and experiences explain health improvements during and after short

  1. Columbia Public Health Core Curriculum: Short-Term Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Melissa D; Fried, Linda P; Glover, Jim W; Delva, Marlyn; Wiggin, Maggie; Hooper, Leah; Saxena, Roheeni; de Pinho, Helen; Slomin, Emily; Walker, Julia R; Galea, Sandro

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated a transformed core curriculum for the Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health (New York, New York) master of public health (MPH) degree. The curriculum, launched in 2012, aims to teach public health as it is practiced: in interdisciplinary teams, drawing on expertise from multiple domains to address complex health challenges. We collected evaluation data starting when the first class of students entered the program and ending with their graduation in May 2014. Students reported being very satisfied with and challenged by the rigorous curriculum and felt prepared to integrate concepts across varied domains and disciplines to solve public health problems. This novel interdisciplinary program could serve as a prototype for other schools that wish to reinvigorate MPH training.

  2. THE HEALTH STATE OUR MOST PRECIOUS ASSET? A SHORT REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina D. CRUCEANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When we have health problems, we become ”consumers” of resources (financial, material, affective and so on, and personal autonomy is losing ground to dependence on others (family, friends, doctors, health system, society in general, so that, our problem can become a problem of the society which, despite its good intentions may not be able to provide the necessary support”here and now”. In order to prevent, eliminate or at least improve the causes that gave rise to the various health problems, we first need to know them. Heredity, environment and education are factors often invoked in explaining the processes and phenomena underlying at our wellbeing, indisputable thing in fact, but which of them have a higher share in the evolution of our health state, and how do they do it ? Thus, the paper aims to highlight the possible determinants of the population’s health state in general, and of the individual’s especially from the medical/health geaography point of view.

  3. A short history of health technology assessment in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perleth, Matthias; Gibis, Bernhard; Göhlen, Britta

    2009-07-01

    To provide an overview of the development of health technology assessment (HTA) in Germany since the 1990s. Analysis of key documents (e.g. literature, laws, and other official documentation) and personal experiences. Health technology assessment (HTA) entered the political agenda in Germany only in the mid-1990s, basically as the result of a top-down approach toward more efficiency in health care, but with a strong impetus of an evidence-based medicine movement. Accordingly, HTA became part of several healthcare reform laws since 1997, which led to the establishment of the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) in 2004. This tandem construction aims at using evidence in decision-making processes for coverage and other decisions. These developments have led to a considerable impact of HTA in Germany. In addition, a broad spectrum of activities at universities and in other organizations, such as the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI), can be observed that contribute to both teaching and research in HTA. German researchers in the field of HTA are actively involved in international projects, such as EUNetHTA, and contribute to scientific conferences and journals.

  4. Salt Matters: Preserving Choice, Protecting Health (Short Version)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-01

    This video presents information about salt as a major contributor to high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke.  Created: 2/1/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention (DHDSP).   Date Released: 2/1/2011.

  5. NOISE POLLUTION: THE HARMFUL EFFECTS ON HEALTH (SHORT COMMUNICATION)

    OpenAIRE

    Gurinderdeep Singh

    2017-01-01

    Globally, i.e., noise named as undesirable sounds and its ability to hear from one person to another affects the lifespan and measured in dBs. Noise pollution is one of the fundamental aspect of the environmental pollution. In any type of pollution, pollutant (a foreign substance in excessive concentration) is of prime importance. As for health is concerned, noise pollution causes principally sleep disturbance, psychological symptoms, cardiovascular diseases and other mental stress, cognitive...

  6. Short-term lending: Payday loans as risk factors for anxiety, inflammation and poor health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Elizabeth; Kuzawa, Christopher W; McDade, Thomas W

    2018-08-01

    While research now consistently links consumer financial debt with adverse emotional health outcomes, specific forms of debt and their impact on measures of physical health are underexplored. This gap in knowledge is significant because different forms of loans and debt may have different experiential qualities. In this paper, we focus on a type of unsecured debt - short-term/payday loan borrowing - that has risen dramatically in recent decades in the United States and is characterized by predatory, discriminatory, and poorly regulated lending practices. Using data from a study of debt and health among adults in Boston, MA (n=286), we test whether short-term borrowing is associated with a range of emotional and physical health indicators. We find that short-term loans are associated with higher body mass index, waist circumference, C-reactive protein levels, and self-reported symptoms of physical health, sexual health, and anxiety, after controlling for several socio-demographic covariates. We discuss these findings within the contexts of regulatory shortcomings, psychosocial stress, and racial and economic credit disparities. We suggest that within the broader context of financial debt and health, short-term loans should be considered a specific risk to population health.

  7. The short-term impacts of Earned Income Tax Credit disbursement on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkopf, David H; Strully, Kate W; Dow, William H

    2014-12-01

    There are conflicting findings regarding long- and short-term effects of income on health. Whereas higher average income is associated with better health, there is evidence that health behaviours worsen in the short-term following income receipt.Prior studies revealing such negative short-term effects of income receipt focus on specific subpopulations and examine a limited set of health outcomes. The United States Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is an income supplement tied to work, and is the largest poverty reduction programme in the USA. We utilize the fact that EITC recipients typically receive large cash transfers in the months of February,March and April, in order to examine associated changes in health outcomes that can fluctuate on a monthly basis. We examine associations with 30 outcomes in the categories of diet, food security, health behaviours, cardiovascular biomarkers, metabolic biomarkers and infection and immunity among 6925 individuals from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Survey. Our research design approximates a natural experiment,since whether individuals were sampled during treatment or non-treatment months is independent of social, demographic and health characteristics that do not vary with time. There are both beneficial and detrimental short-term impacts of income receipt.Although there are detrimental impacts on metabolic factors among women, most other impacts are beneficial, including those for food security, smoking and trying to lose weight. The short-term impacts of EITC income receipt are not universally health promoting, but on balance there are more health benefits than detriments.

  8. Psychometric testing of the properties of the spiritual health scale short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ya-Chu; Chiang, Yi-Chien; Lee, Hsiang-Chun; Han, Chin-Yen

    2013-11-01

    To further examine the psychometric properties of the spiritual health scale short form, including its reliability and validity. Spirituality is one of the main factors associated with good health outcomes. A reliable and valid instrument to measure spirituality is essential to identify the spiritual needs of an individual and to evaluate the effect of spiritual care. A cross-sectional study design was used. The study was conducted in six nursing schools in northern, central and southern Taiwan. The inclusion criterion for participants was nursing students with clinical practice experience. Initially, 1141 participants were recruited for the study, but 67 were absent and 48 did not complete the questionnaires. A total of 1026 participants were finally recruited, indicating a response rate of 89·9%. The psychometric testing of the spiritual health scale short form included construct validity with confirmatory factor analysis, known-group validity and internal consistency reliability. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis supported the five-factor model as an acceptable model fit. In the known-group validity, the results indicated that people who are in the category of primary religious affiliation have better spiritual health than people in the category of secondary religious affiliation and atheism. The result also indicated that the 24-item spiritual health scale short form achieved an acceptable internal consistency coefficient. The findings suggest that the spiritual health scale short form is a valid and reliable instrument for the appraisal of individual spiritual health. The spiritual health scale short form could provide useful information to guide clinical practice in assessing and managing people's spiritual health in Taiwan. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Portuguese validation of the Short Health Anxiety Inventory: Factor structure, reliability, and factor invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Alexandra; Reis, Sibília; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia

    2016-09-01

    The Short Health Anxiety Inventory is a brief instrument to assess health anxiety widely used across countries; however, no validated version is available for Portuguese-speaking population. Factorial structure, reliability, and equivalency factor with the Spanish version were analyzed with Portuguese adolescents aged 14-18 years. A Portuguese adolescent cohort ( N = 629) and a comparative Spanish adolescent cohort ( N = 1502) were evaluated. The original two-factor version was the best fitting model for the Portuguese version. The reliability was excellent. Complete measurement invariance across both countries was supported. The Portuguese version of the Short Health Anxiety Inventory is a valid screening inventory to assess health anxiety in adolescents.

  10. U.S.-Based Short-Term Public Health Cultural Immersion Experience for Chinese Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Dorothy Lewis; Biederman, Donna J.

    2017-01-01

    A U.S. and Chinese university developed a short-term student exchange program in public/community health. The program--which consisted of lectures, seminars, field trips, cross-cultural experiences, and a synthesis excursion--resulted in high levels of program satisfaction, increased intrapersonal awareness, and skill acquisition. Program content…

  11. Health of adults caring for orphaned children in an HIV endemic community in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Caroline; Operario, Don

    2011-01-01

    In South Africa, an estimated 2.5 million children have been orphaned by AIDS and other causes of adult mortality. Although there is a growing body of research on the well-being of South African orphaned children, few research studies have examined the health of adult individuals caring for children in HIV endemic communities. The cross-sectional survey assessed prevalence of general health and functioning (based on Short-Form 36 version 2 scale), depression (based on Center for Epidemiologic...

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Danish version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire (SMFA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Marianne Pia; Andersen, Signe; Jørgensen, Annette

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) into Danish (SMFA-DK) and assess the psychometric properties. METHODS: SMFA was translated and cross-culturally adapted according to a standardized procedure. Minor changes......, content validity as coding according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), floor/ceiling effects, construct validity as factor analysis, correlations between SMFA-DK and Short Form 36 and also known group method. Responsiveness and effect size were calculated...

  13. Transformation and New Topics in Health Care: A Short Overview on mHealth and AAL with Example Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Aumayr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Health care is in a phase of transition from an analogue system to a digital system. The implications are far beyond the technical aspects. The use of mobile devices is changing health behaviour and brings monitoring functions to the center of attraction for low cost diagnostic processes. Already in some research projects, this is an idea instrumentalised to identify changes in health of elderly people. Also the use of wearables and the use of personal health data for individualizing health and care interventions is needing theories and strategies to support a new health system with a wider health economy. With concepts of health data and a methodological approach of transponding, a practical approach is at hand. All developments summarized that are at hand lead to a number of assumptions that describe the drive of the developments in health care. Health will be understood as a construct of several components and behaviour will be a chance for early detection of diseases and help in chronic disease management. This paper tries to provide a short overview of developments, approaches, method and thesis that are characteristic for the work in R&D projects.

  14. Effects of short vacations, vacation activities and experiences on employee health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bloom, Jessica; Geurts, Sabine A E; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2012-10-01

    It was investigated (1) whether employee health and well-being (H&W) improve during short vacations (4-5 days), (2) how long this improvement lasts after returning home and resuming work and (3) to what extent vacation activities and experiences explain health improvements during and after short vacations. Eighty workers reported their H&W 2 weeks before vacation (Pre), during vacation (Inter), on the day of return (Post 1) and on the third and 10th day after returning home (Post 2 and Post 3, respectively). The results showed improvements in H&W during short vacations (d=0.62), although this effect faded out rather quickly. Partial correlations and regression analyses showed that employees reported higher H&W during vacation, the more relaxed and psychologically detached they felt, the more time they spent on conversations with the partner, the more pleasure they derived from their vacation activities and the lower the number of negative incidents during vacation. Experiences of relaxation and detachment from work positively influenced H&W even after returning home. Working during vacation negatively influenced H&W after vacation. In conclusion, short vacations are an effective, although not very long lasting, 'cure' to improve employees' H&W. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The Millennium Cohort Study: Answering Long-Term Health Concerns of US Military Service Members by Integrating Longitudinal Survey Data with Military Health System Records. Part 2. Pre-Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    8217, Psychological Medicine, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 511-522. Jacobson IG, Ryan MAK, Hooper TI, Smith TC, Amoroso PJ, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Wells TS...Instruments Embedded within the Survey Construct Inventory Physical, mental, and functional health Short-Form 36 Psychological assessment...including symptoms of Patient Health Questionnaire depression, anxiety, panic syndrome, binge-eating, bulimia (PHQ) nervosa, and alcohol abuse Post

  16. EC multicentre study on short-term effects of air pollution on health. The aphea project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K [Univ. of Athens (Greece). Medical School; Zmirou, D [Grenoble Univ. (France). Faculte de Medecine; Spix, C [GSF- Forschungszentrum Umwelt und Gesundheit (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The APHEA project is an attempt to provide quantitative estimates of the short-term health effects of air pollution, using an extensive data base from ten different European countries which represent various social, environmental and air pollution situations. Within the framework of the project, the methodology of analyzing epidemiologic time series data, as well as that of performing meta-analysis, are further developed and standardized

  17. EC multicentre study on short-term effects of air pollution on health. The aphea project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Univ. of Athens (Greece). Medical School; Zmirou, D. [Grenoble Univ. (France). Faculte de Medecine; Spix, C. [GSF- Forschungszentrum Umwelt und Gesundheit (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The APHEA project is an attempt to provide quantitative estimates of the short-term health effects of air pollution, using an extensive data base from ten different European countries which represent various social, environmental and air pollution situations. Within the framework of the project, the methodology of analyzing epidemiologic time series data, as well as that of performing meta-analysis, are further developed and standardized

  18. Short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris.

    OpenAIRE

    Dab, W; Medina, S; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Le Tertre, A; Thelot, B; Monteil, C; Lameloise, P; Pirard, P; Momas, I; Ferry, R; Festy, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN: Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING: Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 13 microns in diameter (PM13), and ozone (O3) (4 stations). Daily mortality and ...

  19. Interactions between short- and long-term health of children: A case from rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bereket Kebede

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to other studies, this paper examines the determinants of short-term child health by controlling for the long-term health status of children. Using data from rural Ethiopia and linear mixed models that control for individual heterogeneity, the empirical analysis indicate that the effect of per capita household expenditures on the weight-for-age z-scores of children in rural Ethiopia is influenced by the children's height-for-age z-scores implying that the efficiency with which sho...

  20. Teaching seven principles for public health ethics: towards a curriculum for a short course on ethics in public health programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Duncan, Peter; Sherlaw, William; Brall, Caroline; Czabanowska, Katarzyna

    2014-10-07

    Teaching ethics in public health programmes is not routine everywhere - at least not in most schools of public health in the European region. Yet empirical evidence shows that schools of public health are more and more interested in the integration of ethics in their curricula, since public health professionals often have to face difficult ethical decisions. The authors have developed and practiced an approach to how ethics can be taught even in crowded curricula, requiring five to eight hours of teaching and learning contact time. In this way, if programme curricula do not allow more time for ethics, students of public health can at least be sensitised to ethics and ethical argumentation. This approach - focusing on the application of seven mid-level principles to cases (non-maleficence, beneficence, health maximisation, efficiency, respect for autonomy, justice, proportionality) - is presented in this paper. Easy to use 'tools' applying ethics to public health are presented. The crowded nature of the public health curriculum, and the nature of students participating in it, required us to devise and develop a short course, and to use techniques that were likely to provide a relatively efficient introduction to the processes, content and methods involved in the field of ethics.

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Louise; Sørensen, Jan; Ostergaard, Mikkel

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare validity, reliability, and responsiveness of generic and disease specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Two samples of patients completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), EuroQol (EQ)-5D......, 15D, Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life Scale (RAQoL), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and visual analog scales (VAS) for pain, fatigue, and global RA. Validity (convergent, discriminant, and known-groups) was evaluated in a cross-section of 200 patients. Reliability was evaluated...

  2. Ministers of Health: short-term tenure for long-term goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Marcos Bosi; Azevedo, Rafael Teixeira

    2011-03-01

    Healthcare investments should consider short and long-term demands. The objectives here were to compare the average tenures of ministers of health in Brazil and in another 22 countries and to evaluate the relationship between ministers' tenures and a number of indicators. Descriptive study conducted at Centro Paulista de Economia da Saúde (CPES). Twenty-two countries with the highest Human Development Indices (HDIs) and Brazil were included. The number of ministers over the past 20 years was investigated through each country's Ministry of Health website. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to compare the number of ministers in each country with that country's indicators. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare ministers' tenures in Brazil and other countries. The mean tenure (standard deviation, SD) of Brazilian ministers of health was 15 (12) months, a period that is statistically significantly shorter than the mean tenure of 33 (18) months in the other 22 countries (P < 0.05). There was a moderate and statistically significant positive correlation between the number of ministers and mortality rates for several conditions. The number of ministers also presented moderate and statistically significant negative correlations with per capita total healthcare expenditure (r = -0.567) and with per capita government healthcare expenditure (r = -0.530). On average, ministers of health have extremely short tenures. There is an urgent need to think and plan healthcare systems from a long-term perspective.

  3. Persistent insomnia: the role of objective short sleep duration and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Bixler, Edward O; Singareddy, Ravi; Shaffer, Michele L; Calhoun, Susan L; Liao, Duanping; Basta, Maria; Chrousos, George P

    2012-01-01

    Few population-based, longitudinal studies have examined risk factors for persistent insomnia, and the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, none of these studies have examined the role of polysomnographic (PSG) variables such as sleep duration or sleep apnea on the persistence of insomnia. Representative longitudinal study. Sleep laboratory. From a random, general population sample of 1741 individuals of the adult Penn State Cohort, 1395 were followed-up after 7.5 years. Individuals underwent one-night PSG and full medical evaluation at baseline and a telephone interview at follow-up. PSG sleep duration was analyzed as a continuous variable and as a categorical variable: insomnia persistence, partial remission, and full remission were 44.0%, 30.0%, and 26.0%, respectively. Objective short sleep duration significantly increased the odds of persistent insomnia as compared to normal sleep (OR = 3.19) and to fully remitted insomnia (OR = 4.92). Mental health problems at baseline were strongly associated with persistent insomnia as compared to normal sleep (OR = 9.67) and to a lesser degree compared to fully remitted insomnia (OR = 3.68). Smoking, caffeine, and alcohol consumption and sleep apnea did not predict persistent insomnia. Objective short sleep duration and mental health problems are the strongest predictors of persistent insomnia. These data further support the validity and clinical utility of objective short sleep duration as a novel marker of the biological severity of insomnia.

  4. Health-related quality of life in fibromyalgia and refractory angina pectoris: a comparison between two chronic non-malignant pain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréll, Paulin; Schultz, Tomas; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa; Nordeman, Lena; Börjesson, Mats; Mannheimer, Clas

    2014-04-01

    To compare health-related quality of life in 2 different populations with chronic pain: patients with fibromyalgia and patients with refractory angina pectoris. Previous separate studies have indicated that these patient groups report different impacts of pain on health-related quality of life. The Short-Form 36 was used to assess health- related quality of life. In order to adjust for age and gender differences between the groups, both patient groups were compared with age- and gender-matched normative controls. The difference in health-related quality of life between the 2 patient groups was assessed by transforming the Short-Form 36 subscale scores to a z-score. The patients with fibromyalgia (n = 203) reported poorer health-related quality of life in all the subscale scores of Short-Form 36 (p fibromyalgia experience greater impairment in health-related quality of life compared with the normal population than do patients with refractory angina pectoris, despite the fact that the latter have a potentially life-threatening disease. The great impairment in health- related quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia should be taken into consideration when planning rehabilitation.

  5. Effect of a participatory organizational-level occupational health intervention on short-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Framke, Elisabeth; Sørensen, Ole Henning; Pedersen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    with a crude RR of 0.83 (95% CI 0.69–0.99) and an adjusted RR of 0.84 (95% CI 0.69–1.01). Conclusions: Pre-school employees participating in an organizational-level occupational health intervention focusing on the core task at work had a lower incidence of short-term sickness absence during a 29-month follow......Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine whether employees in pre-schools that implemented a participatory organizational-level intervention focusing on the core task at work had a lower incidence of short-term sickness absence compared to employees in the control group. Methods...

  6. Physical and mental health shortly after a disaster: first results from the Enschede firework disaster study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kamp, Irene; van der Velden, Peter G; Stellato, Rebecca K; Roorda, Jan; van Loon, Jeanne; Kleber, Rolf J; Gersons, Bertold B R; Lebret, Erik

    2006-06-01

    Two to three weeks after the explosion of a fireworks storage facility in a residential area (May 2000, Enschede, The Netherlands) we assessed the self-reported physical and mental health among those affected by the disaster. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 3792 residents, passers-by, and rescue workers, who were involved in and/or affected by the disaster and were > or =18 years of age. At least 30% of those affected by the disaster reported serious physical and mental health problems 2-3 weeks after the explosion. Compared with reference values in the general Dutch population, high scores were found for somatic symptoms, sleeping problems, and restrictions in daily functioning due to physical and mental problems, such as anxiety, depression, and feelings of insufficiency. The strength of these differences varied between groups, based on the level of involvement and the level of being affected. Results indicate that the fireworks disaster had a substantial impact on the health of those affected by the disaster. The health impact was most pronounced for residents and passers-by and also for rescue workers living in the affected area, but to a lesser degree. Physical and mental health problems were strongly associated with the shocking experiences during and shortly after the disaster.

  7. Preliminary Analyses Showed Short-Term Mental Health Improvements after a Single-Day Manager Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Elena; Schiller, Birgitta; Mörtl, Kathrin; Gündel, Harald; Hölzer, Michael

    2018-01-10

    Psychosocial working conditions attract more and more attention when it comes to mental health in the workplace. Trying to support managers to deal with their own as well as their employees' psychological risk factors, we conducted a specific manager training. Within this investigation, we wanted to learn about the training's effects and acceptance. A single-day manager training was provided in a large industrial company in Germany. The participants were asked to fill out questionnaires regarding their own physical and mental health condition as well as their working situation. Questionnaires were distributed at baseline, 3-month, and 12-month follow-up. At this point of time the investigation is still ongoing. The current article focuses on short-term preliminary effects. Analyses only included participants that already completed baseline and three months follow-up. Preliminary results from three-month follow-up survey ( n = 33, nmale = 30, Mage = 47.5) indicated positive changes in the manager's mental health condition measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ-9: Mt1 = 3.82, Mt2 = 3.15). Training managers about common mental disorders and risk factors at the workplace within a single-day workshop seems to promote positive effects on their own mental health. Especially working with the managers on their own early stress symptoms might have been an important element.

  8. Short-Term Health Impact Assessment of Urban PM10 in Bejaia City (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Benaissa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used Health Impact Assessment (HIA to analyze the impact on a given population’s health outcomes in terms of all-causes mortality and respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations attributable to short-term exposure to particulate matter less than 10 μm diameter (PM10 in Bejaia city, for which health effects of air pollution have never been investigated. Two scenarios of PM10 reduction were considered: first, a scenario where the PM10 annual mean is decreased by 5 µg/m3, and then a scenario where this PM10 mean is decreased to 20 µg/m3 (World Health Organization annual air quality guideline (WHO-AQG. Annual mean level of PM10 (81.7 µg/m3 was calculated from objective measurements assessed in situ. Each year, about 4 and 55 deaths could be postponed with the first and the second scenarios successfully. Furthermore, decreasing PM10 annual mean by 5 µg/m3 would avoid 5 and 3 respiratory and cardiac hospitalizations, respectively, and not exceeding the PM10 WHO-AQG (20 µg/m3 would result in a potential gain of 36 and 23 per 100000 respiratory and cardiac hospitalizations, respectively. Lowering in current levels of PM10 has a nonnegligible impact in terms of public health that it is expected to be higher in the case of long-term effects.

  9. Predicting short-term weight loss using four leading health behavior change theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conceived to analyze how exercise and weight management psychosocial variables, derived from several health behavior change theories, predict weight change in a short-term intervention. The theories under analysis were the Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Self-Determination Theory. Methods Subjects were 142 overweight and obese women (BMI = 30.2 ± 3.7 kg/m2; age = 38.3 ± 5.8y, participating in a 16-week University-based weight control program. Body weight and a comprehensive psychometric battery were assessed at baseline and at program's end. Results Weight decreased significantly (-3.6 ± 3.4%, p Conclusion The present models were able to predict 20–30% of variance in short-term weight loss and changes in weight management self-efficacy accounted for a large share of the predictive power. As expected from previous studies, exercise variables were only moderately associated with short-term outcomes; they are expected to play a larger explanatory role in longer-term results.

  10. Steps to Health employee weight management randomized control trial: short-term follow-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østbye, Truls; Stroo, Marissa; Brouwer, Rebecca J N; Peterson, Bercedis L; Eisenstein, Eric L; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Joyner, Julie; Gulley, Libby; Dement, John M

    2015-02-01

    To present the short-term follow-up findings of the Steps to Health study, a randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of two employee weight management programs offered within Duke University and the Health System. A total of 550 obese (body mass index, ≥30 kg/m2) employees were randomized 1:1 between January 2011 and June 2012 to the education-based Weight Management (WM) or the WM+ arm, which focused on behavior modification. Employees were contacted to complete a follow-up visit approximately 14 months after baseline. There were no clinically, or statistically, meaningful differences between arms, but there were modest reductions in body mass index, and positive, meaningful changes in diet and physical activity for both arms. The modest positive effects observed in this study may suggest that to achieve weight loss through the workplace more intensive interventions may be required.

  11. Development and validation of the short-form Adolescent Health Promotion Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Yen; Lai, Li-Ju; Chen, Hsiu-Chih; Gaete, Jorge

    2014-10-26

    Health-promoting lifestyle choices of adolescents are closely related to current and subsequent health status. However, parsimonious yet reliable and valid screening tools are scarce. The original 40-item adolescent health promotion (AHP) scale was developed by our research team and has been applied to measure adolescent health-promoting behaviors worldwide. The aim of our study was to examine the psychometric properties of a newly developed short-form version of the AHP (AHP-SF) including tests of its reliability and validity. The study was conducted in nine middle and high schools in southern Taiwan. Participants were 814 adolescents randomly divided into two subgroups with equal size and homogeneity of baseline characteristics. The first subsample (calibration sample) was used to modify and shorten the factorial model while the second subsample (validation sample) was utilized to validate the result obtained from the first one. The psychometric testing of the AHP-SF included internal reliability of McDonald's omega and Cronbach's alpha, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and construct validity with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results of the CFA supported a six-factor model and 21 items were retained in the AHP-SF with acceptable model fit. For the discriminant validity test, results indicated that adolescents with lower AHP-SF scores were more likely to be overweight or obese, skip breakfast, and spend more time watching TV and playing computer games. The AHP-SF also showed excellent internal consistency with a McDonald's omega of 0.904 (Cronbach's alpha 0.905) in the calibration group. The current findings suggest that the AHP-SF is a valid and reliable instrument for the evaluation of adolescent health-promoting behaviors. Primary health care providers and clinicians can use the AHP-SF to assess these behaviors and evaluate the outcome of health promotion programs in the adolescent population.

  12. Oral health promotion reduces plaque and gingival bleeding in the short term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausen, Hannu

    2005-01-01

    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Health Technology Assessment Database, UK National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Medline. There were no date limits or language restriction. Systematic reviews and controlled trials (randomised or quasi-randomised) assessing reductions in dental plaque levels and/or gingival bleeding (gingivitis) and comparing health education/health promotion interventions that did not involve clinical professional input or the use of pharmacological interventions, such as antiplaque agents were included. Studies involving only special groups, such as orthodontic or medically compromised patients or assessing only denture plaque, were excluded. A range of data were extracted from systematic reviews and trials, quality assessment was undertaken, and a qualitative overview of the findings was provided. Twenty-six potentially relevant studies were identified. Six reports of five systematic reviews and 13 trials were discussed: four studies were not assessed as one was published in Polish and three could not be located.A wide range of educational and behavioural interventions were considered. These did not generally include clinical interventions and social or environmental approaches. The reviews have a number of limitations so their conclusions should be viewed with a degree of caution. However, the majority of studies achieved short-term reductions in plaque and gingival bleeding. Precise estimates of the improvement are difficult to assess because of the range and diversity of outcome measures used. The results of two meta-analyses indicate a reduction in plaque levels of 32-37%. Of 13 recently published trials evaluating educational interventions, five were set in schools, four focused on adults either in a clinical or workplace setting, three targeted older people, and one, infants. The design quality of the trials was variable

  13. Public health interventions: reaching Latino adolescents via short message service and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Amita N; Landry, Megan; Schnider, Marisa; Rojas, Angela M; Wood, Susan F

    2012-07-12

    Adolescents are substantial users of short message service (SMS) and social media. The public health community now has more opportunities to reach this population with positive youth development and health messages through these media. Latinos are a growing and youthful population with significant health risks and needs. This population may benefit from SMS and social media health interventions. To examine (1) SMS and social media utilization and behavior among Latino youth, and (2) how SMS and social media can be effectively used as a component of public health interventions focused on decreasing sexual risk taking among Latino youth. A mixed-methods approach, using both quantitative survey data and qualitative interview data, was used to provide a robust understanding of SMS and social media use and behavior for public health interventions. We recruited 428 ninth and tenth grade, self-identifying Latino adolescents to participate in a quantitative survey. Additionally, we conducted five key informant interviews with staff and 15 youth. We found that 90.8% (355/391) of respondents had access to a mobile phone either through having their own or through borrowing or sharing one. Of those who had access to a mobile phone, 94.1% (334/355) used SMS, with 41.1% (113/275) sending and receiving more than 100 text messages per day. Of 395 respondents, 384 (97.2%) had at least one social media account, and the mean number of accounts was 3.0 (range 0-8). A total of 75.8% (291/384) of adolescents logged in to their account daily. Of those with a social media account, 89.1% (342/384) had a Facebook account. Youth who took the survey in English were significantly more likely than those who took it in Spanish to have access to a mobile phone (χ(2) (1 )= 5.3; 93.3% vs 86.3%; P = .02); to be high-volume texters (χ(2) (2 )= 16.8; 49.4% vs 25.3%; P Facebook account (χ(2) (1 )= 9.9; 90.9% vs 79.7%; P = .002); and to have a greater mean number of social media accounts (t(387 )= 7

  14. Short-Term Medical Costs of a VHA Health Information Exchange: A CHEERS-Compliant Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Dustin D.; Dixon, Brian E.; Perkins, Susan M.; Myers, Laura J.; Weiner, Michael; Zillich, Allan J.; Haggstrom, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Virtual Lifetime Electronic Record (VLER) Health program provides the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) a framework whereby VHA providers can access the veterans’ electronic health record information to coordinate healthcare across multiple sites of care. As an early adopter of VLER, the Indianapolis VHA and Regenstrief Institute implemented a regional demonstration program involving bi-directional health information exchange (HIE) between VHA and non-VHA providers. The aim of the study is to determine whether implementation of VLER HIE reduces 1 year VHA medical costs. A cohort evaluation with a concurrent control group compared VHA healthcare costs using propensity score adjustment. A CHEERs compliant checklist was used to conduct the cost evaluation. Patients were enrolled in the VLER program onsite at the Indianapolis VHA in outpatient clinics or through the release-of-information office. VHA cost data (in 2014 dollars) were obtained for both enrolled and nonenrolled (control) patients for 1 year prior to, and 1 year after, the index date of patient enrollment. There were 6104 patients enrolled in VLER and 45,700 patients in the control group. The annual adjusted total cost difference per patient was associated with a higher cost for VLER enrollees $1152 (95% CI: $807–1433) (P < 0.01) (in 2014 dollars) than VLER nonenrollees. Short-term evaluation of this demonstration project did not show immediate reductions in healthcare cost as might be expected if HIE decreased redundant medical tests and treatments. Cost reductions from shared health information may be realized with longer time horizons. PMID:26765453

  15. Timing of introduction of complementary food: short- and long-term health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyrembel, Hildegard

    2012-01-01

    Complementary food is needed when breast milk (or infant formula) alone is no longer sufficient for both nutritional and developmental reasons. The timing of its introduction, therefore, is an individual decision, although 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding can be recommended for most healthy term infants. The new foods are intended to 'complement' ongoing breastfeeding with those dietary items whose intake has become marginal or insufficient. Both breastfeeding and complementary feeding can have direct or later consequences on health. The evaluation of consequences of both early and late introduction of complementary food can neither disregard the effect of breastfeeding compared to formula feeding nor the composition or quality of the complementary food. Possible short-term health effects concern growth velocity and infections, and possible long-term effects may relate to atopic diseases, type 1 and 2 diabetes, obesity and neuromuscular development. On the basis of the currently available evidence, it is impossible to exactly determine the age when risks related to the start of complementary feeding are lowest or highest for most of these effects, with the possible exception of infections and early growth velocity. The present knowledge on undesirable health effects, however, is mainly based on observational studies, and although some mechanisms have been proposed, further prospective studies have to clarify these unsolved issues. Even less evidence on the consequences of the timing of complementary food introduction is available for formula-fed infants. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Stochastic health effects assessment due to short-term external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, J.J.; Raskob, W.; Merkle, M.; Ninkovic, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    The new model for calculation of stochastic health effects is presented in this paper. The exposure pathways which are briefly considered are the short-term external exposure due to passage of the radioactive cloud (cloudshine) and the short-term external exposure due to radioactive material deposited on skin and clothes (skin contamination). The quantitative assessment of stochastic effects is expressed in numbers of deaths, which are given as a functions of the time at the accident, and age at death, what on the other side enables estimation of the number of deaths within the specified range of the time/age parameters. That means the model calculates the number of deaths within one particular year, summed up over all ages at deaths, or vice versa, it finds the number of deaths within the specified range of ages at death, summed up over all observation times. Results presented in this paper are implemented in the module LATEHEAL, which is incorporated in RODOS, a new European system for decision support for nuclear emergencies. (author)

  17. Developing world perspective: the importance of growth for short-term health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Linda S

    2010-01-01

    Recently, concern has been raised about the potential adverse long-term consequences of rapid child growth. Rapid early childhood weight gain is associated with increased likelihood of being overweight or obese later in childhood and of having risk factors for the development of chronic disease such insulin resistance and elevated blood pressure. This has led to concerns about the wisdom of promoting catch-up growth in infants born small for gestational age or in children with poor growth after birth. In considering the costs and benefits of promoting catch-up growth, we must not lose sight of the immediate health threats to children in resource-poor environments in developing countries where child morbidity and mortality remain high. The literature on short-term consequences of growth is limited by its focus on attained size as an indicator of prior nutritional status, but generally shows that children with evidence of poor prior growth are at greater risk of morbidity and mortality from common infectious diseases, including lower respiratory infections and diarrhea. In these settings, failure to promote compensatory growth may have devastating short-term consequences. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Guidelines for responsible short-term global health activities: developing common principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Judith N; Aldrink, Myron; Balasubramaniam, Ramaswami; Caldron, Paul; Compton, Bruce; Evert, Jessica; Loh, Lawrence C; Prasad, Shailendra; Siegel, Shira

    2018-02-07

    Growing concerns about the value and effectiveness of short-term volunteer trips intending to improve health in underserved Global South communities has driven the development of guidelines by multiple organizations and individuals. These are intended to mitigate potential harms and maximize benefits associated with such efforts. This paper analyzes 27 guidelines derived from a scoping review of the literature available in early 2017, describing their authorship, intended audiences, the aspects of short term medical missions (STMMs) they address, and their attention to guideline implementation. It further considers how these guidelines relate to the desires of host communities, as seen in studies of host country staff who work with volunteers. Existing guidelines are almost entirely written by and addressed to educators and practitioners in the Global North. There is broad consensus on key principles for responsible, effective, and ethical programs--need for host partners, proper preparation and supervision of visitors, needs assessment and evaluation, sustainability, and adherence to pertinent legal and ethical standards. Host country staff studies suggest agreement with the main elements of this guideline consensus, but they add the importance of mutual learning and respect for hosts. Guidelines must be informed by research and policy directives from host countries that is now mostly absent. Also, a comprehensive strategy to support adherence to best practice guidelines is needed, given limited regulation and enforcement capacity in host country contexts and strong incentives for involved stakeholders to undertake or host STMMs that do not respect key principles.

  19. Correlation between plaque control and gingival health using short and extended oral hygiene intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De David, S C; Mário, T G; De Freitas, G C; Kantorski, K Z; Wikesjö, U M E; Moreira, Carlos Heitor Cunha

    2018-02-15

    To evaluate the correlation between dental plaque formation and gingival health in subjects performing high oral hygiene standards over short or extended intervals. Fifty-two non-dental students volunteered for this study. The subjects, trained to perform high oral hygiene standards, were randomized to perform oral hygiene at 12-, 24-, 48-, or 72-h interval over 30 days. The plaque index (PlI) and the gingival index (GI) were evaluated at baseline, 15, and 30 days. For the statistical analysis, oral hygiene intervals were collapsed into daily (12 and 24 h; G12/24) and extended (48 and 72 h; G48/72) intervals. Summary statistics (mean ± SD) and Spearman correlations between the PlI and the GI at baseline, 15, and 30 days were estimated. At baseline, correlation coefficients between PlI and GI were positive for both groups (r = 0.29 and r = 0.25). At day 15 and 30, correlation was maintained with similar baseline values for the G48/72 group. GI levels did not increase despite an increase in PlI for the G12/24 group, and the correlation was lower than that observed at baseline (r = 0.13 vs. r = 0.29). In subjects with high oral hygiene standards, the oral hygiene frequency governs the correlation between dental plaque formation and gingival health. Subjects performing high oral hygiene standards at daily intervals will maintain gingival health in difference to subjects using extended hygiene intervals. Subjects performing high oral hygiene standards at daily intervals will maintain gingival health in difference to subjects using extended hygiene intervals.

  20. Health-related quality of life in long-term breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuckmann, Vera; Ekholm, Ola; Rasmussen, Niels Kristian

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of long-term breast cancer survivors (BCS) in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: An age-stratified random sample of 2,000 female BCS > or = 5 years after primary surgery without recurrence was drawn...... from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, which is representative regarding long-term BCS in Denmark, and compared with 3,104 women of the nationally representative Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2000. The Short Form-36 questionnaire assessed HRQOL and its association with BCS...... health" (P mental health" (P

  1. Short chain and polyunsaturated fatty acids in host gut health and foodborne bacterial pathogen inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mengfei; Biswas, Debabrata

    2017-12-12

    As a major source of microbes and their numerous beneficial effects, the gut microflora/microbiome is intimately linked to human health and disease. The exclusion of enteric pathogens by these commensal microbes partially depends upon the production of bioactive compounds such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). These key intestinal microbial byproducts are crucial to the maintenance of a healthy gut microbial community. Moreover, SCFAs and PUFAs play multiple critical roles in host defense and immunity, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammation, and anti-oxidant activities, as well as out-competition of enteric bacterial pathogens. In this review article, we hereby aim to highlight the importance of SCFAs and PUFAs and the microbes involved in production of these beneficial intestinal components, and their biological functions, specifically as to their immunomodulation and interactions with enteric bacterial pathogens. Finally, we also advance potential applications of these fatty acids with regards to food safety and human gut health.

  2. Psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of short-form Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chun; Hsieh, Pei-Lin; Liu, Chieh-Hsing

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of short-form Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents. Assessing health literacy is vital to design health education programme; however, there are no measurement tools exist for use specifically in Chinese adolescents. A non-experimental design was used to test the psychometric properties of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents. The short-form Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents was translated and back translated into a Chinese language version. Thirty high school students were recruited to validate the scenario of Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents. Based on the multiple-stage stratified random sampling method, 300 high school students from four counties in Taiwan were invited to participate in this study to evaluate the psychometric properties of Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents. The Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents had good internal consistency reliability and excellent test-retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a one-factor solution. Contrary to the original version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents, the findings revealed that the 36-item, one-factor model for the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents is the best-fit model. This is a suitable instrument to assess health literacy levels in Chinese adolescents before health education programmes can be appropriately planned, implemented and evaluated. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Development of a mobbing short scale in the Gutenberg Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthus-Niegel, Susan; Nübling, Matthias; Letzel, Stephan; Hegewald, Janice; Wagner, Mandy; Wild, Philipp S; Blettner, Maria; Zwiener, Isabella; Latza, Ute; Jankowiak, Sylvia; Liebers, Falk; Seidler, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Despite its highly detrimental potential, most standard questionnaires assessing psychosocial stress at work do not include mobbing as a risk factor. In the German standard version of COPSOQ, mobbing is assessed with a single item. In the Gutenberg Health Study, this version was used together with a newly developed short scale based on the Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of these two measures, to compare them and to test their differential impact on relevant outcome parameters. This analysis is based on a population-based sample of 1441 employees participating in the Gutenberg Health Study. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and reliability analyses were used to assess the mobbing scale. To determine their predictive validities, multiple linear regression analyses with six outcome parameters and log-binomial regression models for two of the outcome aspects were run. Factor analyses of the five-item scale confirmed a one-factor solution, reliability was α = 0.65. Both the single-item and the five-item scales were associated with all six outcome scales. Effect sizes were similar for both mobbing measures. Mobbing is an important risk factor for health-related outcomes. For the purpose of psychosocial risk assessment in the workplace, both the single-item and the five-item constructs were psychometrically appropriate. Associations with outcomes were about equivalent. However, the single item has the advantage of parsimony, whereas the five-item construct depicts several distinct forms of mobbing.

  4. Comparison of the Sensitivity to Change of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and the Lupus Quality of Life Measure Using Various Definitions of Minimum Clinically Important Differences in Patients With Active Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantes, Stephanie G; Strand, Vibeke; Su, Jiandong; Touma, Zahi

    2018-01-01

    The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) and Lupus Quality of Life (LupusQoL) are health-related quality of life questionnaires used in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We first determined the hypothesis-testing construct validity of the SF-36 and LupusQoL against disease activity in patients with active SLE and then compared the sensitivity to change of SF-36 and LupusQoL domains according to different definitions of minimum clinically important differences (MCIDs) for improvement and worsening in the current cohort. Seventy-eight clinically active SLE patients concurrently completed both questionnaires at their baseline and followup visits. Questionnaire domain scores were correlated with the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and evaluated for floor/ceiling effects. The sensitivity to change of domains in each questionnaire was analyzed first, according to the various MCID definitions and, second, by clinically meaningful changes in disease activity. The magnitudes of change in each domain score between the baseline and followup visit were evaluated using standardized response means. In the 78 patients, the mean ± SD SLEDAI-2K scores were 9.7 ± 4.8 at baseline and 8.8 ± 5.1 at followup. SF-36/LupusQoL domain scores did not correlate with disease activity. The SF-36 showed floor effects, and ceiling effects were evident in both questionnaires. All domains of both questionnaires showed sensitivity to change over time. Specific domains that reflected worsening or improvement differed according to differing MCID definitions. In SLE patients with active disease, both the SF-36 and LupusQoL are sensitive to change, reflecting both improvement and worsening. More importantly, the LupusQoL SLE-specific domains (planning, burden to others, body image, and intimate relationships) were largely responsive to change. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Intestinal short chain fatty acids and their link with diet and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eRios-Covian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The colon is inhabited by a dense population of microorganisms, the so-called gut microbiota, able to ferment carbohydrates and proteins that escape absorption in the small intestine during digestion. This microbiota produces a wide range of metabolites, including short chain fatty acids (SCFA. These compounds are absorbed in the large bowel and are defined as 1-6 carbon volatile fatty acids which can present straight or branched-chain conformation. Their production is influenced by the pattern of food intake and diet-mediated changes in the gut microbiota. SCFA have distinct physiological effects: they contribute to shaping the gut environment, influence the physiology of the colon, they can be used as energy sources by host cells and the intestinal microbiota and they also participate in different host-signalling mechanisms. We summarize the current knowledge about the production of SCFA, including bacterial cross-feedings interactions, and the biological properties of these metabolites with impact on the human health

  6. Health impact of exposure to fine particles. Epidemiology of short-term effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Annette; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Univ. Muenchen; Heinrich, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on short-term effects of fine particles are investigating whether morbidity or mortality increase on days with high particle concentrations. Multi-center studies have shown on a daily basis that there is an increase in morbidity and/or mortality in association with particle concentrations. Studies on the effects of particles on the respiratory tract have indicated that there is an impact of particles at their place of deposition. In addition, numerous studies have revealed that particles also have effects on the cardiovascular system, including acute-phase reactions, increased hospital admissions, and also an increase in cardiovascular disease mortality in association with elevated particle concentrations. For PM 10 consistent effects were found. Furthermore, the analyses showed that no threshold value could be established, but a linear dose-effect relation. Studies measuring PM 2.5 point to fine particles being mainly responsible for these effects. Current studies show that in addition to fine particles, ultra-fine particles can cause further health effects. (orig.) [de

  7. Short-term effect of winter air pollution on respiratory health of asthmatic children in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segala, C; Fauroux, B; Just, J; Pascual, L; Grimfeld, A; Neukirch, F

    1998-03-01

    There is controversy as to whether low levels of air pollution affect the symptoms and lung function in asthma. We addressed this by examining the short-term effects of winter air pollution on childhood asthma in Paris. We performed a 6 month follow-up of 84 medically diagnosed asthmatic children classified into two groups of severity. The outcomes included incidence and prevalence of asthma attacks, symptoms and use of supplementary beta2-agonists, peak expiratory flow (PEF) value and its variability. The statistical analysis controlled the lack of independence between daily health outcomes, trends and meteorology. Air pollution was associated with an increase in reports and duration of asthma attacks and asthma-like symptoms in mild asthmatic children. The strongest association was the risk of asthma attack for an increase of 50 microg x m(-3) of sulphur dioxide (SO2) on the same day (odds ratio (OR)=2.86). Maximum reduction in morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) (5%) and maximum increase in PEF variability (2%) were observed at a lag of 3 days for an increase of 50 microg x m(-3) of SO2 in the subgroup of mild asthmatics receiving no regular inhaled medication. In moderate asthmatic children, the duration of supplementary beta2-agonist use was strongly associated with air pollution. The general pattern of our results provides evidence of the effect of the low levels of air pollution encountered in Western Europe on symptoms and lung function in childhood asthma.

  8. Hospitalized Cases of Nonorganic Failure to Thrive: The Scope of the Problem and Short-Term Lay Health Visitor Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Clare F.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes the characteristics of thriving and failure to thrive (FTT) children and their mothers and examines the effect of short-term lay health visitor intervention in cases of nonorganic failure to thrive. Three patients of interaction were identified in the FTT group, benign neglect, incoordination, over hostility. (Author/DB)

  9. Measurement invariance of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) across three cultural groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshanloo, Mohsen; Wissing, Marie P.; Khumalo, Itumeleng P.; Lamers, S.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the factorial structure and invariance of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) across cultural groups from three nations, namely, the Netherlands, South Africa, and Iran (N = 1120). The three-dimensional structure of mental well-being was supported in all the

  10. Influence of Social, Economic, Familial, Marital Status, and Disease Adaptation on the Physical and Mental Health Dimensions of Patients Who Are Candidates for Renal Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz Özdemir, Aydan; Sayın, Cihat Burak; Erdal, Rengin; Özcan, Cihangir; Haberal, Mehmet

    2018-03-01

    End-stage renal disease is a disease with a long duration, requiring patients to live with the limitations imposed by their condition. Stressors associated with this disease are demanding, with patients dependent on support from their social environment. Here, we aimed to show the influences of familial, social, economic, and marital status on quality of life in patients with end-stage renal disease. Patients (190 women/188 men) who were under hemodialysis treatment and on transplant wait lists were included in the study. To evaluate the quality of life, patients completed the Short Form 36 health survey questionnaire voluntarily while undergoing hemodialysis treatment. All Short Form 36 questionnaire components were analyzed separately, and all social, economic, and business life dimensions were examined with another questionnaire. Significant differences were observed between single and married patients regarding physical and mental health dimensions (P work showed better Short Form 36 scores in working patients (P marital statuses, in addition to the influence of disease adaptation, independently affected the well-being of patients with end-stage renal disease.

  11. Short sleep duration and dietary intake: epidemiologic evidence, mechanisms, and health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links between short sleep duration and obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease may be mediated through changes in dietary intake. This review provides an overview of recent epidemiologic studies on the relations between habitual short sleep duration and dietary intake in a...

  12. Short sleep duration and dietary intake: epidemiological evidence, mechanisms, and health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links between short sleep duration and obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease may be mechanistically mediated through changes in dietary intake. This review aims to provide an overview of recent epidemiologic studies on the relationships between habitual short sleep durat...

  13. Health education programs may be as effective as exercise intervention on improving health-related quality of life among Japanese people over 65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamari, Kotaro; Kawamura, Kenji; Sato, Mitsuya; Harada, Kazuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The current study was aimed to examine the short-term effects of a 3-month health education program on health-related quality of life using the Short-Form 36. Twenty-five Japanese older people aged 65 and older in the health education program were compared with two historical control groups (n = 25 each) undertaking group and resistance exercise interventions and matched by age, sex and body mass index. A series of split-design two-way analyses of variance were conducted for data analysis. Significant improvements were observed in general health and vitality subscales of the Short-Form 36 in the educational program group. Multivariate analyses, adjusted for several confounding factors, revealed that the effects of the three programs were comparable. The findings suggest that a structured 3-month educational program may be as effective as exercise interventions in improving general health and vitality in a community-dwelling Japanese older population. © 2011 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2011 ACOTA.

  14. [Estimating emergency hospital admissions to gauge short-term effects of air pollution: evaluation of health data quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois de Fer, Béatrice; Host, Sabine; Chardon, Benoît; Chatignoux, Edouard; Beaujouan, Laure; Brun-Ney, Dominique; Grémy, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    The study of the short-term effects and health impact of air pollution is carrier out by the ERPURS regional surveillance program which utilizes hospitalization data obtained from the French hospital information system (PMSI) to determine these links. This system does not permit the distinction between emergency hospital admissions from scheduled ones, which cannot be related to short term changes in air pollution levels. This study examines how scheduled admissions affect the quality of the health indicators used to estimate air pollution effects. This indicator is compared to three new emergency hospitalisation indicators reconstructed based on data from the public hospitals in Paris, partly from the PMSI data and partly with data from an on-line emergency network that regroups all of the computerized emergency services. According to the pathology, scheduled admissions present a difficulty which affects the capacity to highlight the weakest risks with any precision.

  15. The Short Health Scale: a valid and reliable measure of health related quality of life in English speaking inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Edel

    2013-09-01

    Health related quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease is influenced both by disease activity as well as by the psychosocial characteristics of the individual patient. The Short Health Scale (SHS) is a four-part visual analogue scale questionnaire using open-ended questions that are designed to assess the impact of inflammatory bowel disease on a health related quality of life. The four dimensions include bowel symptoms, activities of daily life, worry and general wellbeing. It has previously been validated in Swedish and Norwegian speaking patients.

  16. Reliability of the Danish version of the short questionnaire to assess health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lotte; Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Jacobsen, Julie Sandell

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To translate and cross-cultural adapt the short questionnaire to assess health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH) to Danish, and to investigate the Danish version’s reliability. Methods: The study was conducted according to the COSMIN guidelines. The reliability was evaluated in 53...... and indicates that the Danish version of SQUASH can be used to distinguish between individuals; however, the absolute reliability was poor and SQUASH is not considered suitable for easuring physical activity on an individual level....

  17. Assessing the Short-Term Global Health Experience: A Cross-Sectional Study of Demographics, Socioeconomic Factors, and Disease Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geen, Olivia; Pumputis, Allison; Kochi, Cristina; Costa, Andrew; Stobbe, Karl

    2017-08-01

    Interest in short-term global health experiences to underserviced populations has grown rapidly in the last few decades. However, there remains very little research on what participants can expect to encounter. At the same time, it has been suggested that in order for physicians and workers to provide safe and effective care, volunteers should have a basic understanding of local culture, health systems, epidemiology, and socioeconomic needs of the community before arriving. Our objective was to add to the limited literature on what short-term global health trips can expect to encounter through a cross-sectional study of patient demographics, socioeconomic markers, and the prevalence of diseases encountered on a short-term medical service trip to Lima, Peru. Descriptive analysis was conducted on clinic data collected from patients living in Pamplona Alta and Pamplona Baja, Lima, Peru, in July 2015. We found that volunteers encountered mainly female patients (70.8%), and that there were significant socioeconomic barriers to care including poverty, poor housing, environmental exposures, and lack of continuity of health care. Analysis of the disease prevalence found a high proportion of acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain in the adult populations (18.8% and 11.4%, respectively), and a high presentation of upper respiratory tract infections (25.4%) and parasites (22.0%) in the pediatric group. These findings can be used by future short-term medical service trips to address potential gaps in care including the organization of weekend clinics to allow access to working men, and the use of patient education and nonpharmacological management of acute and chronic disease.

  18. A New Comprehensive Short-form Health Literacy Survey Tool for Patients in General

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuyen Van Duong, RN, MSN, PhD

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The comprehensive HL-SF12 was a valid and easy to use tool for assessing patients’ health literacy in the hospitals to facilitate healthcare providers in enhancing patients’ health literacy and healthcare qualities.

  19. Impact of a five-day short course on integration of health promotion into practice in north Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Susan G; Llewellyn-Jones, Lorraine; Lloyd, Jacqui

    2009-04-01

    Workforce development is one element of health promotion capacity building. This paper describes the extent to which participants in a five-day short course in health promotion, delivered three times in north Queensland during 2007, reported greater adoption of health promotion within their work roles, and the factors that affected the level of adoption. Out of 54 course attendees, 39 completed a post-course survey five to nine months after completing the course (72% response rate). Additionally, 11 course attendees participated in a focus group or phone interview to explore survey findings. The courses succeeded in providing knowledge, skills, confidence and enthusiasm to undertake health promotion work. Eighty per cent of participants stated they had incorporated health promotion into their work frequently or all of the time since undertaking the course. Lack of understanding of health promotion from co-workers and managers, lack of organisational support and commitment, lack of resources, competing clinical priorities, and lack of time were cited as the main barriers for undertaking health promotion. The course met participant training needs. However, similar training across all levels of staff including management may help to develop organisational capacity, thereby building a more knowledgeable workforce that is supported to undertake health promotion as a core part of an organisation's business.

  20. Establishment of a Community-Based Mental Health Center in Yazd: A Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golrasteh Kholasehzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available About 40 years ago, the mental health services providing strategies have been dramatically changed worldwide. As well as, it is considered as a new revolution in mental health and named as community-based mental health movement. Moreover, mental health centers in Iran have been established in order to make a change in urban community-based mental health (CMHC. The first CMHC was founded in Tehran 16th district in 2010. In Yazd, it was established in 2010. In this article, the steps for establishment of the first CMHC were described.

  1. Differences in health status between long-term and short-term benzodiazepine users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, S.M.; Furer, J.W.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Bor, J.H.J.; Zitman, F.G.; Weel, C. van

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite generally accepted advice to keep treatment short, benzodiazepines are often prescibed for more than six months. Prevention of long-term benzodiazepine use could be facilitated by the utilisation of risk indicators for long-term use. However, the characteristics of long-term

  2. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in a Danish population: a prospective follow-up analysis of symptoms, quality of life, and health-care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jane Møller; Wildner-Christensen, Mette; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) in the population is high; however, data on long-term follow-up and incidence of GERS in the population are sparse. This study describes the long-term natural history of GERS, the related health-care use, and quality of life...... Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS)), and quality of life (the Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36)) at inclusion and after 5 years. GERS was defined as a mean score > or =2 in the reflux dimension in the GSRS. Information on use of health-care resources was drawn from the questionnaires and registers...

  3. Assessing the short term health impact of the Great Recession in the European Union: a cross-country panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffolutti, Veronica; Suhrcke, Marc

    2014-07-01

    There are great concerns and some initial country-specific, descriptive evidence about potential adverse health consequences of the recent Great Recession. Using data for 23 European Union countries we examine the short-term impact of macroeconomic decline during the Great Recession on a range of health and health behaviour indicators. We also examine whether the effect differed between countries according to the level of social protection provided. Overall, during the recent recession, an increase of one percentage point in the standardised unemployment rate has been associated with a statistically significant decrease in the following mortality rates: all-cause-mortality (3.4%), cardiovascular diseases (3.7%), cirrhosis- and chronic liver disease-related mortality (9.2%), motor vehicle accident-related mortality (11.5%), parasitic infection-related mortality (4.1%), but an increase in the suicide rate (34.1%). In general, the effects were more marked in countries with lower levels of social protection, compared to those with higher levels. An increase in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession has had a beneficial health effect on average across EU countries, except for suicide mortality. Social protection expenditures appear to help countries "smooth" the health response to a recession, limiting health damage but also forgoing potential health gains that could otherwise result. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The insomnia with short sleep duration phenotype: an update on it's importance for health and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio

    2017-01-01

    It was first proposed in the late 1990s that objective markers of sleep disturbance could serve as an index of the biological severity of insomnia. In 2013, a heuristic model of two insomnia phenotypes based on objective sleep duration was proposed. Herein, we review the studies conducted in the past 3 years on the insomnia with short sleep duration phenotype and its implications for a clinical research agenda. Studies have shown that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with physiologic hyperarousal and cardiometabolic and neurocognitive morbidity, whereas insomnia with normal sleep duration is not. Both insomnia phenotypes are associated with psychiatric morbidity albeit through different psychobiological mechanisms. Novel recent studies have included occupational outcomes, developmental approaches, at-home objective sleep testing, diagnostic accuracy measures, and response to cognitive-behavioral treatment. Accumulating evidence in the past years has continued to support that insomnia with short sleep duration is a more severe phenotype of the disorder associated with physiologic changes, significant morbidity and mortality and, potentially, a differential response to treatment.

  5. Short- and Long-Term Impacts of Neighborhood Built Environment on Self-Rated Health of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Amy

    2018-01-18

    Proximity to health care, healthy foods, and recreation is linked to improved health in older adults while deterioration of the built environment is a risk factor for poor health. Yet, it remains unclear whether individuals prone to good health self-select into favorable built environments and how long-term exposure to deteriorated environments impacts health. This study uses a longitudinal framework to address these questions. The study analyzes 3,240 Americans aged 45 or older from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with good self-reported health at baseline, and follows them from 1999 to 2013. At each biennial survey wave, individual data are combined with data on services in the neighborhood of residence (defined as the zip code) from the Economic Census. The analysis overcomes the problem of residential self-selection by employing marginal structural models and inverse probability of treatment weights. Logistic regression estimates indicate that long-term exposure to neighborhood built environments that lack health-supportive services (e.g., physicians, pharmacies, grocery stores, senior centers, and recreational facilities) and are commercially declined (i.e., have a high density of liquor stores, pawn shops, and fast food outlets) increases the risk of fair/poor self-rated health compared to more average neighborhoods. Short-term exposure to the same environments as compared to average neighborhoods has no bearing on self-rated health after adjusting for self-selection. Results highlight the importance of expanding individuals' access to health-supportive services prior to their reaching old age, and expanding access for people unlikely to attain residence in service-dense neighborhoods. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The TSX Gives a Short Course in Health Economics: It's the Prices, Stupid!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert G

    2010-11-01

    The fall in Shoppers Drug Mart shares last April 8 gave a crystal-clear demonstration of the link between health expenditures and health incomes. Reacting (finally) to the excessive retail prices of generic drugs, the Ontario government effectively halved the rate of reimbursement of ingredient costs and banned the "professional allowances" (kickbacks) paid to pharmacies by generic manufacturers. Taxpayers and private payers will save hundreds of millions of dollars, and pharmacy revenues will fall by an equivalent amount. Patients will still get their drugs, with no loss of quantity, quality or even convenience; no one's health is threatened. But investor profits will fall. There are similar savings opportunities throughout the health system. Health costs are primarily a political, not an economic, problem.

  7. Relation between quality of life and mental health in pregnant women with prior pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspoor, Zahra; Razmju, Parvanah Sarparast; Hekmat, Kadijah

    2016-10-01

    This paper intends to compare quality of life (QoL) and mental health among pregnant women with and without previous pregnancy loss. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 409 women between the 16th and 30th weeks of gestation in health centers in Ahvaz, Iran, including 145 women with prior pregnancy loss (group 1) and 264 women without such history (group 2). Data were collected using the QoL Short Form-36 questionnaire, the Mental Health Questionnaire 25 and a questionnaire for assessing sociodemographic variables. Data were analyzed using spss version 22. Results were analyzed using the χ 2 -test, the Student's t-test and logistic regression. P mental health. Women with previous pregnancy loss had lower scores in total and in all subscales of the QoL Short Form-36 (P Mental Health Questionnaire 25 compared to women without these histories. Women with history of spontaneous abortion and stillbirth seem to have poorer QoL and mental health during their subsequent pregnancy than those without such experience. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. The short-term effects of an integrated care model for the frail elderly on health, quality of life, health care use and satisfaction with care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelmina Mijntje Looman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study explores the short-term value of integrated care for the frail elderly by evaluating the effects of the Walcheren Integrated Care Model on health, quality of life, health care use and satisfaction with care after three months. Intervention: Frailty was preventively detected in elderly living at home with the Groningen Frailty Indicator. Geriatric nurse practitioners and secondary care geriatric nursing specialists were assigned as case managers and co-ordinated the care agreed upon in a multidisciplinary meeting. The general practitioner practice functions as a single entry point and supervises the co-ordination of care. The intervention encompasses task reassignment between nurses and doctors and consultations between primary, secondary and tertiary care providers. The entire process was supported by multidisciplinary protocols and web-based patient files. Methods: The design of this study was quasi-experimental. In this study, 205 frail elderly patients of three general practitioner practices that implemented the integrated care model were compared with 212 frail elderly patients of five general practitioner practices that provided usual care. The outcomes were assessed using questionnaires. Baseline measures were compared with a three-month follow-up by chi-square tests, t-tests and regression analysis. Results and conclusion: In the short term, the integrated care model had a significant effect on the attachment aspect of quality of life. The frail elderly patients were better able to obtain the love and friendship they desire. The use of care did not differ despite the preventive element and the need for assessments followed up with case management in the integrated care model. In the short term, there were no significant changes in health. As frailty is a progressive state, it is assumed that three months are too short to influence changes in health with integrated care models. A more longitudinal approach is

  9. Economic Rationality in Choosing between Short-Term Bad-Health Choices and Longer-Term Good-Health Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Campbell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-contagious, chronic disease has been identified as a global health risk. Poor lifestyle choices, such as smoking, alcohol, drug and solvent abuse, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet have been identified as important factors affecting the increasing incidence of chronic disease. The following focuses on the circumstance affecting the lifestyle or behavioral choices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in remote-/very remote Australia. Poor behavioral choices are the result of endogenous characteristics that are influenced by a range of stressful exogenous variables making up the psychosocial determinants including social disenfranchisement, cultural loss, insurmountable tasks, the loss of volitional control and resource constraints. It is shown that poor behavioral choices can be economically rational; especially under highly stressful conditions. Stressful circumstances erode individual capacity to commit to long-term positive health alternatives such as self-investment in education. Policies directed at removing the impediments and providing incentives to behaviors involving better health choices can lead to reductions in smoking and alcohol consumption and improved health outcomes. Multijurisdictional culturally acceptable policies directed at distal variables relating to the psychosocial determinants of health and personal mastery and control can be cost effective. While the content of this paper is focused on the conditions of colonized peoples, it has broader relevance.

  10. A probabilistic assessment of health risks associated with short-term exposure to tropospheric ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield, R.G; Biller, W.F.; Jusko, M.J.; Keisler, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    The work described in this report is part of a larger risk assessment sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Earlier efforts developed exposure-response relationships for acute health effects among populations engaged in heavy exertion. Those efforts also developed a probabilistic national ambient air quality standards exposure model and a general methodology for integrating probabilistic exposure-response relation- ships and exposure estimates to calculate overall risk results. Recently published data make it possible to model additional health endpoints (for exposure at moderate exertion), including hospital admissions. New air quality and exposure estimates for alternative national ambient air quality standards for ozone are combined with exposure-response models to produce the risk results for hospital admissions and acute health effects. Sample results explain the methodology and introduce risk output formats.

  11. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players...... weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short...... (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen...

  12. Physical and mental health shortly after a disaster: first results from the Enschede firework disaster study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kamp, Irene; van der Velden, Peter G.; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Roorda, Jan; van Loon, Jeanne; Kleber, Rolf J.; Gersons, Bertold B. R.; Lebret, Erik

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Two to three weeks after the explosion of a fireworks storage facility in a residential area (May 2000, Enschede, The Netherlands) we assessed the self-reported physical and mental health among those affected by the disaster. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted among 3792

  13. Physical and mental health shortly after a disaster: first results from the Enschede firework disaster study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Irene van; Velden, P.G. van der; Stellato, R.K.; Roorda, J.; Loon, J. van; Kleber, R.J.; Gersons, B.B.R.; Lebret, E.

    Objectives: Two to three weeks after the explosion of a fireworks storage facility in a residential area (May 2000, Enschede, The Netherlands) we assessed the self-reported physical and mental health among those affected by the disaster. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted among 3792

  14. Physical and mental health shortly after a disaster: first results from the Enschede firework disaster study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Irene van; Velden, Peter G van der; Stellato, Rebecca K; Roorda, Jan; Loon, Jeanne van; Kleber, Rolf J; Gersons, Bertold B R; Lebret, Erik

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Two to three weeks after the explosion of a fireworks storage facility in a residential area (May 2000, Enschede, The Netherlands) we assessed the self-reported physical and mental health among those affected by the disaster. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted among 3792

  15. Social capital at work: psychometric analysis of a short scale in Spanish among Mexican health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo, Alvaro J; Camacho-Avila, Anabel; García-Rivas, Javier; Juárez-García, Arturo

    2012-09-01

    Most studies on social capital and health are carried out with large home-based surveys, neglecting that many interactions among individuals occur in the workplace. The objective of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of a scale in Spanish used to measure social capital at work. The scale designed by Kouvonen et al was translated into Spanish and tested under classical test theory, item response theory, and confirmatory factorial analysis; 152 public health workers from different socio-cultural contexts participated in the survey. Internal consistency was high (Chronbach's alpha = 0.88). Social capital at work correlated properly with two Job Content Questionnaire dimensions. A ceiling effect was detected and item difficulty was quantified. The confirmatory factor analysis showed the expected theoretical components of social capital: bonding, bridging and trust. The scale has acceptable psychometric properties, thus it can be used in future studies.

  16. The short-term and decade-long effects of divorce on women's midlife health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Frederick O; Wickrama, K A S; Conger, Rand D; Elder, Glen H

    2006-06-01

    We hypothesize that divorce immediately increases psychological distress and has long-term negative consequences for the physical health of divorced people. In addition, we hypothesize that divorce indirectly causes long-term increases in distress through stressful midlife events. The hypotheses are tested using data from 416 rural Iowa women who were interviewed repeatedly in the early 1990s when they were mothers of adolescent children; the women were interviewed again in 2001. The data support the hypotheses. In the years immediately after their divorce (1991-1994), divorced women reported significantly higher levels ofpsychological distress than married women but no differences in physical illness. A decade later (in 2001), the divorced women reported significantly higher levels of illness, even after controlling for age, remarriage, education, income, and prior health. Compared to their married counterparts, divorced women reported higher levels of stressful life events between 1994 and 2000, which led to higher levels of depressive symptoms in 2001.

  17. Health Effects of Short-Term Fluctuations in Macroeconomic Conditions: The Case of Hypertension for Older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrisani, Marco; Lee, Jinkook

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the health effects of short-term macroeconomic fluctuations as described by changes in unemployment rate, house, and stock market price indexes. The 'Great Recession' provides the opportunity to conduct this analysis as it involved contemporaneous shocks to the labor, housing, and stock markets. Using panel data from the Health and Retirement Study over the period 2004-2010, we relate changes in hypertension status to changes in state-level unemployment rate and house prices and to changes in stock market prices. We consider hypertension, a disease related to stress and of high prevalence among older adults, that has received little attention in the literature linking macroeconomic conditions to individual health. Our analysis exploits self-reports of hypertension diagnosis as well as directly measured blood pressure readings. Using both measures, we find that the likelihood of developing hypertension is negatively related to changes in house prices. Also, decreasing house prices lower the probability of stopping hypertension medication treatment for individuals previously diagnosed with the condition. We do not observe significant associations between hypertension and either changes in unemployment rate or stock market prices. We document heterogeneity in the estimated health effects of the recession by gender, education, asset ownership, and work status. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The Iranian version of 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12: factor structure, internal consistency and construct validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi Sayed

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12 as a shorter alternative of the SF-36 is largely used in health outcomes surveys. The aim of this study was to validate the SF-12 in Iran. Methods A random sample of the general population aged 15 years and over living in Tehran, Iran completed the SF-12. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and validity was assessed using known groups comparison and convergent validity. In addition, the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing both exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Results: In all, 5587 individuals were studied (2721 male and 2866 female. The mean age and formal education of the respondents were 35.1 (SD = 15.4 and 10.2 (SD = 4.4 years respectively. The results showed satisfactory internal consistency for both summary measures, that are the Physical Component Summary (PCS and the Mental Component Summary (MCS; Cronbach's α for PCS-12 and MCS-12 was 0.73 and 0.72, respectively. Known-groups comparison showed that the SF-12 discriminated well between men and women and those who differed in age and educational status (P Conclusion In general the findings suggest that the SF-12 is a reliable and valid measure of health related quality of life among Iranian population. However, further studies are needed to establish stronger psychometric properties for this alternative form of the SF-36 Health Survey in Iran.

  19. Short-term and medium-term health effects of thermonuclear weapons and war on individuals and health services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechat, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    In the aftermath of a thermonuclear attack a number of health problems would appear, related to the changed living conditions, lack of food, absence of sanitation, the environmental effects, and disruption of the health services. Internal irradiation by ingestion of radioactive isotopes deposited on the ground would constitute a major hazard from the fallout. In the first few weeks following the attack iodine-131 would present the greatest hazard. Its main entry into the body would be through milk from livestock grazing on pastures contaminated with fallout; milk from local cattle pasturing in open land would thus be unsuitable for consumption. There is much speculation about the possible outbreaks of communicable diseases following a nuclear attack. Infection could emerge as a major problem. It constitutes a leading cause of death in burns. In the Japanese experience acute radiation sickness was generally accompanied by infectious complications

  20. Short-term costs of preeclampsia to the United States health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Warren; Shih, Tiffany; Incerti, Devin; Ton, Thanh G N; Lee, Henry C; Peneva, Desi; Macones, George A; Sibai, Baha M; Jena, Anupam B

    2017-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and adverse neonatal outcomes. Little is known about the extent of the health and cost burden of preeclampsia in the United States. This study sought to quantify the annual epidemiological and health care cost burden of preeclampsia to both mothers and infants in the United States in 2012. We used epidemiological and econometric methods to assess the annual cost of preeclampsia in the United States using a combination of population-based and administrative data sets: the National Center for Health Statistics Vital Statistics on Births, the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative Databases, the US Health Care Cost and Utilization Project database, and a commercial claims data set. Preeclampsia increased the probability of an adverse event from 4.6% to 10.1% for mothers and from 7.8% to 15.4% for infants while lowering gestational age by 1.7 weeks (P preeclampsia during the first 12 months after birth was $1.03 billion for mothers and $1.15 billion for infants. The cost burden per infant is dependent on gestational age, ranging from $150,000 at 26 weeks gestational age to $1311 at 36 weeks gestational age. In 2012, the cost of preeclampsia within the first 12 months of delivery was $2.18 billion in the United States ($1.03 billion for mothers and $1.15 billion for infants), and was disproportionately borne by births of low gestational age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mitochondrial-Shaping Proteins in Cardiac Health and Disease ? the Long and the Short of It!

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Sang-Bing; Kalkhoran, Siavash Beikoghli; Hern?ndez-Res?ndiz, Sauri; Samangouei, Parisa; Ong, Sang-Ging; Hausenloy, Derek John

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial health is critically dependent on the ability of mitochondria to undergo changes in mitochondrial morphology, a process which is regulated by mitochondrial shaping proteins. Mitochondria undergo fission to generate fragmented discrete organelles, a process which is mediated by the mitochondrial fission proteins (Drp1, hFIS1, Mff and MiD49/51), and is required for cell division, and to remove damaged mitochondria by mitophagy. Mitochondria undergo fusion to form elongated interco...

  2. The relationship between a short measure of health status and physical activity in a workplace population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bize, Raphaël; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2009-01-01

    Many interventions promoting physical activity (PA) are effective in preventing disease onset, and although studies have found a positive relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQL) and PA, most of these studies have focused on older adults and those with chronic conditions. Less is known regarding the association between PA level and HRQL among healthy adults. Our objective was to analyse the relationship between PA level and HRQL among a sample of 573 employees aged 20-68 taking part in a workplace intervention to promote PA. Measures included HRQL (using a single item) and PA (i.e. Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire). The Modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (MCAFT) was also completed by 10% of the employees. MET-minute scores (assessing energy expenditure over one week) were compared across HRQL categories using ANOVA. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to further examine the relationship between HRQL and PA, controlling for potential covariates. Participants in the higher health status categories were found to report higher levels of energy expenditure (one-way ANOVA, p workplace population is positively associated with increased health status, and it also suggests that a single-item HRQL measure is suitable for community- and population-based studies, reducing response burden and research costs.

  3. High prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in six health areas of - Kasansa health zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo: short report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Linsuke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available School-aged children suffer the most from schistosomiasis infection in sub Saharan Africa due to poverty and limited sanitary conditions. Mapping of disease burden is recommended and there is a need of updating prevalence data which is as old as 20 years in the Democratic Republic of Congo. An epidemiological and parasitological study was carried out in 2011 in the health zone of Kasansa. Six health areas (HA were included in the study. In each health area, one primary school was selected. School-aged children were screened for S. mansoni infection using parallel Kato-Katz and direct microscopy techniques. A total of 335 school-aged children were screened. The average prevalence was 82.7% and ranged between 59.5-94.9%. Four of the six HAs had a prevalence level over 91%. Of all infected children, about half 112 (43.2% had light parasite density. These results demonstrate that Schistosoma mansoni infection is a bigger problem than anticipated and there is an urgent need to implement effective control measures.

  4. Are factor analytical techniques used appropriately in the validation of health status questionnaires?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vet, Henrica C W; Adér, Herman J; Terwee, Caroline B

    2005-01-01

    Factor analysis is widely used to evaluate whether questionnaire items can be grouped into clusters representing different dimensions of the construct under study. This review focuses on the appropriate use of factor analysis. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) is used as an example...... of the results and conclusions was often incomplete. Some of our results are specific for the SF-36, but the finding that both the application and the reporting of factor analysis leaves much room for improvement probably applies to other health status questionnaires as well. Optimal reporting and justification...

  5. Short Stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Boye Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie

    2016-01-01

    -scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below......The use of appropriate growth standards/references is of significant clinical importance in assessing the height of children with short stature as it may determine eligibility for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of using World Health Organization (WHO) instead...... of national growth standards/references on height assessment in short children. Data were collected from routine clinical practice (1998-2014) from nine European countries that have available national growth references and were enrolled in NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (NCT00960128), a large...

  6. Male reproductive health under threat: Short term exposure to radiofrequency radiations emitted by common mobile jammers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMJ Mortazavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modern life prompted man to increasingly generate, transmit and use electricity that leads to exposure to different levels of electromagnetic fields (EMFs. Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to common sources of EMF such as mobile phones, laptops or wireless internet-connected laptops decreases human semen quality. In some countries, mobile jammers are occasionally used in offices, shrines, conference rooms and cinemas to block the signal. Aims: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effect of short term exposure of human sperm samples to radiofrequency (RF radiations emitted by common mobile jammers. Subjects and Methods: Fresh semen samples were collected by masturbation from 30 healthy donors who had referred to Infertility Treatment Center at the Mother and Child Hospital with their wives. Female problem was diagnosed as the reason for infertility in these couples. Statistical Analysis: T-test and analysis of variance were used to show statistical significance. Results: The motility of sperm samples exposed to jammer RF radiation for 2 or 4 h were significantly lower than those of sham-exposed samples. These findings lead us to the conclusion that mobile jammers may significantly decrease sperm motility and the couples′ chances of conception. Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be suggested that in countries that have not banned mobile jammer use, legislations should be urgently passed to restrict the use of these signal blocking devices in public or private places.

  7. Male reproductive health under threat: Short term exposure to radiofrequency radiations emitted by common mobile jammers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, SMJ; Parsanezhad, ME; Kazempour, M; Ghahramani, P; Mortazavi, AR; Davari, M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Modern life prompted man to increasingly generate, transmit and use electricity that leads to exposure to different levels of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to common sources of EMF such as mobile phones, laptops or wireless internet-connected laptops decreases human semen quality. In some countries, mobile jammers are occasionally used in offices, shrines, conference rooms and cinemas to block the signal. AIMS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effect of short term exposure of human sperm samples to radiofrequency (RF) radiations emitted by common mobile jammers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fresh semen samples were collected by masturbation from 30 healthy donors who had referred to Infertility Treatment Center at the Mother and Child Hospital with their wives. Female problem was diagnosed as the reason for infertility in these couples. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: T-test and analysis of variance were used to show statistical significance. RESULTS: The motility of sperm samples exposed to jammer RF radiation for 2 or 4 h were significantly lower than those of sham-exposed samples. These findings lead us to the conclusion that mobile jammers may significantly decrease sperm motility and the couples’ chances of conception. CONCLUSION: Based on these results, it can be suggested that in countries that have not banned mobile jammer use, legislations should be urgently passed to restrict the use of these signal blocking devices in public or private places. PMID:24082653

  8. Data on short-term effect of nitrogen dioxide on cardiovascular health in Wallonia, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Collart

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Data presented in this article are related to the research paper entitled “Short-term effects of nitrogen dioxide on hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease in Wallonia, Belgium.” (Collart et al., in press [1].Nitrogen dioxide concentrations showed a strong seasonal pattern with higher levels in the cold period than in the warm period. A minimum of 13.1 µg/m3 in July and a maximum of 26.9 µg/m3 in January were observed. The coldest months are December, January and February and the hottest months are June, July and August. Temperature and nitrogen dioxide were negatively correlated in the cold period and positively correlated in the warm period.For the period 2008–2011 there were 113 147 hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. Forty-five percent of patients were women and 66.5% were 65 and older. Heart rhythm disorders account for the majority of hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. Our data confirms the existence of an association between NO2 and cardiovascular disease. Apart from haemorrhagic stroke, the strongest association between NO2 concentrations and number of hospital admissions is observed at lag 0. For haemorrhagic stroke, the association is strongest with a delay of 2 days. All associations calculated without stratification are statistically significant and range from an excess relative risk of 2.8% for myocardial infarction to 4.9% for haemorrhagic strokes.

  9. Health economic modeling to assess short-term costs of maternal overweight, gestational diabetes, and related macrosomia - a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; van der Beek, Eline M; Garssen, Johan; Nuijten, Mark J C; Uauy, Ricardo D

    2015-01-01

    Despite the interest in the impact of overweight and obesity on public health, little is known about the social and economic impact of being born large for gestational age or macrosomic. Both conditions are related to maternal obesity and/or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and associated with increased morbidity for mother and child in the perinatal period. Poorly controlled diabetes during pregnancy, pre- pregnancy maternal obesity and/or excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy are associated with intermittent periods of fetal exposure to hyperglycemia and subsequent hyperinsulinemia, leading to increased birth weight (e.g., macrosomia), body adiposity, and glycogen storage in the liver. Macrosomia is associated with an increased risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus later in life. Provide insight in the short-term health-economic impact of maternal overweight, GDM, and related macrosomia. To this end, a health economic framework was designed. This pilot study also aims to encourage further health technology assessments, based on country- and population-specific data. The estimation of the direct health-economic burden of maternal overweight, GDM and related macrosomia indicates that associated healthcare expenditures are substantial. The calculation of a budget impact of GDM, based on a conservative approach of our model, using USA costing data, indicates an annual cost of more than $1,8 billion without taking into account long-term consequences. Although overweight and obesity are a recognized concern worldwide, less attention has been given to the health economic consequences of these conditions in women of child-bearing age and their offspring. The presented outcomes underline the need for preventive management strategies and public health interventions on life style, diet and physical activity. Also, the predisposition in people of Asian ethnicity to develop diabetes emphasizes the urgent need to collect more country

  10. Psychometric evaluation of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) in Chinese adolescents - a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cheng; Tomson, Göran; Guo, Jizhi; Li, Xiangyun; Keller, Christina; Söderqvist, Fredrik

    2015-12-10

    In epidemiological surveillance of mental health there is good reason to also include scales that measure the presence of well-being rather than merely symptoms of ill health. The Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) is a self-reported scale to measure emotional, psychological and social well-being and conduct categorical diagnosis of positive mental health. This particular instrument includes the three core components of the World Health Organization's definition of mental health and had previously not been psychometrically evaluated on adolescents in China. In total 5,399 students (51.1% female) from schools in the urban areas of Weifang in China were included in the study (mean age = 15.13, SD = 1.56). Participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire with several scales, among them the MHC-SF. Statistical analyses to evaluate reliability, structural validity, measurement invariance, presence of floor and ceiling effects and to some extent external validity of the MHC-SF were carried out. The Cronbach's α coefficients for sub-scales as well as the total scale were all above 0.80 indicating good reliability. Confirmative factor analysis confirmed the three-dimensional structure of the Chinese version of MHC-SF and supported the configural and metric invariance across gender and age. Noteworthy ceiling effects were observed for single items and sub-scales although not for the total scale. More importantly, observed floor effects were negligible. The stronger correlation found between MHC-SF and Minneapolis-Manchester Quality of Life Instrument (as measure of positive mental health) than between MHC-SF and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (as measure of mental illness and distress) yielded support for external validity. In conclusion, the main findings of this study are in line with studies from other countries that evaluated the psychometric properties of the MHC-SF and show that this instrument, that includes the three core components of the

  11. The short form endometriosis health profile (EHP-5: translation and validation study of the Iranian version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goshtasebi Azita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometriosis Health Profile (EHP-5 is a valid instrument to measure health-related quality of life in endometriosis. This study was conducted to culturally adapt and validate the EHP-5 in Iran. Methods Using a standard "forward-backward' translation procedure, the English language version of the questionnaire was translated into Persian (Iranian language. Then a sample of 199 women aged 18-50 years completed the questionnaire. To test reliability the internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Validity was evaluated using known groups comparison. Results The mean age of respondents was 31.4 (SD = 5.4 years. Reliability analysis showed satisfactory result (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.71. The questionnaire discriminated well between sub-groups of women differing in infertility and premenstrual syndrome (PMS in the expected direction. Conclusion This preliminary validation study of the Iranian version of the EHP-5 proved that it is an acceptable, reliable and valid measure of quality of life in endometriosis patients.

  12. Effects of Yoga on Mental and Physical Health: A Short Summary of Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt Büssing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes the current evidence on the effects of yoga interventions on various components of mental and physical health, by focussing on the evidence described in review articles. Collectively, these reviews suggest a number of areas where yoga may well be beneficial, but more research is required for virtually all of them to firmly establish such benefits. The heterogeneity among interventions and conditions studied has hampered the use of meta-analysis as an appropriate tool for summarizing the current literature. Nevertheless, there are some meta-analyses which indicate beneficial effects of yoga interventions, and there are several randomized clinical trials (RCT’s of relatively high quality indicating beneficial effects of yoga for pain-associated disability and mental health. Yoga may well be effective as a supportive adjunct to mitigate some medical conditions, but not yet a proven stand-alone, curative treatment. Larger-scale and more rigorous research with higher methodological quality and adequate control interventions is highly encouraged because yoga may have potential to be implemented as a beneficial supportive/adjunct treatment that is relatively cost-effective, may be practiced at least in part as a self-care behavioral treatment, provides a life-long behavioural skill, enhances self-efficacy and self-confidence and is often associated with additional positive side effects.

  13. Short-Term, Intermittent Fasting Induces Long-Lasting Gut Health and TOR-Independent Lifespan Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catterson, James H; Khericha, Mobina; Dyson, Miranda C; Vincent, Alec J; Callard, Rebecca; Haveron, Steven M; Rajasingam, Arjunan; Ahmad, Mumtaz; Partridge, Linda

    2018-06-04

    Intermittent fasting (IF) can improve function and health during aging in laboratory model organisms, but the mechanisms at work await elucidation. We subjected fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) to varying degrees of IF and found that just one month of a 2-day fed:5-day fasted IF regime at the beginning of adulthood was sufficient to extend lifespan. This long-lasting, beneficial effect of early IF was not due to reduced fecundity. Starvation resistance and resistance to oxidative and xenobiotic stress were increased after IF. Early-life IF also led to higher lipid content in 60-day-old flies, a potential explanation for increased longevity. Guts of flies 40 days post-IF showed a significant reduction in age-related pathologies and improved gut barrier function. Improved gut health was also associated with reduced relative bacterial abundance. Early IF thus induced profound long-term changes. Pharmacological and genetic epistasis analysis showed that IF acted independently of the TOR pathway because rapamycin and IF acted additively to extend lifespan, and global expression of a constitutively active S6K did not attenuate the IF-induced lifespan extension. We conclude that short-term IF during early life can induce long-lasting beneficial effects, with robust increase in lifespan in a TOR-independent manner, probably at least in part by preserving gut health. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Falling short of universal access to reproductive health: unintended pregnancy and contraceptive use among Mexican women with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Tamil

    2013-01-01

    A favourable context for women with HIV to prevent unintended pregnancy is a cornerstone of reproductive rights and will contribute to achieving universal access to reproductive health, a Millennium Development Goal target. This analysis explores the reproductive trajectories of Mexican women with HIV post-diagnosis and their access to reproductive counselling and use of contraceptives. In-depth interviews and short surveys were conducted with women of reproductive age living with HIV. Results indicate that sexual and reproductive health counselling in HIV care focuses on the male condom and does not routinely address reproductive desires or provide information about or access to other contraceptive methods. Unintended pregnancies result from inconsistent condom use and condom breakage. Women experienced discriminatory denial of and pressure to accept particular contraceptive methods because of their HIV status. Mexican women with HIV are not enjoying their constitutionally guaranteed right to freely choose the number and spacing of their children. Mexico's commitment to reproductive rights and the Popular Health Insurance offer policy and financial frameworks for providing family planning services in public HIV clinics. To ensure respectful implementation, rights-based training for HIV healthcare providers and careful monitoring and evaluation will be needed.

  15. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Orntoft, Christina; Bendiksen, Mads; Johansen, Lars; Horton, Joshua; Hansen, Peter Riis; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO2max), peak ventilation and peak lactate were 40, 18 and 51% higher (Pfootball elevated VO2max and Yo-Yo IE2 performance by 16 and 40%, respectively, and lowered fat mass by 6%. Cardiac function was markedly improved by 16 weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short-term football training can markedly improve the cardiovascular health status.

  16. The Iranian version of 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12): factor structure, internal consistency and construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Ali; Vahdaninia, Mariam; Mousavi, Sayed Javad; Omidvari, Speideh

    2009-09-16

    The 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) as a shorter alternative of the SF-36 is largely used in health outcomes surveys. The aim of this study was to validate the SF-12 in Iran. A random sample of the general population aged 15 years and over living in Tehran, Iran completed the SF-12. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and validity was assessed using known groups comparison and convergent validity. In addition, the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In all, 5587 individuals were studied (2721 male and 2866 female). The mean age and formal education of the respondents were 35.1 (SD = 15.4) and 10.2 (SD = 4.4) years respectively. The results showed satisfactory internal consistency for both summary measures, that are the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and the Mental Component Summary (MCS); Cronbach's alpha for PCS-12 and MCS-12 was 0.73 and 0.72, respectively. Known-groups comparison showed that the SF-12 discriminated well between men and women and those who differed in age and educational status (P < 0.001). In addition, correlations between the SF-12 scales and single items showed that the physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain and general health subscales correlated higher with the PCS-12 score, while the vitality, social functioning, role emotional and mental health subscales more correlated with the MCS-12 score lending support to its good convergent validity. Finally the principal component analysis indicated a two-factor structure (physical and mental health) that jointly accounted for 57.8% of the variance. The confirmatory factory analysis also indicated a good fit to the data for the two-latent structure (physical and mental health). In general the findings suggest that the SF-12 is a reliable and valid measure of health related quality of life among Iranian population. However, further studies are needed to

  17. Short-term street soccer improves fitness and cardiovascular health status of homeless men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Petersen, Jesper; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of 12 weeks of small-sided street soccer (2.2 ± 0.7 sessions/week) and fitness center training (0.5 ± 0.2 sessions/week) on physical fitness and cardiovascular health profile for homeless men. Exercise capacity, maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), body composition (DXA...... scans), blood pressure (BP), and blood lipid profile were determined before and after the intervention period for 22 soccer-group subjects (SG) and 10 waiting list controls (CO). In addition, time-motion analyses, HR measurements, and pedometer recordings were performed during street soccer training...... and daily-life activities. During a 60 min 4 versus 4 street soccer session 182 ± 62 intense running bouts were performed; mean HR was 82 ± 4% HR(max) and HR was >90% HR(max) for 21 ± 12% (±SD) of total time. On a day without training the participants performed 10,733 ± 4,341 steps and HR was >80% HR...

  18. Microplastic pollution, a threat to marine ecosystem and human health: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shivika; Chatterjee, Subhankar

    2017-09-01

    Human populations are using oceans as their household dustbins, and microplastic is one of the components which are not only polluting shorelines but also freshwater bodies globally. Microplastics are generally referred to particles with a size lower than 5 mm. These microplastics are tiny plastic granules and used as scrubbers in cosmetics, hand cleansers, air-blasting. These contaminants are omnipresent within almost all marine environments at present. The durability of plastics makes it highly resistant to degradation and through indiscriminate disposal they enter in the aquatic environment. Today, it is an issue of increasing scientific concern because these microparticles due to their small size are easily accessible to a wide range of aquatic organisms and ultimately transferred along food web. The chronic biological effects in marine organisms results due to accumulation of microplastics in their cells and tissues. The potential hazardous effects on humans by alternate ingestion of microparticles can cause alteration in chromosomes which lead to infertility, obesity, and cancer. Because of the recent threat of microplastics to marine biota as well as on human health, it is important to control excessive use of plastic additives and to introduce certain legislations and policies to regulate the sources of plastic litter. By setup various plastic recycling process or promoting plastic awareness programmes through different social and information media, we will be able to clean our sea dustbin in future.

  19. Reliability and validity of 12-item Short-Form health survey (SF-12) for the health status of Chinese community elderly population in Xujiahui district of Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Juan; Ren, Limin; Wang, Haitang; Yan, Fei; Cao, Xiaoyun; Wang, Hui; Wang, Zhiliang; Zhu, Shanzhu; Liu, Yao

    2016-04-01

    The 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) is the abridged practical version of SF-36. This cross-sectional study was aimed to assess the reliability and validity of SF-12 for the health status of Chinese community elderly population. The Chinese community elderly people in Xujiahui district of Shanghai were investigated. The internal consistency reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha and split-half reliability coefficients. Construct validity was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Spearman's correlation coefficient (ρ) was used for the evaluation of criterion, convergent, and discriminant validity with Spearman's ρ ≥ 0.4 as satisfactory. Comparisons of the SF-12 summary scores among populations that differed in demographics were performed for discriminant validity. Total 1343 individuals aged ≥60 and reliability coefficient (0.812) reflected satisfactory internal consistency reliability of SF-12. EFA extracted a two-factor model (physical and mental health). About 60.7 % of the total variance was explained by the two factors. CFA showed that the two-factor solution provided a good fit to the data. Good convergent validity and discriminant validity of SF-12 were proved by the correction analyses (Spearman's ρ > 0.4) and the comparisons of the SF-12 summary scores among populations (P  0.4, P reliability and validity in measuring health status of Chinese community elderly population in Xujiahui district of Shanghai.

  20. Health status of adults with Short Stature: A comparison with the normal population and one well-known chronic disease (Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naess Eva E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the subjective health status of adults with short stature (ShSt and compare with the general population (GP and one well-known chronic disease, rheumatoid artritis (RA. In addition, to explore the association between age, gender, height, educational level and different aspects of health status of adults with short stature. Methods A questionnaire was mailed to 72 subjects with short stature registered in the database of a Norwegian resource centre for rare disorders, response rate 61% (n = 44, age 16–61. Health status was assessed with SF-36 version 2. Comparison was done with age and gender matched samples from the general population in Norway (n = 264 and from subjects with RA (n = 88. Results The ShSt sample reported statistically significant impaired health status in all SF-36 subscales compared with the GP sample, most in the physical functioning, Mean Difference (MD 34 (95% Confidence Interval (CI 25–44. The ShSt reported poorer health status in mental health, MD 11 (95% CI 4–18 and social functioning, MD 11 (95% CI 2–20 but better in role physical MD 13 (95% CI 1–25 than the RA sample. On the other subscales there were minor difference between the ShSt and the RA sample. Within the short stature group there was a significant association between age and all SF-36 physical subcales, height was significantly associated with physical functioning while level of education was significantly associated with mental health. Conclusion People with short stature reported impaired health status in all SF-36 subscales indicating that they have health problems that influence their daily living. Health status seems to decline with increasing age, and earlier than in the general population.

  1. Recovery after Orthognathic Surgery: Short-term Health-Related Quality of Life Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, George; Jaskolka, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Assess the patient-reported time to recovery for quality of life outcomes: post-surgery sequelae, discomfort/pain, oral function, and daily activities following orthognathic surgery Methods 170 patients (age 14 to 53) were enrolled in a prospective study prior to orthognathic surgery. Each patient was given a 20 item Health-Related Quality of Life instrument (OSPostop) to be completed each post-surgery day (PSD) for 90 days. The instrument was designed to assess patients’ perception of recovery for 4 domains: post-surgery sequelae; discomfort/pain; oral function; and daily activities. Discomfort/pain was recorded with a 7-point Likert-type scale; all other items were measured on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Results Post-surgery sequelae, except swelling, resolved within the first week after surgery for over 75% of the subjects. Discomfort/pain and medication usage persisted for two to three weeks after surgery for most subjects. Return to usual activities, except for recreational activities, which took substantially longer, mirrored the resolution of discomfort/pain. Problems with oral function took the longest to resolve, approximately 6 to 8 weeks for the majority of subjects. Conclusions Comprehensive daily postoperative patient quality of life data provides the orthognathic surgeon with estimated recovery times in distinct domains. This information is vital in the provision of informed consent as well as pre-operative education of patients regarding peri-operative and post-operative expectations. Ultimately this data can be combined with individual risk factors to provide personalized consent and expectations as well as tailor peri-operative and post-operative management regimens. PMID:18848110

  2. Falling short: how state laws can address health information exchange barriers and enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Cason D; Wetter, Sarah A; Kash, Bita A

    2018-06-01

    Research on the implementation of health information exchange (HIE) organizations has identified both positive and negative effects of laws relating to governance, incentives, mandates, sustainability, stakeholder participation, patient engagement, privacy, confidentiality, and security. We fill a substantial research gap by describing whether comprehensive state and territorial HIE legal frameworks address identified legal facilitators and barriers. We used the Westlaw database to identify state and territorial laws relating to HIEs in effect on June 7, 2016 (53 jurisdictions). We blind-coded all laws and addressed coding discrepancies in peer-review meetings. We recorded a consensus code for each law in a master database. We compared 20 HIE legal attributes with identified barriers to and enablers of HIE activity in the literature. Forty-two states, the District of Columbia, and 2 territories have laws relating to HIEs. On average, jurisdictions address 8.32 of the 20 criteria selected in statutes and regulations. Twenty jurisdictions unambiguously address ≤5 criteria in statutes and regulations. None of the significant legal criteria are unambiguously addressed in >60% of the 53 jurisdictions. Laws can be barriers to or enablers of HIEs. However, jurisdictions are not addressing many significant issues identified by researchers. Consequently, there is a substantial risk that existing legal frameworks are not adequately supporting HIEs. The current evidence base is insufficient for comparative assessments or impact rankings of the various factors. However, the detailed Centers for Disease Control and Prevention dataset of HIE laws could enable investigations into the types of laws that promote or impede HIEs.

  3. Comparison of Mental Health and Quality of Life between Shift and Non-shift Employees of Service Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahal Salimi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between the employment practices and employees' mental health and quality of life in Iran. In particular, the study compared the mental health and quality of life of shift and non-shift workers in sensitive employment settings. Using a cross-sectional survey design, 120 individuals employed in two airline companies as either shift or non-shift employees completed the survey for the study. Data was collected using General Health Question (GHQ28 for mental health, the Short Form (36 Health Survey (SF-36 for Quality of Life and a demographic questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was used to analyze the collected data. The results showed that (1 type of work (shift or non-shift has an effect on mental health and quality of life; and (2 there are significant differences in dimensions of quality of life and mental health between shift and non-shift staff.

  4. Assessing the reliability of the short form 12 (SF-12) health survey in adults with mental health conditions: a report from the wellness incentive and navigation (WIN) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Tianyao; Guo, Yi; Shenkman, Elizabeth; Muller, Keith

    2018-02-13

    Although Short Form (SF)-12 × 2® has been extensively studied and used as a valid measure of health-related quality of life in a variety of population groups, no systematic studies have described the reliability of the measure in patients with behavioral conditions or serious mental illness (SMI). We assessed the internal consistency, split-half reliability and annual test-retest correlations in a sample of 1587 participants with either a combination of physical and behavioral conditions or SMI. The Mosier's alpha was 0.70 for the Physical Composite Scale (PCS) and 0.69 for the Mental Health Composite Scale (MCS), indicating good internal consistency. We observed strong correlations between physical functioning, physical role and body pain scales (r = 0.55-0.56), and between social functioning, emotional role, and mental health (r = 0.53-0.58). We calculated split-half reliabilities to be 0.74 for physical functioning, 0.75 for physical role, 0.73 for emotional role and 0.65 for mental health respectively. We assessed the annual test-retest correlation using intraclass correlation (ICC) and found an ICC of 0.61 for PCS and 0.57 for MCS composite scores, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and CRG. We found no decline in the correlations between baseline and the following study years until year 3. Our results encourage using SF-12v2® to assess health-related quality of life in the Medicaid population with combined physical and behavioral conditions or similar cohorts. The WIN study was registered with clinicaltrials.gov on April 22, 2015. NCT02440906 . Retrospectively registered.

  5. Short-Term Absenteeism and Health Care Utilization Due to Lower Extremity Injuries Among Novice Runners: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Huisstede, Bionka; Verhagen, Evert; van der Worp, Henk; Kluitenberg, Bas; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Hartgens, Fred; Backx, Frank

    2016-11-01

    To describe absenteeism and health care utilization (HCU) within 6 weeks after occurrence of running-related injuries (RRIs) among novice runners and to explore differences relating to injury and personal characteristics. Prospective cohort study. Primary care. One thousand six hundred ninety-six novice runners (18-65 years) participating in a 6-week running program ("Start-to-Run"). Injury characteristics were assessed by weekly training logs and personal characteristics by a baseline questionnaire. Data on absenteeism and HCU were collected using questionnaires at 2 and 6 weeks after the RRI occurred. A total of 185 novice runners (11%) reported an RRI during the 6-week program. Of these injured novice runners, 78% reported absence from sports, whereas only 4% reported absence from work. Fifty-one percent of the injured novice runners visited a health care professional, mostly physical therapists (PTs) rather than physicians. Absenteeism was more common among women than men and was also more common with acute RRIs than gradual-onset RRIs. As regards HCU, both the variety of professionals visited and the number of PT visits were higher among runners with muscle-tendon injuries in the ankle/foot region than among those with other RRIs. Among novice runners sustaining an RRI during a 6-week running program, over three quarters reported short-term absence from sports, whereas absence from work was very limited, and over half used professional health care. Both absence and HCU are associated with injury characteristics. In future running promotion programs (eg in Start-to-Run programs), specific attention should be paid to acute injuries and to muscle-tendon injuries in the ankle/foot region.

  6. Vaginal progesterone to prevent preterm birth in pregnant women with a sonographic short cervix: clinical and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Romero, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Vaginal progesterone administration to women with a sonographic short cervix is an efficacious and safe intervention used to prevent preterm birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The clinical and public health implications of this approach in the United States have been critically appraised and compared to other therapeutic interventions in obstetrics. Vaginal progesterone administration to women with a transvaginal sonographic cervical length (CL) ≤25 mm before 25 weeks of gestation is associated with a significant and substantial reduction of the risk for preterm birth from effects have been achieved in women with a singleton gestation, with or without a history of spontaneous preterm birth, and did not differ significantly as a function of CL (effectiveness and decision analyses have shown that the combination of universal transvaginal CL screening and vaginal progesterone administration to women with a short cervix is a cost-effective intervention that prevents preterm birth and associated perinatal morbidity and mortality. Universal assessment of CL and treatment with vaginal progesterone for singleton gestations in the United States would result in an annual reduction of approximately 30,000 preterm births before 34 weeks of gestation and of 17,500 cases of major neonatal morbidity or neonatal mortality. In summary, there is compelling evidence to recommend universal transvaginal CL screening at 18-24 weeks of gestation in women with a singleton gestation and to offer vaginal progesterone to those with a CL ≤25 mm, regardless of the history of spontaneous preterm birth, with the goal of preventing preterm birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Impact of cardiac rehabilitation on health related quality of life.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Riaz, A

    2012-02-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs are recognized as integral part of the comprehensive care of patients with cardiovascular disease and are recommended as useful and effective (Class I) by the American Heart Association (AHA). In this study we used serial administration of the short form 36 (SF36) to evaluate patient\\'s response to CR in terms of improvement in Health related Quality of Life. A total of 49 patients were included in the analysis. There was a significant improvement observed after CR in the Physical Capacity Score (42.3 vs 49.9 p = 0.0005). There was no significant improvement in the Mental Capacity Score (54.8 vs 54.9 p = 0.96). We conclude that Cardiac Rehabilitation Program causes a significant improvement in the health related quality of life of patients by improving their physical health and well being but does not improve the mental capacity which is already at a healthy level before CR.

  8. Application of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF) to patients with cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Ali; Araghi, Mahmood Tavakoli; Shamsabadi, Fatemeh; Bayat, Mahdiye; Dabirkhani, Fatemeh; Moradpour, Farhad; Mansori, Kamyar; Moradi, Yousef; Rajabi, Abdolhalim

    2016-01-01

    Cataract is a prevalent disease in the elderly, and negatively influences patients' quality of life. This study was conducted to study the application of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF) to patients with cataract. In this cross-sectional study, 300 patients with cataract were studied in Neyshabur, Iran from July to October 2014. The Iranian version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to measure their quality of life. Cronbach's alpha coefficient, Pearson's correlation coefficient, the paired t-test, the independent t-test, and a linear regression model were used to analyze the data in SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The mean age of the participants was 68.11±11.98 years, and most were female (53%). The overall observed Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the WHOQOL-BREF was 0.889, ranging from 0.714 to 0.810 in its four domains. The total mean score of the respondents on the WHOQOL-BREF was 13.19. The highest and lowest mean scores were observed in the social relationship domain (14.11) and the physical health domain (12.29), respectively. A backward multiple linear regression model found that duration of disease and marital status were associated with total WHOQOL scores, while age, duration of disease, marital status, and income level were associated with domains one through four, respectively (pmeasurement of the quality of life of patients with cataract. It was also found that the patients with cataract who were surveyed reported a relatively moderate quality of life.

  9. Short-term association between sulfur dioxide and daily mortality: the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Haidong; Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Qian, Zhengmin

    2010-04-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity, but only few studies were conducted in Asian countries. Previous studies suggest that SO(2) may have adverse health effects independent of other pollutants. In the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project, the short-term associations between ambient sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and daily mortality were examined in Bangkok, Thailand, and three Chinese cities: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions were used to adjust for seasonality and other time-varying covariates. Effect estimates were obtained for each city and then for the cities combined. The impact of alternative model specifications, such as lag structure of pollutants and degree of freedom (df) for time trend, on the estimated effects of SO(2) were also examined. In both individual-city and combined analysis, significant effects of SO(2) on total non-accidental and cardiopulmonary mortality were observed. An increase of 10 microg/m(3) of 2-day moving average concentrations of SO(2) corresponded to 1.00% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-1.24], 1.09% (95% CI, 0.71-1.47), and 1.47% (95% CI, 0.85-2.08) increase of total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively, in the combined analysis. Sensitivity analyzes suggested that these findings were generally insensitive to alternative model specifications. After adjustment for PM(10) or O(3), the effect of SO(2) remained significant in three Chinese cities. However, adjustment for NO(2) diminished the associations and rendered them statistically insignificant in all four cities. In conclusion, ambient SO(2) concentration was associated with daily mortality in these four Asian cities. These associations may be attributable to SO(2) serving as a surrogate of other substances. Our findings suggest that the role of outdoor exposure to SO(2) should be investigated further in this region. (c) 2010

  10. Life History theory hypotheses on child growth: Potential implications for short and long-term child growth, development and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2018-01-01

    Life history theory integrates ecological, physiological, and molecular layers within an evolutionary framework to understand organisms' strategies to optimize survival and reproduction. Two life history hypotheses and their implications for child growth, development, and health (illustrated in the South African context) are reviewed here. One hypothesis suggests that there is an energy trade-off between linear growth and brain growth. Undernutrition in infancy and childhood may trigger adaptive physiological mechanisms prioritizing the brain at the expense of body growth. Another hypothesis is that the period from conception to infancy is a critical window of developmental plasticity of linear growth, the duration of which may vary between and within populations. The transition from infancy to childhood may mark the end of a critical window of opportunity for improving child growth. Both hypotheses emphasize the developmental plasticity of linear growth and the potential determinants of growth variability (including the role of parent-offspring conflict in maternal resources allocation). Implications of these hypotheses in populations with high burdens of undernutrition and infections are discussed. In South Africa, HIV/AIDS during pregnancy (associated with adverse birth outcomes, short duration of breastfeeding, and social consequences) may lead to a shortened window of developmental plasticity of growth. Furthermore, undernutrition and infectious diseases in children living in South Africa, a country undergoing a rapid nutrition transition, may have adverse consequences on individuals' cognitive abilities and risks of cardio-metabolic diseases. Studies are needed to identify physiological mechanisms underlying energy allocation between biological functions and their potential impacts on health. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic differences in short-term breast cancer survival among women in an integrated health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Theresa H M; Kurian, Allison W; Gali, Kathleen; Tao, Li; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y; Hershman, Dawn L; Habel, Laurel A; Caan, Bette J; Gomez, Scarlett L

    2015-05-01

    We examined the combined influence of race/ethnicity and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) on short-term survival among women with uniform access to health care and treatment. Using electronic medical records data from Kaiser Permanente Northern California linked to data from the California Cancer Registry, we included 6262 women newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. We analyzed survival using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression with follow-up through 2010. After consideration of tumor stage, subtype, comorbidity, and type of treatment received, non-Hispanic White women living in low-SES neighborhoods (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07, 1.52) and African Americans regardless of neighborhood SES (high SES: HR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.01, 2.07; low SES: HR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.42, 2.50) had worse overall survival than did non-Hispanic White women living in high-SES neighborhoods. Results were similar for breast cancer-specific survival, except that African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites living in high-SES neighborhoods had similar survival. Strategies to address the underlying factors that may influence treatment intensity and adherence, such as comorbidities and logistical barriers, should be targeted at low-SES non-Hispanic White and all African American patients.

  12. Short- and long-term effects of major organisational change on minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health: results from the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Helena; Fransson, Eleonor I; Westerlund, Hugo; Head, Jenny A

    2013-10-01

    To investigate short- and long-term effects of major organisational change on minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health for women and men in different employment grades. Minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health among 6710 British civil servants (1993 women and 4717 men) in three employment grades from the Whitehall II study were examined from 1985 to 1988 under stable employment conditions. The short-term effects of organisational change were investigated in 1991-1993 after a time of major restructuring aiming at increasing the influence of market forces in the civil service and the long-term effects were investigated in 1997-1999. Those who had experienced organisational change and those who anticipated organisational change reported more negative short-term health effects (minor psychiatric disorder and poor self-rated health) compared with those who reported no change. No major differences were found depending on employment grade or gender. The negative health effects had diminished during 1997-1999 for those who reported that a major change had happened before 1991-1993. Those who anticipated an organisational change in 1991-1993 still reported more ill-health in 1997-1999 (both minor psychiatric disorder and self-reported health) than those in the comparison group. The results indicate that organisational change affects employees' health negatively in the short term but also that it is possible to recover from such negative effects. As it was not possible to discern any definite difference between the gender and grades, the results point at the importance of working proactively to implement organisational change for women and men at all levels.

  13. Self-Reported Dietary Restrictions and Dietary Patterns in Polish Girls: A Short Research Report (GEBaHealth Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Galinski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary restraint is a commonly reported practice observed among young females. The practice remains controversial and can be interpreted as a beneficial self-regulating behavior or the opposite, an eating disorder that may have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of this short report was to investigate if dietary restrictions are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. Analyses were carried out on data from the Girls’ Eating Behavior and Health (GEBaHealth study. The sample included 1107 girls, ranging in age from 13 to 21 years old. Restrictions regarding food quantities and selected food groups were assessed using a standardized interview. Dietary patterns were identified with Principal Component Analysis (PCA, based on dietary data collected with Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the associations between self-reported restrictions and each dietary pattern. In the total sample, 30.5% of girls reported following some food restrictions. The most common restrictions regarded consumption of sugar and/or sweets (23.7%, high-fat foods (22.4%, and fats (21.3%. Girls who declared following any restrictions, restrictions in food quantity and restrictions in the consumption of sugar and/or sweets, high-fat foods, fats, cereals and/or bread and/or potatoes were more likely to adhere to the “fruit and vegetables” (considered pro-healthy dietary pattern (adjusted odds ratios (ORs: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.14–2.12; 1.61, 95% CI: 1.17–2.21; 1.81, 95% CI: 1.30–2.52; 1.46, 95% CI: 1.04–2.06; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.38–2.80 and 3.25, 95% CI: 1.97–5.37, respectively, and less likely to adhere to the “fast foods and sweets” (unhealthy and “traditional Polish” (rather unhealthy patterns, compared to girls who declared no restrictions. Declared restrictions in the consumption of foods high in sugar, fat, and starch were observed in girls in the “fruit and

  14. Heatwave and elderly mortality: An evaluation of death burden and health costs considering short-term mortality displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian; Xu, Zhiwei; Bambrick, Hilary; Su, Hong; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao

    2018-06-01

    A heatwave can be a devastating natural disaster to human health, and elderly people are particularly vulnerable. With the continuing rise in earth's surface temperature alongside the world's aging population, research on the mortality burden of heatwave for the older population remains relatively sparse. The potential magnitude of benefits of averting such deaths may be considerable. This paper examined the short-term mortality displacement (or "harvesting") of heatwave, characterized the heatwave-mortality relationship, and estimated death burden and health costs attributable to heatwave among the elderly in Australia. We collected daily data on the temperature and deaths of people aged ≥75 years in the five largest cities of Australia (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide), totaling 368,767 deaths in different periods between 1988 and 2011. A total of 15-tiered heatwave definitions, based on intensity (95th to 99th percentiles of temperature distribution) and duration (two or more consecutive days), were used to quantify heatwave effects, using time-series regression and random-effects meta-analysis. We calculated attributable deaths for each city and by different types of heatwave. Potential economic benefits in monetary terms were also estimated, considering that heat-related deaths are avoidable. Among the Australian elderly population, we found significant associations between heatwave and deaths, with raised mortality immediately in the first few days followed by lower-than-expected mortality. In general, heatwave was associated with an average death increase of 28% (95% confidence interval: 15% to 42%), and greater increases were mostly observed for more intense heatwaves across multiple megacities. During the study period, there were dozens to hundreds of deaths attributable to heatwave for each city, equating to an economic loss of several million Australian dollars every year. Although the estimated attributable deaths varied by heatwave

  15. Termination of short term melatonin treatment in children with delayed Dim Light Melatonin Onset: effects on sleep, health, behavior problems, and parenting stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, Annette; Meijer, Anne Marie; Smits, Marcel G.; Oort, Frans J.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of termination of short term melatonin treatment on sleep, health, behavior, and parenting stress in children with delayed Dim Light Melatonin Onset. Forty-one children (24 boys, 17 girls; mean age=9.43 years) entered melatonin treatment for 3 weeks and then discontinued

  16. Are malnourished patients complex patients? Health status and care complexity of malnourished patients detected by the Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizenga, H. M.; de Jonge, P.; Seidell, J. C.; Neelemaat, F.; van Bodegraven, A. A.; Wierdsma, N. J.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M. A. E.

    Background: This article describes the characteristics of patients identified as malnourished using the Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ) in terms of health status (quality of life, functional capacity, and body composition) and care complexity. We expected that by using the quick

  17. Reliability, construct and criterion validity of the KIDSCREEN-10 score: A short measure for children and adolescents' well-being and health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravens-Sieberer, U.; Erhart, M.; Rajmil, L.; Herdman, M.; Auquier, P.; Bruil, J.; Power, M.; Duer, W.; Abel, T.; Czemy, L.; Mazur, J.; Czimbalmos, A.; Tountas, Y.; Hagquist, C.; Kilroe, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: To assess the criterion and construct validity of the KIDSCREEN-10 well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) score, a short version of the KIDSCREEN-52 and KIDSCREEN-27 instruments. Methods: The child self-report and parent report versions of the KIDSCREEN-10 were tested in a

  18. Longitudinal evaluation of the mental health continuum-short form (MHC-SF): Measurement invariance across demographics, physical illness, and mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, S.M.A.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the measurement invariance of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF), a 14-item self-report questionnaire for measuring emotional, social, and psychological well-being. The study draws on data of a representative panel (Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social

  19. Collaborative learning about e-health for mental health professionals and service users in a structured anonymous online short course: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashurst Emily J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professionals are interested in using e-health but implementation of new methods is slow. Barriers to implementation include the need for training and limited awareness or experience. Research may not always convince mental health professionals (MHPs. Adding the 'voice' of mental health service users (MHSUs in collaborative learning may help. Involving MHSUs in face-face education can be difficult. We had previously been unable to engage MHPs in online discussion with MHSUs. Here we assessed the feasibility of short online courses involving MHSUs and MHPs. Methods We ran three e-health courses, comprising live interactive webcast, week’s access to a discussion forum, and final live interactive webcast. We recruited MHPs via posters, newsletters, and telephone from a local NHS trust, and online via mailing lists and personal contacts from NHS trusts and higher education. We recruited MHSUs via a previous project and an independent user involvement service. Participants were presented with research evidence about e-health and asked to discuss topics using professional and lived experience. Feasibility was assessed through recruitment and attrition, participation, and researcher workloads. Outcomes of self-esteem and general self-efficacy (MHSUs, and Internet self-efficacy and confidence (MHPs were piloted. Results Online recruiting was effective. We lost 15/41 from registration to follow-up but only 5/31 that participated in the course failed to complete follow-up. Nineteen MHPs and 12 MHSUs took part and engaged with each other in online discussion. Feedback was positive; three-quarters of MHPs indicated future plans to use the Internet for practice, and 80% of MHSUs felt the course should be continued. Running three courses for 31 participants took between 200 to 250 hours. Before and after outcome measures were completed by 26/31 that participated. MHP Internet self-efficacy and general Internet confidence, MHSU self

  20. Collaborative learning about e-health for mental health professionals and service users in a structured anonymous online short course: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashurst, Emily J; Jones, Ray B; Williamson, Graham R; Emmens, Tobit; Perry, Jon

    2012-05-31

    Professionals are interested in using e-health but implementation of new methods is slow. Barriers to implementation include the need for training and limited awareness or experience. Research may not always convince mental health professionals (MHPs). Adding the 'voice' of mental health service users (MHSUs) in collaborative learning may help. Involving MHSUs in face-face education can be difficult. We had previously been unable to engage MHPs in online discussion with MHSUs. Here we assessed the feasibility of short online courses involving MHSUs and MHPs. We ran three e-health courses, comprising live interactive webcast, week's access to a discussion forum, and final live interactive webcast. We recruited MHPs via posters, newsletters, and telephone from a local NHS trust, and online via mailing lists and personal contacts from NHS trusts and higher education. We recruited MHSUs via a previous project and an independent user involvement service. Participants were presented with research evidence about e-health and asked to discuss topics using professional and lived experience. Feasibility was assessed through recruitment and attrition, participation, and researcher workloads. Outcomes of self-esteem and general self-efficacy (MHSUs), and Internet self-efficacy and confidence (MHPs) were piloted. Online recruiting was effective. We lost 15/41 from registration to follow-up but only 5/31 that participated in the course failed to complete follow-up. Nineteen MHPs and 12 MHSUs took part and engaged with each other in online discussion. Feedback was positive; three-quarters of MHPs indicated future plans to use the Internet for practice, and 80% of MHSUs felt the course should be continued. Running three courses for 31 participants took between 200 to 250 hours. Before and after outcome measures were completed by 26/31 that participated. MHP Internet self-efficacy and general Internet confidence, MHSU self-esteem and general self-efficacy, all seemed reliable and

  1. Short and Long-Term Disability and Workers' Compensation Health Care Programs: Management Project at Georgetown University Hospital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whippen, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    .... Recent acquisition discussions between Georgetown University medical Center and MedStar provide an opportunity to reengineer the Workers' Compensation and Short and Long-Term Disability Programs...

  2. A mixed-methods evaluation of health-related quality of life for male veterans with and without intestinal stomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouse, Robert S; Grant, Marcia; Wendel, Christopher S; Mohler, M Jane; Rawl, Susan M; Baldwin, Carol M; Coons, Stephen Joel; McCorkle, Ruth; Ko, Clifford Y; Schmidt, C Max

    2007-12-01

    Intestinal stomas have a major impact on Cases' lives. It is essential to better understand the areas in which interventions may help to minimize the negative consequences. This was a case-control survey study using validated instruments (City of Hope Quality of Life-Ostomy and Short Form 36 for Veterans). Cases were accrued from Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in Tucson, Indianapolis, and Los Angeles. Eligibility included a major intra-abdominal surgical procedure that led to an ostomy (cases), or a similar procedure that did not mandate a stoma (controls). Analysis included quantitative and qualitative responses. The response rate was 48 percent (511/1,063). Cases and controls had relatively similar demographic characteristics. Because of low numbers of female respondents (13 cases and 11 controls), only results for males are reported. Based on both the City of Hope Quality of Life-Ostomy and Short Form 36 for Veterans, cases reported significantly poorer scores on scales/domains reflecting psychologic and social functioning and well being. Additionally, cases reported poorer scores on Short Form 36 for Veterans scales reflecting physical functioning and significantly lower scores on multiple items in the social domain of the City of Hope Quality of Life-Ostomy compared with controls. Two-thirds of cases replied to an open-ended question on their "greatest challenge" related to their ostomy, which led to further clarification of major issues. Multiple health-related quality of life problems were reported by male veterans with intestinal stomas. The greatest differences between cases and controls were observed in the social and psychologic domains/scales. Findings from this study provide a greater understanding of the challenges faced by ostomates and will inform the development and evaluation of urgently needed intervention strategies.

  3. Psychometric attributes of the Cervantes short-form questionnaire for measuring health-related quality of life in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Pluvio J; Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael; Ruiz, Miguel A; Baquedano, Laura; Sánchez, Sonia; Argudo, Cristina; Fernández-Abellán, Mariela; González, Silvia; Iglesias, Eva; Calleja, Jackie; Presa, Jesus; Duque, Alfonso; Ruiz, Fernando; Otero, Borja; Rejas, Javier

    2016-02-01

    To analyse the psychometric properties of the Cervantes scale short-form (SF) in the peri- and post-menopausal periods. Outpatients women 45-65 years with menstrual problems associated with the climacteric syndrome were analysed. Original and SF versions of the Cervantes scale were administered along with the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire (WPAI) scales. Conceptual model, burden of administration, feasibility, reliability, criteria validity and construct validity were assessed. 317 women [55.7±5.3 years (mean±standard deviation)] were recruited: 75.4% were post- and 22.3% were peri-menopausal. The Cervantes-SF was completed in 2.5±1.6min, and 86% answered all items. Cronbach's α was 0.820, and ranged from 0.510 (Aging) to 0.918 (Vasomotor Symptoms) for individual dimensions. The scale structure matched the structure of the original version, χ(2)/(degrees of freedom)=3.6, Comparative Fit Index=0.848, Tucker-Lewis Index=0.850, and root mean square error of approximation=0.099, although differences were found between sexual activity statuses. Criteria validity was good (r=0.890), concurrent validity was congruent with a priori hypothesis using either the EQ-5D or the WPAI scales. The scale discriminated significantly the severity of both vasomotor and genital climacteric associated symptoms. The Cervantes-SF has shown good psychometric properties for measuring Health related quality of life in peri- and post-menopausal women who regularly attended gynaecology clinics in Spain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Increasing primary health-care services are associated with acute short-term hospitalization of Danes aged 70 years and older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Fournaise, Anders; Espensen, Niels; Jakobsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ageing is accompanied by increased risk of morbidity and subsequent risk of acute hospitalisation. With ageing populations, health-care providers focus on prevention of acute admissions of older adults by timely identification and treatment in the community. However, identifying...... an emerging acute disease can be difficult in older adults due to atypical and vague symptoms, but may be expressed by increased contact to health-care providers. Method: During a 12-month period, all 70+-year-old people short-term (.... Monitoring health-care use may timely identify older adults at risk of acute hospitalisation....

  5. Surgical correction of pectus carinatum improves perceived body image, mental health and self-esteem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marie Veje; Grosen, Kasper; Pilegaard, Hans K.

    2014-01-01

    to the Nuss Questionnaire modified for Adults. The improvement for generic mental health-related quality of life was 7% (95% CI: 3; 12%) in responses to the Short Form-36 Questionnaire. The improvement in self-esteem was 9% (95% CI: 2; 17%) as assessed with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. A Single Step......PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of surgical correction of pectus carinatum on health- related quality of life and self-esteem. METHODS: Between May 2012 and May 2013, a prospective observational single-center cohort study was conduct- ed on consecutive patients...... undergoing surgical correction of pectus carinatum at our institution. Patients filled in questionnaires on health-related quality of life and self-esteem before and six months after surgery. RESULTS: Disease-specific health-related quality of life was improved by 33% (95% CI: 23; 44%) according to responses...

  6. Ecotoxicological and Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Short-Neck Clam (Paphia undulata) and Contaminated Sediments in Malacca Strait, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Sharifi, Reza

    2017-10-01

    The distribution, sources, and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediment and the edible tissue of short-neck clam (Paphia undulata) from mudflat ecosystem in the west coast of Malaysia were investigated. The concentrations of ∑ 16 PAHs varied from 347.05 to 6207.5 and 179.32 to 1657.5 ng g -1 in sediment and short-neck clam samples, respectively. The calculations of mean PEL quotients (mean-PELQs) showed that the ecological risk of PAHs in the sediment samples was low to moderate-high level, whereas the total health risk through ingestion and dermal contact was considerably high. The PAHs biota sediment accumulation factors data for short-neck clam were obtained in this study, indicating a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. The source apportionment of PAHs in sediment using positive matrix factorization model indicated that the highest contribution to the PAHs was from diesel emissions (30.38%) followed by oil and oil derivate and incomplete coal combustion (23.06%), vehicular emissions (16.43%), wood combustion (15.93%), and natural gas combustion (14.2%). A preliminary evaluation of human health risk using chronic daily intake, hazard index, benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent (BaP eq ) concentration, and the incremental lifetime cancer risk indicated that PAHs in short-neck clam would induce potential carcinogenic effects in the consumers.

  7. Insomnia with Objective Short Sleep Duration and Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality: Sleep Heart Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertisch, Suzanne M; Pollock, Benjamin D; Mittleman, Murray A; Buysse, Daniel J; Bazzano, Lydia A; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Redline, Susan

    2018-03-07

    To quantify the association between insomnia/poor sleep with objective short sleep and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in the general population. We conducted a time-to-event analysis of Sleep Heart Health Study data. Questionnaires and at-home polysomnography were performed between 1994 -1998. Participants were followed for a median 11.4 years (Q1-Q3, 8.8-12.4 years) until death or last contact. The primary exposure was insomnia or poor sleep with short sleep defined as: difficulty falling asleep, difficulty returning to sleep, early morning awakenings, or sleeping pill use, 16-30 nights/month; and total sleep insomnia/poor sleep with short sleep and CVD, as well as all-cause mortality. Among 4,994 participants (mean age 64.0 ± 11.1 years), 14.1% reported insomnia or poor sleep, of which 50.3% slept insomnia/poor sleep with short sleep group compared with the reference group (HR, 1.29, 95% CI, 1.00, 1.66), but neither the insomnia/poor sleep only nor short sleep only groups were associated with higher incident CVD. Insomnia/poor sleep with objective short sleep was not significantly associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 1.07, 95% CI, 0.86, 1.33). Insomnia/poor sleep with PSG-short sleep was associated with higher risk of incident CVD. Future studies should evaluate the impact of interventions to improve insomnia with PSG-short sleep on CVD.

  8. Do Patient-Reported Outcome Measures describe functioning in patients with low back pain, using the Brief International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set as a reference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Charlotte; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Melchiorsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To link the items in the Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs): Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, Short Form 36 (SF-36) and pain scores, to the Brief International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for low back pain, and to examine the extent...... Set (34%). A weak correlation was found between the patients' responses and the clinician's assessment. CONCLUSION: The selected PROMs do not cover the prototypical spectrum of problems encountered in patients with low back pain as defined by the Brief ICF Core Set. The clinical assessment of patients...

  9. Self rating of health is associated with stressful life events, social support and residency in East and West Berlin shortly after the fall of the wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, T; Schaub, R; Hiestermann, A; Kirschner, W; Robra, B P

    2000-08-01

    To compare the health status and factors influencing the health of populations that had previously lived under different political systems. Cross sectional health and social survey using postal interviews. The relation between self reported health and psychosocial factors (stressful life events, social support, education, health promoting life style and health endangering behaviour) was investigated. To determine East-West differences a logistic regression model including interaction terms was fitted. East and West Berlin shortly after reunification 1991. Representative sample of 4430 Berlin residents aged 18 years and over (response rate 63%). Of all respondents, 15.4% rated their health as unsatisfactory. Residents of East Berlin rated their health more frequently as unsatisfactory than residents of West Berlin (Or(age adjusted)= 1.29, 95%CI 1.08, 1.52), these differences occurred predominantly in the over 60 years age group. Logistic regression showed significant independent effects of stressful life events, social support, education, and health promoting life style on self rated health. The effects of education and health promoting life style were observed to be more pronounced in the western part of Berlin. Old age and female sex showed a stronger association with unsatisfactory health status in the eastern part of Berlin. For subjects aged over 60 years there was evidence that living in the former East Berlin had an adverse effect on health compared with West Berlin. The impact of education and a health promoting lifestyle on self rated health seemed to be weaker in a former socialist society compared with that of a Western democracy. This study supports an "additive model" rather than a "buffering model" in explaining the effects of psychosocial factors on health.

  10. The Use of Parsimonious Questionnaires in Occupational Health Surveillance: Psychometric Properties of the Short Italian Version of the Effort/Reward Imbalance Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Magnavita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To perform a parsimonious measurement of workplace psychosocial stress in routine occupational health surveillance, this study tests the psychometric properties of a short version of the original Italian effort-reward imbalance (ERI questionnaire. Methods. 1,803 employees (63 percent women from 19 service companies in the Italian region of Latium participated in a cross-sectional survey containing the short version of the ERI questionnaire (16 items and questions related to self-reported health, musculoskeletal complaints and job satisfaction. Exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency of scales and criterion validity were utilized. Results. The internal consistency of scales was satisfactory. Principal component analysis enabled to identify the model’s main factors. Significant associations with health and job satisfaction in the majority of cases support the notion of criterion validity. A high score on the effort-reward ratio was associated with an elevated odds ratio (OR = 2.71; 95% CI 1.86–3.95 of musculoskeletal complaints in the upper arm. Conclusions. The short form of the Italian ERI questionnaire provides a psychometrically useful tool for routine occupational health surveillance, although further validation is recommended.

  11. Cardiac rehabilitation increases physical capacity but not mental health after heart valve surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibilitz, Kirstine L.; Berg, Selina K.; Rasmussen, Trine B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The evidence for cardiac rehabilitation after valve surgery remains sparse. Current recommendations are therefore based on patients with ischaemic heart disease. The aim of this randomised clinical trial was to assess the effects of cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care after heart......-educational consultations (intervention) versus usual care without structured physical exercise or psycho-educational consultations (control). Primary outcome was physical capacity measured by VO2 peak and secondary outcome was self-reported mental health measured by Short Form-36. Results: 76% were men, mean age 62 years......, with aortic (62%), mitral (36%) or tricuspid/pulmonary valve surgery (2%). Cardiac rehabilitation compared with control had a beneficial effect on VO2 peak at 4 months (24.8 mL/kg/min vs 22.5 mL/kg/min, p=0.045) but did not affect Short Form-36 Mental Component Scale at 6 months (53.7 vs 55.2 points, p=0...

  12. Gender differences in the predictive role of self-rated health on short-term risk of mortality among older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Despite the well-established association between self-rated health and mortality, research findings have been inconsistent regarding how men and women differ on this link. Using a national sample in the United States, this study compared American male and female older adults for the predictive role of baseline self-rated health on the short-term risk of mortality. Methods: This longitudinal study followed 1500 older adults (573 men (38.2% and 927 women (61.8% aged 66 years or older for 3 years from 2001 to 2004. The main predictor of interest was self-rated health, which was measured using a single item in 2001. The outcome was the risk of all-cause mortality during the 3-year follow-up period. Demographic factors (race and age, socio-economic factors (education and marital status, and health behaviors (smoking and drinking were covariates. Gender was the focal moderator. We ran logistic regression models in the pooled sample and also stratified by gender, with self-rated health treated as either nominal variables, poor compared to other levels (i.e. fair, good, or excellent or excellent compared to other levels (i.e. good, fair, or poor, or an ordinal variable. Results: In the pooled sample, baseline self-rated health predicted mortality risk, regardless of how the variable was treated. We found a significant interaction between gender and poor self-rated health, indicating a stronger effect of poor self-rated health on mortality risk for men compared to women. Gender did not interact with excellent self-rated health on mortality. Conclusion: Perceived poor self-rated health better reflects risk of mortality over a short period of time for older men compared to older women. Clinicians may need to take poor self-rated health of older men very seriously. Future research should test whether the differential predictive validity of self-rated health based on gender is due to a different meaning of poor self-rated health for older men

  13. Influencing Health Behaviors via Short Message Service (SMS): Evidence for Best Practices From Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania and Xi’an China

    OpenAIRE

    Heitner, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Text messaging, also known as short message services (SMS), is a burgeoning innovation area showing promise in eliciting health behavior changes. This dissertation details two intervention trials that each comparatively tests the efficacy of different text message sets intended to improve behaviors. In light of pervasive road traffic injuries amongst young men in Tanzania, the first intervention tested messaging strategies aimed at increasing helmet wearing amongst commercial motorcycle t...

  14. Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA): A Multicity Study of Short-Term Effects of Air Pollution on Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Kan, Haidong; Qian, Zhengmin

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Although the deleterious effects of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion have been demonstrated in many Western nations, fewer studies have been conducted in Asia. The Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project assessed the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on daily mortality in Bangkok, Thailand, and in three cities in China: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Methods: Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing func...

  15. Overview of past activities for the use of short-lived radionuclides and the role of the Bureau of Radiological Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paras, P.

    1985-01-01

    The Bureau of Radiological Health has developed a national program to control unnecessary medical radiation exposures to man and to assure the safe and effective use of radiation. The continuing interest and the role of the Bureau in the use of short-lived radionuclides (SLR's) are emphasized. An overview of the Bureau's SLR program, past accomplishments, and the status of production and use of iodine-123 are presented

  16. Self-rated health and employment status in chronic haemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Aadahl, Mette; Schou, Lone

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Along with survival and other types of clinical outcome, physical, mental and social well-being are important indicators of the effectiveness of the medical care that haemodialysis (HD) patients receive. The present cross-sectional study was designed to assess self-rated health in HD...... patients were included. They were asked to complete the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire and additional questions concerning education and employment status. The SF-36 consists of eight scales representing physical, social, mental and general health. Clinical, biochemical and dialysis adequacy data were...... patients from a large Danish HD centre compared to a Danish general population sample with similar sex and age distributions. Furthermore, employment status and associations between self-rated health and clinical, social and demographic factors were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 150...

  17. Abdominoplasty and its effect on body image, self-esteem, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Maria José Azevedo; Nahas, Fábio Xerfan; Barbosa, Marcus Vinicius Jardini; Dini, Gal Moreira; Kimura, Alexandro Kenji; Farah, Andréia Bufoni; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2010-07-01

    The impact of abdominoplasty on the quality of life of abdominoplasty patients was assessed 1- and 6-months postoperatively. Forty women aged 25 to 60 years were divided into study group (25 patients who underwent abdominoplasty) and waiting-list control group (15 patients). Three questionnaires (Body Shape Questionnaire [BSQ], Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale [RSE/UNIFESP], and Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire [SF-36]) were administered to the study group (preoperatively, 1- and 6-months postoperatively) and control group (on 2 occasions 6 months apart). A significant positive impact on body image, self-esteem, and mental health was found 1- and 6-months postoperatively. Significant differences were observed in role physical, role emotional, and vitality 1-month postoperatively. In the control group, significant differences were found for vitality. There was a significant improvement in Comparative perception of body image (6-month assessment) in the study group compared with controls. Abdominoplasty improved body image, self-esteem, and mental health.

  18. Antenatal health promotion via short message service at a Midwife Obstetrics Unit in South Africa: a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Yan Kwan; Cassidy, Tali; Hacking, Damian; Brittain, Kirsty; Haricharan, Hanne Jensen; Heap, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Background Adequate antenatal care is important to both the health of a pregnant woman and her unborn baby. Given South Africa’s high rate of cellphone penetration, mobile health interventions have been touted as a potentially powerful means to disseminate health information. This study aimed to increase antenatal health knowledge and awareness by disseminating text messages about clinic procedures at antenatal visits, and how to be healthy during pregnancy. Methods Participants recruited wer...

  19. Short philtrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm Short philtrum To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A short philtrum is a shorter than normal distance between ...

  20. [Analysis of the quality of data issued from Beirut's hospitals in order to measure short-term health effects of air pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrad Nakhlé, M; Farah, W; Ziade, N; Abboud, M; Gerard, J; Zaarour, R; Saliba, N; Dabar, G; Abdel Massih, T; Zoghbi, A; Coussa-Koniski, M-L; Annesi-Maesano, I

    2013-12-01

    The effects of air pollution on human health have been the subject of much public health research. Several techniques and methods of analysis have been developed. Thus, Beirut Air Pollution and Health Effects (BAPHE) was designed to develop a methodology adapted to the context of the city of Beirut in order to quantify the short-term health effects of air pollution. The quality of data collected from emergency units was analyzed in order to properly estimate hospitalizations via these units. This study examined the process of selecting and validating health and pollution indicators. The different sources of data from emergency units were not correlated. BAPHE was therefore reoriented towards collecting health data from the emergency registry of each hospital. A pilot study determined the appropriate health indicators for BAPHE and created a classification methodology for data collection. In Lebanon, several studies have attempted to indirectly assess the impact of air pollution on health. They had limitations and weaknesses and offered no recommendations regarding the sources and quality of data. The present analysis will be useful for BAPHE and for planning further studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Reliability of the Danish version of the short questionnaire to assess health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell; Sørensen, Lotte; Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is abundant evidence that physical activity has a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. Questionnaires are simple and inexpensive to apply to measure physical activity. Purpose / Aim of Study: Translate and cross-cultural adapt the short questionna...

  2. Pragmatic measurement of health satisfaction in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus using the Current Health Satisfaction Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traina SB

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shana B Traina,1 Hilary H Colwell,2 Ross D Crosby,2,3 Susan D Mathias2 1Janssen Global Services, LLC, Raritan, NJ, 2Health Outcomes Solutions, Winter Park, FL, 3Neuropsychiatric Research Institute and University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Fargo, ND, USA Background: The concept of diabetes-related health satisfaction encompasses issues specifically related to living with diabetes (eg, blood glucose, blood pressure levels, body weight. Health satisfaction is more specific than overall health-related quality of life because it considers disease-related factors, and is different from diabetes treatment satisfaction because it addresses issues not specifically related to treatment. Low levels of health satisfaction in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM may negatively affect self-care behaviors and treatment outcomes; however, there are currently no instruments available to assess health satisfaction in this population. This study assessed the measurement properties of a newly constructed, 14-item Current Health Satisfaction Questionnaire (CHES-Q designed to assess diabetes-related health satisfaction and knowledge of the disease and important laboratory results. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted in 23 adults with T2DM to confirm the content and clarity of the CHES-Q. The revised instrument was administered to 1,015 individuals with T2DM, along with supplemental questionnaires, including the Short Form-36. All subjects completed the questionnaires again 3 to 7 days later. CHES-Q test-retest reliability, construct validity, and known-groups validity were evaluated. Results: In general, respondents found the CHES-Q to be clear and comprehensive. Test-retest reliability was generally acceptable for all items (≥0.70, except for three that fell just below the widely accepted cut-point of 0.70 (range 0.63–0.69. Convergent and divergent validity was demonstrated based on hypothesized correlations with the

  3. Structural validity of a 16-item abridged version of the Cervantes Health-Related Quality of Life scale for menopause: the Cervantes Short-Form Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Pluvio J; Borrego, Rafael Sánchez; Palacios, Santiago; Ruiz, Miguel A; Rejas, Javier

    2015-03-01

    The Cervantes Scale is a specific health-related quality of life questionnaire that was originally developed in Spanish to be used in Spain for women through and beyond menopause. It contains 31 items and is time-consuming. The aim of this study was to produce an abridged version with the same dimensional structure and with similar psychometric properties. A representative sample of 516 postmenopausal women (mean [SD] age, 57 [4.31] y) seen in outpatient gynecology clinics and extracted from an observational cross-sectional study was used. Item analysis, internal consistency reliability, item-total and item-dimension correlations, and item correlation with the 12-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey Version 2.0 were studied. Dimensional and full-model confirmatory factor analyses were used to check structure stability. A threefold cross-validation method was used to obtain stable estimates by means of multigroup analysis. The scale was reduced to a 16-item version, the Cervantes Short-Form Scale, containing four main dimensions (Menopause and Health, Psychological, Sexuality, and Couple Relations), with the first dimension composed of three subdimensions (Vasomotor Symptoms, Health, and Aging). Goodness-of-fit statistics were better than those of the extended version (χ(2)/df = 2.493; adjusted goodness-of-fit index, 0.802; parsimony comparative fit index, 0.749; root mean standard error of approximation, 0.054). Internal consistency was good (Cronbach's α = 0.880). Correlations between the extended and the reduced dimensions were high and significant in all cases (P < 0.001; r values ranged from 0.90 for Sexuality to 0.969 for Vasomotor Symptoms). The Cervantes Scale can be reduced to a 16-item abridged version (Cervantes Short-Form Scale) that maintains the original dimensional structure and psychometric properties. At 51% of the original length, this version can be administered faster, making it especially suitable for routine medical practice.

  4. Short video interventions to reduce mental health stigma: a multi-centre randomised controlled trial in nursing high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Petr; Janoušková, Miroslava; Kožený, Jiří; Pasz, Jiří; Mladá, Karolína; Weissová, Aneta; Tušková, Eva; Evans-Lacko, Sara

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to assess whether short video interventions could reduce stigma among nursing students. A multi-centre, randomised controlled trial was conducted. Participating schools were randomly selected and randomly assigned to receive: (1) an informational leaflet, (2) a short video intervention or (3) a seminar involving direct contact with a service user. The Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness (CAMI) and Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS) were selected as primary outcome measures. SPANOVA models were built and Cohen's d calculated to assess the overall effects in each of the trial arms. Compared to the baseline, effect sizes immediately after the intervention were small in the flyer arm (CAMI: d = 0.25; RIBS: d = 0.07), medium in the seminar arm (CAMI: d = 0.61; RIBS: d = 0.58), and medium in the video arm (CAMI: d = 0.49 RIBS: d = 0.26; n = 237). Effect sizes at the follow-up were vanishing in the flyer arm (CAMI: d = 0.05; RIBS: d = 0.04), medium in the seminar arm (CAMI: d = 0.43; RIBS: d = 0.26; n = 254), and small in the video arm (CAMI: d = 0.22 RIBS: d = 0.21; n = 237). Seminar had the strongest and relatively stable effect on students' attitudes and intended behaviour, but the effect of short video interventions was also considerable and stable over time. Since short effective video interventions are relatively cheap, conveniently accessible and easy to disseminate globally, we recommend them for further research and development.

  5. Effect of a participatory organizational-level occupational health intervention on short-term sickness absence: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framke, Elisabeth; Sørensen, Ole Henning; Pedersen, Jacob; Rugulies, Reiner

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether employees in pre-schools that implemented a participatory organizational-level intervention focusing on the core task at work had a lower incidence of short-term sickness absence compared to employees in the control group. The cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) comprised 78 pre-schools that were allocated to the intervention (44 pre-schools with 1760 employees) or control (34 pre-schools with 1279 employees) group. The intervention lasted 25 months and followed a stepwise and structured approach, consisting of seminars, workshops, and workplace-directed intervention activities focusing on the core task at work. Using Poisson regression, we tested differences in incidence rates in short-term sickness absence between the intervention and control groups during a 29-months follow-up. Estimated short-term sickness absence days per person-year during follow-up were 8.68 and 9.17 in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The rate ratio (RR) for comparing incident sickness absence in the intervention to control groups during follow-up was 0.93 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.86-1.00] in the crude analysis and 0.89 (95% CI 0.83-0.96) when adjusting for age, sex, job group, type and size of workplace, and workplace average level of previous short-term sickness absence. A supplementary analysis showed that the intervention also was associated with a reduced risk of long-term sickness absence with a crude RR of 0.83 (95% CI 0.69-0.99) and an adjusted RR of 0.84 (95% CI 0.69-1.01). Pre-school employees participating in an organizational-level occupational health intervention focusing on the core task at work had a lower incidence of short-term sickness absence during a 29-month follow-up compared with control group employees.

  6. Mental health functioning (SF-36) and intentions to retire early among ageing municipal employees: the Helsinki Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkonmäki, Karoliina; Lahelma, Eero; Martikainen, Pekka; Rahkonen, Ossi; Silventoinen, Karri

    2006-01-01

    To examine the associations of mental health functioning with intentions to retire early among ageing municipal employees. Cross-sectional survey data (n = 7,765) from the Helsinki Health Study in 2000, 2001, and 2002 were used. Intentions to retire early were sought with a question: "Have you considered retiring before normal retirement age?" The dependent variable was divided into three categories: 1 = no intentions to retire early; 2 = weak intentions; 3 = strong intentions. Mental health functioning was measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) mental component summary (MCS). Other variables included age, sex, physical health functioning (SF-36), limiting longstanding illness, socioeconomic status, and spouse's employment status. Multinomial regression analysis was used to examine the association of mental health functioning with intentions to retire early. Employees with the poorest mental health functioning were much more likely to report strong intentions to retire early (OR 6.09, 95% CI 4.97-7.47) than those with the best mental health functioning. Adjustments for physical health, socioeconomic status, and spouse's employment status did not substantially affect this association. The findings highlight the importance of mental health for intentions to retire early. Strategies aimed at keeping people at work for longer should emphasize the importance of mental well-being and the prevention of poor mental health. More evidence is needed on why mental problems among ageing baby-boomer employees are giving rise to increasing social consequences, although the overall prevalence of mental problems has not increased.

  7. Health-Related Quality of Life, Gender, and Culture of Older People Users of Health Services in the Multicultural Landscape of the City of Ceuta (Spain): A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo-Alguacil, Maria Milagrosa; Ramírez-Rodrigo, Jesús; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Sánchez-Caravaca, Maria Angeles; Aguilar Ferrándiz, Encarnación; Ruiz-Villaverde, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    Perceptions of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are influenced by sociodemographic variables and by cultural-religious concepts of health, disease, and old age, among others. To assess the HRQOL of older people in a population with a long history of multiculturalism, the city of Ceuta (Spain), and to compare the results with Spanish reference values. A total of 372 individuals (55.4% females) were interviewed using the Spanish version of the Short Form-36 questionnaire. The subjects' mean age was 70.9 (SD = 5) years: 253 were Christians, 93 Muslims, and 26 Jews, representing the proportions in the overall population of these cultural-religious groups. HRQOL differs according to the cultural-religious affiliation, which specifically affects social and psychological dimensions. All groups obtained lower social function scores than the reference values, especially the Muslim and Jewish groups. Health care providers may consider integrating culturally sensitive interventions to improve HRQOL. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Effects of short-term active video game play on community adults: under International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Che; Hsieh, Ru-Lan

    2013-06-01

    The effects of active video game play on healthy individuals remain uncertain. A person's functional health status constitutes a dynamic interaction between components identified in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of active video game play on community adults using the ICF. Sixty community adults with an average age of 59.3 years and without physical disabilities were recruited. Over 2 weeks, each adult participated in six sessions of active video game play lasting 20 minutes each. Participants were assessed before and after the intervention. Variables were collected using sources related to the ICF components, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Biodex Stability System, chair- rising time, Frenchay Activity Index, Rivermead Mobility Index, Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire, Work Ability Index, and World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief Version. Compared to baseline data, significantly reduced risk of a fall measured by Biodex Stability System and improvements in disability scores measured by the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire were noted. There was no significant change in the other variables measured. Short-term, active video game play reduces fall risks and ameliorates disabilities in community adults.

  9. Breastfeeding, Infant Formula, and Introduction to Complementary Foods-Comparing Data Obtained by Questionnaires and Health Visitors' Reports to Weekly Short Message Service Text Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, Signe; Buhl, Susanne; Husby, Steffen; Jacobsen, Lotte Neergaard; Michaelsen, Kim F; Sørensen, Jan; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2017-11-01

    Studies on prevalence and effects of breastfeeding call for reliable and precise data collection to optimize infant nutrition, growth, and health. Data on breastfeeding and infant nutrition are at risk of, for example, recall bias or social desirability bias. The aim of the present analysis was to compare data on infant nutrition, that is, breastfeeding, use of infant formula, and introduction to complementary foods, obtained by four different methods. We assumed that weekly short message service (SMS) questions were the most reliable method, to which the other methods were compared. The study population was part of the Odense Child Cohort. The four methods used were: (a) self-administered questionnaire 3 months postpartum, (b) self-administered questionnaire 18 months postpartum, (c) registrations from health visitors visiting the families several times within the first year of life, and (d) weekly SMS questions introduced shortly after birth. In total, 639 singleton mothers with data from all four methods were included. The proportion of mothers initiating breastfeeding varied from 86% to 97%, the mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding from 12 to 19 weeks, and the mean age when introduced to complementary foods from 19 to 21 weeks. The mean duration of any breastfeeding was 33 weeks across methods. Compared with the weekly SMS questions, the self-administered questionnaires and the health visitors' reports resulted in a greater proportion of mothers with an unknown breastfeeding status, a longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding and later introduction to complementary foods, while the duration of any breastfeeding did not differ.

  10. Prospectively surveying health-related quality of life and symptom relief in a lot-based sample of medical cannabis-using patients in urban Washington State reveals managed chronic illness and debility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, S K; Carter, G T; Sullivan, M D; Zumbrunnen, C; Morrill, R; Mayer, J D

    2013-09-01

    To characterize health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in medical cannabis patients. Short Form 36 (SF-36) Physical Health Component Score and Mental Health Component Score (MCS) surveys as well has CDC (Centers for Disease Control) HRQoL-14 surveys were completed by 37 qualified patients. Mean SF-36 PCS and MCS, normalized at 50, were 37.4 and 44.2, respectively. Eighty percent of participants reported activity/functional limitations secondary to impairments or health problems. Patients reported using medical cannabis to treat a wide array of symptoms across multiple body systems with relief ratings consistently in the 7-10/10 range. The HRQoL results in this sample of medical cannabis-using patients are comparable with published norms in other chronically ill populations. Data presented provide insight into medical cannabis-using patients' self-rated health, HRQoL, disease incidences, and cannabis-related symptom relief.

  11. Short-Term Absenteeism and Health Care Utilization Due to Lower Extremity Injuries Among Novice Runners : A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Huisstede, Bionka; Verhagen, Evert; van der Worp, Henk; Kluitenberg, Bas; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Hartgens, Fred; Backx, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe absenteeism and health care utilization (HCU) within 6 weeks after occurrence of running-related injuries (RRIs) among novice runners and to explore differences relating to injury and personal characteristics. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Primary care.

  12. Antenatal health promotion via short message service at a Midwife Obstetrics Unit in South Africa: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yan Kwan; Cassidy, Tali; Hacking, Damian; Brittain, Kirsty; Haricharan, Hanne Jensen; Heap, Marion

    2014-08-21

    Adequate antenatal care is important to both the health of a pregnant woman and her unborn baby. Given South Africa's high rate of cellphone penetration, mobile health interventions have been touted as a potentially powerful means to disseminate health information. This study aimed to increase antenatal health knowledge and awareness by disseminating text messages about clinic procedures at antenatal visits, and how to be healthy during pregnancy. Participants recruited were pregnant women attending a primary health care facility in Cape Town. A controlled clinical trial was carried out where the intervention group (n = 102) received text messages staggered according to the week of pregnancy at the time of recruitment. The control group (n = 104) received no text messages. These text messages contained antenatal health information, and were delivered in English, Xhosa or Afrikaans, according to the preference of each participant. A baseline knowledge questionnaire with nine questions was administered prior to the intervention. The same questionnaire was used with added health-related behaviour questions for the intervention group at exit. A modified intention-to-treat analysis was done. To compare the control and intervention group's knowledge, Fisher's exact tests and two-sample t-tests tests were carried out for binary and continuous outcomes, respectively. A focus group of seven participants from the intervention group was then conducted to gain more insight into how the text messages were perceived. There was substantial loss to follow-up during the study with only 57% of the participants retained at exit. No statistically significant difference was detected between the control and intervention group in any of the nine knowledge questions at exit (all p > 0.05). Responses from the focus group indicated that the text messages acted as a welcome reminder and a source of positive motivation, and were perceived as extended care from the health care provider. While

  13. Short-Term Efficacy of a "Sit Less, Walk More" Workplace Intervention on Improving Cardiometabolic Health and Work Productivity in Office Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yun-Ping; Lin, Chiu-Chu; Chen, Meei-Maan; Lee, Kwo-Chen

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the short-term efficacy of the Sit Less, Walk More (SLWM) workplace intervention. This was a quasi-experimental design. A total of 99 office workers from two workplaces participated in this study. The 12-week intervention included five components: monthly newsletters, motivational tools, pedometer challenge, environmental prompts, and walking route. The comparison group received monthly newsletters only. Generalized estimating equation analyses showed that the intervention group demonstrated significant improvements in weight (P = 0.029), waist circumference (P = 0.038), diastolic blood pressure (P workplace intervention can improve worker health and lost-productivity.

  14. Health care access and support for disabled women in Canada: falling short of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Barbara E; Mykitiuk, Roxanne

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and other international human rights conventions guarantee the fundamental human rights to physical, social, and psychological health. The purpose of this study was to examine whether these rights are being upheld in Canada for disabled women. An interpretive, qualitative, focus group design was employed. Participants were women 18 to 67 years of age with a self-identified physical, sensory, cognitive, and/or psychiatric impairment. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 74 disabled women from urban and rural settings in Northern Ontario, Manitoba, and Nova Scotia. The data were analyzed for themes using a flexible coding system derived from and consistent with the research objectives and the study's human rights framework. Participants described multiple intersecting factors that impeded or facilitated access to health care. Services included both generic health services and impairment-specific services. Participants experienced a number of barriers accessing professionals, support programs, and services. These are described under three broad themes: 1) Labyrinthine health service 'systems,' 2) assumptions, attitudes, and discriminatory practices, and 3) inadequate sexual health or reproductive services and supports. The results suggest that Canada falls significantly short of guaranteeing disabled women's human rights to access health care supports and services. Access barriers resulted from the inefficiencies and complexities of the multiple agencies and programs that disabled women had to navigate, difficulties accessing information on available services, and negative attitudes of some health and social service providers. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Low-Intensity Mobile Health Intervention With and Without Health Counseling for Persons With Type 2 Diabetes, Part 1: Baseline and Short-Term Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial in the Norwegian Part of RENEWING HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Arsand, Eirik; Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid Klopstad; Ribu, Lis

    2014-12-11

    Self-management support for people with type 2 diabetes is essential in diabetes care. Thus, mobile health technology with or without low-intensity theory-based health counseling could become an important tool for promoting self-management. The aim was to evaluate whether the introduction of technology-supported self-management using the Few Touch Application (FTA) diabetes diary with or without health counseling improved glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, self-management, behavioral change, and health-related quality of life, and to describe the sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics of the participants after 4 months. A 3-armed randomized controlled trial was conducted in Norway during 2011-2013. In the 2 intervention groups, participants were given a mobile phone for 1 year, which provided access to the FTA diary, a self-help tool that recorded 5 elements: blood glucose, food habits, physical activity, personal goal setting, and a look-up system for diabetes information. One of the intervention groups was also offered theory-based health counseling with a specialist diabetes nurse by telephone for 4 months from baseline. Both intervention groups and the control group were provided usual care according to the national guidelines. Adults with type 2 diabetes and HbA1c ≥7.1% were included (N=151). There were 3 assessment points: baseline, 4 months, and 1 year. We report the short-term findings after 4 months. HbA1c was the primary outcome and the secondary outcomes were self-management (Health Education Impact Questionnaire, heiQ), behavioral change (diet and physical activity), and health-related quality of life (SF-36 questionnaire). The data were analyzed using univariate methods (ANOVA), multivariate linear, and logistic regression. Data were analyzed from 124 individuals (attrition rate was 18%). The groups were well balanced at baseline. There were no differences in HbA1c between groups after 4 months, but there was a decline in all

  16. The effect of changes in health sector resources on infant mortality in the short-run and the long-run: a longitudinal econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mansour; Subramanian, S V; Canning, David

    2009-06-01

    While countries with higher levels of human resources for health typically have better population health, the evidence that increases in the level of human resources for health leads to improvements in population health is limited. We use a dynamic regression model to obtain estimates of both the short-run and long-term effects of changes in physicians per capita, our measure of health system resources, on infant mortality. Using a dataset of 99 countries at 5-year intervals from 1960-2000, we estimate that increasing the number of physicians by one per 1000 population (roughly a doubling of current levels of provision) decreases the infant mortality rate by 15% within 5 years and by 45% in the long-run with half the long-run gain being achieved in 15 years. We conclude that the long-run effects of heath system resources are substantially larger than previously estimated. Our results suggest, however, that countries that have delayed action on the Millennium Development Goal of reducing infant and child mortality rate by two-thirds by 2015 (relative to 1990) may have difficulty meeting this goal even if they rapidly increase resources now.

  17. Effects of Dental Rehabilitation under General Anesthesia on Children’s Oral Health-Related Quality of Life Using Proxy Short Versions of OHRQoL Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad D. Baghdadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the impact of comprehensive dental treatment under general anesthesia (GA on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL in children using short form versions of the Parental-Caregivers Perceptions questionnaire (P-CPQ and Family Impact Scale (FIS. Design. A pretest/posttest study involved parents whose children (N = 67 were affected with severe childhood caries and completed comprehensive dental treatment under GA. All parents completed the short form versions of the P-CPQ and FIS at baseline and 4–8 weeks following the dental treatment. To examine test-retest reliability, a convenience sample of 38 parents repeated the pretreatment questionnaires 1-2 weeks after they completed them at baseline. Statistical tests including the Kruskal-Wallis test, Cronbach’s alpha, and paired t-test were used to examine cross-sectional construct validity, internal consistency, and responsiveness of the instruments, respectively. Results. Cross-sectional construct validity and internal consistency were acceptable. Test-retest reliability was excellent. Large decreases in posttreatment scores were observed along with moderate to large effect sizes. Conclusions. Dental treatment under GA is associated with considerable improvement in OHRQoL of children and their families, as demonstrated by short form versions of the P-CPQ and FIS completed by the children’s parents.

  18. Microbial degradation of whole-grain complex carbohydrates and impact on short-chain fatty acids and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    Whole-grain cereals have a complex dietary fiber (DF) composition consisting of oligosaccharides (mostly fructans), resistant starch, and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs); the most important are arabinoxylans, mixed-linkage β(1,3; 1,4)-d-glucan (β-glucan), and cellulose and the noncarbohydrate...... to the intake of DF. The type and composition of cereal DF can consequently be used to modulate the microbial composition and activity as well as the production and molar ratios of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Arabinoxylans and β-glucan in whole-grain cereals and cereal ingredients have been shown...... on the concentration in peripheral blood was less because the majority of propionate and butyrate is cleared in the liver. Active microbial fermentation with increased SCFA production reduced the exposure of potentially toxic compounds to the epithelium, potentially stimulating anorectic hormones and acting...

  19. Validation of a Chinese version of the stress overload scale-short and its use as a screening tool for mental health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjie; Mu, Wenlong

    2018-02-01

    Although stress emerges when environmental demands exceed personal resources, existing measurement methods for stress focus only on one aspect. The newly-developed Short Stress Overload Scale (SOS-S) assesses the extent of stress by assessing both event load (i.e., environmental demands) and personal vulnerability (i.e., personal resources). The present study was designed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Stress Overload Scale-Short (SOS-SC), and further examine its roles in screening mental health status. A total of 1364 participants were recruited from communities and colleges for scale validation. Reliabilities were good throughout the subsamples (ω > 0.80). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the acceptable goodness-of-fit for the two-factor correlated model (Sample 1: 560 community residents). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis confirmed measurement invariance across community residents (Sample 1) and college students (Sample 2 and Sample 3). Criterion validity and convergent validity were established (Sample 2: 554 college students). Latent moderated structural equations demonstrated that the relationship between SOS-SC and depression is moderated by social support (Sample 2), further validating the SOS-SC. In addition, the SOS-SC effectively screened individuals in a population at different levels of mental health status (i.e., "at risk" vs. "at low risk" for depression symptoms and/or wellbeing). The SOS-SC exhibits acceptable psychometric properties in the Chinese context. That said, the two aspects of stress can be differentiated by the Chinese context, therefore, the SOS-SC can be used to measure stress and screen mental health status among the Chinese population, and monitor and evaluate health-promoting interventions.

  20. Physical and Mental Health Status of Staff Working for People with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan: Measurement with the 36-Item Short-Form (SF-36) Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lee, Tzong-Nan; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yen, Chia-Feng; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Wu, Jia-Ling; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Sheng-Ru

    2009-01-01

    Little explicit attention has been given to the generic health profile of staff working for people with intellectual disability in institutions. This study aimed to provide a profile of physical and mental health of staff working in disability welfare institutions, and to examine the possible demographic and organizational factors that explain an…

  1. Damaging the Future: The Health Rights of Children and the Issue of Short-Termism; Issues Facing Australian Bioethicists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2018-07-01

    This article considers recent ethical topics in Australia relating to the health rights of children in the contexts of (1) detention centers, (2) vaccination, and (3) procreative liberty, within a wider framework of discussion of the competing rights of society, parents, the child, and future generations.

  2. Health economic modeling to assess short-term costs of maternal overweight, gestational diabetes, and related macrosomia - a pilot evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; van der Beek, Eline M; Garssen, Johan; Nuijten, Mark J C; Uauy, Ricardo D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the interest in the impact of overweight and obesity on public health, little is known about the social and economic impact of being born large for gestational age or macrosomic. Both conditions are related to maternal obesity and/or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and

  3. Short term effect of feedback on fitness and health measurements on self reported appraisal of the stage of change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, W. van

    2003-01-01

    Background: An individual's current status of physical activity and nutrition and readiness to change can be determined using PACE assessment forms. Practitioners have suggested that feedback on the fitness and health components can produce a change in a subject's awareness of their behaviour and

  4. Health economic modelling to assess short-term costs of maternal overweight, gestational diabetes and related macrosomia – a pilot evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eLenoir-Wijnkoop

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the interest in the impact of overweight and obesity on public health, little is known about the social and economic impact of being born large for gestational age or macrosomic. Both conditions are related to maternal obesity and/or gestational diabetes (GDM and associated with increased morbidity for mother and child in the perinatal period. Poorly controlled diabetes during pregnancy, pre- pregnancy maternal obesity and/or excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy are associated with intermittent periods of fetal exposure to hyperglycemia and subsequent hyperinsulinemia, leading to increased birth weight (e.g. macrosomia, body adiposity and glycogen storage in the liver. Macrosomia is associated with an increased risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus later in life.Objective: Provide insight in the short-term health-economic impact of maternal overweight, gestational diabetes (GDM and related macrosomia. To this end, a health economic framework was designed. This pilot study also aims to encourage further health technology assessments, based on country- and population-specific data. Results: The estimation of the direct health-economic burden of maternal overweight, GDM and related macrosomia indicates that associated healthcare expenditures are substantial. The calculation of a budget impact of GDM, based on a conservative approach of our model, using USA costing data, indicates an annual cost of more than $1,8 billion without taking into account long-term consequences.Conclusion: Although overweight and obesity are a recognized concern worldwide, less attention has been given to the health economic consequences of these conditions in women of child-bearing age and their offspring. The presented outcomes underline the need for preventive management strategies and public health interventions on life style, diet and physical activity. Also, the predisposition in people of Asian ethnicity to develop

  5. Short-term effects of the 2008 Great Recession on the health of the Italian population: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Giorgio; Ferrari, Silvia; Pingani, Luca; Rigatelli, Marco

    2014-06-01

    To report on the effects on health that the 2008 Great Recession is producing in Italy, by comparing the consistency of Italian data with general observations reported in the scientific literature, and by pointing out consequences on the rates of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, male suicidal behaviours, daytime alcohol drinking and traffic fatalities. This is an ecological study in which MEDLINE, PsycINFO and PubMed were searched for the literature with combinations of the following keywords: economic recession, financial crisis, unemployment, health, suicide and mental health. Data from two Italian government agencies (Italian Institute of Statistics, ISTAT, and Italian Agency of Drugs, AIFA) in the years from 2000 to 2010 were obtained and analysed, by producing models of multiple linear regressions. After the recession onset, all-cause mortality remained stable, and was not associated with the economic fluctuations. Differently, cardiovascular mortality was associated with the rate of unemployment, and showed a significant increase in 2010. Alcohol consumption increased in 2009, the year with the worst real GDP decrease (-5.1 %). Though the total rate of suicide was not associated with the economic situation, male completed and attempted suicides due to financial crisis were significantly associated with the rate of unemployment and the real GDP. The increasing diffusion of antidepressants was not associated with a lowering of the rate of suicide. The data on the Italian situation here discussed are sufficiently reliable to conclude that a link exists between the ongoing economic recession and health and mental health of Italians. Further research is needed to understand more in detail and with stronger reliability such link, to support primary and secondary preventive interventions and orient the development of effective sociopolitical interventions.

  6. Short- and longer-term health-care resource utilization and costs associated with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson BH

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Barbara H Johnson,1 Machaon M Bonafede,1 Crystal Watson2 1Outcomes Research, Truven Health Analytics, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA Objectives: The mean lifetime cost of ischemic stroke is approximately $140,048 in the United States, placing stroke among the top 10 most costly conditions among Medicare beneficiaries. The objective of this study was to describe the health-care resource utilization and costs in the year following hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke (AIS.Methods: This retrospective claims analysis quantifies utilization and costs following inpatient admission for AIS among the commercially insured and Medicare beneficiaries in the Truven Health databases. Patients who were 18 years or older and continuously enrolled for 12 months before and after an AIS event occurring (index between January 2009 and December 2012 were identified. Patients with AIS in the year preindex were excluded. Demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated at admission and in the preindex, respectively. Direct costs, readmissions, and inpatient length of stay (LOS were described in the year postindex.Results: The eligible populations comprised 20,314 commercially insured patients and 31,037 Medicare beneficiaries. Average all-cause costs were $61,354 and $44,929 (commercial and Medicare, respectively in the first year after the AIS. Approximately 50%–55% of total 12-month costs were incurred between day 31 and day 365 following the incident AIS. One quarter (24.6% of commercially insured patients and 38.8% of Medicare beneficiaries were readmitted within 30 days with 16.6% and 71.7% (commercial and Medicare, respectively of those having a principal diagnosis of AIS. The average AIS-related readmission length of stay was nearly three times that of the initial hospitalization for both commercially insured patients (3.8 vs 10.8 days and Medicare beneficiaries (4.0 vs 10.8 days

  7. Modeling the effects of functional performance and post-transplant comorbidities on health-related quality of life after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Javed; McCoin, Nicole S; Feurer, Irene D; Speroff, Theodore; Davis, Stacy F; Chomsky, Don B; Wilson, John R; Merrill, Walter H; Drinkwater, Davis C; Pierson, Richard N; Pinson, C Wright

    2003-10-01

    Health-related quality of life and functional performance are important outcome measures following heart transplantation. This study investigates the impact of pre-transplant functional performance and post-transplant rejection episodes, obesity and osteopenia on post-transplant health-related quality of life and functional performance. Functional performance and health-related quality of life were measured in 70 adult heart transplant recipients. A composite health-related quality of life outcome measure was computed via principal component analysis. Iterative, multiple regression-based path analysis was used to develop an integrated model of variables that affect post-transplant functional performance and health-related quality of life. Functional performance, as measured by the Karnofsky scale, improved markedly during the first 6 months post-transplant and was then sustained for up to 3 years. Rejection Grade > or =2 was negatively associated with health-related quality of life, measured by Short Form-36 and reversed Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale scores. Patients with osteopenia had lower Short Form-36 physical scores and obese patients had lower functional performance. Path analysis demonstrated a negative direct effect of obesity (beta = - 0.28, p or =2 had a negative direct effect on this measure (beta = -0.29, p < 0.05). Either directly or through effects mediated by functional performance, moderate-to-severe rejection, obesity and osteopenia negatively impact health-related quality of life. These findings indicate that efforts should be made to devise immunosuppressive regimens that reduce the incidence of acute rejection, weight gain and osteopenia after heart transplantation.

  8. European validation of The Comprehensive International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Osteoarthritis from the perspective of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Martin; Wild, Heike

    2017-09-15

    To validate the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Comprehensive Core Set for Osteoarthritis from the patient perspective in Europe. This multicenter cross-sectional study involved 375 patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis. Trained health professionals completed the Comprehensive Core Set, and patients completed the Short-Form 36 questionnaire. Content validity was evaluated by calculating prevalences of impairments in body function and structures, limitations in activities and participation and environmental factors, which were either barriers or facilitators. Convergent construct validity was evaluated by correlating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health categories with the Short-Form 36 Physical Component Score and the SF-36 Mental Component Score in a subgroup of 259 patients. The prevalences of all body function, body structure and activities and participation categories were >40%, >32% and >20%, respectively, and all environmental factors were relevant for >16% of patients. Few categories showed relevant differences between knee and hip osteoarthritis. All body function categories and all but two activities and participation categories showed significant correlations with the Physical Component Score. Body functions from the ICF chapter Mental Functions showed higher correlations with the Mental Component Score than with the Physical Component Score. This study supports the validity of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Comprehensive Core Set for Osteoarthritis. Implications for Rehabilitation Comprehensive International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Sets were developed as practical tools for application in multidisciplinary assessments. The validity of the Comprehensive International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Osteoarthritis in this study supports its application in European patients with

  9. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  10. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF P.T. KAYE

    . SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...

  11. Health-related quality of life: validity, reliability, and responsiveness of SF-36, 15D, EQ-5D RAQoL, and HAQ in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, L.; Sørensen, J.; Østergaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare validity, reliability, and responsiveness of generic and disease specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Two samples of patients completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), EuroQol (EQ)-5D...... and VAS pain were responsive to both improvement and deterioration. CONCLUSION: All instruments were valid measures for HRQOL in RA. The RAQoL and HAQ displayed the best reliability, while the SF-36 bodily pain scale and VAS pain were the most responsive. The choice of instrument should depend......, 15D, Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life Scale (RAQoL), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and visual analog scales (VAS) for pain, fatigue, and global RA. Validity (convergent, discriminant, and known-groups) was evaluated in a cross-section of 200 patients. Reliability was evaluated...

  12. Psychometric properties of HeartQoL, a core heart disease-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire, in Danish implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangger, Graziella; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Kikkenborg Berg, Selina

    2017-01-01

    Background Patient-reported health-related quality of life is increasingly used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and as a performance measure to evaluate quality of care. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Danish HeartQoL questionnaire, a core heart...... disease-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire, in implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients. Design This study involved cross-sectional and test-retest study designs. Method Implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients in the cross-sectional study completed the Heart......QoL, the Short-Form 36 Health Survey, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The HeartQoL structure, construct-related validity (convergent and discriminative) and reliability (internal consistency) were assessed. HeartQoL reproducibility (test-retest) was assessed in an independent sample of implantable...

  13. Psychometric properties of HeartQoL, a core heart disease-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire, in Danish implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangger, Graziella; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Kikkenborg Berg, Selina

    2018-01-01

    disease-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire, in implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients. Design This study involved cross-sectional and test-retest study designs. Method Implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients in the cross-sectional study completed the Heart......QoL, the Short-Form 36 Health Survey, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The HeartQoL structure, construct-related validity (convergent and discriminative) and reliability (internal consistency) were assessed. HeartQoL reproducibility (test-retest) was assessed in an independent sample of implantable...... psychometric attributes of validity and reliability in this implantable cardioverter defibrillator population. This study adds support for the HeartQoL as a core heart-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire in a broad group of patients with heart disease including implantable cardioverter...

  14. Do people with and without medical conditions respond similarly to the short health anxiety inventory? An assessment of differential item functioning using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBouthillier, Daniel M; Thibodeau, Michel A; Alberts, Nicole M; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-04-01

    Individuals with medical conditions are likely to have elevated health anxiety; however, research has not demonstrated how medical status impacts response patterns on health anxiety measures. Measurement bias can undermine the validity of a questionnaire by overestimating or underestimating scores in groups of individuals. We investigated whether the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI), a widely-used measure of health anxiety, exhibits medical condition-based bias on item and subscale levels, and whether the SHAI subscales adequately assess the health anxiety continuum. Data were from 963 individuals with diabetes, breast cancer, or multiple sclerosis, and 372 healthy individuals. Mantel-Haenszel tests and item characteristic curves were used to classify the severity of item-level differential item functioning in all three medical groups compared to the healthy group. Test characteristic curves were used to assess scale-level differential item functioning and whether the SHAI subscales adequately assess the health anxiety continuum. Nine out of 14 items exhibited differential item functioning. Two items exhibited differential item functioning in all medical groups compared to the healthy group. In both Thought Intrusion and Fear of Illness subscales, differential item functioning was associated with mildly deflated scores in medical groups with very high levels of the latent traits. Fear of Illness items poorly discriminated between individuals with low and very low levels of the latent trait. While individuals with medical conditions may respond differentially to some items, clinicians and researchers can confidently use the SHAI with a variety of medical populations without concern of significant bias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Danish version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire (SMFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Marianne; Andersen, Signe; Joergensen, Annette; Frandsen, Christian; Jensen, Liselotte; Benedikz, Eirikur

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) into Danish (SMFA-DK) and assess the psychometric properties. SMFA was translated and cross-culturally adapted according to a standardized procedure. Minor changes in the wording in three items were made to adapt to Danish conditions. Acute patients (n = 201) and rehabilitation patients (n = 231) with musculoskeletal problems aged 18-87 years were included. The following analysis were made to evaluate psychometric quality of SMFA-DK: Reliability with Chronbach's alpha, content validity as coding according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), floor/ceiling effects, construct validity as factor analysis, correlations between SMFA-DK and Short Form 36 and also known group method. Responsiveness and effect size were calculated. Cronbach's alpha values were between 0.79 and 0.94. SMFA-DK captured all components of the ICF, and there were no floor/ceiling effects. Factor analysis demonstrated four subscales. SMFA-DK correlated good with the SF-36 subscales for the rehabilitation patients and lower for the newly injured patients. Effect sizes were excellent and better for SMFA-DK than for SF-36. The study indicates that SMFA-DK can be a valid and responsive measure of outcome in rehabilitation settings.

  16. Short- and long-term reliability of adult recall of vegetarian dietary patterns in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira Martins, Marcia C; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Singh, Pramil; Fraser, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    Past dietary patterns may be more important than recent dietary patterns in the aetiology of chronic diseases because of the long latency in their development. We developed an instrument to recall vegetarian dietary patterns during the lifetime and examined its reliability of recall over 5·3 and 32·6 years on average. The short-term/5-year recall ability study (5-RAS) was done using 24 690 participants from the cohort of the Adventist Health Study-2 (mean age 62·2 years). The long-term/33-year recall ability study (33-RAS) included an overlap population of 1721 individuals who joined the Adventist Health Study-1 and Adventist Health Study-2 (mean age 72·5 years). Spearman correlation coefficients for recall of vegetarian status were 0·78 and 0·72 for the 5-RAS and 33-RAS, respectively, when compared with 'reference' data. For both time periods sensitivity and positive predictive values were highest for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian patterns (vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarians, pesco-vegetarians, semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians). In the 5-RAS analyses, male, non-black, younger, and more educated participants, lifetime Adventists, and those with more stability of consumption of animal products generally showed higher recall ability. Somewhat similar tendencies were shown for the 33-RAS analyses. Our findings show that the instrument has higher reliability for recalled lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian than for vegan, semi- and pesco-vegetarian dietary patterns in both short- and long-term recalls. This is in part because these last dietary patterns were greatly contaminated by recalls that correctly would have belonged in the adjoining category that consumed more animal products.

  17. Bisphenol A (BPA) in the serum of pet dogs following short-term consumption of canned dog food and potential health consequences of exposure to BPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, Zoe L; Backus, Robert C; Tsuruta, Kaoru; Spollen, William G; Johnson, Sarah A; Javurek, Angela B; Ellersieck, Mark R; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Xue, Jingchuan; Bivens, Nathan J; Givan, Scott A; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2017-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely present endocrine disruptor chemical found in many household items. Moreover, this chemical can bioaccumulate in various terrestrial and aquatic sources; thereby ensuring continual exposure of animals and humans. For most species, including humans, diet is considered the primary route of exposure. However, there has been little investigation whether commercial-brands of dog foods contain BPA and potential health ramifications of BPA-dietary exposure in dogs. We sought to determine BPA content within dog food, whether short-term consumption of these diets increases serum concentrations of BPA, and potential health consequences, as assessed by potential hematological, serum chemistry, cortisol, DNA methylation, and gut microbiome changes, in dogs associated with short-term dietary exposure to BPA. Fourteen healthy privately-owned dogs were used in this study. Blood and fecal samples were collected prior to dogs being placed for two-weeks on one of two diets (with one considered to be BPA-free), and blood and fecal samples were collected again. Serum/plasma samples were analyzed for chemistry and hematology profiles, cortisol concentrations, 5-methylcytosine in lymphocytes, and total BPA concentrations. Fecal samples were used for microbiome assessments. Both diets contained BPA, and after two-weeks of being on either diet, dogs had a significant increase in circulating BPA concentrations (pre-samples=0.7±0.15ng/mL, post-samples=2.2±0.15ng/mL, pfood increased circulating BPA concentrations in dogs comparable to amounts detected in humans, and greater BPA concentrations were associated with serum chemistry and microbiome changes. Dogs, who share our internal and external environments with us, are likely excellent indicators of potential human health concerns to BPA and other environmental chemicals. These findings may also have relevance to aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on health status in non-vitamin D deficient people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westra, S; Krul-Poel, Y H M; van Wijland, H J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased levels of depressive symptoms, fatigue or pain (all dimensions of reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL)) are common in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Earlier studies have reported associations between low vitamin D status and fatigue and depressive symptoms...... with type 2 DM derived from general practices. HRQOL at baseline and after six months using the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) was collected. Linear regression analyses were used to compare the change in HRQOL over time between the vitamin D and placebo group. RESULTS: 187/275 (68%) completed baseline...... both groups was seen concerning the SF-36 domain role limitations due to physical problems in disadvantage of the vitamin D group. CONCLUSIONS: Six months of vitamin D supplementation did not improve HRQOL in non-vitamin D-deficient people with type 2 DM managed on oral antidiabetic therapy....

  19. Using Personality Traits to Construct Linear Growth Models of Mental Health in Family Members of Individuals With Severe Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trujillo, Michael; Perrin, Paul B; Doser, Karoline

    2016-01-01

    Objective: No studies have examined the impact of personality traits on mental health among caregivers of individuals with severe brain injury. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to construct linear growth models to examine whether the personality traits of family members...... neuroticism had lower anxiety and depression over time, as well as a more accelerated decrease in anxiety and depression. Conclusions: Caregivers' personality traits were strongly associated over time with mental HRQoL, anxiety, and depression, with neuroticism being especially important for trajectories...... the Short Form-36 assessing mental HRQoL (vitality, social functioning, role limitations-emotional, mental health), anxiety, and depression across 5 time points during the 1st year after injury. The measure of personality was administered 3 months after the patients' discharge. Results: All mental HRQo...

  20. Beneficial effects of short-term nutritional counselling at the primary health-care level among Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorelli, Daniela Saes; Sciarra, Elaine Cristina; Franco, Laércio Joel; Cardoso, Marly Augusto

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of a low-cost nutritional intervention in changing the lifestyle of adults. Randomised clinical trial. Primary health-care centre in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil. We randomly assigned 104 adults (83 women and 21 men aged 30-65 years, body mass index 24-35 kg m(-2), non-diabetic) into two groups: nutrition counselling and control. Each subject in the intervention group received three individualised nutritional counselling sessions during the first 6 months aimed at increasing intakes of fruits, vegetables and olive oil, reducing saturated fat and improving physical activity. Body composition, biochemical indicators and lifestyle were assessed at baseline and at 6 months and 1 year in both groups. After 6 months of follow-up, body weight, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total and saturated fat, and dietary energy and cholesterol levels showed a more significant decrease among subjects in the intervention group than in the control group (P olive oil (P < 0.05). After 12 months of follow-up, most of the outcomes were maintained. The low-cost nutritional intervention programme improved serum lipids profile and weight control, and appeared to be feasible for use at a primary health-care centre in a developing country.

  1. Prenatal attitudes and parity predict selection into a U.S. child health program: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Anderson, Sarah

    2013-10-01

    Public policies are a determinant of child health disparities; sound evaluation of these programs is essential for good governance. It is impossible in most countries to randomize assignment into child health programs that directly offer benefits. In the absence of this, researchers face the threat of selection bias-the idea that there are innate, immeasurable differences between those who take-up treatment and those who don't. In the field of Program Evaluation we are most concerned with the differences between the eligible people who take-up a program and the eligible people who choose not to enroll. Using a case study of a large U.S. nutrition program, this report illustrates how the perceived benefits of participation may affect the decision to take-up a program. In turn, this highlights sources of potential selection bias. Using data from a longitudinal study of mothers and infants conducted between May and December of 2005, I show that attitudes and beliefs prenatally toward breastfeeding determine enrollment in a U.S nutrition program that offers free Infant Formula. I also find that the significance of the selection bias differs by parity. Analysis reveals that maternal attitudinal responses are more highly predictive of future behavior, compared to standard demographic variables. In sum, this paper makes a case for rigorously understanding the factors that determine take-up of a program and how those factors can modify the results of a program evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pelvic Belt Effects on Health Outcomes and Functional Parameters of Patients with Sacroiliac Joint Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Niels; Möbius, Robert; Schleifenbaum, Stefan; Hammer, Karl-Heinz; Klima, Stefan; Lange, Justin S.; Soisson, Odette; Winkler, Dirk; Milani, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a common source of low back pain. However, clinical and functional signs and symptoms correlating with SIJ pain are widely unknown. Pelvic belts are routinely applied to treat SIJ pain but without sound evidence of their pain-relieving effects. This case-control study compares clinical and functional data of SIJ patients and healthy control subjects and evaluates belt effects on SIJ pain. Methods 17 SIJ patients and 17 healthy controls were included in this prospective study. The short-form 36 survey and the numerical rating scale were used to characterize health-related quality of life in patients in a six-week follow-up and the pain-reducing effects of pelvic belts. Electromyography data were obtained from the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, rectus femoris and medial vastus. Alterations of muscle activity, variability and gait patterns were compared in patients and controls along with the belts’ effects in a dynamic setting when walking. Results Significant improvements were observed in the short-form 36 survey of the SIJ patients, especially in the physical health subscores. Minor declines were also observed in the numerical rating scale on pain. Belt-related changes of muscle activity and variability were similar in patients and controls with one exception: the rectus femoris activity decreased significantly in patients with belt application when walking. Further belt effects include improved cadence and gait velocity in patients and controls. Conclusions Pelvic belts improve health-related quality of life and are potentially attributed to decreased SIJ-related pain. Belt effects include decreased rectus femoris activity in patients and improved postural steadiness during locomotion. Pelvic belts may therefore be considered as a cost-effective and low-risk treatment of SIJ pain. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02027038 PMID:26305790

  3. Validity and reliability of a new, short symptom rating scale in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härdén, Marie; Nyström, Britta; Kulich, Károly; Carlsson, Jonas; Bengtson, Ann; Edvardsson, Nils

    2009-07-15

    Symptoms related to atrial fibrillation and their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are often evaluated in clinical trials. However, there remains a need for a properly validated instrument. We aimed to develop and validate a short symptoms scale for patients with AF. One hundred and eleven patients with a variety of symptoms related to AF were scheduled for DC cardioversion. The mean age was 67.1 +/- 12.1 years, and 80% were men. The patients completed the new symptoms scale, the Toronto Symptoms Check List (SCL) and the generic Short Form 36 (SF-36) the day before the planned DC cardioversion. Compliance was excellent, with only 1 of 666 answers missing. One item, 'limitations in working capability', was deleted because of a low numerical response rate, as many of the patients were retired. The internal consistency reliability of the remaining six items was 0.81 (Cronbach's alpha). Patients scored highest in the items of 'dyspnoea on exertion', 'limitations in daily life due to AF' and 'fatigue due to AF', with scores of 4.5, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. There was a good correlation to all relevant SF-36 domains and to the relevant questions of the SCL. The Rasch analyses showed that the items are unidimensional and that they are clearly separated and cover an adequate range. Test-retest reliability was performed in patients who failed DC and was adequate for three of six items, > 0.70. The psychometric characteristics of the new short symptoms scale were found to have satisfactory reliability and validity.

  4. Validity and reliability of a new, short symptom rating scale in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtson Ann

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptoms related to atrial fibrillation and their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL are often evaluated in clinical trials. However, there remains a need for a properly validated instrument. We aimed to develop and validate a short symptoms scale for patients with AF. Methods One hundred and eleven patients with a variety of symptoms related to AF were scheduled for DC cardioversion. The mean age was 67.1 ± 12.1 years, and 80% were men. The patients completed the new symptoms scale, the Toronto Symptoms Check List (SCL and the generic Short Form 36 (SF-36 the day before the planned DC cardioversion. Compliance was excellent, with only 1 of 666 answers missing. Results One item, 'limitations in working capability', was deleted because of a low numerical response rate, as many of the patients were retired. The internal consistency reliability of the remaining six items was 0.81 (Cronbach's α. Patients scored highest in the items of 'dyspnoea on exertion', 'limitations in daily life due to AF' and 'fatigue due to AF', with scores of 4.5, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. There was a good correlation to all relevant SF-36 domains and to the relevant questions of the SCL. The Rasch analyses showed that the items are unidimensional and that they are clearly separated and cover an adequate range. Test-retest reliability was performed in patients who failed DC and was adequate for three of six items, >0.70. Conclusion The psychometric characteristics of the new short symptoms scale were found to have satisfactory reliability and validity.

  5. Nursing intervention by telephone interviews of patients aged over 65 years after total hip replacement improves health status: a randomised clinical trial Nursing intervention by telephone interviews of patients aged over 65 years after total hip replacement improves health status: a randomised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørdam, Britta

    2010-01-01

    and over by using telephone support and counselling 2 and 10 weeks after surgery compared with a control group receiving conventional care and treatment. Design: A randomised clinical trial focusing on patients' health status by using short-form 36 at 4 weeks preoperatively and 3 and 9 months...... postoperatively was carried out. Sample: 180 patients aged 65 years and over were randomised 4 weeks preoperatively to either control or intervention groups. Measurements: both groups received conventional surgical treatment, but the intervention group was interviewed by telephone 2 and 10 weeks after surgery......Nursing intervention by telephone interviews of patients aged over 65 years after total hip replacement improves health status: a randomised clinical trial Objective: We hypothesised that all areas of health status after total hip replacement could be improved in patients aged over 65 years...

  6. Impact of trismus on health-related quality of life and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joakim; Johansson, Mia; Rydén, Anna; Houltz, Erik; Finizia, Caterina

    2015-11-01

    Trismus is a common symptom often related to the treatment for head and neck cancer and to temporomandibular disorders. The purpose of the present study was to measure the impact of trismus on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and mental health in patients with head and neck cancer and temporomandibular disorder. We used the criteria for trismus of maximum interincisal opening (MIO) ≤35 mm and the study subjects responded to the following instruments: the Gothenburg Trismus Questionnaire (GTQ), the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The study also comprised an age-matched and sex-matched control group without trismus. Patients with trismus reported significantly more dysfunction in all GTQ domains and more facial pain compared to the control group. The patients with head and neck cancer and trismus scored significantly lower on all SF-36 domains except general health compared to the control group, and the patients with temporomandibular disorder with trismus scored significantly lower in 3 of the 8 domains in SF-36. According to the HADS, a greater proportion of patients with head and neck cancer with trismus displayed more depression compared to the control group. The results showed that trismus is associated with a significant impact on HRQOL and that patients with trismus should be approached in a holistic way with respect for the underlying cause, treating not only the physical aspects of trismus but also addressing the patients' mental health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Health related quality of life and influencing factors among welders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. METHODS: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. RESULTS: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, validity (VT, social function (SF, and mental health (MH were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE, great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. CONCLUSIONS: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.

  8. Contribution of Physical Fitness Component to Health Status in Elderly Males and Females over 60 years – Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ignacio Cuesta-Vargas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the physicalfitness (PF level of a cohort of elderly people that are subjected tophysical activity (PA, and to establish a regression model for theevaluation of health status (HS of elderly people based on their PF.This is a Cross-sectional study. Consists of 114 Participants over60 years old, that were recruited from a physical activity program.Were measured variables about anthropometric characteristics,jumping tests with jumping platform, dynamic and static balance, riskof falls, lung capacity, HS and quality of life (QoL. We used Pearson’slinear correlation with 95% Zr. We looked for simple and multiple regression models. We used the bayesianinformation criterion approach and statistical inference to find and calculated a numerical estimate of thebest regression model. We used the dependent variable physical function of SF-12. Physical fitness variablesselected for the models were weight, height, Countermovement Jump test (flight time, Functional Reachtest, lumbosacral flexion mobility, Extended Timed Get Up and Go (ETGUG (10 meters time score andtotal time score. The HS and QoL measurement are important for the prevention of injury during physicalexercise and should be conducted whenever is possible. The regression models proposed in this study can beused as an initial screening of HS or QoL at fitness facilities and fitness clubs that do not provide HS or QoLquestionnaires. However, these models are not an alternative to health care for a detailed determination ofHS and is not intended for use as a final evaluation.

  9. Measuring patient satisfaction with health care treatment using the Short Assessment of Patient Satisfaction measure delivered superior and robust satisfaction estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Graeme; Sansoni, Jan; Hayes, Laura; Marosszeky, Nick; Sansoni, Emily

    2014-05-01

    Reviews of patient satisfaction suggest seven dimensions, each of which should be assessed. This study reports development of a short generic patient satisfaction measure for use in routine clinical practice. Participants were randomly recruited from two Australian incontinence clinics. Participants completed a follow-up questionnaire including patient satisfaction items. Iterative Mokken and Rasch analyses derived the Short Assessment of Patient Satisfaction (SAPS) scale from the item bank. The SAPS psychometric properties illustrated the following features, namely its descriptive system covers all seven patient satisfaction dimensions, there were no misfitting items, and the scale exceeded the Loevinger H criteria for a strong unidimensional scale. The reliability of the SAPS was Cronbach α=0.86. When discriminatory function was examined, the SAPS scale was more sensitive than two other generic patient satisfaction instruments. The SAPS scale is based on a firm theoretical model of patient satisfaction and its descriptive system covers the known dimensions contributing to patient satisfaction. Its internal psychometric properties exceeded standard psychometric standards, and it discriminated at least as well as other longer patient satisfaction measures. Although it needs further validation, the study results suggest that it may be useful for assessing patient satisfaction with health care. Copyright © 2011 SAPS is held and will continue to be held in perpetuity by the authors with a license to the Commonwealth of Australia. Researchers are welcome to use the SAPS subject to acknowledgement/citation of the authors' rights in the usual way. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of short and long-term outcomes of diabetes patient education using the health education impact questionnaire (HeiQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth Lauersen, Ditte; Christensen, Karl Bang; Christensen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    increased self-management skills, improved acceptance of their chronic illness and decreased negative emotional response to their disease. Applying HeiQ as an outcome measure yielded new knowledge as to what patients with diabetes can obtain by participating in a patient education....... of affected individuals and escalating costs. Patient education is one option for improving patient self-management. However, there are large discrepancies in the outcomes of such programs and long-term data are lacking. We assessed the short and long-term outcomes of diabetes patient education using...... the health education impact questionnaire (HeiQ). Methods We conducted a observational cohort study of 83 type 2 diabetes patients participating in patient education programs in Denmark. The seven-scale HeiQ was completed by telephone interview at baseline and 2 weeks (76 participants, 93%) and 12 months (66...

  11. Assessment of Biopsychosocial Complexity and Health Care Needs: Measurement Properties of the INTERMED Self-Assessment Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reedt Dortland, Arianne K B; Peters, Lilian L; Boenink, Annette D; Smit, Jan H; Slaets, Joris P J; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; Joos, Andreas; Latour, Corine H M; Stiefel, Friedrich; Burrus, Cyrille; Guitteny-Collas, Marie; Ferrari, Silvia

    2017-05-01

    The INTERMED Self-Assessment questionnaire (IMSA) was developed as an alternative to the observer-rated INTERMED (IM) to assess biopsychosocial complexity and health care needs. We studied feasibility, reliability, and validity of the IMSA within a large and heterogeneous international sample of adult hospital inpatients and outpatients as well as its predictive value for health care use (HCU) and quality of life (QoL). A total of 850 participants aged 17 to 90 years from five countries completed the IMSA and were evaluated with the IM. The following measurement properties were determined: feasibility by percentages of missing values; reliability by Cronbach α; interrater agreement by intraclass correlation coefficients; convergent validity of IMSA scores with mental health (Short Form 36 emotional well-being subscale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), medical health (Cumulative Illness Rating Scale) and QoL (Euroqol-5D) by Spearman rank correlations; and predictive validity of IMSA scores with HCU and QoL by (generalized) linear mixed models. Feasibility, face validity, and reliability (Cronbach α = 0.80) were satisfactory. Intraclass correlation coefficient between IMSA and IM total scores was .78 (95% CI = .75-.81). Correlations of the IMSA with the Short Form 36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Cumulative Illness Rating Scale, and Euroqol-5D (convergent validity) were -.65, .15, .28, and -.59, respectively. The IMSA significantly predicted QoL and also HCU (emergency department visits, hospitalization, outpatient visits, and diagnostic examinations) after 3- and 6-month follow-up. Results were comparable between hospital sites, inpatients and outpatients, as well as age groups. The IMSA is a generic and time-efficient method to assess biopsychosocial complexity and to provide guidance for multidisciplinary care trajectories in adult patients, with good reliability and validity across different cultures.

  12. Short-term effects of air pollution on respiratory morbidity at Rio de Janeiro--Part II: health assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, S I V; Pires, J C M; Martins, E M; Fortes, J D N; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G

    2012-08-01

    The effects of air pollution on health have been studied worldwide. Given that air pollution triggers oxidative stress and inflammation, it is plausible that high levels of air pollutants cause higher number of hospitalisations. This study aimed to assess the impact of air pollution on the emergency hospitalisation for respiratory disease in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was divided in two parts: Part I specifically addressing the air pollution assessment and Part II addressing the health assessment. Accordingly, this Part II aimed to estimate the association between the concentrations of PM₁₀, SO₂ and CO observed in Rio de Janeiro and the number of emergency hospitalisations at a central hospital due to respiratory diseases. The pollutant concentrations were measured at two different sites in Rio de Janeiro, but the excess relative risks were calculated based on the concentrations observed at one of the sites, where limits were generally exceeded more frequently, between September 2000 and December 2005. A time series analysis was performed using the number of hospitalisations, divided in three categories (children until 1 year old, children aged between 1 and 5 years old and elderly with 65 years old or more) as independent variable, the concentrations of pollutants as dependent variables and temperature, relative humidity, long term trend, and seasonality as confounders. Data were analysed using generalised additive models with smoothing for some of the dependent variables. Results showed an excess risk of hospitalisation for respiratory disease higher than 2% per 10 μg m⁻³ increase in PM₁₀ concentrations for children under 5 years old, of 2% per 10 μg m⁻³ increase in SO₂ for elderly above 65 years old and around 0.1% per 10 μg m⁻³ increase in CO for children under 1 year and elderly. Other studies have found associations that are in agreement with the results achieved in this study. The study suggests that the ambient levels of air

  13. Novel point estimation from a semiparametric ratio estimator (SPRE): long-term health outcomes from short-term linear data, with application to weight loss in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman-Miller, Deborah

    2013-11-02

    Point estimation is particularly important in predicting weight loss in individuals or small groups. In this analysis, a new health response function is based on a model of human response over time to estimate long-term health outcomes from a change point in short-term linear regression. This important estimation capability is addressed for small groups and single-subject designs in pilot studies for clinical trials, medical and therapeutic clinical practice. These estimations are based on a change point given by parameters derived from short-term participant data in ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. The development of the change point in initial OLS data and the point estimations are given in a new semiparametric ratio estimator (SPRE) model. The new response function is taken as a ratio of two-parameter Weibull distributions times a prior outcome value that steps estimated outcomes forward in time, where the shape and scale parameters are estimated at the change point. The Weibull distributions used in this ratio are derived from a Kelvin model in mechanics taken here to represent human beings. A distinct feature of the SPRE model in this article is that initial treatment response for a small group or a single subject is reflected in long-term response to treatment. This model is applied to weight loss in obesity in a secondary analysis of data from a classic weight loss study, which has been selected due to the dramatic increase in obesity in the United States over the past 20 years. A very small relative error of estimated to test data is shown for obesity treatment with the weight loss medication phentermine or placebo for the test dataset. An application of SPRE in clinical medicine or occupational therapy is to estimate long-term weight loss for a single subject or a small group near the beginning of treatment.

  14. Associations between short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide and mortality in 17 Chinese cities: the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Samoli, Evangelia; Wong, Chit-Ming; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zongshuang; Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2012-09-15

    Few multi-city studies in Asian developing countries have examined the acute health effects of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). In the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES), we investigated the short-term association between NO(2) and mortality in 17 Chinese cities. We applied two-stage Bayesian hierarchical models to obtain city-specific and national average estimates for NO(2). In each city, we used Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions to adjust for long-term and seasonal trend of mortality, as well as other time-varying covariates. We examined the associations by age, gender and education status. We combined the individual-city estimates of the concentration-response curves to get an overall NO(2)-mortality association in China. The averaged daily concentrations of NO(2) in the 17 Chinese cities ranged from 26 μg/m(3) to 67 μg/m(3). In the combined analysis, a 10-μg/m(3) increase in two-day moving averaged NO(2) was associated with a 1.63% [95% posterior interval (PI), 1.09 to 2.17], 1.80% (95% PI, 1.00 to 2.59) and 2.52% (95% PI, 1.44 to 3.59) increase of total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. These associations remained significant after adjustment for ambient particles or sulfur dioxide (SO(2)). Older people appeared to be more vulnerable to NO(2) exposure. The combined concentration-response curves indicated a linear association. Conclusively, this largest epidemiologic study of NO(2) in Asian developing countries to date suggests that short-term exposure to NO(2) is associated with increased mortality risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Perceived health in the Portuguese population aged ? 35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Figueiredo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the exploratory relationship between determinants of health, life satisfaction, locus of control, attitudes and behaviors and health related quality of life in an adult population. METHODS : Observational study (analytical and cross-sectional with a quantitative methodological basis. The sample was composed oy 1,214 inhabitants aged ≥ 35 in 31 civil parishes in the County of Coimbra, Portugal, 2011-2012. An anonymous and voluntary health survey was conducted, which collected the following information: demographic, clinical record, health and lifestyle behaviors; health related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study, Short Form-36; health locus of control; survey of health attitudes and behavior, and quality of life index. Pearson’s Linear Correlation, t-Student, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney; One-way ANOVA; Brown-Forsythe’s F; Kruskal-Wallis; Multiple Comparisons: Tukey (HSD, Games-Howell and Conover were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS : Health related quality of life was shown to be lower in females, in older age groups, in obese/overweight individuals, widows, unassisted, those living alone, living in rural/suburban areas, those who did not work and with a medium-low socioeconomic level. Respondents with poor/very poor self-perceived health (p < 0.0001, with chronic disease (p < 0.0001, who consumed < 3 meals per day (p ≤ 0.01, who were sedentary, who slept ≤ 6 h/day and had smoked for several years revealed the worst health results. Health related quality of life was positively related with a bigger internal locus, with better health attitudes and behaviors (physical exercise, health and nutritional care, length of dependence and with different areas of life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS : Better health related quality of life was associated with certain social, psychological, family and health characteristics, a satisfactory lifestyle, better socioeconomic conditions and a good internal locus of control over

  16. Psychometric testing of the short version of the world health organization quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Wei-Sheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the effects of tuberculosis on a patient’s quality of life (QOL are scant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Taiwan short version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire using patients with tuberculosis in Taiwan and healthy referents. Methods The Taiwanese short version of the WHOQOL-BREF was administered to patients with tuberculosis undergoing treatment and healthy referents from March 2007 to July 2007. Patients with tuberculosis (n = 140 and healthy referents (n = 130, matched by age, sex, and ethnicity, agreed to an interview. All participants lived in eastern Taiwan. Reliability assessments included internal consistency, whereas validity assessments included construct validity, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. Results More than half of these patients and referents were men (70.7% and 66.2%, respectively, and their average ages were 50.1 and 47.9 years, respectively. Approximately 60% of patients and referents were aboriginal Taiwanese (60.7% and 61.1%, respectively. The proportion with low socioeconomic status was greater for these patients. The internal consistency reliability coefficients were .92 and .93 for the patients and healthy referents, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis on the healthy referents displayed a 4-domain model, which was compatible with the original WHOQOL-BREF 4-domain model. However, for the TB patient group, after deleting 3 items, both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed a 6-domain model. Conclusion Psychometric evaluation of the Taiwan short version of the WHOQOL-BREF indicates that it has adequate reliability for use in research with TB patients in Taiwan. However, the factor structure generated from this TB patient sample differed from the WHO’s original 4-factor model, which raised a validity concern to apply the Taiwan short version of the WHOQOL

  17. Short Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds...

  18. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  19. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  20. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: vani_chem@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.

  1. Short communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Vonk, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy veal calves (4-6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  2. Unnecessary work tasks and mental health: a prospective analysis of Danish human service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Tripathi, Manisha; Borritz, Marianne; Rugulies, Reiner

    2014-11-01

    According to the "stress-as-offense-to-self" perspective, work tasks that are considered unnecessary or unreasonable - so-called "illegitimate work tasks" - are likely to elicit stress-reactions. Previous studies, mostly cross-sectional, have shown that illegitimate tasks are associated with increased self-reported stress, cortisol, and counterproductive work behavior. In this article, we examine the prospective association between unnecessary work tasks, one type of illegitimate work tasks, and mental health among Danish human service workers. Further, we explore whether this association is modified by sex, age, occupational position, and baseline mental health status. The data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires from 1351 Danish human service workers in three waves of data-collection during 1999-2005. We measured unnecessary work tasks by a single item, and assessed mental health using the 5-item mental health inventory from the Short form 36 questionnaire. We analyzed data using multi-level modeling, adjusting for potential confounding by sex, age, cohabitation, occupational position, and baseline mental health. Unnecessary work tasks were prospectively associated with a decreased level of mental health. This association was stronger for employees with poor baseline mental health and tended to be more pronounced among older employees. Among participants with poor baseline mental health, the association was explained by neither psychological demands nor decision latitude. Our findings suggest that the prevention of unnecessary work tasks may benefit employee mental health, particularly among employees with pre-existing mental health problems.

  3. Health-related quality of life in a sample of iranian patients on hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakpour, Amir H.; Saffari, Mohsen; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed

    2010-01-01

    were included using a convenience sampling approach in a cross-sectional study. Data collection was performed using a Persian translation of the Short Form-36 questionnaire in combination with demographic and clinically related questions. The collected data were analyzed using a logistic regression......INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a sample of Iranian patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. The data were compared with the HRQOL for the Iranian general population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-hundred and fifty patients undergoing hemodialysis...... the fact that patients undergoing hemodialysis suffer from poor HRQOL. In comparison with data from other studies from Asian and European countries, this sample of Iranian patients on hemodialysis had a lower HRQOL, a discrepancy that might be due to differences in life style, socioeconomic status...

  4. Predictors of Health-Related Quality-of-Life After Complex Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carreon, Leah Y.; Glassman, Steven D.; Shaffrey, Christopher I.

    2017-01-01

    , treatment effectiveness is assessed by the extent to which the procedure improves a patient's health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This is especially true in patients with complex adult spinal deformity. Methods The data set from the Scoli-Risk-1 study was queried for patients with complete 2-year SF-36......Study Design Longitudinal cohort. Objectives To identify variables that predict 2-year Short Form-36 Physical Composite Summary Score (SF-36PCS) and the Scoliosis Research Society-22R (SRS22-R) Total score after surgery for complex adult spinal deformity. Summary of Background Data Increasingly...... = .049) and type of neurologic complication (p = .068). Factors predictive of 2-year SRS-22R Total scores were maximum preoperative Cobb angle (p = .001) and the number of serious adverse events (p = .071). Conclusions Factors predictive of lower 2-year HRQOLs after surgery for complex adult spinal...

  5. The relationship between health-related quality of life, obesity and testosterone levels in older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Nielsen, Torben Leo; Wraae, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    quality of life evaluated by Short-Form 36 (SF-36) is decreased in obesity and hypogonadism, but the importance of regional fat mass is unknown. In the present study, we evaluated associations between SF-36, regional fat deposits and bioavailable testosterone (BioT) in ageing men.......quality of life evaluated by Short-Form 36 (SF-36) is decreased in obesity and hypogonadism, but the importance of regional fat mass is unknown. In the present study, we evaluated associations between SF-36, regional fat deposits and bioavailable testosterone (BioT) in ageing men....

  6. Transforaminal Percutaneous Endoscopic Discectomy in Parkinson Disease: Preliminary Results and Short Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Giovannopoulou, Eirini; Thomaidis, Triphonas; Charitoudis, George; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Kazakos, Konstantinos

    2016-09-01

    To study the effectiveness of Transforaminal Percutaneous Endoscopic Discectomy (TPED) for lumbar disc herniation in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Fifteen patients diagnosed with PD and lumbar disc hernia were recruited to the study. All patients underwent TPED. Mean age was 61.27±6 years, with 8 male (53.3%) and 7 female patients (46.7%). Level of operation was L3-4 (33.3%), L4-5 (33.3%) and L5-S1 (33.3%). Visual analogue scale (VAS) for leg pain and Oswestry Disabillity Index (ODI) for back pain, as well as the Medical Outcomes Study Questionnaire Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed right before surgery and at 6 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. VAS and ODI showed significant (p<0.005) reduction one year after TPED, with a percentage improvement of 83.9% and 79.4%, respectively. Similarly, all aspects of quality of life (SF-36) were significantly (p<0.005) improved 1 year after the procedure. Bodily pain and role physical demonstrated the highest increase followed by role emotional, physical function, social function, vitality, mental health, and general health. Beneficial impact of TPED on clinical outcome and HRQoL was independent of gender and operated level. TPED is effective in reducing lower limb symptoms and low back pain in patients with lumbar disc hernia, suffering from PD. Positive effect of endoscopy is, also, evident in HRQoL of those patients one year after the procedure.

  7. Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA): a multicity study of short-term effects of air pollution on mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Kan, Haidong; Qian, Zhengmin

    2008-09-01

    Although the deleterious effects of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion have been demonstrated in many Western nations, fewer studies have been conducted in Asia. The Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project assessed the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on daily mortality in Bangkok, Thailand, and in three cities in China: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions were used to adjust for seasonality and other time-varying covariates that might confound the association between air pollution and mortality. Effect estimates were determined for each city and then for the cities combined using a random effects method. In individual cities, associations were detected between most of the pollutants [nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter air pollution than those in Western industrial nations because they spend more time outdoors and less time in air conditioning. Although the social and environmental conditions may be quite different, it is reasonable to apply estimates derived from previous health effect of air pollution studies in the West to Asia.

  8. Epidemiology and Health-Related Quality of Life in Hypoparathyroidism in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astor, Marianne C; Løvås, Kristian; Debowska, Aleksandra; Eriksen, Erik F; Evang, Johan A; Fossum, Christian; Fougner, Kristian J; Holte, Synnøve E; Lima, Kari; Moe, Ragnar B; Myhre, Anne Grethe; Kemp, E Helen; Nedrebø, Bjørn G; Svartberg, Johan; Husebye, Eystein S

    2016-08-01

    The epidemiology of hypoparathyroidism (HP) is largely unknown. We aimed to determine prevalence, etiologies, health related quality of life (HRQOL) and treatment pattern of HP. Patients with HP and 22q11 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome) were identified in electronic hospital registries. All identified patients were invited to participate in a survey. Among patients who responded, HRQOL was determined by Short Form 36 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. Autoantibodies were measured and candidate genes (CaSR, AIRE, GATA3, and 22q11-deletion) were sequenced for classification of etiology. We identified 522 patients (511 alive) and estimated overall prevalence at 102 per million divided among postsurgical HP (64 per million), nonsurgical HP (30 per million), and pseudo-HP (8 per million). Nonsurgical HP comprised autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (21%), autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (17%), DiGeorge/22q11 deletion syndrome (15%), idiopathic HP (44%), and others (4%). Among the 283 respondents (median age, 53 years [range, 9-89], 75% females), seven formerly classified as idiopathic were reclassified after genetic and immunological analyses, whereas 26 (37% of nonsurgical HP) remained idiopathic. Most were treated with vitamin D (94%) and calcium (70%), and 10 received PTH. HP patients scored significantly worse than the normative population on Short Form 36 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale; patients with postsurgical scored worse than those with nonsurgical HP and pseudo-HP, especially on physical health. We found higher prevalence of nonsurgical HP in Norway than reported elsewhere. Genetic testing and autoimmunity screening of idiopathic HP identified a specific cause in 21%. Further research is necessary to unravel the causes of idiopathic HP and to improve the reduced HRQOL reported by HP patients.

  9. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Short Communication. QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural ...

  10. Do TETRA (Airwave) base station signals have a short-term impact on health and well-being? A randomized double-blind provocation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Denise; Eltiti, Stacy; Ridgewell, Anna; Garner, Kelly; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Walker, Stuart; Quinlan, Terence; Dudley, Sandra; Maung, Sithu; Deeble, Roger; Fox, Elaine

    2010-06-01

    "Airwave" is the new communication system currently being rolled out across the United Kingdom for the police and emergency services, based on the Terrestrial Trunked Radio Telecommunications System (TETRA). Some police officers have complained about skin rashes, nausea, headaches, and depression as a consequence of using their Airwave handsets. In addition, a small subgroup in the population self-report being sensitive to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in general. We conducted a randomized double-blind provocation study to establish whether short-term exposure to a TETRA base station signal has an impact on the health and well-being of individuals with self-reported "electrosensitivity" and of participants who served as controls. Fifty-one individuals with self-reported electrosensitivity and 132 age- and sex-matched controls participated in an open provocation test; 48 sensitive and 132 control participants went on to complete double-blind tests in a fully screened semianechoic chamber. Heart rate, skin conductance, and blood pressure readings provided objective indices of short-term physiological response. Visual analog scales and symptom scales provided subjective indices of well-being. We found no differences on any measure between TETRA and sham (no signal) under double-blind conditions for either controls or electrosensitive participants, and neither group could detect the presence of a TETRA signal at rates greater than chance (50%). When conditions were not double blind, however, the self-reported electrosensitive individuals did report feeling worse and experienced more severe symptoms during TETRA compared with sham. Our findings suggest that the adverse symptoms experienced by electrosensitive individuals are due to the belief of harm from TETRA base stations rather than to the low-level EMF exposure itself.

  11. The health of the poor: women living in informal settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, G; Arku, R; Montana, L

    2012-06-01

    A large share of the urban population in developing countries lives in informal settlements or "slums" today. This study investigates the association between slum residence and health among adult Ghanaian women residing in the Accra Metropolitan Area. Health data collected as part of the Women's Health Study of Accra round II (WHSA-II) was combined with data from the Household and Welfare Study of Accra (HAWS) to compare the health of female slum dwellers to the health of female non-slum dwellers living in the Accra Metropolitan Area. Group means were calculated and multivariate linear regression models were estimated to compare eight domains of health as measured by the short-form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Women living in informal settlements were found to display consistently better health. Conditional on all observable characteristics, women living in informal settlements scored higher on all self-reported health outcomes than women living in non-slum areas. The differences appear largest for general health as well as for the physical role functioning domains, and appear smallest for the social role functioning and bodily pain domains. The results presented suggest that slum residence does not have a negative effect on self-reported health among women in Accra. Three factors may contribute to the generally positive association between slum residence and observed outcomes: i) self-selection of individuals with strong health into informal settlements and an accordingly small impact of environmental factors on health ii) self-selection of more driven and ambitious individuals into slum neighborhoods who may have a generally more positive view of their health and iii) the geographic placement of slum neighborhoods in central neighborhoods with relatively easy access to health facilities.

  12. Explaining parent-child (dis)agreement in generic and short stature-specific health-related quality of life reports: do family and social relationships matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmann, Julia; Rohenkohl, Anja; Sommer, Rachel; Bullinger, Monika; Silva, Neuza

    2016-10-21

    In the context of health-related quality of life (HrQoL) assessment in pediatric short stature, the present study aimed to examine the levels of agreement/disagreement between parents' and children's reports of generic and condition-specific HrQoL, and to identify socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables associated with the extent and direction of parent-child discrepancies. This study was part of the retest phase of the QoLISSY project, which was a multicenter study conducted simultaneously in France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and UK. The sample comprised 137 dyads of children/adolescents between 8 and 18 years of age, diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or idiopathic short stature (ISS), and one of their parents. The participants completed child- and parent-reported questionnaires on generic (KIDSCREEN-10 Index) and condition-specific HrQoL (QoLISSY Core Module). Children/adolescents also reported on social support (Oslo 3-items Social Support Scale) and parents assessed the parent-child relationships (Parental Role subscale of the Social Adjustment Scale) and burden of short stature on parents (QoLISSY- additional module). The parent-child agreement on reported HrQoL was strong (intraclass correlation coefficients between .59 and .80). The rates of parent-child discrepancies were 61.5 % for generic and 35.2 % for condition-specific HrQoL, with the parents being more prone to report lower generic (42.3 %) and condition-specific HrQoL (23.7 %) than their children. The extent of discrepancies was better explained by family and social relationships than by clinical and socio-demographic variables: poorer parent-child relationships and better children's social support were associated with larger discrepancies in generic HrQoL, while more parental burden was associated with larger discrepancies in condition-specific HrQoL reports. Regarding the direction of discrepancies, higher parental burden was significantly associated with parents

  13. Assessment of short and long-term outcomes of diabetes patient education using the health education impact questionnaire (HeiQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Ditte Hjorth; Christensen, Karl Bang; Christensen, Ulla; Frølich, Anne

    2017-06-15

    Type 2 diabetes is a progressive chronic illness that will affect more than 500 million people worldwide by 2030. It is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Finding the right care management for diabetes patients is necessary to effectively address the growing population of affected individuals and escalating costs. Patient education is one option for improving patient self-management. However, there are large discrepancies in the outcomes of such programs and long-term data are lacking. We assessed the short and long-term outcomes of diabetes patient education using the health education impact questionnaire (HeiQ). We conducted a observational cohort study of 83 type 2 diabetes patients participating in patient education programs in Denmark. The seven-scale HeiQ was completed by telephone interview at baseline and 2 weeks (76 participants, 93%) and 12 months (66, 80%) after the patient education ended. Changes over time were assessed using mean values and standard deviation at each time point and Cohen effect sizes. Patients reported improvements 2 weeks after the program ended in 4 of 7 constructs: skills and technique acquisition (ES = 0.59), self-monitoring and insight (ES = 0.52), constructive attitudes and approaches (ES = 0.43) and social integration and support (ES = 0.27). After 12 months, patients reported improvements in 3 of 7 constructs: skills and technique acquisition (ES = 0.66), constructive attitudes and approaches (ES = 0.43), and emotional wellbeing (ES = 0.44). Skills and technique showed the largest short- and long-term effect size. No significant changes were found in health-related activity or positive and active engagement in life over time. After 12 months, diabetes patients who participated in patient education demonstrated increased self-management skills, improved acceptance of their chronic illness and decreased negative emotional response to their disease. Applying HeiQ as an outcome measure yielded new

  14. Comparison of the Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire and the Short-Form International Physical Activity Questionnaire: An Analysis of Health Survey for England Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Scholes

    Full Text Available The Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire (PASBAQ, used within the Health Survey for England (HSE at 5-yearly intervals, is not included annually due to funding and interview-length constraints. Policy-makers and data-users are keen to consider shorter instruments such as the Short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ for the annual survey. Both questionnaires were administered in HSE 2012, enabling comparative assessment in a random sample of 1252 adults.Relative agreement using prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa (PABAK statistics was estimated for: sufficient aerobic activity (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA] ≥150 minutes/week; inactivity (MVPA<30 minutes/week; and excessive sitting (≥540 minutes/weekday. Cross-sectional associations with health outcomes were compared across tertiles of MVPA and tertiles of sitting time using logistic regression with tests for linear trend.Compared with PASBAQ data, IPAQ-assessed estimates of sufficient aerobic activity and inactivity were higher and lower, respectively; estimates of excessive sitting were higher. Demographic patterns in prevalence were similar. Agreement using PABAK statistics was fair-to-moderate for sufficient aerobic activity (0.32-0.49, moderate-to-substantial for inactivity (0.42-0.74, and moderate-to-substantial for excessive sitting (0.49-0.75. As with the PASBAQ, IPAQ-assessed MVPA and sitting each showed graded associations with mental well-being (women: P for trend = 0.003 and 0.004, respectively and obesity (women: P for trend = 0.007 and 0.014, respectively.Capturing habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour through brief questionnaires is complex. Differences in prevalence estimates can reflect differences in questionnaire structure and content rather than differences in reported behaviour. Treating all IPAQ-assessed walking as moderate-intensity contributed to the differences in prevalence estimates

  15. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... &Corresponding author: Khadija Said, Ifakara Health Institute, P O Box 74 Bagamoyo, United Republic of Tanzania. Key words: HIV ... their records missed demographic information such as gender, age .... Electronic medical.

  16. Effect of dark sweet cherry powder consumption on the gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids, and biomarkers of gut health in obese db/db mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose F. Garcia-Mazcorro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cherries are fruits containing fiber and bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenolics with the potential of helping patients with diabetes and weight disorders, a phenomenon likely related to changes in the complex host-microbiota milieu. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cherry supplementation on the gut bacterial composition, concentrations of caecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs and biomarkers of gut health using an in vivo model of obesity. Obese diabetic (db/db mice received a supplemented diet with 10% cherry powder (supplemented mice, n = 12 for 12 weeks; obese (n = 10 and lean (n = 10 mice served as controls and received a standard diet without cherry. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR were used to analyze the gut microbiota; SCFAs and biomarkers of gut health were also measured using standard techniques. According to 16S sequencing, supplemented mice harbored a distinct colonic microbiota characterized by a higher abundance of mucin-degraders (i.e., Akkermansia and fiber-degraders (the S24-7 family as well as lower abundances of Lactobacillus and Enterobacteriaceae. Overall this particular cherry-associated colonic microbiota did not resemble the microbiota in obese or lean controls based on the analysis of weighted and unweighted UniFrac distance metrics. qPCR confirmed some of the results observed in sequencing, thus supporting the notion that cherry supplementation can change the colonic microbiota. Moreover, the SCFAs detected in supplemented mice (caproate, methyl butyrate, propionate, acetate and valerate exceeded those concentrations detected in obese and lean controls except for butyrate. Despite the changes in microbial composition and SCFAs, most of the assessed biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and intestinal health in colon tissues and mucosal cells were similar in all obese mice with and without supplementation. This paper shows

  17. Changes in working conditions and physical health functioning among midlife and ageing employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mänty, Minna; Kouvonen, Anne; Lallukka, Tea; Lahti, Jouni; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2015-11-01

    The aim this study was to examine the effect of changes in physical and psychosocial working conditions on physical health functioning among ageing municipal employees. Follow-up survey data were collected from midlife employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, at three time points: wave 1 (2000-2002), wave 2 (2007), and wave 3 (2012). Changes in physical and psychosocial working conditions were assessed between waves 1 and 2. Physical health functioning was measured by the physical component summary (PCS) of the Short-Form 36 questionnaire at each of the three waves. In total, 2784 respondents (83% women) who remained employed over the follow-up were available for the analyses. Linear mixed-effect models were used to assess the associations and adjust for key covariates (age, gender, obesity, chronic diseases, and health behaviors). Repeated and increased exposure to adverse physical working conditions was associated with greater decline in physical health functioning over time. In contrast, decrease in exposures reduced the decline. Of the psychosocial working conditions, changes in job demands had no effects on physical health functioning. However, decreased job control was associated with greater decline and repeated high or increased job control reduced the decline in physical health functioning over time. Adverse changes in physical working conditions and job control were associated with greater decline in physical health functioning over time, whereas favorable changes in these exposures reduced the decline. Preventing deterioration and promoting improvement of working conditions are likely to help maintain better physical health functioning among ageing employees.

  18. Exploring the relationship between physical health, depressive symptoms, and depression diagnoses in Hispanic dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciare, Michael A; Gray, Heather; Azar, Armin; Jimenez, Daniel; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between self-reported physical health, depressive symptoms, and the occurrence of depression diagnosis in Hispanic female dementia caregivers. Participants were 89 Hispanic female dementia caregivers. This study used a cross-sectional design. Baseline depression and physical health data were collected from participants enrolled in the 'Reducing Stress in Hispanic Anglo Dementia Caregivers' study sponsored by the National Institute on Aging. Physical health was assessed using the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), a one-item self-report health rating, body mass index, and the presence or history of self-reported physical illness. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). The occurrence of depression diagnosis was assessed using the Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID). Multiple linear and logistic regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which indices of physical health and depressive symptoms accounted for variance in participants' depressive symptoms and depressive diagnoses. Self-reported indices of health (e.g., SF-36) accounted for a significant portion of variance in both CES-D scores and SCID diagnoses. Caregivers who reported worsened health tended to report increased symptoms of depression on the CES-D and increased likelihood of an SCID diagnosis of a depressive disorder. Self-reported health indices are helpful in identifying Hispanic dementia caregivers at risk for clinical levels of depression.

  19. Health and mood among HIV-positive outpatients attending an ART Clinic of a University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Dilar; Mendes, Aida; Abreu, Wilson

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate how individuals at different stages of infection with HIV perceive their health status and its association with mood states. With the introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in 1996, the quality of life of people living with HIV has improved. However, the literature emphasises the negative effects of the disease on the mental health of individuals suffering from this condition and the high incidence of depression among infected individuals. Although people diagnosed and living with HIV are overwhelmed by emotions, we found that various emotional manifestations are understudied within this group of patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an outpatient unit of a University Hospital (antiretroviral therapy clinic), with a consecutive sample composed of 152 patients. Data were collected through a questionnaire used to assess the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, the Short Form (36) Health Survey, and the Profile of Mood States scale. The health status negatively affects the role at the emotional and mental health dimensions. The participants showing a worse health condition than in the previous year had higher levels of tension/anxiety, depression/dejection, fatigue/inertia and confusion/bewilderment. The stage of disease and the profile of mood state emerged as independent phenomena. The results of this study indicate that nurses worldwide should be aware of the emotional aspects (negative emotions strongly impact health) related to the subjective perception of a worsening health status, regardless of the stage of the disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A Longitudinal Analysis of Changes in Job Control and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne; Krnjacki, Lauren; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2015-08-15

    Deteriorating job control has been previously shown to predict poor mental health. The impact of improvement in job control on mental health is less well understood, yet it is of policy significance. We used fixed-effects longitudinal regression models to analyze 10 annual waves of data from a large Australian panel survey (2001-2010) to test within-person associations between change in self-reported job control and corresponding change in mental health as measured by the Mental Component Summary score of Short Form 36. We found evidence of a graded relationship; with each quintile increase in job control experienced by an individual, the person's mental health increased. The biggest improvement was a 1.55-point increase in mental health (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 1.84) for people moving from the lowest (worst) quintile of job control to the highest. Separate analyses of each of the component subscales of job control-decision authority and skill discretion-showed results consistent with those of the main analysis; both were significantly associated with mental health in the same direction, with a stronger association for decision authority. We conclude that as people's level of job control increased, so did their mental health, supporting the value of targeting improvements in job control through policy and practice interventions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life in Elderly Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Treated With Short-Course Radiation Therapy Plus Concomitant and Adjuvant Temozolomide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minniti, Giuseppe, E-mail: gminniti@ospedalesantandrea.it [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sant' Andrea Hospital, University Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Department of Neurological Sciences, Neuromed Institute, Pozzilli (Italy); Scaringi, Claudia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sant' Andrea Hospital, University Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Baldoni, Alessandra [Department of Medical Oncology, Sant' Andrea Hospital, University Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Lanzetta, Gaetano [Department of Neurological Sciences, Neuromed Institute, Pozzilli (Italy); De Sanctis, Vitaliana [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sant' Andrea Hospital, University Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Esposito, Vincenzo [Department of Neurological Sciences, Neuromed Institute, Pozzilli (Italy); Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sant' Andrea Hospital, University Sapienza, Rome (Italy)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To describe the quality of life (QOL) in elderly patients with glioblastoma (GBM) treated with an abbreviated course of radiation therapy (RT; 40 Gy in 15 fractions) plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ). Methods and Materials: Health-related QOL (HRQOL) was assessed by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30, version 3) and EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire Brain Cancer Module (QLQ-BN20). Changes from baseline in the score of 9 preselected domains (global QLQ, social functioning, cognitive functioning, emotional functioning, physical functioning, motor dysfunction, communication deficit, fatigue, insomnia) were determined 4 weeks after RT and thereafter every 8 weeks during the treatment until disease progression. The proportion of patients with improved HRQOL scores, defined as a change of 10 points or more, and duration of changes were recorded. Results: Sixty-five patients completed the questionnaires at baseline. The treatment was consistently associated with improvement or stability in most of the preselected HRQOL domains. Global health improved over time; mean score differed by 9.6 points between baseline and 6-month follow-up (P=.03). For social functioning and cognitive functioning, mean scores improved over time, with a maximum difference of 10.4 points and 9.5 points between baseline and 6-month follow-up (P=.01 and P=.02), respectively. By contrast, fatigue worsened over time, with a difference in mean score of 5.6 points between baseline and 4-month follow-up (P=.02). Conclusions: A short course of RT in combination with TMZ in elderly patients with GBM was associated with survival benefit without a negative effect on HRQOL until the time of disease progression.

  2. Health risks posed to infants in rural China by exposure to short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dan; Gao, Li-Rong; Zheng, Ming-Hui; Li, Jing-Guang; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Yong-Ning; Qiao, Lin; Tian, Qi-Chang; Huang, Hui-Ting; Liu, Wen-Bin; Su, Gui-Jin; Liu, Guo-Rui

    2017-06-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are complex mixtures of synthetic chemicals found widely in environmental matrices. Short-chain CPs (SCCPs) are candidate persistent organic pollutants under the Stockholm Convention. There should be great concern about human exposure to SCCPs. Data on CP concentrations in human breast milk is scarce. This is the first study in which background SCCP and medium-chain CP (MCCP) body burdens in the general rural population of China have been estimated and health risks posed to nursing infants by CPs in breast milk assessed. The concentrations of 48 SCCP and MCCP formula congeners were determined in 24 pooled human milk samples produced from 1412 individual samples from eight provinces in 2007 and 16 provinces in 2011. The samples were analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography electron capture negative ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The median SCCP and MCCP concentrations were 303 and 35.7ngg -1 lipid weight, respectively, for the 2007 samples and 360 and 45.4ngg -1 lipid weight, respectively, for the 2011 samples. The C 10 and C 14 homologs were the dominant CP carbon-chain-length groups, contributing 51% and 82% of the total SCCP and MCCP concentrations, respectively. There are probably multiple CP sources to the general Chinese population and numerous exposure pathways. The median estimated daily SCCP and MCCP intakes for nursing infants were 1310 and 152ngkg -1 d -1 , respectively, in 2007 and 1520 and 212ngkg -1 d -1 , respectively, in 2011. SCCPs do not currently pose significant risks to infants in China. However, it is necessary to continuously monitor CP concentrations and health risks because CP concentrations in Chinese human breast milk are increasing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life in Elderly Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Treated With Short-Course Radiation Therapy Plus Concomitant and Adjuvant Temozolomide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minniti, Giuseppe; Scaringi, Claudia; Baldoni, Alessandra; Lanzetta, Gaetano; De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Esposito, Vincenzo; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the quality of life (QOL) in elderly patients with glioblastoma (GBM) treated with an abbreviated course of radiation therapy (RT; 40 Gy in 15 fractions) plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ). Methods and Materials: Health-related QOL (HRQOL) was assessed by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30, version 3) and EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire Brain Cancer Module (QLQ-BN20). Changes from baseline in the score of 9 preselected domains (global QLQ, social functioning, cognitive functioning, emotional functioning, physical functioning, motor dysfunction, communication deficit, fatigue, insomnia) were determined 4 weeks after RT and thereafter every 8 weeks during the treatment until disease progression. The proportion of patients with improved HRQOL scores, defined as a change of 10 points or more, and duration of changes were recorded. Results: Sixty-five patients completed the questionnaires at baseline. The treatment was consistently associated with improvement or stability in most of the preselected HRQOL domains. Global health improved over time; mean score differed by 9.6 points between baseline and 6-month follow-up (P=.03). For social functioning and cognitive functioning, mean scores improved over time, with a maximum difference of 10.4 points and 9.5 points between baseline and 6-month follow-up (P=.01 and P=.02), respectively. By contrast, fatigue worsened over time, with a difference in mean score of 5.6 points between baseline and 4-month follow-up (P=.02). Conclusions: A short course of RT in combination with TMZ in elderly patients with GBM was associated with survival benefit without a negative effect on HRQOL until the time of disease progression

  4. Evaluation of the Satisfaction with Appearance Scale and Its Short Form in Systemic Sclerosis: Analysis from the UCLA Scleroderma Quality of Life Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Sarah D; Fox, Rina S; Merz, Erin L; Clements, Philip J; Kafaja, Suzanne; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Furst, Daniel E; Khanna, Dinesh

    2015-09-01

    Changes in appearance are common in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and can significantly affect well-being. The Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) measures body image dissatisfaction in persons with visible disfigurement; the Brief-Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (Brief-SWAP) is its short form. The present study evaluated the reliability and validity of SWAP and Brief-SWAP scores in SSc. A sample of 207 patients with SSc participating in the University of California, Los Angeles Scleroderma Quality of Life Study completed the SWAP. Brief-SWAP scores were derived from the SWAP. The structural validity of both measures was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency reliability of total and subscale scores was assessed with Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Convergent and divergent validity was evaluated using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 questionnaire. SWAP and Brief-SWAP total scores were highly correlated (r = 0.97). The 4-factor structure of the SWAP fit well descriptively; the 2-factor structure of the Brief-SWAP fit well descriptively and statistically. Internal consistencies for total and subscale scores were good, and results supported convergent and divergent validity. Both versions are suitable for use in patients with SSc. The Brief-SWAP is most efficient; the full SWAP yields additional subscales that may be informative in understanding body image issues in patients with SSc.

  5. Quality of life and discriminating power of two questionnaires in fibromyalgia patients: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Ana; Pagano, Tatiana; Matsutani, Luciana A; Ferreira, Elizabeth A G; Pereira, Carlos A B; Marques, Amélia P

    2010-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a painful syndrome characterized by widespread chronic pain and associated symptoms with a negative impact on quality of life. Considering the subjectivity of quality of life measurements, the aim of this study was to verify the discriminating power of two quality of life questionnaires in patients with fibromyalgia: the generic Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the specific Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 participants divided into Fibromyalgia Group (FG) and Control Group (CG) (n=75 in each group). The participants were evaluated using the SF-36 and the FIQ. The data were analyzed by the Student t-test (α=0.05) and inferential analysis using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) Curve--sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC). The significance level was 0.05. The sample was similar for age (CG: 47.8 ± 8.1; FG: 47.0 ± 7.7 years). A significant difference was observed in quality of life assessment in all aspects of both questionnaires (pquality of life in fibromyalgia patients, and we suggest that both should be used in parallel because they evaluate relevant and complementary aspects of quality of life.

  6. A community-based multilevel intervention for smoking, physical activity and diet: short-term findings from the Community Interventions for Health programme in Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jun; Liu, Qing-Min; Ren, Yan-Jun; He, Ping-Ping; Wang, Sheng-Feng; Gao, Fang; Li, Li-Ming

    2014-04-01

    To assess the short-term impact of a comprehensive, community-based multilevel intervention on knowledge, beliefs and practices with respect to smoking, physical activity and diet in Hangzhou, China. A non-randomised, controlled, before-after quasi-experimental trial was conducted in two intervention areas and one comparison area. The intervention built on a socioecological framework and took place across four settings: neighbourhoods, schools, workplaces and community health centres. Two independent cross-sectional surveys of adults aged 18-64 years at baseline and a subsequent follow-up were conducted in 2008/2009 and 2011 in the intervention and comparison areas. A 2-year intervention programme was begun in mid-2009 and continued until mid-2011. A total of 2016 adults at baseline and 2016 adults at follow-up completed the survey. Over the 2-year intervention period, the intervention areas showed a statistically significant decline (25.2% vs 18.7%, psmoking compared with the comparison area (18.0% vs 16.4%, p=0.343). The proportion of individuals who had noticed anyone smoking in any of nine locations in the previous 30 days demonstrated a statistically significant decline in the intervention (78.9% vs 66.5%, psmoking and physical activity but not diet. A community-based multilevel intervention programme is feasible in urban China.

  7. Changes of levels of depression and quality of life after short-term cognitive behavioral educational program for adolescent students in health class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Atsuko; Tomotake, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the changes of levels of depression and quality of life in adolescent students after receiving short-term cognitive behavioral educational program in health class for stress management. Subjects were 176 middle school students aged 12 to 14 years. They completed the Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children (DSRS-C) and the Revised Children Quality of Life Questionnaire (Kiddo-KINDL(R)) before, after and 6-months after the program. The three-session program consisted of psychoeducation and learning skills of cognitive restructuring and problem solving. The total scores of the DSRS-C and the Kiddo-KINDL(R) in all subjects did not significantly change after the completion of program. However, as for the high risk group (score of the DSRS-C≥16), significant improvement in the two scales was found after the program. Especially, depression level in the high risk group significantly decreased and the improvement was maintained 6-months later. These results suggest that this type of approach may be effective for adolescents with high risk of depression in terms of improving not only depressive symptom but also quality of life.

  8. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-08-23

    Aug 23, 2011 ... Through a grant administered by the World Health Organization (WHO) and funded by the Bill and. Melinda Gates Foundation to support the development of regional Child Strategies in resource-constrained settings, staff of www.pactr.org developed the Africa-region Child Strategy. Since www.pactr.org ...

  9. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-05-02

    May 2, 2007 ... caused by morphologically indistinguishable subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei. The two forms are West African sleeping sickness, caused by. T. brucei gambiense and East African sleeping sickness, caused by T. brucei rhodesiense. In Tanzania HAT is one of the major public health problems and was ...

  10. Validation of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form: a cross-sectional study of a dialysis-targeted health measure in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooppil Nandakumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Singapore, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD and the number of people on dialysis is increasing. The impact of ESRD on patient quality of life has been recognized as an important outcome measure. The Kidney Disease Quality Of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™ has been validated and is widely used as a measure of quality of life in dialysis patients in many countries, but not in Singapore. We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the KDQOL-SF™ for haemodialysis patients in Singapore. Methods From December 2006 through January 2007, this cross-sectional study gathered data on patients ≥21 years old, who were undergoing haemodialysis at National Kidney Foundation in Singapore. We used exploratory factor analysis to determine construct validity of the eight KDQOL-SF™ sub-scales, Cronbach's alpha coefficient to determine internal consistency reliability, correlation of the overall health rating with kidney disease-targeted scales to confirm validity, and correlation of the eight sub-scales with age, income and education to determine convergent and divergent validity. Results Of 1980 haemodialysis patients, 1180 (59% completed the KDQOL-SF™. Full information was available for 980 participants, with a mean age of 56 years. The sample was representative of the total dialysis population in Singapore, except Indian ethnicity that was over-represented. The instrument designers' proposed eight sub-scales were confirmed, which together accounted for 68.4% of the variance. All sub-scales had a Cronbach's α above the recommended minimum value of 0.7 to indicate good reliability (range: 0.72 to 0.95, except for Social function (0.66. Correlation of items within subscales was higher than correlation of items outside subscales in 90% of the cases. The overall health rating positively correlated with kidney disease-targeted scales, confirming validity. General health subscales were found to have significant

  11. Validation of the kidney disease quality of life-short form: a cross-sectional study of a dialysis-targeted health measure in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Veena D; Mooppil, Nandakumar; Lim, Jeremy Fy

    2010-12-20

    In Singapore, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the number of people on dialysis is increasing. The impact of ESRD on patient quality of life has been recognized as an important outcome measure. The Kidney Disease Quality Of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™) has been validated and is widely used as a measure of quality of life in dialysis patients in many countries, but not in Singapore. We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the KDQOL-SF™ for haemodialysis patients in Singapore. From December 2006 through January 2007, this cross-sectional study gathered data on patients ≥21 years old, who were undergoing haemodialysis at National Kidney Foundation in Singapore. We used exploratory factor analysis to determine construct validity of the eight KDQOL-SF™ sub-scales, Cronbach's alpha coefficient to determine internal consistency reliability, correlation of the overall health rating with kidney disease-targeted scales to confirm validity, and correlation of the eight sub-scales with age, income and education to determine convergent and divergent validity. Of 1980 haemodialysis patients, 1180 (59%) completed the KDQOL-SF™. Full information was available for 980 participants, with a mean age of 56 years. The sample was representative of the total dialysis population in Singapore, except Indian ethnicity that was over-represented. The instrument designers' proposed eight sub-scales were confirmed, which together accounted for 68.4% of the variance. All sub-scales had a Cronbach's α above the recommended minimum value of 0.7 to indicate good reliability (range: 0.72 to 0.95), except for Social function (0.66). Correlation of items within subscales was higher than correlation of items outside subscales in 90% of the cases. The overall health rating positively correlated with kidney disease-targeted scales, confirming validity. General health subscales were found to have significant associations with age, income and education

  12. Short-term relationship between meteorological variables and hip fractures: an analysis carried out in a health area of the Autonomous Region of Valencia, Spain (1996-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenías, José María; Estarlich, Marisa; Fuentes-Leonarte, Virginia; Iñiguez, Carmen; Ballester, Ferran

    2009-10-01

    Diverse studies have shown a seasonal influence on the incidence of hip fracture (HF), possibly associated with adverse meteorological conditions. In this paper, we present an analysis of the short-term relationship between meteorological conditions and the incidence of HF in people over 45 years of age living in a Mediterranean climate zone. HF cases admitted to the two reference hospitals in the health area were selected. The meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, rain, wind, and other conditions) were obtained from a weather station centrally located within the area under study. The trend and seasonality of the time series were analyzed with the aid of Poisson regression modeling. The relationship between the incidence of a hip fracture and the meteorological conditions, both on the same day and on the day previous to the patient's admission to the hospital were correlated in a case-crossover analysis with the control periods selected in accordance with two different methods of approximation (symmetric and semi-metric). The results were analyzed for different subgroups defined by age (older or younger than 75 years of age) and sex of subject and by type of fracture (cervical or pertrochanteric). 2121 patients admitted for HF were selected. Of these, 1598 (75.3%) were women and 523 (24.7%) were men. The average age of the subjects was 80, with patients ranging from 45-99 years of age. The time/weather series showed a positive tendency, with a greater occurrence of cases in the autumn and winter months. The case-crossover analysis showed a significant relationship between the daily duration of wind and the incidence of HFs. Divided into quartiles, the windiest days (quartile 4) were associated with a 32% increased risk of HF (OR 1.32 CI 95% 1.10-1.58) with respect to the calmest days (quartile 1), especially in patients under 75 (OR 1.53; CI 95% 1.02-2.29). The remaining meteorological variables were not associated in any significant fashion

  13. Comparison of the Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire and the Short-Form International Physical Activity Questionnaire: An Analysis of Health Survey for England Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Shaun; Bridges, Sally; Ng Fat, Linda; Mindell, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire (PASBAQ), used within the Health Survey for England (HSE) at 5-yearly intervals, is not included annually due to funding and interview-length constraints. Policy-makers and data-users are keen to consider shorter instruments such as the Short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for the annual survey. Both questionnaires were administered in HSE 2012, enabling comparative assessment in a random sample of 1252 adults. Methods Relative agreement using prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa (PABAK) statistics was estimated for: sufficient aerobic activity (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA] ≥150minutes/week); inactivity (MVPAactivity and inactivity were higher and lower, respectively; estimates of excessive sitting were higher. Demographic patterns in prevalence were similar. Agreement using PABAK statistics was fair-to-moderate for sufficient aerobic activity (0.32–0.49), moderate-to-substantial for inactivity (0.42–0.74), and moderate-to-substantial for excessive sitting (0.49–0.75). As with the PASBAQ, IPAQ-assessed MVPA and sitting each showed graded associations with mental well-being (women: P for trend = 0.003 and 0.004, respectively) and obesity (women: P for trend = 0.007 and 0.014, respectively). Conclusions Capturing habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour through brief questionnaires is complex. Differences in prevalence estimates can reflect differences in questionnaire structure and content rather than differences in reported behaviour. Treating all IPAQ-assessed walking as moderate-intensity contributed to the differences in prevalence estimates. PASBAQ data will be used for population surveillance every 4 to 5 years. The current version of the Short-form IPAQ was included in HSE 2013–14 to enable more frequent assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour; a modified version with different item-ordering and

  14. The effects of long- and short-term interdisciplinary treatment approaches in women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saral, Ilknur; Sindel, Dilsad; Esmaeilzadeh, Sina; Sertel-Berk, Hanife Ozlem; Oral, Aydan

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the effects of long- and short-term interdisciplinary treatment approaches for reducing symptoms and improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical functions of patients with fibromyalgia and compared the effects of two different interdisciplinary treatment approaches. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial involving 66 women with fibromyalgia eligible for the study at a university hospital setting. The patients were randomized into three groups (allocation ratio 1:1:1) using a computer-generated random numbers: a long-term interdisciplinary treatment group (LG, n = 22) that participated in 10 sessions (3-h once-weekly session for 10 weeks) of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) together with exercise training and other fibromyalgia related educational programs (two full days); a short-term interdisciplinary treatment group (SG, n = 22) that received two full days of educational, exercise, and CBT programs; and a control group (CG, n = 22). The patients were evaluated at baseline and 6 months after treatment using the visual analog scale (pain, fatigue, and sleep), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Short Form-36, tender point numbers, and pressure algometry as primary outcomes. The statistical analysis was confined to the 'per-protocol' set. No blinding was performed. The number of patients analyzed was 21 in the LG, 19 in the SG, and 19 in the CG. The intensity of pain (p treatment approaches when compared with controls; the long-term treatment was found more effective in reducing pain than the short-term. Both, long- and short-term interdisciplinary treatments were effective in reducing the severity of some symptoms and disease activity in patients with fibromyalgia. The short-term program well meets the needs of women with fibromyalgia particularly in relation to pain and health status as measured using FIQ; however, a long-term program may be beneficial in reducing fatigue and

  15. "We're not short of people telling us what the problems are. We're short of people telling us what to do": An appraisal of public policy and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Sarah

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is sustained interest in public health circles in assessing the effects of policies on health and health inequalities. We report on the theory, methods and findings of a project which involved an appraisal of current Scottish policy with respect to its potential impacts on mental health and wellbeing. Methods We developed a method of assessing the degree of alignment between Government policies and the 'evidence base', involving: reviewing theoretical frameworks; analysis of policy documents, and nineteen in-depth interviews with policymakers which explored influences on, and barriers to cross-cutting policymaking and the use of research evidence in decisionmaking. Results Most policy documents did not refer to mental health; however most referred indirectly to the determinants of mental health and well-being. Unsurprisingly research evidence was rarely cited; this was more common in health policy documents. The interviews highlighted the barriers to intersectoral policy making, and pointed to the relative value of qualitative and quantitative research, as well as to the imbalance of evidence between "what is known" and "what is to be done". Conclusion Healthy public policy depends on effective intersectoral working between government departments, along with better use of research evidence to identify policy impacts. This study identified barriers to both these. We also demonstrated an approach to rapidly appraising the mental health effects of mainly non-health sector policies, drawing on theoretical understandings of mental health and its determinants, research evidence and policy documents. In the case of the social determinants of health, we conclude that an evidence-based approach to policymaking and to policy appraisal requires drawing strongly upon existing theoretical frameworks, as well as upon research evidence, but that there are significant practical barriers and disincentives.

  16. Surgical correction of pectus carinatum improves perceived body image, mental health and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Marie Veje; Grosen, Kasper; Pilegaard, Hans K; Laustsen, Sussie

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of surgical correction of pectus carinatum on health-related quality of life and self-esteem. Between May 2012 and May 2013, a prospective observational single-center cohort study was conducted on consecutive patients undergoing surgical correction of pectus carinatum at our institution. Patients filled in questionnaires on health-related quality of life and self-esteem before and six months after surgery. Disease-specific health-related quality of life was improved by 33% (95% CI: 23; 44%) according to responses to the Nuss Questionnaire modified for Adults. The improvement for generic mental health-related quality of life was 7% (95% CI: 3; 12%) in responses to the Short Form-36 Questionnaire. The improvement in self-esteem was 9% (95% CI: 2; 17%) as assessed with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. A Single Step Questionnaire supported the improvements in health-related quality of life and self-esteem six months postsurgery. This study confirms positive effects of surgical correction of pectus carinatum on health-related quality of life and self-esteem. Patients were to a greater extent self-satisfied about chest appearance following surgery, indicating this to be a step in the right direction toward improved body image, mental health and self-esteem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Psychometric validation in Spanish of the Brazilian short version of the Primary Care Assessment Tools-users questionnaire for the evaluation of the orientation of health systems towards primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez Peña, Fernando; Harzheim, Erno; Terrasa, Sergio; Berra, Silvina

    2017-02-01

    To validate the Brazilian short version of the PCAT for adult patients in Spanish. Analysis of secondary data from studies made to validate the extended version of the PCAT questionnaire. City of Córdoba, Argentina. Primary health care. The sample consisted of 46% of parents, whose children were enrolled in secondary education in three institutes in the city of Cordoba, and the remaining 54% were adult users of the National University of Cordoba Health Insurance. Pearson's correlation coefficient comparing the extended and short versions. Goodness-of-fit indices in confirmatory factor analysis, composite reliability, average variance extracted, and Cronbach's alpha values, in order to assess the construct validity and the reliability of the short version. The values of Pearson's correlation coefficient between this short version and the long version were high .818 (Pmedia extracted: .3306, since 3 variables had weak factorials loads. The Cronbach's alpha was acceptable (.85). The short version of the PCAT-users developed in Brazil showed an acceptable psychometric performance in Spanish as a quick assessment tool, in a comparative study with the extended version. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) Versus Gait Speed As Predictor of Preclinical Mobility Disability in Older Women: The Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddu, Deepika R; Wertheim, Betsy C; Garcia, David O; Woods, Nancy F; LaMonte, Michael J; Chen, Bertha; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Cauley, Jane A; Chlebowski, Rowan; Manson, JoAnn E; Thomson, Cynthia A; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2018-04-01

    To compare the value of clinically measured gait speed with that of the self-reported Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Survey Physical Function Index (SF-36 PF) in predicting future preclinical mobility disability (PCMD) in older women. Prospective cohort study. Forty clinical centers in the United States. Women aged 65 to 79 enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trials with gait speed and SF-36 assessed at baseline (1993-1998) and follow-up Years 1, 3, and 6 (N = 3,587). Women were categorized as nondecliners or decliners based on changes (from baseline to Year 1) in gait speed and SF-36 PF scores. Logistic regression models were used to estimate incident PCMD (gait speed 36 PF with that of measured gait speed. Slower baseline gait speed and lower SF-36 PF scores were associated with higher adjusted odds of PCMD at Years 3 and 6 (all P 36, decliners were 1.42 times as likely to have developed PCMD by Year 3 and 1.49 times as likely by Year 6. Baseline gait speed (AUC = 0.713) was nonsignificantly better than SF-36 (AUC = 0.705) at predicting PCMD over 6 years (P = .21); including measures at a second time point significantly improved model discrimination for predicting PCMD (all P 36 PF did, although the results may be limited given that gait speed served as a predictor and to define the PCMD outcome. Nonetheless, monitoring trajectories of change in mobility are better predictors of future mobility disability than single measures. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Reliability, construct and criterion validity of the KIDSCREEN-10 score: a short measure for children and adolescents’ well-being and health-related quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Michael; Rajmil, Luis; Herdman, Michael; Auquier, Pascal; Bruil, Jeanet; Power, Mick; Duer, Wolfgang; Abel, Thomas; Czemy, Ladislav; Mazur, Joanna; Czimbalmos, Agnes; Tountas, Yannis; Hagquist, Curt; Kilroe, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Background To assess the criterion and construct validity of the KIDSCREEN-10 well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) score, a short version of the KIDSCREEN-52 and KIDSCREEN-27 instruments. Methods The child self-report and parent report versions of the KIDSCREEN-10 were tested in a sample of 22,830 European children and adolescents aged 8–18 and their parents (n = 16,237). Correlation with the KIDSCREEN-52 and associations with other generic HRQoL measures, physical and mental health, and socioeconomic status were examined. Score differences by age, gender, and country were investigated. Results Correlations between the 10-item KIDSCREEN score and KIDSCREEN-52 scales ranged from r = 0.24 to 0.72 (r = 0.27–0.72) for the self-report version (proxy-report version). Coefficients below r = 0.5 were observed for the KIDSCREEN-52 dimensions Financial Resources and Being Bullied only. Cronbach alpha was 0.82 (0.78), test–retest reliability was ICC = 0.70 (0.67) for the self- (proxy-)report version. Correlations between other children self-completed HRQoL questionnaires and KIDSCREEN-10 ranged from r = 0.43 to r = 0.63 for the KIDSCREEN children self-report and r = 0.22–0.40 for the KIDSCREEN parent proxy report. Known group differences in HRQoL between physically/mentally healthy and ill children were observed in the KIDSCREEN-10 self and proxy scores. Associations with self-reported psychosomatic complaints were r = −0.52 (−0.36) for the KIDSCREEN-10 self-report (proxy-report). Statistically significant differences in KIDSCREEN-10 self and proxy scores were found by socioeconomic status, age, and gender. Conclusions Our results indicate that the KIDSCREEN-10 provides a valid measure of a general HRQoL factor in children and adolescents, but the instrument does not represent well most of the single dimensions of the original KIDSCREEN-52. Test–retest reliability was slightly below a priori defined thresholds. PMID:20668950

  20. Lack of association between drought and mental health in a cohort of 45-61 year old rural Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jennifer R; Dobson, Annette J; Berry, Helen L; Graves, Anna M; Hanigan, Ivan C; Loxton, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of drought on the mental health of rural Australian women and those in vulnerable sub-populations: women who were more isolated, poorer and less educated; and women who had histories of chronic disease or poor mental health. Surveys were mailed in 1996, 1998, 2001, 2004 and 2008 to 6,664 women born between 1946 and1951 who were participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. The surveys included the Mental Health Index of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (MHI). Drought was assessed by linking the latitude and longitude of women's place of residence at each survey to the Hutchinson Drought Index. Associations between MHI and drought were assessed using linear mixed-models. While 31% of the women experienced drought in 1998 and 50% experienced drought in 2007; experience of droughts was less common in the other years. Although drought varied from survey year to survey year, mental health did not vary with drought conditions for rural women or vulnerable sub-populations. These findings are contrary to the long-held assumption that droughts increase mental health problems in Australia. While similar results may not be true for men, empirical evidence (rather than assumptions) is required on associations between drought and mental health. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  1. Self-rated health and employment status in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Van Dijk, Jitse P; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Szilasiova, Jarmila; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W

    2010-01-01

    The aim is to explore the association between self-rated health and employment status in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) when controlling for age, gender, functional disability, disease duration, anxiety and depression. One hundred eighty-four people with MS completed a sociodemographic questionnaire that included questions on employment status, the first item of the Short Form-36 Health Survey and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Functional disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. The probability of good self-rated health in employed persons was investigated using stepwise logistic regression analyses. Patients with MS who reported good self-rated health were 2.46 times more likely to be employed (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-5.59). Patients without anxiety were 2.64 times more likely to be employed (95%CI: 1.23-5.67). Patients with higher EDSS scores were 0.49 times less likely to be employed (95%CI: 0.33-0.70). Age, gender, disease duration and the presence of depression did not show an increased chance of patient employment. Patients with MS with good self-rated health are more likely to be employed, even after adjusting for age, gender, education, functional disability, disease duration, depression and anxiety. Dependent on the findings of longitudinal studies unravelling the relevant causal pahways, self-rated health might be used as a quick and cheap prognostic marker, which could warn about the possible loss of employment, or changes in functional disability.

  2. The effect of health education in patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wan, Li; Wang, Xueqiang

    2014-06-01

    To assess the value of health education (active management and postural hygiene) over and above exercise alone, in patients with chronic low back pain. Adults (aged 18-30 years) with low back pain of ≥ 3 months' duration were randomized to undergo a 12-week programme of lumbar strengthening exercise and health education or exercise alone. Pain, disability (Oswestry Disability Index, ODI), static and dynamic muscle endurance, and health-related quality-of-life (short form-36, SF-36) were assessed at baseline and after completion of treatment. At the end of the 12-week intervention period, pain, disability, SF-36 physical component and SF-36 mental component were significantly better in the health education group (n = 25) than in the control group (n = 24). There were no significant between-group differences in static or dynamic endurance. Health education provides additional benefits to exercise alone for improving pain, disability and mental and physical health-related quality-of-life. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Health Demands Characteristics and Quality of Life in the Elderly Monitored in the Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Maria Arouca de Miranda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: To characterize the demands of health and quality of elderly peoplemonitored in the primary care of Rio Grande do Norte/Brazil. Methods and Findings: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study of a quantitative approach with elderly patients monitored by the primary care. The sample was given for convenience, obtaining 120 participants. The research was conducted through an interview with theapplication of the following questionnaires: Mini Mental State Examination, Socio-demographic Data and Pain Characteristics, Short-Form-36, Mini Nutritional Assessment, the primary activities of daily living, the instrumental activities of daily living, Prism 7 and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS statistical program, in which descriptive and association tests were used.The main demands were related to functionality, followed by nutritional and geriatric depression. The quality of life presented worse results in the domain of general health status and better scores in the emotional and mental health aspects. Regarding the dimensions, the physical health obtained aworse score. Conclusion: Based on the characterization of the health demands found, it is suggested to perform other studies with the same population, enabling to plan and implementing a multidimensional intervention and improving the quality of life of the elderly people. Keywords: Elderly; Quality of Life; Aging; Elderly Health; Nursing.

  4. Self rating of health is associated with stressful life events, social support and residency in East and West Berlin shortly after the fall of the wall

    OpenAIRE

    Hillen, T.; Schaub, R.; Hiestermann, A.; Kirschner, W.; Robra, B.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To compare the health status and factors influencing the health of populations that had previously lived under different political systems.
DESIGN—Cross sectional health and social survey using postal interviews. The relation between self reported health and psychosocial factors (stressful life events, social support, education, health promoting life style and health endangering behaviour) was investigated. To determine East-West differences a logistic regression model includi...

  5. A Disproportionate Burden of Care: Gender Differences in Mental Health, Health-Related Quality of Life, and Social Support in Mexican Multiple Sclerosis Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Perrin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS rates in Latin America are increasing, and caregivers there experience reduced mental and physical health. Based on rigid gender roles in Latin America, women more often assume caregiving duties, yet the differential impact on women of these duties is unknown. Methods. This study examined gender differences in mental health (Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Zarit Burden Inventory, health-related quality of life (HRQOL; Short Form-36, and social support (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12 in 81 (66.7% women Mexican MS caregivers. Results. As compared to men caregivers, women had lower mental health (p=0.006, HRQOL (p<0.001, and social support (p<0.001. This was partially explained by women caregivers providing care for nearly twice as many hours/week as men (79.28 versus 48.48, p=0.018 and for nearly three times as many months (66.31 versus 24.30, p=0.002. Conclusions. Because gender roles in Latin America influence women to assume more substantial caregiving duties, MS caregiver interventions in Latin America—particularly for women caregivers—should address the influence of gender-role conformity on care and psychosocial functioning.

  6. Long-term effects of psychosocial work stress in midlife on health functioning after labor market exit--results from the GAZEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Sembajwe, Grace; Zins, Marie; Berkman, Lisa; Goldberg, Marcel; Siegrist, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    To study long-term effects of psychosocial work stress in mid-life on health functioning after labor market exit using two established work stress models. In the frame of the prospective French Gazel cohort study, data on psychosocial work stress were assessed using the full questionnaires measuring the demand-control-support model (in 1997 and 1999) and the effort-reward imbalance model (in 1998). In 2007, health functioning was assessed, using the Short Form 36 mental and physical component scores. Multivariate regressions were calculated to predict health functioning in 2007, controlling for age, gender, social position, and baseline self-perceived health. Consistent effects of both work stress models and their single components on mental and physical health functioning during retirement were observed. Effects remained significant after adjustment including baseline self-perceived health. Whereas the predictive power of both work stress models was similar in the case of the physical composite score, in the case of the mental health score, values of model fit were slightly higher for the effort-reward imbalance model (R(2): 0.13) compared with the demand-control model (R²: 0.11). Findings underline the importance of working conditions in midlife not only for health in midlife but also for health functioning after labor market exit.

  7. Long-term Effects of Psychosocial Work Stress in Midlife on Health Functioning After Labor Market Exit—Results From the GAZEL Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembajwe, Grace; Zins, Marie; Berkman, Lisa; Goldberg, Marcel; Siegrist, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To study long-term effects of psychosocial work stress in mid-life on health functioning after labor market exit using two established work stress models. Methods. In the frame of the prospective French Gazel cohort study, data on psychosocial work stress were assessed using the full questionnaires measuring the demand-control-support model (in 1997 and 1999) and the effort–reward imbalance model (in 1998). In 2007, health functioning was assessed, using the Short Form 36 mental and physical component scores. Multivariate regressions were calculated to predict health functioning in 2007, controlling for age, gender, social position, and baseline self-perceived health. Results. Consistent effects of both work stress models and their single components on mental and physical health functioning during retirement were observed. Effects remained significant after adjustment including baseline self-perceived health. Whereas the predictive power of both work stress models was similar in the case of the physical composite score, in the case of the mental health score, values of model fit were slightly higher for the effort–reward imbalance model (R²: 0.13) compared with the demand-control model (R²: 0.11). Conclusions. Findings underline the importance of working conditions in midlife not only for health in midlife but also for health functioning after labor market exit. PMID:22546992

  8. Advantages and Disadvantages of Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery and Its Impact on Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Go; Boissiere, Louis; Larrieu, Daniel; Bourghli, Anouar; Vital, Jean Marc; Gille, Olivier; Pointillart, Vincent; Challier, Vincent; Mariey, Remi; Pellisé, Ferran; Vila-Casademunt, Alba; Perez-Grueso, Francisco Javier Sánchez; Alanay, Ahmet; Acaroglu, Emre; Kleinstück, Frank; Obeid, Ibrahim

    2017-03-15

    Prospective multicenter study of adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. To clarify the effect of ASD surgery on each health-related quality of life (HRQOL) subclass/domain. For patients with ASD, surgery offers superior radiological and HRQOL outcomes compared with nonoperative care. HRQOL may, however, be affected by surgical advantages related to corrective effects, yielding adequate spinopelvic alignment and stability or disadvantages because of long segment fusion. The study included 170 consecutive patients with ASD from a multicenter database with more than 2-year follow-up period. We analyzed each HRQOL domain/subclass (short form-36 items, Oswestry Disability Index, Scoliosis Research Society-22 [SRS-22] questionnaire), and radiographic parameters preoperatively and at 1 and 2 years postoperatively. We divided the patients into two groups each based on lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV; above L5 or S1 to ilium) or surgeon-determined preoperative pathology (idiopathic or degenerative). Improvement rate (%) was calculated as follows: 100 × |pre.-post.|/preoperative points (%) (+, advantages; -, disadvantages). The scores of all short form-36 items and SRS-22 subclasses improved at 1 and 2 years after surgery, regardless of LIV location and preoperative pathology. Personal care and lifting in Oswestry Disability Index were, however, not improved after 1 year. These disadvantages were correlated to sagittal modifiers of SRS-Schwab classification similar to other HRQOL. The degree of personal care disadvantage mainly depended on LIV location and preoperative pathology. Although personal care improved after 2 years postoperatively, no noticeable improvements in lifting were recorded. HRQOL subclass analysis indicated two disadvantages of ASD surgery, which were correlated to sagittal radiographic measures. Fusion to the sacrum or ilium greatly restricted the ability to stretch or bend, leading to limited daily activities for at least 1 year postoperatively

  9. Short-term influence of cataract surgery on circadian biological rhythm and related health outcomes (CLOCK-IOL trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Keigo; Obayashi, Kenji; Nishi, Tomo; Miyata, Kimie; Maruoka, Shinji; Ueda, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Taiji; Matsuura, Toyoaki; Tone, Nobuhiro; Ogata, Nahoko; Kurumatani, Norio

    2014-12-29

    Light information is the most important cue of circadian rhythm which synchronizes biological rhythm with external environment. Circadian misalignment of biological rhythm and external environment is associated with increased risk of depression, insomnia, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Increased light transmission by cataract surgery may improve circadian misalignment and related health outcomes. Although some observational studies have shown improvement of depression and insomnia after cataract surgery, randomized controlled trials are lacking. We will conduct a parallel-group, assessor-blinded, simple randomized controlled study comparing a cataract surgery group at three months after surgery with a control group to determine whether cataract surgery improves depressive symptoms, sleep quality, body mass regulation, and glucose and lipid metabolism. We will recruit patients who are aged 60 years and over, scheduled to receive their first cataract surgery, and have grade 2 or higher nuclear opacification as defined by the lens opacities classification system III. Exclusion criteria will be patients with major depression, severe corneal opacity, severe glaucoma, vitreous haemorrhage, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, macular oedema, age-related macular degeneration, and patients needing immediate or combined cataract surgery. After baseline participants will be randomized to two groups. Outcomes will be measured at three months after surgery among the intervention group, and three months after baseline among the control group. We will assess depressive symptoms as a primary outcome, using the short version geriatric depression scale (GDS-15). Secondary outcomes will be subjective and actigraph-measured sleep quality, sleepiness, glycated haemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose and triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, abdominal circumference, circadian rhythms of physical

  10. Associations of SF-36 mental health functioning and work and family related factors with intentions to retire early among employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkonmäki, K; Rahkonen, O; Martikainen, P; Silventoinen, K; Lahelma, E

    2006-08-01

    To examine the associations of mental health functioning (SF-36) and work and family related psychosocial factors with intentions to retire early. Cross sectional survey data (n = 5037) from the Helsinki Health Study occupational cohort in 2001 and 2002 were used. Intentions to retire early were inquired with a question: "Have you considered retiring before normal retirement age?" Mental health functioning was measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) mental component summary (MCS). Work and family related psychosocial factors included job demands and job control, procedural and relational justice, conflicts between work and family, and social network size. Multinomial regression models were used to analyse the data. Poor mental health functioning, unfavourable psychosocial working conditions, and conflicts between work and family were individually related to intentions to retire early. After adjustments for all work and family related factors the odds ratio for low mental health functioning was halved (from OR = 6.05 to 3.67), but nevertheless the association between poor mental health functioning and strong intentions to retire early remained strong. These findings highlight not only the importance of low mental health and unfavourable working conditions but also the simultaneous impact of conflicts between work and family to employees' intentions to retire early.

  11. The physical and mental health of a large military cohort: baseline functional health status of the Millennium Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engel Charles C

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The US military is currently involved in large, lengthy, and complex combat operations around the world. Effective military operations require optimal health of deployed service members, and both mental and physical health can be affected by military operations. Methods: Baseline data were collected from 77,047 US service members during 2001–2003 as part of a large, longitudinal, population-based military health study (the Millennium Cohort Study. The authors calculated unadjusted, adjusted, and weighted means for the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-item Survey for Veterans physical (PCS and mental component summary (MCS scores over a variety of demographic and military characteristics at baseline. Results: The unadjusted mean PCS and MCS scores for this study were 53.4 (95% confidence interval: 53.3–53.4 and 52.8 (95% confidence interval: 52.7–52.9. Average PCS and MCS scores were slightly more favorable in this military sample compared to those of the US general population of the same age and sex. Factors independently associated with more favorable health status included male gender, being married, higher educational attainment, higher military rank, and Air Force service. Combat specialists had similar health status compared to other military occupations. Having been deployed to Southwest Asia, Bosnia, or Kosovo between 1998 and 2000 was not associated with diminished health status. Conclusion: The baseline health status of this large population-based military cohort is better than that of the US general population of the same age and sex distribution over the same time period, especially in older age groups. Deployment experiences during the period of 1998–2001 were not associated with decreased health status. These data will serve as a useful reference for other military health studies and for future longitudinal analyses.

  12. Study of short time effect on health of a local air pollution source. Epidemiological approach; Etude des effets a court terme sur la sante d'une source locale de pollution atmospherique. Approche epidemiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzo, J.Ch. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, Reseau National de Sante Publique, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France)

    2000-07-01

    This document applies to health professionals who are facing with a problem of risks evaluation relative to a local source of air pollution and envisage to realize an epidemiological study. In this document, only the short term effects are considered and the situations of accidental pollution are not treated. Without being a methodological treatise it can be a tool to better understand the constraints and the limits of epidemiology to answer the difficult question of the impact evaluation on health of populations living near a local source of air pollution. (N.C.)

  13. An obesity provoking behaviour negatively influences young normal weight subjects' health related quality of life and causes depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernersson, Asa; Frisman, Gunilla Hollman; Sepa Frostell, Anneli; Nyström, Fredrik H; Lindström, Torbjörn

    2010-12-01

    In many parts of the world the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in combination with high consumption of food has increased, which contributes to increased risk for becoming overweight. Our primary aim was, in an intervention, to examine the influence on health related quality of life (HRQoL) and mood in young normal weight subjects of both sexes, when adopting an obesity provoking behaviour by increasing the energy intake via fast food and simultaneously adopting a sedentary lifestyle. A secondary aim was to follow-up possible long-term effects on HRQoL and mood 6 and 12 months after this short-term intervention. In this prospective study, 18 healthy normal weight subjects (mean age 26±6.6 years), mainly university students were prescribed doubled energy intake, and maximum 5000 steps/day, during 4 weeks. An age and sex matched control group (n=18), who were asked to have unchanged eating habits and physical activity, was recruited. Before and after the intervention questionnaires including Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety Depression scale, Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, Sense of Coherence and Mastery scale were completed by the subjects in the intervention group and by the controls with 4 weeks interval. Six and 12 months after the intervention the subjects underwent the same procedure as at baseline and the controls completed the same questionnaires. During the intervention, subjects in the intervention group increased their bodyweight and developed markedly lower physical and mental health scores on Short Form-36 as well as depressive symptoms while no changes appeared in the controls. The increase of depressive symptoms was associated with increases of energy intake, body weight and body fat. When followed up, 6 and 12 months after the intervention, physical and mental health had returned completely to baseline values, despite somewhat increased body weight. In conclusion, adopting obesity provoking behaviour for 4 weeks decreases HRQo

  14. The short-term effects of a body awareness program : better self-management of health problems for individuals with chronic a-specific psychosomatic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsman-Dijkstra, Jeanet J. A.; van Wijck, R; Groothoff, JW; Rispens, P

    A three-day residential Body Awareness Program (BAP) was developed to teach people with Chronic A-specific Psychosomatic Symptoms (CAPS) to react adequately to disturbances of the balance between a daily workload and the capacity to deal with it. The short-term effects of the program for people with

  15. The short-term effects of a body awareness program : better self-management of health problems for individuals with chronic a-specific psychosomatic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsman-Dijkstra, Jeanet J. A.; van Wijck, R; Groothoff, JW; Rispens, P

    2004-01-01

    A three-day residential Body Awareness Program (BAP) was developed to teach people with Chronic A-specific Psychosomatic Symptoms (CAPS) to react adequately to disturbances of the balance between a daily workload and the capacity to deal with it. The short-term effects of the program for people with

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life, Cachexia and Overall Survival After Major Upper Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aahlin, E K; Tranø, G; Johns, N; Horn, A; Søreide, J A; Fearon, K C; Revhaug, A; Lassen, K

    2017-03-01

    Major upper abdominal surgery is often associated with reduced health-related quality of life and reduced survival. Patients with upper abdominal malignancies often suffer from cachexia, represented by preoperative weight loss and sarcopenia (low skeletal muscle mass) and this might affect both health-related quality of life and survival. We aimed to investigate how health-related quality of life is affected by cachexia and how health-related quality of life relates to long-term survival after major upper abdominal surgery. From 2001 to 2006, 447 patients were included in a Norwegian multicenter randomized controlled trial in major upper abdominal surgery. In this study, six years later, these patients were analyzed as a single prospective cohort and survival data were retrieved from the National Population Registry. Cachexia was derived from patient-reported preoperative weight loss and sarcopenia as assessed from computed tomography images taken within three months preoperatively. In the original trial, self-reported health-related quality of life was assessed preoperatively at trial enrollment and eight weeks postoperatively with the health-related quality of life questionnaire Short Form 36. A majority of the patients experienced improved mental health-related quality of life and, to a lesser extent, deteriorated physical health-related quality of life following surgery. There was a significant association between preoperative weight loss and reduced physical health-related quality of life. No association between sarcopenia and health-related quality of life was observed. Overall survival was significantly associated with physical health-related quality of life both pre- and postoperatively, and with postoperative mental health-related quality of life. The association between health-related quality of life and survival was particularly strong for postoperative physical health-related quality of life. Postoperative physical health-related quality of life

  17. The Burden of Peristomal Skin Complications on an Ostomy Population as Assessed by Health Utility and the Physical Component Summary of the SF-36v2®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Thom R; Inglese, Gary W

    2018-01-01

    Body-altering surgery may affect perceptions of one's self. For those with abdominal stoma surgeries, altered perceptions amplified by peristomal skin condition can increase health burdens. To assess health utility and health-related quality of life in an adult US ostomy sample in the presence of three levels of peristomal skin condition: intact, moderately compromised, and severely compromised. The short form 36 health survey version 2, a generic health survey incorporating the six-dimensional health state short form preference-based utility index, was chosen to assess the sample. Analysis of covariance adjusted for age and time from surgery was used. The six-dimensional health state short form utilities for those with intact skin and physical component summary (PCS) levels indicating no physical limitations varied significantly from those with severely compromised skin and indicating the greatest degree of physical limitation (0.833 vs. 0.527). Peristomal skin condition decreases were associated with health utility decreases across all levels of the PCS. Because peristomal skin conditions are intermittent, the analysis presents quality-adjusted life-days (QALDs) per month. Ostomates with intact skin and PCS levels indicating no physical limitations demonstrated significant differences from those with severe skin condition and indicating the greatest degree of physical limitations (26.5 d/mo vs. 15.8 d/mo). As peristomal skin condition worsened, QALDs decreased across all levels of the PCS. A minimally important expected value of health was estimated to be an increase of 2.18 QALDs/mo. Successful treatment from a clinical perspective is more than the elimination of conditions-it is also a return of quality time to an individual. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Choir singing and health status in people affected by cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagon, C; Gale, N; Dow, R; Lewis, I; van Deursen, R

    2017-09-01

    Cancer survival rates have improved dramatically over recent years, however, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for many patients, survivors and their families remains low even after successful treatment. This mixed-methods observational study explored the effects of participation in community choirs on HRQoL in individuals who have had cancer (patients) or have been affected by cancer (non-patients). This included a longitudinal analysis of choristers commencing the Tenovus Cancer Care "Sing with Us" choirs across Wales and a series of semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Participants completed the Short-form 36 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale on commencement of the choir and 3 and 6 months later. On joining the choir, several domains of the SF36 were lower, indicating worse HRQoL and greater depression in patients than non-patients (p < .05). In patients, choir participation improved vitality, overall mental health and anxiety. In non-patients, choir participation improved anxiety (p < .05). Participants experienced the choirs as both an uplifting musical activity and a supportive community group. The results support the provision of a spectrum of support options to meet the different needs and preferences of people affected by cancer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Natural short sleeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep - natural short sleeper ... 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. Short sleepers sleep less than 75% of what is normal for their age. Natural short sleepers are different from people who chronically do ...

  20. Health literacy in pregnant women facing prenatal screening may explain their intention to use a patient decision aid: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoë, Agathe; Lépine, Johanie; Leiva Portocarrero, Maria Esther; Robitaille, Hubert; Turcotte, Stéphane; Lévesque, Isabelle; Wilson, Brenda J; Giguère, Anik M C; Légaré, France

    2016-07-11

    It has been suggested that health literacy may impact the use of decision aids (DAs) among patients facing difficult decisions. Embedded in the pilot test of a questionnaire, this study aimed to measure the association between health literacy and pregnant women's intention to use a DA to decide about prenatal screening. We recruited a convenience sample of 45 pregnant women in three clinical sites (family practice teaching unit, birthing center and obstetrical ambulatory care clinic). We asked participating women to complete a self-administered questionnaire assessing their intention to use a DA to decide about prenatal screening and assessed their health literacy levels using one subjective and two objective scales. Two of the three scales discriminated between levels of health literacy (three numeracy questions and three health literacy questions). We found a positive correlation between pregnant women's intention to use a DA and subjective health literacy (Spearman coefficient, Rho 0.32, P = 0.04) but not objective health literacy (Spearman coefficient, Rho 0.07, P = 0.65). Hence subjective health literacy may affect the intention to use a DA among pregnant women facing a decision about prenatal screening. Special attention should be given to pregnant women with lower health literacy levels to increase their intention to use a DA and ensure that every pregnant women can give informed and value-based consent to prenatal screening.

  1. Short-term Effects of a Systematized Bladder Training Program for Idiopathic Overactive Bladder: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn-Ey Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was to investigate whether a systematized bladder training (BT program is effective for patients with idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 105 patients with OAB from March 2009 to November 2011. We developed a 30 minutes BT program, which consisted of first, refraining from going to the bathroom after feeling an urge to void, second, in order to stop thinking about voiding, ceasing action and thought temporarily, and third, performing pelvic floor exercises 5 to 6 times. Before and after BT, the patients filled out voiding diaries as well as the following questionnaires; International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire for overactive bladder (ICIQ-OAB, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, overactive bladder questionnaire (OAB-q, the short form 36-item health survey (SF-36 questionnaire, the work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire, and a patients’ perception of treatment benefit (PPTB. Results: A final analysis was performed from on 85 patients (38 male, 47 female with idiopathic OAB. After the first BT, the results of the ICIQ-OAB showed improvement in frequency, nocturia, and urgency (P<0.05, and all domains of IPSS questionnaires showed significant improvement (P<0.05. Among the SF-36 domains, the role-physical domain showed significant improvement after the first BT, and the general health domain showed significant improvement after the second. The voiding diaries showed statistically significant changes in maximal voided volume after the first BT, and nocturia index and nocturnal polyuria index after the second BT. According to the PPTB questionnaire, the perceived usefulness of BT increased after each session, and almost all of the patients replied that BT improved their symptoms. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that BT was effective in improving many OAB related symptoms and quality of life in patients with idiopathic OAB. More clinical

  2. Reanalysis of interviewing study data in the health attitude survey of A-bomb survivors, etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    The interviewing study data in the title were initially contained in the official request of Hiroshima City and Prefecture, which had been presented to MHLW (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare) in 2010, concerning spread of previously defined A-bomb exposed regions and were statistically reanalyzed based on the requirement of the consequent MHLW council. The data were originally derived from the questionnaire in 2008 about the health attitude survey by Hiroshima authorities, from which 892 survivors had received the interview together with self-writing, and answers of 869 parsons (524 males) were finally subjected to the present reanalysis. Measures of the interview involved the SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36-item Health Survey) for QOL, GHQ28 (General Health Questionnaire 28-item) for screening of neurosis/depression, and CAPS (Clinician Administered PTSD Scale) for diagnosis of PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder), etc. These measures were analyzed along with classes of A-bomb experience with adjustment factors of sex, age and income by multiple-/multivariate logistic-regression. It was found that measures were tended to be worse in groups experiencing the black rain without effects of adjustment factors, which was similar to groups experiencing the heavier rainfall; however, these results were statistically insignificant. (T.T.)

  3. Framework for human health risk assessment of non-cancer effects resulting from short-duration and intermittent exposures to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Lynne T; Sandhu, Reena; Li-Muller, Angela; Mohapatra, Asish; Petrovic, Sanya; Meek, M E Bette

    2016-09-01

    Durations of exposure to chemicals, whether for single, repeated or intermittent periods, may vary from those upon which most guidance values are normally based. Because it is presently not feasible to conduct toxicity studies or develop toxicity reference values (TRVs) specific to each scenario of interest, methods are needed to address these various durations, drawing as much as possible on existing TRVs. A working framework was developed to address the potential for non-cancer effects resulting from continuous short-duration and intermittent exposures to chemicals. The framework presents an integrated, tiered approach that assists the user in identifying when existing TRVs can be applied directly, and the adaptations needed to assess the acceptability of short-duration or intermittent exposure scenarios. Descriptions of when and how toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic aspects need to be taken into consideration are also presented. The framework incorporates the use of TRVs based on exposure periods as similar as possible to the "actual" exposure periods and application of dose averaging under limited, specified conditions. This framework has been developed to aid in improving the scientific basis for the evaluation of short-duration and intermittent exposures in a variety of settings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Udder health of dairy cows fed different dietary energy levels after a short or no dry period without use of dry cow antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeij, van R.J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Dijkstra, J.; Remmelink, G.J.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2018-01-01

    Reports on the effects of length of dry period (DP) on udder health of cows that were not treated with dry cow antibiotics are scarce. Additionally, the effects of a reduced dietary energy level for cows with a 0-d DP on udder health have not yet been studied. The aims of this study were (1) to

  5. Scoring Mental Health Quality of Life With the SF-36 in Patients With and Without Diabetes Foot Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Junho; Del Core, Michael A; Wukich, Dane K; Liu, George T; Lalli, Trapper; VanPelt, Michael D; La Fontaine, Javier; Lavery, Lawrence A; Raspovic, Katherine M

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if using orthogonal and oblique factor analysis detect changes in health-related quality of life differently in diabetic patients on the Short Form-36 (SF-36) survey. A total of 155 patients had diabetic foot complications (DFC), and 145 patients had no DFCs. The SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores were calculated using scoring coefficients determined by orthogonal and oblique rotation principle component analyses of the subscales. The DFC group had lower orthogonal ( P < .00001) and oblique PCS scores ( P < .00001). However, despite lower Mental Health subscale scores in the patients with DFCs, orthogonal MCS scores ( P = .156) did not differ. In contrast, the oblique MCS scores reflected the difference in the Mental Health subscale ( P = .0005). Orthogonal and oblique PCS scores did not differ significantly. However, orthogonal MCS scores were significantly higher than oblique MCS scores in those with DFCs ( P = .0004) and without DFCs ( P = .005). The shorter, 12-item SF-12 survey demonstrated similar results. Poorer physical function leads to higher orthogonal MCS scores than if determined by oblique scoring coefficients since Physical Function, Bodily Pain, and General Health are weighted more negatively in orthogonal coefficients when calculating the MCS score. Oblique scoring coefficients may address this issue, but further study is necessary to confirm whether oblique MCS scores accurately represent the mental health of patients with diabetic foot disease.

  6. Effects of T'ai Chi exercise on fibromyalgia symptoms and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Helen M; Arslanian, Christine L; Bae, Sejong; Singh, Karan

    2003-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM), one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders, is associated with high levels of impaired health and inadequate or limited symptom relief. The cause of this complex syndrome is unknown, and there is no known cure. Numerous research results indicate that a combination of physical exercise and mind-body therapy is effective in symptom management. T'ai Chi, an ancient Chinese exercise, combines physical exercise with mindbody therapy. To investigate the effects of T'ai Chi exercise on FM symptoms and health-related quality of life. Pilot study, one group pre-to-post posttest design. Participants with FM (n = 39) formed a single group for 6 weeks of 1-hour, twice weekly T'ai Chi exercise classes. FM symptoms and health-related quality of life were measured before and after exercise. Twenty-one participants completed at least 10 of the 12 exercise sessions. Although the dropout rate was higher than expected, measurements on both the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) (Buckhardt, Clark, & Bennett, 1991) and the Short Form-36 (SE-36) (Ware & Sherbourne, 1992) revealed statistically significant improvement in symptom management and health-related quality of life. Knowledge of interventions to enhance health for the patient with musculoskeletal problems is a National Association of Orthopaedic Nurses priority. Tai Chi is potentially beneficial to patients with FM. Further research is needed to support evidence-based practice.

  7. Health-related quality of life and hand eczema--a comparison of two instruments, including factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenhammar, Lena-Marie; Nyfjäll, Mats; Lindberg, Magnus; Meding, Birgitta

    2004-06-01

    Hand eczema is a disease of long duration, affecting the individual and society. The purpose of this study of 100 patients (51 females and 49 males) at an occupational dermatology clinic was to investigate whether the generic questionnaire Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the dermatology-specific Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) are appropriate for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with hand eczema, and whether gender differences in HRQL could be detected. HRQL was affected by hand eczema, measured with both SF-36 and DLQI. The SF-36 showed more impaired HRQL for females than for males, in the mental health dimension, whereas no gender-related differences were detected with the DLQI. To compare the instruments we used factor analysis, with a polychoric correlation matrix as input, thus taking the ordinal aspect of the data into account. There was a high correlation between the instruments for physical health, but lower for mental health. In this context our interpretation of the factor analysis is that the SF-36 measures mental health better than the DLQI. The SF-36 therefore appears suitable for use in future studies for measuring HRQL, and gender differences in HRQL, in persons with reported hand eczema.

  8. Exploring the Wisdom Structure: Validation of the Spanish New Short Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS) and Its Explanatory Power on Psychological Health-Related Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Campayo, Javier; Del Hoyo, Yolanda L; Barceló-Soler, Alberto; Navarro-Gil, Mayte; Borao, Luis; Giarin, Veronica; Tovar-Garcia, R Raziel; Montero-Marin, Jesus

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Personal wisdom has demonstrated important implications for the health of individuals. The aim of the present study was to validate a Spanish version of the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS), exploring the structure of a possible general factor, and assessing its explanatory power on psychological health-related variables. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used, with a total sample of 624 Spanish participants recruited on the Internet and randomly split into two halves. The following instruments were applied: 3D-WS, Purpose in Life (PIL), Multidimensional State Boredom Scale (MSBS), Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Factorial structures were analyzed through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA), and the general factor was characterized by using bifactor models. The explanatory power of the 3D-WS was established by multiple regression. Results: The original long and short versions of the 3D-WS were not replicated in the first subsample using EFA, and there was a high rate of cross-loadings. Thus, a new short 3D-WS was proposed by ordering the original items according to factorial weights. This three-correlated-factor (reflective, cognitive, and affective) proposal was tested by means of CFA in the second subsample, with adequate psychometrics and invariance, and a good fit (χ 2 /df = 1.98; CFI = 0.946; RMSEA = 0.056; 90% CI = 0.040-0.072). A bifactor structure, in which the reflective trait of wisdom was integrated into a general factor (G-Reflective) improved the model fit (χ 2 /df = 1.85; CFI = 0.959; RMSEA = 0.052; 90% CI = 0.035-0.070). The explained common variance of G-Reflective was 0.53; therefore, the new short 3D-WS should not be considered essentially unidimensional. The new short 3D-WS showed positive relationships with the PIL and PANAS-positive, and negative associations with the MSBS, PANAS-negative and DERS, contributing to explain all

  9. Validation of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form: a cross-sectional study of a dialysis-targeted health measure in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Veena D; Mooppil, Nandakumar; Lim, Jeremy FY

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In Singapore, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the number of people on dialysis is increasing. The impact of ESRD on patient quality of life has been recognized as an important outcome measure. The Kidney Disease Quality Of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™) has been validated and is widely used as a measure of quality of life in dialysis patients in many countries, but not in Singapore. We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the KDQOL-SF™ for h...

  10. A physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme for Austrian school teachers: a cluster randomised pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figl-Hertlein, A; Horsak, B; Dean, E; Schöny, W; Stamm, T

    2014-03-01

    Although physiotherapists have long advocated workplace health, school teachers have not traditionally been a focus of study by these professionals. However, classroom teaching contributes to a range of occupational health issues related to general health as well as ergonomics that can be prevented or addressed by physiotherapists. To undertake a pilot study to explore the potential effects of a physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme individualised for school teachers, develop study methodology and gather preliminary data to establish a 'proof of concept' to inform future studies. Cluster randomised pilot study using a convenience sample. Eight Austrian regional secondary schools. Schools and their teachers were recruited and allocated to an intervention group (IG, n=26 teachers) or a control group (CG, n=43 teachers). Teachers were eligible to participate if they reported no health issues that compromised their classroom responsibilities. The IG participated in an individualised physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme (six 30-minute sessions) related to ergonomics and stress management conducted over a 5-month semester. The CG had a pseudo-intervention of one oral education session. Primary outcomes included scores from the physical and mental components and health transition item of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36), and emotional well-being and resistance to stress items from the work-related behaviour and experience patterns questionnaire. Data were collected before and after one semester. The primary outcome measure, the SF-36 physical component score, showed a reduction in the CG and no change in the IG, meaning that the CG deteriorated over the study semester while the IG did not show any change. A physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme may prevent deterioration of physical health of school teachers in one semester (proof of concept). This pilot study provided valuable information to inform the

  11. Health-related quality of life and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in accident and emergency attenders suffering from psychosocial crises: a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneseth, Mette; Alsaker, Kjersti; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2012-01-01

    Aims This paper is a report of a study of health-related quality of life and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in patients attending an Accident and Emergency department because of psychosocial crises. Background Psychosocial crises are commonplace globally, but there is little knowledge about patients attending Accident and Emergency departments because of psychosocial crises. Methods Data were collected at an Accident and Emergency department in Norway from September 2008 to June 2009. A total of 99 adults participated in the baseline study and 41 of these participated at 2 months follow-up. The Short Form-36 Health Survey and the Post Traumatic Symptom Scale were used to obtain data. Findings Participants reported significantly lower scores in all health-related quality of life domains at baseline compared with the general Norwegian population. The mental health score was two standard deviations below the norm. Health-related quality of life scores were improved and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were reduced after 2 months. High levels of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were reported by 78% of the participants at baseline and 59% at follow-up. Participants with high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms at follow-up also reported low health-related quality of life scores. Conclusion This study suggests a need for an acute psychosocial intervention and an opportunity to receive follow-up support at Accident and Emergency departments. PMID:21740459

  12. The 12-item medical outcomes study short form health survey version 2.0 (SF-12v2): a population-based validation study from Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Ali; Vahdaninia, Mariam; Mousavi, Sayed Javad; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Omidvari, Sepideh; Tavousi, Mahmoud

    2011-03-07

    The SF-12v2 is the improved version of the SF-12v1. This study aimed to validate the SF-12v2 in Iran. A random sample of the general population aged 18 years and over living in Tehran, Iran completed the instrument. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and validity was assessed using known-groups comparison and convergent validity. In addition the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA). In all, 3685 individuals were studied (1887 male and 1798 female). Internal consistency for both summary measures was satisfactory. Cronbach's α for the Physical Component Summary (PCS-12) was 0.87 and for the Mental Component Summary (MCS-12) it was 0.82. Known-groups comparison showed that the SF-12v2 discriminated well between men and women and those who differed in age and educational status (P < 0.05). Furthermore, as hypothesized the physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain and general health subscales correlated higher with the PCS-12, while the vitality, social functioning, role emotional and mental health subscales correlated higher with the MCS-12. Finally the exploratory factor analysis indicated a two-factor structure (physical and mental health) that jointly accounted for 59.9% of the variance. The confirmatory factory analysis also indicated a good fit to the data for the two-latent structure (physical and mental health). Although the findings could not be generalized to the Iranian population, overall the findings suggest that the SF-12v2 is a reliable and valid measure of health related quality of life among Iranians and now could be used in future health outcome studies. However, further studies are recommended to establish its stability, responsiveness to change, and concurrent validity for this health survey in Iran.

  13. Quality of life and discriminating power of two questionnaires in fibromyalgia patients: fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey A qualidade de vida e o poder de discriminação de dois questionários em pacientes com fibromialgia: fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire e Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Assumpção

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a painful syndrome characterized by widespread chronic pain and associated symptoms with a negative impact on quality of life. OBJECTIVES: Considering the subjectivity of quality of life measurements, the aim of this study was to verify the discriminating power of two quality of life questionnaires in patients with fibromyalgia: the generic Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 and the specific Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 participants divided into Fibromyalgia Group (FG and Control Group (CG (n=75 in each group. The participants were evaluated using the SF-36 and the FIQ. The data were analyzed by the Student t-test (α=0.05 and inferential analysis using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC Curve - sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC. The significance level was 0.05. RESULTS: The sample was similar for age (CG: 47.8±8.1; FG: 47.0±7.7 years. A significant difference was observed in quality of life assessment in all aspects of both questionnaires (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A fibromialgia é uma síndrome dolorosa caracterizada por dor espalhada e crônica e sintomas associados com um impacto negativo na qualidade de vida. OBJETIVOS: Considerando a subjetividade da mensuração de qualidade de vida, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o poder de discriminação de dois questionários que avaliam a qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibromialgia: o genérico Medical Short Form Healthy Survey (SF-36 e o específico Questionário do Impacto da Fibromialgia (QIF. MÉTODOS: Foi conduzido um estudo transversal com 150 indivíduos, divididos em dois grupos: grupo fibromialgia (FM e grupo controle (GC (n=75 em ambos. Os pacientes foram avaliados pelo SF-36 e pelo QIF. Na análise dos dados, utilizou-se o teste "t de Student" com α=0,05 e a Curva ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve. RESULTADOS: As amostras

  14. The role of national system of radiological survey in short, intermediate and long term monitoring the environment radioactivity and health status in uranium industry areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, Alina; Milu, C.

    2000-01-01

    The environment radioactivity survey in Romania is performed by CNCAN (National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control) national network. The health status survey of population is carried out by national network of Health Ministry which comprises 23 laboratories. The tasks of the these networks are the following: assessment of natural and artificial irradiation of occupationally exposed personnel and population, as well as goods used by them; determination of population irradiation, survey of environment, food and human internal contamination; survey of health status of the population exposed to radiation, monitoring the medical checkups of the occupationally exposed personnel as well as their dosimetric monitoring; specific enactment, authorization and supervision of nuclear facilities, sanitary expertise and medical examinations; educational activities related to hygiene, radiotoxicology, radioecology and radiobiology. (authors)

  15. Trajectories of anxiety and health related quality of life during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Oliver Schubert

    Full Text Available Anxiety and health related Quality of Life (HRQoL have emerged as important mental health measures in obstetric care. Few studies have systematically examined the longitudinal trajectories of anxiety and HRQoL in pregnancy. Using a linear growth modeling strategy, we analyzed the course of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI- and Short Form (36 Health Survey (SF-36 scores between the 12th and the 36th week of gestation, in a sample of 355 women. We additionally analyzed the impact of depressive symptoms and a chronic medical condition (asthma, on STAI and SF-36 trajectory curves. STAI scores remained stable throughout pregnancy. A previous history of anxiety increased the overall STAI scores. Asthma and depressive symptoms scores had no impact on the STAI trajectory. Physical SF-36 scores decreased over the course of pregnancy, whereas mental SF-36 trended towards improvement. Asthma reduced physical SF-36 overall. While high depressive symptoms decreased the overall mental SF-36, they were also significantly associated with mental SF-36 improvements over time. Anxiety symptoms are stable during pregnancy and are not modulated by depressive symptoms or asthma. Physical HRQoL declines in pregnancy. In contrast, mental HRQoL appears to improve, particularly in women with high initial levels of depressive symptoms.

  16. Mental health and quality of life in patients with chronic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, Salih; Kinis, Vefa; Bez, Yasin; Gun, Ramazan; Yorgancilar, Ediz; Ozbay, Musa; Aguloglu, Bülent; Meric, Faruk

    2013-02-01

    The present study focused on the comparison of mental health and quality of life (QoL) between chronic otitis media (COM) patients and the hearing population. The patients with chronic otitis media and healthy control group were enrolled in the study. The duration and severity of the auditory impairment were recorded. In addition to hearing loss (HL), the findings of each patient's other ear disorders (ear discharge and tinnitus) were also recorded. In both the groups, psychological symptom profile and health-related QoL were evaluated and compared using a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Symptom Check List 90-Revised Form (SCL-90-R), and the Short Form-36 (SF-36). According to SCL-90-R, somatization (p sensitivity (p anxiety (p social functioning (p < 0.001), and mental health (p < 0.017) than those of control subjects. Our results indicated that COM patients with mild or moderate HL have poorer life quality and higher psychological problems. Psychological well being should be also considered in assessment of COM patients in addition to the clinical evaluation and audiological tests.

  17. Health Condition and Quality of Life in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trgovcevic, Sanja; Milicevic, Milena; Nedovic, Goran; Jovanic, Goran

    2014-09-01

    During the last few decades, focus of rehabilitation outcome has been redirected to the lifetime monitoring of quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in quality of life perceptions between participants with spinal cord injury and participants of typical population. This cross-sectional controlled study of 100 adults aged 18-65 years was based on two questionnaires, Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) and Spinal Cord Injury Quality of Life Questionnaire (QL-23), completed by 23 participants with paraplegia, 21 participants with tetraplegia, and 56 participants of typical population. Mann-Whitney U-test for planned comparison between groups and χ(2) test were used to analyze the differences between research groups. Participants from control group perceived their general quality of life at higher level in comparison to participants with spinal cord injury (U=415.000, z=-5.804, Pspinal cord injury was detected in six domains (physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, vitality, social functioning, mental health). Statistical differences between participants with paraplegia and participants with tetraplegia only in domain of functional limitations (U=103.000, z=-3.256, Pspinal cord injury perceived both health-related and general quality of life at a lower level in comparison to controls. However, the injury level only partially determined the estimated quality of life.

  18. Association between age associated cognitive decline and health related quality of life among Iranian older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazazi, Leila; Foroughan, Mahshid; Nejati, Vahid; Shati, Mohsen

    2018-04-01

    Age associated cognitive decline or normal cognitive aging is related with lower levels of functioning in real life, and may interfere with maintaining independence and health related quality of life (HRQL). In this study, health related quality of life and cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults were evaluated with the aim of exploring the association between them by adjusting for potential confounders. This cross-sectional study, was implemented on 425 community-dwelling older adults aged 60 and over, between August 2016 and October 2016 in health centers of the municipality of Tehran, Iran, using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) to assess cognitive function and Short Form-36 scales (SF-36) to assess HRQL. The relation between HRQL and cognitive function was evaluated by Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the impact of cognitive function on HRQL adjusted for potential confounders was estimated by linear regression model. All analyses were done using SPSS, version 22.0. A positive significant correlation between cognitive function and quality of life (r=0.434; pcognitive function was associated with HRQL in older adults with age associated cognitive function. Two variables of educational level and depression can affect the relation between cognitive decline and HRQL.

  19. Health-related quality of life in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimović, Nataša; Janković, Slavenka; Marinković, Jelena; Sekulović, Lidija K; Zivković, Zorica; Spirić, Vesna T

    2012-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing condition that can have considerable effects on the patients' quality of life (QOL). The aim of this study was to measure the health-related QOL in patients with AD, using generic and specific instruments, to compare the scores obtained by different instruments and to verify the relationship between them. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 132 outpatients with AD. To assess the QOL, Short Form 36 (SF-36), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) were administered. In order to assess the disease severity of AD, we used the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) and physician assessment of disease severity. Stressful life events during the last 12 months were assessed with Paykel's Interview for Recent Life Events. Patients with AD had inferior social functioning and mental health scores compared with the general population. The correlations between the DLQI and SF-36 were found for the mental components of the QOL. Increasing disease severity was associated with greater impairment in QOL in both, children and adults. Our study found the influence of the stressful life events on the role emotional of AD patients. These results demonstrate that AD influences health-related QOL, especially in children. This study supports the decision to use both generic and skin-specific instruments to assess the impact of AD on QOL. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. Anterior corpectomy via the mini-open, extreme lateral, transpsoas approach combined with short-segment posterior fixation for single-level traumatic lumbar burst fractures: analysis of health-related quality of life outcomes and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theologis, Alexander A; Tabaraee, Ehsan; Toogood, Paul; Kennedy, Abbey; Birk, Harjus; McClellan, R Trigg; Pekmezci, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The authors present clinical outcome data and satisfaction of patients who underwent minimally invasive vertebral body corpectomy and cage placement via a mini-open, extreme lateral, transpsoas approach and posterior short-segment instrumentation for lumbar burst fractures. Patients with unstable lumbar burst fractures who underwent corpectomy and anterior column reconstruction via a mini-open, extreme lateral, transpsoas approach with short-segment posterior fixation were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic information, operative parameters, perioperative radiographic measurements, and complications were analyzed. Patient-reported outcome instruments (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], 12-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-12]) and an anterior scar-specific patient satisfaction questionnaire were recorded at the latest follow-up. Twelve patients (7 men, 5 women, average age 42 years, range 22-68 years) met the inclusion criteria. Lumbar corpectomies with anterior column support were performed (L-1, n = 8; L-2, n = 2; L-3, n = 2) and supplemented with short-segment posterior instrumentation (4 open, 8 percutaneous). Four patients had preoperative neurological deficits, all of which improved after surgery. No new neurological complications were noted. The anterior incision on average was 6.4 cm (range 5-8 cm) in length, caused mild pain and disability, and was aesthetically acceptable to the large majority of patients. Three patients required chest tube placement for pleural violation, and 1 patient required reoperation for cage subsidence/hardware failure. Average clinical follow-up was 38 months (range 16-68 months), and average radiographic follow-up was 37 months (range 6-68 months). Preoperative lumbar lordosis and focal lordosis were significantly improved/maintained after surgery. Patients were satisfied with their outcomes, had minimal/moderate disability (average ODI score 20, range 0-52), and had good physical (SF-12 physical component score 41.7% ± 10

  1. Breastfeeding, infant formula, and introduction to complementary foods - comparing data obtained by questionnaires and health visitors' reports to weekly short message service text messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Signe; Buhl, Susanne; Husby, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    compared. DESIGN: The study population was part of the Odense Child Cohort. The four methods used were: (a) self-administered questionnaire 3 months postpartum, (b) self-administered questionnaire 18 months postpartum, (c) registrations from health visitors visiting the families several times within...... weeks, and the mean age when introduced to complementary foods from 19 to 21 weeks. The mean duration of any breastfeeding was 33 weeks across methods. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the weekly SMS questions, the self-administered questionnaires and the health visitors' reports resulted in a greater...

  2. Smoking Status, Changes in Smoking Status and Health-Related Quality of Life: Findings from the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra” Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Guitérrez-Bedmar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the association between smoking, changes in smoking, and quality of life in a cohort of Spanish university graduates. Smoking habits were self-reported at baseline and four years later. Quality of life was assessed using the Short Form-36 (SF-36 at year 4. Statistical differences in SF-36 scores between groups were determined using ANCOVA with age and sex as covariates. Out of 5,234 eligible participants over 2000-2006, there were 2,639 non-smoker participants, 1,419 ex-smokers, and 1,048 smokers. Within the previous four years, 435 participants became recent quitters and 205 starters. Comparing smoking and health status in year 4, non-smokers showed better scores than the other categories of ever smoking in all dimensions except in the vitality scale value, which was similar in non-smokers and in those smoking less than 15 cigarettes/day. Comparing changes in smoking and health in year 4, continuing smokers had statistically significant worse scores than non-smokers in general health, social functioning, role-emotional and mental health, whereas recent quitters showed statistically significant improvements in role-emotional and mental health over those who had continued smoking or those who became smokers. Our findings support a dose-response relationship between cigarette consumption and a worse quality of life in general and mental health in particular. They also support that changes in smoking have an impact on health.

  3. The impact of occupational therapy and lifestyle interventions on older persons' health, well-being, and occupational adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ann; Björklund, Anita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a four-month occupational based health-promoting programme for older persons living in community dwellings could maintain/improve their general health and well-being. Further, the aim was to explore whether the programme facilitated the older persons' occupational adaptation. The study had a quasi-experimental design, with a non-equivalent control group combined with semi-structured interviews. The intervention group comprised 22 participants, and the control group 18. Outcomes were measured using the Short Form 36, Life Satisfaction Index-Z and Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment. Content analysis, based on concepts from the Model of Occupational Adaptation, was used to analyse the interviews. The intervention group showed statistically significant improvements in general health variables such as vitality and mental health, and positive trends for psychological well-being. There were no statistically significant differences between the intervention group and the control group, but the groups were not fully matched. The qualitative analysis based on Occupational Adaptation pointed out social aspects as a compliment to the overall results. Participating in meaningful, challenging activities in different environments stimulates the occupational adaptation process; this is something occupational therapists could use to empower older persons to find their optimal occupational lives.

  4. Working hours and mental health in Australia: evidence from an Australian population-based cohort, 2001-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Smith, Peter; LaMontagne, A D

    2015-08-01

    This paper assesses the impact of working less than or more than standard full-time hours on mental health, as well as possible differences in this relationship by gender and skill level. The study design was a longitudinal cohort with 12 annual waves of data collection over the period 2001-2012, yielding a sample of 90,637 observations from 18,420 people. Fixed effects within-person regression was used to control for time invariant confounding. The Mental Component Summary of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) measure was used as the primary outcome measure. Working hours over the preceding year was measured in five categories with standard full-time hours (35-40 h/week) as the reference. Results indicated that when respondents were working 49-59 h (-0.52, 95% CI -0.74 to -0.29, pworking 35-40 h/week (reference). The difference in mental health when working 49-59 h was greater for women than for men. There were greater declines in mental health in relation to longer working hours among persons in higher compared to lower occupational skill levels. Study results suggest the need for employers and governments to regulate working hours to reduce the burden of mental ill health in the working population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. [Association between health related quality of life and severity of depression in patients with major depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuping; Li, Wen; Shen, Jingjin; Zhang, Yalin

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the association between health related quality of life (HRQoL) and severity of depression in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36) was administered to 103 MDD patients at the baseline and 6-week follow-up. Hamilton Depression Rating for Depression (HAMD) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) were administered at the baseline, 2- and 6-week follow-up, respectively. All SF-36 component scores in the 6-week follow-up were significantly higher than those at the baseline (Pphysical, general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotion and mental health were significantly higher in the remission group than those in the non-remission group (Phealth transition was significantly associated with higher scores of HAMD and sleep disturbance at the baseline (Phealth and role-emotion were strongly associated with higher score of anxiety/somatization at the baseline (both Phealth was positively associated with reduction rate of cognitive disturbance at the 2-week endpoint (Phealth transition were positively associated with the reduction rate of sleep disturbance at the 2-week endpoint (both Pdepression was significantly associated with a worse HRQoL in patients with MDD. A 6-week antidepressant treatment may result in comparable HRQoL improvements. The components of HRQoL vary with severity of various symptoms of depression at the baseline and their early improvement after the treatment.

  6. Health-related quality of life and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes on dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østhus Tone Britt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study tests the hypotheses that health-related quality of life (HRQOL in prevalent dialysis patients with diabetes is lower than in dialysis patients without diabetes, and is at least as poor as diabetic patients with another severe complication, i.e. foot ulcers. This study also explores the mortality risk associated with diabetes in dialysis patients. Methods HRQOL was assessed using the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36, in a cross-sectional study of 301 prevalent dialysis patients (26% with diabetes, and compared with diabetic patients not on dialysis (n = 221, diabetic patients with foot ulcers (n = 127, and a sample of the general population (n = 5903. Mortality risk was assessed using a Kaplan-Meier plot and Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results Self-assessed vitality, general and mental health, and physical function were significantly lower in dialysis patients with diabetes than in those without. Vitality (p = 0.011 and general health (p Conclusions Physical aspects of HRQOL were perceived very low in dialysis patients with diabetes, and lower than in other dialysis patients and diabetic patients without dialysis. Mental aspects predicted mortality in dialysis patients with diabetes. Increased awareness and measures to assist physical function impairment may be particularly important in diabetes patients on dialysis.

  7. Impact of short-term preoperative radiotherapy on health-related quality of life and sexual functioning in primary rectal cancer : Report of a multicenter randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnen, CAM; van de Velde, CJH; Putter, H; van den Brink, M; Maas, CP; Martijn, H; Rutten, HJ; Wiggers, T; Kranenbarg, EK; Leer, JWH; Stiggelbout, AM

    2005-01-01

    Background Few prospective studies have been performed about the impact of preoperative radiotherapy (PRT) or total mesorectal excision (TME) on health-related quality of life (HRQL) and sexual functioning in patients with resectable rectal cancer. This report describes the HRQL and sexual

  8. Impact of short-term preoperative radiotherapy on health-related quality of life and sexual functioning in primary rectal cancer: report of a multicenter randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnen, C.A.; Velde, C.J. van de; Putter, H.; Brink, M.; Maas, C.P.; Martijn, H.; Rutten, H.J.; Wiggers, T.; Kranenbarg, E.K.; Leer, J.W.H.; Stiggelbout, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prospective studies have been performed about the impact of preoperative radiotherapy (PRT) or total mesorectal excision (TME) on health-related quality of life (HRQL) and sexual functioning in patients with resectable rectal cancer. This report describes the HRQL and sexual

  9. Psychosocial Health and Life-Events--Dynamical Development in the Short Term. A Follow-Up Study of Children at Four and Six Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, Louise; Hoekman, Joop; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, (1) the psychosocial health in relation to (2) life-events was assessed among 156 children attending 20 schools by parents and teachers with the Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form at the ages of four and six. Life-events were reported by parents. (1) According to the report, 93-96% children had no…

  10. Benefits of exercise on physical and mental health in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himena ZIPPENFENING

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Physical inactivity and depression are common among RA patients. Many variables are associated with different levels of mental health, including physical activity. Therefore, this study was designed to demonstrate the benefits of moderateintensity exercises on physical activity and mental health in RA patients compared to their sedentary counterparts. We also studied the correlation between physical activity and mental health variables, including depression. Methods: A total of 22 RA patients were recruited of both sexes and divided on the basis of training status into the following two groups: training group (2 men and 8 women aged 67±13 years (mean±SD and sedentary group (11 women and one man aged 67±9.8 years. The training group attended 45 minutes training sessions, three-five times a week for 6 months. All patients were taking currently treatment with at least one or more disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDS or biologic agents. Blood samples were collected from all patients in order to assess serum C-reactive protein (CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. The Disease Activity Score (DAS 28 was recorded in all subjects. Physical and mental health was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36. Results: Age, sex, disease duration, DAS28 and pain intensity (VAS were not significantly different between the groups (p>0.05. Physical and mental health outcomes significantly improved after 6 months of moderate aerobic training (p <0.05. Quality of life was better in the trained subjects, which showed a better life satisfaction and a higher level of physical and social function. In addition, we found that physical activity was negatively correlated with mental and emotional health especially in the training group (p=0.003. Conclusion: Our results indicate that higher levels of physical activity were associated with improved mental health. Moreover, physical and mental health outcomes

  11. The internal and external responsiveness of Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) and Short Form-12 Health Survey version 2 (SF-12 v2) in patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Edmond P H; Wong, Carlos K H; Wan, Eric Y F; Tsu, James H L; Chin, W Y; Kung, Kenny; Yiu, M K

    2016-09-01

    To examine the responsiveness of Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) and Short Form-12 Health Survey version 2 (SF-12 v2) in prostate cancer patients because there is a lack of evidence to support their responsiveness in this patient population. One hundred sixty-eight subjects with prostate cancer were surveyed at baseline and at 6 months using the SF-12 v2 and FACT-P version 4. Internal responsiveness was assessed using paired t test and generalized estimating equation. External responsiveness was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The internal responsiveness of the FACT-P and SF-12 v2 to detect positive change was satisfactory. The FACT-P and SF-12 v2 could not detect negative change. The FACT-P and the SF-12 v2 performed the best in distinguishing between improved general health and worsened general health. The FACT-P performed better in distinguishing between unchanged general health and worsened general health. The SF-12 v2 performed better in distinguishing between unchanged general health and improved general health. Positive change detected by these measures should be interpreted with caution as they might be too responsive to detect "noise," which is not clinically significant. The ability of the FACT-P and the SF-12 v2 to detect negative change was disappointing. The internal and external responsiveness of the social well-being of the FACT-P cannot be supported, suggesting that it is not suitable to longitudinally monitor the social component of HRQOL in prostate cancer patients. The study suggested that generic and disease-specific measures should be used together to complement each other.

  12. Improving the measurement of health-related quality of life in adolescent with idiopathic scoliosis: the SRS-7, a Rasch-developed short form of the SRS-22 questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caronni, Antonio; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire was developed to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Rasch analysis (RA) is a statistical procedure which turns questionnaire ordinal scores into interval measures. Measures from Rasch-compatible questionnaires can be used, similar to body temperature or blood pressure, to quantify disease severity progression and treatment efficacy. Purpose of the current work is to present Rasch analysis (RA) of the SRS-22 questionnaire and to develop an SRS-22 Rasch-approved short form. 300 SRS-22 were randomly collected from 2447 consecutive IS adolescents at their first evaluation (229 females; 13.9 ± 1.9 years; 26.9 ± 14.7 Cobb°) in a scoliosis outpatient clinic. RA showed both disordered thresholds and overall misfit of the SRS-22. Sixteen items were re-scored and two misfitting items (6 and 14) removed to obtain a Rasch-compatible questionnaire. Participants HRQL measured too high with the rearranged questionnaire, indicating a severe SRS-22 ceiling effect. RA also highlighted SRS-22 multidimensionality, with pain/function not merging with self-image/mental health items. Item 3 showed differential item functioning (DIF) for both curve and hump amplitude. A 7-item questionnaire (SRS-7) was prepared by selecting single items from the original SRS-22. SRS-7 showed fit to the model, unidimensionality and no DIF. Compared with the SRS-22, the short form scale shows better targeting of the participants' population. RA shows that SRS-22 has poor clinimetric properties; moreover, when used with AIS at first evaluation, SRS-22 is affected by a severe ceiling effect. SRS-7, an SRS-22 7-item short form questionnaire, provides an HRQL interval measure better tailored to these participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing the health equity impacts of regional land-use plan making: An equity focussed health impact assessment of alternative patterns of development of the Whitsunday Hinterland and Mackay Regional Plan, Australia (Short report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, Colleen; Harris, Patrick; Mallett, John

    2011-01-01

    Health service and partners completed an equity focussed health impact assessment to influence the consideration of health and equity within regional land-use planning in Queensland, Australia. This project demonstrated how an equity oriented assessment matrix can assist in testing regional planning scenarios. It is hoped that this HIA will contribute to the emerging interest in ensuring that potential differential health impacts continue to be considered as part of land-use planning processes.

  14. Assessment of health-related quality of life in spine treatment: conversion from SF-36 to VR-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornet, Matthew F; Copay, Anne G; Sorensen, Katrine M; Schranck, Francine W

    2018-02-28

    Health-related quality-of-life outcomes have been collected with the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Short Form 36 (SF-36) survey. Boston University School of Public Health has developed algorithms for the conversion of SF-36 to Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12) Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the conversion of the SF-36 to VR-12 PCS and MCS scores. Preoperative and postoperative SF-36 were collected from patients who underwent lumbar or cervical surgery from a single surgeon between August 1998 and January 2013. Short Form 36 PCS and MCS scores were calculated following their original instructions. The SF-36 answers were then converted to VR-12 PCS and MCS scores following the algorithm provided by the Boston University School of Public Health. The mean score, preoperative to postoperative change, and proportions of patients who reach the minimum detectable change were compared between SF-36 and VR-12. A total of 1,968 patients (1,559 lumbar and 409 cervical) had completed preoperative and postoperative SF-36. The values of the SF-36 and VR-12 mean scores were extremely similar, with score differences ranging from 0.77 to 1.82. The preoperative to postoperative improvement was highly significant (p36 and VR-12 scores. The mean change scores were similar, with a difference of up to 0.93 for PCS and up to 0.37 for MCS. Minimum detectable change (MDC) values were almost identical for SF-36 and VR-12, with a difference of 0.12 for PCS and up to 0.41 for MCS. The proportions of patients whose change in score reached MDC were also nearly identical for SF-36 and VR-12. About 90% of the patients above SF-36 MDC were also above VR-12 MDC. The converted VR-12 scores, similar to the SF-36 scores, detect a significant postoperative improvement in PCS and MCS scores. The calculated MDC values and the proportions of patients whose score improvement reach MDC are similar for

  15. Short Communication. Effect of the health status and geographical origin on the cork production characteristics of Western Algeria cork oak stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dahane

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To analyze the effect of health status on cork production, analyzing if this influence is uniform or is affected by site conditions.Area of study: Two Western Algerian cork tree forests have been studied: M’Sila located in the coastal plains under semiarid climate, and Zarieffet, located in the mountainous interior under sub-humid climate.Material and Methods: 40 trees were selected in each forest and classified according to their health status as healthy, weakened, or decaying. A sample of cork from each tree has been obtained to measure the key variables related to cork production. A two-way ANOVA was performed considering two factors: site and health status.Main results: Quercus suber L. productivity is affected by the vitality of trees in the same way in both sources, showing values between 5.96 ± 7.1 kg • m-2 (coast, weakened trees and 8.13 ± 0.45 kg • m-2 (mountain, healthy trees. The health status also affects the number and area of pores, especially in the cork oak groves of the coast, where the coefficient of porosity ranges from 3.79 ± 0.84% (healthy trees to 8.11 ± 1.91% (decaying trees. The variables where the site has presented a stronger effect are those related to the amount of cork produced by the phellogen (density -kg·l-1, p<0.000- and productivity -kg·m-2, p=0.001-, and pore density (1·cm-2, p=0.001. Scrap thickness (mm and porosity (% show a smaller effect although still representative (p=0.041 and 0.038 respectively. Porosity and pore density show interaction site*health status. They all have higher values in the mountain (Zarieffet than in the coast (M’Sila. The effect of tree vitality on the formation of pores in the cork oak phellogen is lower in the mountain than in the coast. No significant effects were found for any of the two factors neither on the annual growth rate nor on the thickness of the cork.Research highlights: Results lead to the conclusion that the effect of health status on

  16. The long- and short-term impact of elevated body mass index on the risk of new atrial fibrillation the WHS (women's health study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedrow, Usha B; Conen, David; Ridker, Paul M; Cook, Nancy R; Koplan, Bruce A; Manson, Joann E; Buring, Julie E; Albert, Christine M

    2010-05-25

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between changes in body mass index (BMI) and incident atrial fibrillation (AF) in a large cohort of women. Obesity and AF are increasing public health problems. The importance of dynamic obesity-associated AF risk is uncertain, and mediators are not well characterized. Cases of AF were confirmed by medical record review in 34,309 participants in the Women's Health Study. Baseline and updated measures of BMI were obtained from periodic questionnaires. During 12.9 +/- 1.9 years of follow-up, 834 AF events were confirmed. BMI was linearly associated with AF risk, with a 4.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4 to 6.1, p WHS]: A Randomized Trial of Low-Dose Aspirin and Vitamin E in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer; NCT00000479). Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. World Cup's impact on mental health and lifestyle behaviors in the general population: comparing results of 2 serial population-based surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph Tai Fai; Tsui, Hi Yi; Mo, Phoenix Kit Han; Mak, Winnie Wing Sze; Griffiths, Sian

    2015-03-01

    This study compares the prevalence of health-related behaviors and mental health well-being in the Hong Kong general male population before and after the 2006 World Cup finals. Two anonymous, serial, comparable cross-sectional surveys. A total of 500 and 530 adult Chinese men, respectively, were interviewed in 2 telephone surveys before and after the finals. Those interviewed after the World Cup were more likely to eat snacks more than 3 d/wk, to be binge drinkers, or to spend more than 2 h/d communicating with family members. They were less likely to have higher General Health Questionnaire or lower Short Form-36 Health Survey Vitality scores (odds ratio [OR] = 0.684 and 0.765), to perceive family-related or work-related stress (OR = 0.327 and 0.345), or to self-report being sick or have visited a doctor (OR = 0.645 and 0.722). All variables between watchers versus nonwatchers of World Cup games were significant or marginally significant. Public health education should be incorporated into global sport events. © 2013 APJPH.

  18. The relationship of work stress and family stress to the self-rated health of women employed in the industrial sector in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang Suk; Cho, Won Jung; Lee, Chung Yul; Marion, Lucy N; Kim, Mi Ja

    2005-01-01

    To identify the relationship of work stress and family stress to the health of women in Korea. Cross-sectional study. Three hundred and thirty-one married women working in 14 manufacturing companies in Korea. Subjects responded to a questionnaire that included items on work stress, family stress, social support, and general characteristics. Perceived health status (PHS) was assessed with the Short Form-36. There was a significant positive relationship between social support and PHS, but significant negative relationships were found between PHS and work stress as well as family stress. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis explained the health status of married working women by four categories: personal, work related, family related, and social support, and accounted for 45.4% of the variance. When family-related factors were added to the model, the power of explanation was increased by 17.9% compared with the explained variance. Family stress was a major variable not only for explaining the variance but also for correlating with health status. Both work stress and family stress should be considered together when addressing the health of working women in the industrial sector in Korea.

  19. Short and longer-term psychological consequences of Operation Cast Lead: documentation from a mental health program in the Gaza Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llosa Augusto E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing recognition of the psychological impact of adversity associated with armed conflict on exposed civilian populations. Yet there is a paucity of evidence on the value of mental health programs in these contexts, and of the chronology of psychological sequelae, especially in prolonged conflicts with repeated cycles of extreme violence. Here, we describe changes in the psychological profile of new patients in a mental health program after the military offensive Cast Lead, in the context of the prolonged armed conflict involving the Gaza Strip. Methods This study analyses routinely collected program data from a Médecins Sans Frontières mental health program in the Gaza Strip spanning 2007–2011. Data consist of socio-demographic as well as clinical baseline and follow-up data on new patients entering the program. Comparisons were made through Chi square and Fisher’s exact tests, univariate and multivariate logistic and linear regression. Results PTSD, depression and other anxiety disorders were the most frequent psychopathologies, with 21% having multiple diagnoses. With a median of nine sessions, clinical improvement was recorded for 83% (1122/1357, and more common for those with separation anxiety, acute and posttraumatic disorders as principal diagnosis (855/1005, compared to depression (141/183, p Conclusion Evolving changes in patient volume, diagnoses and recall period to triggering events suggest a lengthy and durable effect of an intensified exposure to violence in a context of prolonged conflict. Our findings suggest that mental health related humanitarian relief in protracted conflicts might need to prepare for an increase in patients with changing profiles over an extended period following an acute flare-up in violence.

  20. Short-term forecasting of the chloride content in the mineral waters of the Ustroń Health Resort using SARIMA and Holt-Winters models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowska Dominika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ustroń S.A. Health Resort (southern Poland uses iodide-bromide mineral waters taken from Middle and Upper Devonian limestones and dolomites with a mineralisation range of 110-130 g/dm3 for curative purposes. Two boreholes - U-3 and U3-A drilled in the early 1970s were exploited. The aim of this paper is to estimate changes in mineral water quality of the Ustroń Health Resort by taking into consideration chloride content in the water from the U-3 borehole. The data has included the results of monthly analyses of chlorides from 2005 to 2015 during the tests carried out by the Mining Department of the Health Resort. The triple exponential smoothing (ETS function and the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA method of modelling time series were used for the calculations. The ability to properly forecast mineral water quality can result in a good status of the exploitation borehole and a limited number of failures in the exploitation system. Because of the good management of health resorts, it is possible to acquire more satisfied customers. The main goal of the article involves the real-time forecast accuracy, obtained results show that the proposed methods are effective for such situations. Presented methods made it possible to obtain a 24-month point and interval forecast. The results of these analyses indicate that the chloride content is forecast to be in the range of 72 to 83 g/l from 2015 to 2017. While comparing the two methods of analysis, a narrower range of forecast values and, therefore, greater accuracy were obtained for the ETS function. The good performance of the ETS model highlights its utility compared with complicated physically based numerical models.

  1. Clinical Holistic Medicine (Mindful, Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Complemented with Bodywork Improves Quality of Life, Health, and Ability by Induction of Antonovsky-Salutogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We had a success rate of treating low, self-assessed, global quality of life (measured by QOL1: How would you assess the quality of your life now? with clinical holistic medicine of 56.4% (95% CI: 42.3–69.7% and calculated from this the Number Needed to Treat (NNT as 1.43–2.36. We found that during treatment, (in average 20 sessions of psychodynamic psychotherapy complemented with bodywork at a cost of 1600 EURO, the patients entered a state of Antonovsky-salutogenesis (holistic, existential healing, which also improved their self-assessed health and general ability one whole step up a 5-point Likert Scale. The treatment responders radically improved their self-assessed physical health (0.6 step, self-assessed mental health (1.6 step, their relation to self (1.2 step, friends (0.3 step, and partner (2.1 step on a 6-step scale, and their ability to love (1.2 step and work (0.8 step, and to function socially (1.0 step and sexually (0.8 step. It seems that treatment with clinical holistic medicine is the cure of choice when the patients (1 present the triad of low quality of life, poor self-assessed physical and/or mental health, and poor ability to function; and (2 are willing to suffer during the therapy by confronting and integrating old emotional problems and trauma(s from the past. For these patients, the treatment provided lasting benefits, without the negative side effects of drugs. A lasting, positive effect might also prevent many different types of problems in the future. The therapy was “mindful” in its focus on existential and spiritual issues.

  2. The 12-item medical outcomes study short form health survey version 2.0 (SF-12v2: a population-based validation study from Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidvari Sepideh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SF-12v2 is the improved version of the SF-12v1. This study aimed to validate the SF-12v2 in Iran. Methods A random sample of the general population aged 18 years and over living in Tehran, Iran completed the instrument. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and validity was assessed using known-groups comparison and convergent validity. In addition the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA. Results In all, 3685 individuals were studied (1887male and 1798 female. Internal consistency for both summary measures was satisfactory. Cronbach's α for the Physical Component Summary (PCS-12 was 0.87 and for the Mental Component Summary (MCS-12 it was 0.82. Known-groups comparison showed that the SF-12v2 discriminated well between men and women and those who differed in age and educational status (P Conclusion Although the findings could not be generalized to the Iranian population, overall the findings suggest that the SF-12v2 is a reliable and valid measure of health related quality of life among Iranians and now could be used in future health outcome studies. However, further studies are recommended to establish its stability, responsiveness to change, and concurrent validity for this health survey in Iran.

  3. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with air (called pneumotho- rax), it will hinder expansion of the lung, resulting in shortness of ... of Chest Physi- cians. Shortness of Breath: Patient Education. http: / / www. onebreath. org/ document. doc? id= 113. ...

  4. [An intergenerational health promotion program involving older adults in urban areas. "Research of Productivity by Intergenerational Sympathy (REPRINTS)": first-year experience and short-term effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Nishi, Mariko; Watanabe, Naoki; Lee, Sangyoon; Inoue, Kazuko; Yoshida, Hiroto; Sakuma, Naoko; Kureta, Youichi; Ishii, Kenji; Uchida, Hayato; Kakuno, Fumihiko; Shinkai, Shoji

    2006-09-01

    We have launched a new intervention study, called "Research of Productivity by Intergenerational Sympathy (REPRINTS)" in which senior volunteers engage in reading picture books to children. The "REPRINTS" program consistently involves social roles and intellectual activity, two higher-level functional capacities. This study reported findings and problems experienced through "REPRINTS" during the first year, ascertained potential effectiveness of social activity, and proposed methods for continued activity. Basic concepts of "REPRINTS"program include "contribution to society", "life-long learning", and "group activity." Sixty seven volunteers and 74 controls, all aged 60 years and over living in three areas, ie., Chuo-ku, central Tokyo, Kawasaki city, suburb of Tokyo and Nagahama city, a local city, participated in a baseline health check-up in June, 2004. After completion of 3-month training seminars (once a week, 2 hr per session), volunteers visited public elementary schools and kindergartens in groups of 6-10 persons for 6 months. They were assessed again by follow-up health check-up in March, 2005. At baseline, the proportion of those who had no grand children (41.8% vs. 20.3%, P= 0.006), average school years (13.4 +/- 2.5 vs. 12.3 +/- 2.5 years, P= 0.008), having any experience of volunteer activities (79.1% vs. 52.7%, P=0.001), and an usual walking speed (86.7 +/- 12.3 vs. 81.3 +/- 12.9 m/min, P=0.012) were significantly higher in volunteers than in controls. There was no significant difference in other baseline characteristics between the two groups. At follow-up, social network scores for 56 volunteers were significantly improved: frequency of contact with grandchildren and others around neighborhood and size of circles of friends and acquaintances were increased, as compared to controls. Social support scores for the volunteers significantly decreased in the receiving aspect, while increased in the giving aspect. In addition, consciousness of loving

  5. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  6. Health of adults caring for orphaned children in an HIV-endemic community in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Caroline; Operario, Don

    2011-09-01

    In South Africa, an estimated 2.5 million children have been orphaned by AIDS and other causes of adult mortality. Although there is a growing body of research on the well-being of South African orphaned children, few research studies have examined the health of adult individuals caring for children in HIV-endemic communities. The cross-sectional survey assessed prevalence of general health and functioning (based on Short-Form 36 version 2 scale), depression (based on Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale), anxiety (using Kessler-10 scale), and post-traumatic stress (using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire) among a representative community sample of adults caring for children in Umlazi Township, an HIV-endemic community in South Africa. Of 1599 respondents, 33% (n=530) were carers of orphaned children. Results showed that, overall, carers reported poor general health and functioning and elevated levels of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress. Carers of orphaned children reported significantly poorer general health and functioning and higher rates of depression and post-traumatic stress compared with carers of non-orphaned children. In multivariate analyses, orphan carer and non-orphan carer differences in general health were accounted for by age, gender, education, economic assets, and source of income, but differences in depression were independent of these cofactors. Interventions are needed to address physical and mental health of carers in general. Greater health problems among orphan carers appeared to be fully explained by socioeconomic characteristics, which offer opportunities for targeting of programs. More research is needed to understand determinants of mental health disparities among orphan carers, which were not explained by socioeconomic characteristics.

  7. Frailty and its impact on health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study on elder community-dwelling preventive health service users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw-Wen Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of frailty and to investigate the relationship between frailty status and health-related quality of life (HRQoL in the community-dwelling elderly population who utilize preventive health services. METHODS: People aged 65 years and older who visited a medical center in Taipei City from March to August in 2011 for an annual routine check-up provided by the National Health Insurance were eligible. A total of 374 eligible elderly adults without cognitive impairment had a mean age of 74.6±6.3 years. Frailty status was determined according to the Fried frailty criteria. HRQoL was measured with Short Form-36 (SF-36. Multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between frailty status and the two summary scales of SF-36. Models were adjusted for the participants' sociodemographic and health status. RESULTS: After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related covariables, frailty was found to be more significantly associated (p<0.001 with lower scores on both physical and mental health-related quality of life summary scales compared with robustness. For the frailty phenotypes, slowness represented the major contributing factor in the physical component scale of SF-36, and exhaustion was the primary contributing factor in the mental component scale. CONCLUSION: The status of frailty is closely associated with HRQoL in elderly Taiwanese preventive health service users. The impacts of frailty phenotypes on physical and mental aspects of HRQoL differ.

  8. Effects of a telephone-delivered multiple health behavior change intervention (CanChange) on health and behavioral outcomes in survivors of colorectal cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Anna L; Chambers, Suzanne K; Pakenham, Kenneth I; Patrao, Tania A; Baade, Peter D; Lynch, Brigid M; Aitken, Joanne F; Meng, Xingqiong; Courneya, Kerry S

    2013-06-20

    Colorectal cancer survivors are at risk for poor health outcomes because of unhealthy lifestyles, but few studies have developed translatable health behavior change interventions. This study aimed to determine the effects of a telephone-delivered multiple health behavior change intervention (CanChange) on health and behavioral outcomes among colorectal cancer survivors. In this two-group randomized controlled trial, 410 colorectal cancer survivors were randomly assigned to the health coaching intervention (11 theory-based telephone-delivered health coaching sessions delivered over 6 months focusing on physical activity, weight management, dietary habits, alcohol, and smoking) or usual care. Assessment of primary (ie, physical activity [Godin Leisure Time Index], health-related quality of life [HRQoL; Short Form-36], and cancer-related fatigue [Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue Scale]) and secondary outcomes (ie, body mass index [kg/m(2)], diet and alcohol intake [Food Frequency Questionnaire], and smoking) were conducted at baseline and 6 and 12 months. At 12 months, significant intervention effects were observed for moderate physical activity (28.5 minutes; P = .003), body mass index (-0.9 kg/m(2); P = .001), energy from total fat (-7.0%; P = .006), and energy from saturated fat (-2.8%; P = .016). A significant intervention effect was reported for vegetable intake (0.4 servings per day; P = .001) at 6 months. No significant group differences were found at 6 or 12 months for HRQoL, cancer-related fatigue, fruit, fiber, or alcohol intake, or smoking. The CanChange intervention was effective for improving physical activity, dietary habits, and body mass index in colorectal cancer survivors. The intervention is translatable through existing telephone cancer support and information services in Australia and other countries.

  9. Evaluating and establishing national norms for mental wellbeing using the short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (SWEMWBS): findings from the Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng Fat, Linda; Scholes, Shaun; Boniface, Sadie; Mindell, Jennifer; Stewart-Brown, Sarah

    2017-05-01

    The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS), 14 positively worded statements, is a validated instrument to measure mental wellbeing on a population level. Less is known about the population distribution of the shorter seven-item version (SWEMWBS) or its performance as an instrument to measure wellbeing. Using the Health Survey for England 2010-2013 (n = 27,169 adults aged 16+, nationally representative of the population), age- and sex-specific norms were estimated using means and percentiles. Criterion validity was examined using: (1) Spearman correlations (ρ) for SWEMWBS with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), happiness index, EQ-VAS (2) a multinomial logit model with SWEMWBS (low, medium and high wellbeing) as the outcome and demographic, social and health behaviours as explanatory variables. Relative validity was examined by comparing SWEMWBS with WEMWBS using: (1) Spearman correlations (continuous data), and (2) the weighted kappa statistic (categorical), within population subgroups. Mean (median) SWEMWBS was 23.7 (23.2) for men and 23.2 (23.2) for women (p = 0.100). Spearman correlations were moderately sized for the happiness index (ρ = 0.53, P wellbeing. Participants who binge drank versus non-drinkers were less likely to have high versus medium wellbeing (0.81 (0.71-0.92)). Spearman correlations between SWEMWBS and WEMWBS were above 0.95; weighted kappa statistics showed almost perfect agreement (0.79-0.85). SWEMWBS distinguishes mental wellbeing between subgroups, similarly to WEMWBS, but is less sensitive to gender differences.

  10. Short communication: Effect of age at group housing on behavior, cortisol, health, and leukocyte differential counts of neonatal bull dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, E M; Karousa, M M; Lay, D C; Marchant-Forde, J N; Eicher, S D

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effect of age at grouping on behavior, health, and production of dairy bull calves, 90 Holstein-Friesian bull calves were housed in individual pens until moved to 1 of 3 treatments. Calves were housed in groups of 3 calves at 3 d old (GH3), 7 d old (GH7), or 14 d old (GH14) until 7 wk of age. Ten groups of 3 calves for each treatment were used, with 5 pens/treatment in each of 2 replications (10 pens/treatment, 3 treatments, 3 calves/treatment; 90 calves total). Direct behavioral observations using instantaneous scan sampling every 10 min were conducted twice per week for 7 wk. At the same times, video data were recorded for continuous observations at feeding time to observe the overall activity of group-housed calves. Hip height, heart girth, and health scores were recorded weekly and body weight was recorded at the start and end of the study. Calves in GH3 spent more time playing and but more time cross-sucking and displacing other calves from milk bottles. Calves engaged in social interaction as early as 3 d of age, and social interactions between 3 to 6 wk of age increased markedly. Calves housed in GH14 vocalized more than did calves in GH7 and GH3. No difference was found between treatments in growth performance. Calf fecal, cough, and nasal and ocular discharge scores, differential leukocyte counts, and plasma cortisol concentrations were not affected by age at grouping. However, during the first week of grouping, when calves were moved from individual pens to group pens, some calves were unable to find their milk bottles and required guidance. In conclusion, these data show no adverse effects on health or performance and some benefits on social behavior for early (d 3) grouping of calves. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Short communication: Genotyping of cows to speed up availability of genomic estimated breeding values for direct health traits in Austrian Fleckvieh (Simmental) cattle--genetic and economic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger-Danner, C; Schwarzenbacher, H; Willam, A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of genotyping cows with reliable phenotypes for direct health traits on annual monetary genetic gain (AMGG) and discounted profit. The calculations were based on a deterministic approach using ZPLAN software (University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany). It was assumed that increases in reliability of the total merit index (TMI) of 5, 15, and 25 percentage points were achieved through genotyping 5,000, 25,000, and 50,000 cows, respectively. Costs for phenotyping, genotyping, and genomic estimated breeding values vary between €150 and €20 per cow. The gain in genotyping cows for traits with medium to high heritability is more than for direct health traits with low heritability. The AMGG is increased by 1.5% if the reliability of TMI is 5 percentage points higher (i.e., 5,000 cows genotyped) and 6.53% higher AMGG can be expected when the reliability of TMI is increased by 25 percentage points (i.e., 50,000 cows genotyped). The discounted profit depends not only on the costs of genotyping but also on the population size. This study indicates that genotyping cows with reliable phenotypes is feasible to speed up the availability of genomic estimated breeding values for direct health traits. But, because of the huge amount of valid phenotypes and genotypes needed to establish an efficient genomic evaluation, it is likely that financial constraints will be the main limiting factor for implementation into breeding program such as Fleckvieh Austria. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Parental perception of health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with short stature: literature review and introduction of the parent-reported QoLISSY instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmann, Julia; Rohenkohl, Anja; Bullinger, Monika; Chaplin, John E; Herdman, Michael; Sanz, Dolores; Mimoun, Emmanuelle; Feigerlova, Eva; DeBusk, Kendra; Power, Michael; Wollmann, Hartmut; Pleil, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Health-related quality of life (HrQoL) of the child diagnosed with short stature is an important outcome to be assessed both from the patient as well as from the parental perspective. The objective of this study was to review the literature on parent-reported HrQoL and to subsequently develop and psychometrically test the parent-reported version of the Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth (QoLISSY) instrument for use in clinical and epidemiologic research. A review of the literature on parental assessment of child HrQoL via PUBMED was followed by a psychometric analysis of data collected within the European QoLISSY study, in which 686 eligible parents of short statured children/adolescents (aged 4-18 years) meeting inclusion criteria participated. Patient inclusion criteria were a height below -2 SD, a diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or idiopathic short stature (ISS), and treatment status in terms of receiving or not receiving recombinant human growth hormone therapy. Focus groups eliciting parental HrQoL statements, pilot testing with cognitive debriefing, and a field test in 317 parents with a retest in 148 parents were conducted simultaneously in France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and the UK. The psychometric performance of the parent-reported instrument, developed in parallel to the child/ adolescent self-report version, was assessed using standard tests of reliability and validity. Literature search failed to identify a cross-culturally developed height specific instrument available for both patient self-report and parental observer report. Analysis of the QoLISSY focus group phase conducted separately in children, adolescents and parents yielded 169 items generated from parent focus groups. A cognitive debriefing exercise followed by a pilot test of preliminary psychometric characteristics resulted in deleting poorly performing items. Field testing of the parent-reported version suggested a three-domain core HrQoL structure with 22 items

  13. Positive and negative associations of individual social capital factors with health among community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabayama, Mai; Watanabe, Chie; Ryuno, Hirochika; Kamide, Kei

    2017-12-01

    Previous literature has found positive correlations between social capital and health in older adults, fewer studies have investigated the subdimension's effects of social capital on health. We aimed to determine the individual social capital subfactors in community-dwelling older adults in Japan, and to analyze the associations of these factors with physical and mental health. We sent a self-administered questionnaire assessing their perception of social group activity as the individual social capital, and mental and physical health (measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36) to 4320 randomly selected older people. There were 1836 valid responses. We clarified that people who participated in any social activity group were in significantly better physical and mental health compared with the people who did not. By the factor analysis of the perception for the social group activity, we identified three components of the individual social capital aspect that we termed harmonious, hierarchic and diversity. Using multiple linear regression, we found the hierarchic aspect was significantly negatively associated with mental health, whereas the harmonious aspect was significantly positively associated with mental and physical health, and diversity was significantly positively associated with mental health. As the previous research literature on social capital has mainly emphasized its positive health consequences, the present findings provide a novel demonstration that some aspects of individual social capital can have negative associations with health outcomes in community-dwelling older people. For the practical application of promoting a healthier society, it is important to consider both the positive and negative sides of social capital. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2427-2434. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Impact of Preoperative Radiotherapy on General and Disease-Specific Health Status of Rectal Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thong, Melissa S.Y.; Mols, Floortje; Lemmens, Valery E.P.P.; Rutten, Harm J.T.; Roukema, Jan A.; Martijn, Hendrik; Poll-Franse, Lonneke V. van de

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To date, few studies have evaluated the impact of preoperative radiotherapy (pRT) on long-term health status of rectal cancer survivors. Using a population-based sample, we assessed the impact of pRT on general and disease-specific health status of rectal cancer survivors up to 10 years postdiagnosis. The health status of older (≥75 years old at diagnosis) pRT survivors was also compared with that of younger survivors. Methods and Materials: Survivors identified from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry treated with surgery only (SU) or with pRT between 1998 and 2007 were included. Survivors completed the Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaire and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Colorectal 38 (EORTC QLQ-CR38) questionnaire. The SF-36 and EORTC QLQ-CR38 (sexuality subscale) scores of the survivors were compared to an age- and sex-matched Dutch normal population. Results: A total of 340 survivors (response, 85%; pRT survivors, 71%) were analyzed. Overall, survivors had similar general health status. Both short-term (<5 years) and long-term (≥5 years) pRT survivors had significantly poorer body image and more problems with gastrointestinal function, male sexual dysfunction, and defecation than SU survivors. Survivors had comparable general health status but greater sexual dysfunction than the normal population. Older pRT survivors had general and disease-specific health status comparable to that of younger pRT survivors. Conclusions: For better survivorship care, rectal cancer survivors could benefit from increased clinical and psychological focus on the possible long-term morbidity of treatment and its effects on health status.

  15. Effects of a short-term exercise training program on aerobic fitness, fatigue, health perception and activity level of subjects with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, S; Kesselring, J

    2002-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients of an inpatient rehabilitation program have been randomly assigned to an exercise training (MS-ET) or nontraining group (MS-NI). Before and after 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training, a graded maximal exercise test with measurement of gas exchange and a lung function test was administered to all 26 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Activity level, fatigue and health perception were measured by means of questionnaires. Twenty-six healthy persons served as control group and were matched in respect of age, gender and activity level. Training intervention consisted of 5x30 min sessions per week of bicycle exercise with individualised intensity. Compared with baseline, the MS training group demonstrated a significant rightward placement of the aerobic threshold (AT) (VO2+13%; work rate [WR])+11%), an improvement of health perception (vitality+46%; social interaction+36%), an increase of activity level (+17%) and a tendency to less fatigue. No changes were observed for the MS-NI group and the control groups. Maximal aerobic capacity and lung function were not changed by either training or nontraining in all four groups. Overall compliance to the training program was quite low (65%), whereas incidence of symptom exacerbation by physical activity has been lower than expected (6%).

  16. Health-related quality of life, work productivity, and indirect costs among patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Jessica L; Carson, Robyn T; Flores, Natalia M

    2017-02-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects 10-15% of adults in the US, and is associated with significant impairment in health-related quality of life (HRQoL); however, information specific to the diarrhea subtype (IBS-D) is lacking. We assessed the impact of IBS-D on HRQoL, work productivity, and daily activities, and the associated indirect costs, among a sample of the US population. Respondents (≥18 years) from the 2012 US National Health and Wellness Survey who reported an IBS-D diagnosis by a physician or symptoms consistent with Rome II criteria for IBS-D were identified as having IBS-D. Controls included respondents without IBS-D or inflammatory bowel disease. HRQoL was assessed via the Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 questionnaire and summarized into Mental and Physical Component Summary (MCS; PCS) scores and a Short Form-6 dimension (SF-6D) utility score. Work and activity impairment were assessed via the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: General Health version (WPAI:GH), which measures absenteeism, presenteeism, overall work productivity loss, and daily activity impairment. Indirect costs were calculated using unit cost data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and variables from the WPAI:GH. Generalized linear models were used to examine differences in health outcomes between respondents with IBS-D and controls, controlling for demographic and health characteristics. In total, 66,491 respondents (1102 IBS-D; 65,389 controls) were analyzed. Mean age was 48.7 years; 50% were female. Compared with controls, the IBS-D cohort reported significantly lower HRQoL (mean MCS: 45.16 vs. 49.48; p work productivity loss (20.7% vs. 13.2%; p work and daily activities, and higher indirect costs, imposing a substantial burden on patients and employers. These findings suggest a significant unmet need exists for effective IBS-D treatments.

  17. Improvements in health-related quality of life over 3 years with liraglutide 3.0 mg compared with placebo in participants with overweight or obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotkin, R L; Gabriel Smolarz, B; Meincke, H H; Fujioka, K

    2018-02-01

    Previously in the SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes trial, at 1 year, participants with obesity (or overweight with comorbidities) and prediabetes receiving liraglutide 3.0 mg experienced greater improvements in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) than those receiving placebo. The current study extends these findings by examining 3-year changes in HRQoL. HRQoL was assessed using the obesity-specific Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite) questionnaire, as well as the Short-Form 36 v2 (SF-36) health survey. At 3 years, mean change (±standard deviation) in IWQOL-Lite total score from baseline for liraglutide (n = 1472) was 11.0 ± 14.2, vs. 8.1 ± 14.7 for placebo (n = 738) (estimated treatment difference [ETD] 3.4 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0, 4.7], P 3.0 mg was also associated with improved health utility (Short-Form-6D and EuroQol-5D, mapped from IWQOL-Lite and/or SF-36) vs. placebo. Liraglutide 3.0 mg, plus diet and exercise, is associated with long-term improvements in HRQoL with obesity or overweight with comorbidity vs. placebo. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical Obesity published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  18. Health-related quality of life after laparoscopic Heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication for achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asti, Emanuele; Sironi, Andrea; Lovece, Andrea; Bonavina, Giulia; Fanelli, Melania; Bonitta, Gianluca; Bonavina, Luigi

    2017-04-01

    In addition to symptom scores, a person's perception of health and quality of life assessment is an important indicator of quality of treatment and can provide an efficient index to compare different therapeutic modalities in chronic disease states. Only a few studies have investigated quality of life comprehensively in patients with achalasia, and therefore the controversy regarding the best treatment algorithm continues. The primary study outcome was pre- and postoperative quality of life in patients with achalasia undergoing laparoscopic Heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication. The study is a retrospective, observational cohort. The hospital registry and the updated research database were reviewed to identify all patients who were treated for achalasia between 2010 and 2015. Patients were eligible for the study if they had a minimum 1-year follow-up and had pre-and postoperative Eckardt, Short Form-36, and Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease Health-Related Quality of Life scores. Patients with previous operative and/or endoscopic treatments for achalasia were excluded. One-hundred and eighteen patients were identified. The median follow-up was 40 months (interquartile range 27). The proportion of patients with Eckardt stage II-III decreased from 94.9-13% (P Heller myotomy combined with Dor fundoplication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality of life, mental health and self-esteem in hirsute adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosdzol, Agnieszka; Skrzypulec, Violetta; Plinta, Ryszard

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of hirsutism on general quality of life, self-esteem and the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls. Fifty adolescent females with hirsutism, aged 13-18 years, were enrolled in the research group. The control group comprised 50 non-hirsute adolescents. A specific questionnaire was used as the research tool. It included self-evaluation inventories: Short Form-36 Health Survey Version 2, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Quality of life indices for hirsute girls scored lower than for the controls and statistically significantly so with regard to physical functioning (p = 0.04), general health (p = 0.002) and social functioning (p = 0.007). Anxiety was diagnosed in 26% in the group of hirsute girls as compared with 10% of the controls (p = 0.03). The study analysis revealed more clinically significant problems of low self-esteem in hirsute adolescents compared with non-hirsute girls (14% vs. 2%). Hirsutism is associated with a decreased quality of life, a higher prevalence of anxiety disorder and lower self-esteem in adolescent females. The mother's level of education is associated with the quality of life in adolescent girls.

  20. Hong Kong men with low incomes have worse health-related quality of life as judged by SF-36 scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, G T C; Wai, H P S; Tsang, P C C; Chan, H C K

    2006-10-01

    To analyse the association between income and health-related quality of life using the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) Chinese version in Hong Kong Chinese working population. Cross-sectional observation study. A commercial company in Hong Kong. All clerical and administrative staff of a commercial company was invited to participate; 876 of the 1003 staff agreed. The subjects were categorised into three income groups according to monthly income in Hong Kong dollars (low, 10,000-25,000; high, >25,000). The mean age of the 288 men and 588 women was 34.9 (standard deviation, 7.9; median, 34.0; range, 18-71) years. SF-36 scores on health-related quality of life. The distribution of income was 30% in high-, 54.8% in middle-, and 15.2% in low-income groups. Women had similar SF-36 scores among different income groups. In men, for most variables there was a significant positive linear correlation between income and SF-36 scores. Low income is associated with a worse health-related quality of life in Hong Kong Chinese men.

  1. Health-related quality of life after radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashine, Katsuyoshi; Numata, Kosaku; Koizumi, Takahiro; Azuma, Koji; Sumiyoshi, Yoshiteru

    2005-01-01

    We compared general and disease specific health related quality of life (QOL) after surgery and radiotherapy for prostate cancer. We performed a retrospective survey of patients treated between 1992 and 2001. General and disease specific health related QOL were assessed by the short form 36 health survey questionnaire (SF-36) and the University of California-Los Angels Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA PCI). We mailed questionnaires of QOL survey and obtained from 143 and 73 men who treated surgery and radiotherapy. The median ages of surgery and radiation group were 70.9 and 79.2 years old, and the median periods after treatment were 2.7 and 2.0 years, respectively. Physical function, role physical, social functioning and mental health were higher score in surgery group than radiation group, however, general health perceptions was higher in radiation group among SF-36. Surgery group had worse urinary function and better sexual function compared with radiation group. Multi-variable analysis showed that scores of social functioning, mental health and sexual function were most influenced by each modality, the scores of physical function, role physical, urinary function and sexual bother were most influenced by age, and the score of general health perceptions and body pain was most influenced by the existence of recurrence. This cross-sectional survey cleared the differences of QOL after surgery and radiotherapy, and the influences of each modality. However, because of difference in background of each group, longitudinal investigation will need to aid patients in the decision making process. (author)

  2. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tallner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients.

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life and Associated Factors of Frontline Railway Workers: A Cross-Sectional Survey in the Ankang Area, Shaanxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available After validation of the widely used health-related quality of life (HRQOL generic measure, the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2, we investigated the HRQOL and associated factors of frontline railway workers in China. Ground workers, conductors, and train drivers were selected from Ankang Precinct by using a stratified cluster sampling technique. A total of 784 frontline railway workers participated in the survey. The reliability and validity of SF-36v2 was satisfactory. The physical component summary (PCS scores of three subgroups attained the average range for the USA general population, whereas the mental component summary (MCS scores were well below the range. Most domains scored below the norm, except for the physical functioning (PF domain. Among three subgroups, train drivers reported significantly lower scores on MCS and six health domains (excluding PF and bodily pain (BP. After controlled confounders, conductors had significantly higher PCS and MCS scores than ground workers. There is heterogeneity on risk factors among three subgroups, but having long or irregular working schedules was negatively associated with HRQOL in all subgroups. SF-36v2 is a reliable and valid HRQOL measurement in railway workers in China. The frontline railway workers’ physical health was comparative to American norms, whilst mental health was relatively worse. Long or irregular working schedules were the most important factors.

  4. Conservative management and health-related quality of life in end-stage renal disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Bin; Chao, Chia-Ter; Chang, Ray-E; Hung, Kuan-Yu; COGENT Study Group

    2017-06-26

    Few studies have addressed health-related quality of life (QoL) in patients who chose conservative management over dialysis. This systematic review aims to better define the role of conservative management in improving health-related QoL in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Medline, Cochrane and EMBASE were searched for prospective or retrospective studies published until June 30, 2016, that examined QoL of ESRD patients. The primary outcome was health-related QoL. Four studies were included (405 patients received dialysis and 332 received conservative management). Two studies that used the Short Form-36 Survey (SF-36) showed that the dialysis group had higher physical component scores, but the conservative management group had similar, or better, mental component scores at the end of intervention. Another study using the SF-36 showed that the physical and mental component scores of the dialysis group did not significantly change after intervention. In the conservative management group, the physical component scores did not change, but the mental component scores increased significantly over time (0.12 ± 0.32, p management group. Although there are only a limited number of published articles, ESRD patients who receive conservative management may have improved mental health-related QoL when compared with those who receive dialysis.

  5. The association of self-leadership, health behaviors, and posttraumatic growth with health-related quality of life in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Ho; Sim, Jin Ah; Jung, Ju Youn; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Eun Sook; Kim, Young Woo; Oh, Jae Hwan; Ro, Jung Sil; Park, Sang Yoon; Park, Sang Jae; Cho, Kwan Ho; Chang, Yoon Jung; Bae, Yeon Min; Kim, Si Young; Jung, Kyung Hae; Zo, Zae Ill; Lim, Jae-Young; Lee, Soon Nam

    2014-12-01

    We tried to evaluate the association of self-leadership, effective health behaviors, and posttraumatic growth with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We recruited survivors of cancer from seven hospitals in Korea between 2011 and 2012. The patients completed the Seven Habits Profile (7HP) to evaluate leadership competency, the 10 rules for highly effective health behavior to evaluate health behavior, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) to evaluate posttraumatic growth, the Short Form 36 (SF-36) to evaluate HRQOL, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to evaluate anxiety and depression. We performed multiple logistic regressions to identify significant associations. A total of 668 patients with cancer participated in the study. Patients who scored high on the leadership subscales of Be Proactive, Begin with the End in Mind, Put First Things First, Think Win-Win, Synergize, and Sharpen the Saw in 7HP tried to practice and keep their health behaviors more. The Begin with the End in Mind, Put First Things First, Synergize, and Sharpen the Saw subscales of the 7HP were also significantly correlated with subscales on the PTGI. Patients who scored high on the leadership subscales of Life Balance, Be Proactive, Begin with the End in Mind, Think Win-Win, and Sharpen the Saw had higher physical and mental component scale scores on the SF-36 and lower anxiety and depression subscale scores on the HADS. Self-leadership, health behaviors, and posttraumatic growth are associated with QOL in survivors of cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Health status in women with Turner syndrome: a questionnaire study on health status, education, work participation and aspects of sexual functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naess, Eva Elisabeth; Bahr, David; Gravholt, Claus H

    2010-05-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a complex medical condition with specific cognitive and psychosocial characteristics and frequent medical morbidity. Few studies have investigated the influence this has on health status, education and ability to work. To explore health status, level of education, work participation, medical conditions, physical activity, satisfaction with life and aspects of sexual functioning in adult TS women and compare with a matched control group. A questionnaire was sent to 168 adult women with TS >18 years registered in a database of Frambu Resource Centre for Rare Disorders and The TS Association in Norway. We assessed health status with Short Form 36, education with Norwegian Standard Classification of Education, and employment with The General Nordic Questionnaire. Life satisfaction was measured with LiSat-9, and questions on psychological strain during life phases were included. Eighty women with TS (34.0 +/- 11.7 years) and 214 controls (32.9 +/- 10.6) responded. The TS group reported significantly more health problems and impaired health status in the two subscales "physical functioning" and "general health" (P education and work participation was similar among TS and controls. TS moved away from their parents' home later than controls (20.4 +/- 4.0 vs. 18.7 +/- 2.1, P = 0.001). Age at sexual debut differed significantly (21.2 +/- 4.3 vs. 17.3 +/- 2.4 years, P education and level of employment as controls, they report more frequent occurrence of medical conditions, but scored lower on only two subscales in the SF-36. Despite considerable medical morbidity, TS seem to cope well with life.

  7. Aspects of mental health dysfunction among survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Miranda M; Ziff, Oliver J; Wang, Sarra; Cave, Joshua; Janardhanan, Pradeep; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Mehta, Susan; Jenkinson, Helen; Frobisher, Clare; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2015-09-29

    Some previous studies have reported that survivors of childhood cancer are at an increased risk of developing long-term mental health morbidity, whilst others have reported that this is not the case. Therefore, we analysed 5-year survivors of childhood cancer using the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) to determine the risks of aspects of long-term mental health dysfunction. Within the BCCSS, 10 488 survivors completed a questionnaire that ascertained mental health-related information via 10 questions from the Short Form-36 survey. Internal analyses were conducted using multivariable logistic regression to determine risk factors for mental health dysfunction. External analyses were undertaken using direct standardisation to compare mental health dysfunction in survivors with UK norms. This study has shown that overall, childhood cancer survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of mental health dysfunction for 6/10 questions analysed compared to UK norms. Central nervous system (CNS) and bone sarcoma survivors reported the greatest dysfunction, compared to expected, with significant excess dysfunction in 10 and 6 questions, respectively; the excess ranged from 4.4-22.3% in CNS survivors and 6.9-15.9% in bone sarcoma survivors. Compared to expected, excess mental health dysfunction increased with attained age; this increase was greatest for reporting 'limitations in social activities due to health', where the excess rose from 4.5% to 12.8% in those aged 16-24 and 45+, respectively. Within the internal analyses, higher levels of educational attainment and socio-economic classification were protective against mental health dysfunction. Based upon the findings of this large population-based study, childhood cancer survivors report significantly higher levels of mental health dysfunction than those in the general population, where deficits were observed particularly among CNS and bone sarcoma survivors. Limitations were also observed to increase

  8. Obesity, change of body mass index and subsequent physical and mental health functioning: a 12-year follow-up study among ageing employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svärd, Anna; Lahti, Jouni; Roos, Eira; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea; Mänty, Minna

    2017-09-26

    Studies suggest an association between weight change and subsequent poor physical health functioning, whereas the association with mental health functioning is inconsistent. We aimed to examine whether obesity and change of body mass index among normal weight, overweight and obese women and men associate with changes in physical and mental health functioning. The Helsinki Health Study cohort includes Finnish municipal employees aged 40 to 60 in 2000-02 (phase 1, response rate 67%). Phase 2 mail survey (response rate 82%) took place in 2007 and phase 3 in 2012 (response rate 76%). This study included 5668 participants (82% women). Seven weight change categories were formed based on body mass index (BMI) (phase 1) and weight change (BMI change ≥5%) (phase 1-2). The Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) measured physical and mental health functioning. The change in health functioning (phase 1-3) score was examined with repeated measures analyses. Covariates were age, sociodemographic factors, health behaviours, and somatic ill-health. Weight gain was common among women (34%) and men (25%). Weight-gaining normal weight (-1.3 points), overweight (-1.3 points) and obese (-3.6 points) women showed a greater decline in physical component summary scores than weight-maintaining normal weight women. Among weight-maintainers, only obese (-1.8 points) women showed a greater decline than weight-maintaining normal weight women. The associations were similar, but statistically non-significant for obese men. No statistically significant differences in the change in mental health functioning occurred. Preventing weight gain likely helps maintaining good physical health functioning and work ability.

  9. Physical and mental health functioning after all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence: a register-linkage follow-up study among ageing employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Mänty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickness absence has been shown to be a risk marker for severe future health outcomes, such as disability retirement and premature death. However, it is poorly understood how all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence is reflected in subsequent physical and mental health functioning over time. The aim of this study was to examine the association of all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence with subsequent changes in physical and mental health functioning among ageing municipal employees. Methods Prospective survey and register data from the Finnish Helsinki Health Study and the Social Insurance Institution of Finland were used. Register based records for medically certified all-cause and diagnostic-specific sickness absence spells (>14 consecutive calendar days in 2004–2007 were examined in relation to subsequent physical and mental health functioning measured by Short-Form 36 questionnaire in 2007 and 2012. In total, 3079 respondents who were continuously employed over the sickness absence follow-up were included in the analyses. Repeated-measures analysis was used to examine the associations. Results During the 3-year follow-up, 30% of the participants had at least one spell of medically certified sickness absence. All-cause sickness absence was associated with lower subsequent physical and mental health functioning in a stepwise manner: the more absence days, the poorer the subsequent physical and mental health functioning. These differences remained but narrowed slightly during the follow-up. Furthermore, the adverse association for physical health functioning was strongest among those with sickness absence due to diseases of musculoskeletal or respiratory systems, and on mental functioning among those with sickness absence due to mental disorders. Conclusions Sickness absence showed a persistent adverse stepwise association with subsequent physical and mental health functioning. Evidence on health

  10. Physical and mental health functioning after all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence: a register-linkage follow-up study among ageing employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mänty, Minna; Lallukka, Tea; Lahti, Jouni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2017-01-25

    Sickness absence has been shown to be a risk marker for severe future health outcomes, such as disability retirement and premature death. However, it is poorly understood how all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence is reflected in subsequent physical and mental health functioning over time. The aim of this study was to examine the association of all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence with subsequent changes in physical and mental health functioning among ageing municipal employees. Prospective survey and register data from the Finnish Helsinki Health Study and the Social Insurance Institution of Finland were used. Register based records for medically certified all-cause and diagnostic-specific sickness absence spells (>14 consecutive calendar days) in 2004-2007 were examined in relation to subsequent physical and mental health functioning measured by Short-Form 36 questionnaire in 2007 and 2012. In total, 3079 respondents who were continuously employed over the sickness absence follow-up were included in the analyses. Repeated-measures analysis was used to examine the associations. During the 3-year follow-up, 30% of the participants had at least one spell of medically certified sickness absence. All-cause sickness absence was associated with lower subsequent physical and mental health functioning in a stepwise manner: the more absence days, the poorer the subsequent physical and mental health functioning. These differences remained but narrowed slightly during the follow-up. Furthermore, the adverse association for physical health functioning was strongest among those with sickness absence due to diseases of musculoskeletal or respiratory systems, and on mental functioning among those with sickness absence due to mental disorders. Sickness absence showed a persistent adverse stepwise association with subsequent physical and mental health functioning. Evidence on health-related outcomes after long-term sickness absence may provide useful

  11. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Correlates with Short-Term Myelopathy Outcome in Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantam, Aditya; Rao, Avinash; Kurpad, Shekar N; Jirjis, Michael B; Eckardt, Gerald; Schmit, Brian D; Wang, Marjorie C

    2017-01-01

    To determine if spinal cord diffusion tensor imaging indexes correlate with short-term clinical outcome in patients undergoing elective cervical spine surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). A prospective consecutive cohort study was performed in patients undergoing elective cervical spine surgery for CSM. After obtaining informed consent, patients with CSM underwent preoperative T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging of the cervical spine. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values at the level of maximum cord compression and at the noncompressed C1-2 level were calculated on axial images. We recorded the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale, Neck Disability Index, and Short Form-36 physical functioning subscale scores for all patients preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Statistical analysis was performed to identify correlations between FA and clinical outcome scores. The study included 27 patients (mean age 54.5 years ± 1.9, 12 men). The mean postoperative changes in mJOA scale, Neck Disability Index, and Short Form-36 physical functioning subscale scores were 0.9 ± 0.3, -6.0 ± 1.9, and 3.4 ± 1.9. The mean FA at the level of maximum compression was significantly lower than the mean FA at the C1-2 level (0.5 vs. 0.55, P = 0.01). FA was significantly correlated with change in mJOA scale score (Pearson r = -0.42, P = 0.02). FA was significantly correlated with the preoperative mJOA scale score (Pearson r = 0.65, P < 0.001). Preoperative FA at the level of maximum cord compression significantly correlates with the 3-month change in mJOA scale score among patients with CSM. FA was also significantly associated with preoperative mJOA scale score and is a potential biomarker for spinal cord dysfunction in CSM. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. The contribution of pre- and postdisaster social support to short- and long-term mental health after Hurricanes Katrina: A longitudinal study of low-income survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christian S; Lowe, Sarah R; Weber, Elyssa; Rhodes, Jean E

    2015-08-01

    A previous study of Hurricane Katrina survivors found that higher levels of predisaster social support were associated with lower psychological distress one year after the storm, and that this pathway was mediated by lower exposure to hurricane-related stressors. As a follow-up, we examined the impact of pre- and postdisaster social support on longer-term of mental health-both psychological distress and posttraumatic stress. In this three-wave longitudinal study, 492 residents in the region affected by Hurricane Katrina reported levels of perceived social support and symptoms of psychological distress prior to the storm (Wave 1). Subsequently, one year after Hurricane Katrina (Wave 2), they reported levels of exposure, perceived social support, and symptoms of psychological distress and posttraumatic stress. The latter three variables were assessed again four years after the hurricane (Wave 3). Results of mediation analysis indicated that levels of exposure to hurricane-related stressors mediated the relationship between Wave 1 perceived social support and Wave 3 psychological distress as well as postdisaster posttraumatic stress. Results of regression analyses indicated that, controlling for Wave 1 psychological distress and disaster exposure, Wave 2 perceived social support was associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 psychological distress but not posttraumatic stress. Our results confirmed the social causation processes of social support and suggest that posttraumatic stress might not stem directly from the lack of social support. Rather, preexisting deficits in social resources might indirectly affect longer-term posttraumatic stress and general psychological distress by increasing risk for disaster-related stressors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of regurgitation on health-related quality of life in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease before and after short-term potent acid suppression therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrilas, Peter J; Jonsson, Andreas; Denison, Hans; Wernersson, Börje; Hughes, Nesta; Howden, Colin W

    2014-05-01

    Limited data exist on the impact of regurgitation on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). We assessed the relationship between regurgitation frequency and HRQOL before and after acid suppression therapy in GORD. We used data from two randomised trials of AZD0865 25-75 mg/day versus esomeprazole 20 or 40 mg/day in non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) (n=1415) or reflux oesophagitis (RO) (n=1460). The Reflux Disease Questionnaire was used to select patients with frequent and intense heartburn for inclusion and to assess treatment response. The Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire was used to assess HRQOL. At baseline, 93% of patients in both the NERD and RO groups experienced regurgitation. Mean QOLRAD scores were similar for NERD and RO at baseline and at week 4 and disclosed decremental HRQOL with increasing frequency of regurgitation; a clinically relevant difference of >0.5 in mean QOLRAD scores was seen with regurgitation ≥4 days/week versus <4 days/week. The prevalence of frequent, persistent regurgitation (≥4 days/week) at week 4 among heartburn responders (≤1 day/week of mild heartburn) was 28% in NERD and 23% in RO. QOLRAD scores were higher among heartburn responders. There was a similar pattern of impact related to regurgitation frequency in heartburn responders compared with the group as a whole. Frequent regurgitation was associated with a clinically relevant, incremental decline in HRQOL beyond that associated with heartburn before and after potent acid suppression in both NERD and RO. NCT00206284 and NCT00206245.

  14. Atmospheric emissions of Cu and Zn from coal combustion in China: Spatio-temporal distribution, human health effects, and short-term prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Li, Junlin; Cui, Lulu; Wu, Yu; Fu, Hongbo; Chen, Jianmin; Chen, Mindong

    2017-10-01

    China has become the largest coal consumer and important emitter of trace metals in the world. A multiple-year inventory of atmospheric copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) emissions from coal combustion in 30 provinces of China and 4 economic sectors (power plant, industry sector, residential sector, and others) for the period of 1995-2014 has been calculated. The results indicated that the total emissions of Cu and Zn increased from 5137.70 t and 11484.16 t in 1995-7099.24 t and 14536.61 t in 2014, at an annual average growth rate of 1.90% and 1.33%, respectively. The industrial sector ranked as the leading source, followed by power plants, the residential use, and other sectors. The emissions of Cu and Zn were predominantly concentrated in the northern and eastern regions of China due to the enormous consumption of coal by the industrial and the power sectors. The emissions of Cu and Zn were closely associated with mortality and life expectancy (LE) on the basis of multiple regression analysis. Spatial econometric models suggested that Cu and Zn emissions displayed significantly positive relevance with mortality, while they exhibited negative correlation with LE. The influence of the Cu emission peaked in the north of China for both mortality and LE, while the impacts of the Zn emission on mortality and LE reached a maximum value in Xinjiang Province. The results of the grey prediction model suggested that the Cu emission would decrease to 5424.73 t, whereas the Zn emissions could reach 17402.13 t in 2020. Analysis of more specific data are imperative in order to estimate the emissions of both metals, to assess their human health effects, and then to adopt effective measures to prevent environmental pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of a program of short bouts of exercise on bone health in adolescents involved in different sports: the PRO-BONE study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Barker, Alan R; Williams, Craig A; Knapp, Karen M; Metcalf, Brad S; Gracia-Marco, Luis

    2015-04-11

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease associated with high morbidity, mortality and increased economic costs. Early prevention during adolescence appears to be one of the most beneficial practices. Exercise is an effective approach for developing bone mass during puberty, but some sports may have a positive or negative impact on bone mass accrual. Plyometric jump training has been suggested as a type of exercise that can augment bone, but its effects on adolescent bone mass have not been rigorously assessed. The aims of the PRO-BONE study are to: 1) longitudinally assess bone health and its metabolism in adolescents engaged in osteogenic (football), non-osteogenic (cycling and swimming) sports and in a control group, and 2) examine the effect of a 9 month plyometric jump training programme on bone related outcomes in the sport groups. This study will recruit 105 males aged 12-14 years who have participated in sport specific training for at least 3 hours per week during the last 3 years in the following sports groups: football (n = 30), cycling (n = 30) and swimming (n = 30). An age-matched control group (n = 15) that does not engage in these sports more than 3 hours per week will also be recruited. Participants will be measured on 5 occasions: 1) at baseline; 2) after 12 months of sport specific training where each sport group will be randomly allocated into two sub-groups: intervention group (sport + plyometric jump training) and sport group (sport only); 3) exactly after the 9 months of intervention; 4) 6 months following the intervention; 5) 12 months following the intervention. Body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, air displacement plethysmography and bioelectrical impedance), bone stiffness index (ultrasounds), physical activity (accelerometers), diet (24 h recall questionnaire), pubertal maturation (Tanner stage), physical fitness (cardiorespiratory and muscular), bone turnover markers and vitamin D will be measured at each visit. The PRO

  16. "Fate: The short film"

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Quintana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    "Fate: The Short Film" is a four minute short film which reflects the idea that nobody can escape from the fate. It has a good picture and sound quality with an understandable message for all public and with the collaboration of actors, filmmaker, stylist, script advisor and media technician.

  17. [Shunt and short circuit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Abundis, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Shunt and short circuit are antonyms. In French, the term shunt has been adopted to denote the alternative pathway of blood flow. However, in French, as well as in Spanish, the word short circuit (court-circuit and cortocircuito) is synonymous with shunt, giving rise to a linguistic and scientific inconsistency. Scientific because shunt and short circuit made reference to a phenomenon that occurs in the field of the physics. Because shunt and short circuit are antonyms, it is necessary to clarify that shunt is an alternative pathway of flow from a net of high resistance to a net of low resistance, maintaining the stream. Short circuit is the interruption of the flow, because a high resistance impeaches the flood. This concept is applied to electrical and cardiovascular physiology, as well as to the metabolic pathways.

  18. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into 'pre-action' and 'action'. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1-12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. NCT01315756.

  19. Lifestyle interventions for improving health and health behaviours in women with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review of the literature 2011-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Parkinson, Joy; McDonald, Nicole; Fujihira, Haruka; Zietek, Stephanie; Anderson, Debra

    2018-05-01

    The development and maintenance of healthy lifestyle behaviours are among the most promising strategies for reducing complications and premature death among women living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, despite the potential benefits of these interventions, they have had varying success and the sustained uptake of the recommended lifestyle modifications is limited. This paper reviews research on the impact of lifestyle interventions aimed at improving health and health behaviours in women with T2DM. In a systematic review of the literature, empirical literature from 2011 to 2017 is examined to explore the effects of various lifestyle interventions on a number of objective and subjective health indicators in women with T2DM. A total of 18 intervention studies in women aged between 21 and 75 years were included in this narrative review. Interventions included education/counselling, exercise, diet, or combined components of varying duration. The included studies used a variety of objective indicators, including glycaemic control, lipid profile and anthropometric indices, as well as a number of diabetes-specific and generic subjective scales (for example, the Diabetes Problem Solving Inventory and the Short Form 36). Significant heterogeneity was noted in the interventions and also the study findings, although exercise interventions tended to yield the most consistent benefit in relation to glycaemic control, while exercise/dietary interventions generally improved anthropometric indices. The findings from this review did not consistently suggest the greater value of any one type of intervention. Future research should consider interventions that target multiple health behaviours and emphasize health literacy, self-efficacy, and problem-solving skills. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Telemedicine, the effect of nurse-initiated telephone follow up, on health status and health-care utilization in COPD patients: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhof, Farida F; van den Berg, Jan W K; Uil, Steven M; Kerstjens, Huib A M

    2015-02-01

    Telemedicine, care provided by electronic communication, may serve as an alternative or extension to traditional outpatient visits. This pilot study determined the effects of telemedicine on health-care utilization and health status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. One hundred and one patients were randomized, 52 patients received telemedicine care and 49 had traditional outpatient visits. The primary outcome was COPD-specific health status, measured with the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ). Secondary outcomes included St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) and resource use in primary and secondary care. The mean age of the participants was 68 ± 9 years and the mean per cent of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s was 40.4 ± 12.5. The CCQ total score deteriorated by 0.14 ± 0.13 in the telemedicine group, and improved by -0.03 ± 0.14 in the control group (difference 0.17 ± 0.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.21-0.55, P = 0.38). The CCQ symptom domain showed a significant and clinically relevant difference in favour of the control group, 0.52 ± 0.24 (95% CI: 0.04-0.10, P = 0.03). Similar results were found for the SGRQ, whereas results for SF-36 were inconsistent. Patients in the control group had significantly fewer visits to the pulmonologist in comparison to patients in the telemedicine group (P = 0.05). The same trend, although not significant, was found for exacerbations after 6 months. This telemedicine model of initiated phone calls by a health-care provider had a negative effect on health status and resource use in primary and secondary care, in comparison with usual care and therefore cannot be recommended in COPD patients in its current form. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  1. Baseline demographic profile and general health influencing the post-radiotherapy health related quality-of-life in women with gynaecological malignancy treated with pelvic irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Sau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer specific survival and quality-of-life (QOL assessment are important in evaluating cancer treatment outcomes. Baseline demographic profiles have significant effects on follow-up health related QOL (HRQOL and affect the outcome of treatments. Materials and Methods: Post-operative gynaecological cancer patients required adjuvant pelvic radiation enrolled longitudinal assessment study. Patients had completed the short form-36 (SF-36 questionnaire before the adjuvant radiotherapy and functional assessments of cancer therapy-general module at 6 th month′s follow-up period to assess the HRQOL. Baseline variables were race, age, body mass index (BMI, education, marital status, type of surgery, physical composite scores (PCS and mental composite scores (MCS summary scores of the SF-36. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis used to determine the influence of these variables on post-radiotherapy HRQOL domains. Results: Baseline PCS, MCS, age, education and marital status had positively correlation with post-radiotherapy HRQOL while higher BMI had a negative impact in univariate analysis. In multivariate regression analysis, education and MCS had a positive correlation while higher BMI had a negative correlation with HRQOL domains. Conclusion: Enhance our ability to detect demographic variables and modify those factors and develops new treatment aimed at improving all aspect of gynaecological cancer including good QOL.

  2. Idiopathic short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaški Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a complex process and the basic characteristic of child- hood growth monitoring provides insight into the physiological and pathological events in the body. Statistically, the short stature means departure from the values of height for age and sex (in a particular environment, which is below -2 standard deviation score, or less than -2 standard deviation, i.e. below the third percentile. Advances in molecular genetics have contributed to the improvement of diagnostics in endocrinology. Analysis of patients’ genotypes should not be performed before taking a classical history, detailed clinical examination and appropriate tests. In patients with idiopathic short stature specific causes are excluded, such as growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, short stature due to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, dysmorphology syndromes and chronic childhood diseases. The exclusion of abovementioned conditions leaves a large number of children with short stature whose etiology includes patients with genetic short stature or familial short stature and those who are low in relation to genetic potential, and who could also have some unrecognized endocrine defect. Idiopathic short stature represents a short stature of unknown cause of heterogeneous etiology, and is characterized by a normal response of growth hormone during stimulation tests (>10 ng/ml or 20 mJ/l, without other disorders, of normal body mass and length at birth. In idiopathic short stature standard deviation score rates <-2.25 (-2 to -3 or <1.2 percentile. These are also criteria for the initiation of growth hormone therapy. In children with short stature there is also the presence of psychological and social suffering. Goals of treatment with growth hormone involve achieving normal height and normal growth rate during childhood.

  3. Why do short term workers have high mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    or violence, the rate ratios for short term employment were 2.30 (95% Cl 1.74-3.06) and 1.86 (95% Cl 1.35-2.56), respectively. An unhealthy lifestyle may also be a determinant of short term employment. While it is possible in principle to adjust for lifestyle factors if proper data are collected, the health......Increased mortality is often reported among workers in short term employment. This may indicate either a health-related selection process or the presence of different lifestyle or social conditions among short term workers. The authors studied these two aspects of short term employment among 16...

  4. Relationship between objectively measured sedentary behavior and health outcomes in schizophrenia patients: The PsychiActive project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Antequera, Javier; Oviedo-Caro, Miguel Ángel; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego

    2017-11-21

    This study aimed to investigate possible relationships between sedentary behavior and body mass index (BMI), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in schizophrenia patients. Variables contributing to the variability in sedentary behavior were identified. Eighty-two schizophrenia outpatients (mean age±SD: 41.0±8.7years, 87% men, mean illness duration±SD: 17.1±8.9years) wore a multisensor armband for 7 consecutive full days to objectively measure sedentary behavior. BMI, walking capacity (6-minute walking test) as a proxy for CRF estimation and HRQoL (Short Form 36-Item Health Survey questionnaire version 2) were also assessed. Correlation (Pearson or Spearman coefficients) and multiple regression analysis were used. Sedentary behavior was significantly associated with BMI, CRF, and the physical component summary score of HRQoL (r values, -0.34-0.41; all Pdiet, smoking, and antipsychotic medication (all Psedentary behavior. Consistent relationships between sedentary behavior and BMI, CRF, and the physical component summary score of HRQoL were found in schizophrenia patients. All the identified determinants of sedentary behavior are modifiable and may be important areas for future interventions in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Improvements in health-related quality of life with liraglutide 3.0 mg compared with placebo in weight management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolotkin, R. L.; Fujioka, K.; Wolden, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes study investigated the effect of liraglutide 3.0 mg, as adjunct to diet and exercise, on HRQoL in patients with obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg m−2] or overweight (BMI ≥ 27 kg m−2......) with comorbidity. Participants were advised on a 500 kcal d−1 deficit diet and a 150-min week−1 exercise programme and were randomised 2:1 to once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide 3.0 mg or placebo. HRQoL was assessed using the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite) and Short-Form 36 (SF-36) v2 health...... questionnaires. Individuals on liraglutide 3.0 mg (n = 2046) had significantly greater improvements in IWQOL-Lite total score (10.6 ± 13.3) vs. placebo (n = 1020) (7.7 ± 12.8) and SF-36 physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary scores (PCS, 3.6 ± 6.8; MCS, 0.2 ± 8.1) vs. placebo (PCS, 2.2 ± 7.7; MCS, −0...

  6. Identifying latent profiles of posttraumatic stress and major depression symptoms in Canadian veterans: Exploring differences across profiles in health related functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Contractor, Ateka; Elhai, Jon D; Stringer, Maurice; Lyle, Gary; Forbes, David; Richardson, J Don

    2015-07-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been consistently reported as being highly comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD) and as being associated with health related functional impairment (HRF). We used archival data from 283 previously war-zone deployed Canadian veterans. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to uncover patterns of PTSD and MDD comorbidity as measured via the PTSD Checklist-Military version (PCL-M) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Individual membership of latent classes was used in a series of one-way ANOVAs to ascertain group differences related to HRF as measured via the Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). LPA resulted in three discrete patterns of PTSD and MDD comorbidity which were characterized by high symptoms of PTSD and MDD, moderate symptoms, and low symptoms. All ANOVAs comparing class membership on the SF-36 subscales were statistically significant demonstrating group differences across levels of HRF. The group with the highest symptoms reported the worst HRF followed by the medium and low symptom groups. These findings are clinically relevant as they demonstrate the need for continual assessment and targeted treatment of co-occurring PTSD and MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lifetime post-traumatic stress symptoms are related to the health-related quality of life and severity of pain/fatigue in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, L; Carmassi, C; Consoli, G; Conversano, C; Ramacciotti, C E; Musetti, L; Massimetti, E; Pergentini, I; Corsi, M; Ciapparelli, A; Bazzichi, L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of lifetime potentially traumatic events, including losses, and of post-traumatic stress symptoms on the severity of illness and health-related quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Seventy patients with FM, diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, were consecutively enrolled at the Unit of Rheumatology of the University of Pisa, Italy. Assessments included: SCID-I/P; the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (MOS SF-36), for the severity of pain; the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL); the Trauma and Loss Spectrum Self-Report (TALS-SR) life-time version. The FIQ total score was related to the number of loss events (Domain I) and to symptoms of grief reactions (Domain II) and re-experiencing (Domain V) of the TALS-SR. The 'VAS fatigue' scores (FIQ) were significantly related to the TALS-SR symptoms of grief reactions (Domain II) and re-experiencing (Domain V). The Mental Component Summary and Bodily Pain scores of the MOS SF-36 were significantly related to all TALS-SR domains, the latter with the exception of the VIII (Arousal). Our results corroborate the presence of a relationship between the lifetime exposure to potentially traumatic events, in particular loss events, and lifetime post-traumatic stress symptoms and the severity of illness and HRQoL in patients with FM.

  8. The Effects of a Postural Balance Training Program on Balance, Gait and Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Essential Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Kara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although the effectiveness of postural balance training on balance and gait impairment has been proven as an effective treatment approach in several patient and healthy populations, its effectiveness in patients with essential tremor (ET is yet unknown. The aim was to examine the effects of postural balance training program on balance and gait performance, and health-related quality of life in patients with ET. Materials and Methods: This uncontrolled clinical study included patients with ET. The outcome measures were the Postural Stability Test, Limits of Stability Test, Fall Risk Test, Activities-Specific Balance Confidence scale, Dynamic Gait Index, and Short Form-36. The assessments were performed before and after the training program. The participants underwent an 8-week balance training designed to improve their ability to integrate multisensory inputs and postural control using a computerized balance assessment and training device. Results: In total, 24 patients with ET participated in the study. The compliance rate was 87.5%. There were significant improvements in all outcome measures of balance and gait performance, balance confidence, fall risk, and health-related quality of life (except the mental component, p>0.05 between baseline and 8 weeks (p<0.05. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the balance training program is a feasible method that may have positive effects on balance performance and confidence, gait performance, and health-related quality of life in patients with ET

  9. A pilot study of yogic meditation for family dementia caregivers with depressive symptoms: effects on mental health, cognition, and telomerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavretsky, H; Epel, E S; Siddarth, P; Nazarian, N; Cyr, N St; Khalsa, D S; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Irwin, M R

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of brief daily yogic meditation on mental health, cognitive functioning, and immune cell telomerase activity in family dementia caregivers with mild depressive symptoms. Thirty-nine family dementia caregivers (mean age 60.3 years old (SD = 10.2)) were randomized to practicing Kirtan Kriya or listening to relaxation music for 12 min per day for 8 weeks. The severity of depressive symptoms, mental and cognitive functioning were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC) was examined in peripheral PBMC pre-intervention and post-intervention. The meditation group showed significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms and greater improvement in mental health and cognitive functioning compared with the relaxation group. In the meditation group, 65.2% showed 50% improvement on the Hamilton Depression Rating scale and 52% of the participants showed 50% improvement on the Mental Health Composite Summary score of the Short Form-36 scale compared with 31.2% and 19%, respectively, in the relaxation group (p dementia caregivers can lead to improved mental and cognitive functioning and lower levels of depressive symptoms. This improvement is accompanied by an increase in telomerase activity suggesting improvement in stress-induced cellular aging. These results need to be confirmed in a larger sample. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Impact of a new sarco-osteopenia definition on health-related quality of life in a population-based cohort in Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, Mart; Kallikorm, Riina; Lember, Margus

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia has been shown to be a marker of falling; therefore, combining osteopenia and sarcopenia could identify a frailer, higher-fracture-risk population. We aimed to define sarco-osteopenia (SOP) in a population-based healthy young sample using both muscle functional and quantitative parameters and assessing the impact of this definition on health-related quality of life. A population sample of 304 patients aged 25-70 yr was analyzed with a Lunar DPX-IQ dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry machine (GE Healthcare, Pollards Wood, UK), and their health-related quality of life was assessed with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire. SOP was defined as bone mineral density (BMD) -1 standard deviation (SD) and height-adjusted appendicular muscle mass -2 SD and/or grip strength -2 SD less than the mean values of 77 young individuals in the population sample (age: 25-39 yr). Our proposed SOP definition identifies 3-9% of the population older than 40 yr as sarco-osteopenic. These individuals also show markedly lower scores in the role-physical (p=0.01), vitality (p=0.03), and role-emotional (p=0.02) subscales of the SF-36 questionnaire. No difference in the quality of life was observed between osteopenic individuals and those with normal BMD. The new definition identifies a population with significant decrements in health-related quality of life. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Is neck pain associated with worse health-related quality of life 6 months later? A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolet, P. S.; Cote, P.; Kristman, V. L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Current evidence suggests that neck pain is negatively associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, these studies are cross-sectional and do not inform the association between neck pain and future HRQoL. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate...... of future poor physical HRQoL in the population. Raising awareness of the possible future impact of neck pain on physical HRQoL is important for health-care providers and policy makers with respect to the management of neck pain in populations.......BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Current evidence suggests that neck pain is negatively associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, these studies are cross-sectional and do not inform the association between neck pain and future HRQoL. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate...... Saskatchewan adults were included. OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcome measures were the mental component summary (MCS) and physical component summary (PCS) of the Short-Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire. METHODS: We formed a cohort of 1,100 randomly sampled Saskatchewan adults in September 1995. We used the Chronic Pain...

  12. Patients with Revision Modern Megaprostheses of the Distal Femur Have Improved Disease-Specific and Health-Related Outcomes Compared to Those with Primary Replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyberger, Clémence; Auberger, Guillaume; Babinet, Antoine; Anract, Philippe; Biau, David J

    2017-12-21

    We asked whether there would be any difference between primary and revision modern cemented fixed hinge megaprosthesis of the distal femur in function and activity-related outcomes following treatment of a bone tumor. An identical custom-made fixed hinge cemented megaprosthesis with a hydroxyapatite collar was used in all cases. The main outcomes were joint-specific function, disease-specific activity, and health-related quality of life. Implant survival was also evaluated. Patients in the revision group performed slightly better than patients in the primary group on disease-specific (Toronto Extremity Salvage Score, p  = 0.033; Musculoskeletal Tumor Society, p  = 0.072) and health-related outcomes (Short Form 36 [SF-36] physical component, p  = 0.085; SF-36 mental component, p  = 0.069) but not on joint-specific outcomes (Knee Society Score, p  = 0.94). The cumulative probabilities of revision for any reason were 14.5% (7-25%) at 5 years with no statistically significant difference between primary and revision procedures ( p  = 0.77). In conclusion, patients undergoing a revision have similar joint-specific functional outcome but improved disease-specific and health-related outcomes. Implant survival are similar between groups. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Quality of life among dots (directly observed treatment short course ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of life among dots (directly observed treatment short course) cured patients: ... which is a specific instrument and covers four domains of health i.e. physical, ... thereby necessitating measures for the improvement of the overall health of ...

  14. The development of a new corporate specific health risk measurement instrument, and its use in investigating the relationship between health and well-being and employee productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Peter R

    2005-01-28

    There is a growing body of evidence linking health and well-being to key business issues. Despite this, corporate uptake of workplace health promotion programmes has been slow outside the USA. One possible reason for this is the lack of a generally available health risk measure that is quick and easy to administer and produces data that is rich enough to inform and direct subsequent employee health promotional interventions. We report on the development and validation of the health and well-being (HWB) assessment, a free to use health risk appraisal questionnaire that has been specifically developed for use in the corporate setting. The HWB assessment focuses upon modifiable health issues that directly impact upon business drivers. Development involved interviews with business leaders to ascertain their key areas of focus, scientific and general literature review to find evidence for health status having an impact upon these areas, and end user testing.Three UK-based organisations (insurance, telecommunications and consumer goods sectors) participated in the research. A total of 2224 employees completed the HWB assessment, the short-form 36 (SF-36) and the World Health Organisation Health and Work Performance questionnaire (WHO-HPQ) as part of the validation process. The HWB assessment is a twenty item questionnaire covering ten areas of health and well-being. Completion of the HWB assessment generates a global health risk score and ten sub-scores corresponding to the ten areas covered. It is easy to use and quick to complete (average completion time was eight minutes) and showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Statistically significant correlations with similar SF-36 variables were observed. A significant negative correlation between HWB score and productivity decrement, as measured by the WHO-HPQ, was observed (r = -0.4). Individuals with HWB scores above the 25th percentile were more likely to achieve workplace productivity standards than

  15. The development of a new corporate specific health risk measurement instrument, and its use in investigating the relationship between health and well-being and employee productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Peter R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing body of evidence linking health and well-being to key business issues. Despite this, corporate uptake of workplace health promotion programmes has been slow outside the USA. One possible reason for this is the lack of a generally available health risk measure that is quick and easy to administer and produces data that is rich enough to inform and direct subsequent employee health promotional interventions. Methods We report on the development and validation of the health and well-being (HWB assessment, a free to use health risk appraisal questionnaire that has been specifically developed for use in the corporate setting. The HWB assessment focuses upon modifiable health issues that directly impact upon business drivers. Development involved interviews with business leaders to ascertain their key areas of focus, scientific and general literature review to find evidence for health status having an impact upon these areas, and end user testing. Three UK-based organisations (insurance, telecommunications and consumer goods sectors participated in the research. A total of 2224 employees completed the HWB assessment, the short-form 36 (SF-36 and the World Health Organisation Health and Work Performance questionnaire (WHO-HPQ as part of the validation process. Results The HWB assessment is a twenty item questionnaire covering ten areas of health and well-being. Completion of the HWB assessment generates a global health risk score and ten sub-scores corresponding to the ten areas covered. It is easy to use and quick to complete (average completion time was eight minutes and showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Statistically significant correlations with similar SF-36 variables were observed. A significant negative correlation between HWB score and productivity decrement, as measured by the WHO-HPQ, was observed (r = -0.4. Individuals with HWB scores above the 25th percentile were more

  16. Imaging in short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2012-09-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  17. Imaging in short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  18. Who is the Treatment-Seeking Young Adult with Severe Obesity: A Comprehensive Characterization with Emphasis on Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreber, Helena; Reynisdottir, Signy; Angelin, Bo; Hemmingsson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    To characterize treatment-seeking young adults (16-25 years) with severe obesity, particularly mental health problems. Cross-sectional study of 165 participants (132 women, 33 men) with BMI ≥35 kg/m2 or ≥30 kg/m2 with comorbidities, enrolling in a multidisciplinary obesity treatment program. Data collection at admission of present and life-time health issues including symptomatology of anxiety, depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (Adult ADHD Self-Report scale); self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), suicide attempts, health-related quality of life (Short Form-36 Health Survey), psychosocial functioning related to obesity (Obesity-related Problems Scale), cardiorespiratory fitness (Astrand's bicycle ergometer test), somatic and psychiatric co-morbidities, cardiometabolic risk factors, and micronutritional status. We used multiple regression analysis to identify variables independently associated with present anxiety and depressive symptomatology. Mean body mass index was 39.2 kg/m2 (SD = 5.2). We found evidence of poor mental health, including present psychiatric diagnoses (29%), symptomatology of anxiety (47%), depression (27%) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (37%); low self-esteem (42%), attempted suicide (12%), and low quality of life (physical component score = 46, SD = 11.2; mental component score = 36, SD = 13.9, Pobesity-related problems (P = 0.018). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 3%, and hypertension 2%. Insulin resistance was present in 82%, lipid abnormality in 62%, and poor cardiorespiratory fitness in 92%. Forty-eight percent had at least one micronutritional deficiency, vitamin D being the most common (35%). A wide range of health issues, including quite severe mental health problems, was prevalent in treatment-seeking young adults with severe obesity. These are likely to constitute a major treatment challenge, including options relating to bariatric surgery.

  19. Differential Item Functioning in the SF-36 Physical Functioning and Mental Health Sub-Scales: A Population-Based Investigation in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lix, Lisa M; Wu, Xiuyun; Hopman, Wilma; Mayo, Nancy; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Liu, Juxin; Prior, Jerilynn C; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Josse, Robert G; Towheed, Tanveer E; Davison, K Shawn; Sawatzky, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Self-reported health status measures, like the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36), can provide rich information about the overall health of a population and its components, such as physical, mental, and social health. However, differential item functioning (DIF), which arises when population sub-groups with the same underlying (i.e., latent) level of health have different measured item response probabilities, may compromise the comparability of these measures. The purpose of this study was to test for DIF on the SF-36 physical functioning (PF) and mental health (MH) sub-scale items in a Canadian population-based sample. Study data were from the prospective Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), which collected baseline data in 1996-1997. DIF was tested using a multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) method. Confirmatory factor analysis defined the latent variable measurement model for the item responses and latent variable regression with demographic and health status covariates (i.e., sex, age group, body weight, self-perceived general health) produced estimates of the magnitude of DIF effects. The CaMos cohort consisted of 9423 respondents; 69.4% were female and 51.7% were less than 65 years. Eight of 10 items on the PF sub-scale and four of five items on the MH sub-scale exhibited DIF. Large DIF effects were observed on PF sub-scale items about vigorous and moderate activities, lifting and carrying groceries, walking one block, and bathing or dressing. On the MH sub-scale items, all DIF effects were small or moderate in size. SF-36 PF and MH sub-scale scores were not comparable across population sub-groups defined by demographic and health status variables due to the effects of DIF, although the magnitude of this bias was not large for most items. We recommend testing and adjusting for DIF to ensure comparability of the SF-36 in population-based investigations.

  20. Persistent and contemporaneous effects of job stressors on mental health: a study testing multiple analytic approaches across 13 waves of annually collected cohort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Aitken, Zoe; Kavanagh, Anne; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Petrie, Dennis

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the extent that psychosocial job stressors had lasting effects on a scaled measure of mental health. We applied econometric approaches to a longitudinal cohort to: (1) control for unmeasured individual effects; (2) assess the role of prior (lagged) exposures of job stressors on mental health and (3) the persistence of mental health. We used a panel study with 13 annual waves and applied fixed-effects, first-difference and fixed-effects Arellano-Bond models. The Short Form 36 (SF-36) Mental Health Component Summary score was the outcome variable and the key exposures included: job control, job demands, job insecurity and fairness of pay. Results from the Arellano-Bond models suggest that greater fairness of pay (β-coefficient 0.34, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.45), job control (β-coefficient 0.15, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.20) and job security (β-coefficient 0.37, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.42) were contemporaneously associated with better mental health. Similar results were found for the fixed-effects and first-difference models. The Arellano-Bond model also showed persistent effects of individual mental health, whereby individuals' previous reports of mental health were related to their reporting in subsequent waves. The estimated long-run impact of job demands on mental health increased after accounting for time-related dynamics, while there were more minimal impacts for the other job stressor variables. Our results showed that the majority of the effects of psychosocial job stressors on a scaled measure of mental health are contemporaneous except for job demands where accounting for the lagged dynamics was important. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Intensive care delirium - effect on memories and health-related quality of life - a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Helle; Tønnesen, Else K; Videbech, Poul

    2013-01-01

    after intensive care unit. Interviews were repeated after two and six months and supplemented with Short Form-36 and the Barthel Index. RESULTS: Delirium was detected in 60% of the patients in our study, and delirious patients had significantly fewer factual memories and more memories of delusion than...... than half of the patients in intensive care unit experience delirium, which is associated with fewer factual memories and more memories of delusions. Short Form-36 might not be sensitive to delirium-related outcomes. Future research should include the development of better assessment tools to determine...... the long-term consequences of intensive care unit delirium. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: We recommend regular assessment to prevent, detect and treat delirium. We also recommend an intensive care unit follow-up programme providing an opportunity for postintensive care unit patients, particularly...

  2. Short and long-term quality of life after reconstruction of bladder exstrophy in infancy: preliminary results of the QUALEX (QUAlity of Life of bladder EXstrophy) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochault-Ritz, Sandy; Mercier, Mariette; Aubert, Didier

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess quality of life (QOL) of patients born with bladder exstrophy (BE) and reconstructed during early childhood in 7 French university hospitals (QUALEX study: QUAlity of Life of bladder EXstrophy). Patients from 6 to 42 years old answered self-administered Short-Form 36 (SF-36), VSP-A (Vécu et Santé Perçue de l'Adolescent), VSP-AE (Vécu et Santé Perçue de l'Enfant), AUQUIE (AUto-QUestionnaire Imagé de l'Enfant), and general questionnaires about functional and socioeconomic data. Dimension scores were compared between adults and adolescents using SF-36 and adolescents and children using VSP-AE. Scores were also compared to the general French population. Among the 134 eligible patients, 36 adults, 18 adolescents, and 17 children answered the questionnaire. There was no difference between responders and nonresponders in reconstruction criteria. Continence was achieved in 77% of adults, 65% of adolescents, and 12% of children. Adolescent QOL was globally superior to adults and children. Adult QOL was globally lower than the general population except on the physical dimension. Children's QOL was also globally lower than the general population except for relations with family and school work. Adolescents' scores on SF-36 were superior to the general population but lower on half of the dimensions with VSP-AE. Patients presenting with reconstructed BE have impaired QOL, and functional results seem to be the most likely predictive factor of health-related QOL score. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Health status, physical activity, and orthorexia nervosa: A comparison between exercise science students and business students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmborg, Julia; Bremander, Ann; Olsson, M Charlotte; Bergman, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Orthorexia nervosa is described as an exaggerated fixation on healthy food. It is unclear whether students in health-oriented academic programs, highly focused on physical exercise, are more prone to develop orthorexia nervosa than students in other educational areas. The aim was to compare health status, physical activity, and frequency of orthorexia nervosa between university students enrolled in an exercise science program (n = 118) or a business program (n = 89). The students completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and ORTO-15, which defines orthorexia nervosa as a sensitive and obsessive behavior towards healthy nutrition. The SF-36 showed that exercise science students scored worse than business students regarding bodily pain (72.8 vs. 82.5; p = 0.001), but better regarding general health (83.1 vs. 77.1; p = 0.006). Of 188 students, 144 (76.6%) had an ORTO-15 score indicating orthorexia nervosa, with a higher proportion in exercise science students than in business students (84.5% vs. 65.4%; p = 0.002). Orthorexia nervosa in combination with a high level of physical activity was most often seen in men in exercise science studies and less often in women in business studies (45.1% vs. 8.3%; p orthorexia nervosa in exercise science students may cause problems in the future, since they are expected to coach others in healthy living. Our findings may be valuable in the development of health-oriented academic programs and within student healthcare services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality of life and sexual health after sex reassignment surgery in transsexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierckx, Katrien; Van Caenegem, Eva; Elaut, Els; Dedecker, David; Van de Peer, Fleur; Toye, Kaatje; Weyers, Steven; Hoebeke, Piet; Monstrey, Stan; De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2011-12-01

    Although sexual health after genital surgery is an important outcome factor for many transsexual persons, little attention has been attributed to this subject. To provide data on quality of life and sexual health after sex reassignment surgery (SRS) in transsexual men. A single-center, cross-sectional study in 49 transsexual men (mean age 37 years) after long-term testosterone therapy and on average 8 years after SRS. Ninety-four percent of the participants had phalloplasty. Self-reported physical and mental health using the Dutch version of the Short Form-36 Health Survey; sexual functioning before and after SRS using a newly constructed specific questionnaire. Compared with a Dutch reference population of community-dwelling men, transsexual men scored well on self-perceived physical and mental health. The majority reported having been sexually active before hormone treatment, with more than a quarter having been vaginally penetrated frequently before starting hormone therapy. There was a tendency toward less vaginal involvement during hormone therapy and before SRS. Most participants reported an increase in frequency of masturbation, sexual arousal, and ability to achieve orgasm after testosterone treatment and SRS. Almost all participants were able to achieve orgasm during masturbation and sexual intercourse, and the majority reported a change in orgasmic feelings toward a more powerful and shorter orgasm. Surgical satisfaction was high, despite a relatively high complication rate. Results of the current study indicate transsexual men generally have a good quality of life and experience satisfactory sexual function after SRS. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Short bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, L.G.J.B.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of short bowel syndrome. When approximately 1 m or less small bowel is retained after extensive resection, a condition called short bowel syndrome is present. Since the advent of parenteral nutrition, the prognosis of patients with a very short bowel has dramatically improved. Patients with 40 to 100 cm remaining jejunum and/or ileum can generally be maintained with oral nutrition due to increased absorption of the small bowel remnant as result of intestinal adaptation. This study reports clinical, biochemical and nutritional aspects of short bowel patients on oral or parenteral nutrition, emphasizing data on absorption of various nutrients and on bone metabolism. Furthermore, some technical apsects concerning long-term parenteral nutrition are discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Catapults fall short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    In reply to the news story "UK Catapults fall short, claims review of technology centres", which describes an independent review that criticized the management of the UK's network of technology innovation centres.

  7. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    1984-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  8. The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (PCOSQ): a validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G L; Benes, K; Clark, T L; Denham, R; Holder, M G; Haynes, T J; Mulgrew, N C; Shepherd, K E; Wilkinson, V H; Singh, M; Balen, A; Lashen, H; Ledger, W L

    2004-02-01

    We wished to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ), a questionnaire developed to measure the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. To assess reliability and validity, women recruited from an outpatient gynaecology clinic at the Jessop Wing, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield completed two copies of the PCOSQ and the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Secondary factor analysis was carried out to verify the composition of the dimensions. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess face validity. Of the 92 women who consented, 82 women (89%) returned questionnaires at time 1, and 69 women (75%) returned questionnaires at time 2. All five PCOSQ dimensions were internally reliable with Cronbach's alpha scores ranging from 0.70 to 0.97. Intra-class correlation coefficients to evaluate test-retest reliability were high (range 0.89-0.95, P PCOSQ (0.49 and 0.54). Acne was identified as an important area of HRQoL missing from the questionnaire. The PCOSQ is a reliable instrument for measuring the HRQoL in women with PCOS. However, the validity of the questionnaire needs to be improved by incorporating a dimension on acne into the instrument.

  9. Health-related quality of life outcome for oral cancer survivors after surgery and postoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Fu-Min; Chien, Chih-Yen; Wang, Chong-Jong; Tsai, Wen-Ling; Chiu, Herng-Chia

    2004-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) data are becoming an important supplement to information pertaining to treatment outcome for cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the HRQL outcome for oral cancer survivors after surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and to investigate the variables associated with their HRQL. Sixty-six oral cancer patients with cancer-free survival after surgery plus postoperative RT of >2 years were enrolled. The Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire in the Taiwan Chinese version was self-reported by all participants at the clinics. The linear regression model was used to analyze the socio-demographic and medical-related variables correlated with the physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) in SF-36. The mean scores of the eight functional domains in the SF-36 were markedly lower for oral cancer survivors compared with the Taiwanese and US norms. Those with older age, lower annual family income, more advanced cancer stage and flap reconstruction had significantly worse PCS, and those with lower annual family income, unemployment and more advanced cancer stage reported significantly worse MCS. This model accounts for 63% of variance in PCS, and 51% in MCS. These results provided patient-reported evidence that oral cancer survivors lived with a worse HRQL compared with the general Taiwanese population. Socio-economic factors and cancer stage were important factors correlated with their HRQL. (authors)

  10. Imaging in short stature

    OpenAIRE

    Vikas Chaudhary; Shahina Bano

    2012-01-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions ...

  11. Report on short course in educational methodology for university teachers in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) disciplines - a pilot study conducted at Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Ahmed R; Prem, Kumar D

    2016-03-01

    There is a growing awareness among teachers in the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) disciplines that a formal training in educational methodology can improve their performance as teachers and student evaluators. The Training of Trainers programs conducted by Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, in the previous years have brought about a transformation among the teachers who attended those programs. Also the teachers were witness to a changing perception among students towards teachers who adapt innovative teaching/assessment strategies. This report illustrates an innovative training activity that was adapted to design a reference model that can be developed as an operational model for large-scale execution. Teachers who are under the affiliated CAM Institutions in Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, participated in a three-month 'Short Course in Educational Methodology'. This program was delivered on distance learning mode. The course was organised into four modules. Study material was provided for each of the module in the form of a study guide and related reference articles in electronic form. There were three contact programs - Induction and Introduction that also addressed overview of entire course and the subject matter of Module 1, and this was at the beginning of the course, first contact program to address the learner needs of Modules 2 and 3 and second contact program for the contents in Module 4. The participants were engaged during the entire course duration with interactive contact programs, self-study and application of concepts in their teaching/assessment practices, submission of assignments online, and microteaching presentation and peer review. The documentation and raw data generated during the course of training were used to generate an operational model for training of university teachers of health sciences faculty in general and teachers of CAM disciplines in particular. Establishing a model of

  12. Role stress, role reward, and mental health in a multiethnic sample of midlife women: results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza di Scalea, Teresa; Matthews, Karen A; Avis, Nancy E; Thurston, Rebecca C; Brown, Charlotte; Harlow, Sioban; Bromberger, Joyce T

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about the independent associations of reward and stress within specific roles with multiple measures of mental health in an ethnically diverse community sample of midlife women. The objective of this study is to examine if (1) role reward (within each role and across roles) contributes directly to mental health and buffers the negative impact of role stress and (2) associations among role occupancy, role stress, and role reward and mental health vary by race/ethnicity. With separate logistic regression analysis, we investigated cross-sectional relationships between role stress and role reward with presence/absence of high depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D≥16]), anxiety symptoms (feeling tense or nervous, irritable or grouchy, fearful for no reason, and heart pounding or racing total score≥4), or low social functioning (bottom 25th percentile of the Short-Form-36 [SF-36] social functioning subscale) in 2549 women participating in the third visit of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a longitudinal population-based study of menopause. High reward across roles attenuated the negative impact of role stress on social functioning but not on anxiety or depression. High reward marriage buffered the impact of marital stress on depression, and high reward mothering buffered the effect of maternal stress on depression and social functioning. Compared to Caucasians, Hispanics and Chinese with high stress across roles had better social functioning, and African American mothers had lower odds of high depressive symptoms. Role reward buffers the negative impact of stress on social functioning and depression, but not on anxiety. Minorities may respond to role stress by seeking social support.

  13. Comparison of a short version of the Food Frequency Questionnaire with its long version--a cross-sectional analysis in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannato, Livia Welter; Pereira, Taisa Sabrina Silva; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Benseñor, Isabela Martins; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2015-01-01

    The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is the preferred instrument for obtaining dietary information in epidemiological studies. A short form of the FFQ was compared with the original version that was used in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), and also with three 24-hour dietary recalls. Cross-sectional study carried out in six Brazilian state capitals. Multiple linear regression was used to reduce the original food and drink list of the FFQ, which had contained 114 food items. The frequency of consumption and nutritional composition of the foods were also taken into consideration. To assess the validity of the shortened FFQ, the energy and nutrients values of the 24-hour dietary recalls were deattenuated and log-transformed. The list of the FFQ of ELSA-Brasil was reduced to 76 food items. The intraclass correlation coefficients in the validation study ranged from 0.17 (selenium) to 0.66 (calcium). The number of items was reduced by 33%, while still maintaining relatively good capacity to measure energy and selected nutrients.

  14. Greater dyspnea is associated with lower health-related quality of life among European patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruenberger JB

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Bernard Gruenberger,1 Jeffrey Vietri,2 Dorothy L Keininger,1 Donald A Mahler3 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Basel-Stadt, Switzerland; 2Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, Horsham, PA, 3Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, USA Objective: Dyspnea is a defining symptom in the classification and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, the degree of variation in burden among symptomatic COPD patients and the possible correlates of burden remain unclear. This study was conducted to characterize patients in Europe currently being treated for COPD according to the level of dyspnea in terms of sociodemographics, health-related quality of life, work productivity impairment, and health care resource use assessed by patient reports.Methods: Data were derived from the 5-EU 2013 National Health and Wellness Survey (N=62,000. Respondents aged ≥40 years who reported currently using a prescription for COPD were grouped according to their level of dyspnea as per the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines and compared on health status (revised Short Form 36 [SF-36]v2, work impairment (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire, and number of health care visits in the past 6 months using generalized linear models with appropriate distributions and link functions.Results: Of the 768 respondents who met the inclusion criteria, 245 (32% were considered to have higher dyspnea (equivalent to modified Medical Research Council score ≥2. Higher dyspnea was associated with decrements ranging from 3.9 to 8.2 points in all eight domains of the SF-36 health profile after adjustment for sociodemographics, general health characteristics, and length of COPD diagnosis; mental component summary scores and Short Form-6D health utility scores were lower by 3.5 and 0.06 points, respectively. Adjusted mean activity impairment (55% vs 37%, P<0.001 and

  15. Health-related quality of life in patients with skull base tumours.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, M O

    2012-02-03

    The objective of the investigation was to report on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients diagnosed with skull base tumours using the Short Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36). Those patients suffering with vestibular schwannoma were examined to determine the effect facial nerve function had on their quality of life. It took place at the tertiary referral centre at the Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. A prospective study of 70 consecutive patients was taken, who harboured the following tumours: 54 vestibular schwannomas, 13 meningiomas, two haemangioblastomas and one hypoglossal schwannoma. Patients were interviewed using the short form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Facial nerve function was assessed in those patients who had vestibular schwannomas. The entire cohort of live skull base patients were assessed after a median follow-up time of 38.4 months. Patients with vestibular schwannoma treated conservatively with interval MRI had a quality of life similar to t he normal population. Those who underwent surgery had a significant difference in two of the SF-36 domains. No statistically significant correlation was found at final assessment between the degree of facial nerve functioning and any of the domains of SF-36. Patients with non-vestibular tumours had an impaired HRQoL in seven of the eight domains. Patients with skull base tumours have a significant impairment of their HRQoL. A conservative policy of follow up with interval MRI for patients with small vestibular schwannomas may therefore be more appropriate to preserve their HRQoL. Facial nerve outcome has little influence on quality of life in vestibular schwannoma patients.

  16. Comprehensive and subacute care interventions improve health-related quality of life for older patients after surgery for hip fracture: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Yea-Ing L; Liang, Jersey; Tseng, Ming-Yueh; Li, Hsiao-Juan; Wu, Chi-Chuan; Cheng, Huey-Shinn; Chou, Shih-Wei; Chen, Ching-Yen; Yang, Ching-Tzu

    2013-08-01

    Elderly patients with hip fracture have been found to benefit from subacute care interventions that usually comprise usual care with added geriatric intervention, early rehabilitation, and supported discharge. However, no studies were found on the effects of combining subacute care and health-maintenance interventions on health outcomes for elders with hip fracture. To compare the effects of an interdisciplinary comprehensive care programme with those of subacute care and usual care programmes on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for elderly patients with hip fracture. Randomised controlled trial. A 3000-bed medical centre in northern Taiwan. Patients with hip fracture (N=299) were randomised into three groups: subacute care (n=101), comprehensive care (n=99), and usual care (n=99). Subacute care included geriatric consultation, continuous rehabilitation, and discharge planning. Comprehensive care consisted of subacute care plus health-maintenance interventions to manage depressive symptoms, manage malnutrition, and prevent falls. Usual care included only 1-2 in-hospital rehabilitation sessions, discharge planning without environmental assessment, no geriatric consultation, and no in-home rehabilitation. HRQoL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 Taiwan version at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after discharge. Participants in the comprehensive care group improved more in physical function, role physical, general health and mental health than those in the usual care group. The subacute care group had greater improvement in physical function, role physical, vitality, and social function than the usual care group. The intervention effects for both comprehensive and subacute care increased over time, specifically from 6 months after hip fracture onward, and reached a maximum at 12 months following discharge. Both comprehensive care and subacute care programmes may improve health outcomes of elders with hip fracture. Our results may provide a

  17. Mental and physical health correlates among family caregivers of patients with newly-diagnosed incurable cancer: a hierarchical linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kelly M; Jacobs, Jamie M; Nipp, Ryan D; Carr, Alaina; Jackson, Vicki A; Park, Elyse R; Pirl, William F; El-Jawahri, Areej; Gallagher, Emily R; Greer, Joseph A; Temel, Jennifer S

    2017-03-01

    Caregiver, relational, and patient factors have been associated with the health of family members and friends providing care to patients with early-stage cancer. Little research has examined whether findings extend to family caregivers of patients with incurable cancer, who experience unique and substantial caregiving burdens. We examined correlates of mental and physical health among caregivers of patients with newly-diagnosed incurable lung or non-colorectal gastrointestinal cancer. At baseline for a trial of early palliative care, caregivers of participating patients (N = 275) reported their mental and physical health (Medical Outcome Survey-Short Form-36); patients reported their quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General). Analyses used hierarchical linear regression with two-tailed significance tests. Caregivers' mental health was worse than the U.S. national population (M = 44.31, p caregiver, relational, and patient factors simultaneously revealed that younger (B = 0.31, p = .001), spousal caregivers (B = -8.70, p = .003), who cared for patients reporting low emotional well-being (B = 0.51, p = .01) reported worse mental health; older (B = -0.17, p = .01) caregivers with low educational attainment (B = 4.36, p family caregivers of patients with incurable cancer, caregiver demographics, relational factors, and patient-specific factors were all related to caregiver mental health, while caregiver demographics were primarily associated with caregiver physical health. These findings help identify characteristics of family caregivers at highest risk of poor mental and physical health who may benefit from greater supportive care.

  18. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)

  19. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented

  20. Short bowel patients treated for two years with glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2): compliance, safety, and effects on quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, P B; Lund, P; Gottschalck, I B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) has been shown to improve intestinal absorption in short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients in a short-term study. This study describes safety, compliance, and changes in quality of life in 11 SBS patients at baseline, week 13, 26, and 52 during two...... years of subcutaneous GLP-2 treatment, 400 microgram TID, intermitted by an 8-week washout period. METHODS: Safety and compliance was evaluated during the admissions. The Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), Short Form 36 (SF 36), and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) evaluated quality of life......-ascendo-anastomosis. The investigator excluded a patient due to unreliable feedback. Stoma nipple enlargement was seen in all 9 jejunostomy patients. Reported GLP-2 compliance was excellent (>93%). GLP-2 improved the overall quality of life VAS-score (4.1 +/- 2.8 cm versus 6.0 +/- 2.4 cm, P

  1. Short and long-term effects of supervised versus unsupervised exercise training on health-related quality of life and functional outcomes following lung cancer surgery - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocki, Barbara Cristina; Andreasen, Jane; Nielsen, Lene Rodkjaer; Nekrasas, Vytautas; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Surgical resection enhances long-term survival after lung cancer, but survivors face functional deficits and report on poor quality of life long time after surgery. This study evaluated short and long-term effects of supervised group exercise training on health-related quality of life and physical performance in patients, who were radically operated for lung cancer. A randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled trial was performed on 78 patients undergoing lung cancer surgery. The intervention group (IG, n=41) participated in supervised out-patient exercise training sessions, one hour once a week for ten weeks. The sessions were based on aerobic exercises with target intensity of 60-80% of work capacity, resistance training and dyspnoea management. The control group (CG, n=37) received one individual instruction in exercise training. Measurements consisted of: health-related quality of life (SF36), six minute walk test (6MWT) and lung function (spirometry), assessed three weeks after surgery and after four and twelve months. Both groups were comparable at baseline on demographic characteristic and outcome values. We found a statistically significant effect after four months in the bodily pain domain of SF36, with an estimated mean difference (EMD) of 15.3 (95% CI:4 to 26.6, p=0.01) and a trend in favour of the intervention for role physical functioning (EMD 12.04, 95% CI: -1 to 25.1, p=0.07) and physical component summary (EMD 3.76, 95% CI:-0.1 to 7.6, p=0.06). At 12 months, the tendency was reversed, with the CG presenting overall slightly better measures. We found no effect of the intervention on 6MWT or lung volumes at any time-point. Supervised compared to unsupervised exercise training resulted in no improvement in health-related quality of life, except for the bodily pain domain, four months after lung cancer surgery. No effects of the intervention were found for any outcome after one year. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinically important deterioration in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery: a choice of evaluation methods using the Oswestry Disability Index, 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, and pain scales: clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, Jeffrey L; Glassman, Steven D; Carreon, Leah Y

    2013-11-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures have become the mainstay for outcome appraisal in spine surgery. Clinically meaningful interpretation of HRQOL improvement has centered on the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). The purpose of this study was to calculate clinically important deterioration (CIDET) thresholds and determine a CIDET value for each HRQOL measure for patients undergoing lumbar fusion. Seven hundred twenty-two patients (248 males, 127 smokers, mean age 60.8 years) were identified with complete preoperative and 1-year postoperative HRQOLs including the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and numeric rating scales (0-10) for back and leg pain following primary, instrumented, posterior lumbar fusion. Anchor-based and distribution-based methods were used to calculate CIDET for each HRQOL. Anchor-based methods included change score, change difference, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The Health Transition Item, an independent item of the SF-36, was used as the external anchor. Patients who responded "somewhat worse" and "much worse" were combined and compared with patients responding "about the same." Distribution-based methods were minimum detectable change and effect size. Diagnoses included spondylolisthesis (n = 332), scoliosis (n = 54), instability (n = 37), disc pathology (n = 146), and stenosis (n = 153). There was a statistically significant change (p < 0.0001) for each HRQOL measure from preoperatively to 1-year postoperatively. Only 107 patients (15%) reported being "somewhat worse" (n = 81) or "much worse" (n = 26). Calculation methods yielded a range of CIDET values for ODI (0.17-9.06), SF-36 physical component summary (-0.32 to 4.43), back pain (0.02-1.50), and leg pain (0.02-1.50). A threshold for clinical deterioration was difficult to identify. This may be due to the small number of patients reporting being worse after surgery and the variability across

  3. Short-term and sustained effects of a health system strengthening intervention to improve mortality trends for paediatric severe malnutrition in rural South African hospitals: An interrupted time series design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Muzigaba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Case fatality rates for childhood severe acute malnutrition (SAM remain high in some resource-limited facilities in South Africa (SA, despite the widespread availability of the World Health Organization treatment guidelines. There is a need to develop reproducible interventions that reinforce the implementation of these guidelines and assess their effect and sustainability. Objectives. To assess the short-term and sustained effects of a health system strengthening intervention on mortality attributable to SAM in two hospitals located in the Eastern Cape Province of SA. Methods. This was a theory-driven evaluation conducted in two rural hospitals in SA over a 69-month period (2009 - 2014. In both facilities, a health system strengthening intervention was implemented within the first 32 months, and thereafter discontinued. Sixty-nine monthly data series were collected on: (i monthly total SAM case fatality rate (CFR; (ii monthly SAM CFR within 24 hours of admission; and (iii monthly SAM CFR among HIV-positive cases, to determine the intervention’s effect within the first 32 months and sustainability over the remaining 37 months. The data were analysed using Linden’s method for analysing interrupted time series data. Results. The study revealed that the intervention was associated with a statistically significant decrease of up to 0.4% in monthly total SAM CFR, a non-statistically significant decrease of up to 0.09% in monthly SAM CFR within 24 hours of admission and a non-statistically significant decrease of up to 0.11% in monthly SAM CFR among HIV-positive cases. The decrease in mortality trends for both outcomes was only slightly reversed upon the discontinuation of the intervention. No autocorrelation was detected in the regression models generated during data analyses. Conclusion. The study findings suggest that although the intervention was designed to be self-sustaining, this may not have been the case. A qualitative enquiry

  4. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Crotti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Short QT Syndrome is a recently described new genetic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT interval, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This autosomal dominant syndrome can afflict infants, children, or young adults; often a remarkable family background of cardiac sudden death is elucidated. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, with atrial fibrillation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. Gain of function mutations in three genes encoding K+ channels have been identified, explaining the abbreviated repolarization seen in this condition: KCNH2 for Ikr (SQT1, KCNQ1 for Iks (SQT2 and KCNJ2 for Ik1 (SQT3. The currently suggested therapeutic strategy is an ICD implantation, although many concerns exist for asymptomatic patients, especially in pediatric age. Pharmacological treatment is still under evaluation; quinidine has shown to prolong QT and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, but awaits additional confirmatory clinical data.

  5. Short notice inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouchkarev, V.

    1998-01-01

    For 30 years the IAEA safeguards system have evolved and have been strengthened by the regular introduction of new methods and techniques, improving both its effectiveness and efficiency. The member States of the IAEA have indicated their willingness to accept new obligations and associated technical measure that greatly strengthen the nuclear safeguards system. One element of this is the extent to which the IAEA inspectors have physical access to relevant locations for the purpose of providing independent verification of the exclusively peaceful intent of a State nuclear program. The Protocol to Safeguards granted new legal authority with respect to information on, and short notice inspector access to, all buildings on a nuclear site and administrative agreements that improve the process of designating inspectors and IAEA access to modern means of communication. This report is a short description of unannounced or short notice inspections as measures on which the new strengthened and cost efficient system will be based

  6. Social capital dynamics and health in mid to later life: findings from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Welsh, Jennifer; Kendig, Hal

    2018-05-01

    The influence of social capital has been shown to improve health and wellbeing. This study investigates the relationship between changes in social capital and health outcomes during a 6-year follow-up in mid to later life in Australia. Nationally representative data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey included participants aged 45 years and over who responded in 2006, 2010 and 2012 (N = 3606). Each of the three components of social capital (connectedness, trust and participation) was measured in Waves 2006 and 2010 and categorised as: 'never low', 'transitioned to low', 'transitioned out of low' and 'consistently low'. Health outcomes in 2012 included self-rated overall health, physical functioning, and mental health based on the Short Form 36-item health survey (SF-36). Multivariable logistic regression assessed changes in social capital (measured in 2006 and 2010) predicted poor health (measured in 2012), adjusting for covariates. Consistently low trust was significantly associated with higher odds of transitions into poor physical functioning (AOR 1.54; 95% Confidence Interval 1.06-1.22), poor mental health (AOR 1.59; 95% CI 1.08-2.36) and poor self-rated health (AOR 1.86; 95% CI 1.27-2.72). Transition into low trust was also a predictor of poor self-rated health after adjusting for covariates (AOR 1.74; 95% CI 1.11-2.73). Changes in social connectedness in both directions (transitioned out of and into low) were statistically associated with poor self-rated health (AORs 1.40; 95% CI 1.00-1.97 and 1.61; 95% CI 1.11-2.34, respectively) after adjusting for confounders as well as other social capital components. Our longitudinal findings reveal social capital dynamics and effects on health in mid to later life. Social trust and connectedness could be important enablers for older persons to be more active in the community and potentially benefit their health and wellbeing over time.

  7. Quality of Life in rural and urban populations in Lebanon using SF-36 Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retel-Rude Nathalie

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring health status in a population is important for the evaluation of interventions and the prediction of health and social care needs. Quality of life (QoL studies are an essential complement to medical evaluation but most of the tools available in this area are in English. In order to evaluated QoL in rural and urban areas in Lebanon, the short form 36 health survey (SF-36 was adapted into Arabic. Methods SF-36 was administered in a cross-sectional study, to collect sociodemographic and environmental variables as well as self reported morbidity. We analysed a representative sample containing 1632 subjects, from whom we randomly picked 524 subjects aged 14 years and over. The translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the SF-36 followed the International Quality of Life Assessment methodology. Multivariate analysis (generalized linear model was performed to test the effect of habitat (rural on urban areas on all domains of the SF-36. Results The rate of missing data is very low (0.23% of items. Item level validation supported the assumptions underlying Likert scoring. SF-36 scale scores showed wide variability and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.70, factor analysis yielded patterns of factor correlation comparable to that found in the U.S.A and France. Patients resident in rural areas had higher vitality scores than those in urban areas. Older people reported more satisfaction with some domains of life than younger people, except for physical functioning. The QoL of women is poorer than men; certain symptoms and morbidity independently influence the domains of SF-36 in this population. Conclusion The results support the validity of the SF-36 Arabic version. Habitat has a minor influence on QoL, women had a poor QoL, and health problems had differential impact on QoL.

  8. Quality of Life in rural and urban populations in Lebanon using SF-36 Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Ibtissam; Drouby, Nabil; Sabbah, Sanaa; Retel-Rude, Nathalie; Mercier, Mariette

    2003-01-01

    Background Measuring health status in a population is important for the evaluation of interventions and the prediction of health and social care needs. Quality of life (QoL) studies are an essential complement to medical evaluation but most of the tools available in this area are in English. In order to evaluated QoL in rural and urban areas in Lebanon, the short form 36 health survey (SF-36) was adapted into Arabic. Methods SF-36 was administered in a cross-sectional study, to collect sociodemographic and environmental variables as well as self reported morbidity. We analysed a representative sample containing 1632 subjects, from whom we randomly picked 524 subjects aged 14 years and over. The translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the SF-36 followed the International Quality of Life Assessment methodology. Multivariate analysis (generalized linear model) was performed to test the effect of habitat (rural on urban areas) on all domains of the SF-36. Results The rate of missing data is very low (0.23% of items). Item level validation supported the assumptions underlying Likert scoring. SF-36 scale scores showed wide variability and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.70), factor analysis yielded patterns of factor correlation comparable to that found in the U.S.A and France. Patients resident in rural areas had higher vitality scores than those in urban areas. Older people reported more satisfaction with some domains of life than younger people, except for physical functioning. The QoL of women is poorer than men; certain symptoms and morbidity independently influence the domains of SF-36 in this population. Conclusion The results support the validity of the SF-36 Arabic version. Habitat has a minor influence on QoL, women had a poor QoL, and health problems had differential impact on QoL. PMID:12952543

  9. Predictors of health-related quality of life in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afendy, A; Kallman, J B; Stepanova, M; Younoszai, Z; Aquino, R D; Bianchi, G; Marchesini, G; Younossi, Z M

    2009-09-01

    Patient-reported outcomes like health-related quality of life (HRQL) have become increasingly important for full assessment of patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). To explore the relative impact of different types of liver disease on HRQL as well as predictors of HRQL domains in CLD. Our HRQL databases with Short-Form 36 (SF-36) data were used. Scores for each of SF-36 scales (PF - physical functioning, RP - role functioning, BP - bodily pain, GH - general health, VT - vitality, SF - social functioning, RE - role emotional and MH - mental health, MCS - mental component score, PCS - physical component score) were compared between different types of CLD as well as other variables. Complete data were available for 1103 CLD patients. Demographic and clinical data included: age 54.2 +/- 12.0 years, 40% female, 761 (69%) with cirrhosis. Analysis revealed that age correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with worsening HRQL on every scale of the SF-36. Female patients had more HRQL impairments in PF, RP, BP, GH, VT and MH scales of SF-36 (Delta scale score: 6.6-10.7, P < 0.05). Furthermore, cirrhotic patients had more impairment of HRQL in every scale of SF-36 (Delta scale score: 6.6-43.0, P < 0.05). In terms of diagnostic groups, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients showed more impairment of HRQL. Analysis of this large CLD cohort suggests that a number of important clinicodemographic factors are associated with HRQL impairment. These findings contribute to the full understanding of the total impact of CLD on patients' health.

  10. Validation of the SF-6D Health State Utilities Measure in Lower Extremity Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Gundle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Health state utilities measures are preference-weighted patient-reported outcome (PRO instruments that facilitate comparative effectiveness research. One such measure, the SF-6D, is generated from the Short Form 36 (SF-36. This report describes a psychometric evaluation of the SF-6D in a cross-sectional population of lower extremity sarcoma patients. Methods. Patients with lower extremity sarcoma from a prospective database who had completed the SF-36 and Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS were eligible for inclusion. Computed SF-6D health states were given preference weights based on a prior valuation. The primary outcome was correlation between the SF-6D and TESS. Results. In 63 pairs of surveys in a lower extremity sarcoma population, the mean preference-weighted SF-6D score was 0.59 (95% CI 0.4–0.81. The distribution of SF-6D scores approximated a normal curve (skewness = 0.11. There was a positive correlation between the SF-6D and TESS (r=0.75, P<0.01. Respondents who reported walking aid use had lower SF-6D scores (0.53 versus 0.61, P=0.03. Five respondents underwent amputation, with lower SF-6D scores that approached significance (0.48 versus 0.6, P=0.06. Conclusions. The SF-6D health state utilities measure demonstrated convergent validity without evidence of ceiling or floor effects. The SF-6D is a health state utilities measure suitable for further research in sarcoma patients.

  11. Distance saturation product predicts health-related quality of life among sarcoidosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, Julie M; Malaisamy, Subramanian; Dalal, Bhavinkumar D; Samarakoon, Priyan C; Parikh, Swapna R; Samavati, Lobelia

    2012-06-13

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic disease with different phenotypic manifestations. Health-related quality of life is an important aspect in sarcoidosis, yet difficult to measure. The objective of this study was to identify clinical markers predictive of poor quality of life in sarcoidosis patients that can be followed over time and targeted for intervention. We assessed the quality of life of 162 patients with confirmed sarcoidosis in a prospective, cross-sectional study using the Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire (SHQ) and Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). We evaluated the validity of these questionnaires and sought to identify variables that would best explain the performance scores of the patients. On multivariate regression analyses, the very best composite model to predict total scores from both surveys was a model containing the distance-saturation product and Borg Dyspnea Scale score at the end of a 6-min walk test. This model could better predict SF-36 scores (R² = 0.33) than SHQ scores (R² = 0.24). Substitution of distanced walked in 6 min for the distance-saturation product in this model resulted in a lesser ability to predict both scores (R² = 0.26 for SF-36; R² = 0.22 for SHQ). Both the SHQ and SF-36 surveys are valuable tools in the assessment of health-related quality of life in sarcoidosis patients. The best model to predict quality of life among these patients, as determined by regression analyses, included the distance-saturation product and Borg score after the 6-min walk test. Both variables represent easily obtainable clinical parameters that can be followed over time and targeted for intervention.

  12. Detecting short circuits during assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Detector circuit identifies shorts between bus bars of electronic equipment being wired. Detector sounds alarm and indicates which planes are shorted. Power and ground bus bars are scanned continuously until short circuit occurs.

  13. Short wavelength FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs

  14. Short wavelength FELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Associations between different types of physical activity and teachers' perceived mental, physical, and work-related health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Inge; De Martelaer, Kristine; Deforche, Benedicte; Clarys, Peter; Zinzen, Evert

    2014-05-30

    The teaching profession is characterized by high levels of stress and physical complaints, which might be improved through regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, the effect of PA on mental and physical health is not always consistent and depends on the type of PA performed. The aim of this study was to examine the mental, physical, and work-related health of Flemish secondary school teachers and identify the impact on those health variables by demographic and teaching-related factors and various types of PA. This study included an online survey conducted across a representative sample of secondary school teachers (n = 1066, average age 40 years; 68 percent female). Level of PA and sitting time were estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and perceived mental health and physical health were estimated using the Short Form 36. Work-related factors such as job satisfaction, occupational stress, and absenteeism were also collected. T-tests, ANOVAs, and linear regression analyses were performed. Flemish secondary school teachers have poorer perceived mental and physical health than a general healthy population. This difference is particularly evident among female teachers, who reported lower perceived health, more occupational stress, and more absent days compared to their male colleagues. Higher participation in leisure-time PA was associated with a more positive perceived health. In contrast, higher levels of occupational PA and sitting time had a negative impact on perceived health. Total amount of PA, total amount of moderate-to-vigorous PA, transportation-related PA, and PA at home were not associated to teachers' perceived health. Because secondary school teachers' levels of perceived health are low, they are an important target group for interventions aiming to improve health. Only leisure-time PA was associated with more positive perceived health. This finding may indicate that teachers performing more exercise

  16. Associations between different types of physical activity and teachers’ perceived mental, physical, and work-related health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The teaching profession is characterized by high levels of stress and physical complaints, which might be improved through regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, the effect of PA on mental and physical health is not always consistent and depends on the type of PA performed. The aim of this study was to examine the mental, physical, and work-related health of Flemish secondary school teachers and identify the impact on those health variables by demographic and teaching-related factors and various types of PA. Methods This study included an online survey conducted across a representative sample of secondary school teachers (n = 1066, average age 40 years; 68 percent female). Level of PA and sitting time were estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and perceived mental health and physical health were estimated using the Short Form 36. Work-related factors such as job satisfaction, occupational stress, and absenteeism were also collected. T-tests, ANOVAs, and linear regression analyses were performed. Results Flemish secondary school teachers have poorer perceived mental and physical health than a general healthy population. This difference is particularly evident among female teachers, who reported lower perceived health, more occupational stress, and more absent days compared to their male colleagues. Higher participation in leisure-time PA was associated with a more positive perceived health. In contrast, higher levels of occupational PA and sitting time had a negative impact on perceived health. Total amount of PA, total amount of moderate-to-vigorous PA, transportation-related PA, and PA at home were not associated to teachers’ perceived health. Conclusion Because secondary school teachers’ levels of perceived health are low, they are an important target group for interventions aiming to improve health. Only leisure-time PA was associated with more positive perceived health. This finding may

  17. Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall health. For example, joint stiffness could mean arthritis. Tingling ... foot checks are an important part of your health care. If you have foot problems, be sure ...

  18. Differences in the health-related quality of life, affective status, and personality between irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalcić, Mladenka; Hauser, Goran; Stimac, Davor

    2010-07-01

    To investigate differences in the health-related quality of life (HRQoL), number of stressful life events, affective status, and some personality characteristics between patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) as well as their possible role in disease activity. Fifty-six IBS outpatients, age range 25-75 years (mean = 48.64; SD = 13.04) and 43 outpatients with IBD, age range 19-74 years (mean = 42.90; SD = 15.44), participated in this study. Patients filled out the following questionnaires: Short-Form 36 Health Survey, Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger's Trait-Anxiety Inventory, Big Five Inventory, and Stressful Life Events Questionnaire. There were significant differences in the physical component (F = 10.80, Ppersonality trait. The results of this study show that the patients with IBS are more prone to the effect of psychosocial variables on gastrointestinal symptoms compared with patients with organic gastrointestinal diseases such as IBD. IBS patients experienced a higher level of anxiety and expressed a higher level of neuroticism as a personality trait compared with IBD patients.

  19. Impact of windows and daylight exposure on overall health and sleep quality of office workers: a case-control pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubekri, Mohamed; Cheung, Ivy N; Reid, Kathryn J; Wang, Chia-Hui; Zee, Phyllis C

    2014-06-15

    This research examined the impact of daylight exposure on the health of office workers from the perspective of subjective well-being and sleep quality as well as actigraphy measures of light exposure, activity, and sleep-wake patterns. Participants (N = 49) included 27 workers working in windowless environments and 22 comparable workers in workplaces with significantly more daylight. Windowless environment is defined as one without any windows or one where workstations were far away from windows and without any exposure to daylight. Well-being of the office workers was measured by Short Form-36 (SF-36), while sleep quality was measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). In addition, a subset of participants (N = 21; 10 workers in windowless environments and 11 workers in workplaces with windows) had actigraphy recordings to measure light exposure, activity, and sleep-wake patterns. Workers in windowless environments reported poorer scores than their counterparts on two SF-36 dimensions--role limitation due to physical problems and vitality--as well as poorer overall sleep quality from the global PSQI score and the sleep disturbances component of the PSQI. Compared to the group without windows, workers with windows at the workplace had more light exposure during the workweek, a trend toward more physical activity, and longer sleep duration as measured by actigraphy. We suggest that architectural design of office environments should place more emphasis on sufficient daylight exposure of the workers in order to promote office workers' health and well-being.

  20. Effects of Pilates and trunk strengthening exercises on health-related quality of life in women with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofotolis, Nikolaos; Kellis, Eleftherios; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P; Gouitas, Iraklis; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-11-21

    Pilates programs are widely used as a form of regular exercise in a broad range of populations investigating their effectiveness for chronic low back pain (CLBP) treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a Pilates program and a trunk strengthening exercise program on functional disability and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in women with nonspecific CLBP. A total of 101 volunteer women with CLBP provided data with a 3-month follow-up. They were randomized to either a Pilates (n= 37), trunk strengthening exercise (n= 36) or a control group (n= 28), exercising for a period of 8 weeks, three times a week. Data were collected on HRQOL using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36v2), and functional disability using the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire prior to program initiation, mid-intervention, immediately after program termination, and three months post-intervention. The Pilates participants reported greater improvements on self-reported functional disability and HRQOL compared with participants in the trunk strengthening exercise and control groups (p Pilates group and to a lesser extent for the trunk strengthening exercise group. An 8-week Pilates program improved HRQOL and reduced functional disability more than either a trunk strengthening exercise program or controls among women with CLBP.

  1. Does a "one-stop" gynecology screening clinic for women in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families have an impact on their psychological morbidity and perception of health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N J; Munot, S; Sheridan, E; Duffy, S R

    2008-01-01

    Screening programs can reduce the burden of disease, however, they can be associated with raised levels of anxiety. The risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer is increased in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). There is no prospective evidence to support screening for gynecological disease in HNPCC, however, current recommendations include the use of ultrasound and endometrial biopsy. This study assesses the impact of screening for gynecological cancer on self-reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, and perceptions of health. Women from HNPCC families attending gynecological screening (n = 26) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the ShortForm36v2 questionnaires prior to screening with transvaginal ultrasound, outpatient/office hysteroscopy, endometrial biopsy, and ovarian tumor marker assessment (CA125). The same questionnaires were completed at 3 and 6 months following screening (15/26). Women in HNPCC families attending for gynecological screening did not have excess symptoms of anxiety or depression at baseline in subjective comparison to other populations. The process of screening and false positive screening results had no significant impact on symptoms of anxiety and depression or perceptions of health. We conclude that within the limitations of analysis in this small study group, screening for gynecological disease in HNPCC does not appear to be associated with any psychological morbidity.

  2. General anxiety, depression, and physical health in relation to symptoms of heart-focused anxiety- a cross sectional study among patients living with the risk of serious arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamang Anniken

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate the role of three distinct symptoms of heart-focused anxiety (cardio-protective avoidance, heart-focused attention, and fear about heart sensations in relation to general anxiety, depression and physical health in patients referred to specialized cardio-genetics outpatient clinics in Norway for genetic investigation and counseling. Methods Participants were 126 patients (mean age 45 years, 53.5% women. All patients were at higher risk than the average person for serious arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD because of a personal or a family history of an inherited cardiac disorder (familial long QT syndrome or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Patients filled in, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Short-Form 36 Health Survey, and Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire, two weeks before the scheduled counseling session. Results The patients experienced higher levels of general anxiety than expected in the general population (mean difference 1.1 (p Conclusion Avoidance and fear may be potentially modifiable symptoms. Because these distinct symptoms may have important roles in determining general anxiety, depression and physical health in at-risk individuals of inherited cardiac disorders, the present findings may have implications for the further development of genetic counseling for this patient group.

  3. Short-term impact of a stress management and health promotion program on perceived stress, parental stress, health locus of control, and cortisol levels in parents of children and adolescents with diabetes type 1: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouli, Eleni; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Chrousos, George; Darviri, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children and adolescents with diabetes type 1 (DT1) usually experience high stress levels, as they have to cope with multiple demands in their everyday life. Different complex interventions have been implemented, which sometimes have led to opposite results. The purpose of this study was to assess stress levels in parents of children and adolescents with DT1 and to evaluate the effectiveness of a stress management program (progressive muscle relaxation combined with diaphragmatic breathing) in reducing perceived and parenting stress, increasing internal locus of control, promoting healthy lifestyle, and normalizing cortisol levels. Randomized controlled trial. A total of 44 parents were randomly assigned to the intervention group (performing relaxation for eight weeks, n = 19) and control group (n = 25). Pre-post measurements included cortisol levels, lifestyle characteristics, perceived stress, perception of health, and parenting stress. A statistically significant decrease in perceived stress (from 27.21 to 19.00, P = .001), as well as in parenting stress (from 85.79 to 73.68, P = .003), was observed in the intervention group. A statistically significant difference was found in perceived stress between the two groups after the intervention (Dmean = 6.64, P = .010). No significant difference was revealed between or within the groups in cortisol levels. Significant improvement was reported by the subjects of the intervention group in various lifestyle parameters. Relaxation techniques seem to have a positive impact on stress and on various lifestyle factors in parents of children and adolescents with DT1. Future research on long-term benefits of an intervention program comprising of various relaxation schemes is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-perceived health care needs and delivery of health care services 5 years after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andelic, Nada; Soberg, Helene L; Berntsen, Svein; Sigurdardottir, Solrun; Roe, Cecilie

    2014-11-01

    To describe the self-perceived health care needs of patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to assess the impact of the functional level at 1 year after injury on patients' unmet needs at the 5-year follow-up. A prospective follow-up study. Clinical research. A total of 93 patients participated in the 5-year follow-up. We registered demographic and injury-related data at the time of admission and the scores for the Disability Rating Scale, Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, and Short Form 36 subscales for physical functioning and mental health at 1 and 5 years. The patients' self-perceived health care needs and use of health care services at 5 years were the main outcome measurements. At the 5-year follow-up, 70% of patients reported at least 1 perceived need. The self-perceived health care needs were met for 39% of the patients. The patients with unmet needs (n = 29 [31%]) reported frequent needs in emotional (65%), vocational (62%), and cognitive (58%) domains. These patients were significantly more likely to present a less severe disability on the Disability Rating Scale at the 1-year follow-up (odds ratio [OR] 0.11 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.02-0.7]; P = .02). Worse mental health at the 1-year follow-up and a younger age (16-29 years) largely predicted unmet needs at the 5-year follow-up (OR 3.28 [95% CI, 1.1-10.04], P = .04; and OR 4.93 [95% CI, 0.16-15.2], P = .005, respectively). Gaps between self-perceived health care needs and health care services received at the 5-year follow-up were found. An important message to clinicians who provide health care services in the late TBI phase is that they should be aware of patients' long-term needs regarding cognitive and emotional difficulties. Of equal importance is an emphasis on long-term vocational rehabilitation services. To ensure the appropriateness of health care service delivery, health care services after TBI should be better targeted at less-severe TBI population as well

  5. Cognitive Performance Is Related to Central Sensitization and Health-related Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders and Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Iris; Ickmans, Kelly; Cagnie, Barbara; Nijs, Jo; De Pauw, Robby; Noten, Suzie; Meeus, Mira

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has demonstrated that impaired central pain modulation or central sensitization (CS) is a crucial mechanism for the development of persistent pain in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence for cognitive dysfunctions among these patients. In addition, chronic WAD and FM patients often report problems with health-related quality of life (QoL). Yet, there is limited research concerning the interrelations between cognitive performance, indices of CS, and health-related QoL in these patients. (1) Examining the presence of cognitive impairment, CS, and limitations on health-related QoL in patients with chronic WAD and FM compared to healthy controls. (2) Examining interrelations between performance-based cognitive functioning, CS, and self-reported health-related QoL in these 3 study groups. A case-control study was conducted. The present study took place at the University Hospital Brussels, the University of Brussels, and the University of Antwerp. Fifty-nine patients (16 chronic WAD patients, 21 FM patients, and 22 pain-free volunteers) filled out the Short Form 36 item Health Survey (SF-36), a self-reported psychosocial questionnaire, to assess health-related QoL. Next, they were subjected to various pain measurements (pressure hyperalgesia, deep-tissue hyperalgesia, temporal summation [TS], and conditioned pain modulation [CPM]). Finally, participants completed a battery of performance-based cognitive tests (Stroop task, psychomotor vigilance task [PVT], and operation span task [OSPAN]). Significant cognitive impairment, bottom-up sensitization, and decreased health-related QoL were demonstrated in patients with chronic WAD and FM compared to healthy controls (P fibromyalgia, whiplash, central sensitization, conditioned pain modulation, temporal summation, cognition, quality of life.

  6. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Antzelevitch

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Long QT intervals in the ECG have long been associated with sudden cardiac death. The congenital long QT syndrome was first described in individuals with structurally normal hearts in 1957.1 Little was known about the significance of a short QT interval. In 1993, after analyzing 6693 consecutive Holter recordings Algra et al concluded that an increased risk of sudden death was present not only in patients with long QT interval, but also in patients with short QT interval (<400 ms.2 Because this was a retrospective analysis, further evaluation of the data was not possible. It was not until 2000 that a short-QT syndrome (SQTS was proposed as a new inherited clinical syndrome by Gussak et al.3 The initial report was of two siblings and their mother all of whom displayed persistently short QT interval. The youngest was a 17 year old female presenting with several episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation requiring electrical cardioversion.3 Her QT interval measured 280 msec at a heart rate of 69. Her 21 year old brother displayed a QT interval of 272 msec at a heart rate of 58, whereas the 51 year old mother showed a QT of 260 msec at a heart rate of 74. The authors also noted similar ECG findings in another unrelated 37 year old patient associated with sudden cardiac death.

  7. SHORT COMMUNICATION POTENTIOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. POTENTIOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF K+ IONS USING A K+-SELECTIVE. ELECTRODE WITH MACROCYCLIC LIQUID MEMBRANE. Cezar Spinu*, Marian Isvoranu, Maria Pleniceanu and Cristian Tigae. Faculty of Chemistry, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza 13, Craiova, Romania. (Received ...

  8. Biorefineries: A Short Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemann, Kurt; Tippkötter, Nils

    2018-04-13

    The terms bioeconomy and biorefineries are used for a variety of processes and developments. This short introduction is intended to provide a delimitation and clarification of the terminology as well as a classification of current biorefinery concepts. The basic process diagrams of the most important biorefinery types are shown.

  9. Cellulose Dressing Versus Rayon Dressing in Skin Graft Donor Sites: Aspects of Patients' Health-related Quality of Life and Self-esteem .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lydia M; Blanes, Leila; Gragnani, Alfredo; Veiga, Daniela F; Veiga, Frederico; Nery, Gilka B; Rocha, Gustavo H; Gomes, Heitor C; Rocha, Mario G; Okamoto, Regina

    2009-06-01

     Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and self-esteem of patients who underwent split-thickness skin grafting, when either cellulose dressings or rayon dressings were applied to the donor sites. A total of 25 patients, who were enrolled at five participant hospitals and required split-thickness skin grafting for various clinical reasons, were randomized into two treatment groups, the rayon dressing group (n = 13), or the cellulose dressing group (n = 12). All patients were assessed preoperatively and 60 days postoperatively. The HRQoL was assessed with the Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaire, and self-esteem was evaluated using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE)/UNIFESP-EPM (Brazilian versions). There were no surgery-related complications during the study period. In both treatment groups, SF-36 scores for emotional role, mental health, vitality, and general health decreased from baseline. RSE scores increased from baseline in both treatment groups, showing a reduction in self-esteem after treatment. There was a statistical difference (P = 0.024) in the SF-36 bodily pain domain for the rayon group. There were no significant differences in HRQoL and self-esteem between treatment groups. In the rayon-dressing group, there was a significant decrease in bodily pain from baseline .

  10. European study protocol: `Effect of short-term changes in urban air pollution on the respiratory health of children with chronic respiratory symptoms. The PEACE project, Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, W; Hoek, G; Brunekreef, B [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology and Public Health; and others

    1996-12-31

    Over the last decades, concentrations of air pollution components such as SO{sub 2} and airborne, coarse particulates have decreased in many areas in Europe. This decrease can be ascribed to emission abatement measures and changes in energy production for industrial processes and space heating. Levels of other pollutants such as NO{sub 2} have increased during the same period, mostly due to higher intensity of motor vehicle traffic. Older epidemiologic studies on health effects of air pollution used indicator pollutants such as SO{sub 2}, Total Suspended Particulate matter (TSP) and Black Smoke at extremely high levels. More recent studies using the same and other indicators such as PM10 (particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of 10 {mu}m) have shown effects of air pollution on mortality and morbidity at lower levels, even sometimes lower than current WHO air quality guidelines for Europe. These findings suggest that due to the changing composition of air pollution, effects of air pollution can be seen below levels of exposure which were thought to be safe. Another reason is that the recent studies are conducted at levels which were hard to find in earlier days. Therefore new, quantitative data are needed to evaluate the current guidelines and standards. In order to achieve this, standardization of methodology as well as the execution of epidemiologic studies using such standardized methodology is needed. In the framework of the ENVIRONMENT Research Programme of the Commission of the European Communities, a collaborative study was funded that sought to develop a standardized methodology for epidemiologic studies of effects short-term changes in air pollution on the respiratory system

  11. European study protocol: `Effect of short-term changes in urban air pollution on the respiratory health of children with chronic respiratory symptoms. The PEACE project, Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, W.; Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology and Public Health] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Over the last decades, concentrations of air pollution components such as SO{sub 2} and airborne, coarse particulates have decreased in many areas in Europe. This decrease can be ascribed to emission abatement measures and changes in energy production for industrial processes and space heating. Levels of other pollutants such as NO{sub 2} have increased during the same period, mostly due to higher intensity of motor vehicle traffic. Older epidemiologic studies on health effects of air pollution used indicator pollutants such as SO{sub 2}, Total Suspended Particulate matter (TSP) and Black Smoke at extremely high levels. More recent studies using the same and other indicators such as PM10 (particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of 10 {mu}m) have shown effects of air pollution on mortality and morbidity at lower levels, even sometimes lower than current WHO air quality guidelines for Europe. These findings suggest that due to the changing composition of air pollution, effects of air pollution can be seen below levels of exposure which were thought to be safe. Another reason is that the recent studies are conducted at levels which were hard to find in earlier days. Therefore new, quantitative data are needed to evaluate the current guidelines and standards. In order to achieve this, standardization of methodology as well as the execution of epidemiologic studies using such standardized methodology is needed. In the framework of the ENVIRONMENT Research Programme of the Commission of the European Communities, a collaborative study was funded that sought to develop a standardized methodology for epidemiologic studies of effects short-term changes in air pollution on the respiratory system

  12. Using personality traits to construct linear growth models of mental health in family members of individuals with severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Michael; Perrin, Paul B; Doser, Karoline; Norup, Anne

    2016-11-01

    No studies have examined the impact of personality traits on mental health among caregivers of individuals with severe brain injury. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to construct linear growth models to examine whether the personality traits of family members of individuals with severe brain injury could predict the trajectories of their own mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL), anxiety, and depression beginning in a neurointensive care unit through 1 year after injury. Danish family members of individuals with severe brain injury (n = 52) completed the Short Form-36 assessing mental HRQoL (vitality, social functioning, role limitations-emotional, mental health), anxiety, and depression across 5 time points during the 1st year after injury. The measure of personality was administered 3 months after the patients' discharge. All mental HRQoL, anxiety, and depression variables improved significantly over time. Caregivers who were less neurotic and less conscientious had higher vitality, social functioning, and mental health over time, whereas caregivers who were more agreeable had higher social functioning over time. Caregivers with lower neuroticism had lower anxiety and depression over time, as well as a more accelerated decrease in anxiety and depression. Caregivers' personality traits were strongly associated over time with mental HRQoL, anxiety, and depression, with neuroticism being especially important for trajectories of anxiety and depression. These results suggest that personality assessments for caregivers of individuals with severe brain injury could help identify those most at risk for poor mental health over the course of rehabilitation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-speaking Adults Evaluación breve de alfabetismo en salud en portugués Avaliação breve de alfabetismo em saúde em português

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Apolinario

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a short health literacy assessment tool for Portuguese-speaking adults. METHODS: The Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-speaking Adults is an assessment tool which consists of 50 items that assess an individual's ability to correctly pronounce and understand common medical terms. We evaluated the instrument's psychometric properties in a convenience sample of 226 Brazilian older adults. Construct validity was assessed by correlating the tool scores with years of schooling, self-reported literacy, and global cognitive functioning. Discrimination validity was assessed by testing the tool's accuracy in detecting inadequate health literacy, defined as failure to fully understand standard medical prescriptions. RESULTS: Moderate to high correlations were found in the assessment of construct validity (Spearman's coefficients ranging from 0.63 to 0.76. The instrument showed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.93 and adequate test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.95. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for detection of inadequate health literacy was 0.82. A version consisting of 18 items was tested and showed similar psychometric properties. CONCLUSIONS: The instrument developed showed good validity and reliability in a sample of Brazilian older adults. It can be used in research and clinical settings for screening inadequate health literacy.OBJETIVO: Desarrollar y validar un instrumento breve para evaluación de alfabetismo en salud en el idioma portugués. MÉTODOS: El instrumento desarrollado consiste de 50 itens que evalúan la capacidad del individuo de pronunciar y comprender términos médicos comunes. Las propiedades psicométricas se evaluaron en una muestra de 226 ancianos brasileños. La validez del constructo se estableció por la correlación con el número de años de escolaridad, relato de alfabetismo funcional y desempe

  14. Health-related quality of life, surgical and aesthetic outcomes following microvascular free flap reconstructions: an 8-year institutional review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, RT; Butler, JS; Murphy, SM; Cronin, KJ

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Microvascular free flap reconstruction has revolutionised the reconstruction of complex defects of traumatic, oncological, congenital and infectious aetiologies. Complications of microvascular free flap procedures impact negatively on patient post-operative course and outcome. METHODS We performed a retrospective analysis of 102 consecutive patients undergoing 108 free flap procedures at a tertiary referral centre over an 8-year period. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors pRedictive of free flap complications. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and aesthetic outcomes were assessed using the Short Form 36 questionnaire and a satisfaction visual analogue scale respectively. RESULTS In total, 108 free tissue transfers were performed; 23% were fasciocutaneous free flaps, 69% musculocutaneous and 8% osteoseptocutaneous. The overall flap success rate was 92.6%. Over a third of patients (34.3%) had flap-related complications ranging from minor wound dehiscence to total flap loss. ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) grade ≥2 (OR: 16.9, 95% CI: 15.3–18.1, pprocedure to restore functionality and quality of life for patients. PMID:22524928

  15. Cannabis use in patients with fibromyalgia: effect on symptoms relief and health-related quality of life.

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    Fiz, Jimena; Durán, Marta; Capellà, Dolors; Carbonell, Jordi; Farré, Magí

    2011-04-21

    The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of cannabis use and the associated benefits reported by patients with fibromyalgia (FM) who were consumers of this drug. In addition, the quality of life of FM patients who consumed cannabis was compared with FM subjects who were not cannabis users. Information on medicinal cannabis use was recorded on a specific questionnaire as well as perceived benefits of cannabis on a range of symptoms using standard 100-mm visual analogue scales (VAS). Cannabis users and non-users completed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). Twenty-eight FM patients who were cannabis users and 28 non-users were included in the study. Demographics and clinical variables were similar in both groups. Cannabis users referred different duration of drug consumption; the route of administration was smoking (54%), oral (46%) and combined (43%). The amount and frequency of cannabis use were also different among patients. After 2 hours of cannabis use, VAS scores showed a statistically significant (pcannabis users than in non-users. No significant differences were found in the other SF-36 domains, in the FIQ and the PSQI. The use of cannabis was associated with beneficial effects on some FM symptoms. Further studies on the usefulness of cannabinoids in FM patients as well as cannabinoid system involvement in the pathophysiology of this condition are warranted.

  16. DSM-5 posttraumatic stress symptom dimensions and health-related quality of life among Chinese earthquake survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen; Wang, Li; Cao, Chengqi; Fang, Ruojiao; Liu, Ping; Luo, Shu; Zhang, Jianxin; Hall, Brain J; Elhai, Jon D

    2018-01-01

    It has been well-documented that posttraumatic stress symptoms cause impairments in health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Until now we have little data on how DSM-5 PTSD symptom dimensions relate to different aspects of HRQoL. Clarifying this question would be informative to improve the quality of life of PTSD patients. This study aimed to investigate the effects of dimensions of a well-supported seven-factor model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms on physical and psychosocial HRQoL. A total of 1063 adult survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake took part in this study nine years after the disaster. PTSD symptoms were measured by the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). HRQoL was measured by the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36). The associations between PTSD symptom dimensions and HRQoL were examined using structural equation models. Dysphoric arousal symptoms were found to significantly relate to physical HRQoL. Other symptom dimensions were not associated with HRQoL. Our findings contribute to the relationship between DSM-5 PTSD and HRQoL, and carry implications for further clinical practice and research on trauma-exposed individuals.

  17. Short pulse neutron generator

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    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2016-08-02

    Short pulse neutron generators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the short pulse neutron generator includes a Blumlein structure. The Blumlein structure includes a first conductive plate, a second conductive plate, a third conductive plate, at least one of an inductor or a resistor, a switch, and a dielectric material. The first conductive plate is positioned relative to the second conductive plate such that a gap separates these plates. A vacuum chamber is positioned in the gap, and an ion source is positioned to emit ions in the vacuum chamber. The third conductive plate is electrically grounded, and the switch is operable to electrically connect and disconnect the second conductive plate and the third conductive plate. The at least one of the resistor or the inductor is coupled to the first conductive plate and the second conductive plate.

  18. Measuring the effect of intimate partner violence on health-related quality of life: a qualitative focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kristie A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health related quality of life (HRQOL can be measured by a wide range of instruments, many of which have been designed for specific conditions or uses. "Preference-based" measures assess the value individuals place on health, and are included in economic evaluations of treatments and interventions (such as cost effectiveness analysis. As economic evaluation becomes more common, it is important to assess the applicability of preference-based health related quality of life (HRQOL measures to public health issues. This study investigated the usefulness of such instruments in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV, a public health concern that that can seriously affect quality of life. Methods The study consisted of focus groups with abused women to determine the aspects of life affected by IPV, and an analysis of existing HRQOL measures. Eight focus groups (n = 40 were conducted in which participants discussed the domains of health affected by IPV. Results were content analyzed and compared with the domains of health included in four commonly-used, preference-based HRQOL measures. Results The average focus group participant was 43 years old, unemployed, African American, with 3 children. Domains of health reported to be affected by IPV included physical functioning, emotional and psychological functioning, social functioning and children's functioning. Psychological health was the most severely affected domain. The Short Form 36, the Health Utilities Index, the EuroQol 5D, and the Quality of Well-being Scale were found to vary in the degree to which they include domains of health important in IPV. Psychological health is included to a limited extent, and the spill-over effect of a condition on other family members, including children, is not included at all. Conclusion Emotional and psychological health plays an important role in the overall HRQOL of abused women but is relatively underemphasized in preference-based HRQOL

  19. A Group of 500 Women Whose Health May Depart Notably From the Norm: Protocol for a Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnelle, Christoph; Minford, Eunice J; McHardy, Vanessa; Keep, Jane

    2017-11-23

    Longitudinal studies of women's health often seek to identify predictors of good health. Research has shown that following simple guidelines can halve women's mortality. The ongoing Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH) shows that Australian women are getting better at reducing their smoking and alcohol use, and are generally diligent about attending recommended health screenings, but are becoming less successful at dealing with obesity. There are communities of women who live unusually healthy lives (Rosetans, Seventh-Day Adventists, traditional Japanese women), but their lifestyles are unlikely to be adopted widely. Universal Medicine (UM) is a complementary-to-medicine approach that emphasizes personal empowerment and the importance of menstrual health symptoms. This survey investigates whether the approximately 500 women associated with UM exhibit health status significantly above the norm. As part of this investigation, questions for a newly developed menstrual attitudes questionnaire will also be evaluated. A quantitative cross-sectional survey of women in a UM cohort was designed with the help of three focus groups of women at three life stages: in menses, peri-menopausal, and menopausal. The menstrual attitudes portion of the survey incorporates the insights of these women regarding female health issues. The survey also includes 41 questions taken from the ALSWH. Focus groups generated additional questions about symptoms experienced and attitudes toward female health issues. ALSWH questions, including a range of health scales like the Short Form 36 (SF-36), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Perceived Control Scale, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, and the Multi-Item Summed Score for Perceived Stress, along with questions about experienced major health events, were investigated and incorporated if considered suitable. The validity of the menstrual attitudes questionnaire will be evaluated with Cohen's kappa. ALSWH

  20. Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donckt, van der.

    1976-01-01

    The article is a critical review of the work group VI ''health'' in the ''sages report'', the criteria of total body dosis for radionuclides as strontium 90 and iodine 131 are discussed. It emphasizes the lack of adequate solution for the effluents as carbon-14, tritium and iodine 129 as well as for the high radioactivity waste management: the toxicity of plutonium and its cancerous properties are recalled. The risks of accidents in the nuclear facilities and their effect on the population in the proximity of the power plant and the contamination from cooling media are considered as well as sabotage risks. (A.F.)

  1. Short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulouse, G.

    This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.

  2. Health-related quality of life before and after bariatric surgery in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loux, Tara J; Haricharan, Ramanath N; Clements, Ronald H; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Bledsoe, Samuel E; Haynes, Beverly; Leath, Teresa; Harmon, Carroll M

    2008-07-01

    Recent data reaffirm decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL) in obese adults and children. Health-related quality of life is markedly improved after bariatric surgery in adults. Little HRQL data are available in adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery. Sixteen patients (14-20 years old) underwent gastric bypass. Thirteen patients completed a general HRQL measure (Short Form 36 [SF-36]) before surgery. Of these, 9 completed the SF-36 again at various follow-up times, as well as a measure of weight-related quality of life (Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite). Three patients completed postsurgical forms only. Data were analyzed using t test and analysis of variance. Results are reported as mean +/- SD. Mean age and body mass index at operation were 18.5 +/- 1.7 years and 54 +/- 7.6 kg/m(2). Postoperatively, patients lost an average of 66% +/- 29% excess weight over a mean follow-up of 17 +/- 12 (range, 1-39) months. Mean preoperative SF-36 physical component score was 34.7 +/- 10 and mental component score was 40.6 +/- 13.5 (adult population mean = 50.0 +/- 10 for each). At last follow-up, mean physical component score had increased to 55.5 +/- 5, and mental component score, to 55.2 +/- 8.6 (P < .0001). Adolescent Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite scores after surgery did not differ from means for normal weight adults (93% +/- 7% vs 96% +/- 7%, P = .15). Health-related quality of life in adolescents and young adults undergoing bariatric surgery improves dramatically in early follow-up. Long-term data are needed to definitively study this surgical therapy for obesity in adolescents.

  3. Health-related quality of life and symptom severity in Chinese patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuping; Li, Wen; Shen, Jingjin; Malison, Robert T; Zhang, Yalin; Luo, Xingguang

    2013-12-01

    Patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) have been reported to have substantial long-lasting limitations in multiple domains of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The thoughtful assessment of HRQoL and the impact of treatment response on HRQoL are emerging as important issues in the care of patients with major depressive disorder. One hundred and three patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for MDD took fluoxetine (20 mg/d) for 6 weeks and were assessed by the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating (HAMD-17) and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scales. Relationships between SF-36 scores and depressive symptom severity and early change of these symptoms were tested. SF-36 component scores at week 6 were higher than