Huo, Tianyao; Guo, Yi; Shenkman, Elizabeth; Muller, Keith
Although Short Form (SF)-12 × 2® has been extensively studied and used as a valid measure of health-related quality of life in a variety of population groups, no systematic studies have described the reliability of the measure in patients with behavioral conditions or serious mental illness (SMI). We assessed the internal consistency, split-half reliability and annual test-retest correlations in a sample of 1587 participants with either a combination of physical and behavioral conditions or SMI. The Mosier's alpha was 0.70 for the Physical Composite Scale (PCS) and 0.69 for the Mental Health Composite Scale (MCS), indicating good internal consistency. We observed strong correlations between physical functioning, physical role and body pain scales (r = 0.55-0.56), and between social functioning, emotional role, and mental health (r = 0.53-0.58). We calculated split-half reliabilities to be 0.74 for physical functioning, 0.75 for physical role, 0.73 for emotional role and 0.65 for mental health respectively. We assessed the annual test-retest correlation using intraclass correlation (ICC) and found an ICC of 0.61 for PCS and 0.57 for MCS composite scores, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and CRG. We found no decline in the correlations between baseline and the following study years until year 3. Our results encourage using SF-12v2® to assess health-related quality of life in the Medicaid population with combined physical and behavioral conditions or similar cohorts. The WIN study was registered with clinicaltrials.gov on April 22, 2015. NCT02440906 . Retrospectively registered.
Pakpour, Amir H.; Nourozi, Saeedeh; Mølsted, Stig
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to assess the validity and reliability of the SF-12 questionnaire in a sample of Iranian patients undergoing hemodialysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and forty-four hemodialysis patients were included from dialysis centers in Zanjan, Iran, and were...... asked to complete the SF-12 and SF-36 questionnaires. An initial test-retest reliability evaluation was performed on a sample of 70 patients from the total group, with a retest interval of 14 days. Reliability was estimated by internal consistency and validity was assessed using known-group comparisons...... and construct validity on the patient group as a whole. A linear regression analysis was used to assess any variation in the physical component summary and mental component summary scores of the SF-36 with the respective component summary scores of the SF-12. In addition, the factor structure...
Corey J. Hayes
Full Text Available Limited evidence exists on how non-cancer pain (NCP affects an individual’s health-related quality of life (HRQoL. This study aimed to validate the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12 Version 2 (SF-12v2, a generic measure of HRQoL, in a NCP cohort using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Longitudinal Files. The SF Mental Component Summary (MCS12 and SF Physical Component Summary (PCS12 were tested for reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability and validity (construct: convergent and discriminant; criterion: concurrent and predictive. A total of 15,716 patients with NCP were included in the final analysis. The MCS12 and PCS12 demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha and Mosier’s alpha > 0.8, and moderate and high test-retest reliability, respectively (MCS12 intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC: 0.64; PCS12 ICC: 0.73. Both scales were significantly associated with a number of chronic conditions (p < 0.05. The PCS12 was strongly correlated with perceived health (r = 0.52 but weakly correlated with perceived mental health (r = 0.25. The MCS12 was moderately correlated with perceived mental health (r = 0.42 and perceived health (r = 0.33. Increasing PCS12 and MCS12 scores were significantly associated with lower odds of reporting future physical and cognitive limitations (PCS12: OR = 0.90 95%CI: 0.89–0.90, MCS12: OR = 0.94 95%CI: 0.93–0.94. In summary, the SF-12v2 is a reliable and valid measure of HRQoL for patients with NCP.
Hayes, Corey J.; Bhandari, Naleen Raj; Kathe, Niranjan; Payakachat, Nalin
Limited evidence exists on how non-cancer pain (NCP) affects an individual’s health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study aimed to validate the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12 Version 2 (SF-12v2), a generic measure of HRQoL, in a NCP cohort using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Longitudinal Files. The SF Mental Component Summary (MCS12) and SF Physical Component Summary (PCS12) were tested for reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability) and validity (construct: convergent and discriminant; criterion: concurrent and predictive). A total of 15,716 patients with NCP were included in the final analysis. The MCS12 and PCS12 demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha and Mosier’s alpha > 0.8), and moderate and high test-retest reliability, respectively (MCS12 intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC): 0.64; PCS12 ICC: 0.73). Both scales were significantly associated with a number of chronic conditions (p reliable and valid measure of HRQoL for patients with NCP. PMID:28445438
Choi, Edmond P H; Wong, Carlos K H; Wan, Eric Y F; Tsu, James H L; Chin, W Y; Kung, Kenny; Yiu, M K
To examine the responsiveness of Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) and Short Form-12 Health Survey version 2 (SF-12 v2) in prostate cancer patients because there is a lack of evidence to support their responsiveness in this patient population. One hundred sixty-eight subjects with prostate cancer were surveyed at baseline and at 6 months using the SF-12 v2 and FACT-P version 4. Internal responsiveness was assessed using paired t test and generalized estimating equation. External responsiveness was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The internal responsiveness of the FACT-P and SF-12 v2 to detect positive change was satisfactory. The FACT-P and SF-12 v2 could not detect negative change. The FACT-P and the SF-12 v2 performed the best in distinguishing between improved general health and worsened general health. The FACT-P performed better in distinguishing between unchanged general health and worsened general health. The SF-12 v2 performed better in distinguishing between unchanged general health and improved general health. Positive change detected by these measures should be interpreted with caution as they might be too responsive to detect "noise," which is not clinically significant. The ability of the FACT-P and the SF-12 v2 to detect negative change was disappointing. The internal and external responsiveness of the social well-being of the FACT-P cannot be supported, suggesting that it is not suitable to longitudinally monitor the social component of HRQOL in prostate cancer patients. The study suggested that generic and disease-specific measures should be used together to complement each other.
Hennekam, R. C.; Renckens-Wennen, E. G.
We report on a female patient who had acquired total alopecia, short stature, microcephaly, optic atrophy, severe myopia, and mental retardation. A survey of published reports failed to show an identical patient, despite various similar cases
Ellis, Norman R.; Wooldridge, Peter W.
Twelve mentally retarded and 12 nonretarded adults were compared in a Brown-Peterson short-term memory task for the retention of words and pictures over intervals up to 30 seconds. The retarded subjects forgot more rapidly over the initial 10 seconds. They also retained pictures better than they did words. (Author/DB)
Boysen, Elena; Schiller, Birgitta; Mörtl, Kathrin; Gündel, Harald; Hölzer, Michael
Psychosocial working conditions attract more and more attention when it comes to mental health in the workplace. Trying to support managers to deal with their own as well as their employees' psychological risk factors, we conducted a specific manager training. Within this investigation, we wanted to learn about the training's effects and acceptance. A single-day manager training was provided in a large industrial company in Germany. The participants were asked to fill out questionnaires regarding their own physical and mental health condition as well as their working situation. Questionnaires were distributed at baseline, 3-month, and 12-month follow-up. At this point of time the investigation is still ongoing. The current article focuses on short-term preliminary effects. Analyses only included participants that already completed baseline and three months follow-up. Preliminary results from three-month follow-up survey ( n = 33, nmale = 30, Mage = 47.5) indicated positive changes in the manager's mental health condition measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ-9: Mt1 = 3.82, Mt2 = 3.15). Training managers about common mental disorders and risk factors at the workplace within a single-day workshop seems to promote positive effects on their own mental health. Especially working with the managers on their own early stress symptoms might have been an important element.
Stuiver, Arjan; Brookhuis, Karel A; de Waard, Dick; Mulder, Ben
With on-going increases in traffic density and the availability of more and more in-vehicle technology, driver overload is a growing concern. To reduce the burden of workload on the driver, it is essential that support systems that become available are able to use estimations of drivers' workload. In this paper a short-term cardiovascular approach to assess drivers' mental workload is described using data collected in a driving simulator study. The effects of short lasting increases in task demand (40s) on heart rate and blood pressure and derived variability measures are applied as indicators of mental effort. Fifteen drivers participated in 6 sessions of 1.5h in a driving simulator study. Two traffic density levels (7.5minute segments) were compared in which short-segments (40s) of fog were used to induce additional workload demands. Higher traffic density was reflected in increased systolic blood pressure and decreased blood pressure variability. Heart rate variability and blood pressure variability measures decreased during driving in fog in the low traffic condition, indicating increased effort investment during fog in this condition. The results show that the described short-term measures can be applied to give an indication of cardiovascular reactivity as a function workload. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van Kamp, Irene; van der Velden, Peter G; Stellato, Rebecca K; Roorda, Jan; van Loon, Jeanne; Kleber, Rolf J; Gersons, Bertold B R; Lebret, Erik
Two to three weeks after the explosion of a fireworks storage facility in a residential area (May 2000, Enschede, The Netherlands) we assessed the self-reported physical and mental health among those affected by the disaster. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 3792 residents, passers-by, and rescue workers, who were involved in and/or affected by the disaster and were > or =18 years of age. At least 30% of those affected by the disaster reported serious physical and mental health problems 2-3 weeks after the explosion. Compared with reference values in the general Dutch population, high scores were found for somatic symptoms, sleeping problems, and restrictions in daily functioning due to physical and mental problems, such as anxiety, depression, and feelings of insufficiency. The strength of these differences varied between groups, based on the level of involvement and the level of being affected. Results indicate that the fireworks disaster had a substantial impact on the health of those affected by the disaster. The health impact was most pronounced for residents and passers-by and also for rescue workers living in the affected area, but to a lesser degree. Physical and mental health problems were strongly associated with the shocking experiences during and shortly after the disaster.
Joshanloo, Mohsen; Wissing, Marie P.; Khumalo, Itumeleng P.; Lamers, S.M.A.
This study investigated the factorial structure and invariance of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) across cultural groups from three nations, namely, the Netherlands, South Africa, and Iran (N = 1120). The three-dimensional structure of mental well-being was supported in all the
Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Bixler, Edward O; Singareddy, Ravi; Shaffer, Michele L; Calhoun, Susan L; Liao, Duanping; Basta, Maria; Chrousos, George P
Few population-based, longitudinal studies have examined risk factors for persistent insomnia, and the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, none of these studies have examined the role of polysomnographic (PSG) variables such as sleep duration or sleep apnea on the persistence of insomnia. Representative longitudinal study. Sleep laboratory. From a random, general population sample of 1741 individuals of the adult Penn State Cohort, 1395 were followed-up after 7.5 years. Individuals underwent one-night PSG and full medical evaluation at baseline and a telephone interview at follow-up. PSG sleep duration was analyzed as a continuous variable and as a categorical variable: insomnia persistence, partial remission, and full remission were 44.0%, 30.0%, and 26.0%, respectively. Objective short sleep duration significantly increased the odds of persistent insomnia as compared to normal sleep (OR = 3.19) and to fully remitted insomnia (OR = 4.92). Mental health problems at baseline were strongly associated with persistent insomnia as compared to normal sleep (OR = 9.67) and to a lesser degree compared to fully remitted insomnia (OR = 3.68). Smoking, caffeine, and alcohol consumption and sleep apnea did not predict persistent insomnia. Objective short sleep duration and mental health problems are the strongest predictors of persistent insomnia. These data further support the validity and clinical utility of objective short sleep duration as a novel marker of the biological severity of insomnia.
Full Text Available The present study seeks to explore some of the major assumptions made by cognitive linguists regarding language in an attempt to see how various language processes can participate in the emergence of literary meaning. Also, this is an attempt to bridge the gap between linguistics and literary studies. For that purpose, linguistic work with a cognitive orientation can open the floor to one highly debatable question in critical literary theory: the question of interpretation. The primary step in order to meet my objectives is the presentation of a model of analysis that investigates the processes of meaning formation in literary texts – the theory of blending seems to be extremely suitable for an account of meaning formation. I believe that my article can profit substantially from the wide array of instruments provided by the blending theory in order to understand the nature of the reader’s mind while reading literary (short stories. The study of the basic mental operation of blending is motivated by the general relationship of cognitive poetics and narrative theories. To this end, I will be extensively making use of the blending framework in order to address its narrative implications in two of Hemingway’s already canonical short stories – Big Two-Hearted River and Soldier’s Home. What I hope to demonstrate is that the conceptualization of the narrative mental spaces in these two short stories always has counterfactuality available and uses it as a valuable mental resource. Also, I will try to show that conceptual integration/ blending plays a central role in the self-construal of characters’ identity.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the degree of the influence of aerobic program on mental state of the trainees after a single and short-term application. We tried to find out the positive effects of an aerobics on the selected parameters of mental state of women that performed aerobics recreationally. Twenty-two healthy women (age 35 ± 5 years were involved in the specific aerobic program with mini trampolines (jumping over the period of 5 weeks. To measure the psychological parameters a modified questionnaire of type X-STAI was distributed before and after the single work out at the beginning of the study and after the 5 weeks period. Chi-quadrat analysis was used to evaluate the data. The greatest and statistically the most significant differences were recorded in the parameters ´enthusiastic´, ´boosted by energy´ and ´relaxed´, in comparison with the emotions at the beginning and at the end of the lesson in initial measuring. Comparison of changes after the 5 weeks period at the beginning and at the end of the lesson shows statistical significance in all parameters, except ´tired´. No statistical changes occurred at either the beginning or the end of the lesson comparing initial and final phases. Based on the results, we can conclude that specialized aerobic training provokes immediate changes in psychological state of the trainees via increase of their positive and decrease of negative emotions right after the lesson and when compared to its beginning. This leads to a better mental stability and a greater resistance to the influences of outer environment on mental state.
Lamers, S.M.A.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas
This study evaluated the measurement invariance of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF), a 14-item self-report questionnaire for measuring emotional, social, and psychological well-being. The study draws on data of a representative panel (Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social
Maxwell, Lizzie; Barrett, Bruce; Chase, Joseph; Brown, Roger; Ewers, Tola
Poor mental health conditions, including stress and depression, have been recognized as a risk factor for the development of acute respiratory infection. Very few studies have considered the role of general mental health in acute respiratory infection occurrence. The aim of this analysis is to determine if overall mental health, as assessed by the mental component of the Short Form 12 Health Survey, predicts incidence, duration, or severity of acute respiratory infection. Data utilized for this analysis came from the National Institute of Health-funded Meditation or Exercise for Preventing Acute Respiratory Infection (MEPARI) and MEPARI-2 randomized controlled trials examining the effects of meditation or exercise on acute respiratory infection among adults aged > 30 years in Madison, Wisconsin. A Kendall tau rank correlation compared the Short Form 12 mental component, completed by participants at baseline, with acute respiratory infection incidence, duration, and area-under-the-curve (global) severity, as assessed by the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey. Participants were recruited from Madison, Wis, using advertisements in local media. Short Form 12 mental health scores significantly predicted incidence (P = 0.037) of acute respiratory infection, but not duration (P = 0.077) or severity (P = 0.073). The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) negative emotion measure significantly predicted global severity (P = 0.036), but not incidence (P = 0.081) or duration (P = 0.125). Mindful Attention Awareness Scale scores significantly predicted incidence of acute respiratory infection (P = 0.040), but not duration (P = 0.053) or severity (P = 0.70). The PHQ-9, PSS-10, and PANAS positive measures did not show significant predictive associations with any of the acute respiratory infection outcomes. Self-reported overall mental health, as measured by the mental component of Short Form 12, predicts acute respiratory infection incidence.
Sagie, Shira; Eliasi, Yehuda; Livneh, Ido; Bart, Yosi; Monovich, Einat
Marijuana is considered the most commonly used drug in the world, with estimated millions of users. There is dissent in the medical world about the positive and negative effects of marijuana, and recently, a large research effort has been directed to that domain. The main influencing drug ingredient is THC, which acts on the cannabinoid system and binds to the CB1 receptor. The discovery of the receptor led to the finding of an endogenous ligand, anandamide, and another receptor-CB2. The researchers also discovered that cannabinoids have extensive biological activity, and its short and long-term effects may cause cognitive and emotional deficiencies. Findings show that the short-term effects, such as shortterm memory and verbal Learning, are reversible. However, despite the accumulation of evidence about long-term cognitive damage due to cannabis use, it is difficult to find unequivocal results, arising from the existence of many variables such as large differences between cannabis users, frequency of use, dosage and endogenous brain compensation. Apart from cognitive damage, current studies investigate how marijuana affects mental illness: a high correlation between cannabis use and schizophrenia was found and a high risk to undergo a psychotic attack. Furthermore, patients with schizophrenia who used cannabis showed a selective neuro-psychological disruption, and similar cognitive deficiencies and brain morphological changes were found among healthy cannabis users and schizophrenia patients. In contrast to the negative effects of marijuana including addiction, there are the medical uses: reducing pain, anxiety and nausea, increasing appetite and an anti-inflammatory activity. Medicalization of marijuana encourages frequent use, which may elevate depression.
Full Text Available About 40 years ago, the mental health services providing strategies have been dramatically changed worldwide. As well as, it is considered as a new revolution in mental health and named as community-based mental health movement. Moreover, mental health centers in Iran have been established in order to make a change in urban community-based mental health (CMHC. The first CMHC was founded in Tehran 16th district in 2010. In Yazd, it was established in 2010. In this article, the steps for establishment of the first CMHC were described.
Kim, Tae Hui; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Park, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Jeong Lan; Ryu, Seung Ho; Moon, Seok Woo; Choo, Il Han; Lee, Dong Woo; Yoon, Jong Chul; Do, Yeon Ja; Lee, Seok Bum; Kim, Moon Doo; Kim, Ki Woong
We developed a Korean version of Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) optimized for screening dementia (MMSE-DS) and its' short form (SMMSE-DS). We constructed the MMSE-DS using the items of the two current Korean versions of MMSE and then construct the SMMSE-DS consisted of 13 items from the MMSE-DS based on the diagnostic accuracy of individual items for dementia. We investigated reliability and validity of MMSE-DS and SMMSE-DS on 1,555 subjects (1,222 nondemented controls, 333 dementia patients). We compared the diagnostic accuracy of the SMMSE-DS with that of the three full Korean versions of MMSE, and examined its' age- and education-specific optimal cutoff scores for dementia. The internal consistency obtained by Cronbach's coefficient alpha was 0.826. The inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability were 0.968 (p<0.001) and 0.825 (p<0.001), respectively. It showed significant correlation with the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) (r=-0.698, p<0.05) and the three full Korean versions of MMSE (r=0.839-0.938, p<0.001). The area under the receiver operator curve for dementia of the SMMSE-DS was larger than those of the three full Korean versions of MMSE (p<0.001). Age, education and gender explained 19.4% of the total variance of SMMSE-DS scores. The optimal cutoff scores for dementia of the SMMSE-DS were estimated differently by age and educational attainment of the subjects. The SMMSE-DS was found to be accurate, brief and portable instrument for screening dementia in Korean elders, and may be particularly useful for screening dementia in elderly populations with wide variation in educational levels.
Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens
Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE
Full Text Available In order to further the insight into the explanation of changed performance in mental transformation under microgravity, we discuss the change of performance in mental transformation and its relationship with altered regional homogeneity (ReHo in resting-state brain by using simulated weightlessness model. Twelve male subjects with age between 24 and 31 received resting-state fMRI scan and mental transformation test both in normal condition and immediately after 72 hours -6° head down tilt (HDT. A paired sample t-test was used to test the difference of behavior performance and brain activity between these two conditions. Compare with normal condition, subjects showed a changed performance in mental transformation with short term simulated microgravity and appeared to be falling. Meanwhile, decreased ReHo were found in right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and left inferior parietal lobule (IPL after 72 hours -6° HDT, while increased ReHo were found in bilateral medial frontal gyrus (MFG and left superior frontal gyrus (SFG (P<0.05, corrected. Particularly, there was a significant correlation between ReHo values in left IPL and velocity index of mental transformation. Our findings indicate that gravity change may disrupt the function of right IFG and left IPL in the resting-state, among of which functional change in left IPL may contribute to changed abilities of mental transformation. In addition, the enhanced activity of the bilateral MFG and decreased activity of right IFG found in the current study maybe reflect a complementation effect on inhibitory control process.
Guo, Cheng; Tomson, Göran; Guo, Jizhi; Li, Xiangyun; Keller, Christina; Söderqvist, Fredrik
In epidemiological surveillance of mental health there is good reason to also include scales that measure the presence of well-being rather than merely symptoms of ill health. The Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) is a self-reported scale to measure emotional, psychological and social well-being and conduct categorical diagnosis of positive mental health. This particular instrument includes the three core components of the World Health Organization's definition of mental health and had previously not been psychometrically evaluated on adolescents in China. In total 5,399 students (51.1% female) from schools in the urban areas of Weifang in China were included in the study (mean age = 15.13, SD = 1.56). Participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire with several scales, among them the MHC-SF. Statistical analyses to evaluate reliability, structural validity, measurement invariance, presence of floor and ceiling effects and to some extent external validity of the MHC-SF were carried out. The Cronbach's α coefficients for sub-scales as well as the total scale were all above 0.80 indicating good reliability. Confirmative factor analysis confirmed the three-dimensional structure of the Chinese version of MHC-SF and supported the configural and metric invariance across gender and age. Noteworthy ceiling effects were observed for single items and sub-scales although not for the total scale. More importantly, observed floor effects were negligible. The stronger correlation found between MHC-SF and Minneapolis-Manchester Quality of Life Instrument (as measure of positive mental health) than between MHC-SF and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (as measure of mental illness and distress) yielded support for external validity. In conclusion, the main findings of this study are in line with studies from other countries that evaluated the psychometric properties of the MHC-SF and show that this instrument, that includes the three core components of the
Elliott, Digby; Grundy, Stephen B.
Both retarded and nonretarded adults (N=26) failed to benefit from opportunities to mentally rehearse their criterion movement over the retention interval, suggesting that strategic differences between the groups cannot explain the poorer performances of the retarded Ss. The retarded Ss appeared to have problems remembering the sensory…
van Kamp, Irene; van der Velden, Peter G.; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Roorda, Jan; van Loon, Jeanne; Kleber, Rolf J.; Gersons, Bertold B. R.; Lebret, Erik
OBJECTIVES: Two to three weeks after the explosion of a fireworks storage facility in a residential area (May 2000, Enschede, The Netherlands) we assessed the self-reported physical and mental health among those affected by the disaster. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted among 3792
Kamp, Irene van; Velden, P.G. van der; Stellato, R.K.; Roorda, J.; Loon, J. van; Kleber, R.J.; Gersons, B.B.R.; Lebret, E.
Objectives: Two to three weeks after the explosion of a fireworks storage facility in a residential area (May 2000, Enschede, The Netherlands) we assessed the self-reported physical and mental health among those affected by the disaster. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted among 3792
Kamp, Irene van; Velden, Peter G van der; Stellato, Rebecca K; Roorda, Jan; Loon, Jeanne van; Kleber, Rolf J; Gersons, Bertold B R; Lebret, Erik
OBJECTIVES: Two to three weeks after the explosion of a fireworks storage facility in a residential area (May 2000, Enschede, The Netherlands) we assessed the self-reported physical and mental health among those affected by the disaster. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted among 3792
Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Lomholt, Rikke Kirstine; Kreiner, Svend
.4%), and positive predictive value (71.0%) but equal area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Cross-validation on follow-up data confirmed the results. CONCLUSION: A short, valid MMSE, which is as sensitive and specific as the original MMSE for the screening of cognitive impairments and dementia......OBJECTIVES: This study assesses the properties of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) with the purpose of improving the efficiencies of the methods of screening for cognitive impairment and dementia. A specific purpose was to determine whether an abbreviated version would be as accurate...... is attractive for research and clinical practice, particularly if predictive power can be enhanced by combining the short MMSE with neuropsychological tests or informant reports....
Linden, M; Baron, S
Supplementary to the description of diseases at symptom level, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), edited by the WHO, for the first time enables a systematic description also at the level of disabilities and impairments. The Mini-ICF-Rating for Mental Disorders (Mini-ICF-P) is a short observer rating instrument for the assessment of disabilities, especially with regard to occupational functioning. The Mini-ICF-P was first evaluated empirically in 125 patients of a Department of Behavioural Medicine and Psychosomatics. Parallel-test reliability was r = 0.59. Correlates were found with cognitive and motivational variables and duration of sick leave from work. In summary, the Mini-ICF-P is a quick and practicable instrument.
The aim of this literature review is to get a preliminary answer to the problem of the type of information processing deficit of undifferentiated retardates (with an IQ of about 70). Taking the topic of verbal short-term memory as a framework, it appears that children or adults of a subnormal
Beaussart, Melanie L.; Kaufman, Scott Barry; Kaufman, James C.
It has been argued that creativity evolved, at least in part, through sexual selection to attract mates. Recent research lends support to this view and has also demonstrated a link between certain dimensions of schizotypy, creativity, and short-term mating. The current study delves deeper into these relationships by focusing on engagement in…
Full Text Available This report summarizes the current evidence on the effects of yoga interventions on various components of mental and physical health, by focussing on the evidence described in review articles. Collectively, these reviews suggest a number of areas where yoga may well be beneficial, but more research is required for virtually all of them to firmly establish such benefits. The heterogeneity among interventions and conditions studied has hampered the use of meta-analysis as an appropriate tool for summarizing the current literature. Nevertheless, there are some meta-analyses which indicate beneficial effects of yoga interventions, and there are several randomized clinical trials (RCT’s of relatively high quality indicating beneficial effects of yoga for pain-associated disability and mental health. Yoga may well be effective as a supportive adjunct to mitigate some medical conditions, but not yet a proven stand-alone, curative treatment. Larger-scale and more rigorous research with higher methodological quality and adequate control interventions is highly encouraged because yoga may have potential to be implemented as a beneficial supportive/adjunct treatment that is relatively cost-effective, may be practiced at least in part as a self-care behavioral treatment, provides a life-long behavioural skill, enhances self-efficacy and self-confidence and is often associated with additional positive side effects.
Winkler, Petr; Janoušková, Miroslava; Kožený, Jiří; Pasz, Jiří; Mladá, Karolína; Weissová, Aneta; Tušková, Eva; Evans-Lacko, Sara
We aimed to assess whether short video interventions could reduce stigma among nursing students. A multi-centre, randomised controlled trial was conducted. Participating schools were randomly selected and randomly assigned to receive: (1) an informational leaflet, (2) a short video intervention or (3) a seminar involving direct contact with a service user. The Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness (CAMI) and Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS) were selected as primary outcome measures. SPANOVA models were built and Cohen's d calculated to assess the overall effects in each of the trial arms. Compared to the baseline, effect sizes immediately after the intervention were small in the flyer arm (CAMI: d = 0.25; RIBS: d = 0.07), medium in the seminar arm (CAMI: d = 0.61; RIBS: d = 0.58), and medium in the video arm (CAMI: d = 0.49 RIBS: d = 0.26; n = 237). Effect sizes at the follow-up were vanishing in the flyer arm (CAMI: d = 0.05; RIBS: d = 0.04), medium in the seminar arm (CAMI: d = 0.43; RIBS: d = 0.26; n = 254), and small in the video arm (CAMI: d = 0.22 RIBS: d = 0.21; n = 237). Seminar had the strongest and relatively stable effect on students' attitudes and intended behaviour, but the effect of short video interventions was also considerable and stable over time. Since short effective video interventions are relatively cheap, conveniently accessible and easy to disseminate globally, we recommend them for further research and development.
Miller (1956) summarized evidence that people can remember about seven chunks in short-term memory (STM) tasks. However, that number was meant more as a rough estimate and a rhetorical device than as a real capacity limit. Others have since suggested that there is a more precise capacity limit, but that it is only three to five chunks. The present target article brings together a wide variety of data on capacity limits suggesting that the smaller capacity limit is real. Capacity limits will be useful in analyses of information processing only if the boundary conditions for observing them can be carefully described. Four basic conditions in which chunks can be identified and capacity limits can accordingly be observed are: (1) when information overload limits chunks to individual stimulus items, (2) when other steps are taken specifically to block the recording of stimulus items into larger chunks, (3) in performance discontinuities caused by the capacity limit, and (4) in various indirect effects of the capacity limit. Under these conditions, rehearsal and long-term memory cannot be used to combine stimulus items into chunks of an unknown size; nor can storage mechanisms that are not capacity-limited, such as sensory memory, allow the capacity-limited storage mechanism to be refilled during recall. A single, central capacity limit averaging about four chunks is implicated along with other, noncapacity-limited sources. The pure STM capacity limit expressed in chunks is distinguished from compound STM limits obtained when the number of separately held chunks is unclear. Reasons why pure capacity estimates fall within a narrow range are discussed and a capacity limit for the focus of attention is proposed.
Heuvel, S.G. van der; Vijfeijke, H. van de; Leijten, F.R.M.; Ybema, J.F.; Robroek, S.J.W.; Beek, A.J. van der; Burdorf, A.; Taris, T.W.
Objective This study examines whether mental and physical health among older employees relate to work ability and whether coping styles moderate the effects of health. Methods A one-year longitudinal study was conducted among 8842 employees aged 45–64 years from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability, and Motivation (STREAM). Online questionnaires measured self-perceived mental and physical health (short form-12 health survey) at baseline, and coping styles (Utrecht Coping List) and ...
Most mitochondrial and cytoplasmic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are encoded by nuclear genes. Syndromic disorders resulting from mutation of aaRSs genes display significant phenotypic heterogeneity. We expand aaRSs-related phenotypes through characterization of the clinical and molecular basis of a novel autosomal-recessive syndrome manifesting severe mental retardation, ataxia, speech impairment, epilepsy, short stature, microcephaly, hypogonadism, and growth hormone deficiency.A G>A variant in exon 29 of VARS2 (c.3650G>A) (NM_006295) was identified in the index case. This homozygous variant was confirmed by Sanger sequencing and segregated with disease in the family studied. The c.3650G>A change results in alteration of arginine to histidine at residue 1217 (R1217H) of the mature protein and is predicted to be pathogenic.These findings contribute to a growing list of aaRSs disorders, broadens the spectrum of phenotypes attributable to VARS2 mutations, and provides new insight into genotype-phenotype correlations among the mitochondrial synthetase genes.
Alsemari, Abdulaziz; Al-Younes, Banan; Goljan, Ewa; Jaroudi, Dyala; BinHumaid, Faisal; Meyer, Brian F.; Arold, Stefan T.; Monies, Dorota
Most mitochondrial and cytoplasmic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are encoded by nuclear genes. Syndromic disorders resulting from mutation of aaRSs genes display significant phenotypic heterogeneity. We expand aaRSs-related phenotypes through characterization of the clinical and molecular basis of a novel autosomal-recessive syndrome manifesting severe mental retardation, ataxia, speech impairment, epilepsy, short stature, microcephaly, hypogonadism, and growth hormone deficiency.A G>A variant in exon 29 of VARS2 (c.3650G>A) (NM_006295) was identified in the index case. This homozygous variant was confirmed by Sanger sequencing and segregated with disease in the family studied. The c.3650G>A change results in alteration of arginine to histidine at residue 1217 (R1217H) of the mature protein and is predicted to be pathogenic.These findings contribute to a growing list of aaRSs disorders, broadens the spectrum of phenotypes attributable to VARS2 mutations, and provides new insight into genotype-phenotype correlations among the mitochondrial synthetase genes.
Full Text Available Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP complemented with bodywork improved 31 of 54 patients (57.4%, 95% CI: 43.21–70.77% who rated themselves mentally ill before treatment. Calculated from this we find 1.41 500. Of the 54 patients, 40% had already had traditional treatment that did not help them. Bodywork helped the patients to confront repressed painful feelings from childhood and this seemingly accelerated and improved the therapy. The patients received in average 20 sessions over 14 months at a cost of 1600 EURO. For the treatment responders, all measured aspects of life (on a five point Likert Scale improved significantly, simultaneously, and radically: somatic health (from 2.9 to 2.3, self-esteem/relationship to self (from 3.5 to 2.3, relationship to partner (from 4.7 to 2.9 [no partner was rated as “6”], relationship to friends (from 2.5 to 2.0, ability to love (from 3.8 to 2.4, self-assessed sexual ability (from 3.5 to 2.4, self-assessed social ability (from 3.2 to 2.1, self-assessed working ability (from 3.3 to 2.4, and self-assessed quality of life (from 4.0 to 2.3. Quality of life as measured with QOL5 improved (from 3.6 to 2.3 on a scale from 1 to 5; p < 0.001. This general improvement strongly indicated that the patient had healed existentially, i.e., had experienced what Aaron Antonovsky (1923–1994 called “salutogenesis”, defined as the process exactly the opposite of pathogenesis. For the treatment responders, the treatment provided lasting benefits, without the negative side effects of drugs. A lasting, positive effect might also prevent many different types of problems in the future.
Pannebakker, Merel M; Jolicœur, Pierre; van Dam, Wessel O; Band, Guido P H; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Hommel, Bernhard
Dual tasks and their associated delays have often been used to examine the boundaries of processing in the brain. We used the dual-task procedure and recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate how mental rotation of a first stimulus (S1) influences the shifting of visual-spatial attention to a second stimulus (S2). Visual-spatial attention was monitored by using the N2pc component of the ERP. In addition, we examined the sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN) believed to index the retention of information in visual short-term memory. We found modulations of both the N2pc and the SPCN, suggesting that engaging mechanisms of mental rotation impairs the deployment of visual-spatial attention and delays the passage of a representation of S2 into visual short-term memory. Both results suggest interactions between mental rotation and visual-spatial attention in capacity-limited processing mechanisms indicating that response selection is not pivotal in dual-task delays and all three processes are likely to share a common resource like executive control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ng Fat, Linda; Scholes, Shaun; Boniface, Sadie; Mindell, Jennifer; Stewart-Brown, Sarah
The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS), 14 positively worded statements, is a validated instrument to measure mental wellbeing on a population level. Less is known about the population distribution of the shorter seven-item version (SWEMWBS) or its performance as an instrument to measure wellbeing. Using the Health Survey for England 2010-2013 (n = 27,169 adults aged 16+, nationally representative of the population), age- and sex-specific norms were estimated using means and percentiles. Criterion validity was examined using: (1) Spearman correlations (ρ) for SWEMWBS with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), happiness index, EQ-VAS (2) a multinomial logit model with SWEMWBS (low, medium and high wellbeing) as the outcome and demographic, social and health behaviours as explanatory variables. Relative validity was examined by comparing SWEMWBS with WEMWBS using: (1) Spearman correlations (continuous data), and (2) the weighted kappa statistic (categorical), within population subgroups. Mean (median) SWEMWBS was 23.7 (23.2) for men and 23.2 (23.2) for women (p = 0.100). Spearman correlations were moderately sized for the happiness index (ρ = 0.53, P wellbeing. Participants who binge drank versus non-drinkers were less likely to have high versus medium wellbeing (0.81 (0.71-0.92)). Spearman correlations between SWEMWBS and WEMWBS were above 0.95; weighted kappa statistics showed almost perfect agreement (0.79-0.85). SWEMWBS distinguishes mental wellbeing between subgroups, similarly to WEMWBS, but is less sensitive to gender differences.
Unterrainer, Human-Friedrich; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter
The Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (MI-RSWB) was successfully applied in several clinical as well as non-clinical studies. However, the original version of the scale often showed to be as too comprehensive especially for clinical surroundings. There for the aim of this study is to develop a short version of the scale comprising 12 items. Based on a sample representative of the Austrian general population (N = 1,500), a first MI-RSWB short version is developed by means of factor- and reliability analysis. Furthermore the new short version of the scale is initially validated through several indicators of mental illness. The MI-RSWB short version shows convincing psychometric properties. The total scale as well as the sub scales exhibit at least a sufficient internal consistency. A significant negative association with several indicators of psychiatric illness is also confirmed for the short version of the scale. The MI-RWSB 12 scale is especially recommended for further research focusing on the clinical relevance of religiosity and spirituality.
Duan, Wenjie; Mu, Wenlong
Although stress emerges when environmental demands exceed personal resources, existing measurement methods for stress focus only on one aspect. The newly-developed Short Stress Overload Scale (SOS-S) assesses the extent of stress by assessing both event load (i.e., environmental demands) and personal vulnerability (i.e., personal resources). The present study was designed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Stress Overload Scale-Short (SOS-SC), and further examine its roles in screening mental health status. A total of 1364 participants were recruited from communities and colleges for scale validation. Reliabilities were good throughout the subsamples (ω > 0.80). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the acceptable goodness-of-fit for the two-factor correlated model (Sample 1: 560 community residents). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis confirmed measurement invariance across community residents (Sample 1) and college students (Sample 2 and Sample 3). Criterion validity and convergent validity were established (Sample 2: 554 college students). Latent moderated structural equations demonstrated that the relationship between SOS-SC and depression is moderated by social support (Sample 2), further validating the SOS-SC. In addition, the SOS-SC effectively screened individuals in a population at different levels of mental health status (i.e., "at risk" vs. "at low risk" for depression symptoms and/or wellbeing). The SOS-SC exhibits acceptable psychometric properties in the Chinese context. That said, the two aspects of stress can be differentiated by the Chinese context, therefore, the SOS-SC can be used to measure stress and screen mental health status among the Chinese population, and monitor and evaluate health-promoting interventions.
Hwang, Bosun; You, Jiwoo; Vaessen, Thomas; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Park, Cheolsoo; Zhang, Byoung-Tak
Stress recognition using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals requires the intractable long-term heart rate variability (HRV) parameter extraction process. This study proposes a novel deep learning framework to recognize the stressful states, the Deep ECGNet, using ultra short-term raw ECG signals without any feature engineering methods. The Deep ECGNet was developed through various experiments and analysis of ECG waveforms. We proposed the optimal recurrent and convolutional neural networks architecture, and also the optimal convolution filter length (related to the P, Q, R, S, and T wave durations of ECG) and pooling length (related to the heart beat period) based on the optimization experiments and analysis on the waveform characteristics of ECG signals. The experiments were also conducted with conventional methods using HRV parameters and frequency features as a benchmark test. The data used in this study were obtained from Kwangwoon University in Korea (13 subjects, Case 1) and KU Leuven University in Belgium (9 subjects, Case 2). Experiments were designed according to various experimental protocols to elicit stressful conditions. The proposed framework to recognize stress conditions, the Deep ECGNet, outperformed the conventional approaches with the highest accuracy of 87.39% for Case 1 and 73.96% for Case 2, respectively, that is, 16.22% and 10.98% improvements compared with those of the conventional HRV method. We proposed an optimal deep learning architecture and its parameters for stress recognition, and the theoretical consideration on how to design the deep learning structure based on the periodic patterns of the raw ECG data. Experimental results in this study have proved that the proposed deep learning model, the Deep ECGNet, is an optimal structure to recognize the stress conditions using ultra short-term ECG data.
Gold, A. U.; Harris, S. E.
The greenhouse effect comes up in most discussions about climate and is a key concept related to climate change. Existing studies have shown that students and adults alike lack a detailed understanding of this important concept or might hold misconceptions. We studied the effectiveness of different interventions on University-level students' understanding of the greenhouse effect. Introductory level science students were tested for their pre-knowledge of the greenhouse effect using validated multiple-choice questions, short answers and concept sketches. All students participated in a common lesson about the greenhouse effect and were then randomly assigned to one of two lab groups. One group explored an existing simulation about the greenhouse effect (PhET-lesson) and the other group worked with absorption spectra of different greenhouse gases (Data-lesson) to deepen the understanding of the greenhouse effect. All students completed the same assessment including multiple choice, short answers and concept sketches after participation in their lab lesson. 164 students completed all the assessments, 76 completed the PhET lesson and 77 completed the data lesson. 11 students missed the contrasting lesson. In this presentation we show the comparison between the multiple-choice questions, short answer questions and the concept sketches of students. We explore how well each of these assessment types represents student's knowledge. We also identify items that are indicators of the level of understanding of the greenhouse effect as measured in correspondence of student answers to an expert mental model and expert responses. Preliminary data analysis shows that student who produce concept sketch drawings that come close to expert drawings also choose correct multiple-choice answers. However, correct multiple-choice answers are not necessarily an indicator that a student produces an expert-like correlating concept sketch items. Multiple-choice questions that require detailed
Streit, Sven; Limacher, Andreas; Zeller, Andreas; Bürge, Markus
General practitioners (GPs) are in best position to suspect dementia. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clock Drawing Test (CDT) are widely used. Additional neurological tests may increase the accuracy of diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate diagnostic ability to detect dementia with a Short Smell Test (SST) and Palmo-Mental Reflex (PMR) in patients whose MMSE and CDT are normal, but who show signs of cognitive dysfunction. This was a 3.5-year cross-sectional observational study in the Memory Clinic of the University Department of Geriatrics in Bern, Switzerland. Participating patients with normal MMSE (>26 points) and CDT (>5 points) were referred by GPs because they suspected dementia. All were examined according to a standardized protocol. Diagnosis of dementia was based on DSM-IV TR criteria. We used SST and PMR to determine if they accurately detected dementia. In our cohort, 154 patients suspected of dementia had normal MMSE and CDT test results. Of these, 17 (11%) were demented. If SST or PMR were abnormal, sensitivity was 71% (95% CI 44-90%), and specificity 64% (95% CI 55-72%) for detecting dementia. If both tests were abnormal, sensitivity was 24% (95% CI 7-50%), but specificity increased to 93% (95% CI 88-97%). Patients suspected of dementia, but with normal MMSE and CDT results, may benefit if SST and PMR are added as diagnostic tools. If both SST and PMR are abnormal, this is a red flag to investigate these patients further, even though their negative neuropsychological screening results.
Jensen, Heidi AR; Rasmussen, Birgit; Ekholm, Ola
Background Noise exposure is a well-known risk factor for multiple adverse health effects. Annoyance is the most prevalent response to environmental noise and may result in negative emotional responses, including poor mental health and high levels of perceived stress. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the association between neighbour and traffic noise annoyance, and mental health and perceived stress. Methods Data were derived from the Danish Health and Morbidity surveys in 2010 and 2013. The study was based on a random sample of the adult population in Denmark living in multistorey housing (n...... = 7090). Information on neighbour and traffic noise annoyance during the past 2 weeks, and mental health and perceived stress, using Short Form-12 and Perceived Stress Scale instruments, respectively, was obtained by means of self-administered questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression models were used...
Dewa, Carolyn S; Hoch, Jeffrey S
This article estimates the net benefit for a company incorporating a collaborative care model into its return-to-work program for workers on short-term disability related to a mental disorder. Employing a simple decision model, the net benefit and uncertainty were explored. The breakeven point occurs when the average short-term disability episode is reduced by at least 7 days. In addition, 85% of the time, benefits could outweigh costs. Model results and sensitivity analyses indicate that organizational benefits can be greater than the costs of incorporating a collaborative care model into a return-to-work program for workers on short-term disability related to a mental disorder. The results also demonstrate how the probability of a program's effectiveness and the magnitude of its effectiveness are key factors that determine whether the benefits of a program outweigh its costs.
Roalf, David R; Moore, Tyler M; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Wolk, David A; Arnold, Steven E; Weintraub, Daniel A; Moberg, Paul J
To provide a crosswalk between the recently proposed short Montreal Cognitive Assessment (s-MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) within a clinical cohort. A total of 791 participants, with and without neurologic conditions, received both the MMSE and the MoCA at the same visit. s-MoCA scores were calculated and equipercentile equating was used to create a crosswalk between the s-MoCA and MMSE. As expected, s-MoCA scores were highly correlated (Pearson r = 0.82, P < .001) with MMSE scores. s-MoCA scores correctly classified 85% of healthy older adults and 91% of individuals with neurologic conditions that impair cognition. In addition, we provide an easy to use table that enables the conversion of s-MoCA score to MMSE score. The s-MoCA is quick to administer, provides high sensitivity and specificity for cognitive impairment, and now can be compared directly with the MMSE. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ashurst Emily J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Professionals are interested in using e-health but implementation of new methods is slow. Barriers to implementation include the need for training and limited awareness or experience. Research may not always convince mental health professionals (MHPs. Adding the 'voice' of mental health service users (MHSUs in collaborative learning may help. Involving MHSUs in face-face education can be difficult. We had previously been unable to engage MHPs in online discussion with MHSUs. Here we assessed the feasibility of short online courses involving MHSUs and MHPs. Methods We ran three e-health courses, comprising live interactive webcast, week’s access to a discussion forum, and final live interactive webcast. We recruited MHPs via posters, newsletters, and telephone from a local NHS trust, and online via mailing lists and personal contacts from NHS trusts and higher education. We recruited MHSUs via a previous project and an independent user involvement service. Participants were presented with research evidence about e-health and asked to discuss topics using professional and lived experience. Feasibility was assessed through recruitment and attrition, participation, and researcher workloads. Outcomes of self-esteem and general self-efficacy (MHSUs, and Internet self-efficacy and confidence (MHPs were piloted. Results Online recruiting was effective. We lost 15/41 from registration to follow-up but only 5/31 that participated in the course failed to complete follow-up. Nineteen MHPs and 12 MHSUs took part and engaged with each other in online discussion. Feedback was positive; three-quarters of MHPs indicated future plans to use the Internet for practice, and 80% of MHSUs felt the course should be continued. Running three courses for 31 participants took between 200 to 250 hours. Before and after outcome measures were completed by 26/31 that participated. MHP Internet self-efficacy and general Internet confidence, MHSU self
Ashurst, Emily J; Jones, Ray B; Williamson, Graham R; Emmens, Tobit; Perry, Jon
Professionals are interested in using e-health but implementation of new methods is slow. Barriers to implementation include the need for training and limited awareness or experience. Research may not always convince mental health professionals (MHPs). Adding the 'voice' of mental health service users (MHSUs) in collaborative learning may help. Involving MHSUs in face-face education can be difficult. We had previously been unable to engage MHPs in online discussion with MHSUs. Here we assessed the feasibility of short online courses involving MHSUs and MHPs. We ran three e-health courses, comprising live interactive webcast, week's access to a discussion forum, and final live interactive webcast. We recruited MHPs via posters, newsletters, and telephone from a local NHS trust, and online via mailing lists and personal contacts from NHS trusts and higher education. We recruited MHSUs via a previous project and an independent user involvement service. Participants were presented with research evidence about e-health and asked to discuss topics using professional and lived experience. Feasibility was assessed through recruitment and attrition, participation, and researcher workloads. Outcomes of self-esteem and general self-efficacy (MHSUs), and Internet self-efficacy and confidence (MHPs) were piloted. Online recruiting was effective. We lost 15/41 from registration to follow-up but only 5/31 that participated in the course failed to complete follow-up. Nineteen MHPs and 12 MHSUs took part and engaged with each other in online discussion. Feedback was positive; three-quarters of MHPs indicated future plans to use the Internet for practice, and 80% of MHSUs felt the course should be continued. Running three courses for 31 participants took between 200 to 250 hours. Before and after outcome measures were completed by 26/31 that participated. MHP Internet self-efficacy and general Internet confidence, MHSU self-esteem and general self-efficacy, all seemed reliable and
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is sustained interest in public health circles in assessing the effects of policies on health and health inequalities. We report on the theory, methods and findings of a project which involved an appraisal of current Scottish policy with respect to its potential impacts on mental health and wellbeing. Methods We developed a method of assessing the degree of alignment between Government policies and the 'evidence base', involving: reviewing theoretical frameworks; analysis of policy documents, and nineteen in-depth interviews with policymakers which explored influences on, and barriers to cross-cutting policymaking and the use of research evidence in decisionmaking. Results Most policy documents did not refer to mental health; however most referred indirectly to the determinants of mental health and well-being. Unsurprisingly research evidence was rarely cited; this was more common in health policy documents. The interviews highlighted the barriers to intersectoral policy making, and pointed to the relative value of qualitative and quantitative research, as well as to the imbalance of evidence between "what is known" and "what is to be done". Conclusion Healthy public policy depends on effective intersectoral working between government departments, along with better use of research evidence to identify policy impacts. This study identified barriers to both these. We also demonstrated an approach to rapidly appraising the mental health effects of mainly non-health sector policies, drawing on theoretical understandings of mental health and its determinants, research evidence and policy documents. In the case of the social determinants of health, we conclude that an evidence-based approach to policymaking and to policy appraisal requires drawing strongly upon existing theoretical frameworks, as well as upon research evidence, but that there are significant practical barriers and disincentives.
Lin, Jin-Ding; Lee, Tzong-Nan; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yen, Chia-Feng; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Wu, Jia-Ling; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Sheng-Ru
Little explicit attention has been given to the generic health profile of staff working for people with intellectual disability in institutions. This study aimed to provide a profile of physical and mental health of staff working in disability welfare institutions, and to examine the possible demographic and organizational factors that explain an…
Pannebakker, M.M.; van Dam, W.O.; Band, G.P.H.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Hommel, B.
Dual tasks and their associated delays have often been used to examine the boundaries of processing in the brain. We used the dual-task procedure and recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate how mental rotation of a first stimulus (S1) influences the shifting of visual-spatial
Llosa Augusto E
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing recognition of the psychological impact of adversity associated with armed conflict on exposed civilian populations. Yet there is a paucity of evidence on the value of mental health programs in these contexts, and of the chronology of psychological sequelae, especially in prolonged conflicts with repeated cycles of extreme violence. Here, we describe changes in the psychological profile of new patients in a mental health program after the military offensive Cast Lead, in the context of the prolonged armed conflict involving the Gaza Strip. Methods This study analyses routinely collected program data from a Médecins Sans Frontières mental health program in the Gaza Strip spanning 2007–2011. Data consist of socio-demographic as well as clinical baseline and follow-up data on new patients entering the program. Comparisons were made through Chi square and Fisher’s exact tests, univariate and multivariate logistic and linear regression. Results PTSD, depression and other anxiety disorders were the most frequent psychopathologies, with 21% having multiple diagnoses. With a median of nine sessions, clinical improvement was recorded for 83% (1122/1357, and more common for those with separation anxiety, acute and posttraumatic disorders as principal diagnosis (855/1005, compared to depression (141/183, p Conclusion Evolving changes in patient volume, diagnoses and recall period to triggering events suggest a lengthy and durable effect of an intensified exposure to violence in a context of prolonged conflict. Our findings suggest that mental health related humanitarian relief in protracted conflicts might need to prepare for an increase in patients with changing profiles over an extended period following an acute flare-up in violence.
Wind, Tim R; Joshi, Pooran C; Kleber, Rolf J; Komproe, Ivan H
Very little is known on the impact of recurrent disasters on mental health. Aim The present study examines the immediate impact of a recurrent flood on mental health and functioning among an affected population in the rural district of Bahraich, Uttar Pradesh, India, compared with a population in the same region that is not affected by floods. The study compared 318 affected respondents with 308 individuals who were not affected by floods. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). Psychological and physical functioning was assessed by using the Short Form-12 (SF-12). The affected group showed large to very large differences with the comparison group on symptoms of anxiety (D = .92) and depression (D = 1.22). The affected group scored significantly lower on psychological and physical functioning than the comparison group (respectively D = .33 and D = .80). However, hierarchical linear regressions showed no significant relationship between mental health and the domains of functioning in the affected group, whereas mental health and the domains of functioning were significantly related in the comparison group. This study found a large negative impact of the recurrent floods on mental health outcomes and psychological and physical functioning. However, in a context with recurrent floods, disaster mental health status is not a relevant predictor of functioning. The findings suggest that the observed mental health status and impaired functioning in this context are also outcomes of another mechanism: Both outcomes are likely to be related to the erosion of the social and environmental and material context. As such, the findings refer to a need to implement psychosocial context-oriented interventions to address the erosion of the context rather than specific mental health interventions.
Buiza, Cristina; Navarro, Ana; Díaz-Orueta, Unai; González, Mari Feli; Alaba, Javier; Arriola, Enrique; Hernández, Carmen; Zulaica, Amaia; Yanguas, José Javier
The cognitive assessment of patients with advanced dementia needs proper screening instruments that allow obtain information about the cognitive state and resources that these individuals still have. The present work conducts a Spanish validation study of the Severe Mini Mental State Examination (SMMSE). Forty-seven patients with advanced dementia (Mini-Cognitive Examination [MEC]Cognitive Impairment Profile scales. All test items were discriminative. The test showed high internal (α=0.88), test-retest (0.64 to 1.00, Pvalidity was tested through correlations between the instrument and MEC scores (r=0.59, Pinformation on the construct validity was obtained by dividing the sample into groups that scored above or below 5 points in the MEC and recalculating their correlations with SMMSE. The correlation between the scores in the SMMSE and MEC was significant in the MEC 0-5 group (r=0.55, P5 group. Additionally, differences in scores were found in the SMMSE, but not in the MEC, between the three GDS groups (5, 6 and 7) (H=11.1, Pcognitive impairment which prevents the floor effect through an extension of lower measurement range relative to that of the MEC. From our results, this rapid screening tool and easy to administer, can be considered valid and reliable. Copyright © 2010 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Chan, Christian S; Lowe, Sarah R; Weber, Elyssa; Rhodes, Jean E
A previous study of Hurricane Katrina survivors found that higher levels of predisaster social support were associated with lower psychological distress one year after the storm, and that this pathway was mediated by lower exposure to hurricane-related stressors. As a follow-up, we examined the impact of pre- and postdisaster social support on longer-term of mental health-both psychological distress and posttraumatic stress. In this three-wave longitudinal study, 492 residents in the region affected by Hurricane Katrina reported levels of perceived social support and symptoms of psychological distress prior to the storm (Wave 1). Subsequently, one year after Hurricane Katrina (Wave 2), they reported levels of exposure, perceived social support, and symptoms of psychological distress and posttraumatic stress. The latter three variables were assessed again four years after the hurricane (Wave 3). Results of mediation analysis indicated that levels of exposure to hurricane-related stressors mediated the relationship between Wave 1 perceived social support and Wave 3 psychological distress as well as postdisaster posttraumatic stress. Results of regression analyses indicated that, controlling for Wave 1 psychological distress and disaster exposure, Wave 2 perceived social support was associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 psychological distress but not posttraumatic stress. Our results confirmed the social causation processes of social support and suggest that posttraumatic stress might not stem directly from the lack of social support. Rather, preexisting deficits in social resources might indirectly affect longer-term posttraumatic stress and general psychological distress by increasing risk for disaster-related stressors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rigas, A S; Skytthe, A; Erikstrup, C
AIMS: This study aimed at quantifying the healthy donor effect by comparing self-perceived mental and physical health between blood donors and non-donors. BACKGROUND: In theory, the selection process known as the healthy donor effect should result in better self-perceived, health-related quality...... of life in donors than in non-donors. METHODS: The Short Form-12 data from the Danish Twin Registry (DTR) was compared with the data from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS). Data on age, sex and smoking status were included in the analyses. The multivariable linear regression analysis was stratified......-perceived mental health was associated with a blood donor. With the increase in age, better self-perceived physical health was associated with blood donation....
Marcio M. Vasconcelos
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta revisão aborda as recentes descobertas da neurobiologia do retardo mental, enfatizando os novos recursos da citogenética, das técnicas moleculares e da neurorradiologia para esclarecer o diagnóstico. FONTES DE DADOS: O autor pesquisou o banco de dados MEDLINE da National Library of Medicine utilizando as palavras-chave "mental retardation", "developmental disability", "child" e "adolescent" em diferentes combinações, abrangendo o período de janeiro de 2000 a outubro de 2003. Também foram utilizados os bancos de dados das revistas científicas Pediatrics e New England Journal of Medicine através da palavra-chave "mental retardation". No total, o autor consultou cerca de 1.500 títulos de artigos e 500 resumos, e teve acesso direto a 150 artigos completos pertinentes. Quando oportuno, algumas referências dos artigos consultados também foram consideradas. O site Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man foi utilizado como fonte de informações em genética clínica. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Em outubro de 2003, o total de síndromes genéticas associadas a retardo mental chegou a 1.149. Considerando-se o conjunto das causas genéticas ou ambientais e congênitas ou adquiridas de retardo mental, a avaliação diagnóstica atual é capaz de esclarecer a etiologia em 50 a 70% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: O autor sugere uma avaliação diagnóstica do retardo mental em etapas lógicas, visando ao uso racional dos dispendiosos recursos da citogenética, biologia molecular e neuroimagem.OBJECTIVE: This paper describes recent advances in the neurobiology of mental retardation, emphasizing new diagnostic resources provided by cytogenetics, molecular testing, and neuroimaging. SOURCES OF DATA: MEDLINE (January 2000 through October 2003, using the following key words: mental retardation, developmental disability, child, and adolescent. Search of the Pediatrics and New England Journal of Medicine websites using the key word mental retardation. The
Gee, Gilbert C; Ryan, Andrew; Laflamme, David J; Holt, Jeanie
We examined whether self-reported racial discrimination was associated with mental health status and whether this association varied with race/ethnicity or immigration status. We performed secondary analysis of a community intervention conducted in 2002 and 2003 for the New Hampshire Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health 2010 Initiative, surveying African descendants, Mexican Americans, and other Latinos. We assessed mental health status with the Mental Component Summary (MCS12) of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12, and measured discrimination with questions related to respondents' ability to achieve goals, discomfort/anger at treatment by others, and access to quality health care. Self-reported discrimination was associated with a lower MCS12 score. Additionally, the strength of the association between self-reported health care discrimination and lower MCS12 score was strongest for African descendants, then Mexican Americans, then other Latinos. These patterns may be explained by differences in how long a respondent has lived in the United States. Furthermore, the association of health care discrimination with lower MCS12 was weaker for recent immigrants. Discrimination may be an important predictor of poor mental health status among Black and Latino immigrants. Previous findings of decreasing mental health status as immigrants acculturate might partly be related to experiences with racial discrimination.
Abramson, David; Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Garfield, Richard; Redlener, Irwin
Catastrophic disasters often are associated with massive structural, economic, and population devastation; less understood are the long-term mental health consequences. This study measures the prevalence and predictors of mental health distress and disability of hurricane survivors over an extended period of recovery in a postdisaster setting. A representative sample of 1077 displaced or greatly affected households was drawn in 2006 using a stratified cluster sampling of federally subsidized emergency housing settings in Louisiana and Mississippi, and of Mississippi census tracts designated as having experienced major damage from Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Two rounds of data collection were conducted: a baseline face-to-face interview at 6 to 12 months post-Katrina, and a telephone follow-up at 20 to 23 months after the disaster. Mental health disability was measured using the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 12, version 2 mental component summary score. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted examining socioeconomic, demographic, situational, and attitudinal factors associated with mental health distress and disability. More than half of the cohort at both baseline and follow-up reported significant mental health distress. Self-reported poor health and safety concerns were persistently associated with poorer mental health. Nearly 2 years after the disaster, the greatest predictors of poor mental health included situational characteristics such as greater numbers of children in a household and attitudinal characteristics such as fatalistic sentiments and poor self-efficacy. Informal social support networks were associated significantly with better mental health status. Housing and economic circumstances were not independently associated with poorer mental health. Mental health distress and disability are pervasive issues among the US Gulf Coast adults and children who experienced long-term displacement or other serious effects as a result of Hurricanes
Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play ...
Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...
... the same time. For example, you may have depression and a substance use disorder. Complications Mental illness is a leading cause of disability. Untreated mental illness can cause severe emotional, behavioral and physical health problems. Complications sometimes linked to mental illness include: ...
Middleton, Laura E; Ventura, Maria I; Santos-Modesitt, Wendy; Poelke, Gina; Yaffe, Kristine; Barnes, Deborah E
Older adults with cognitive complaints are vulnerable to dementia, physical impairments, and poor quality of life. Exercise and mental activity may improve physical function and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) but combinations have not been investigated systematically. The Mental Activity and eXercise (MAX) trial found that mental activity plus exercise over 12weeks improved cognitive function (primary outcome) in sedentary older adults with cognitive complaints. To investigate the effects of combinations of two mental activity and exercise programs on physical function and HRQOL (secondary outcomes). Participants (n=126, age 73±6years, 65% women) were randomized to 12weeks of exercise (aerobic exercise or stretching/toning, 3×60min/week) plus mental activity (computer-based cognitive training or educational DVDs, 3×60min/week) using a factorial design. Assessments included the Senior Fitness Test (physical function), Short Form-12 physical and mental sub-scales (HRQOL), and CHAMPS questionnaire (physical activity). There were no differences between groups at baseline (p>0.05). We observed improvements over time in most physical function measures [chair stands (p-for-time=0.001), arm curls (p-for-timephysical HRQOL (p-for-time=0.04). There were no differences in change between groups (group∗time p>0.05). Changes in most physical function measures and physical HRQOL correlated with physical activity changes. Combined mental activity and exercise interventions of various types can improve both physical function and physical HRQOL among sedentary older adults with cognitive complaints. Exercise control group design should be carefully considered as even light exercise may induce benefits in vulnerable older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... well Feeling guilty, worthless, or helpless Thinking about suicide or hurting yourself Other mental health conditions include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. For a good description ...
... Myths and Facts Recovery Is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mental health problems and where to find help . Mental Health and Wellness Positive mental health allows people to: ...
Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua
Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...
Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...
PROF P.T. KAYE
. SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...
manuel torres cubeiro
Full Text Available Mental illnesses affect 25% of any given population. The literacy of human population about mental health doesn’t not much the scientific knowledge available about Mental disorders (MDs. Developed countries invest in mental health less than their 9% of their GDPs. There is a contradiction, or discrepancy, between the incidence of MD in human population and how human societies react about them. This discrepancy has long been evident in the literature of medical sociology. In this article we analyze three medical sociology related concepts that have been coined to understand this contradiction: first, mental health literacy; second, stigma of mental ailments; and finally, the disclosure (or not of the diagnosis of a mental illness. With this article we try to solve short use of these concepts in medical sociology in Spanish.
Olsen, Tina Vestermann; Boye, Anne Mette; Borchmann, Inger Haarup
Formålet med publikationen er at præsentere metoden "Mental byomdannelse". Metoden viser, hvordan man via midlertidig brug af grunde kan undersøge et steds potentialer, tage et område i brug tidligt i en byomdannelsesproces og derved bidrage til at opbygge en ny identitet for området. Mental...... byomdannelse går ud på at skabe bevidsthed om et byudviklingsområde overfor byens borgere, kommende beboere og fremtidige brugere af området allerede mens den fysiske omdannelse er i gang. I publikationen præsenteres en værktøjskasse, som giver redskaber og ideer til, hvordan man kan sætte en mental...... byomdannelsesproces i gang i byens rum. Publikationen udgør en afrapportering fra et støttet forsøgsprojekt hvor metoden ”Mental byomdannelse” er udviklet ved at afprøve ideerne om mental byomdannelse i to cases i Ålborg Kommune, hhv. i Østre Havn og Nibe by. Formålet med at anvende metoden i de to cases har været...
Christesen, Henrik Boye Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie
-scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below......The use of appropriate growth standards/references is of significant clinical importance in assessing the height of children with short stature as it may determine eligibility for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of using World Health Organization (WHO) instead...... of national growth standards/references on height assessment in short children. Data were collected from routine clinical practice (1998-2014) from nine European countries that have available national growth references and were enrolled in NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (NCT00960128), a large...
Farzanfar, Ramesh; Locke, Steven E; Heeren, Timothy C; Stevens, Allison; Vachon, Louis; Thi Nguyen, Mai Khoa; Friedman, Robert H
Test the feasibility and impact of an automated workplace mental health assessment and intervention. Efficacy was evaluated in a randomized control trial comparing employees who received screening and intervention with those who received only screening. Workplace. 463 volunteers from Boston Medical Center, Boston University, and EMC and other employed adults, among whom 164 were randomized to the intervention (N = 87) and control (N = 77) groups. The system administers a panel of telephonic assessment instruments followed by tailored information, education, and referrals. The Work Limitation Questionnaire, the Medical Outcomes Questionnaire Short Form-12, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, question 10 from the Patient Health Questionnaire to measure functional impairment, and the Perceived Stress Scale-4 and questions written by study psychiatrists to measure emotional distress and social support respectively. The WHO-Five Well-being Index was administered to measure overall well-being. Independent sample t-tests and χ(2) tests as well as mean change were used to compare the data. No significant differences on 16 of the 20 comparisons at 3- and 6-month time points. The intervention group showed a significant improvement in depression (p ≤ .05) at 3 months and on two Work Limitation Questionnaire subscales, the Mental-Interpersonal Scale (p ≤ .05) and the Time and Scheduling Scale (p ≤ .05), at 3 and 6 months respectively with a suggestive improvement in mental health at 6 months (p ≤ .10). This is a potentially fruitful area for research with important implications for workplace behavioral interventions.
Muzdalifah M. Rahman
of mental health, especially mental health needs to be developed with an Islamic perspective various studies and research, especially the development of mental health recovery means Islamic perspective.
Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank
modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds...
French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).
Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...
______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.
Pantophlet, Andre J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Vonk, R.J.
Heavy veal calves (4-6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin
Lagerveld, S.; Houtman, I.L.D.
The article will describe factors of influence on return to work RTW and evidence-based interventions that enhance return to work (RTW) after sick leave due to common mental health disorders (CMD). First the concepts of both RTW and CMD are outlined. Second, the sense of urgency for effective RTW
Bueno i Torrens, David, 1965-
La revista especialitzada NeuroReport ha publicat un article que m'ha aportat nous elements de reflexió sobre els mecanismes neurals de control mental que, de forma innata, realitzem les persones com a part de la nostra vida social.
Short Communication. QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural ...
Schuring, Merel; Robroek, Suzan Jw; Burdorf, Alex
Objectives The aims of this study were to (i) investigate the impact of paid employment on self-rated health, self-esteem, mastery, and happiness among previously unemployed persons with common mental health problems, and (ii) determine whether there are educational inequalities in these effects. Methods A quasi-experimental study was performed with a two-year follow-up period among unemployed persons with mental health problems. Eligible participants were identified at the social services departments of five cities in The Netherlands when being diagnosed with a common mental disorder, primarily depression and anxiety disorders, in the past 12 months by a physician (N=749). Employment status (defined as paid employment for ≥12 hours/week), mental health [Short Form 12 (SF-12)], physical health (SF-12), self-esteem, mastery, and happiness were measured at baseline, after 12 months and 24 months. The repeated-measurement longitudinal data were analyzed using a hybrid method, combining fixed and random effects. The regression coefficient was decomposed into between- and within-individual associations, respectively. Results The between-individuals associations showed that persons working ≥12 hours per week reported better mental health (b=26.7, SE 5.1), mastery (b=2.7, SE 0.6), self-esteem (b=5.7, SE 1.1), physical health (b=14.6, SE 5.6) and happiness (OR 7.7, 95% CI 2.3-26.4). The within-individual associations showed that entering paid employment for ≥12 hours per week resulted in better mental health (b=16.3, SE 3.4), mastery (b=1.7, SE 0.4), self-esteem (b=3.4, SE 0.7), physical health (b=9.8, SE 2.9), and happiness (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.4-6.9). Among intermediate- and high-educated persons, entering paid employment had significantly larger effect on mental health than among low-educated persons. Conclusions This study provides evidence that entering paid employment has a positive impact on self-reported health; thus work should be considered as an important
Francisco Gomez Pinzón
Full Text Available El número cada día mayor de enfermos mentales, que hace “contraste con la evidente disminución de enfermedades infecto-contagiosas, -lograda a favor de los modernos métodos de curación y profilaxis- es un hecho que está siendo comprobado “en todos los países civilizados y que constituye motivo de justificada alarma para cuantos se preocupan por cuestiones del orden biológico y social”
Stanojević Dragana Z.
Full Text Available The concept of positive mental health represents not merely the absence of mental disease but presence of high level of happiness and well-being. In this paper we mentioned shortly the earliest concept of mental health, presented by Marie Jahoda in the mid-twentieth century. After that, we described two traditions in understanding and researching of subjective well-being: hedonic and eudaimonic approach. First approach focuses on investigation of positive affects and happiness as emotional and life satisfaction as cognitive component of subjective well-being. Second tradition emphasizes potentials and competences that person develops to the highest level, in personal and social area. Both psychological and social well-being are core concept of positive mental health psychology, designated together as positive functioning. The psychological well-being comprises six dimensions: self-acceptance, positive relations with others, environmental mastery, autonomy, purpose of life and personal growth. Social well-being consists of five dimensions: social integration, social acceptance, social contribution, social actualization and social coherence. By integrating hedonic and eudaimonic well-being as well as absence of mental disease, Corey Keyes introduced concept of complete mental health. People with complete mental health have reported absence of disease during past year and presence of high level of emotional, psychological and social well-being (flourishing. People with incomplete mental health have also reported absence of mental disease but low level of positive functioning (languishing. Keyes thought there are people with complete and incomplete mental illness; both groups report presence of mental disease, but second group has high level of positive functioning. Models of positive mental health are widely used in research studies as well as in programs for prevention and promotion of mental health. .
Roos, Leslie E; Distasio, Jino; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Katz, Laurence Y; Afifi, Tracie O; Isaak, Corinne; Goering, Paula; Bruce, Lucille; Sareen, Jitender
Multiple studies of homeless persons report an increased prevalence of a history in-care, but there is a dearth of information on associated outcomes or relevant demographic profiles. This information is critical to understanding if certain individuals are at elevated risk or might benefit from specific intervention. Here, we investigate how a history in-care relates to demographics and multiple outcome measures in a homeless population with mental illness. Using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), the Short-Form 12, and a trauma questionnaire, we investigated baseline differences in demographics and length of homelessness in the At Home/Chez Soi Trial (N=504) Winnipeg homeless population with and without a history in-care. Approximately 50% of the homeless sample reported a history in-care. This group was significantly more likely to be young, female, married or cohabitating, of Aboriginal heritage, have less education, and have longer lifetime homelessness. Individuals of Aboriginal heritage with a history in-care were significantly more likely to report a familial history of residential school. Individuals with a history in-care experienced different prevalence rates of Axis 1 mental disorders. Those with a history in-care also reported significantly more traumatic events (particularly interpersonal). A distinctive high-risk profile emerged for individuals with a history in-care. Sociocultural factors of colonization and intergenerational transmission of trauma appear to be particularly relevant in the trajectories for individuals of Aboriginal heritage. Given the high prevalence of a history in-care, interventions and policy should reflect the specific vulnerability of this population, particularly in regards to trauma-informed services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi
This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.
Hyatt, I. Ralph
Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)
... News & Events About Us Home > Health Information Share Statistics Research shows that mental illnesses are common in ... of mental illnesses, such as suicide and disability. Statistics Top ı cs Mental Illness Any Anxiety Disorder ...
Barış ERGÜL; Arzu ALTIN YAVUZ; Ebru GÜNDOĞAN AŞIK
Although details of the information encoded in the short-term memory where it is stored temporarily be recorded in the working memory in the next stage. Repeating the information mentally makes it remain in memory for a long time. Studies investigating the relationship between short-term memory and reading skills that are carried out to examine the relationship between short-term memory processes and reading comprehension. In this study information coming to short-term memory and the factors ...
Muzdalifah M. Rahman
The purpose of this paper was to explain the concept of mental health perspective Contemporary Psychology, describes the mental health of an Islamic perspective and describes how mental health recovery. The theory used is the concept of mental health perspective Contemporary Psychology, and the concept of mental health perspective Islamic Psychology Writing is writing method using qualitative research methods. Mental health is avoiding an Islamic perspective of all symptoms, complaints and...
... How Do Mental Health Conditions Affect the Latino Community? Common mental health disorders among Latinos are generalized anxiety disorder , major ... quality care. Lack of Information and Misunderstanding about Mental Health Overall, the Latino community does not talk about mental health issues. There ...
Mental control in a performance setting was examined based on the theory of ironic processes (Wegner, 1994). The theory of ironic processes argues that attempted mental control can result in intentional or ironic effects. According to the theory, the outcome of mental control is mediated by (a) mental load, (b) concentration and suppression strategies, and (c) learning. These hypotheses were examined by reviewing research related to mental control in a performance setting. This...
Nov 2, 1974 ... A short while after his birth, the Hullah family moved into the superintendent's ... tence for a long time at that stage, because the Commis- sioner for Mental ..... the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital. It has expanded ...
Lukat, J.; Margraf, J.; Lutz, R.; Veld, W.M. van der; Becker, E.S.
Background: In recent years, it has been increasingly recognized that the absence of mental disorder is not the same as the presence of positive mental health (PMH). With the PMH-scale we propose a short, unidimensional scale for the assessment of positive mental health. The scale consists of 9
Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba
traditionally the duty and responsibility of the extended family to look after the aged. Gender based violence (GBV) is another issue. Women, who are totally dependent on their spouses economically, are forced by circumstances to continue living in abusive relationships to the detriment of their mental well-being. In Zambia, the family is considered sacrosanct and the affairs of the family members, private. It is within this context that GBV is regarded as a family affair and therefore a private affair, yet spouse beating has led to depression and in some cases death. In terms of psychiatric services, there are close to 560 beds for psychiatric patients across the country. Common mental disorders found in Zambia are acute psychotic episodes, schizophrenia, affective disorders, alcohol related problems and organic brain syndromes. About 70-80% of people with mental health problems consult traditional health practitioners before they seek help from conventional health practitioners. Over time the number of frontline mental health workers and professional staff has been declining. This is due to the 'brain drain', retirement, death and low output from training institutions. For practicing psychiatrists, only one is available for the whole country. Other key mental health workers such as psychologists, social workers and occupational therapists are also in short supply. All in all, the mental health services situation in Zambia could be described as critical, requiring urgent attention.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a short description of the most important developments of mental health services in Finland during the 1990s, examine their influences on the organisation and provision of services, and describe shortly some national efforts to handle the new situation. The Finnish mental health service system experienced profound changes in the beginning of the 1990s. These included the integration of mental health services, being earlier under own separate administration, with other specialised health services, decentralisation of the financing of health services, and de-institutionalisation of the services. The same time Finland underwent the deepest economic recession in Western Europe, which resulted in cut-offs especially in the mental health budgets. Conducting extensive national research and development programmes in the field of mental health has been one typically Finnish way of supporting the mental health service development. The first of these national programmes was the Schizophrenia Project 1981–97, whose main aims were to decrease the incidence of new long-term patients and the prevalence of old long-stay patients by developing an integrated treatment model. The Suicide Prevention Project 1986–96 aimed at raising awareness of this special problem and decreasing by 20% the proportionally high suicide rate in Finland. The National Depression Programme 1994–98 focused at this clearly increasing public health concern by several research and development project targeted both to the general population and specifically to children, primary care and specialised services. The latest, still on-going Meaningful Life Programme 1998–2003 which main aim is, by multi-sectoral co-operation, to improve the quality of life for people suffering from or living with the threat of mental disorders. Furthermore, the government launched in 1999 a new Goal and Action Programme for Social Welfare and Health Care 2000–2003, in
Sleep - natural short sleeper ... 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. Short sleepers sleep less than 75% of what is normal for their age. Natural short sleepers are different from people who chronically do ...
Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Ling, Daphne; Pascual-Leone, Juan
The current study tested 2 models of inhibition in 45 children with language impairment and 45 children with normally developing language; children were aged 7 to 12 years. Of interest was whether a model of inhibition as a mental-control process (i.e., executive function) or as a mental resource would more accurately reflect the relations among…
Prieto-Welch, Susan L.
This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.
... Releases & Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...
Diment, Gregory Michael
a systematic observation checklist of mental toughness behavior in professional soccer. Consistent with existing studies, the results created a systematic observation instrument containing 15 mental toughness behaviors. Practical implications include goal-setting, game analysis and self-modeling interventions...
Khan, Nusrat N; Yahya, Badi'ah; Abu Bakar, Abd Kadir; Ho, Roger C
The Malaysian Mental Health Act 2001 did not come into effect until the Mental Health Regulations 2010 came into force. The Act provides a framework for the delivery of comprehensive care, treatment, control, protection and rehabilitation of those with mental disorders. The Act governs the establishment of private and government psychiatric hospitals, psychiatric nursing homes and community mental health centres. This paper outlines the provisions of the Act and the Regulations.
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Stein, Zena; And Others
Prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine of 1944-45 had no detectable effects on the adult mental performance of surviving male offspring; birth weight was not related to mental performance; and the association of social class with mental performance was strong. (AL)
Full Text Available Mental ill health constitutes a huge portion of the GBD but the majority of people with mental health problems do not receive any treatment, a scenario much worse in developing countries where mental health personnel are in gross short supply. The mhGAP was launched to address this gap, especially by training non-mental health professionals to deliver effective services for selected priority mental health problems. Especially in developing countries, people with mental health problems consult traditional healers either as a first step in the pathway to biomedical mental health care or as the sole mental health service providers. Bridging the gap between mental health needs and available services in developing countries must incorporate traditional healers, who are ubiquitously available, easily accessible and acceptable to the natives. Although there are barriers in forging collaborations between traditional and biomedical mental health care providers, with mutual respect, understanding and adapted training using the mhGAP guide it should be possible to get some traditional healers to understand the core principles of some priority mental health problems identification, treatment and referral.
The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.
Appreciation is a key component of subjective well-being and may contribute to positive mental health. Few studies have examined relationships between specific aspects of appreciation and the 3 dimensions of positive mental health, and thus, the aim of this study was to identify associations between aspects of appreciation and positive mental health. Appreciation and positive mental health were measured in 266 Korean university students (50% females) using the Appreciation Inventory and the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form. The results obtained showed that Have Focus significantly predicted Emotional Well-being; Have Focus and Loss/Adversity significantly predicted Social Well-being and Have Focus, Expression and Nature/Daily Life significantly predicted Psychological Well-being. The implications of results that might enable positive mental health to be enhanced are discussed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Hatice Yildirim Sari
Full Text Available Mentally disabled individuals are at risk of health problems. In fact, health problems are more frequent in mentally disabled individuals than in the general population and mentally disabled individuals less frequently use health care facilities. It has been shown that mentally disabled individuals frequently have nutritional problems. They may suffer from low weight, malnutrition, high weight, pica, iron and zinc deficiencies and absorption and eating disorders. Activities can be limited due to motor disability and restricted movements. Depending on insufficient liquid intake and dietary fiber, constipation can be frequent. Another problem is sleep disorders such as irregular sleep hours, short sleep, waking up at night and daytime sleepiness. Visual-hearing losses, epilepsy, motor disability, hepatitis A infection and poor oral hygiene are more frequent in mentally disabled children than in the general population. The mentally disabled have limited health care facilities, poorer health status than the general population and difficulties in demanding for health care and expressing health problems. Therefore, they should be provided with more health promotion services. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 145-150
Davis, Alaina M; Rubinstein, Tamar B; Rodriguez, Martha; Knight, Andrea M
Youth with rheumatologic diseases have a high prevalence of comorbid mental health disorders. Individuals with comorbid mental health disorders are at increased risk for adverse outcomes related to mental health as well as their underlying rheumatologic disease. Early identification and treatment of mental health disorders has been shown to improve outcomes, but current systems of care fall short in providing adequate mental health services to those in need. Pediatric rheumatologists are uniquely positioned to provide mental health screening and intervention for youth with rheumatologic diseases due to the frequency of patient encounters and ongoing therapeutic relationship with patients and families. However, additional training is likely required for pediatric rheumatologists to provide effective mental health care, and focusing efforts on providing trainees with mental health education is key to building competency. Potential opportunities for improved mental health education include development of clinical guidelines regarding mental health screening and management within pediatric rheumatology settings and incorporation of mental health didactics, workshops, and interdisciplinary clinic experiences into pediatric rheumatology fellowship curricula. Additional steps include mental health education for patients and families and focus on system change, targeting integration of medical and mental health care. Research is needed to better define the scope of the problem, determine effective strategies for equipping pediatric rheumatologists with skills in mental health intervention, and develop and implement sustainable systems for delivery of optimal mental health care to youth with rheumatologic diseases.
Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; Carrozzino, Danilo; Marchetti, Daniela
ideation than depression. Conclusion: Mental pain is a core clinical factor for understanding suicide, both in the context of mood disorders and independently from depression. Health care professionals need to be aware of the higher suicidal risk in patients reporting mental pain. In this regard......Background: Mental pain, defined as a subjective experience characterized by perception of strong negative feelings and changes in the self and its function, is no less real than other types of grief. Mental pain has been considered to be a distinct entity from depression. We have performed...... a systematic review analyzing the relationship between mental pain and suicide by providing a qualitative data synthesis of the studies. Methods: We have conducted, in accordance with PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search for the literature in PubMed, Web Of Science, and Scopus. Search terms were "mental pain...
... filled with air (called pneumotho- rax), it will hinder expansion of the lung, resulting in shortness of ... of Chest Physi- cians. Shortness of Breath: Patient Education. http: / / www. onebreath. org/ document. doc? id= 113. ...
Physiotherapy in mental health care and psychiatry is a recognized specialty within physiotherapy. It offers a rich variety of observational and evaluation tools as well as a range of interventions that are related to the patient’s physical and mental health problems based on evidence-based literature and a 50-year history. Physiotherapy in mental health care addresses human movement, function, physical activity and exercise in individual and group therapeutic settings. Additionally, it conne...
Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter
In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....
Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.
Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of
Antoniadis, D; Gouti, A; Kaloudi, E; Τourlende, N; Douzenis, A; Christodoulou, C; Lykouras, L; Livaditis, M; Samakouri, M
Attitudes and beliefs of the population regarding the mentally ill have been universally subject of many researches. Research of different groups' opinion for mental disorders has given remarkable findings that assist in the right design of psychiatric services. Objective of this thesis is to study the attitude of students towards mental illness. In particular, it intends to study the differences derived from the age, gender, place of birth, kind of studies, year of study, duration of stay at the place of studies and the existence of mental disorders in the student's family. Data were collected from 536 students randomly selected from Universities and Technological Institutions both in Athens and Thessaloniki. In general, the participants are being divided based on the subject of their studies in undergraduates of human sciences, exact sciences, social and health sciences. The short version of the scale "Community Attitudes Toward the Mentality III" (CAMI) was used, which consists of 26 questions sorted to four subscales (domination scale, humanism scale, social exclusion scale and the scale measuring the community beliefs regarding the care of mentally ill), along with a special questionnaire in order to collect social and demographic data. Students' attitudes towards mental illness are influenced by demographic factors, the department they are studying at and the year of study. Female gender (p=0.000), personal contact with mentally ill (p=0.012), studying in Universities (p=0.031) and especially social sciences (p=0.009) are associated with positive attitudes. On the contrary, less years of studying are associated with negative attitudes whereas older students appear to score less in the Domination Scale (p=0.000). It is significant that the place of birth (p=0,335) and the duration of stay at the place of studies (r=0.735) did not show any association with the variables studied in this research. However these results cannot be compared with older researches
La recientemente reglamentada Ley Nacional de Salud Mental 26.657 plantea amplias reformas en el ámbito de la salud pública. Este escrito se detendrá en uno de los puntos de la ley referido al lugar de las adicciones en las políticas de salud mental. Reflexionará sobre las conexiones entre la salud mental y adicciones. Si bien desde la nueva ley las adicciones forman parte de las políticas de salud mental, la “Y” conectora entre ambas, a la vez que unifica ambos campos, también hace pensar en...
Posner, Zoe; Janssen, Jessica; Roddam, Hazel
Purpose- Burnout in mental health staff is acknowledged as a major problem. The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of mental health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness in mental health staff.\\ud Design/methodology/approach-Ten participants from two mental health rehabilitation units across the North West of England took part in a Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Participants consisted of mental health workers from varied roles in order to\\ud capture views from a...
Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures
... for the individual. Covering issues including perinatal psychiatric disorders, depression, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and alcohol and drug abuse - from a female perspective - Women and Mental Health will prove a valuable tool for all those working in the fields of mental health. Dora Kohen is a Consultant Psychiatrist and an Honorary Senior...
... social networks While there are drawbacks to small communities when it comes to mental health, there are positives as well. The close-knit ... to refer patients to facilities outside of the community. The Substance Abuse and Mental ... Administration (SAMHSA) maintains the 2016 National Directory ...
... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, ... is doing to improve access to care. Children’s Mental Health: What's New Article: U.S. Children with Diagnosed Anxiety ...
Hofstede, Gert Jan
How does culture affect mental activity? That question, applied to the design of social agents, is tackled in this chapter. Mental activity acts on the perceived outside world. It does so in three steps: perceive, interpret, select action. We see that when culture is taken into account, objective
... and Well-Being 1 - Stress - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Health and Well-Being ... Well-Being 2 - Mental Health - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center What Is Mental Distress - ...
Full Text Available Issues related to the mental health of women are a priority these days. Many international organisations working in the field of psychiatry are having sections on it now. This approach can go a long way in the improvement of the available mental health services for this population.
Kernan, K T; Sabsay, S
Referential first mentions in narrative reports of a short film by 40 mildly mentally retarded adults and 20 nonretarded adults were compared. The mentally retarded sample included equal numbers of male and female, and black and white speakers. The mentally retarded speakers made significantly fewer first mentions and significantly more errors in the form of the first mentions than did nonretarded speakers. A pattern of better performance by black males than by other mentally retarded speakers was found. It is suggested that task difficulty and incomplete mastery of the use of definite and indefinite forms for encoding old and new information, rather than some global type of egocentrism, accounted for the poorer performance by mentally retarded speakers.
Jimenez-Molina, Angel; Retamal, Cristian; Lira, Hernan
Knowledge of the mental workload induced by a Web page is essential for improving users' browsing experience. However, continuously assessing the mental workload during a browsing task is challenging. To address this issue, this paper leverages the correlation between stimuli and physiological responses, which are measured with high-frequency, non-invasive psychophysiological sensors during very short span windows. An experiment was conducted to identify levels of mental workload through the analysis of pupil dilation measured by an eye-tracking sensor. In addition, a method was developed to classify mental workload by appropriately combining different signals (electrodermal activity (EDA), electrocardiogram, photoplethysmo-graphy (PPG), electroencephalogram (EEG), temperature and pupil dilation) obtained with non-invasive psychophysiological sensors. The results show that the Web browsing task involves four levels of mental workload. Also, by combining all the sensors, the efficiency of the classification reaches 93.7%.
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
... to content Home Health Information Health Information Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental ... signs and symptoms of depression in men. More Mental Health Services Research Conference Register now for the nation’s ...
Van Cutsem, Jeroen; Marcora, Samuele; De Pauw, Kevin; Bailey, Stephen; Meeusen, Romain; Roelands, Bart
Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity. It has recently been suggested that mental fatigue can affect physical performance. Our objective was to evaluate the literature on impairment of physical performance due to mental fatigue and to create an overview of the potential factors underlying this effect. Two electronic databases, PubMed and Web of Science (until 28 April 2016), were searched for studies designed to test whether mental fatigue influenced performance of a physical task or influenced physiological and/or perceptual responses during the physical task. Studies using short (mental fatigue. Maximal strength, power, and anaerobic work were not affected by mental fatigue. The duration and intensity of the physical task appear to be important factors in the decrease in physical performance due to mental fatigue. The most important factor responsible for the negative impact of mental fatigue on endurance performance is a higher perceived exertion.
Full Text Available Topics identification (TI is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM. We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly.
Maya Quintana, Jennifer
"Fate: The Short Film" is a four minute short film which reflects the idea that nobody can escape from the fate. It has a good picture and sound quality with an understandable message for all public and with the collaboration of actors, filmmaker, stylist, script advisor and media technician.
Shunt and short circuit are antonyms. In French, the term shunt has been adopted to denote the alternative pathway of blood flow. However, in French, as well as in Spanish, the word short circuit (court-circuit and cortocircuito) is synonymous with shunt, giving rise to a linguistic and scientific inconsistency. Scientific because shunt and short circuit made reference to a phenomenon that occurs in the field of the physics. Because shunt and short circuit are antonyms, it is necessary to clarify that shunt is an alternative pathway of flow from a net of high resistance to a net of low resistance, maintaining the stream. Short circuit is the interruption of the flow, because a high resistance impeaches the flood. This concept is applied to electrical and cardiovascular physiology, as well as to the metabolic pathways.
... that are not there Extremely high and low moods Aches, headaches, or digestive problems without a clear cause Irritability Social withdrawal Thoughts of suicide Mental disorders can be treated : If you are unsure where ...
of a strong interactive focus, it remains fundamentally rooted in a Cartesian ontology, overlooking embodied, expressive, enactive and sociocultural dimensions of social cognition. Furthermore, since mentalization theory was originally developed as a framework for understanding Borderline Personality Disorder...
People with serious mental illness who are overweight or obese can benefit from taking part in a fitness program called InSHAPE where they receive help with fitness, weight loss, and even grocery shopping on a budget.
... local university health centers for their psychiatry or psychology departments. You can also go to the website ... may face different mental health issues than the general public. For resources for both service members and ...
Soria, Virginia; Uribe, Javiera; Salvat-Pujol, Neus; Palao, Diego; Menchón, José Manuel; Labad, Javier
The immune system is a key element in the organism's defence system and participates in the maintenance of homeostasis. There is growing interest in the aetiopathogenic and prognostic implications of the immune system in mental disorders, as previous studies suggest the existence of a dysregulation of the immune response and a pro-inflammatory state in patients with mental disorders, as well as an increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases or receiving immune treatments. This study aims to conduct a narrative review of the scientific literature on the role of Psychoneuroimmunology in mental disorders, with special focus on diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues. The development of this body of knowledge may bring in the future important advances in the vulnerability, aetiopathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of some mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
... for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home Stakeholder Engagement Outreach Partnership Program Alliance for Research Progress ... public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy and security of drugs (medications), biological products, medical devices, our ...
Independent, family-owned veterinary group White Cross Vets has been focusing on wellbeing. One of its clinic directors, Rob Reid, joined a group from the practice for some training in mental health awareness. British Veterinary Association.
... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment Choice Program ... Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories FAQs For Health Care Providers Provider ...
Full Text Available Growth is a complex process and the basic characteristic of child- hood growth monitoring provides insight into the physiological and pathological events in the body. Statistically, the short stature means departure from the values of height for age and sex (in a particular environment, which is below -2 standard deviation score, or less than -2 standard deviation, i.e. below the third percentile. Advances in molecular genetics have contributed to the improvement of diagnostics in endocrinology. Analysis of patients’ genotypes should not be performed before taking a classical history, detailed clinical examination and appropriate tests. In patients with idiopathic short stature specific causes are excluded, such as growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, short stature due to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, dysmorphology syndromes and chronic childhood diseases. The exclusion of abovementioned conditions leaves a large number of children with short stature whose etiology includes patients with genetic short stature or familial short stature and those who are low in relation to genetic potential, and who could also have some unrecognized endocrine defect. Idiopathic short stature represents a short stature of unknown cause of heterogeneous etiology, and is characterized by a normal response of growth hormone during stimulation tests (>10 ng/ml or 20 mJ/l, without other disorders, of normal body mass and length at birth. In idiopathic short stature standard deviation score rates <-2.25 (-2 to -3 or <1.2 percentile. These are also criteria for the initiation of growth hormone therapy. In children with short stature there is also the presence of psychological and social suffering. Goals of treatment with growth hormone involve achieving normal height and normal growth rate during childhood.
Guo, Cheng; Tomson, Göran; Keller, Christina; Söderqvist, Fredrik
Studies investigating the prevalence of positive mental health and its correlates are still scarce compared to the studies on mental disorders, although there is growing interest of assessing positive mental health in adolescents. So far, no other study examining the prevalence and determinants of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents has been found. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents. This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire including Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) and items regarding multiple aspects of adolescent life. The sample involved a total of 5399 students from grade 8 and 10 in Weifang, China. Multivariate Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between potential indicators regarding socio-economic situations, life style, social support and school life and positive mental health and calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. More than half (57.4%) of the participants were diagnosed as flourishing. The correlated factors of positive mental health in regression models included gender, perceived family economy, the occurrence of sibling(s), satisfaction of self-appearance, physical activity, sleep quality, stress, social trust, desire to learn, support from teachers and parents as well as whether being bullied at school (OR ranging from 1.23 to 2.75). The Hosmer-Lemeshow p-value for the final regression model (0.45) indicated adequate model fit. This study gives the first overview on prevalence and correlates of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents. The prevalence of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents is higher than reported in most of the previous studies also using MHC-SF. Our findings suggest that adolescents with advantageous socio-economic situations, life style, social support and school life are experiencing better positive mental health than others.
Full Text Available The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders.
Wistoft, Karen; Grabowski, Dan
Denne rapport sætter fokus på børn og unges mentale sundhed. Skolen kan gøre en forskel ved at skabe rammerne for en mental sundhedsfremmende skole, der tænker sundhedsbegrebet bredt. Men skolen bør ikke stå alene med ansvaret og derfor er der behov for en samlet strategi. En mentalt sundhedsfrem...
A brief article discusses mental retardation in children who had been exposed to ionizing radiation in utero. The time of greatest sensitivity is between the 8th and 15th week after conception and the time of lesser sensitivity between the 16th and 25th weeks. An examination of the thresholds for exposure indicate that severe mental retardation would not result from any present environmental exposures of the public. (U.K.)
Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.
Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others
This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…
Kalscheuer, V.M.M.; Freude, K.; Musante, L.; Jensen, L.R.; Yntema, H.G.; Gecz, J.; Sefiani, A.; Hoffmann, K.; Moser, B.; Haas, S.; Gurok, U.; Haesler, S.; Aranda, B.; Nshedjan, A.; Tzschach, A.; Hartmann, N.; Roloff, T.C.; Shoichet, S.; Hagens, O.; Tao, J.; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Turner, G.; Chelly, J.; Moraine, C.; Fryns, J.P.; Nuber, U.; Hoeltzenbein, M.; Scharff, C.; Scherthan, H.; Lenzner, S.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Schweiger, S.; Ropers, H.H.
We found mutations in the gene PQBP1 in 5 of 29 families with nonsyndromic (MRX) and syndromic (MRXS) forms of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Clinical features in affected males include mental retardation, microcephaly, short stature, spastic paraplegia and midline defects. PQBP1 has previously
Kalscheuer, Vera M; Freude, Kristine; Musante, Luciana
We found mutations in the gene PQBP1 in 5 of 29 families with nonsyndromic (MRX) and syndromic (MRXS) forms of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Clinical features in affected males include mental retardation, microcephaly, short stature, spastic paraplegia and midline defects. PQBP1 has previou...
Kalscheuer, VM; Freude, K; Musante, L; Jensen, LR; Yntema, HG; Gecz, J; Sefiani, A; Hoffmann, K; Moser, B; Haas, S; Gurok, U; Haesler, S; Aranda, B; Nshedjan, A; Tzschach, A; Hartmann, N; Roloff, TC; Shoichet, S; Hagens, O; Tao, J; van Bokhoven, H; Turner, G; Chelly, J; Moraine, C; Fryns, JP; Nuber, U; Hoeltzenbein, M; Scharff, C; Scherthan, H; Lenzner, S; Hamel, BCJ; Schweiger, S; Ropers, Hans-Hilger
We found mutations in the gene PQBP1 in 5 of 29 families with nonsyndromic (MRX) and syndromic (MRXS) forms of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Clinical features in affected males include mental retardation, microcephaly, short stature, spastic paraplegia and midline defects. PQBP1 has previously
Plass-Christl, Angela; Otto, Christiane; Klasen, Fionna; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Barkmann, Claus; Hölling, Heike; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
Children of parents with mental health problems (CPM) have an increased risk for behavioral and psychological problems. This study investigated the age- and gender-specific course as well as predictors of mental health problems in CPM using the longitudinal data (baseline 1- and 2-year follow-ups) of a German general population sample from the BELLA study. Children and adolescents aged 11-17 years (at baseline) who had a parent with mental health problems (n = 325) were analyzed. The mental health problems of the children were assessed by the self-reported version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). We used individual growth modeling to investigate the age- and gender-specific course, and the effects of risk as well as personal, familial and social protective factors on self-reported mental health problems in CPM. Additionally, data were examined differentiating internalizing and externalizing mental health problems in CPM. Results indicated that female compared to male CPM showed increasing mental health problems with increasing age. Mental health problems in CPM were associated with lower self-efficacy, worse family climate and less social competence over time. Internalizing problems were associated with lower self-efficacy, less social competence and more severe parental mental health problems. Externalizing problems were associated with lower self-efficacy, worse family climate and lower social competence. The main limitations of the study are the short time period (2 years) covered and the report of mental health problems by only one parent. Our findings should be considered in the development of treatment and prevention programs for mental health problems in CPM.
María José Sarmiento Suárez
Full Text Available La relación entre salud mental y desarrollo es tan estrecha como ignorada. Aunque ambas buscan potenciar las capacidades de los individuos para lograr un bienestar individual que redunde en la comunidad, la salud mental ha sido sistemáticamente excluida de los planes de desarrollo. Los problemas de salud mental afectan a millones de personas en el mundo quienes, al no recibir un tratamiento adecuado y oportuno, pueden desarrollar un trastorno. Se calcula que una de cada cuatro personas desarrolla algún tipo de enfermedad mental a lo largo de su vida. En tanto se cree que no es posible recuperarse de estas enfermedades, los recursos no están dirigidos a intervenir sobre ellas. Siendo absolutamente transversal a todos los aspectos de nuestras vidas, y por tanto un pilar fundamental en el desarrollo sostenible, el gasto global en salud mental es de menos de dos dólares por persona por día. Situación que no sólo impacta directamente sobre las tres dimensiones del Índice de Desarrollo Humano (IDH - salud, educación y estándares de vida - sino que perpetúa la condición de desigualdad estructural en que viven las personas con trastornos mentales. Mientras los problemas de salud mental afectan la esperanza de vida, los años de instrucción esperados y el Ingreso Nacional Bruto per cápita, siendo a su vez causa y consecuencia de la pobreza, las personas con trastornos mentales deben enfrentar numerosas barreras para el acceso a la educación, a las oportunidades de empleo y otras fuentes de generación de ingresos, debido a la estigmatización, discriminación y marginación que históricamente han vivido. Por tanto, si queremos que todos sean partícipes de las oportunidades de desarrollo, es necesario un cambio estructural donde desaparezca el estigma frente a los trastornos mentales, que permita posicionar la salud mental como eje de los planes de desarrollo y aumentar la inversión en la promoción de la salud mental y la prevención e
Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina
Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.
Full Text Available Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.
Skingsley, David; Bradley, Eleanor J; Nolan, Peter
To outline the development and content of a 'top-up' neuropharmacology module for mental health nurse prescribers and consider how much pharmacology training is required to ensure effective mental health prescribing practice. Debate about the content of prescribing training courses has persisted within the United Kingdom since the mid-1980s. In early 2003 supplementary prescribing was introduced and gave mental health nurses the opportunity to become prescribers. The challenge of the nurse prescribing curriculum for universities is that they have only a short time to provide nurses from a range of backgrounds with enough knowledge to ensure that they meet agreed levels of competency for safe prescribing. There is growing concern within mental health care that the prescribing of medication in mental health services falls short of what would be deemed good practice. Over the past two decades, nurse training has increasingly adopted a psychosocial approach to nursing care raising concerns that, although nurses attending prescribing training may be able to communicate effectively with service users, they may lack the basic knowledge of biology and pharmacology to make effective decisions about medication. Following the completion of a general nurse prescribing course, mental health nurses who attended were asked to identify their specific needs during the evaluation phase. Although they had covered basic pharmacological principles in their training, they stated that they needed more specific information about drugs used in mental health; particularly how to select appropriate drug treatments for mental health conditions. This paper describes how the nurses were involved in the design of a specific module which would enable them to transfer their theoretical leaning to practice and in so doing increase their confidence in their new roles. The findings of this study suggest that the understanding and confidence of mental health nurse prescribers about the drugs they
Tomaras Vlassis D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the promotion of mental health (MHP through education and training is widely accepted, there is scarce evidence for its effectiveness in the literature from outcome studies worldwide. The present study aimed to assess the effect of a three-semester MHP educational program on the recipients' opinions towards mental illness and on their own self-assessed health. Methods Respondents were 78 attendees who completed the assessment battery at the first (baseline and the last session (end of the training course. They were primary care physicians or other professionals, or key community agents, working in the greater Athens area. The course consisted of 44 sessions (4 h each, over a 3-semester period, focusing on the principles and methods of mental health promotion, the main aspects of major psychiatric disorders, and on relevant to health skills. Assessment instruments included the Opinion about Mental Illness (OMI scale and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28. Results The mean scores of three OMI factors, that is, social discrimination, social restriction and social integration, and the two GHQ-28 subscales, that is, anxiety/insomnia and social dysfunction, were significantly improved by the end of the training course. Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence, with limitations, for the short-term effectiveness of the implemented educational MHP program on an adult group of recipients-key agents in their community. Because interventions for strengthening positive opinions about mental illness and enhancing self-assessed health constitute priority aims of mental health promotion, it would be beneficial to further investigate the sustainability of the observed positive changes. In addition it would be useful to examine (a the possible interplay between the two outcome measures, that is, the effect of opinions of recipients about mental health on their perceived health, and (b the applicability of this
Fischer, Peter; Ai, Amy L.
International terrorism has become a major global concern. Several studies conducted in North America and Europe in the aftermath of terrorist attacks reveal that international terrorism represents a significant short-term and long-term threat to mental health. In the present article, the authors clarify the concept and categories of terrorism and…
C syndrome with skeletal anomalies, mental retardation, eyelid chalazion, Bitot's spots and agenesis of the corpus callosum in an Egyptian child. ... broad nose, high arched palate, microretrognathia, low set ears, short neck, scoliosis, hypertrichosis over the back, talipes equinovarus as well as interatrial septal defect.
This thesis describes some aspects of short bowel syndrome. When approximately 1 m or less small bowel is retained after extensive resection, a condition called short bowel syndrome is present. Since the advent of parenteral nutrition, the prognosis of patients with a very short bowel has dramatically improved. Patients with 40 to 100 cm remaining jejunum and/or ileum can generally be maintained with oral nutrition due to increased absorption of the small bowel remnant as result of intestinal adaptation. This study reports clinical, biochemical and nutritional aspects of short bowel patients on oral or parenteral nutrition, emphasizing data on absorption of various nutrients and on bone metabolism. Furthermore, some technical apsects concerning long-term parenteral nutrition are discussed. (Auth.)
In reply to the news story "UK Catapults fall short, claims review of technology centres", which describes an independent review that criticized the management of the UK's network of technology innovation centres.
Kelly, Gerard W
Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.
Vikas Chaudhary; Shahina Bano
Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions ...
Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling
Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with heal...
Paananen, Reija; Ristikari, Tiina; Merikukka, Marko; Gissler, Mika
Most mental disorders start in childhood and adolescence. Risk factors are prenatal and perinatal, genetic as well as environmental and family related. Research evidence is, however, insufficient to explain the life-course development of mental disorders. This study aims to provide evidence on factors affecting mental health in childhood and adolescence. The 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort covers all children born in Finland in 1987 (N=59 476) who were followed up until the age of 21 years. The study covers detailed health, social welfare and sociodemographic data of the cohort members and their parents from Finnish registers. Altogether, 7578 (12.7%) cohort members had had a diagnosed mental disorder. Several prenatal, perinatal and family-related risk factors for mental disorders were found, with sex differences. The main risk factors for mental disorders were having a young mother (OR 1.30 (1.16 to 1.47)), parents' divorce (OR 1.33 (1.26 to 1.41)), death of a parent (OR 1.27 (1.16 to 1.38)), parents' short education (OR 1.23(1.09 to 1.38)), childhood family receiving social assistance (OR 1.61 (1.52 to 1.71)) or having a parent treated at specialised psychiatric care (OR 1.47 (1.39 to 1.55)). Perinatal problem (OR 1.11 (1.01 to 1.22)) and prenatal smoking (OR 1.09 (1.02 to 1.16)) were risk factors for mental disorders, even after controlling for background factors. Elevated risk was seen if the cohort member had only basic education (OR 3.37 (3.14 to 3.62)) or had received social assistance (OR 2.45 (2.30 to 2.60)). Mental disorders had many social risk factors which are interlinked. Although family difficulties increased the risk for mental disorders, they were clearly determined by the cohort member's low education and financial hardship. This study provides evidence for comprehensive preventative and supporting efforts. Families with social adversities and with parental mental health problems should be supported to secure children's development.
Lindert, Jutta; Bilsen, Johan; Jakubauskiene, Marija
Public mental health (PMH) is a major challenge for public health research and practice. This article is organized in six parts. First, we will highlight the significance of PMH; second, we will define mental health and mental disorders; third, we identify and describe determinants of mental health and mental disorders on which we worked in the past 10 years since the establishment of the PMH section such as social determinants and violence. Fourth, we will describe the development of the EUPHA PMH section and provide details on vulnerable groups in the field of PMH, on violence as a main determinant and on suicide as an outcome which affects all countries in the European region. Fifth, we describe policy and practice implications of the development of PMH and highlight the European dimension of PMH. We will conclude this article by providing an outlook on potential further development of PMH as regards research and policy and practice. Finally, we hope that the EUPHA PMH section will contribute to public health in the next 25 years and we can contribute to improvement of PMH in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
The exploration of the impact of religiosity on mental health is an enduring, if somewhat quiet, tradition. There has been virtually no exploration, however, of the influence of atheism on mental health. Though not a "religion," atheism can be an orienting worldview that is often consciously chosen by its adherents, who firmly believe in the "truth" of atheism-a phenomenon known as "positive atheism." Atheism, especially positive atheism, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance in the Western liberal democracies-a trend often referred to as the "new atheism." I argue that atheism, especially positive atheism, should be treated as a meaningful sociocultural variable in the study of mental health. I argue that atheism (just like theism) is an appropriate domain of study for social and cultural psychiatrists (and allied social scientists) interested in exploring socio-environmental stressors and buffers relating to mental health. Specifically, I argue that (1) atheism needs to be accurately measured as an individual-level exposure variable, with the aim of relating that variable to psychiatric outcomes, (2) there needs to be greater systematic investigation into the influence of atheism on psychiatry as an institution, and (3) the relation of atheism to mental health needs to be explored by examining atheistic theory and its practical application, especially as it relates to the human condition, suffering, and concepts of personhood.
Full Text Available Deletion of the short arm of chromosome 18 is a rare syndrome clinically presenting with variable mental retardation, growth retardation, low height, pectus excavatum, craniofacial malformations including long ear, ptosis, microcephaly and short neck. This case report presents with characteristic features along with rare feature of single nostril.
Stanton, Robert; Happell, Brenda
A substantial body of evidence supports the role of exercise interventions for people with a mental illness. However, much of this literature is conducted using outpatient and community-based populations. We undertook a systematic review examining the effect of exercise interventions on the health of people hospitalized with depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or anxiety disorders. Eight studies met our inclusion criteria. Several studies show positive health outcomes from short-term and long-term interventions for people hospitalized due to depression. Although positive, the evidence for inpatients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or anxiety disorders is substantially less. There is an urgent need to address the paucity of literature in this area, in particular the optimal dose and delivery of exercise for people hospitalized as a result of mental illness. Standardization of reporting exercise programme variables, the assessment of mental illness, and the reporting of adverse events must accompany future studies. © 2013 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Liu, Mingming; Xue, Jia; Zhao, Nan; Wang, Xuefei; Jiao, Dongdong; Zhu, Tingshao
A great deal of research has focused on the negative consequences of domestic violence (DV) on mental health. However, current studies cannot provide direct and reliable evidence on the impacts of DV on mental health in a short term as it is not feasible to measure mental health shortly before and after an unpredictable event like DV. This study aims to explore the short-term outcomes of DV on individuals' mental health. We collected a sample of 232 victims (77% female) and 232 nonvictims (gender and location matched with 232 victims) on Sina Weibo. In both the victim and nonvictim groups, we measured their mental health status during the 4 weeks before the first DV incident and during the 4 weeks after the DV incident. We used our proposed Online Ecological Recognition (OER) system, which is based on several predictive models to identify individuals' mental health statuses. Mental health statuses were measured based on individuals' Weibo profiles and messages, which included "Depression," "Suicide Probability," and "Satisfaction With Life." The results showed that mental health in the victim group was impacted by DV while individuals in the nonvictim group were not. Furthermore, the victim group demonstrated an increase in depression symptoms, higher suicide risks, and decreased life satisfaction after their DV experience. In addition, the effect of DV on individuals' mental health could appear in the conditions of child abuse, intimate partner violence, and exposure to DV. These findings inform that DV significantly impacts individuals' mental health over the short term, as in 4 weeks. Our proposed new data collection and analyses approach, OER, has implications for employing "big data" from social networks to identify individuals' mental health.
Braithwaite, Scott; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne
This paper reviews the research on relationships and mental health. Individuals who are more mentally healthy are more likely to select into relationships, but relationships are also demonstrably associated with mental health. The type of relationship matters - evidence suggests that more established, committed relationships, such as marriage, are associated with greater benefits than less committed unions such as cohabitation. The association between relationships and mental health is clearly bidirectional, however, stronger effects are observed when mental health is the outcome and relationships are the predictor, suggesting that the causal arrow flows more strongly from relationships to mental health than vice versa. Moreover, improving relationships improves mental health, but improving mental health does not reliably improve relationships. Our review of research corroborates the view that relationships are a keystone component of human functioning that have the potential to influence a broad array of mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Jane Burns, Emma Birrell Young and Well Cooperative Research Centre, Abbotsford, VIC, Australia Abstract: International studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness, and the fundamental contribution it make to the overall disease burden, is greatest in children and young people. Despite this high burden, adolescents and young adults are the least likely population group to seek help or to access professional care for mental health problems. This issue is particularly problematic given that untreated, or poorly treated, mental disorders are associated with both short- and long-term functional impairment, including poorer education and employment opportunities, potential comorbidity, including drug and alcohol problems, and a greater risk for antisocial behavior, including violence and aggression. This cycle of poor mental health creates a significant burden for the young person, their family and friends, and society as a whole. Australia is enviably positioned to substantially enhance the well-being of young people, to improve their engagement with mental health services, and – ultimately – to improve mental health. High prevalence but potentially debilitating disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are targeted by the specialized youth mental health service, headspace: the National Youth Mental Health Foundation and a series of Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centres, will provide early intervention specialist services for low prevalence, complex illnesses. Online services, such as ReachOut.com by Inspire Foundation, Youthbeyondblue, Kids Helpline, and Lifeline Australia, and evidence-based online interventions, such as MoodGYM, are also freely available, yet a major challenge still exists in ensuring that young people receive effective evidence-based care at the right time. This article describes Australian innovation in shaping a comprehensive youth mental health system, which is informed by an evidence
Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel
The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.
Mindfulness is a way to practice 'healthy mindedness' – a form of self help that has been the subject for research and development of a number of new significant self-technologies, therapy and meditation treatment methods. To be mindful can help people to feel more relaxed (serenity) and fully...... alive. The article aims at describing realistic expectations to the contribution of mindfulness to health education work in the field of mental health. The article discuss ways in which mindfulnesss is connected with established health education in the mental health promotion field, and ways in which...... mindfulness breaks with established health education. Interest in utilising mindfulness and mindfulness-inspired methods in health-education intervention has increased in recent years. Mindfulness is seen here as an answer to how to achieve more accepting presence, and thereby a healthier mental life...
Song, Insu; Yellowlees, Peter; Diederich, Joachim
This book introduces approaches that have the potential to transform the daily practice of psychiatrists and psychologists. This includes the asynchronous communication between mental health care providers and clients as well as the automation of assessment and therapy. Speech and language are particularly interesting from the viewpoint of psychological assessment. For instance, depression may change the characteristics of voice in individuals and these changes can be detected by a special form of speech analysis. Computational screening methods that utilise speech and language can detect subtle changes and alert clinicians as well as individuals and caregivers. The use of online technologies in mental health, however, poses ethical problems that will occupy concerned individuals, governments and the wider public for some time. Assuming that these ethical problems can be solved, it should be possible to diagnose and treat mental health disorders online (excluding the use of medication).
Harrowell, Ian; Hollén, Linda; Lingam, Raghu; Emond, Alan
To assess the relationship between developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and mental health outcomes in late adolescence. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Moderate-to-severe DCD was defined at 7 to 8 years according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Mental health was assessed at 16 to 18 years using self-reported questionnaires: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire, and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. Logistic and linear regressions assessed the associations between DCD and mental health, using multiple imputation to account for missing data. Adjustments were made for socio-economic status, IQ, and social communication difficulties. Adolescents with DCD (n=168) had an increased risk of mental health difficulties (total Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire score) than their peers (n=3750) (odds ratio 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.12-2.83, adjusted for socio-economic status and IQ). This was, in part, mediated through poor social communication skills. Adolescent females with DCD (n=59) were more prone to mental health difficulties than males. Greater mental well-being was associated with better self-esteem (β 0.82, pcommunication skills and self-esteem. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Mac Keith Press.
Kuruvilla, A; Jacob, K S
While there is increasing evidence of an association between poor mental health and the experience of poverty and deprivation, the relationship is complex. We discuss the epidemiological data on mental illness among the different socio-economic groups, look at the cause -effect debate on poverty and mental illness and the nature of mental distress and disorders related to poverty. Issues related to individual versus area-based poverty, relative poverty and the impact of poverty on woman's and child mental health are presented. This review also addresses factors associated with poverty and the difficulties in the measurement of mental health and illness and levels/impact of poverty.
Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Gühne, Uta
Investment in prevention is a major public health requirement. Mental disorders are common and are associated with severe consequences. They are a major target for prevention. Based on vulnerabilitiy-stress-models the theoretical background for prevention in mental disorders is outlined. Effective strategies for children, adolescents, adults and individuals in old age do exist. Results regarding the prevention of depres-sion and psychoses are outlined and risk groups which require current actions are determined. Current activities towards a national prevention strategy in Germany are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available Tore Bonsaksen,1 May Solveig Fagermoen,2 Anners Lerdal2,3 1Department of Occupational Therapy, Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, 2Department of Nursing Science, Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, 3Department for Patient Safety and Development, Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital, Oslo, NorwayBackground: Morbid obesity and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are prevalent diseases associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Research generally indicates that persons with morbid obesity increase their HRQoL following intervention, whereas evidence of increases in HRQoL in persons with COPD is mixed. Examining the patterns of change over time instead of merely examining whether HRQoL changes will add to the knowledge in this field.Methods: A sample of persons with morbid obesity and persons with COPD was recruited from learning and mastery courses and rehabilitation centers in Norway. The data were collected by self-report questionnaires at the start of patient education and at four subsequent time points during the 1-year follow-up. HRQoL was measured with the Short Form 12, version 2, and repeated measures analysis of variance was employed in the statistical analysis.Results: Participants with morbid obesity linearly increased their physical HRQoL during the 1-year follow-up, whereas participants with COPD showed no change. None of the groups changed their mental HRQoL during follow-up. In all subdomains of HRQoL, the participants with morbid obesity showed favorable, linearly increasing trajectories across the follow-up period. Among the participants with COPD, no change patterns occurred in the subdomains of HRQoL, except for a fluctuating pattern in the mental health domain. Age, sex, and work status did not influence the trajectories of HRQoL in any of the domains.Conclusion: A more favorable trajectory
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented
Full Text Available The Short QT Syndrome is a recently described new genetic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT interval, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This autosomal dominant syndrome can afflict infants, children, or young adults; often a remarkable family background of cardiac sudden death is elucidated. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, with atrial fibrillation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. Gain of function mutations in three genes encoding K+ channels have been identified, explaining the abbreviated repolarization seen in this condition: KCNH2 for Ikr (SQT1, KCNQ1 for Iks (SQT2 and KCNJ2 for Ik1 (SQT3. The currently suggested therapeutic strategy is an ICD implantation, although many concerns exist for asymptomatic patients, especially in pediatric age. Pharmacological treatment is still under evaluation; quinidine has shown to prolong QT and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, but awaits additional confirmatory clinical data.
For 30 years the IAEA safeguards system have evolved and have been strengthened by the regular introduction of new methods and techniques, improving both its effectiveness and efficiency. The member States of the IAEA have indicated their willingness to accept new obligations and associated technical measure that greatly strengthen the nuclear safeguards system. One element of this is the extent to which the IAEA inspectors have physical access to relevant locations for the purpose of providing independent verification of the exclusively peaceful intent of a State nuclear program. The Protocol to Safeguards granted new legal authority with respect to information on, and short notice inspector access to, all buildings on a nuclear site and administrative agreements that improve the process of designating inspectors and IAEA access to modern means of communication. This report is a short description of unannounced or short notice inspections as measures on which the new strengthened and cost efficient system will be based
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…
Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…
Deboo, G. J.
Detector circuit identifies shorts between bus bars of electronic equipment being wired. Detector sounds alarm and indicates which planes are shorted. Power and ground bus bars are scanned continuously until short circuit occurs.
The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs
The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.
... Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...
Atkinson, M; Hornby, G
This text provides information on a range of mental health problems that confront teachers and discusses their underlying causes. It considers what schools can do to help pupils and reflects on the role of the mental health services.
Nielsen, Rune Kristian Lundedal
This Ph.D. dissertation critically examines the concept of "video game addiction" and the science behind the proposal that the disorder should be officially recognized as a mental disorder called "Internet gaming disorder." Chapter One gives a short introduction to the history of the word...... "addiction" and describes how gambling disorder (the only officially recognized behavioral addiction) came to be defined as an addiction. Chapter 2 will take a look at the negative consequences of video game play that are most commonly cited in the literature on game addiction. This review will show how...... researchers' claims of negative effects caused by video game playing are wildly exaggerated. Chapter 3 adds a short review of what is sometimes cited as historical precursors to Internet gaming disorder and argue that these are, in fact, not examples of addictions. Chapter 4 will analyze the diagnostic...
Prevalence data on mental retardation is presented including international estimates on general prevalence, age directions, geographical variations within the United States, racial and ethnic variations, economic class distributions, family variations, and population distribution in institutions. Statistics are also provided in areas of specific…
Kørner, Ejnar Alex; Lauritzen, Lise; Wang, August
INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...... the severity of dementia disorders. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb-25...
Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl
Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living...
Full Text Available La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha establecido un programa especial denominado "Naciones unidas para la salud mental" con el fin de fomentar la salud mental en poblaciones subatendidas, con particular énfasis en las mujeres, los niños, los adolescentes, los refugiados y los pueblos indígenas. Uno de los objetivos del programa es crear una mayor conciencia entre el público y los gobiernos acerca del costo social y económico de los trastornos mentales y del abuso de sustancias. Un segundo objetivo es identificar y promover estrategias de colaboración para mejorar la salud mental que se puedan poner en práctica por medio de proyectos de cooperación técnica de nivel nacional dirigidos por las organizaciones del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en colaboración con otras organizaciones internacionales gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. Ya están en marcha varios proyectos de demostración y otros se están planificando.
Bingley, Paul; Martinello, Alessandro
, which affect cognitive functioning at old ages, they are invalid as instruments without controlling for schooling. We show by means of simulation and a replication study that unless the model incorporates schooling, the estimated effect of retirement is negatively biased. This explains a large part...... of the “mental retirement” effects which have recently been found...
Baggrund: Skolebørns opfattelse af sundhed har i høj grad noget med deres selvbilleder, trivsel og sociale inklusion at gøre. Det viser en lang række nyere undersøgelser, der alle peger på, at det er nødvendigt at skærpe opmærksomheden på børn og unges mentale sundhed. Internationalt er der...... udviklet og afprøvet en række pædagogiske programmer, der kan bruges til at igangsætte aktiviteter, der fremmer børn og unges mentale sundhed i skolen. Især i USA, Australien og Storbritannien har der været fokus på evidensbaseret praksis og praksisbaseret evidens i denne sammenhæng. I Danmark har man ikke...... på sammen måde tilgængelig systematiseret viden herom. Sundhedsstyrelsen har gennem de senere år prioriteret indsatser og fremskrivning af evidensgrundlag til fremme af mental sundhed højt. Betydningen af børns mentale sundhed og overvejelser om, hvilken slags evidens der er behov for på dette område...
Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, A.J.; Wagemans, Johan
Three observers performed a task designed to quantify their "pictorial relief" in visual awareness for a photograph of a piece of sculpture. In separate sessions, they were instructed to assume one of two "mental viewpoints." The main objective was to investigate whether human observers have such
Herzog, Thomas R.; Hayes, Lauren J.; Applin, Rebecca C.; Weatherly, Anna M.
A straightforward prediction from attention restoration theory is that the level of incompatibility in a person's life should be positively correlated with that person's level of mental (or directed attention) fatigue. The authors tested this prediction by developing a new self-report measure of incompatibility in which they attempted to isolate…
Towns, Kathryn; And Others
Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…
SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia
Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.
Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P
With the present trend away from the designing of individual buildings and towards the systematic planning of whole residential communities, it should be possible to take mental health requirements into account at the planning stage. At present, sociologists are all too seldom consulted on matters of residential planning. When discussing the relationship between housing and mental health one cannot restrict oneself only to the external aspects of the house, but rather one must also consider the opportunities available for the members of the family to satisfy their own needs, both within the home and in its immediate surroundings. Factors which may affect residential requirements include geographical location, type and standard of dwelling and time and continuity of occupation. A move between two districts or groups representing different housing norms and values may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the individual. This may arise equally well from the remoteness of the country districts as from the conflicting pressures brought on by the abundance of contacts available in the large towns. Town life tends to heighten susceptibility to neuroses and personality conflicts. The character of a residential area may affect the mental health of its occupants. Faris & Dunham (4), in studying the incidence of various types of mental illness with an urban population, observed that schizophrenia was most common among people who were in some way isolated from social involvement. The striving for spaciousness in residential areas and the creation of a "summer city" or "garden city" image or a "family-centred way of life" may lead to unexpected problems and have a variety of social consequences. Mental health difficulties have been noted, for example, among housewives in "dormitory" towns or suburbs (11). The institutions required by a community may be grouped into four categories, representing the basic needs of its members. These are (1) economic institutions, (2) social and
Treating mental illness should be a top national priority, especially as proven psychological therapies effectively cost nothing. Richard Layard explains how CEP research has led to a new deal for mental health - but much remains to be done. Mental illness has much greater economic costs than physical illness - but evidence-based ways of treating mental health problems have no net cost to the Exchequer.
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegría, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A,; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to increase service use. This paper examines associations of school resources with past-year mental health service use among students with 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. Method Data come from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescent mental health that included 4,445 adolescent-parent pairs in 227 schools in which principals and mental health coordinators completed surveys about school resources-policies for addressing student emotional problems. Adolescents and parents completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and reported mental health service use across multiple sectors. Multilevel multivariate regression was used to examine associations of school mental health resources and individual-level service use. Results Roughly half (45.3%) of adolescents with a 12-month DSM-IV disorder received past-year mental health services. Substantial variation existed in school resources. Increased school engagement in early identification was significantly associated with mental health service use for adolescents with mild/moderate mental and behavior disorders. The ratio of students-to-mental health providers was not associated with overall service use, but was associated with sector of service use. Conclusions School mental health resources, particularly those related to early identification, may facilitate mental health service use and influence sector of service use for youths with DSM disorders. PMID:23622851
Finney, Glen R; Minagar, Alireza; Heilman, Kenneth M
Assessing the mental status of patients with a neurobehavioral disorder is a critical element in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. This assessment should always be performed after the patient's history it taken and a general physical as well as a neurologic examination is completed. The mental status examination commences with observing the patient's appearance and level of consciousness. The examiner should also pay attention to patient's social behavior, emotional state and mood. There are 3 major means of assessing a patient's mental status. One type attempts to determine if the patient is demented and the severity of the dementia as it pertains to their ability to perform activities of daily living as well as instrumental activities. A second type of assessment utilizes what may be termed as "screening tests" or "omnibus tests". These brief tests are performed independent of the patient's history and examination. The two most frequently used screening tests are the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The third means of assessing a patient's mental status is by using specific neuropsychological tests that focus on specific domains of cognition, such as frontal executive functions, attention, episodic verbal and visuospatial memory, declarative knowledge such as language (speech, reading and writing) and arithmetical, as well as visuospatial and perceptual abilities. These neurobehavioral, neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological assessments of patients with a cognitive decline and behavioral abnormalities should often be accompanied by laboratory tests, and neuroimaging that can help determine the underlying pathologic process so that effective therapeutic and management approaches can be provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Long QT intervals in the ECG have long been associated with sudden cardiac death. The congenital long QT syndrome was first described in individuals with structurally normal hearts in 1957.1 Little was known about the significance of a short QT interval. In 1993, after analyzing 6693 consecutive Holter recordings Algra et al concluded that an increased risk of sudden death was present not only in patients with long QT interval, but also in patients with short QT interval (<400 ms.2 Because this was a retrospective analysis, further evaluation of the data was not possible. It was not until 2000 that a short-QT syndrome (SQTS was proposed as a new inherited clinical syndrome by Gussak et al.3 The initial report was of two siblings and their mother all of whom displayed persistently short QT interval. The youngest was a 17 year old female presenting with several episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation requiring electrical cardioversion.3 Her QT interval measured 280 msec at a heart rate of 69. Her 21 year old brother displayed a QT interval of 272 msec at a heart rate of 58, whereas the 51 year old mother showed a QT of 260 msec at a heart rate of 74. The authors also noted similar ECG findings in another unrelated 37 year old patient associated with sudden cardiac death.
SHORT COMMUNICATION. POTENTIOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF K+ IONS USING A K+-SELECTIVE. ELECTRODE WITH MACROCYCLIC LIQUID MEMBRANE. Cezar Spinu*, Marian Isvoranu, Maria Pleniceanu and Cristian Tigae. Faculty of Chemistry, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza 13, Craiova, Romania. (Received ...
Wagemann, Kurt; Tippkötter, Nils
The terms bioeconomy and biorefineries are used for a variety of processes and developments. This short introduction is intended to provide a delimitation and clarification of the terminology as well as a classification of current biorefinery concepts. The basic process diagrams of the most important biorefinery types are shown.
... Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth ... PPD) Home Prevention and Wellness Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Mental Health: Keeping Your Emotional Health Mental Health: ...
Miranda, Manuel, Ed.; Ruiz, Rene A., Ed.
Focusing on the direction future research on the Chicano elderly should take, the 10 papers address theory development, methodological approach, social policy and problems, mental health service delivery, and issues of mental illness. The first seven papers discuss: the theoretical perspectives of research pertaining to mental health and the…
Antonides, Gerrit; Ranyard, Rob
This chapter first presents an overview of research into mental accounting and its effects on economic behaviour. It then considers mental accounts posited to broadly categorize financial resources across the life-cycle, and those constructed for specific transactions. Mental accounting has several
Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.
Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…
Fried, E.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Borsboom, D.
The decision by the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to fund only research into the neurobiological roots of mental disorders (Nature 507, 288; 2014) presumes that these all result from brain abnormalities. But this is not the case for many people with mental-health issues and we fear
van Gastel, W.A.
Cannabis use has been implicated as a risk factor for mental health problems, (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in particular. If cannabis use was a cause of these problems, cessation would lead to improved public mental health. If cannabis use was a mere consequence of a predisposition for mental
Aghababaei, Naser; Tabik, Mohammad Taghi
While the role of some personality traits has been comprehensively explored, scientific study of others, such as patience has been neglected. Psychologists have paid scant attention to patience as a personality trait, character strength or virtue. The current study examined the relationship between patience and life satisfaction, mental health, and personality. A sample of 252 Iranian college students (129 females and 123 males) completed the 3-factor patience scale, satisfaction with life scale, general health questionnaire, anxiety and depression scales and mini international personality item pool-big five. The three types of patience (interpersonal, life hardship, and daily hassles) were associated with higher levels of life satisfaction and lower levels of depression, anxiety and psychological dysfunction. Patience also showed moderate relationship with the Big-Five factors of personality. After controlling the personality factors, patience managed to explain additional unique variance in life satisfaction and mental health indicators. Patience is a unique predictor of mental well-being. It is suggested that long-term patience is more important for depression and general health, whereas short-term patience is more beneficial for hedonic well-being.
The high economic and social costs associated with the 'common mental disorders', and the need to scale up appropriate care services, are now widely recognized, but responses vary from country to country. In Britain, a current government initiative to promote psychological therapy is driven both by economic pressures and by research on the factors of happiness, or life-satisfaction. This article provides a short critical review of the project. A health policy analysis, with regard to problem definition; objectives; sources of information; criteria for evaluation; impact on existing services, and comparison with alternative strategies. The new programme, Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT), aims to expand treatment services by training 3,600 'psychological therapists' in cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), which they will then apply in the wider community. This service, with an initial budget of 173 million pounds sterling, will provide treatment for depression and chronic anxiety from local centres across the country. The programme is intended to pay for itself by reducing incapacity costs. Closer examination, however, raises questions concerning the project's theoretical basis, logistics and research methodology, and casts doubt on its advantages over alternative approaches. The IAPT project is ill-designed to achieve its objectives and unsuitable as a model for treatment and care of the common mental disorders in other countries. An alternative strategy, based on closer integration of community mental health and primary health care, should be tested and on previous experience seems likely to prove more cost-effective.
Stewart, Lynn A; Farrell-MacDonald, Shanna; Feeley, Stacey
The Community Mental Health Initiative (CMHI) is mandated to assist offenders with serious mental disorders in their transition from institutions to the community, but this incorporates different styles of service. An important unanswered question is whether these are equivalent. Our aim was to compare outcomes for different intervention styles within the CMHI, a programme for serious offenders in prison who also have at least one major mental disorder. Our specific research questions were as follows: do outcomes differ according to whether offenders with mental health difficulties receive (1) clinical discharge planning only; (2) community mental health services only; (3) the combined services or (4) none, although meeting criteria for any CMHI service? Survival analyses, controlling for variables with a significant effect on recidivism or return to prison, were used to test for differences in recidivism or return to prison rates between the intervention and no-intervention groups during a fixed follow-up period. Men receiving only community mental health services had a significantly lower risk of returning to custody and of recidivism than men receiving discharge planning alone or no community mental health service at all, even after controlling for potential confounders including age, number of previous imprisonments and number of previous community failures. The advantages were apparent within 3-6 months and sustained for up to 4 years. Provision of specialised community mental health services for higher-risk male offenders with a mental disorder may reduce recidivism in the short and longer term - within 3 months and up to 4 years respectively. Statistical modelling also pointed to the need to include treatment for substance abuse and assistance in identifying stable accommodation and brokerage of community services among the interventions and services. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
L. V. Osadcha
Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to clarifying the role of physicality and psycho-physical characteristics of a person as a preconditions of the mentality forming. It is conducted a retrospective analysis of discourse on the mentality, the history of the concept, its temporal characteristics and collective conditioning. The concept of mentality has been widely studied in various fields of socio-humanities such as: history, psychology, and even marginal context of scientific discourses, including the esoteric. This study attempted to analyse the mentality phenomenon through the prism of the concept of experience. Methodology. The concept of experience was acquired by essential justification through the representatives of the phenomenological approach - the late Edmund Husserl, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Bernhard Valdenfels. On the other hand the concept of mentality as a form of collective unconscious experience was entered to the scientific vocabulary by the representatives of the French historical science - M. Bloch, L. Febvre, J. Le Goff and others. At the intersection of these two methods, historical and phenomenological, the genetic method has been established – as a history of coverage and experience of internalization. Thanks to the application of genetic method the transition of phenomenon into the concept was examined. Novelty. The problem of change dynamics of mental phenomenon, in particular psycho-physical nature of a person, which has been only mentioned in F. Braudel works but has not received the adequate theoretical coverage, is analysed. To explain the practices of physicality and causality of this factor the action component of the cultural the overview of developments of such authors as V. Rozin (2005, M. Epstein (2005, N. Brunov (2003, A. Soares, M. Farhangmehr, A. Shoham (2007, D. Vaskul, F. Vannini Hospital (2012 was committed. Conclusions. The transition to paradoxical behaviour that is oriented on sign, and not on signalling
Full Text Available Trends in international human rights law have challenged States globally to rethink involuntary mental health interventions from a non-discrimination perspective. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD in particular prohibits laws that discriminate on the basis of disability. However, a key criterion for compulsory mental health treatment under typical mental health legislation is a psychiatric diagnosis (in conjunction with risk of harm and other criteria. Hence, for people with mental health disabilities, rights to liberty and consent in healthcare are held to a different standard compared to other citizens. A prominent law reform option being explored by some governments and commentators for achieving non-discrimination is to replace the diagnostic criterion for triggering involuntary intervention with an assessment of mental capacity. After all, every citizen is subject to restrictions on autonomy where they are deemed to lack mental capacity, such as where concussion necessitates emergency service. However, the use of mental capacity “testing” is seen by diverse commentators as wanting in key respects. A prominent criticism comes from the United Nations Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which considers mental capacity assessments a form of disability-based discrimination. This article queries the call to replace the diagnostic criterion in mental health law with an assessment of mental capacity in the light of jurisprudence on equality and non-discrimination in international human rights law. Instead, we examine the doctrine of necessity as an area of law, which might help identify specific thresholds for overriding autonomy in emergency circumstances that can be codified in a non-discriminatory way. We also consider the need for deliberative law reform processes to identify such measures, and we suggest interim, short-term measures for creating a “supported decision
Edwards, R B
Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.
Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth
In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.
Full Text Available In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV. However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.
De Oliveira, C; Rahioui, H; Smadja, M; Gorsane, M A; Louppe, F
Relationship Scales Questionnaire. During the second phase, which includes individual and group therapy, the aim is to stimulate the capacity of mentalization through different techniques according to the patient's attachment style. These include therapeutic relationship, empathy, affect clarification and elaboration, positive and negative reinforcement. The final phase serves to review the patient's improvement and to prepare him progressively for the end of the therapy which can be experienced as an abandonment. Effectiveness of MBT in treating borderline disorder has been shown in several studies with short and long term benefits. It can be adapted for other personality disorders and specific populations such as adolescents. This article introduces the key concepts and aims of mentalization based treatment. The therapy is briefly described in its different phases and the various techniques are discussed. Clinical trials have shown that MBT is effective in treating borderline disorder in adolescent and adult populations. Despite the effectiveness of this therapy, it is difficult to set up and requires substantial resources. Interpersonal therapy based on attachment provides a therapeutic model focused on problematic areas which can offer an alternative therapy and reduce the fields of investigations. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.
Short pulse neutron generators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the short pulse neutron generator includes a Blumlein structure. The Blumlein structure includes a first conductive plate, a second conductive plate, a third conductive plate, at least one of an inductor or a resistor, a switch, and a dielectric material. The first conductive plate is positioned relative to the second conductive plate such that a gap separates these plates. A vacuum chamber is positioned in the gap, and an ion source is positioned to emit ions in the vacuum chamber. The third conductive plate is electrically grounded, and the switch is operable to electrically connect and disconnect the second conductive plate and the third conductive plate. The at least one of the resistor or the inductor is coupled to the first conductive plate and the second conductive plate.
Lifton, R.J.; Markusen, E.
Since the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the world has witnessed the insidious growth of a genocidal system-a constellation of men, weapons, and war-fighting plans which, if implemented, could put an end to life on this planet. In this book, the cast of mind that created and maintains this threat is examined and an alternative, more hopeful direction is suggested. This book draws on the lessons of the Holocaust- and presents a picture of the genocidal mentality. If we are to survive this genocidal mentality must give way to a species self, to a deepened awareness of belonging to a single species. This shift in mind-set would enable us to renounce nuclearism and to envision a genuine human future
In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness.
hospitalized, but to get inside the contemporary psychiatric institution and to participate in the social world of patients and professionals, I had to experiment with different ethnographic approaches. Ethnographies of mental health have become increasingly rare, and much research on language in psychiatric...... institutions is done by interview research. My study involved observing and participating in the day-to-day life at two mental health facilities: an outpatient clinic and an inpatient closed ward. The case study provides an account of some of the specific methodological problems and unanticipated events...... that emerged in the course of the study. It discusses the particular challenges involved in negotiating access in a hierarchical and conflict-ridden setting with tangible power differences between professionals and patients. I pay particular attention to the positions that became available to the researcher...
Lifton, R.J.; Markusen, E.
Since the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the world has witnessed the insidious growth of a genocidal system-a constellation of men, weapons, and war-fighting plans which, if implemented, could put an end to life on this planet. In this book, the cast of mind that created and maintains this threat is examined and an alternative, more hopeful direction is suggested. This book draws on the lessons of the Holocaust- and presents a picture of the genocidal mentality. If we are to survive this genocidal mentality must give way to a species self, to a deepened awareness of belonging to a single species. This shift in mind-set would enable us to renounce nuclearism and to envision a genuine human future.
This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.
Booth, Alison; Scantlebury, Arabella; Hughes-Morley, Adwoa; Mitchell, Natasha; Wright, Kath; Scott, William; McDaid, Catriona
The police and others in occupations where they come into close contact with people experiencing/with mental ill health, often have to manage difficult and complex situations. Training is needed to equip them to recognise and assist when someone has a mental health issue or learning/intellectual disability. We undertook a systematic review of the effectiveness of training programmes aimed at increasing knowledge, changing behaviour and/or attitudes of the trainees with regard to mental ill health, mental vulnerability, and learning disabilities. Databases searched from 1995 onwards included: ASSIA, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials (CENTRAL), Criminal Justice Abstracts, Embase, ERIC, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Social Science Citation Index. Courses, training, or learning packages aimed at helping police officers and others who interact with the public in a similar way to deal with people with mental health problems were included. Primary outcomes were change in practice and change in outcomes for the groups of people the trainees come into contact with. Systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non- randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs) were included and quality assessed. In addition non-comparative evaluations of training for police in England were included. From 8578 search results, 19 studies met the inclusion criteria: one systematic review, 12 RCTs, three prospective non-RCTs, and three non-comparative studies. The training interventions identified included broad mental health awareness training and packages addressing a variety of specific mental health issues or conditions. Trainees included police officers, teachers and other public sector workers. Some short term positive changes in behaviour were identified for trainees, but for the people the trainees came into contact with there was little or no evidence of benefit. A variety of training programmes exist for non-mental health professionals who come into contact with
Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.
Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.
The editorial comments on a report published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima updating information on the induction of mental changes in the light of the revised and more detailed estimate of doses of radiation during pregnancies received by those exposed at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The estimated risks are little changed. The likelihood of a threshold for exposure during the 16th to 25th week is confirmed-at 700 mGy (with a lower 95% confidence interval of 200 mGy). For the more sensitive time between the eighth to 15th weeks a linear model with no threshold still gives a statistically adequate fit to the data. Now, however, if linear models are tested without the constraint of postulating a threshold of zero, fits are obtained indicating substantial thresholds below which mental retardation would not result. When data on all children are included the maximum likelihood threshold value averages about 250 mGy on the different criteria tested (with mean 95% confidence intervals of 0 and 550 mGy). Or if the analyses exclude five children with conditions that themselves sometimes cause mental retardation a threshold of about 400 mGy is indicated (with mean 95% confidence intervals of 150 and 600 mGy). (author)
Madsen, Ida E H; Tripathi, Manisha; Borritz, Marianne; Rugulies, Reiner
According to the "stress-as-offense-to-self" perspective, work tasks that are considered unnecessary or unreasonable - so-called "illegitimate work tasks" - are likely to elicit stress-reactions. Previous studies, mostly cross-sectional, have shown that illegitimate tasks are associated with increased self-reported stress, cortisol, and counterproductive work behavior. In this article, we examine the prospective association between unnecessary work tasks, one type of illegitimate work tasks, and mental health among Danish human service workers. Further, we explore whether this association is modified by sex, age, occupational position, and baseline mental health status. The data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires from 1351 Danish human service workers in three waves of data-collection during 1999-2005. We measured unnecessary work tasks by a single item, and assessed mental health using the 5-item mental health inventory from the Short form 36 questionnaire. We analyzed data using multi-level modeling, adjusting for potential confounding by sex, age, cohabitation, occupational position, and baseline mental health. Unnecessary work tasks were prospectively associated with a decreased level of mental health. This association was stronger for employees with poor baseline mental health and tended to be more pronounced among older employees. Among participants with poor baseline mental health, the association was explained by neither psychological demands nor decision latitude. Our findings suggest that the prevention of unnecessary work tasks may benefit employee mental health, particularly among employees with pre-existing mental health problems.
Fernandez, Ana; Black, John; Jones, Mairwen; Wilson, Leigh; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Black, Deborah
Background Floods are the most common type of global natural disaster. Floods have a negative impact on mental health. Comprehensive evaluation and review of the literature are lacking. Objective To systematically map and review available scientific evidence on mental health impacts of floods caused by extended periods of heavy rain in river catchments. Methods We performed a systematic mapping review of published scientific literature in five languages for mixed studies on floods and mental health. PUBMED and Web of Science were searched to identify all relevant articles from 1994 to May 2014 (no restrictions). Results The electronic search strategy identified 1331 potentially relevant papers. Finally, 83 papers met the inclusion criteria. Four broad areas are identified: i) the main mental health disorders—post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety; ii] the factors associated with mental health among those affected by floods; iii) the narratives associated with flooding, which focuses on the long-term impacts of flooding on mental health as a consequence of the secondary stressors; and iv) the management actions identified. The quantitative and qualitative studies have consistent findings. However, very few studies have used mixed methods to quantify the size of the mental health burden as well as exploration of in-depth narratives. Methodological limitations include control of potential confounders and short-term follow up. Limitations Floods following extreme events were excluded from our review. Conclusions Although the level of exposure to floods has been systematically associated with mental health problems, the paucity of longitudinal studies and lack of confounding controls precludes strong conclusions. Implications We recommend that future research in this area include mixed-method studies that are purposefully designed, using more rigorous methods. Studies should also focus on vulnerable groups and include analyses of policy and practical
Fernandez, Ana; Black, John; Jones, Mairwen; Wilson, Leigh; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Black, Deborah
Floods are the most common type of global natural disaster. Floods have a negative impact on mental health. Comprehensive evaluation and review of the literature are lacking. To systematically map and review available scientific evidence on mental health impacts of floods caused by extended periods of heavy rain in river catchments. We performed a systematic mapping review of published scientific literature in five languages for mixed studies on floods and mental health. PUBMED and Web of Science were searched to identify all relevant articles from 1994 to May 2014 (no restrictions). The electronic search strategy identified 1331 potentially relevant papers. Finally, 83 papers met the inclusion criteria. Four broad areas are identified: i) the main mental health disorders-post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety; ii] the factors associated with mental health among those affected by floods; iii) the narratives associated with flooding, which focuses on the long-term impacts of flooding on mental health as a consequence of the secondary stressors; and iv) the management actions identified. The quantitative and qualitative studies have consistent findings. However, very few studies have used mixed methods to quantify the size of the mental health burden as well as exploration of in-depth narratives. Methodological limitations include control of potential confounders and short-term follow up. Floods following extreme events were excluded from our review. Although the level of exposure to floods has been systematically associated with mental health problems, the paucity of longitudinal studies and lack of confounding controls precludes strong conclusions. We recommend that future research in this area include mixed-method studies that are purposefully designed, using more rigorous methods. Studies should also focus on vulnerable groups and include analyses of policy and practical responses.
Full Text Available The short QT syndrome (SQTS is a recently described genetic arrhythmogenic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT intervals on surface electrocardiogram (ECG and a high incidence of sudden death (SD during life, including the first months of life. The inheritance of SQTS is autosomal dominant, with genetic heterogeneity. Gain-of-function mutations in 3 genes encoding potassium channels have been associated to the disease: KCNH2 encoding IKr (SQT1, KCNQ1 encoding IKs (SQT2, and KCNJ2 encoding IK1 (SQT3. Loss-of-function mutations in 3 genes encoding the cardiac L-type calcium channel, CACNA1C, CACNB2b and CACNA2D1 may underlie a mixed phenotype of Brugada pattern ECG (or non-specific repolarization changes in case of CACNA2D1 and shorter than normal QT intervals. Clinical presentation is often severe, as cardiac arrest represents the first clinical presentation in most subjects. Moreover, often a noticeable family history of cardiac SD is present. Atrial fibrillation may be observed, also in young individuals. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, and atrial and ventricular fibrillation are easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. The outcome of patients with SQTS becomes relatively safe when they are identified and treated. Currently, the suggested therapeutic strategy is an implantable cardioverter- defibrillator (ICD in patients with personal history of aborted SD or syncope. In asymptomatic adult patients from highly symptomatic families and in newborn children pharmacological treatment with hydroquinidine, which has been shown to prolong the QT interval and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, may be proposed.
Full Text Available Objective. The present study examined mentalizing capacities as well as the relative implication of mentalizing in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions among 30 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and 30 healthy control (HC subjects. Method. Subjects were administered a task evaluating mentalizing by means of short stories. A verbal irony comprehension task, in which participants had to identify ironic or sincere statements within short stories, was also administered; the design of the task allowed uniform implication of mentalizing across the conditions. Results. Findings indicated that participants with MCI have second-order mentalizing difficulties compared to HC subjects. Moreover, MCI participants were impaired compared to the HC group in identifying ironic or sincere stories, both requiring mental inference capacities. Conclusion. This study suggests that, in individuals with MCI, difficulties in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions are closely related to second-order mentalizing deficits. These findings support previous data suggesting a strong relationship between irony comprehension and mentalizing.
Doré, Isabelle; Caron, Jean
Objectives This article aims to situate the concept of mental health in a historical perspective. This article presents the most commonly used measurement tools in Canada and elsewhere in the world to assess specific and multiple dimensions of mental health; when available, psychometric properties are discussed. Finally, research findings on quality of life and mental health determinants are presented.Methods A literature review of concepts, measurement and determinants of mental health is presented in this paper. The selection of measurement scales presented is based on the findings of the research reports conducted by the second author, an expert on mental health measures, for Health Canada and Statistics Canada.Results Mental health is more than the absence of mental illness; rather it is a state of complete well-being, which refers to our ability to enjoy life and deal with the challenges we face. Accordingly, mental health and mental illness are not extremes of the same continuum, but distinct yet correlated concepts. The traditional conceptualization suggesting that mental health represents simply the absence of mental illness has been replaced, in the last few decades, by a more holistic characterization, which directly concerns public health. The components of mental health include emotional well-being/quality of life (QOL) and psychological and social well-being. Mental health influences the personal and social functioning of individuals, justifying the importance of intervening upstream to promote mental health. Specific scales are relevant for obtaining a detailed measure of one aspect of well-being in particular (emotional/quality of life, psychological or social well-being); however, to account for the global mental health status, measurement tools that integrate all three forms of well-being (emotional, psychological and social) should be privileged. A diversity of determinants at the individual, social and neighbourhood levels influence quality of
Full Text Available Although details of the information encoded in the short-term memory where it is stored temporarily be recorded in the working memory in the next stage. Repeating the information mentally makes it remain in memory for a long time. Studies investigating the relationship between short-term memory and reading skills that are carried out to examine the relationship between short-term memory processes and reading comprehension. In this study information coming to short-term memory and the factors affecting operation of short term memory are investigated with regression model. The aim of the research is to examine the factors (age, IQ and reading skills that are expected the have an effect on short-term memory in children through regression analysis. One of the assumptions of regression analysis is to examine which has constant variance and normal distribution of the error term. In this study, because the error term is not normally distributed, robust regression techniques were applied. Also, for each technique; coefficient of determination is determined. According to the findings, the increase in age, IQ and reading skills caused the increase in short term memory in children. After applying robust regression techniques, the Winsorized Least Squares (WLS technique gives the highest coefficient of determination.
Full Text Available Objectives: Maladaptive cognitive schemas can lead to biases during clinical assessment or psychotherapeutic interventions. This study aimed to explore the cognitive schemas among mental health professionals. Materials and Methods: 100 mental health professionals, of both genders, equally divided between psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and psychiatric nurses, were approached and administered the Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form after written informed consent. Results: Males had higher maladaptive schemas than female respondents across all schema domains, viz., disconnection/rejection, impaired autonomy, impaired limits, other-directedness, and overvigilance (P ≤ 0.05. Psychiatrists had higher maladaptive schemas than psychologists (P ≤ 0.05. Age was weakly but positively corelated with the schemas of self-sacrifice (P = 0.038 and unrelenting standards (P = 0.002 . Conclusions: Mental health professionals also may have maladaptive schemas, which needs to be addressed through schema therapy.
Fred Walter Mast
Full Text Available We are able to extract detailed information from mental images that we were not explicitly aware of during encoding. For example, we can discover a new figure when we rotate a previously seen image in our mind. However, such discoveries are not really new but just new interpretations. In two recent publications, we have shown that mental imagery can lead to perceptual learning (Tartaglia et al., 2009, 2012. Observers imagined the central line of a bisection stimulus for thousands of trials. This training enabled observers to perceive bisection offsets that were invisible before training. Hence, it seems that perceptual learning via mental imagery leads to new percepts. We will argue, however, that these new percepts can occur only within known models. In this sense, perceptual learning via mental imagery exceeds new discoveries in mental images. Still, the effects of mental imagery on perceptual learning are limited. Only perception can lead to really new perceptual experience.
Mental health and mental disorders pose a tremendous challenge to the societal, health, and research policies in Europe, and sound advice is needed on a potential strategy for mental health research investment. Toward this goal, the ROAMER initiative ("Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe") was launched to map the current state of the art, to identify gaps and to delineate advances needed in various areas and domains of mental health research in Europe. To further stimulate discussions among the scientific community and stakeholders on how to improve mental health research and to promote an improved research agenda for the next decade, this IJMPR topic issue presents the overall ROAMER methodology as well as a series of selected papers highlighting critical issues of psychological approaches and interventions as outcomes of the ROAMER work package 5 "Psychological research and treatments". Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
VanderVoort, Debra J
The following article addresses the nature of and problems with the public mental health system in Hawaii. It includes a brief history of Hawaii's public mental health system, a description and analysis of this system, economic factors affecting mental health, as well as a needs assessment of the elderly, individuals with severe mental illness, children and adolescents, and ethnically diverse individuals. In addition to having the potential to increase suicide rates and unnecessarily prolong personal suffering, problems in the public mental health system such as inadequate services contribute to an increase in social problems including, but not limited to, an increase in crime rates (e.g., domestic violence, child abuse), divorce rates, school failure, and behavioral problems in children. The population in need of mental health services in Hawaii is under served, with this inadequacy of services due to economic limitations and a variety of other factors.
Donohoe, Claire L
The short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a state of malabsorption following intestinal resection where there is less than 200 cm of intestinal length. The management of short bowel syndrome can be challenging and is best managed by a specialised multidisciplinary team. A good understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of resection of different portions of the small intestine is necessary to anticipate and prevent, where possible, consequences of SBS. Nutrient absorption and fluid and electrolyte management in the initial stages are critical to stabilisation of the patient and to facilitate the process of adaptation. Pharmacological adjuncts to promote adaptation are in the early stages of development. Primary restoration of bowel continuity, if possible, is the principle mode of surgical treatment. Surgical procedures to increase the surface area of the small intestine or improve its function may be of benefit in experienced hands, particularly in the paediatric population. Intestinal transplant is indicated at present for patients who have failed to tolerate long-term parenteral nutrition but with increasing experience, there may be a potentially expanded role for its use in the future.
Gesouli-Voltyraki –E.; Charisi E.; Papastergiou D.; Κostopoulou S.; Borou A.; Alverti V.; Avlakiotis K.; Spanos S.
Introduction: Educational environment has a serious impact on students’ mental health. Few data are available on mental health of Physiotherapy students. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the mental heath of students in a tertiary Physiotherapy Department during the 3rd years of studies. Material and methods: 80 males and females physiotherapy students of the 5th and 6th semester of a tertiary Physiotherapy Department filled in the GHQ-28 questionnaire. Comparisons between groups w...
The strange behavior of emperor Gaius has been the subject of debate for many historians. Some charge him with madness and attribute it to his illness in A.D. 37, whereas others believe it occurred later, or else had nothing to do with his sickness.We have no real evidence to reconstruct his mental state. Therefore speculations about madness are fruitless, as they can't be proven. Also, his madness belongs to a discourse which originates mainly from the senatorial narrative that sought to discredit him through any means possible. Thus, his acts should be seen from other angles, and the search for "mad Caligula" abandoned.
Gulsum Ozge Doganavsargil Baysal
Full Text Available Stigmatizasyon represent a chronic negative interaction with the environment that most of people with a of diagnosis mental disorders. Different types of stigma may have harmful effects. Poor psychological well being, poor quality of life and poor self esteem are related stigmatization. In this article, definition and mechanism of stigmatization, influenced factors and consequences of stigmatization are reviewed. Stigmatization is a modifiable environmental risk factor. Integrating approaches against stigma in treatment may represent cost-effective way to reduce the risk of relapse and poor outcome occasioned by chronic exposure to stigma. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 239-251
Laymen and experts participated in interviews designed to reveal their 'mental models' of the processes potentially causing the miscommunications between experts and the public. We analyzed their responses in terms of an 'expert model' circumscribing scientifically relevant information. From results, there are gaps even between experts. Experts on internal exposure focused mainly on artificial radiation and high level of radiation. Experts on radiation biology focused on medical radiation, level of risk, environmental radiation, and hot springs. Experts on dosimetric performance focused on atomic power generation and needs of radiological protection. It means that even experts, they have interests only on their own specialized field. (author)
Fidler, Miranda M; Ziff, Oliver J; Wang, Sarra; Cave, Joshua; Janardhanan, Pradeep; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Mehta, Susan; Jenkinson, Helen; Frobisher, Clare; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M
Some previous studies have reported that survivors of childhood cancer are at an increased risk of developing long-term mental health morbidity, whilst others have reported that this is not the case. Therefore, we analysed 5-year survivors of childhood cancer using the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) to determine the risks of aspects of long-term mental health dysfunction. Within the BCCSS, 10 488 survivors completed a questionnaire that ascertained mental health-related information via 10 questions from the Short Form-36 survey. Internal analyses were conducted using multivariable logistic regression to determine risk factors for mental health dysfunction. External analyses were undertaken using direct standardisation to compare mental health dysfunction in survivors with UK norms. This study has shown that overall, childhood cancer survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of mental health dysfunction for 6/10 questions analysed compared to UK norms. Central nervous system (CNS) and bone sarcoma survivors reported the greatest dysfunction, compared to expected, with significant excess dysfunction in 10 and 6 questions, respectively; the excess ranged from 4.4-22.3% in CNS survivors and 6.9-15.9% in bone sarcoma survivors. Compared to expected, excess mental health dysfunction increased with attained age; this increase was greatest for reporting 'limitations in social activities due to health', where the excess rose from 4.5% to 12.8% in those aged 16-24 and 45+, respectively. Within the internal analyses, higher levels of educational attainment and socio-economic classification were protective against mental health dysfunction. Based upon the findings of this large population-based study, childhood cancer survivors report significantly higher levels of mental health dysfunction than those in the general population, where deficits were observed particularly among CNS and bone sarcoma survivors. Limitations were also observed to increase
A brief explanation is presented of the mental model concept, properties of mental models and fundamentals of mental models theory. Possible applications of such models in nuclear power plants are described in more detail. They include training of power plant operators, research into their behaviour and design of the operator-control process interface. The design of a mental model of an operator working in abnormal conditions due to power plant malfunction is outlined as an example taken from the literature. The model has been created based on analysis of experiments performed on a nuclear power plant simulator, run by a training center. (author)
Results are at odds with usual observations of increased discomfort associated with smoke deprivation and suggest that mental health patients may tolerate short abstinence periods, without worsening of their mental health condition. Although not systematically observed, craving may remain an obstacle for a subgroup of patients. We hypothesize that behavioural associations, habits and environmental factors could be more important obstacles when stopping smoking than usual withdrawal effects. _________ *Keizer, I., Gex-Fabry, M., Croquette, P. and Khan, A. N. (2016. A Short Motivational Program Based on Temporary Smoking Abstinence: Towards Increased Self-Efficacy to Quit in Psychiatric Inpatients . Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, 7:4.
Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Hovey, Joseph D.; Seligman, Laura D.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Quandt, Sara A.
This article examines the feasibility of using a short-form version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) in community mental health research with Mexican immigrants. Several features of three published short versions of the CES-D were examined using data combined from seven diverse Mexican immigrant samples from across…
Smith, A P
The objective of the present investigation was to study the relationship between breakfast consumption and subjective reports of mental health and health-related behaviours in a general population sample (126 subjects aged between 20 and 79 years). Individuals who consumed a cereal breakfast each day were less depressed, less emotionally distressed and had lower levels of perceived stress than those who did not eat breakfast each day. Those who consumed breakfast had a healthier lifestyle than the others in that they were less likely to be smokers, drank less alcohol and had a healthier diet. However, the relationship between cereal breakfast consumption and mental health did not reflect these differences in the smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. In conclusion, there is an association between breakfast consumption and well-being which cannot entirely be accounted for by differences in other aspects of diet or smoking and alcohol consumption. Further intervention studies are now needed to establish whether causal relationships and mechanisms underlie the associations seen in this study.
Short-circuit events observed in ground test simulations of DSCS-3 battery in-orbit operations are analyzed. Voltage signatures appearing in the data preceding the short-circuit event are evaluated. The ground test simulation is briefly described along with performance during reconditioning discharges. Results suggest that a characteristic signature develops prior to a shorting event.
information on mental health care outcome, to do a cost analysis and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate a cost ... clinical record reviews of mental health service delivery, training ... (d) describe the demographic and clinical profile of HIV positive ..... accommodate the differentiated but integrated care of.
Objective: This is the third of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). The study reviewed existing South African standards for mental health care facilities. Architectural principles and implications for the use of space were deducted from recent legislation. Objectives were to ...
Objective: This is the first of three reports on a follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). In this first part, qualitative and quantitative descriptions were made of the services and of demographic and clinical data on acute mental health care users managed at HJH, in a retrospective review of ...
Neste artigo são sintetizadas um conjunto de leituras realizadas para a moderação da mesa “Saúde Mental versus Doença Mental”. Pretendemos contribuir para a reflexão sobre a dificuldade de consensos para a definição objectiva de saúde e doença mental.
Katz, Craig L
In this article the author excerpts and discusses salient quotes or moments from the journal he compiled while visiting El Salvador in February 2001 as head of Disaster Psychiatry Outreach (DPO) to assist survivors of a major earthquake. This case discussion of a single disaster mental health response exemplifies key issues related to both short and long term mental health service delivery to disaster affected communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Maj; Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask; Palic, Sabina; Mackrill, Thomas
Traumatic events pose great challenges on mental health services in scarcity of specialist trauma clinicians and services. Simple short screening instruments for detecting adverse psychological responses are needed. Several brief screening instruments have been developed. However, some are limited, especially in relation to reflecting the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. Recently, several studies have challenged pre-existing ideas about PTSD's latent structure. Factor analytic research currently supports two four factor models. One particular model contains a dysphoria factor which has been associated with depression and anxiety. The symptoms in this factor have been hailed as less specific to PTSD. The scope of this article is therefore to present a short screening instrument, based on this research; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) - 8 items. The PTSD-8 is shown to have good psychometric properties in three independent samples of whiplash patients (n=1710), rape victims (n=305), and disaster victims (n=516). Good test-rest reliability is also shown in a pilot study of young adults from families with alcohol problems (n=56).
Silove, Derrick; Ventevogel, Peter; Rees, Susan
There has been an unprecedented upsurge in the number of refugees worldwide, the majority being located in low-income countries with limited resources in mental health care. This paper considers contemporary issues in the refugee mental health field, including developments in research, conceptual models, social and psychological interventions, and policy. Prevalence data yielded by cross-sectional epidemiological studies do not allow a clear distinction to be made between situational forms of distress and frank mental disorder, a shortcoming that may be addressed by longitudinal studies. An evolving ecological model of research focuses on the dynamic inter-relationship of past traumatic experiences, ongoing daily stressors and the background disruptions of core psychosocial systems, the scope extending beyond the individual to the conjugal couple and the family. Although brief, structured psychotherapies administered by lay counsellors have been shown to be effective in the short term for a range of traumatic stress responses, questions remain whether these interventions can be sustained in low-resource settings and whether they meet the needs of complex cases. In the ideal circumstance, a comprehensive array of programs should be provided, including social and psychotherapeutic interventions, generic mental health services, rehabilitation, and special programs for vulnerable groups. Sustainability of services, ensuring best practice, evidence-based approaches, and promoting equity of access must remain the goals of future developments, a daunting challenge given that most refugees reside in settings where skills and resources in mental health care are in shortest supply. © 2017 World Psychiatric Association.
Veitch, Jennifer A
People spend much of their waking time in their workplaces (approximately 33% on a weekly basis), which raises the possibility that the conditions they experience at work influence their health and well-being. The workplace design literature has given scant attention to mental health outcomes, instead focusing on healthy populations. Conversely, the mental health literature gives scant attention to the potential contribution of workplace design in preventing mental health problems; nor does it provide much insight into facilitating return to work. Taken together, however, the literature does suggest both lines of research and possible interventions. Existing knowledge proposes that workplace design can influence mental health via the effects of light exposure on circadian regulation, social behaviour and affect; the effects of aesthetic judgement on at-work mood and physical well-being and at-home sleep quality; access to nature and recovery from stressful experiences; and privacy regulation and stimulus control. This paper includes a short review of the literature in this area, proposals for new research directions and consideration of the implications of this information on the design choices made by business owners, designers and facility managers. Providing suitable working conditions for all employees avoids stigmatizing employees who have mental health problems, while facilitating prevention and return to work among those who do. Copyright © 2011 Longwoods Publishing.
Reiter, Melanie; Bock, Astrid; Althoff, Marie-Luise; Taubner, Svenja; Sevecke, Kathrin
Mentalization Based Treatment of an Adolescent Girl with Conduct Disorder This paper will give a short overview on the theoretical concept of mentalization and its specific characteristics in adolescence. A previous study on Mentalization based treatment for adolescents (MBT-A) demonstrated the effectiveness of MBT-A for the treatment of adolescents with symptoms of deliberate self-harm (Rossouw u. Fonagy, 2012). Based on the results of this study Taubner, Gablonski, Sevecke, and Volkert (in preparation) developed a manual for mentalization based treatment for adolescents with conduct disorders (MBT-CD). This manual represents the foundation for a future study on the efficacy of the MBT-A for this specific disorder in young people. The present case report demonstrates the application of specific MBT interventions, as well as the therapeutic course over one year in a 16-year old girl who fulfilled all criteria of a conduct disorder. During the course of treatment, the de-escalating relationship-oriented therapeutic approach can be considered as a great strength of MBT-A, especially for patients with conduct disorders. The clinical picture, as well as the psychological assessment, showed a positive progress over the course of treatment. Despite frequent escalations, forced placements due to acute endangerment of self and others, and a precarious situation with the patient's place of residence towards the end of therapy, MBT-A treatment enabled the patient to continually use the evolved mentalizing capabilities as a resource.
Full Text Available Objective: In the 1st year of the post-partum period, parenting stress, mental health, and dyadic adjustment are important for the wellbeing of both parents and the child. However, there are few studies that analyze the relationship among these three dimensions. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between parenting stress, mental health (depressive and anxiety symptoms, and dyadic adjustment among first-time parents.Method: We studied 268 parents (134 couples of healthy babies. At 12 months post-partum, both parents filled out, in a counterbalanced order, the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, the Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the potential mediating effects of mental health on the relationship between parenting stress and dyadic adjustment.Results: Results showed the full mediation effect of mental health between parenting stress and dyadic adjustment. A multi-group analysis further found that the paths did not differ across mothers and fathers.Discussion: The results suggest that mental health is an important dimension that mediates the relationship between parenting stress and dyadic adjustment in the transition to parenthood.
Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon
Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193
Lee, Min-Su; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Me-riong; Park, Ki Byung; Shin, Dongjin; Cho, Jae-Heung; Ha, In-Hyuk
Sleep duration holds considerable importance as an indicator of mental/physical health. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between sleep duration, mental health, and chronic disease prevalence in Koreans. Of 31,596 subjects eligible for the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010-2012), 17,638 participants who answered items on sleep duration (aged ≥ 19 yrs) were analyzed in a cross-sectional study. Association between sleep duration, mental health, and chronic disease prevalence was assessed using logistic regression, and adjusted for various socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics. Short or long sleep duration showed correlations with mental health, and items of significance showed gender-specific patterns. Women displayed significant associations with stress and depressive symptoms, and men with stress, thoughts of suicide, and psychiatric counseling. While stress was related with short sleep duration in both genders, depressive symptoms showed a relationship with long duration in men, and short duration in women. Prevalence of any chronic disease was associated with ≤ 6 h sleep when adjusted for factors including mental health, and among chronic diseases, cancer and osteoarthritis showed associations with short sleep duration, while diabetes and dyslipidemia were associated with normal sleep duration. Mental health problems were associated with sleep duration with gender-specific patterns. Associations with osteoarthritis, cancer, diabetes, dyslipidemia and abnormal sleep duration persisted after adjustment for mental health.
Verhaak, P.F.M.; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; Peters, L.; Rijken, M.
The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between chronic medical illness and mental distress. Therefore, the association between chronic medical illness and mental distress was analysed, taking into account the modifying effects of generic disease
... and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Use and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you know that addiction ... Plus – also en Español Treatment Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA): SAMHSA’s National Helpline: 1-800-662- ...
Full Text Available This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.
Litman, Robert E.
Explores use of psychological autopsies to clarify intention in suicide. Compares clinical experience with courtroom experience. Discusses the "decriminalization" of suicide and insurance concerns, mental disorders, and intention to commit suicide. Notes that capacity to have the intent to commit suicide is lost due to mental disorders only under…
Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree
Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…
Psychologists and philosophers have long been interested in two questions: (a) What do mental terms mean? and (b) what role do mental terms play in explanations of behavior? In the current sketch I review how mediational neobehaviorism, cognitive psychology, and the radical behaviorism of B. F. Skinner address these questions. In so doing, I seek…
Zhang, Yuan; Punnett, Laura; Nannini, Angela
Work-family conflict is challenging for workers and may lead to depression, anxiety, and overall poor health. Sleep plays an important role in the maintenance of mental health; however, the role of sleep in the association between work-family conflict and mental health is not well-studied. Questionnaires were collected from 650 nursing assistants in 15 nursing homes. Multivariate linear regression modeling demonstrated that increased work-family conflict was associated with lower mental health scores (β = -2.56, p work-family conflict was correlated with more job demands, less job control, less social support, and longer work hours. Poor sleep quality, but not short sleep duration, mediated the association between work-family conflict and mental health. Workplace interventions to improve nursing assistants' mental health should increase their control over work schedules and responsibilities, provide support to meet their work and family needs, and address healthy sleep practices.
Department of Veterans Affairs — VAMC-level statistics on the prevalence, mental health utilization, non-mental health utilization, mental health workload, and psychological testing of Veterans with...
Kathryn van Boom
psychological basis of mental toughness from within existing, evidence-based ... development of mental toughness among athletes. The existing studies have ... that advocated by cognitive-behavioural interventions and traditional mental skills ...
... dialing 1-800-273-8255 and pressing 1. Mental Health Concerns There are three primary mental health concerns ... care or call 911. How Will Asking for Mental Health Treatment Affect My Career? Military personnel have always ...
... is a term for when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance use disorder simultaneously. Either disorder—substance use or mental illness—can develop first. People experiencing a mental health ...
Both concepts, mentalization and the theory of mind, describe metacognitive processes. Mentalization mainly concerns the reflection of affective mental states. In contrast, theory of mind focuses on epistemic states such as beliefs, intentions and persuasions. Gender differences have proved to be relevant for both, the development of mentalization and the theory of mind. However, there are few studies and findings are inconsistent. In an own study, we investigated the relationship between early competences in metacognition (tested in a false-belief-task second order) and narrative skills of kindergarten children. Results show that children who had successfully passed the theory of mind test tended to face conflicts more directly in the stories. In consequence, these children showed less narrative avoidance. However, differences were only found in girls and not in boys. The precise understanding of developmental differences in metacognition between girls and boys may be an important aspect with regards to improving mentalization based therapy of children.
Gopalkrishnan, Narayan; Babacan, Hurriyet
Cultural diversity and its impact on mental health has become an increasingly important issue in a globalised world where the interactions between cultures continue to grow exponentially. This paper presents critical areas in which culture impacts on mental health, such as how health and illness are perceived, coping styles, treatment-seeking patterns, impacts of history, racism, bias and stereotyping, gender, family, stigma and discrimination. While cultural differences provide a number of challenges to mental health policy and practice they also provide a number of opportunities to work in unique and effective ways towards positive mental health. Ethno-specific approaches to mental health that incorporate traditional and community-based systems can provide new avenues for working with culturally diverse populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Full Text Available The present review seeks to identify and analyze qualitative studies that examined experiences of children whose parents have a mental illness. This study reported that children whose parents have a mental illness had some common experiences. These experiences may have negative effects on children’s coping skills, resilience to tough living conditions and ability to maintain their mental health. In spite of these negative conditions, some of these children have much more self-confidence, resilience and independence because of inner development and early maturation. Some effective intervention programs are needed to promote information to children and other family members about mental illness, coping behaviors. Availability of such psychiatric services and nation-wide programs with professionals to deal with these problems should be organized properly to increase quality of life of these children. Furthermore, qualitative researches that explore the experiences of children whose parents with mental illness should also be conducted in our country.
Brousseau, Ruth Tebbets
Foundations are often criticized for their short attention spans and inability to continue funding the toughest social problems. Homelessness among people with mental illnesses is considered among the most intractable of social issues. This paper explores the role of permanent supportive housing in reducing homelessness among the mentally ill; the role of the Corporation for Supportive Housing in developing, authenticating, and disseminating its model; and its long-term funding relationship with the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, which has facilitated this trajectory. The paper tells the story of how long-term funding, strategically used, is making inroads into this serious mental health problem.
Madigan, K V; Checkland, D; Silberfeld, M
This paper addresses the role(s) played by presumptions regarding mental competence in the context of clinical assessment of decision-making capacity. In particular, the issue of whether or not the usual common law presumption of competence is appropriate and applicable in cases of reassessment of persons previously found incompetent is discussed. Arguments can be made for either retaining a presumption of competence or adopting a presumption of incompetence in reassessment cases. In addressing the issue and the arguments, the authors conclude that the question is really a public policy issue which requires legislative resolution. In writing this paper, the authors have drawn on their joint clinical experience at the Baycrest Competency Clinic. Though the authors' jurisdiction is the province of Ontario, their intent is to raise awareness and to prompt consideration of this issue both inside and outside Ontario.
Haginoya, Masato; Shimoda, Kazutaka
Described are 5 essential comments of view concerning the post-disaster psychiatric care through authors' experience at the aid of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami including Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. Firstly, at the acute phase of disaster, the ensured safe place, sleep and rest are necessary as a direct aid of sufferers and their family. Insomnia is seen in many of them and can partly be a prodrome of disorders like post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). US Psychological First Aid (PFA) is useful for a guide of the initial aid for disaster, and translated Japanese version is available free. Public anxiety as a psychological effect can be caused even out of the disaster-stricken area by such factors as on-site news reports (inducing identification), internet information, economical and social confusion, forecasted radiation hazard, etc. Cool-headed understanding is required for them and particularly for complicated radiological information. The system for psychiatric treatment is needed as exemplified by its temporary lack due to the radiation disaster near the Plant and consequent prompt dispatch of psychiatrists from Dokkyo Medical University. Survived sufferers' grief and bereavement are said to tend to last long, to be complicated and deteriorated, indicating the necessity of management of continuous mental health. Alcoholism as a result to avoid those feelings should be noted. Finally, pointed out is the mental care for supporters working for recovery from the disaster, like policeman, Self-Defense Force member, fireman, doctor, nurse, officer, volunteer and many others concerned, because PTSD prevalence is reported to amount to 12.4% of rescue and recovery workers of US World Trade Center Disaster (9.11) even 2-3 years after. (T.T.)
Vona, Pamela L.; Santostefano, Antonella M.; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D.
Abstract Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based. PMID:27428034
How to be Brilliant at Mental Arithmetic addresses the twin pillars of mental arithmetic - mental recall and mental agility. Mental recall depends on familiarity with number bonds and plenty of opportunity to practise. Mental agility depends more on confidence with the number system and the four operations. Using the worksheets in this book, students will learn about: tens and units; addition, subtraction, multiplication and division; addition shortcuts; product squares; quick recall; number se
Cao, Bihua; Li, Yiyuan; Li, Fuhong; Li, Hong
Previous studies have explored the neural mechanism of Theory of Mind (ToM), but the neural correlates of its two components, mental state decoding and mental state reasoning, remain unclear. In the present study, participants were presented with various photographs, showing an actor looking at 1 of 2 objects, either with a happy or an unhappy expression. They were asked to either decode the emotion of the actor (mental state decoding task), predict which object would be chosen by the actor (mental state reasoning task), or judge at which object the actor was gazing (physical task), while scalp potentials were recorded. Results showed that (1) the reasoning task elicited an earlier N2 peak than the decoding task did over the prefrontal scalp sites; and (2) during the late positive component (240-440 ms), the reasoning task elicited a more positive deflection than the other two tasks did at the prefrontal scalp sites. In addition, neither the decoding task nor the reasoning task has no left/right hemisphere difference. These findings imply that mental state reasoning differs from mental state decoding early (210 ms) after stimulus onset, and that the prefrontal lobe is the neural basis of mental state reasoning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Makin, Alexis D J
The brain continuously maintains a current representation of its immediate surroundings. Perceptual representations are often updated when the world changes, e.g., when we notice an object move. However, we can also update representations internally, without incoming signals from the senses. In other words, we can run internal simulations of dynamic events. This ability is evident during mental object rotation. These uncontroversial observations lead to an obvious question that nevertheless remains to be answered: How does the brain control the speed of dynamic mental simulations? Is there a central rate controller or pacemaker module in the brain that can be temporarily coupled to sensory maps? We can refer to this as the common rate control theory. Alternatively, the primitive intelligence within each map could tune into the speed of recent changes and use this information to keep going after stimuli disappear. We can call this the separate rate control theory. Preliminary evidence from prediction motion experiments supports common rate control, although local predictive mechanisms may cover short gaps of cognitive timing literature. Indirect neuroimaging evidence suggests rate control is a function of the core timing system in the dorsal striatum. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lowe, Sarah R; Galea, Sandro
Mass shooting episodes have increased over recent decades and received substantial media coverage. Despite the potentially widespread and increasing mental health impact of mass shootings, no efforts to our knowledge have been made to review the empirical literature on this topic. We identified 49 peer-reviewed articles, comprised of 27 independent samples in the aftermath of 15 mass shooting incidents. Based on our review, we concluded that mass shootings are associated with a variety of adverse psychological outcomes in survivors and members of affected communities. Less is known about the psychological effects of mass shootings on indirectly exposed populations; however, there is evidence that such events lead to at least short-term increases in fears and declines in perceived safety. A variety of risk factors for adverse psychological outcomes have been identified, including demographic and pre-incident characteristics (e.g., female gender and pre-incident psychological symptoms), event exposure (e.g., greater proximity to the attack and acquaintance with the deceased), and fewer psychosocial resources (e.g., emotion regulation difficulties and lower social support). Further research that draws on pre-incident and longitudinal data will yield important insights into the processes that exacerbate or sustain post-incident psychological symptoms over time and provide important information for crisis preparedness and post-incident mental health interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.
Koelmel, Emily; Hughes, Abbey J; Alschuler, Kevin N; Ehde, Dawn M
To investigate the longitudinal relationships between social support and subsequent mental health outcomes in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), and to examine resilience as a mediator between social support and subsequent mental health outcomes in this population. Observational, longitudinal cohort study. Participants were assessed at 4 time points over 12 months in the context of a previously reported randomized controlled trial. Telephone-based measures administered to community-based participants. Individuals (N=163) with MS and 1 or more of the following symptoms: depression, fatigue, and pain. Not applicable. Mental health outcomes included (1) depressive symptomatology, assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9; (2) anxious symptomatology, assessed using the short form of the Emotional Distress-Anxiety Scale from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System; and (3) general mental health status, assessed using the Mental Component Summary score from the Short Form-8 Health Survey. Resilience was assessed using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. At any given time, social support from significant others, family members, and friends was significantly associated with subsequent mental health outcomes for all 3 measures assessed (all P values social support significantly mediated the relationships between social support and subsequent mental health outcomes. After controlling for resilience, most of the direct relationships between social support and mental health outcomes were no longer significant. There are significant longitudinal relationships between social support, resilience, and mental health outcomes for people with MS. Given the mediating role of resilience in supporting better mental health outcomes, future clinical research and practice may benefit from an emphasis on resilience-focused psychological interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. All rights reserved.
Harkonmäki, Karoliina; Lahelma, Eero; Martikainen, Pekka; Rahkonen, Ossi; Silventoinen, Karri
To examine the associations of mental health functioning with intentions to retire early among ageing municipal employees. Cross-sectional survey data (n = 7,765) from the Helsinki Health Study in 2000, 2001, and 2002 were used. Intentions to retire early were sought with a question: "Have you considered retiring before normal retirement age?" The dependent variable was divided into three categories: 1 = no intentions to retire early; 2 = weak intentions; 3 = strong intentions. Mental health functioning was measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) mental component summary (MCS). Other variables included age, sex, physical health functioning (SF-36), limiting longstanding illness, socioeconomic status, and spouse's employment status. Multinomial regression analysis was used to examine the association of mental health functioning with intentions to retire early. Employees with the poorest mental health functioning were much more likely to report strong intentions to retire early (OR 6.09, 95% CI 4.97-7.47) than those with the best mental health functioning. Adjustments for physical health, socioeconomic status, and spouse's employment status did not substantially affect this association. The findings highlight the importance of mental health for intentions to retire early. Strategies aimed at keeping people at work for longer should emphasize the importance of mental well-being and the prevention of poor mental health. More evidence is needed on why mental problems among ageing baby-boomer employees are giving rise to increasing social consequences, although the overall prevalence of mental problems has not increased.
Khandelwal, Sudhir K; Jhingan, Harsh P; Ramesh, S; Gupta, Rajesh K; Srivastava, Vinay K
India, the second most populated country of the world with a population of 1.027 billion, is a country of contrasts. It is characterized as one of the world's largest industrial nations, yet most of the negative characteristics of poor and developing countries define India too. The population is predominantly rural, and 36% of people still live below poverty line. There is a continuous migration of rural people into urban slums creating major health and economic problems. India is one of the pioneer countries in health services planning with a focus on primary health care. Improvement in the health status of the population has been one of the major thrust areas for social development programmes in the country. However, only a small percentage of the total annual budget is spent on health. Mental health is part of the general health services, and carries no separate budget. The National Mental Health Programme serves practically as the mental health policy. Recently, there was an eight-fold increase in budget allocation for the National Mental Health Programme for the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007). India is a multicultural traditional society where people visit religious and traditional healers for general and mental health related problems. However, wherever modern health services are available, people do come forward. India has a number of public policy and judicial enactments, which may impact on mental health. These have tried to address the issues of stigma attached to the mental illnesses and the rights of mentally ill people in society. A large number of epidemiological surveys done in India on mental disorders have demonstrated the prevalence of mental morbidity in rural and urban areas of the country; these rates are comparable to global rates. Although India is well placed as far as trained manpower in general health services is concerned, the mental health trained personnel are quite limited, and these are mostly based in urban areas. Considering this
Faay, Margo D M; van de Sande, Roland; Gooskens, Floor; Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra B
The Kennedy Axis V is a routine outcome measurement instrument which can assist the assessment of the short-term risk for violence and other adverse patient outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interrater reliability and clinical utility of the instrument when used by mental health nurses in daily care of patients with mental illness. This cross-sectional study was conducted in inpatient and outpatient adult psychiatric care units and in one adolescent inpatient unit at a university hospital in the Netherlands. Interrater reliability was measured based on the independent scores of two different nurses for the same patients. The clinical utility of the instrument was evaluated by means of a clinical utility questionnaire. To gain a deeper understanding of rating difficulties at the adolescent unit, additional data were collected in two focus group interviews. The overall results revealed a substantial level of agreement between nurses (intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson 0.79). Some rating challenges were identified, including difficulties with scoring the instrument and using tailor-made interventions related to the scores. These challenges can be resolved using refined training and implementation strategies. When the Kennedy Axis V is accompanied by a solid implementation strategy in adult mental health care, the instrument can be used for short-term risk assessment and thereby contribute in efforts to reduce violence, suicide, self-harm, severe self-neglect, and enhanced objectivity in clinical decision-making. © 2012 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C
Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.
Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie
Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner.
acute care, treatment and rehabilitation as a 72-hour assessment unit in a .... resemble prisons, such as unnecessary bars on windows and one-way glass. ..... model to consider design solutions for other acute mental health care settings.
Newnes Short Wave Listening Handbook is a guide for starting up in short wave listening (SWL). The book is comprised of 15 chapters that discuss the basics and fundamental concepts of short wave radio listening. The coverage of the text includes electrical principles; types of signals that can be heard in the radio spectrum; and using computers in SWL. The book also covers SWL equipment, such as receivers, converters, and circuits. The text will be of great use to individuals who want to get into short wave listening.
Singh, Yogesh; Singh, Jayvardhan; Sharma, Ratna; Talwar, Anjana
The EEG is considered as building block of functional signaling in the brain. The role of EEG oscillations in human information processing has been intensively investigated. To study the quantitative EEG correlates of short term memory load as assessed through Sternberg memory test. The study was conducted on 34 healthy male student volunteers. The intervention consisted of Sternberg memory test, which runs on a version of the Sternberg memory scanning paradigm software on a computer. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 19 scalp locations according to 10-20 international system of electrode placement. EEG signals were analyzed offline. To overcome the problems of fixed band system, individual alpha frequency (IAF) based frequency band selection method was adopted. The outcome measures were FFT transformed absolute powers in the six bands at 19 electrode positions. Sternberg memory test served as model of short term memory load. Correlation analysis of EEG during memory task was reflected as decreased absolute power in Upper alpha band in nearly all the electrode positions; increased power in Theta band at Fronto-Temporal region and Lower 1 alpha band at Fronto-Central region. Lower 2 alpha, Beta and Gamma band power remained unchanged. Short term memory load has distinct electroencephalographic correlates resembling the mentally stressed state. This is evident from decreased power in Upper alpha band (corresponding to Alpha band of traditional EEG system) which is representative band of relaxed mental state. Fronto-temporal Theta power changes may reflect the encoding and execution of memory task.
Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona
This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert 'Think Tank' convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your 'cluster' of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development.
Abdelhameed, Hala; Porter, Jill
Research has shown that verbal short-term memory span is shorter in individuals with Down syndrome than in typically developing individuals of equivalent mental age, but little attention has been given to variations within or across groups. Differences in the environment and in particular educational experiences may play a part in the relative…
Nizamie, S. Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N. A.
Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257
Ponizovsky, Alexander; Grinshpoon, Alexander; Sasson, Rachel; Baidani-Auerbach, Alona; Ben Eliezer, Deborah; Shershevsky, Yechiel
The Ministry of Health is stepping up its efforts to both reduce the inpatient psychiatric population and enable former inmates to become fully reintegrated into society. The latter aim includes the provision of formal education for those with mental disorders who did not complete a full cycle of schooling. Stigma and discrimination at school may lead to the failure of this program. To explore the knowledge and attitudes of the principals of schools for adult education towards mental illness and persons with mental disorders. Almost all countrywide school principals (93.8%, n = 76) were interviewed by telephone using a short questionnaire of 16 items tapping their knowledge and attitudes. Frequency distributions, Chi-square and t-tests were used to analyze the data. The school principals were able to mention a fewer number of mental disorders in contrast to medical conditions, used as reference criteria. They recognized psychosis but not depression as a mental disorder. Their attitudes revealed an ambivalent approach to the person with a mental disorder, including those that are students. Higher level of academic education was associated with positive attitudes, while personal familiarity with a mentally disturbed person was slightly associated with more positive school-related attitudes. The results suggest a "case for action": programs to enhance mental health knowledge and foster more positive attitudes among school principals would seem to be needed. This would better assure the integration of the former inpatient into the adult education system.
Giacaman, Rita; Rabaia, Yoke; Nguyen-Gillham, Viet; Batniji, Rajaie; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Summerfield, Derek
This paper presents a brief history of Palestinian mental health care, a discussion of the current status of mental health and health services in the occupied Palestinian territory, and a critique of the biomedical Western-led discourse as it relates to the mental health needs of Palestinians. Medicalising distress and providing psychological therapies for Palestinians offer little in the way of alleviating the underlying causes of ongoing collective trauma. This paper emphasises the importance of separating clinical responses to mental illness from the public health response to mass political violation and distress. Palestinian academic research reframes the mental health paradigm utilising an approach based on the broader framework of social justice, quality of life, human rights and human security. Recognising social suffering as a public mental health issue requires a shift in the emphasis from narrow medical indicators, injury and illness to the lack of human security and human rights violations experienced by ordinary Palestinians. Such a change in perspective requires a parallel change in mental health policies from short-term emergency humanitarian aid to the development of a sustainable system of public mental health services, in combination with advocacy for human rights and the restoration of political, historical and moral justice.
Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne; Krnjacki, Lauren; LaMontagne, Anthony D
Deteriorating job control has been previously shown to predict poor mental health. The impact of improvement in job control on mental health is less well understood, yet it is of policy significance. We used fixed-effects longitudinal regression models to analyze 10 annual waves of data from a large Australian panel survey (2001-2010) to test within-person associations between change in self-reported job control and corresponding change in mental health as measured by the Mental Component Summary score of Short Form 36. We found evidence of a graded relationship; with each quintile increase in job control experienced by an individual, the person's mental health increased. The biggest improvement was a 1.55-point increase in mental health (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 1.84) for people moving from the lowest (worst) quintile of job control to the highest. Separate analyses of each of the component subscales of job control-decision authority and skill discretion-showed results consistent with those of the main analysis; both were significantly associated with mental health in the same direction, with a stronger association for decision authority. We conclude that as people's level of job control increased, so did their mental health, supporting the value of targeting improvements in job control through policy and practice interventions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
... Women’s Health State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health Notice Regarding FastStats Mobile ... Use of Selected Nonmedication Mental Health Services by Adolescent Boys and Girls With Serious Emotional or Behavioral ...
PCTs are likely to miss the national target on employment of graduate mental health workers. Pilots are showing success in reducing referrals. Managers must address career progression problems and define roles more clearly.
Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard
Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)
Mizukami, K; Naito, Y; Yoshida, M; Nakanishi, T; Koizumi, J
We present here a case with various physical and neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by the administration of carbamazepine. The patient suffering from right ophthalmic neuralgia showed fever, eczema, erythema, lymphoadenopathy, eosinophilia, vomiting, headache, dizziness, nystagmus, and various mental disorders which consisted of emotional instability, personality change, delusions of reference and persecution, depressive state, and hyperventilation syndrome during the administration of carbamazepine. The physical symptoms in the present case were conformable to the side effect of carbamazepine. The mental disorders appeared in a few days from the start of carbamazepine administration and disappeared after the discontinuation of the administration of this drug without antipsychotic therapy and have never relapsed until now. The mental disorders and the physical symptoms were in parallel with their clinical course. This kind of mental disorders induced by carbamazepine has not yet been reported.
Martin, Michael S; Potter, Beth K; Crocker, Anne G; Wells, George A; Grace, Rebecca M; Colman, Ian
While there is general consensus about the need to increase access to mental health treatment, it is debated whether screening is an effective solution. We examined treatment use by inmates in a prison system that offers universal mental health screening. We conducted an observational study of 7,965 consecutive admissions to Canadian prisons. We described patterns of mental health treatment from admission until first release, death, or March, 2015 (median 14-month follow-up). We explored the association between screening results and time of first treatment contact duration of first treatment episode, and total number of treatment episodes. Forty-three percent of inmates received at least some treatment, although this was often of short duration; 8% received treatment for at least half of their incarceration. Screening results were predictive of initiation of treatment and recurrent episodes, with stronger associations among those who did not report a history prior to incarceration. Half of all inmates with a known mental health need prior to incarceration had at least 1 interruption in care, and only 46% of inmates with a diagnosable mental illness received treatment for more than 10% of their incarceration. Screening results were associated with treatment use during incarceration. However, mental health screening may have diverted resources from the already known highest need cases toward newly identified cases who often received brief treatment suggestive of lower needs. Further work is needed to determine the most cost-effective responses to positive screens, or alternatives to screening that increase uptake of services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Bellieni, Carlo V; Buonocore, Giuseppe
The risk that abortion may be correlated with subsequent mental disorders needs a careful assessment, in order to offer women full information when facing a difficult pregnancy. All research papers published between 1995 and 2011, were examined, to retrieve those assessing any correlation between abortion and subsequent mental problems. A total of 36 studies were retrieved, and six of them were excluded for methodological bias. Depression, anxiety disorders (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) and substance abuse disorders were the most studied outcome. Abortion versus childbirth: 13 studies showed a clear risk for at least one of the reported mental problems in the abortion group versus childbirth, five papers showed no difference, in particular if women do not consider their experience of fetal loss to be difficult, or if after a fetal reduction the desired fetus survives. Only one paper reported a worse mental outcome for childbearing. Abortion versus unplanned pregnancies ending with childbirth: four studies found a higher risk in the abortion groups and three, no difference. Abortion versus miscarriage: three studies showed a greater risk of mental disorders due to abortion, four found no difference and two found that short-term anxiety and depression were higher in the miscarriage group, while long-term anxiety and depression were present only in the abortion group. In conclusion, fetal loss seems to expose women to a higher risk for mental disorders than childbirth; some studies show that abortion can be considered a more relevant risk factor than miscarriage; more research is needed in this field. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Schotanus-Dijkstra, Marijke; Ten Have, Margreet; Lamers, Sanne M A; de Graaf, Ron; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T
High levels of mental well-being might protect against the onset of mental disorders but longitudinal evidence is scarce. This study examines whether flourishing mental health predicts first-incidence and recurrent mental disorders 3 years later. Data were used from 4482 representative adults participating in the second (2010-12) and third wave (2013-15) of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2). Mental well-being was assessed with the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) at the second wave. The classification criteria of this instrument were used to classify participants as having flourishing mental health: high levels of both hedonic well-being (life-satisfaction, happiness) and eudaimonic well-being (social contribution, purpose in life, personal growth). DSM-IV mood, anxiety and substance use disorders were measured with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) 3.0 at all waves. Odds ratios of (first and recurrent) incident disorders were estimated, using logistic regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders. Flourishing reduced the risk of incident mood disorders by 28% and of anxiety disorders by 53%, but did not significantly predicted substance use disorders. A similar pattern of associations was found for either high hedonic or high eudaimonic well-being. Significant results were found for substance use disorders when life-events and social support were removed as covariates. This study underscores the rationale of promoting mental well-being as a public mental health strategy to prevent mental illness. In wealthy European nations it seems fruitful to measure and pursuit a flourishing life rather than merely high levels of hedonic well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad
Methods for estimating the short-circuit impedance in the power grid are investigated for various voltage levels and situations. The short-circuit impedance is measured, preferably from naturally occurring load changes in the grid, and it is shown that such a measurement system faces different...
Rondón, Marta B.
The concept of health is reviewed to argue that the mental component as inherent to the integral wellbeing, since mental and physical health are closely related. The relationship between depression and events of the reproductive cycle is described, especially concerning the risk posed by unwanted pregnancy, a risk factor for postpartum depression as reported in studies conducted in various parts of the world. Consequently, women with depression risk factors (history of previous depressive ail...
Mangala, R; Thara, R
Tamil cinema is a vibrant part of the lives of many in south India. A chequered history and a phenomenal growth have made this medium highly influential not only in Tamil Nadu politics, but also in the social lives of the viewers. This paper provides an overview of the growth of Tamil cinema, and discusses in detail the way mental health has been handled by Tamil films. Cinema can be used very effectively to improve awareness about mental health issues.
Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.
Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…
This paper argues the Wittgensteinian point that we can undo the psychologizing of psychology by conceiving of mental life as lived in the space of reasons. It is argued that mental life - human action, feeling and thinking - is constituted by normative connections and necessities rather than...... that it violates our conception of mental illness as something mental, yet outside the space of reasons...
... intelligence, mental illness, incompetence, condition, or disease, is a danger to himself or herself or to... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mental capacity. 1572.109 Section 1572.109... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.109 Mental capacity. (a) An applicant has mental...
Streiner, David L; Cairney, John
..., and analyses the prevalence of several significant mental disorders in the population. The collection also includes essays on stigma, mental disorder and the criminal justice system, and mental health among women, children, workers, and other demographic groups. Focusing on Canadian scholarship, yet wide-reaching in scope, Mental Disorder in C...
Work is a major determinant of mental health and a socially integrating force. To be excluded from the workforce creates material deprivation, erodes self-confidence, creates a sense of isolation and marginalization and is a key risk factor for mental disability. This review summarizes recent evidence pertaining to employment-related stigma and discrimination experienced by people with mental disabilities. A broad understanding of the stigmatization process is adopted, which includes cognitive, attitudinal, behavioural and structural disadvantages. Stigma is both a proximate and a distal cause of employment inequity for people with a mental disability who experience direct discrimination because of prejudicial attitudes from employers and workmates and indirect discrimination owing to historical patterns of disadvantage, structural disincentives against competitive employment and generalized policy neglect. Against this background, modern mental health rehabilitation models and legislative philosophies, which focus on citizenship rights and full social participation, are to be welcomed. Yet, recent findings demonstrate that the legislation remains vulnerable to the very prejudicial attitudes they are intended to abate. Research conducted during the past year continues to highlight multiple attitudinal and structural barriers that prevent people with mental disabilities from becoming active participants in the competitive labour market.
Full Text Available Numerous issues related to culture, occupation, gender, caste, and health, to name a few, have faced harshness of society from time immemorial. Reasons are debatable, ranging from somewhat understandable to completely unacceptable. There is no doubt that society is dynamic and it has changed its view on many of the issues with passing time. Mental health is one such issue which society has neglected for quite a long time. Even today, mental health and mentally ill people face stigma and discrimination in their family, society, and at their workplace. People do not feel comfortable talking about mental health, even if they know that there cannot be any health without a healthy mind. But, as Albert Einstein has said “learn from yesterday, live for today, and hope for tomorrow”, everything is not lost. The mentally ill patients who were once abandoned and left on their own have now started to get humane care and attention. This article discusses this very pertinent topic of changing society and mental health.
Hewitt, J L
Mental health policy development in the UK has become increasingly dominated by the assumed need to prevent violence and alleviate public concerns about the dangers of the mentally ill living in the community. Risk management has become the expected focus of contemporary mental health services, and responsibility has increasingly been devolved to individual service professionals when systems fail to prevent violence. This paper analyses the development of mental health legislation and its impact on services users and mental health professionals at the micro level of service delivery. Historical precedence, media influence and public opinion are explored, and the reification of risk is questioned in practical and ethical terms. The government's newest proposals for compulsory treatment in the community are discussed in terms of practical efficacy and therapeutic impact. Dangerousness is far from being an objectively observable phenomenon arising from clinical pathology, but is a formulation of what is partially knowable through social analysis and unknowable by virtue of its situation in individual psychic motivation. Risk assessment can therefore never be completely accurate, and the solution of a 'better safe than sorry' approach to mental health policy is ethically and pragmatically flawed.
Palma, Jessica Anne
While health is defined as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being’, physical and mental health have traditionally been separated. This paper explores the question: How can physical and mental health promotion strategies be integrated and addressed simultaneously? A literature review on why physical and mental health are separated and why these two areas need to be integrated was conducted. A conceptual framework for how to integrate physical and mental health promotion st...
Current media campaigns, realized within national campaigns and actions on mental health prevention and promotion, are considered in this paper, in the context of expert public relation, as well as the whole society, towards mental health. Mental health promotion is determined as a range of activities by which individuals, community and society are being enabled to take control over mental health determinants and to improve it, but also as an action for improvement of mental health posi...
Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress
Parameshvara Deva, M
Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be
Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest groups were implemented, mostly within the national organizations for psychiatry, some also containing the topic of exercise treatment of mental disorders. Where are we now 30 years later? We systematically but also selectively review the medical literature on exercise, sport, psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders and related topics. The number of publications in the field has increased exponentially. Most topics keep remaining on the agenda, e.g., head trauma and concussion, drug abuse and doping, performance enhancement, overtraining, ADHD or eating disorders. Supported by the growing literature, evidence-based recommendations have become available now in many clinical areas. A relatively new phenomenon is muscle dysmorphia, observed in weightlifters, bodybuilders but also in college students and gym users. Further, sports therapy of mental disorders has been studied by more and more high-quality randomized controlled clinical trials. Mostly as a complementary treatment, however, for some disorders already with a 1a evidence level, e.g., depression, dementia or MCI but also post-traumatic stress disorder. Being grown up and accepted nowadays, sports psychiatry still represents a fast-developing field. The reverse side of the coin, sport therapy of mental disorders has received a scientific basis now. Who else than sports psychiatry could advance sport therapy of mental disorders? We need this enthusiasm for sports and psychiatry for our patients with mental disorders and it is time now for a broadening of the scope. Optimized psychiatric prevention and treatment of athletes and ideal sport-related support for individuals with mental disorders should be our main purpose and goal.
Continuing debates over the relative importance of the role of interpretation leading to insight versus the relationship with the analyst as contributing to structural change are based on traditional definitions of insight as gaining knowledge of unconscious content. This definition inevitably privileges verbal interpretation as self-knowledge becomes equated with understanding the contents of the mind. It is suggested that a way out of this debate is to redefine insight as a process, one that is called insightfulness. This term builds on concepts such as mentalization, or theory of mind, and suggests that patients present with difficulties being able to fully mentalize. Awareness of repudiated content will usually accompany the attainment of insightfulness. But the point of insightfulness is to regain access to inhibited or repudiated mentalization, not to specific content, per se. Emphasizing the process of insightfulness integrates the importance of the relationship with the analyst with the facilitation of insightfulness. A variety of interventions help patients gain the capacity to reflect upon and become aware of the intricate workings of their minds, of which verbal interpretation is only one. For example, often it seems less important to focus on a particular conflict than to show interest in our patients' minds. Furthermore, analysands develop insightfulness by becoming interested in and observing our minds in action. Because the mind originates in bodily experience, mental functioning will always fluctuate between action modes of experiencing and expressing and verbal, symbolic modes. The analyst's role becomes making the patient aware of regressions to action modes, understanding the reasons for doing so, and subordinating this tendency to the verbal, symbolic mode. All mental functions work better and facilitate greater self-regulation when they work in abstract, symbolic ways. Psychopathology can be understood as failing to develop or losing the
Mallory, M.L.; Blosser, H.G.; Clark, D.J.; Launer, H.; Lawton, D.; Miller, P.; Resmini, F.
In February 1981, a short circuit appeared in the superconducting coil of the K500 cyclotron. The short is resistive in character and therefore has no effect on steady state operation of the magnet. The resistance of the short varies, sometimes being below threshold of detection as a heat load on the cooling system and sometimes being significant. The resistance under certain conditions shows approximately cyclic phenomena with time constants in the range of seconds and other approximately cyclic phenomena which correlate with gross operating parameters of the magnet (shifting current from one coil to another at high field and lowering and raising the liquid helium level). A number of diagnostic studies of the short have been made, using 1) an array of flux sensing loops to sense the magnetic effect of the short, 2) voltage comparisons between upper and lower sections of the coil, 3) comparisons of forces in the nine member coil support system and 4) the effect of the short on the thermal charactersitics of the coil. Insulation failure or a metal chip shorting out turns have been explored in some detail but a convincing determination of the exact cause of the short may never be available, (even the extreme step of unwinding the coil having a significant probability that an imperfection with the observed characteristics would pass unnoticed). Analysis of the characteristics of the short indicated that the most serious consequence would be failure of the coils mechanical support system in the event that the magnet was quickly discharged, as in a dump or quench. To deal with this hazard, the support system has been modified by installing solid supports which prevent the coil from moving by an amount sufficient to damage the support system. We have also reexamined the data and calculations used in the original coil design and have made some additional measurements of the properties of the materials (yield strength, friction coefficient, Young's modulus) used in the
Vitello, Stanley J.
Analysis of the Keene malpractice court case, which awarded compensatory damages to a child with severe disabilities probably contracted shortly after birth, focuses on how the court calculated life expectancy and the loss of life enjoyment, concluding discrimination against people with mental retardation, in that the decision assumes these…
De Jonge, P; Zomerdijk, MM; Huyse, FJ; Fink, P; Herzog, T; Lobo, A; Slaets, JPJ; Arolt, [No Value; Balogh, N; Cardoso, G; Rigatelli, M
Aims and objectives. The relationship between mental disturbances-anxiety and depression, somatization and alcohol abuse-on admission to internal medicine units and perceived complexity of care as indicated by the nurse at discharge was studied. The goal Was to Study the utility of short screeners
van Leeuwen, C. M. C.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Post, M. W. M.
Study design: Cross-sectional study 5 years after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the Mental Health subscale (MHI-5) of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting: Eight Dutch
Isett, Robert; Roszkowski, Michael
Results of a survey of staff of a short-term residential facility serving mentally retarded clients indicate that recommendations and social competency information are perceived to be the most important sections of psychological reports while projective test personality interpretation and IQ test results are considered to have the least value.…
Vock, Miriam; Preckel, Franzis; Holling, Heinz
This study analyzes the interplay of four cognitive abilities--reasoning, divergent thinking, mental speed, and short-term memory--and their impact on academic achievement in school in a sample of adolescents in grades seven to 10 (N = 1135). Based on information processing approaches to intelligence, we tested a mediation hypothesis, which states…
Utility of the Koppitz norms for the Bender Gestalt Test performance of a group of Sesotho-speaking children · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ... Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in Mental Health Care by Alec Grant, Jem Mills, Ronan Mulhern and Nigel Short · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
De Jonge, P; Zomerdijk, MM; Huyse, FJ; Fink, P; Herzog, T; Lobo, A; Slaets, JPJ; Arolt, [No Value; Balogh, N; Cardoso, G; Rigatelli, M
Aims and objectives. The relationship between mental disturbances-anxiety and depression, somatization and alcohol abuse-on admission to internal medicine units and perceived complexity of care as indicated by the nurse at discharge was studied. The goal Was to Study the utility of short screeners
Jørgensen, Torben; Ladelund, Steen; Borch-Johnsen, Knut
OBJECTIVE: To analyze mental distress in relation to participation in lifestyle intervention. METHODS: In 2000-2001 a total of 1948 consecutive participants, living in the suburbs of Copenhagen, were asked to complete a short version of SCL-90-R (anxiety, depression, and somatization) before scre...... reached the pre-screening level (except for anxiety). CONCLUSION: Screening for risk of cardiovascular disease followed by health counselling does not give rise to mental distress, but has a temporary beneficial effect.......OBJECTIVE: To analyze mental distress in relation to participation in lifestyle intervention. METHODS: In 2000-2001 a total of 1948 consecutive participants, living in the suburbs of Copenhagen, were asked to complete a short version of SCL-90-R (anxiety, depression, and somatization) before...
In many countries, there continue to be conflicting opinions and mechanisms regarding the appropriateness of treatment and/or punishment for mentally ill individuals who commit crimes. The general population is concerned with public safety and often finds it difficult to accept the possibility that a mentally ill individual who commits a crime can be hospitalized and eventually discharged, sometimes after a relatively short time. In most countries the options of incarceration and hospitalization are available in concert. In some, incarceration occurs before hospitalization. In others, hospitalization is first, followed by a prison term. An additional option could be "treatment years." The court would determine the number of years of treatment required, according to the crime. This dilemma has no unequivocal solution. The goal is to reach a balance between the right of the patient to treatment and the responsibility of the courts to ensure public safety.
Alessandra Salina Brandão
Full Text Available Abstract: Not completing the undergraduate course in the time expected in the curricula can put the universities and students at a disadvantage, with a delay to enter the labor market. The aim was to identify predictors of graduation, considering social skills, mental health, initial academic performance and socio-demographic and academic characteristics. In total, 287 students participated, of both genders and fromthe humanities, exact and biological areas, who answered the instruments: Social Skills, Behaviors and Context Assessment Questionnaire for University Students, Short version of the Social Phobia Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Predictors were: female, humanities area and average or above-average initial academic performance. The social skills and mental health differentiated the groups in the univariate analyses. This data suggests a need for attention to academic performance in the initial stages of the course, and preventive measures for male students of the exact and biological areas.
Mental health legislation (MHL) is required to ensure a regulatory framework for mental health services and other providers of treatment and care, and to ensure that the public and people with a mental illness are afforded protection from the often-devastating consequences of mental illness. To provide an overview of evidence on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health servicesMethod: A qualitative review of the literature on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health services was conducted. In many countries, especially in those who have no MHL, people do not have access to basic mental health care and treatment they require. One of the major aims of MHL is that all people with mental disorders should be provided with treatment based on the integration of mental health care services into the primary healthcare (PHC). In addition, MHL plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, the provision of care of high quality, the improvement of access to care at community level. Community-based mental health care further improves access to mental healthcare within the city, to have better health and mental health outcomes, and better quality of life, increase acceptability, reduce associated social stigma and human rights abuse, prevent chronicity and physical health comorbidity will likely to be detected early and managed. Mental health legislation plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, integration of mental health at primary health care, the provision of care of high quality and the improvement of access to care at community level. It is vital and essential to have MHL for every country.
Vieira Karen F
Full Text Available Abstract According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD, addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such
Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro
... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well- being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...
Delyukov, A. A.; Didyk, L.
Slight atmospheric pressure oscillations (APO) in the extra-low-frequency range below 0.1 Hz, which frequently occur naturally, can influence human mental activity. This phenomenon has been observed in experiments with a group of 12 healthy volunteers exposed to experimentally created APO with amplitudes 30-50 Pa in the frequency band 0.011-0.17 Hz. Exposure of the subjects to APO for 15-30 min caused significant changes in attention and short-term memory functions, performance rate, and mental processing flexibility. The character of the response depended on the APO frequency and coherence. Periodic APO promoted purposeful mental activity, accompanied by an increase in breath-holding duration and a slower heart rate. On the other hand, quasi-chaotic APO, similar to the natural perturbations of atmospheric pressure, disrupted mental activity. These observations suggest that APO could be partly responsible for meteorosensitivity in humans.
Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.
Alam, Reza; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M; Zhou, Jin-Rong
Major mental diseases such as autism, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder are debilitating illnesses with complex etiologies. Recent findings show that the onset and development of these illnesses cannot be well described by the one-gene; one-disease approach. Instead, their clinical presentation is thought to result from the regulative interplay of a large number of genes. Even though the involvement of many genes are likely, up regulating and activation or down regulation and silencing of these genes by the environmental factors play a crucial role in contributing to their pathogenesis. Much of this interplay may be moderated by epigenetic changes. Similar to genetic mutations, epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and RNA interference can influence gene expression and therefore may cause behavioral and neuronal changes observed in mental disorders. Environmental factors such as diet, gut microbiota, and infections have significant role in these epigenetic modifications. Studies show that bioactive nutrients and gut microbiota can alter either DNA methylation and histone signatures through a variety of mechanisms. Indeed, microbes within the human gut may play a significant role in the regulation of various elements of "gut-brain axis," via their influence on inflammatory cytokines and production of antimicrobial peptides that affect the epigenome through their involvement in generating short chain fatty acids, vitamin synthesis, and nutrient absorption. In addition, they may participate in-gut production of many common neurotransmitters. In this review we will consider the potential interactions of diet, gastrointestinal microbiome, inflammation, and epigenetic alterations in psychiatric disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ellis, J.F.; Lubell, M.S.; Pillsbury, R.D.; Shen, S.S.; Thome, R.J.; Walstrom, P.L.
The superconducting toroidal field coils that are being tested in the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) are heavily instrumented. General Electric coil, a lead wire of an internal sensor became shorted across an estimated three or four turns of the pancake winding. This short occurred during the final stages of the winding fabrication and was not accessible for repair. Resistance, voltage gradient, and transient voltage decay measurements were performed to characterize the short and the magnetic damping of the large steel bobbin and outer structural ring. The 32-gage wire causing the short was estimated to be about 10 cm long, with a resistance of 55 mΩ. As a safety measure, we decided to burn out the shorted wire at room temperature before installing the coil in LCTF. Tests were made to determine the energy needed to vaporize a small wire. Computer calculations indicated that within the voltage limits set for the coil, it was not feasible to burn out the wire by rapidly dumping the coil from a low-current dc charge-up. We accomplished the burnout by applying 800 V at 3.25 A, and 60 Hz for about 1 s. Transient voltage decay measurements made after the burnout and compared with those made before the attempt confirmed that the short had indeed been opened
Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis
such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems......Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...
Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A
Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407
Mah, Jean K; Tough, Suzanne; Fung, Thomas; Douglas-England, Kathleen; Verhoef, Marja
Patient satisfaction surveys are often used to measure quality of care. However, patient satisfaction may not be a reliable indicator of service quality because satisfaction can be influenced by clients' characteristics such as their health status. Parents of children attending a pediatric neurology clinic completed the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and global ratings of their physical and mental health. They also completed the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ), the Measure of Processes of Care (MPOC), and the Family-Centered Care Survey (FCCS). 104 parents completed the survey. The correlation between the global rating of physical or mental health and their corresponding SF-36 scores was high. The majority (88%) of parents were satisfied, with a median CSQ score of 28 (IQR, 24 to 31) and a FCCS score of 4.7 (IQR, 4.2 to 4.9). Logistic regression identified parents' mental health as a significant predictor of client satisfaction (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.14). Given the positive association between parents' mental health and satisfaction with care, it is important to consider mental status as a covariate in interpreting satisfaction surveys. Parents' global rating of mental health appears to be a reasonable indicator of their SF-36 mental scores.
Hides, Leanne; Quinn, Catherine; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Cockshaw, Wendell; Mitchell, Tegan; Kavanagh, David J
Internationally there is a growing interest in the mental wellbeing of young people. However, it is unclear whether mental wellbeing is best conceptualized as a general wellbeing factor or a multidimensional construct. This paper investigated whether mental wellbeing, measured by the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF), is best represented by: (1) a single-factor general model; (2) a three-factor multidimensional model or (3) a combination of both (bifactor model). 2220 young Australians aged between 16 and 25 years completed an online survey including the MHC-SF and a range of other wellbeing and mental ill-health measures. Exploratory factor analysis supported a bifactor solution, comprised of a general wellbeing factor, and specific group factors of psychological, social and emotional wellbeing. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the bifactor model had a better fit than competing single and three-factor models. The MHC-SF total score was more strongly associated with other wellbeing and mental ill-health measures than the social, emotional or psychological subscale scores. Findings indicate that the mental wellbeing of young people is best conceptualized as an overarching latent construct (general wellbeing) to which emotional, social and psychological domains contribute. The MHC-SF total score is a valid and reliable measure of this general wellbeing factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
van den Briel, T; West, C E; Bleichrodt, N; van de Vijver, F J; Ategbo, E A; Hautvast, J G
An adequate iodine supply in utero and shortly after birth is known to be crucial to an individual's physical and mental development. The question of whether iodine supplementation later in life can exert a favorable influence on the mental performance of iodine-deficient populations was addressed in various studies, but with contradictory results. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an improvement in iodine status on mental and psychomotor performance of schoolchildren (7-11 y) who were moderately to severely iodine deficient. The study, which was originally planned as a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention, was carried out in an iodine-deficient population of schoolchildren (n = 196) in northern Benin. As the population began to have access to iodized salt during the 1-y intervention period, the study population was split post hoc-on the basis of urinary iodine concentrations-into a group with improved iodine status and a group with unchanged iodine status. Changes in mental and psychomotor performance over the intervention period were compared. Children with increased urinary iodine concentrations had a significantly greater increase in performance on the combination of mental tests than did the group with no change in urinary iodine concentrations. An improvement in iodine status, rather than iodine status itself, determined mental performance in this population, which was initially iodine deficient. These findings suggest a "catch-up" effect in terms of mental performance.
Rönngren, Ylva; Björk, Annette; Audulv, Åsa; Enmarker, Ingela; Kristiansen, Lisbeth; Haage, David
Although persons with severe mental illness face an increased risk of mortality and of developing negative health outcomes, research has shown that lifestyle interventions can sufficiently support their health. In response, this study examined a nurse-led lifestyle intervention developed in cooperation with members of municipal and county councils to gauge its impact on the quality of life, cognitive performance, walking capacity, and body composition of persons with severe mental illness. Lasting 26 weeks and involving 38 persons with severe mental illness, the intervention prioritised two components: the interpersonal relationships of persons with severe mental illness, staff, and group leaders and group education about physical and mental health. Pre-post intervention measurements of quality of life collected with the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life, cognitive performance with the Frontal Systems Behaviour Scale, walking capacity with a 6-min walk test, and body composition in terms of waist circumference and body mass index were analysed using a nonparametric test Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results suggest that the intervention afforded significant improvements in the health-related variables of quality of life, cognitive performance, walking capacity, and waist circumference for persons with severe mental illness. However, long-term studies with control groups and that examine parameters related to cardiovascular risk factors are essential to ensure the sustained impact of the intervention. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Priddis, Lynn E; Matacz, Rochelle; Weatherston, Deborah
This article describes findings from a project conducted in Western Australia (Mental Health Commission WA, 2015) that investigated the education and training needs of the Infant/Early Childhood Mental Health (I/ECMH) workforce. We examined international training programs and models of delivery in infant mental health, including a review of the current training available in Australia. Data collected from over 60 interviews were analyzed, and a staged delivery model for I/ECMH training and supervision that aligned with the Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health (2014) Competency Guidelines was recommended. These findings led to the purchase of the Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health (2014) for use in Western Australia. In a very short time, use of the Michigan Competency Framework by the Australian Association for Infant Mental Health West Australian Branch Incorporated has begun to change the training and education opportunities for upskilling the infant and early childhood workforce in Western Australia. It has resulted in a map to guide and develop training in the I/ECMH field for individual practitioners and professionals as well as for workplaces that will ultimately benefit Western Australian infants, young children, and their families during the perinatal period and in the early years. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Wright, Jerome; Lubben, Fred; Mkandawire, Mac Bain
Previous research has identified high levels of mental health problems among people affected by HIV. This study surveys specifically adolescents in southern Malawi on their experience of the impacts of living with HIV or AIDS on one's mental health. At the same time, the study explores the link between mental health problems and subsequent HIV-risk behaviour. Short texts relating everyday scenarios that depicted symptoms of three mental health problems (i.e.depression, anxiety and HIV-related brain impairment) formed the basis of in-depth discussions in 12 existing groups of secondary school students, orphans and vulnerable children, teenage mothers, and out-of-school youths, in both rural and urban settings. The responses show that these young people recognised the mental health sequelae of HIV/AIDS as impacting upon many aspects of one's life. The young people traced these 'interruptions' and 'disruptions' through deteriorating psychological and socio-economic conditions. They showed awareness of a two-way interaction between HIV/AIDS and mental illness, indicating that the latter can increase thoughts of suicide and HIV risk-taking behaviour. More importantly, they identified a number of locally derived community interventions, which if supported by statutory health and education services, can significantly ameliorate their situations. The findings provide avenues for practical integration of mental health provision within HIV prevention, education and care initiatives.
Kang, Min-Suk; Choi, Joongrul
We used a visual illusion called motion repulsion as a model system for investigating competition between two mental representations. Subjects were asked to remember two random-dot-motion displays presented in sequence and then to report the motion directions for each. Remembered motion directions were shifted away from the actual motion directions, an effect similar to the motion repulsion observed during perception. More important, the item retrieved second showed greater repulsion than the item retrieved first. This suggests that earlier retrieval exerted greater inhibition on the other item being held in short-term memory. This retrieval-induced motion repulsion could be explained neither by reduced cognitive resources for maintaining short-term memory nor by continued inhibition between short-term memory representations. These results indicate that retrieval of memory representations inhibits other representations in short-term memory. We discuss mechanisms of retrieval-induced inhibition and their implications for the structure of memory. © The Author(s) 2015.
causal ones. The consequence is that mental life is irreducibly moral, and if the sciences of mental life are to become adequate to deal with their subject matter, they should construe themselves as what was once referred to as moral sciences. It is argued that the source of the normativity of mental...... life is found in historically evolved social practices,although not all normativity is conventional or historically contingent. Finally, some objections to the idea that mental life is normative are discussed; first, that this idea represents an intellectualist or rationalist fallacy, and second...... that it violates our conception of mental illness as something mental, yet outside the space of reasons...
Forrester, Andrew; Exworthy, Tim; Olumoroti, Olumuyiwa; Sessay, Mohammed; Parrott, Janet; Spencer, Sarah-Jane; Whyte, Sean
In responding to high levels of psychiatric morbidity amongst prisoners and recognising earlier poor quality prison mental health care, prison mental health in-reach teams have been established in England and Wales over the last decade. They are mostly provided by the National Health Service (NHS), which provides the majority of UK healthcare services. Over the same period, the prison population has grown to record levels, such that prisons in England and Wales now contain almost 90,000 of the world's overall prison population of over 10 million people (roughly the size of Paris or Istanbul). This study provides an overview of mental health in-reach services in prisons in England and Wales, including variations between them, through a telephone survey of senior staff in all prisons and young offender institutions in England and Wales. 73% of prisons took part; of them 13% had no in-reach team at all (usually low security establishments) and the majority of services were run by NHS teams, usually according to a generic community mental health team (CMHT) model rather than other specialist models. Team size was unrelated to prison size. Each nurse covered around 500 prisoners, each doctor over 3700. Many provided few or no healthcare cells and 24-h psychiatric cover (including on-call cover) was uncommon. Despite developments in recent years, mental health in-reach services still fall short of community equivalence and there is wide variation in service arrangements that cannot be explained by prison size or function. The aim of community equivalence has not yet been reached in prison healthcare and a more sophisticated measure of service improvement and standardisation would now be useful to drive and monitor future development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Comprender el concepto de Salud Mental es entender que la Salud depende de algo más que un buen estado físico; es el equilibrio o armonía entre las distintas dimensiones que conforman al individuo dentro de un entorno, que dada las condiciones de nuestro País, ha cambiado. Su prevención está dada por la adquisición de conductas saludables a partir de la implementación, las Políticas de Salud mental dentro de los Lineamientos Departamentales.
Herzig, Lilli; Mühlemann, Nicole; Bischoff, Thomas
Mental disorders (depression, anxiety and somatization) are frequent in Primary care and are often associated to physical complaints and to psychosocial stressors. Mental disorders have in this way a specific presentation and in addition patients may present different associations of them. Sometimes it is difficult to recognize them, but it is important to do so and to take rapidly care of these patients. Specific screening questions exist and have been used in a research of the Institute of General Medicine and the Department of Ambulatory Care and Community Medicine (PMU), University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
Devi, S K; Chansauria, J P; Udupa, K N
In cases of mental depression, the plasma serotonin, melatonin and glutamate levels are increased along with the lowering of urinary - 5 - hydroxyindole acetic acid, plasma monoamine oxidase and cortisol levels following three and six months Practice of Kundalini Yoga. The pulse rate and blood pressure in these patients are also lowered after Kundalini Yoga practice. Thus, the practice of Kundalini Yoga helps to maintain a perfect homeostasis by bringing an equilibrium between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities and it can be used as a non - medical measure in treating patients with mental depression.
Objective: This is the second of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). Objectives for the review were to provide realistic estimates of cost for unit activities and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate cost centre management. Method: The study described ...
A wide range of factors can influence help-seeking attitudes when individuals experience a mental disorder. The current study investigated the relationship between traditional Chinese beliefs related to the aetiology of mental disorders and help-seeking attitudes among elderly participants in Macao. In order to ensure the suitability of participants for inclusion in this study, the participants were required to complete an initial screening test using the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Participants who successfully passed the test (n = 183) completed a questionnaire that included the Inventory of Attitudes Toward Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS), a set of 9 items related to traditional Chinese beliefs about aetiology of mental disorders and demographic items. The IASMHS scores were higher for female participants and for participants who had completed high school compared with those who had never attended school or who had only completed primary education. Endorsement of traditional Chinese beliefs about the aetiology of mental disorders was higher for male participants. There was a negative correlation between traditional Chinese aetiology beliefs related to mental disorders and help-seeking attitudes. Traditional Chinese beliefs related to the aetiology of mental disorders are a negative factor that inhibits help seeking. Implications for efforts to increase the utilisation of mental health services by the elderly are discussed.
Morgan, Z; Brugha, T; Fryers, T; Stewart-Brown, S
Abusive and neglectful parenting is an established determinant of adult mental illness, but longitudinal studies of the impact of less severe problems with parenting have yielded inconsistent findings. In the face of growing interest in mental health promotion, it is important to establish the impact of this potentially remediable risk factor. 8,405 participants in the 1958 UK birth cohort study, and 5,058 in the 1970 birth cohort study questionnaires relating to the quality of relationships with parents completed at age 16 years. 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Malaise Inventory collected at age 42 years (1958 cohort) and 30 years (1970 cohort). Statistical methodology: logistic regression analyses adjusting for sex, social class and teenage mental health problems. 1958 cohort: relationships with both mother and father predicted mental health problems in adulthood; increasingly poor relationships were associated with increasing mental health problems at age 42 years. 1970 cohort: positive items derived from the Parental Bonding Instrument predicted reduced risk of mental health problems; negative aspects predicted increased risk at age 30 years. Odds of mental health problems were increased between 20 and 80% in fully adjusted models. Results support the hypothesis that problems with parent-child relationships that fall short of abuse and neglect play a part in determining adult mental health and suggest that interventions to support parenting now being implemented in many parts of the Western world may reduce the prevalence of mental illness in adulthood.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals’ childhood experiences can strongly influence their future health and well-being. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs such as abuse and dysfunctional home environments show strong cumulative relationships with physical and mental illness yet less is known about their effects on mental well-being in the general population. Methods A nationally representative household survey of English adults (n = 3,885 measuring current mental well-being (Short Edinburgh-Warwick Mental Well-being Scale SWEMWBS and life satisfaction and retrospective exposure to nine ACEs. Results Almost half of participants (46.4 % had suffered at least one ACE and 8.3 % had suffered four or more. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs for low life satisfaction and low mental well-being increased with the number of ACEs. AORs for low ratings of all individual SWEMWBS components also increased with ACE count, particularly never or rarely feeling close to others. Of individual ACEs, growing up in a household affected by mental illness and suffering sexual abuse had the most relationships with markers of mental well-being. Conclusions Childhood adversity has a strong cumulative relationship with adult mental well-being. Comprehensive mental health strategies should incorporate interventions to prevent ACEs and moderate their impacts from the very earliest stages of life.
Beveridge, A W
Edinburgh-born Muriel Spark is one of modern Scotland's greatest writers. Examination of her work reveals that the subjects of madness and psychiatry are recurrent themes in her writing. She herself had a mental breakdown when she was a young woman and she took an interest in the world of psychiatry and psychoanalysis. In her short stories, Spark approaches the subject of madness in a variety of ways: she relates it to the supernatural; to writing fiction; and to religion. She frequently juxtaposes secular and supernatural explanations of mental disturbance. Spark adopts a sceptical and, at times, mocking view of psychiatrists and psychiatric treatment. Both psychoanalysis and pills are seen as problematic.
Trujillo, Michael; Perrin, Paul B; Doser, Karoline
Objective: No studies have examined the impact of personality traits on mental health among caregivers of individuals with severe brain injury. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to construct linear growth models to examine whether the personality traits of family members...... neuroticism had lower anxiety and depression over time, as well as a more accelerated decrease in anxiety and depression. Conclusions: Caregivers' personality traits were strongly associated over time with mental HRQoL, anxiety, and depression, with neuroticism being especially important for trajectories...... the Short Form-36 assessing mental HRQoL (vitality, social functioning, role limitations-emotional, mental health), anxiety, and depression across 5 time points during the 1st year after injury. The measure of personality was administered 3 months after the patients' discharge. Results: All mental HRQo...
Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between the employment practices and employees' mental health and quality of life in Iran. In particular, the study compared the mental health and quality of life of shift and non-shift workers in sensitive employment settings. Using a cross-sectional survey design, 120 individuals employed in two airline companies as either shift or non-shift employees completed the survey for the study. Data was collected using General Health Question (GHQ28 for mental health, the Short Form (36 Health Survey (SF-36 for Quality of Life and a demographic questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was used to analyze the collected data. The results showed that (1 type of work (shift or non-shift has an effect on mental health and quality of life; and (2 there are significant differences in dimensions of quality of life and mental health between shift and non-shift staff.
Conclusion: Mental health legislation plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, integration of mental health at primary health care, the provision of care of high quality and the improvement of access to care at community level. It is vital and essential to have MHL for every country.
Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.
The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…
mental health and the guiding factors for wider media coverage of mental health issues in .... involvement could make a bigger impact in society. Some of the .... Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 1998;8(3):213-28.
Conceptual framework linking mental health to HIV and IPV. This open access article is distributed under. Creative Commons licence ... mental disorders compromise quality of life and functional outcomes in HIV-positive individuals.
Background: There is a wide spectrum of mental health/behavioural problems ... Less than half of those found to be affected by mental illness are opportune to receive ... training module and immediately thereafter had a knowledge post-test.
Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Understanding what's considered normal mental health can be tricky. See how feelings, thoughts and behaviors determine mental health and how to recognize if you or a ...
Editorial: Mental Health Services in Southern Sudan – a. Vision for the Future. Major mental illness exists all over the world with a remarkably .... minus one or both parents. ... There he taught and inspired child health professionals from all over.
... how you can help. By Mayo Clinic Staff Mental illness in children can be hard for parents to ... help they need. Understand the warning signs of mental illness in children and how you can help your ...
. Amongst DSM's most vocal 'insider' critics has been Thomas Insel, Director of the US National Institute of Mental Health. Insel has publicly criticised DSM's adherence to a symptom-based classification of mental disorder, and used the weight ...
Boletín informativo de los profesionales de la Red de Salud Mental del Servicio de Salud del Principado de Asturias Newsletter for professionals in the mental health network Asturias Servicio de Salud del Principado de Asturias
Full Text Available In recent history, the novel has been thought of and defined primarily as a long prose narrative. However, this has not been the case historically, as the original meaning of "novel" was for "a piece of news" or "a short story or novella." Returning to this original definition, I propose a new way of viewing the work known contemporarily as the novel as a collection, or sequence, of united short stories rather than a single indivisible work, with the component short stories or novellas comprising the sequence renamed as "novels." A brief examination of several classic works traditionally considered novels serves to illustrate how this change in definition will affect reading.
Weinstein, Henry C.
Briefly reviews historical development of mental health and the law as a multidisciplinary field and considers variety of information seekers addressing certain topics of special importance. Pertinent information sources and services are outlined. Fifteen references and a recommended core library for fellowship programs in forensic psychiatry are…
Clark, Robert L.
Thirty-two students at the University of Oregon were tested to determine the effects of media on mental imagery and memory. The model incorporates a dual coding hypothesis, and five single and multiple channel treatments were used. (Author/JEG)
Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Eriksson, Johan G.
Environmental adversities in pre- and early postnatal life may have life-long consequences. Based upon a series of epidemiological and clinical studies and natural experiments, this review describes how the early life environment may affect psychological functions and mental disorders later in life.
The initial rubric is equivalent to an exclusive disjunction between the two causal assertions. It 488 yields the following two mental models: 489...are 575 important, whereas the functions of artifacts are important (Ahn, 1998). A genetic code is 576 accordingly more critical to being a goat than
Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Cooke, William H.
Increases in sympathetic neural activity occur independently with either vestibular or mental stimulation, but it is unknown whether sympathetic activation is additive or inhibitive when both stressors are combined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of vestibular and mental stimulation on sympathetic neural activation and arterial pressure in humans. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), arterial pressure, and heart rate were recorded in 10 healthy volunteers in the prone position during 1) head-down rotation (HDR), 2) mental stress (MS; using arithmetic), and 3) combined HDR and MS. HDR significantly (P < 0.05) increased MSNA (9 +/- 2 to 13 +/- 2 bursts/min). MS significantly increased MSNA (8 +/- 2 to 13 +/- 2 bursts/min) and mean arterial pressure (87 +/- 2 to 101 +/- 2 mmHg). Combined HDR and MS significantly increased MSNA (9 +/- 1 to 16 +/- 2 bursts/min) and mean arterial pressure (89 +/- 2 to 100 +/- 3 mmHg). Increases in MSNA (7 +/- 1 bursts/min) during the combination trial were not different from the algebraic sum of each trial performed alone (8 +/- 2 bursts/min). We conclude that the interaction for MSNA and arterial pressure is additive during combined vestibular and mental stimulation. Therefore, vestibular- and stress-mediated increases of MSNA appear to occur independently in humans.
Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Casarotti, Marco; Priftis, Konstantinos; Gava, Lucia; Umilta, Carlo; Zorzi, Marco
Growing experimental evidence suggests that temporal events are represented on a mental time line, spatially oriented from left to right. Support for the spatial representation of time comes mostly from studies that have used spatially organized responses. Moreover, many of these studies did not avoid possible confounds attributable to target…
Full Text Available Pachyonychia congenital was seen in two different families. In one family the disease was present in only one child, while in the other family the disease was traceable in 5 generations involving 36 members. One individual had associated mental retardation.
Vanzella Castellar, Sonia Maria; Cristiane Strina Juliasz, Paula
The spatial thinking is a central concept in our researches at the Faculty of Education of University of São Paulo (FE-USP). The cartography is fundamental to this kind of thinking, because it contributes to the development of the representation of space. The spatial representations are the drawings - mental maps - maps, chart, aerial photos, satellite images, graphics and diagrams. To think spatially - including the contents and concepts geographical and their representations - also corresponds to reason, defined by the skills the individual develops to understand the structure, function of a space, and describe your organization and relation to other spaces. The aim of this paper is to analyze the role of mental maps in the development of concepts of city and landscape - structuring concepts for school geography. The purpose is to analyze how students in Geography and Pedagogy - future teachers - and young children in Early Childhood Education think, feel, and appropriate these concepts. The analys is indicates the importance of developing mental map in activities with pedagogy and geography graduate student to know that students at school can be producers of maps. Cartography is a language and allows the student to develop the spatial and temporal relationships and notions such as orientation, distance and location, learning the concepts of geographical science. Mental maps present the basic features of the location such as the conditions - the features verified in one place - and the connections that is to understand how this place connects to other places.
The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…
Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather
Recent research on approaches to improving social inclusion for people with mental disabilities is reviewed. We describe four approaches (or tools) that can be used to improve social inclusion for people with mental disabilities: legislation, community-based supports and services, antistigma/antidiscrimination initiatives, and system monitoring and evaluation. While legislative solutions are the most prevalent, and provide an important framework to support social inclusion, research shows that their full implementation remains problematic. Community-based supports and services that are person-centered and recovery-oriented hold considerable promise, but they are not widely available nor have they been widely evaluated. Antistigma and antidiscrimination strategies are gaining in popularity and offer important avenues for eliminating social barriers and promoting adequate and equitable access to care. Finally, in the context of the current human rights and evidence-based health paradigms, systematic evidence will be needed to support efforts to promote social inclusion for people with mental disabilities, highlight social inequities, and develop best practice approaches. Tools that promote social inclusion of persons with mental disabilities are available, though not yet implemented in a way to fully realize the goals of current disability discourse.
Shahbaz Ali Khan
Full Text Available Background: Hajj pilgrimage, in Saudi Arabia, is one of the world's largest religious mass gatherings. We have similar mass gathering scenarios in India such as the Amarnath Yatra and Kumbh. A unique combination of physical, physiological, and psychological factors makes this pilgrimage a very stressful milieu. We studied the emergence of psychopathology and its determinants, in this adverse environment in mass gathering situation, in Indian pilgrims on Hajj 2016. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study analyzing the mental morbidity in 1.36 lakh Indian pilgrims during Hajj 2016, using SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally 182 patients reported psychological problems. Twenty-two patients (12% required admission. Twelve (6.8% pilgrims reported a past history of a mental illness. One hundred and sixty-five (93.2% patients never had any mental symptoms earlier in life. The most common illnesses seen were stress related (45.7% followed by psychosis (9.8%, insomnia (7.3%, and mood disorders (5.6%. The most common symptoms recorded were apprehension (45%, sleep (55%, anxiety (41%, and fear of being lost (27%. Psychotropics were prescribed for 46% of pilgrims. All patients completed their Hajj successfully and returned to India. Conclusions: Cumulative stress causes full spectrum of mental decompensation, and prompt healing is aided by simple nonpharmacological measures including social support and counseling in compatible sociolinguistic milieu.
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available Preventable and unpreventable causes of childhood-onset epilepsy associated with mental retardation were determined in 692 patients with epilepsy onset between 1977 and 1985 in a Nova Scotia population-based cohort studied in the Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.
Poser, Charles M., Ed.
A collection of writings by 17 authors, the text includes the following discussions: general principles of diagnosis and management of mental retardation, neurologic evaluation of the infant and child, psychological evaluation, educational information, and treatment of pseudoretardation, communicative disorders, and metabolic and endocrine causes.…
Khan, Shahbaz Ali; Chauhan, V. S.; Timothy, A.; Kalpana, S.; Khanam, Shagufta
Background: Hajj pilgrimage, in Saudi Arabia, is one of the world's largest religious mass gatherings. We have similar mass gathering scenarios in India such as the Amarnath Yatra and Kumbh. A unique combination of physical, physiological, and psychological factors makes this pilgrimage a very stressful milieu. We studied the emergence of psychopathology and its determinants, in this adverse environment in mass gathering situation, in Indian pilgrims on Hajj 2016. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study analyzing the mental morbidity in 1.36 lakh Indian pilgrims during Hajj 2016, using SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally 182 patients reported psychological problems. Twenty-two patients (12%) required admission. Twelve (6.8%) pilgrims reported a past history of a mental illness. One hundred and sixty-five (93.2%) patients never had any mental symptoms earlier in life. The most common illnesses seen were stress related (45.7%) followed by psychosis (9.8%), insomnia (7.3%), and mood disorders (5.6%). The most common symptoms recorded were apprehension (45%), sleep (55%), anxiety (41%), and fear of being lost (27%). Psychotropics were prescribed for 46% of pilgrims. All patients completed their Hajj successfully and returned to India. Conclusions: Cumulative stress causes full spectrum of mental decompensation, and prompt healing is aided by simple nonpharmacological measures including social support and counseling in compatible sociolinguistic milieu. PMID:28659703
May 8, 2003 ... grated approach to mental health care provision and the safety of the public. .... In the case of an application for assisted care the practitioners must establish whether ..... people be found to work on Review Boards? Consider ...
J.F. Olieman (Joanne)
textabstractInfantile short bowel syndrome is a condition which is characterized by malabsorption of nutrients, as a result of congenital intestinal shortening or massive small bowel resection. Survival rates have improved over the years, but morbidity remains high and clinical management of these
van Leeuwen, Christel M; Post, Marcel W; Westers, Paul; van der Woude, Lucas H; de Groot, Sonja; Sluis, Tebbe; Slootman, Hans; Lindeman, Eline
To clarify relationships between activities, participation, mental health, and life satisfaction in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and specify how personal factors (self-efficacy, neuroticism, appraisals) interact with these components. We hypothesized that (1) activities are related directly to participation, participation is related directly to mental health and life satisfaction, and mental health and life satisfaction are 2 interrelated outcome variables; and (2) appraisals are mediators between participation and mental health and life satisfaction, and self-efficacy and neuroticism are related directly to mental health and life satisfaction and indirectly through appraisals. Follow-up measurement of a multicenter prospective cohort study 5 years after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Eight Dutch rehabilitation centers with specialized SCI units. Persons (N=143) aged 18 to 65 years at the onset of SCI. Not applicable. Mental health was measured by using the Mental Health subscale of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and life satisfaction with the sum score of "current life satisfaction" and "current life satisfaction compared with life satisfaction before SCI." Structural equation modeling showed that activities and neuroticism were related to participation and explained 49% of the variance in participation. Self-efficacy, neuroticism, and 2 appraisals were related to mental health and explained 35% of the variance in mental health. Participation, 3 appraisals, and mental health were related to life satisfaction and together explained 50% of the total variance in life satisfaction. Mental health and life satisfaction can be seen as 2 separate but interrelated outcome variables. Self-efficacy and neuroticism are related directly to mental health and indirectly to life satisfaction through the mediating role of appraisals. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DocSaludMental es un escritorio virtual que, a partir de la plataforma netvibes, permite el acceso a información especializada y actualizada mediante la sindicación de contenidos a todos los profesionales de la red de salud mental en el Principado de Asturias DocSaludMental is a virtual desktop that allows access to expert information and updated from content syndication to all professionals in the mental health network in the Principality of Asturias
Antoniadis, I.; Baessler, S.; Buchner, M.; Fedorov, V.V.; Hoedl, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Y.
We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces; 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments
Leila Sadat Bahrami
was 51.2 ± 32.44 for Toulouse Pieron test and 8.57 ± 6.52 for Digit learning test in all participants. The correlation between the Toulouse Pieron and Digit learning test, and breastfeeding history indicated that exclusive breast-fed children showed higher test results and therefore, better mental concentration and short term memory (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Based on the findings, exclusive breastfeeding has a positive effect on mental concentration and short term memory with respect to its duration.
Rr Dian Tristiana
Conclusion: Families whose members suffered from mental illness still experienced barriers in relation to mental health services even with universal health coverage. Improved mental health services are related to the health insurance coverage, affordability, availability of mental health services and stigma reduction in the health professionals and wide community.
Dixon, Decia Nicole
Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…
Recent violence in schools and on college campuses has brought into sharp focus the need to address mental health issues in educational settings. Getting students with mental health problems the help they need, without stigmatizing mental illness, may help prevent future tragedies. Children with mental health problems face a host of challenges,…
Historically, nurses have lacked recognition for the work they do, especially in the area of mental health. There is a shortage of qualified mental health nurses to meet the demand for services. Many rural areas in the United States have few or no mental health services to offer communities. Encouraging positive attitudes toward mental health…
... for mental disorders is enormous 4. Primary care for mental health enhances access 5. Primary care for mental health promotes respect of human rights 6. Primary care for mental health is affordab...
National Technical Assistance Center on Transition, 2016
Recently researchers have begun focusing on young adults with mental health disorders transitioning into adulthood. Research exploring the importance of mental health support in secondary transition have yielded positive outcomes. For example, strong collaboration between educational and mental health agencies ensuring academic, employment, and…
Becking, A. G.; Tuinzing, D. B.
The surgical treatment of mentally retarded children for esthetic reasons is discussed. In mentally retarded adults a facial deformity can give rise to functional problems; in some cases a facial deformity can stigmatize the mental state. In selected cases orthognathic surgery may offer a solution
A STATEWIDE PROGRAM WAS INITIATED IN WYOMING FOR THE PURPOSES OF DISCOVERING THE EXTENT OF MENTAL RETARDATION AMONG ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY STUDENTS IN THE STATE, DETERMINING WHERE THE MENTALLY RETARDED ARE FOUND, AND PLANNING AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR THEM. GROUP MENTAL TESTS WERE APPLIED TO 67,620 CHILDREN WHICH REPRESENTED 91.8 PERCENT OF THE…
van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.
This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the
Keyes, Denis; And Others
Criticizes the institution of the death penalty for convicted criminals with mental retardation. Examples are given of cases in which juries were not told of the defendant's mental retardation before sentencing, and a list of defendants with mental retardation that have been executed since 1976 is provided. (CR)
Learning can be hindered by students' mental health. Given the increased reports of mental health concerns among college students, it is imperative that we understand how best to provide supports to this population to help them learn and succeed. This is particularly significant given the body of research that demonstrates how mental illness may…
Faber, Leon G.; Maurits, Natasha M.; Lorist, Monicque M.
Mental fatigue is a form of fatigue, induced by continuous task performance. Mentally fatigued people often report having a hard time keeping their attention focussed and being easily distracted. In this study, we examined the relation between mental fatigue, as induced by time on task, and
Abbaspoor, Zahra; Razmju, Parvanah Sarparast; Hekmat, Kadijah
This paper intends to compare quality of life (QoL) and mental health among pregnant women with and without previous pregnancy loss. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 409 women between the 16th and 30th weeks of gestation in health centers in Ahvaz, Iran, including 145 women with prior pregnancy loss (group 1) and 264 women without such history (group 2). Data were collected using the QoL Short Form-36 questionnaire, the Mental Health Questionnaire 25 and a questionnaire for assessing sociodemographic variables. Data were analyzed using spss version 22. Results were analyzed using the χ 2 -test, the Student's t-test and logistic regression. P mental health. Women with previous pregnancy loss had lower scores in total and in all subscales of the QoL Short Form-36 (P Mental Health Questionnaire 25 compared to women without these histories. Women with history of spontaneous abortion and stillbirth seem to have poorer QoL and mental health during their subsequent pregnancy than those without such experience. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Ding, Ning; Berry, Helen L; O'Brien, Léan V
The links between social capital and mental wellbeing are established but the direction of the social capital-wellbeing relationship is rarely systematically examined. This omission undermines the validity of social capital as a basis for health interventions. The aim of this paper was to explore the short-term (one-year) reciprocal relationship between community participation - an important component of social capital - and mental wellbeing. We used nationally representative Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey data, 2005-11. The HILDA Survey is an annual cohort study from which was extracted a sub-sample of panel data (the same people participating across multiple waves) enabling us to use fixed effects regression methods to model the longitudinal association of mental health and participation controlling for individual heterogeneity. The results showed that better mental wellbeing in one year was generally related to more community participation the next year, while greater past community participation was linked to better mental wellbeing the next year independent of (i) initial mental wellbeing, (ii) multiple potentially confounding factors and (iii) unobserved and time-constant heterogeneity. Political participation was marginally related to worse mental health in both directions. The results also showed that the association between community participation and mental wellbeing the next year is weaker for those with poor initial wellbeing than for initially healthier respondents. Our findings may inform the trial and scientific evaluation of programs aimed at increasing informal social connectedness and civic engagement to promote mental wellbeing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hakime Nogay, Nalan
To assess the nutritional status of mentally disabled children in Turkey on the basis of anthropometric indicators and dietary intake. The sample of the study consisted of 77 mentally disabled children with ages between 10 and 18 years. The body mass index and body fat ratios of the children were calculated by measuring their body weight, height, and the skinfold thickness of their triceps and subscapular. Their three-day nutrition consumption was recorded in order to determine their nutrient intake. When the body weights of the children were evaluated according to their ages, 14.3% of the children were found to be thin. The shortness rate among the participants was 28.6%. The shortness ratio was found to increase with age and girls had a higher inclination for shortness than boys. The ratios of those with ≤5(th) percentile upper middle arm circumference were 32.7% in the 10-13 age group, and 36.0% in the 14-18 age group. The folic acid and calcium intakes of girls in the 10-13 age group, and the calcium intakes of boys in the 10-13 age group were under the suggested values. In the 14-18 age group the vit C and calcium intakes of girls and the calcium intakes of boys were under the recommended values. The prevalence of malnutrition is high among mentally disabled children. In order to raise their quality of life, mentally disabled children must be provided with sufficient nutritional support.
Vaillant, George E
SEVEN MODELS FOR CONCEPTUALIZING POSITIVE MENTAL HEALTH ARE REVIEWED: mental health as above normal, epitomized by a DSM-IV's Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score of over 80; mental health as the presence of multiple human strengths rather than the absence of weaknesses; mental health conceptualized as maturity; mental health as the dominance of positive emotions; mental health as high socio-emotional intelligence; mental health as subjective well-being; mental health as resilience. Safeguards for the study of mental health are suggested, including the need to define mental health in terms that are culturally sensitive and inclusive, and the need to empirically and longitudinally validate criteria for mental health.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 5. Astronomical Spectroscopy A Short History. J C Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 3 Issue 5 May 1998 pp 24-29. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/05/0024-0029 ...
Shah, Peter Jivan
A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...
Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.
This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FELs offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FELs will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program
1976). Among raptors there are those species where only the female incubates, those where the male may also incubate for short to longer periods, and those in which females and males equally share the incubation (Newton 1979). It is well known that both sexes incubate the clutch in vultures, both in the wild (Mundy et al.
Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.
This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FEL's offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FEL's will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program.
Golberstein, Ezra; Busch, Susan H
Policymakers frequently mandate that employers or insurers provide insurance benefits deemed to be critical to individuals' well-being. However, in the presence of private market imperfections, mandates that increase demand for a service can lead to price increases for that service, without necessarily affecting the quantity being supplied. We test this idea empirically by looking at mental health parity mandates. This study evaluated whether implementation of parity laws was associated with changes in mental health provider wages. Quasi-experimental analysis of average wages by state and year for six mental health care-related occupations were considered: Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists; Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors; Marriage and Family Therapists; Mental Health Counselors; Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers; and Psychiatrists. Data from 1999-2013 were used to estimate the association between the implementation of state mental health parity laws and the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act and average mental health provider wages. Mental health parity laws were associated with a significant increase in mental health care provider wages controlling for changes in mental health provider wages in states not exposed to parity (3.5 percent [95% CI: 0.3%, 6.6%]; pwages. Health insurance benefit expansions may lead to increased prices for health services when the private market that supplies the service is imperfect or constrained. In the context of mental health parity, this work suggests that part of the value of expanding insurance benefits for mental health coverage was captured by providers. Given historically low wage levels of mental health providers, this increase may be a first step in bringing mental health provider wages in line with parallel health professions, potentially reducing turnover rates and improving treatment quality.
sunmi cho; yunmi shin
Improving mental health and reducing the burden of mental illness are complementary strategies which, along with the treatment and rehabilitation of people with mental disorders, significantly improve population health and well-being. A Institute of Medicine report describes a range of interventions for mental disorders that included treatment and maintenance, reserving the term “prevention” for efforts that occur before onset of a diagnosable disorder. Mental health problems affect 10&am...
Mork, Mary Jean; Price, Steven; Best, Kathryn
Mental health professionals are now debating client confidentiality and its relationship to care coordination. History tells us there is a need to protect the privacy of people who are diagnosed with mental health issues in a world filled with stigma and misperceptions. People with mental illness and substance use problems may be legitimately concerned that employers, insurance companies, financial institutions, medical practices, and educational institutions could use their health information to discriminate against them, often without their knowledge. The protection of jobs and health information is a real, justifiable benefit of privacy legislation. However, there are also a host of negative consequences, including fragmented health care, lack of prevention, uninformed families, and even early death, because of a lack of coordination with medical treatment. The legal situation can be very confusing, but the upshot is that we are shifting from an environment of strict confidentiality to one of better care coordination. In short, we are moving toward a system that allows for better coordination because it improves the quality of care for our clients. At the policy level, we must lead the change process and actively support the revision and reinterpretation of existing laws and regulations. These changes will require earning the trust of the people being served. Many are wary, and some even scared, of their perceived loss of privacy. Health-care professionals must commit to the concept of coordinating care, making communication about shared care plans a priority. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Campbell, A; Manoff, T; Caffery, J
Until recently, there has been a significant gap in the literature exploring the issues of the mental health needs for rural communities in Australia. In this study we investigated the prevalence of diagnosable psychological disorders in both a rural and a non-rural primary care sample in far north Queensland, Australia. In a previous study we had screened some 300 GP attendees, on a number of sociodemographic variables and measures of psychological wellbeing, from four rural GP practices and one regional GP practice. Of these, 130 participants agreed to further follow up. In this study, 118 of the participants were selected and contacted by phone to complete the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form (CIDI-SF). The CIDI-SF diagnosis was then analysed in relation to the sociodemographic indicators that had previously been collected. The prevalence of diagnosable mental health disorders in the rural sample was found to be higher in comparison with the regional urban sample. The sociodemographic factors of rural residence, gender, and length of residence were associated with having a CIDI-SF diagnosis. Although there were a number of methodological limitations to this study, there did appear to be a significant relationship between rural location and the likelihood of receiving a CIDI-SF diagnosis. Why this might be the case is not clear, and we consider a number of explanations, but our finding suggests that further research in mental health should consider the issue of rurality as a key feature to be explored.
Humphreys, David K; Goodman, Anna; Ogilvie, David
To examine whether a relationship exists between active commuting and physical and mental wellbeing. In 2009, cross-sectional postal questionnaire data were collected from a sample of working adults (aged 16 and over) in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study. Travel behaviour and physical activity were ascertained using the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ) and a seven-day travel-to-work recall instrument from which weekly time spent in active commuting (walking and cycling) was derived. Physical and mental wellbeing were assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form survey (SF-8). Associations were tested using multivariable linear regression. An association was observed between physical wellbeing (PCS-8) score and time spent in active commuting after adjustment for other physical activity (adjusted regression coefficients 0.48, 0.79 and 1.21 for 30-149 min/week, 150-224 min/week and ≥ 225 min/week respectively versus mental wellbeing (MCS-8) (p=0.52). Greater time spent actively commuting is associated with higher levels of physical wellbeing. Longitudinal studies should examine the contribution of changing levels of active commuting and other forms of physical activity to overall health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dingle, Genevieve A; Williams, Elyse; Jetten, Jolanda; Welch, Jonathon
Adults with mental health conditions commonly experience difficulties with emotion regulation which affect their social functioning. Arts-based groups provide opportunities for shared emotional experiences and emotion regulation. This study explores emotion regulation strategies and the emotional effects of arts-based group participation in adults with mental health problems and in controls. The 62 participants included 39 adults with chronic mental health problems who were members of arts-based groups (ABG) and 23 comparison choir (CC) members who were not specifically experiencing mental health problems. The repeated measures design included self-reports of emotion upon waking (T1), the hour before group (T2), end of the group (T3), and evening (T4), as well as participant notes to explain their emotion ratings at each time. They also completed measures of individual and interpersonal emotion regulation. The ABG participants engaged marginally more in affect worsening strategies than CC (p = .057 and .08), but there were no other group differences. All participants reported a significant increase in positive emotions, F (3, 180) = 28.044, p emotions during the arts-based activity: F (2.637, 155.597) = 21.09, p emotions was short-lived, while the effect on negative emotions lasted until evening. Findings show that participation in arts-based groups benefits the emotions of both healthy adults and those experiencing mental health conditions through individual and interpersonal processes. Individuals with chronic mental health conditions often experience difficulties in emotion processing Participation in arts-based groups was associated with significant increases in positive emotions although these were short-lived Negative emotion was significantly decreased during arts-based group activities, and sustained to the evening assessment Adults with chronic mental health conditions were equally able to derive emotional benefits as healthy adults. © 2017 The
The Arc, a national organization on mental retardation, conducted an educational program for members, many of whom have a family member with a genetic condition causing mental retardation. The project informed members about the Human Genome scientific efforts, conducted training regarding ethical, legal and social implications and involved members in issue discussions. Short reports and fact sheets on genetic and ELSI topics were disseminated to 2,200 of the Arc's leaders across the country and to other interested individuals. Materials produced by the project can e found on the Arc's web site, TheArc.org.
Crowther, Andrew; Kemp, Michael
To determine how attitudes of rural mental health nurses differ across generations. Survey. Mental health services in rural New South Wales. Practising mental health nurses. Survey responses. Survey response rate 44%. A total of 89 mental health nurses, clustered in inpatient units and community health centres, responded. Of these nurses, 4 were veterans, 52 baby boomers, 17 Generation X and 5 Generation Y. There are significant differences in how mental health nurses from different generations view their work, and in what is expected from managers. Managers need to modify traditional working styles, allowing greater flexibility of employment. They must also accept lower staff retention rates, and facilitate the development of younger staff.
Wainer, J; Chesters, J
This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation.
Full Text Available This article deals with questions of mental health among students of pedagogical universities. There were analysed differences in the level of mental health among sporting and non-sporting students. Two methods were used in the inquiry. Stepanov's questionnaire was used to estimate the level of mental health, Gundarov's questionnaire was used to evaluate psychical satisfaction. The sample consisted of 263 sporting students (athletes and 288 non-sporting students. Results have shown that the level of mental health among sporting students was higher than the level of mental health among non-sporting students.
Full Text Available This work examines in what extent a notion of empathy may clarify mindreading’s debate. Taking into account an interdisciplinary and integrative notion of empathy, compatibility with mental attribution strategies both mental simulation and theory-theory, in non pure versions, is evaluated. Firstly, new empirical research is supposed to contribute strengthening an integrative empathy instead of theory-theory or mental simulation `s points of view. Secondly, new empirical research will bring better tools to distinguish between empathy and simulation. Consequently, the relationship between empathy and mental attribution theories may be better delimited and a full mental attribution theory may possibly be proposed.
Taylor, Judy; Jones, Rosalind M; O'Reilly, Peta; Oldfield, Wayne; Blackburn, Anne
data sets, a model was developed that identified important contextual factors that linked with two groups of program mechanisms that produced positive outcomes for members. Program mechanisms are categorised by descriptive themes referred to as 'nurturing' and 'empowering'. Nurturing' is experienced as feeling of belonging and being accepted 'as one is' and 'empowerment' mechanisms engender a belief in oneself. Respondents identified features of The Station's program, policies, atmosphere, connections and networks, stakeholder relationships, and staff and volunteers that are nurturing and empowering. Five key contextual factors enable the program mechanisms to work. The Station's coordinators ensure that nurturing and empowerment processes are highlighted through careful facilitation. The governance arrangements, policies, and administrative systems at The Station are well developed but flexibly implemented so that they support the nurturing and empowerment processes. Support and legitimacy for the program is obtained from the mental health system at state and local levels. The Station obtains resources and connections to its rural community through key stakeholders and a peak organisation One Voice Network acts as an advocate. Information about the benefits and limitations of consumer-driven mental health services in rural and remote Australia is in short supply. Increasing the available information about the contribution these services make may result in services being legitimised, understood, and resourced within mental health systems thus making the services sustainable. The benefits of consumer-driven services are that they provide flexibility and adaptation, an ability to capture the energy and passion of rural communities to improve the wellbeing of community members, and they overcome the power differential that exists between professionals and 'patients' or 'clients'.
Cheon, Bobby K; Chiao, Joan Y
Culture shapes how individuals perceive and respond to others with mental illness. Prior studies have suggested that Asians and Asian Americans typically endorse greater stigma of mental illness compared to Westerners (White Europeans and Americans). However, whether these differences in stigma arise from cultural variations in automatic affective reactions or deliberative concerns of the appropriateness of one's reactions to mental illness remains unknown. Here we compared implicit and explicit attitudes toward mental illness among Asian and Caucasian Americans. Asian Americans showed stronger negative implicit attitudes toward mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans, suggesting that cultural variation in stigma of mental illness can be observed even when concerns regarding the validity and appropriateness of one's attitudes toward mental illness are minimized. Asian Americans also explicitly endorsed greater desire for social distance from mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans. These findings suggest that cultural variations in mental illness stigma may arise from cultural differences in automatic reactions to mental illness, though cultural variations in deliberative processing may further shape differences in these immediate reactions to mental illness.
Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.
Aoki, Yuta; Malcolm, Estelle; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Thornicroft, Graham; Henderson, Claire
Mass media depictions of people with mental illness have a strong influence on public attitudes, to the extent that changes in these depictions can reduce public stigmatization of people with such illness. Journalists' mental health may influence their depiction of those with mental illness, but little is known about this. To investigate mental illness among journalists in five key areas: (1) journalists' mental health status; (2) journalists' personal attitudes towards mental illness; (3) attitudes and support journalists expect or have experienced from colleagues when they have a mental health problem; (4) effect of journalism's professional culture on the course of mental illness; and (5) effect of journalism's professional culture on mass media depictions of people with mental illness. We performed a systematic screening of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library regarding the study aims. We identified 19, 12, seven and four studies for aims 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. No articles were found for aim 5. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among journalists is higher than that among the general population. Journalists have positive personal attitudes towards mental illness, but there are perceived workplace disincentives to disclose mental health problems.
Smart, D; Pollard, C; Walpole, B
The aim of this study was to: (i) develop a triage scale consistent with the National Triage Scale (NTS) for patients with mental health problems attending emergency departments; and (ii) to reduce emergency waiting times, transit times and improve skills assessing mental health problems. We developed a Mental Health Triage Scale (MHTS) consistent with the NTS. The MHTS was then implemented using a structured education package, and evaluated from March to August 1994. Further evaluation occurred after 2 years. A four-tiered MHTS was produced: category 2, violent, aggressive or suicidal, danger to self or others or with police escort; category 3, very distressed or psychotic, likely to deteriorate, situational crisis, danger to self or others; category 4, long-standing semi-urgent mental health disorder, supporting agency present; and category 5, long-standing non-acute mental health disorder, no support agency present. Patients with illness, injury or self-harm were triaged using combined mental health and medical information. Mean emergency waiting times and transit times were reduced. More consistent triaging for mental health patients occurred, and more consistent admission rates by urgency. Reduced mental health 'did not waits' showed improved customer satisfaction. Mental Health Triage Scale was considered appropriate by liaison psychiatry and its use has continued at 2 years follow-up. A systematic approach to mental health triaging produced a workable scale, reduced waiting times, transit times, and provided effective and consistent integration of mental health patients into a general emergency department.
Full Text Available Background. Unlike the widely used self rated health, the self rated mental health was found unsuitable as a proxy for mental illness. This paper analyses the relationships between the self ratings of physical health, mental health and overall health, and their association of with the objective indicators for physical and mental health. Design and methods. The study is a secondary analysis of data from a nationwide representative sample of the non-institutionalized adult residents of Israel in 2003 that was collected via computer-assisted personal interview methods [n=4859].Results. The self rated physical health and the self rated mental health were strongly related to each other yet the self rated mental health was not related to chronic physical conditions and the self rated physical health was not related to mental disorders. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, those with positive self rated mental health had 93 times the odds of reporting positive overall health whereas those with positive self rated physical health had 40 times the odds of reporting positive overall health. Conclusions. The self rating of mental health presents a qualitatively different dimension from mental illness. The self rated mental health is two times more important than the self rated physical health in predicting the self rated overall health
Cook, R J; Ortega-Ortiz, A; Romans, S; Ross, L E
Where legal systems allow therapeutic abortion to preserve women's mental health, practitioners often lack access to mental health professionals for making critical diagnoses or prognoses that pregnancy or childcare endangers patients' mental health. Practitioners themselves must then make clinical assessments of the impact on their patients of continued pregnancy or childcare. The law requires only that practitioners make assessments in good faith, and by credible criteria. Mental disorder includes psychological distress or mental suffering due to unwanted pregnancy and responsibility for childcare, or, for instance, anticipated serious fetal impairment. Account should be taken of factors that make patients vulnerable to distress, such as personal or family mental health history, factors that may precipitate mental distress, such as loss of personal relationships, and factors that may maintain distress, such as poor education and marginal social status. Some characteristics of patients may operate as both precipitating and maintaining factors, such as poverty and lack of social support.
Johannsen, Gundi Schrötter; Elstad, Toril
pointed out how people with mental illness protect their identities through consealment in order to avoid stigmatisation. Changes in the organisation of mental health services, from a mainly hospital-based psychiatry towards mental health work in local communities, have highlited issues of participation......, social incluison and integration for people who live with mental health problems. Aiming to support people in daily life, community mental health services that facilitate active participation are encouraged internationally (WHO 2001b, 2005,2013). From these perspectives, we will present our studies from...... a Danish ond Norwegian community mental health service, and relate our findings and the discussion of them to the overall themes of participation, social identity and mental helath....
Christensen, Anne Illemann; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette
analysed by means of logistic regression models. Results: Men and women with poor mental health are characterized by being single, having a long-term illness, not being able to rely on help from others in case of illness and by feeling that family and friends demand too much of them. Men with poor mental...... health were further characterized by being a heavy smoker, and having a BMI below 25. Women with poor mental health were further characterized by being 16-44 years old and sedentary in leisure time. CONCLUSIONS THE PREVALENCE OF POOR MENTAL HEALTH IS HIGHER AMONG WOMEN THAN MEN, AND DIFFERENT FACTORS...... CHARACTERIZE MEN AND WOMEN WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH THE PRESENT FINDINGS SUPPORT THE NOTION THAT BOTH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS AND LIFESTYLE FACTORS ARE INDEPENDENTLY RELATED WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH WE SUGGEST TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ALL THESE AREAS OF LIFE WHEN PLANNING ACTIVITIES TO PREVENT POOR MENTAL HEALTH AND WHEN...
This article reviews studies of distant mental influence on living organisms, including mental suggestions of sleeping and awakening, mental influence at long distances, mental interactions with remote biological systems, mental effects on physiological activity and the sense of being stared at. Significant effects of distant mental influence have been shown in several randomized controlled trials in humans, animals, plants, bacteria and cells in the laboratory. Although distant mental influence on living organisms appears to contradict our ordinary sense of reality and the laws defined by conventional science, several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed effects; they include skeptical, signal transfer, field, multidimensional space/time and quantum mechanics hypotheses. In conclusion, as the progress of physics continues to expand our comprehension of reality, a rational explanation for distant mind-matter interaction will emerge and, as history has shown repeatedly, the supernatural events will evolve into paranormal and then, into normal ones, as the scientific frontiers expand.
Khemlani, Sangeet S.; Barbey, Aron K.; Johnson-Laird, Philip N.
This paper outlines the model-based theory of causal reasoning. It postulates that the core meanings of causal assertions are deterministic and refer to temporally-ordered sets of possibilities: A causes B to occur means that given A, B occurs, whereas A enables B to occur means that given A, it is possible for B to occur. The paper shows how mental models represent such assertions, and how these models underlie deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning yielding explanations. It reviews evidence both to corroborate the theory and to account for phenomena sometimes taken to be incompatible with it. Finally, it reviews neuroscience evidence indicating that mental models for causal inference are implemented within lateral prefrontal cortex. PMID:25389398
Khemlani, Sangeet S; Barbey, Aron K; Johnson-Laird, Philip N
This paper outlines the model-based theory of causal reasoning. It postulates that the core meanings of causal assertions are deterministic and refer to temporally-ordered sets of possibilities: A causes B to occur means that given A, B occurs, whereas A enables B to occur means that given A, it is possible for B to occur. The paper shows how mental models represent such assertions, and how these models underlie deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning yielding explanations. It reviews evidence both to corroborate the theory and to account for phenomena sometimes taken to be incompatible with it. Finally, it reviews neuroscience evidence indicating that mental models for causal inference are implemented within lateral prefrontal cortex.
Full Text Available This paper outlines the model-based theory of causal reasoning. It postulates that the core meanings of causal assertions are deterministic and refer to temporally-ordered sets of possibilities: A causes B to occur means that given A, B occurs, whereas A enables B to occur means that given A, it is possible for B to occur. The paper shows how mental models represent such assertions, and how these models underlie deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning yielding explanations. It reviews evidence both to corroborate the theory and to account for phenomena sometimes taken to be incompatible with it. Finally, it reviews neuroscience evidence indicating that mental models for causal inference are implemented within lateral prefrontal cortex.
The project studies cross-border regional integration in Europe drawing on the example of the emerging Danish-German Femern Belt Region. It focuses on cross-border networking within public administration as part of regional integra- tion. My central question is how national-cultural differences...... influence coopera- tion, coordination and collaboration in administrative cross-border networks. In this connection the project asks after the perception of regional integration seen from the different national backgrounds. The research concentrates on the group of decision makers within the field of public...... administration, and in specific on the attempt to initiate and promote cross-border regional integration via the building of mental bridges between Danish and German parts of the Femern Belt Region. Here one of the first projects aiming primarily at building mental bridges in the Femern Belt Region...
Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet
For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations.
Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee
In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the high costs of mass-media campaigns, it is important to understand whether it is possible for a media campaign to have significant population effects over a short period of time. This paper explores this question specifically in reference to stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems using the Time to Change Cambridge anti-stigma campaign as an example. Methods 410 face-to-face interviews were performed pre, during and post campaign activity to assess campaign awareness and mental health-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Results Although campaign awareness was not sustained following campaign activity, significant and sustained shifts occurred for mental health-related knowledge items. Specifically, there was a 24% (p If a friend had a mental health problem, I know what advice to give them to get professional help, following the campaign. Additionally, for the statement: Medication can be an effective treatment for people with mental health problems, there was a 10% rise (p = 0.05 in the proportion of interviewees responding 'agree' or 'strongly agree' following the campaign. These changes, however, were not evident for attitudinal or behaviour related questions. Conclusions Although these results only reflect the impact of one small scale campaign, these preliminary findings suggest several considerations for mass-media campaign development and evaluation strategies such as: (1 Aiming to influence outcomes pertaining to knowledge in the short term; (2 Planning realistic and targeted outcomes over the short, medium and long term during sustained campaigns; and (3 Monitoring indirect campaign effects such as social discourse or other social networking/contact in the evaluation.
Evans-Lacko, Sara; London, Jillian; Little, Kirsty; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham
In view of the high costs of mass-media campaigns, it is important to understand whether it is possible for a media campaign to have significant population effects over a short period of time. This paper explores this question specifically in reference to stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems using the Time to Change Cambridge anti-stigma campaign as an example. 410 face-to-face interviews were performed pre, during and post campaign activity to assess campaign awareness and mental health-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Although campaign awareness was not sustained following campaign activity, significant and sustained shifts occurred for mental health-related knowledge items. Specifically, there was a 24% (p mental health problem, I know what advice to give them to get professional help, following the campaign. Additionally, for the statement: Medication can be an effective treatment for people with mental health problems, there was a 10% rise (p = 0.05) in the proportion of interviewees responding 'agree' or 'strongly agree' following the campaign. These changes, however, were not evident for attitudinal or behaviour related questions. Although these results only reflect the impact of one small scale campaign, these preliminary findings suggest several considerations for mass-media campaign development and evaluation strategies such as: (1) Aiming to influence outcomes pertaining to knowledge in the short term; (2) Planning realistic and targeted outcomes over the short, medium and long term during sustained campaigns; and (3) Monitoring indirect campaign effects such as social discourse or other social networking/contact in the evaluation.
Ma, Z.; Balzano, L.; Portale, G.; Peters, G.W.M.
The so-called "short-term flow" protocol is widely applied in experimental flow-induced crystallization studies on polymers in order to separate the nucleation and subsequent growth processes [Liedauer et al. Int. Polym. Proc. 1993, 8, 236–244]. The basis of this protocol is the assumption that
Naess, Kari-Anne B.; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles; Melby-Lervag, Monica
This study presents a meta-analytic review of language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome. The study examines the profile of strengths and weaknesses in children with Down syndrome compared to typically developing children matched for nonverbal mental age. The findings show that children with Down syndrome have…
Jiao, Mingxu; Gu, Jing; Xu, Huifang; Hao, Chun; Lau, Joseph T F; Mo, Phoenix; Liu, Di; Zhao, Yuteng; Zhang, Xiao; Babbitt, Andrew; Hao, Yuantao
A considerable proportion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clients have experienced mental health problems (e.g., depression and anxiety), and poor mental health status is associated with HIV-related risk behaviors and treatment drop-out. Resilience is known to be a protective factor for mental health problems but is not studied among MMT clients in China. This study aimed to explore the relationship between resilience and mental health problems (depression, anxiety and stress) among clients of community-based MMT clinics in China. A total of 208 MMT clients completed the face-to-face interview conducted at 4 of 11 MMT clinics in Guangzhou. The Chinese short version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) was used to assess the presence of depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) was used to measure resilience. Logistic regression models were fit in data analyses. Of all participants, 12.8%, 19.5% and 8.3% had depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. The mean resilience score was 57.6 (SD = 15.9). In the univariate analyses, resilience was negatively associated with two studied mental health problems (depression and anxiety, OR u = 0.96 and 0.96, p mental health problems of MMT users should consider resilience as an important part in the designing of such interventions.
De Moortel, Deborah; Thévenon, Olivier; De Witte, Hans; Vanroelen, Christophe
This study explores the association between involuntarily working less or more than the standard workweek and poor mental well-being, and whether this relationship is dependent upon (changing) national-level unemployment and gross domestic product growth rates. Data from the European Social Survey Round 2 (2004-2005) and Round 5 (2010) were analyzed. The sample included 16,224 male and 16,184 female employees. Mental well-being was assessed by the World Health Organization Well-being Index. Three-level linear multilevel modeling was used to account for clustering of employees within research years and countries. Working involuntary long hours was positively associated with poor mental well-being for men. For women, working voluntary long, involuntary long, and involuntary short hours were positively associated with poor mental well-being. The mental well-being of women working voluntary and involuntary long hours was negatively influenced by deteriorating economic conditions. This study suggests women are more vulnerable to the effects of long working hours and working hours mismatch on mental well-being, especially during difficult economic periods.
Swanson, Jeffrey W; Easter, Michele M; Robertson, Allison G; Swartz, Marvin S; Alanis-Hirsch, Kelly; Moseley, Daniel; Dion, Charles; Petrila, John
Gun violence kills about ninety people every day in the United States, a toll measured in wasted and ruined lives and with an annual economic price tag exceeding $200 billion. Some policy makers suggest that reforming mental health care systems and improving point-of-purchase background checks to keep guns from mentally disturbed people will address the problem. Epidemiological research shows that serious mental illness contributes little to the risk of interpersonal violence but is a strong factor in suicide, which accounts for most firearm fatalities. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of gun restrictions focused on mental illness remains poorly understood. This article examines gun-related suicide and violent crime in people with serious mental illnesses, and whether legal restrictions on firearm sales to people with a history of mental health adjudication are effective in preventing gun violence. Among the study population in two large Florida counties, we found that 62 percent of violent gun crime arrests and 28 percent of gun suicides involved individuals not legally permitted to have a gun at the time. Suggested policy reforms include enacting risk-based gun removal laws and prohibiting guns from people involuntarily detained in short-term psychiatric hospitalizations. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Full Text Available Many endogenous and external components may affect the physiological, mental and behavioral states in humans. Monitoring tools are required to evaluate biomarkers, identify biological events, and predict their outcomes. Being one of the valuable indicators, brain biomarkers derived from temporal or spectral electroencephalography (EEG signals processing, allow for the classification of mental disorders and mental tasks. An EEG signal has a nonstationary nature and individual frequency feature, hence it can be concluded that each subject has peculiar timing and data to extract unique features. In order to classify data, which are collected by performing four mental task (reciting the alphabet backwards, imagination of rotation of a cube, imagination of right hand movements (open/close and performing mathematical operations, discriminative features were extracted using four competitive time-frequency techniques; Wavelet Packet Decomposition (WPD, Morlet Wavelet Transform (MWT, Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT and Wavelet Filter Bank (WFB, respectively. The extracted features using both time and frequency domain information were then reduced using a principal component analysis for subset reduction. Finally, the reduced subsets were fed into a multi-layer perceptron neural network (MP-NN trained with back propagation (BP algorithm to generate a predictive model. This study mainly focuses on comparing the relative performance of time-frequency feature extraction methods that are used to classify mental tasks. The real-time (RT conducted experimental results underlined that the WPD feature extraction method outperforms with 92% classification accuracy compared to three other aforementioned methods for four different mental tasks.
Misophonia, a phenomenon first described in the audiology literature, is characterized by intense emotional reactions (e.g., anger, rage, anxiety, disgust) in response to highly specific sounds, particularly sounds of human origin such as oral or nasal noises made by other people (e.g., chewing, sniffing, slurping, lip smacking). Misophonia is not listed in any of the contemporary psychiatric classification systems. Some investigators have argued that misophonia should be regarded as a new mental disorder, falling within the spectrum of obsessive-compulsive related disorders. Other researchers have disputed this claim. The purpose of this article is to critically examine the proposition that misophonia should be classified as a new mental disorder. The clinical and research literature on misophonia was examined and considered in the context of the broader literature on what constitutes a mental disorder. There have been growing concerns that diagnostic systems such as DSM-5 tend to over-pathologize ordinary quirks and eccentricities. Accordingly, solid evidence is required for proposing a new psychiatric disorder. The available evidence suggests that (a) misophonia meets many of the general criteria for a mental disorder and has some evidence of clinical utility as a diagnostic construct, but (b) the nature and boundaries of the syndrome are unclear; for example, in some cases misophonia might be simply one feature of a broader pattern of sensory intolerance, and (c) considerably more research is required, particularly work concerning diagnostic validity, before misophonia, defined as either as a disorder or as a key feature of some broader syndrome of sensory intolerance, should be considered as a diagnostic construct in the psychiatric nomenclature. A research roadmap is proposed for the systematic evaluation as to whether misophonia should be considered for future editions of DSM or ICD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
David L. Rowland; Ion G. Motofei
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences is designed as a free online, open access, interdisciplinary and peer-reviewed journal. The JMMS mission is to address ideas and issues related to mind and medicine, publishing scientific review and empirical papers regarding mental and medical health and disease. Our goal is to stimulate constructive debates among scholars, researchers, physicians, scientists and health professionals with respect to the latest discoveries and trends in the field. The jour...
Episodic memory, i.e. memorization of information within a spatiotemporal environment, is affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) but its loss may also occur in the normal aging process. The purpose of this study is to analyze and evaluate episodic memory in patients with AD by examining their cognitive skills in episodic memory through the introspection technique. A new method was used, wherein we assessed mental images of the subject's own past recalled in the mind like projected pictures and ...
Devi, Sanjenbam Kunjeshwori; Chansauria, J. P. N.; Udupa, K.N.
In cases of mental depression, the plasma serotonin, melatonin and glutamate levels are increased along with the lowering of urinary – 5 – hydroxyindole acetic acid, plasma monoamine oxidase and cortisol levels following three and six months Practice of Kundalini Yoga. The pulse rate and blood pressure in these patients are also lowered after Kundalini Yoga practice. Thus, the practice of Kundalini Yoga helps to maintain a perfect homeostasis by bringing an equilibrium between the sympathetic...
Eyal Winter; Ignacio Garcia-Jurado; Jose Mendez-Naya; Luciano Mendez-Naya
We introduce emotions into an equilibrium notion. In a mental equilibrium each player "selects" an emotional state which determines the player's preferences over the outcomes of the game. These preferences typically differ from the players' material preferences. The emotional states interact to play a Nash equilibrium and in addition each player's emotional state must be a best response (with respect to material preferences) to the emotional states of the others. We discuss the concept behind...
Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender
Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738
Michishita, Ryoma; Jiang, Ying; Ariyoshi, Daisuke; Yoshida, Marie; Moriyama, Hideko; Yamato, Hiroshi
Aim: This study was designed to clarify the effects of active rest, with a focus on the practice of short-time group exercise by workplace units, on personal relationships, mental health, physical activity, and work ability among workers. Methods: Fifty-nine white-collar workers (40 males and 19 females) performed our active rest (short-time exercise) program, which consists of warm-up, cognitive functional training, aerobic exercise, resistance training and cool-down for 10 minutes per day, ...
Full Text Available It is well known that visual information can be retained in several types of memory systems. Haptic information can also be retained in a memory because we can repeat a hand movement. There may be a common memory system for vision and action. On the one hand, it may be convenient to have a common system for acting with visual information. On the other hand, different modalities may have their own memory and use retained information without transforming specific to the modality. We compared memory properties of visual and haptic information. There is a phenomenon known as mental rotation, which is possibly unique to visual representation. The mental rotation is a phenomenon where reaction time increases with the angle of visual target (eg,, a letter to identify. The phenomenon is explained by the difference in time to rotate the representation of the target in the visual sytem. In this study, we compared the effect of stimulus angle on visual and haptic shape identification (two-line shapes were used. We found that a typical effect of mental rotation for the visual stimulus. However, no such effect was found for the haptic stimulus. This difference cannot be explained by the modality differences in response because similar difference was found even when haptical response was used for visual representation and visual response was used for haptic representation. These results indicate that there are independent systems for visual and haptic representations.
Kim, M.-C.; Lee, T.-K.
The authors report stereotactically created lesioning by radiofrequency or Cyberknife radiosurgery for patients with mental illness. Since 1993, thirty-eight patients have undergone stereotactic psychosurgery for medically intractable mental illnesses. Two patients had aggressive behavior. Twenty-five patients suffered from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and ten patients had depression. Another patient suffered from atypical psychosis. Bilateral amygdalotomy and subcaudate tractotomy were done for aggressive behavior. Limbic leucotomy or anterior cingulotomy was done for CCD and subcaudate tractotomy with or without cingulotomy was done for depression. In twenty-three patients, the lesions were made by a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator. In fifteen cases, the lesions were made with Cyberknife Radiosurgery (CKRS). The Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) declined from 8 to 2 with clinical improvement during follow up period. With long-term follow up (meaning 57 months) in 25 OCDs, the mean Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Score (YBOCS) declined from 34 to 13 (n = 25). The Hamilton Depression scale (HAMD) for ten patients with depression declined from 38.5 to 10.5 (n = 10). There was no operative mortality and no significant morbidity except one case with transient urinary incontinence. Authors suggest that stereotactic psychosurgery by RF and CKRS could be a safe and effective means of treating some medically intractable mental illnesses. (author)
Holland, John H
The importance of complexity is well-captured by Hawking's comment: "Complexity is the science of the 21st century". From the movement of flocks of birds to the Internet, environmental sustainability, and market regulation, the study and understanding of complex non-linear systems has become highly influential over the last 30 years. In this Very Short Introduction, one of the leading figures in the field, John Holland, introduces the key elements and conceptual framework of complexity. From complex physical systems such as fluid flow and the difficulties of predicting weather, to complex adaptive systems such as the highly diverse and interdependent ecosystems of rainforests, he combines simple, well-known examples - Adam Smith's pin factory, Darwin's comet orchid, and Simon's 'watchmaker' - with an account of the approaches, involving agents and urn models, taken by complexity theory. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost eve...
There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the relevance of methodological transfers from behavioral ecology to experimental economics with respect to the elicitation of intertemporal preferences. More precisely our discussion will stem from the analysis of Stephens and Anderson’s (2001 seminal article. In their study with blue jays they document that foraging behavior typically implements short sighted choice rules which are beneficial in the long-run. Such long term profitability of short-sighted behavior cannot be evidenced when using a self-control paradigm (one which contrasts in a binary way sooner smaller and later larger payoffs but becomes apparent when ecological patch-paradigms (replicating economic situations in which the main trade-off consists in staying on a food patch or leaving for another patch are implemented. We transfer this methodology in view of contrasting foraging strategies and self-control in human intertemporal choices.
There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental symptoms are prevalent among populations, but their associations with premature mortality are inadequately understood. We examined whether mental symptoms contribute to cause-specific mortality among midlife employees, while considering key covariates. Methods Baseline mail survey data from 2000–02 included employees, aged 40–60, of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n = 8960, 80 % women, response rate 67 %. Mental symptoms were measured by the General Health Questionnaire 12-item version (GHQ-12 and the Short Form 36 mental component summary (MCS. Covariates included sex, marital status, social support, health behaviours, occupational social class and limiting long-standing illness. Causes of death by the end of 2013 were obtained from Statistics Finland (n = 242 and linked individually to survey data pending consent (n = 6605. Hazard ratios (HR and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI were calculated using Cox regression analysis. Results For all-cause mortality, only MCS showed a weak association before adjustments. For natural mortality, no associations were found. For unnatural mortality (n = 21, there was a sex adjusted association with GHQ (HR = 1.96, 95 % CI = 1.45–2.64 and MCS (2.30, 95 % CI = 1.72–3.08. Among unnatural causes of death suicidal mortality (n = 11 was associated with both GHQ (2.20, 95 % CI = 1.47–3.29 and MCS (2.68, 95 % CI = 1.80–3.99. Of the covariates limiting long-standing illness modestly attenuated the associations. Conclusions Two established measures of mental symptoms, i.e. GHQ-12 and SF-36 MCS, were both associated with subsequent unnatural, i.e. accidental and violent, as well as suicidal mortality. No associations were found for natural mortality due to diseases. These findings need to be corroborated in further populations. Supporting mental health through workplace measures may help counteract subsequent suicidal and other
Panik, Michael J
A concise, easily accessible introduction to descriptive and inferential techniques Statistical Inference: A Short Course offers a concise presentation of the essentials of basic statistics for readers seeking to acquire a working knowledge of statistical concepts, measures, and procedures. The author conducts tests on the assumption of randomness and normality, provides nonparametric methods when parametric approaches might not work. The book also explores how to determine a confidence interval for a population median while also providing coverage of ratio estimation, randomness, and causal
Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)
A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.
Brimblecombe, Nicola; Knapp, Martin; Murguia, Silvia; Mbeah-Bankas, Henrietta; Crane, Steve; Harris, Abi; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Ardino, Vittoria; Iemmi, Valentina; King, Derek
This study aims to evaluate the outcomes and economic case for a UK innovative youth-specific mental health service for 16-25 year olds. A pre-, during- and post-treatment comparative design for 20 young people at high risk of developing psychosis who received 2 years' treatment with the service, using outcomes that concurred with the service aims: changes in mental health, employment rates and service use. Forty-five percent of those at risk and with symptoms of serious mental illness commencing treatment were not receiving mental health services at baseline. Compared with service use prior to treatment at the youth-specific service, hospital admissions, Accident and Emergency, and criminal justice system use appear to decrease over the 2 years of treatment and the year after treatment, with potential cost differences of £473 000. Mental health improved or stayed the same, compared with baseline. Employment rates improved, although the sample size for this is very small. Potential cost differences associated with service users moving into employment over the 2 years are £148 000. The estimated cost over 2 years of providing the youth-specific mental health service to these young people was £106 000. Given the extensive long-term negative consequences and high costs of untreated mental illness in the 16-25 age group and the documented problems young people have in receiving appropriate services, this youth-specific, age-appropriate service model appears to be successful, with improved outcomes and cost differences in the short-term, and with encouraging implications for the longer term. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Zeiger, Joanna S; Zeiger, Robert S
Mental toughness in endurance athletes, while an important factor for success, has been scarcely studied. An online survey was used to examine eight mental toughness factors in endurance athletes. The study aim was to determine mental toughness profiles via latent profile analysis in endurance athletes and whether associations exist between the latent profiles and demographics and sports characteristics. Endurance athletes >18 years of age were recruited via social media outlets (n = 1245, 53% female). Mental toughness was measured using the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ), Psychological Performance Inventory-Alternative (PPI-A), and self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). A three-class solution emerged, designated as high mental toughness (High MT), moderate mental toughness (Moderate MT) and low mental toughness (Low MT). ANOVA tests showed significant differences between all three classes on all 8 factors derived from the SMTQ, PPI-A and the RSE. There was an increased odds of being in the High MT class compared to the Low MT class for males (OR = 1.99; 95% CI, 1.39, 2.83; Pathletes who were over 55 compared to those who were 18-34 (OR = 2.52; 95% CI, 1.37, 4.62; Pathletes. High MT is associated with demographics and sports characteristics. Mental toughness screening in athletes may help direct practitioners with mental skills training.
Full Text Available Purpose: Physical inactivity and depression are common among RA patients. Many variables are associated with different levels of mental health, including physical activity. Therefore, this study was designed to demonstrate the benefits of moderateintensity exercises on physical activity and mental health in RA patients compared to their sedentary counterparts. We also studied the correlation between physical activity and mental health variables, including depression. Methods: A total of 22 RA patients were recruited of both sexes and divided on the basis of training status into the following two groups: training group (2 men and 8 women aged 67±13 years (mean±SD and sedentary group (11 women and one man aged 67±9.8 years. The training group attended 45 minutes training sessions, three-five times a week for 6 months. All patients were taking currently treatment with at least one or more disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDS or biologic agents. Blood samples were collected from all patients in order to assess serum C-reactive protein (CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. The Disease Activity Score (DAS 28 was recorded in all subjects. Physical and mental health was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36. Results: Age, sex, disease duration, DAS28 and pain intensity (VAS were not significantly different between the groups (p>0.05. Physical and mental health outcomes significantly improved after 6 months of moderate aerobic training (p <0.05. Quality of life was better in the trained subjects, which showed a better life satisfaction and a higher level of physical and social function. In addition, we found that physical activity was negatively correlated with mental and emotional health especially in the training group (p=0.003. Conclusion: Our results indicate that higher levels of physical activity were associated with improved mental health. Moreover, physical and mental health outcomes
Maamer Slimani, David Tod, Helmi Chaabene, Bianca Miarka, Karim Chamari
Full Text Available The aims of the present review were to (i provide a critical overview of the current literature on the effects of mental imagery on muscular strength in healthy participants and patients with immobilization of the upper extremity (i.e., hand and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL, (ii identify potential moderators and mediators of the “mental imagery-strength performance” relationship and (iii determine the relative contribution of electromyography (EMG and brain activities, neural and physiological adaptations in the mental imagery-strength performance relationship. This paper also discusses the theoretical and practical implications of the contemporary literature and suggests possible directions for future research. Overall, the results reveal that the combination of mental imagery and physical practice is more efficient than, or at least comparable to, physical execution with respect to strength performance. Imagery prevention intervention was also effective in reducing of strength loss after short-term muscle immobilization and ACL. The present review also indicates advantageous effects of internal imagery (range from 2.6 to 136.3% for strength performance compared with external imagery (range from 4.8 to 23.2%. Typically, mental imagery with muscular activity was higher in active than passive muscles, and imagining “lifting a heavy object” resulted in more EMG activity compared with imagining “lifting a lighter object”. Thus, in samples of students, novices, or youth male and female athletes, internal mental imagery has a greater effect on muscle strength than external mental imagery does. Imagery ability, motivation, and self-efficacy have been shown to be the variables mediating the effect of mental imagery on strength performance. Finally, the greater effects of internal imagery than those of external imagery could be explained in terms of neural adaptations, stronger brain activation, higher muscle excitation, greater somatic
Grant, Kiran L; Simmons, Magenta Bender; Davey, Christopher G
To provide evidence for wider use of peer workers and other nonprofessionals, the authors examined three approaches to mental health service provision-peer support worker (PSW) programs, task shifting, and mental health first-aid and community advocacy organizations-summarizing their effectiveness, identifying similarities and differences, and highlighting opportunities for integration. Relevant articles obtained from PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar searches are discussed. Studies indicate that PSWs can achieve outcomes equal to or better than those achieved by nonpeer mental health professionals. PSWs can be particularly effective in reducing hospital admissions and inpatient days and engaging severely ill patients. When certain care tasks are given to individuals with less training than professionals (task shifting), these staff members can provide psychoeducation, engage service users in treatment, and help them achieve symptom reduction and manage risk of relapse. Mental health first-aid and community organizations can reduce stigma, increase awareness of mental health issues, and encourage help seeking. Most PSW programs have reported implementation challenges, whereas such challenges are fewer in task-shifting programs and minimal in mental health first-aid. Despite challenges in scaling and integrating these approaches into larger systems, they hold promise for improving access to and quality of care. Research is needed on how these approaches can be combined to expand a community's capacity to provide care. Because of the serious shortage of mental health providers globally and the rising prevalence of mental illness, utilizing nontraditional providers may be the only solution in both low- and high-resource settings, at least in the short term.
Verduin, Femke; Smid, Geert E; Wind, Tim R; Scholte, Willem F
To date, reviews show inconclusive results on the association between social capital and mental health. Evidence that social capital can intentionally be promoted is also scarce. Promotion of social capital may impact post-conflict recovery through both increased social cohesion and better mental health. However, studies on community interventions and social capital have mostly relied on cross-sectional study designs. We present a longitudinal study in Rwanda on the effect on social capital and mental health of sociotherapy, a community-based psychosocial group intervention consisting of fifteen weekly group sessions. We hypothesized that the intervention would impact social capital and, as a result of that, mental health. We used a quasi-experimental study design with measurement points pre- and post-intervention and at eight months follow-up (2007-2008). Considering sex and living situation, we selected 100 adults for our experimental group. We formed a control group of 100 respondents with similar symptom score distribution, age, and sex from a random community sample in the same region. Mental health was assessed by use of the Self Reporting Questionnaire, and social capital through a locally adapted version of the short Adapted Social Capital Assessment Tool. It measures three elements of social capital: cognitive social capital, support, and civic participation. Latent growth models were used to examine whether effects of sociotherapy on mental health and social capital were related. Civic participation increased with 7% in the intervention group versus 2% in controls; mental health improved with 10% versus 5% (both: p social capital did not show consistent changes. These findings hint at the possibility to foster social capital and simultaneously impact mental health. Further identification of pathways of influence may contribute to the designing of psychosocial interventions that effectively promote recovery in war-affected populations. Nederlands Trial
Jorm, Anthony; Sawyer, Michael; Gillett, Joy
Australian Rotary Health (ARH) was established in 1981 with the goal of supporting family health research in Australia. Since 2000, ARH has supported research relevant to mental health and mental illness. This article describes the early history of the fund, the reasons for the move to mental illness research, some examples of research projects that have had a beneficial impact and the branching out into mental health community awareness raising and stigma reduction. ARH has emerged as a major non-government supporter of mental illness research. It has also effectively engaged Rotary clubs at a local level to increase community awareness of mental illness and to reduce stigma.
Grandner, Michael A.; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R.; Knutson, Kristen L.
Short sleep duration is associated with weight gain and obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, psychiatric illness, and performance deficits. Likewise, long sleep duration is also associated with poor physical and mental health. The role of a healthy diet in habitual sleep duration represents a largely unexplored pathway linking sleep and health. This study evaluated associations between habitual sleep parameters and dietary/nutritional variables obtained via the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007–2008. We hypothesized that habitual very short (theobromine (long sleep RR = 0.910, p < 0.05), vitamin C (short sleep RR = 0.890, p < 0.05), tap water (short sleep RR = 0.952, p < 0.001; very short (<5 h) sleep RR = 0.941, p < 0.05), lutein + zeaxanthin (short sleep RR = 1.123, p < 0.05), dodecanoic acid (long sleep RR = 0.812, p < 0.05), choline (long sleep RR = 0.450, p = 0.001), lycopene (very short (<5 h) sleep RR = 0.950, p <0.05), total carbohydrate (very short (<5 h) sleep RR = 0.494, p <0.05; long sleep RR = 0.509, p <0.05), selenium (short sleep RR = 0.670, p <0.01) and alcohol (long sleep RR = 1.172, p < 0.01). Overall, many nutrient variables were associated with short and/or long sleep duration, which may be explained by differences in food variety. Future studies should assess whether these associations are due to appetite dysregulation, due to short/long sleep and/or whether these nutrients have physiologic effects on sleep regulation. In addition, these data may help us better understand the complex relationship between diet and sleep and the potential role of diet in the relationship between sleep and obesity and other cardiometabolic risks. PMID:23339991
Mubarak, A Rahamuthulla
This article aims to review the social policies on mental health and mental illness in Malaysia. Using critical theory, major policy issues pertaining to mental health and mental illness such as mental health legislation, prevalence rates and quality of services available to the people with mental health problems are discussed in detail. Implications of these issues on persons with mental health problems are critically evaluated. The paper highlights that the other countries in ASEAN region also require similar review by policy literature.
Koontz, E; Cox, D; Hastings, S
1. Although family involvement has been increasingly recognized as a vital component in the treatment and care of the mentally ill, little has been written about efforts to provide education and support to the families of patients hospitalized for short-term evaluation and treatment. 2. The family education and support group provided emotional support and critical information to increase family members' coping and problem solving abilities, and enabled them to return to a pre-crisis or higher level of functioning. 3. The family education and support group not only enhances the assessment and planning phases of the nursing process, but it also can serve as a useful intervention for strengthening the patient's major support system.
Tanihata, Takeo; Kanda, Hideyuki; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Ohida, Takashi; Minowa, Masumi; Wada, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Hayashi, Kenji
The objective was to study the relationship between mental health and lifestyles of adolescents using samples representative of Japanese adolescents nationwide. The survey was conducted between December 2004 and January 2005 among students enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools. Self-administered questionnaires addressed lifestyles, sleeping habits, and mental health status. Of 103 650 questionnaires collected, 85 158 were analyzed. Population characteristics associated with poor mental health were being female, being a senior high school student, skipping breakfast, not participating in extracurricular activities, not consulting parents about personal matters, parental smoking, students' smoking or alcohol use, poor subjective sleep assessment, and short or long sleeping duration. Smoking and anxiety disorders are associated with an elevation in acculturative stress in adolescents. Prepossessing adolescents are in subclinical depression. Results suggest that lifestyles approaches in preventions that target students can be effective in reaching high-risk populations. © 2012 APJPH.
Montgomery, Edith; Foldspang, Anders
Aims: The aim of this study was to compare profiles of present mental health and previous exposure to violence among refugee children from the Middle East, whose asylum seeking families either did or did not obtain permission to stay in Denmark. Methods: Shortly after arrival in Denmark......, the parents of 311 Middle-Eastern children answered a structured interview on their children’s exposure to organized violence and their mental health. The families were followed-up as concerns receipt of a residence permit. Results: At arrival in Denmark, the children’s patterns of previous exposure...... to violence and present mental health was generally similar irrespective of the family getting a residence permit, as was the case for 90 families (60.4%) with 190 children (61.1%). In both groups an overwhelming majority, eight to nine out of 10 children, had been exposed to conditions of war and had stayed...
Full Text Available Autonomic activity affects beat-to-beat variability of heart rate and QT interval. The aim of this study was to explore whether entropy measures are suitable to detect changes in neural outflow to the heart elicited by two different stress paradigms. We recorded short-term ECG in 11 normal subjects during an experimental protocol that involved head-up tilt and mental arithmetic stress and computed sample entropy, cross-sample entropy and causal interactions based on conditional entropy from RR and QT interval time series. Head-up tilt resulted in a significant reduction in sample entropy of RR intervals and cross-sample entropy, while mental arithmetic stress resulted in a significant reduction in coupling directed from RR to QT. In conclusion, measures of entropy are suitable to detect changes in neural outflow to the heart and decoupling of repolarisation variability from heart rate variability elicited by orthostatic or mental arithmetic stress.
Full Text Available Previous work has shown that various symptoms of unilateral neglect, including the pathological shift of the subjective midline to the right, may be improved by a short adaptation period to a prismatic shift of the visual field to the right. We report here the improvement of imagined neglect after prism exposure in a patient with a left unilateral neglect. Despite a strong neglect observed for mental images as well as for conventional tests, the mental evocation of left-sided information from an internal image of the map of France map was fully recovered following prism adaptation to the right. This improvement could not be explained by the alteration of visuomotor responses induced by the prism adaptation. Prism adaptation may therefore act not only on sensory-motor levels but also on a higher cognitive level of mental space representation and/or exploration.
Kittler, Phyllis; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.
Semantic and phonological loop effects on verbal working memory were examined among middle-age adults with Down syndrome and those with unspecified mental retardation in the context of Baddeley's working memory model. Recall was poorer for phonologically similar, semantically similar, and long words compared to recall of dissimilar short words.…
Tos, T; Alp, M Y; Karacan, C D
In this report we describe a 10 year-old female patient with interstitial deletion of 9q32-q34.1 associated with mental retardation, developmental delay, short stature, mild facial dysmorphism, epilepsy, abnormal EEG and brain MRI findings consistent with focal cortical dysplasia. Interstitial...
Full Text Available Mental foramen is a key factor in many of the surgical as well as clinical procedures in routine clinical practice. The variations of mental foramen with respect to position, size and number dose significantly alter the clinical implications of various intraoral treatments. The accurate knowledge of the mental nerve and its position helps the clinician for delivering local anesthesia effectively also placement of implants and dentures intraorally to replace missing teeth is important in prosthetic point of view. While doing the surgical procedures in this region the position of mental nerve and its foramen is of importance to avoid intraoperative neurovascular damage and to avoid postoperative neurosensory disturbances. The ethnic and racial variations are seen in the position of mental foramen, although a gender variation in same population has not been seen. Thus the knowledge of the position of mental nerve is important for day to day clinical practice of dentistry.
Full Text Available The community mental health model implies a bio‐psycho‐social perspective of mental health/illness issues, as well as a set of values that advocate equity in service access, community treatment, respect for human rights, a recovery vision, promotion of independent living, social integration and user and family participation. In accordance with the priorities set by the European Union, mental health services must guarantee that these principles are applied in the prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and promotion of mental health. Inter‐sector cooperation is an essential part of developing transversal policies that ensure society’s involvement in mental health promotion. Advances in community mental health in‐ dicate the relevance of considering human rights both in policy development and in practice, of the recovery perspective and of the need to promote the participation of user and carer organizations.
Orbach, Israel; Mikulincer, Mario; Sirota, Pinhas; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva
An operationalization of mental pain is presented in three studies. The first study describes the operationalization of mental pain and the factor structure of the items produced by a content analysis of self-reports yielding a scale with nine factors: the experience of irreversibility, loss of control, narcissistic wounds, emotional flooding, freezing, estrangement, confusion, social distancing, and emptiness. Study 2 tested the relationship between mental pain and depression and anxiety in a normal population. Study 3 focused on the relationship between mental pain and coping. Mental pain is conceptualized as a perception of negative changes in the self and its functions that are accompanied by negative feelings. It is suggested that it can be meaningfully applied to the study of different mental states, life conditions, and transitions in life.
The article defends an interpretation of mental illness as mental dysfunction. It develops a concept in line with the naturalistic viewpoint in the philosophy of medicine. The concept of mental function is scrutinized. Functions are regarded as effects of traits that enable an organism to live independently. The significance of this theoretical perspective for the psychiatric practice is discussed. Finally, the developed conceptualization is compared to the current edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM). It is emphasized that the theoretical conceptualization of mental disorder determines what may justifiably and in a scientifically valid way be deemed a disease entity. Nevertheless, the practical perspective needs an additional element of individual well-being as not every mental dysfunction involves impairment in this respect. It is claimed that the DSM takes a perspective similar to the one defended in this article.
David L. Rowland
Full Text Available Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences is designed as a free online, open access, interdisciplinary and peer-reviewed journal. The JMMS mission is to address ideas and issues related to mind and medicine, publishing scientific review and empirical papers regarding mental and medical health and disease. Our goal is to stimulate constructive debates among scholars, researchers, physicians, scientists and health professionals with respect to the latest discoveries and trends in the field. The journal pays special attention to interdisciplinary and integrative perspectives, focusing primarily on papers approaching mind and body as a unitary domain of study. Our supposition is that the study of the human body and mind needs to be better integrated—in fact should not be studied in isolation from one another, a position that originates fact from the collaborative efforts of the two main editors, namely a psychologist and a physician. As an example, the mind body problem—an age-old question—is still a much debated topic. Despite enormous progress in neuroimaging, it remains unclear how abstract ideas come to “control” the physical brain and body to generate actions, responses, and behaviors. Thus, abstract ideas of the mind (e.g., the desire to seek a promotion, to become famous, or to help those surrounding you can drive decision making and life choices more strongly than the concrete/ biological needs of the body (food, warmth, shelter, etc.. From a pathological perspective, heavy psychological and physical burden can “overload” the mind, creating a mental condition of stress which may then negatively impact bodily function through symptoms such as gastric ulcer, hypertension, and so on. From the opposite perspective, the body and brain can interfere with and direct the functioning of mind. The need for sleep, for example, is due to fluctuation of neuromodulators within the brain. When such neuromodulators are pharmacologically manipulated
Full Text Available The “360° GH in Europe” meeting, which examined various aspects of GH diseases, was held in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 2016. The Merck KGaA (Germany funded meeting comprised three sessions entitled “Short Stature Diagnosis and Referral,” “Optimizing Patient Management,” and “Managing Transition.” Each session had three speaker presentations, followed by a discussion period, and is reported as a manuscript, authored by the speakers. The first session examined current processes of diagnosis and referral by endocrine specialists for pediatric patients with short stature. Requirements for referral vary widely, by country and by patient characteristics such as age. A balance must be made to ensure eligible patients get referred while healthcare systems are not over-burdened by excessive referrals. Late referral and diagnosis of non-GH deficiency conditions can result in increased morbidity and mortality. The consequent delays in making a diagnosis may compromise the effectiveness of GH treatment. Algorithms for growth monitoring and evaluation of skeletal disproportions can improve identification of non-GH deficiency conditions. Performance and validation of guidelines for diagnosis of GH deficiency have not been sufficiently tested. Provocative tests for investigation of GH deficiency remain equivocal, with insufficient information on variations due to patient characteristics, and cutoff values for definition differ not only by country but also by the assay used. When referring and diagnosing causes of short stature in pediatric patients, clinicians need to rely on many factors, but the most essential is clinical experience.
Stannard, F Russell
Relativity: A Very Short Introduction makes the theory of relativity understandable and accessible. 100 years ago, Einstein's theory of relativity shattered the world of physics. Our comforting Newtonian ideas of space and time were replaced by bizarre and counterintuitive conclusions: if you move at high speed, time slows down, space squashes up and you get heavier; travel fast enough and you could weigh as much as a jumbo jet, be squashed thinner than a CD without feeling a thing - and live forever. And that was just the special theory. With the general theory came even stranger ideas of curved space-time, which changed our understanding of gravity and the cosmos.
Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.
What is 'nothing'? What remains when you take all the matter away? Can empty space - a void - exist? This Very Short Introduction explores the science and the history of the elusive void: from Aristotle who insisted that the vacuum was impossible, via the theories of Newton and Einstein, to our very latest discoveries and why they can tell us extraordinary things about the cosmos. Frank Close tells the story of how scientists have explored the elusive void, and the rich discoveries that they have made there. He takes the reader on a lively and accessible history through ancient ideas and cultural superstitions to the frontiers of current research
Superconductivity is one of the most exciting areas of research in physics today. Outlining the history of its discovery, and the race to understand its many mysterious and counter-intuitive phenomena, this Very Short Introduction explains in accessible terms the theories that have been developed, and how they have influenced other areas of science, including the Higgs boson of particle physics and ideas about the early Universe. It is an engaging and informative accountof a fascinating scientific detective story, and an intelligible insight into some deep and beautiful ideas of physics
Rothery, David A
Planets: A Very Short Introduction demonstrates the excitement, uncertainties, and challenges faced by planetary scientists, and provides an overview of our Solar System and its origins, nature, and evolution. Terrestrial planets, giant planets, dwarf planets and various other objects such as satellites (moons), asteroids, trans-Neptunian objects, and exoplanets are discussed. Our knowledge about planets has advanced over the centuries, and has expanded at a rapidly growing rate in recent years. Controversial issues are outlined, such as What qualifies as a planet? What conditions are required for a planetary body to be potentially inhabited by life? Why does Pluto no longer have planet status? And Is there life on other planets?
Galaxies: A Very Short Introduction explores the building blocks of the Universe. Standing like islands in space, each is made up of many hundreds of millions of stars in which the chemical elements are made, around which planets form, and where on at least one of those planets intelligent life has emerged. Our own galaxy, the Milky Way, is just one of several hundred million other galaxies. Yet it was only in the 1920s that we realised that there is more to the Universe. Since then, many exciting discoveries have been made about our own galaxy and about those beyond.
Radioactivity: A Very Short Introduction explains radioactivity and discusses its fundamental role in nature. Radioactivity remains misunderstood and feared perhaps because nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses, and can undoubtedly do great harm if appropriate precautions are not taken. Radioactivity in the stars and in the Earth and its wide range of applications in biomedicine, science, industry, agriculture are described, as well as the mechanisms of nuclear fission and fusion, and the harnessing of nuclear power. The issues surrounding safety and security and the increasing concerns about nuclear terrorism are also considered.
Ramia, M.E.; Martin, C.A.; Jeandrevin, S.
A NMR probe for low frequency and short recovery time is presented in this work. The probe contains the tuning circuit, diode expanders and quarter wavelength networks to protect the receiver from both the amplifier noise and the coil ringing following the transmitter power pulse. It also possesses a coil damper which is activated by of non active components. The probe performance shows a recovery time of about of 15μs a sensitive Q factor reduction and an increase of the signal to noise ratio of about 68% during the reception at a work frequency of 2 MHz. (author)
Rothery, David A
Moons: A Very Short Introduction introduces the reader to the varied and fascinating moons of our Solar System. Beginning with the early discoveries of Galileo and others, it describes their variety of mostly mythological names, and the early use of Jupiter’s moons to establish position at sea and to estimate the speed of light. It discusses the structure, formation, and profound influence of our Moon, those of the other planets, and ends with the recent discovery of moons orbiting asteroids, whilst looking forward to the possibility of discovering microbial life beyond Earth and of finding moons of exoplanets in planetary systems far beyond our own.