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Sample records for short focal length

  1. Adjustable, short focal length permanent-magnet quadrupole based electron beam final focus system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Lim

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Advanced high-brightness beam applications such as inverse-Compton scattering (ICS depend on achieving of ultrasmall spot sizes in high current beams. Modern injectors and compressors enable the production of high-brightness beams having needed short bunch lengths and small emittances. Along with these beam properties comes the need to produce tighter foci, using stronger, shorter focal length optics. An approach to creating such strong focusing systems using high-field, small-bore permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQs is reported here. A final-focus system employing three PMQs, each composed of 16 neodymium iron boride sectors in a Halbach geometry has been installed in the PLEIADES ICS experiment. The field gradient in these PMQs is 560   T/m, the highest ever reported in a magnetic optics system. As the magnets are of a fixed field strength, the focusing system is tuned by adjusting the position of the three magnets along the beam line axis, in analogy to familiar camera optics. This paper discusses the details of the focusing system, simulation, design, fabrication, and experimental procedure in creating ultrasmall beams at PLEIADES.

  2. Brain SPECT with short focal-length cone-beam collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Mi-Ae; Moore, Stephen C.; Kijewski, Marie Foley

    2005-01-01

    Single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of deep brain structures is compromised by loss of photons due to attenuation. We have previously shown that a centrally peaked collimator sensitivity function can compensate for this phenomenon, increasing sensitivity over most of the brain. For dual-head instruments, parallel-hole collimators cannot provide variable sensitivity without simultaneously degrading spatial resolution near the center of the brain; this suggests the use of converging collimators. We have designed collimator pairs for dual-head SPECT systems to increase sensitivity, particularly in the center of the brain, and compared the new collimation approach to existing approaches on the basis of performance in estimating activity concentration of small structures at various locations in the brain. The collimator pairs we evaluated included a cone-beam collimator, for increased sensitivity, and a fan-beam collimator, for data sufficiency. We calculated projections of an ellipsoidal uniform background, with 0.9-cm-radius spherical lesions at several locations in the background. From these, we determined ideal signal-to-noise ratios (SNR CRB ) for estimation of activity concentration within the spheres, based on the Cramer-Rao lower bound on variance. We also reconstructed, by an ordered-subset expectation-maximization (OS-EM) procedure, images of this phantom, as well as of the Zubal brain phantom, to allow visual assessment and to ensure that they were free of artifacts. The best of the collimator pairs evaluated comprised a cone-beam collimator with 20 cm focal length, for which the focal point is inside the brain, and a fan-beam collimator with 40 cm focal length. This pair yielded increased SNR CRB , compared to the parallel-parallel pair, throughout the imaging volume. The factor by which SNR CRB increased ranged from 1.1 at the most axially extreme location to 3.5 at the center. The gains in SNR CRB were relatively robust to mismatches

  3. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  4. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  5. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-16

    Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

  6. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Třebický

    Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  7. Dual-layer electrode-driven liquid crystal lens with electrically tunable focal length and focal plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. A.; Lin, C. F.; Lin, J. P.; Zeng, X. Y.; Yan, Q.; Zhou, X. T.; Guo, T. L.

    2018-04-01

    Electric-field-driven liquid crystal (ELC) lens with tunable focal length and their depth of field has been extensively applied in 3D display and imaging systems. In this work, a dual-layer electrode-driven liquid crystal (DELC) lens with electrically tunable focal length and controllable focal plane is demonstrated. ITO-SiO2-AZO electrodes with the dual-layer staggered structure on the top substrate are used as driven electrodes within a LC cell, which permits the establishment of an alternative controllability. The focal length of the DELC lens can be adjusted from 1.41 cm to 0.29 cm when the operating voltage changes from 15 V to 40 V. Furthermore, the focal plane of the DELC lens can selectively move by changing the driving method of the applied voltage to the next driven electrodes. This work demonstrates that the DELC lens has potential applications in imaging systems because of electrically tunable focal length and controllable focal plane.

  8. Design of a nanopatterned long focal-length planar focusing collector for concentrated solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qing; Choubal, Aakash; Toussaint, Kimani C.

    2017-02-01

    Concentrated solar power (CSP) facilities heavily utilize parabolic troughs to collect and concentrate sunlight onto receivers that deliver solar thermal energy to heat engines for generating electricity. However, parabolic troughs are bulky and heavy and result in a large capital investment for CSP plants, thereby making it difficult for CSP technology to be competitive with photovoltaics. We present the design of a planar focusing collector (PFC) with focal length beyond the micron scale. The PFC design is based on the use of a nanostructured silver surface for linearly polarized singlewavelength light. The designed PFC consists of metallic nanogrooves on a dielectric substrate. The geometric properties, namely the width and depth, of a single-unit nanogroove allows for full control of the optical phase at desired spatial coordinates along the nanogroove short-axis for a single wavelength. Moreover, we show numerically that such phase control can be used to construct a phase front that mimics that of a cylindrical lens. In addition, we determine the concentration ratio by comparing the width of our PFC design to the cross-sectional width of its focal spot. We also determine the conversion efficiency at long focal lengths by evaluating the ratio of the collected optical power to the incoming optical power. Finally, we examine the focusing behavior across multiple wavelengths and angles of incidence. Our work shows how nano-optics and plasmonics could contribute to this important area of CSP technology.

  9. Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Crooker, P P; Armstead, R L; Blau, J

    2004-01-01

    Conventional free electron laser (FEL) oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. A new FEL interaction is described and analyzed with a Rayleigh length that is only one tenth the undulator length, or less. The effect of mirror vibration and positioning are more critical in the short Rayleigh length design, but we find that they are still within normal design tolerances.

  10. Determination of the paraxial focal length using Zernike polynomials over different apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkele, Tobias; Hilbig, David; Henning, Thomas; Fleischmann, Friedrich

    2017-02-01

    The paraxial focal length is still the most important parameter in the design of a lens. As presented at the SPIE Optics + Photonics 2016, the measured focal length is a function of the aperture. The paraxial focal length can be found when the aperture approaches zero. In this work, we investigate the dependency of the Zernike polynomials on the aperture size with respect to 3D space. By this, conventional wavefront measurement systems that apply Zernike polynomial fitting (e.g. Shack-Hartmann-Sensor) can be used to determine the paraxial focal length, too. Since the Zernike polynomials are orthogonal over a unit circle, the aperture used in the measurement has to be normalized. By shrinking the aperture and keeping up with the normalization, the Zernike coefficients change. The relation between these changes and the paraxial focal length are investigated. The dependency of the focal length on the aperture size is derived analytically and evaluated by simulation and measurement of a strong focusing lens. The measurements are performed using experimental ray tracing and a Shack-Hartmann-Sensor. Using experimental ray tracing for the measurements, the aperture can be chosen easily. Regarding the measurements with the Shack-Hartmann- Sensor, the aperture size is fixed. Thus, the Zernike polynomials have to be adapted to use different aperture sizes by the proposed method. By doing this, the paraxial focal length can be determined from the measurements in both cases.

  11. Technique for the focal-length measurement of positive lenses using Fizeau interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan Kumar, Yeddanapudi; Chatterjee, Sanjib

    2009-01-01

    We present what we believe is a new technique for the focal-length measurement of positive lenses using Fizeau interferometery. The technique utilizes the Gaussian lens equation. The image distance is measured interferometrically in terms of the radius of curvature of the image-forming wavefront emerging from the lens. The radii of curvature of the image-forming wavefronts corresponding to two different axial object positions of known separation are measured. The focal length of the lens is determined by solving the equations obtained using the Gaussian lens equation for the two object positions. Results obtained for a corrected doublet lens of a nominal focal length of 200.0 mm with a measurement uncertainty of ±2.5% is presented

  12. Spherical aberration compensation method for long focal-length measurement based on Talbot interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yupeng; Huang, Xiao; Bai, Jian; Du, Juan; Liu, Qun; Luo, Yujie; Luo, Jia

    2017-08-01

    Large-aperture and long focal-length lens is widely used in high energy laser system. The method based on Talbot interferometry is a reliable method to measure the focal length of such elements. By employing divergent beam and two gratings of different periods, this method could realize full-aperture measurement, higher accuracy and better repeatability. However, it does not take into account the spherical aberration of the measured lens resulting in the moiré fringes bending, which will introduce measurement error. Furthermore, in long-focal measurement with divergent beam, this error is an important factor affecting the measurement accuracy. In this paper, we propose a new spherical aberration compensation method, which could significantly reduce the measurement error. Characterized by central-symmetric scanning window, the proposed method is based on the relationship between spherical aberration and the lens aperture. Angle data of moiré fringes in each scanning window is retrieved by Fourier analysis and statistically fitted to estimate a globally optimum value for spherical-aberration-free focal length calculation. Simulation and experiment have been carried out. Compared to the previous work, the proposed method is able to reduce the relative measurement error by 50%. The effect of scanning window size and shift step length on the results is also discussed.

  13. THERMAL EFFECTS ON CAMERA FOCAL LENGTH IN MESSENGER STAR CALIBRATION AND ORBITAL IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Burmeister

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyse images taken by the MErcury Surface, Space ENviorment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER spacecraft for the camera’s thermal response in the harsh thermal environment near Mercury. Specifically, we study thermally induced variations in focal length of the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS. Within the several hundreds of images of star fields, the Wide Angle Camera (WAC typically captures up to 250 stars in one frame of the panchromatic channel. We measure star positions and relate these to the known star coordinates taken from the Tycho-2 catalogue. We solve for camera pointing, the focal length parameter and two non-symmetrical distortion parameters for each image. Using data from the temperature sensors on the camera focal plane we model a linear focal length function in the form of f(T = A0 + A1 T. Next, we use images from MESSENGER’s orbital mapping mission. We deal with large image blocks, typically used for the production of a high-resolution digital terrain models (DTM. We analyzed images from the combined quadrangles H03 and H07, a selected region, covered by approx. 10,600 images, in which we identified about 83,900 tiepoints. Using bundle block adjustments, we solved for the unknown coordinates of the control points, the pointing of the camera – as well as the camera’s focal length. We then fit the above linear function with respect to the focal plane temperature. As a result, we find a complex response of the camera to thermal conditions of the spacecraft. To first order, we see a linear increase by approx. 0.0107 mm per degree temperature for the Narrow-Angle Camera (NAC. This is in agreement with the observed thermal response seen in images of the panchromatic channel of the WAC. Unfortunately, further comparisons of results from the two methods, both of which use different portions of the available image data, are limited. If leaving uncorrected, these effects may pose significant difficulties in

  14. Short Rayleigh length free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Colson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional free electron laser (FEL oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third to one half of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. We model this interaction using a coordinate system that expands with the rapidly diffracting optical mode from the ends of the undulator to the mirrors. Simulations show that the interaction of the strongly focused optical mode with a narrow electron beam inside the undulator distorts the optical wave front so it is no longer in the fundamental Gaussian mode. The simulations are used to study how mode distortion affects the single-pass gain in weak fields, and the steady-state extraction in strong fields.

  15. Paraxial design of an optical element with variable focal length and fixed position of principal planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikš, Antonín; Novák, Pavel

    2018-05-10

    In this article, we analyze the problem of the paraxial design of an active optical element with variable focal length, which maintains the positions of its principal planes fixed during the change of its optical power. Such optical elements are important in the process of design of complex optical systems (e.g., zoom systems), where the fixed position of principal planes during the change of optical power is essential for the design process. The proposed solution is based on the generalized membrane tunable-focus fluidic lens with several membrane surfaces.

  16. Simultaneous measurement of focal length and index of refraction of a microlens using a compound microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollet, Franck; Ashraf, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    The fabrication of microlenses has spurred a lot of interest and resulted in multiple techniques of fabrication in the past decade. However the metrology of these lenses has received less attention and remains a complex and time-consuming task that does not allow frequent control during development and manufacturing. We propose a simple technique based on a standard compound microscope that would allow measuring the focal length of a plano-convex lens and at the same time obtain a measure of the index of refraction of the lens material. The method relies on observing the different images of an object placed in the illumination path of the microscope. Among these images, some are created by the light going through the lens and others by its reflection on the surface. We show that with the image distance and size it is possible to retrieve the focal length and the average index of refraction of the lens material in the case of quasi-spherical lenses. The accuracy obtained by the technique is better than a few per cent and its cost is negligible as it only uses existing equipment

  17. The Modernization of a Long-Focal Length Fringe-Type Laser Velocimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, James F.; Lee, Joseph W.; Cavone, Angelo A.; Fletcher, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    A long-focal length laser velocimeter constructed in the early 1980's was upgraded using current technology to improve usability, reliability and future serviceability. The original, free-space optics were replaced with a state-of-the-art fiber-optic subsystem which allowed most of the optics, including the laser, to be remote from the harsh tunnel environment. General purpose high-speed digitizers were incorporated in a standard modular data acquisition system, along with custom signal processing software executed on a desktop computer, served as the replacement for the signal processors. The resulting system increased optical sensitivity with real-time signal/data processing that produced measurement precisions exceeding those of the original system. Monte Carlo simulations, along with laboratory and wind tunnel investigations were used to determine system characteristics and measurement precision.

  18. Narrating the unspeakable. Person marking and focalization in Nabokov’s short story 'Signs and Symbols'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levie, S.A.; Wildschut, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the interaction of person marking and focalization in the short story ‘Signs and Symbols’ (first published 1948, The New Yorker) by Russian-American author Vladimir Nabokov. This story has been studied extensively for its symbolism, its metafictional aspect, and its

  19. Data bank for short-length red oak lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Charles J. Gatchell; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1994-01-01

    This data bank for short-length lumber (less than 8 feet long) contains information on board outlines and defect size and quality for 426 414-inch-thick red oak boards. The Selects, 1 Common, 2A Common, and 3A Common grades are represented in the data bank. The data bank provides the kind of detailed lumber description that is required as input by computer programs...

  20. Short initial length quench on CICC of ITER TF coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicollet, S.; Ciazynski, D.; Duchateau, J.-L.; Lacroix, B.; Bessette, D.; Rodriguez-Mateos, F.; Coatanea-Gouachet, M.; Gauthier, F.

    2014-01-01

    Previous quench studies performed for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Toroidal Field (TF) Coils have led to identify two extreme families of quench: first 'severe' quenches over long initial lengths in high magnetic field, and second smooth quenches over short initial lengths in low field region. Detailed analyses and results on smooth quench propagation and detectability on one TF Cable In Conduit Conductor (CICC) with a lower propagation velocity are presented here. The influence of the initial quench energy is shown and results of computations with either a Fast Discharge (FD) of the magnet or without (failure of the voltage quench detection system) are reported. The influence of the central spiral of the conductor on the propagation velocity is also detailed. In the cases of a regularly triggered FD, the hot spot temperature criterion of 150 K (with helium and jacket) is fulfilled for an initial quench length of 1 m, whereas this criterion is exceed (Tmax ≈ 200 K) for an extremely short length of 5 cm. These analyses were carried out using both the Supermagnet(trade mark, serif) and Venecia codes and the comparisons of the results are also discussed

  1. Short initial length quench on CICC of ITER TF coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicollet, S.; Ciazynski, D.; Duchateau, J.-L.; Lacroix, B. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bessette, D.; Rodriguez-Mateos, F. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Coatanea-Gouachet, M. [ELC Engineering, 350 chemin du Verladet, F-13290 Les Milles (France); Gauthier, F. [Soditech Ingenierie, 4 bis allée des Gabians, ZI La Frayère, 06150 Cannes (France)

    2014-01-29

    Previous quench studies performed for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Toroidal Field (TF) Coils have led to identify two extreme families of quench: first 'severe' quenches over long initial lengths in high magnetic field, and second smooth quenches over short initial lengths in low field region. Detailed analyses and results on smooth quench propagation and detectability on one TF Cable In Conduit Conductor (CICC) with a lower propagation velocity are presented here. The influence of the initial quench energy is shown and results of computations with either a Fast Discharge (FD) of the magnet or without (failure of the voltage quench detection system) are reported. The influence of the central spiral of the conductor on the propagation velocity is also detailed. In the cases of a regularly triggered FD, the hot spot temperature criterion of 150 K (with helium and jacket) is fulfilled for an initial quench length of 1 m, whereas this criterion is exceed (Tmax ≈ 200 K) for an extremely short length of 5 cm. These analyses were carried out using both the Supermagnet(trade mark, serif) and Venecia codes and the comparisons of the results are also discussed.

  2. Glycogen with short average chain length enhances bacterial durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Wise, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    Glycogen is conventionally viewed as an energy reserve that can be rapidly mobilized for ATP production in higher organisms. However, several studies have noted that glycogen with short average chain length in some bacteria is degraded very slowly. In addition, slow utilization of glycogen is correlated with bacterial viability, that is, the slower the glycogen breakdown rate, the longer the bacterial survival time in the external environment under starvation conditions. We call that a durable energy storage mechanism (DESM). In this review, evidence from microbiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology will be assembled to support the hypothesis of glycogen as a durable energy storage compound. One method for testing the DESM hypothesis is proposed.

  3. Stability of a short Rayleigh length laser resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Crooker

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the prospect of constructing a short Rayleigh length free-electron laser in a high-vibration environment, we demonstrate the use of a collection of rays to study the effect of mirror vibration and distortion on the behavior of the fundamental optical mode of a cold-cavity resonator. We find that the ray collection accurately describes both on-axis and off-axis optical beams. We show that a tilt or transverse shift of a mirror causes the optical mode to rock about the original resonator axis, while a longitudinal mirror shift or a change in the mirror’s radius of curvature causes the beam diameter at a mirror to successively dilate and contract on the mirror. Results are in excellent agreement with analytic calculations and wave front propagation simulations as long as the mirrors remain large with respect to the beam diameter.

  4. The influence of beam energy, mode and focal length on the control of laser ignition in an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullett, J D [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Dodd, R [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Williams, C J [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Triantos, G [Powertrain Control Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Dearden, G [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Shenton, A T [Powertrain Control Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Watkins, K G [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Carroll, S D [Ford Motor Company, Dunton Research and Engineering Centre, Laindon, Basildon, Essex, SS15 6EE (United Kingdom); Scarisbrick, A D [Ford Motor Company, Dunton Research and Engineering Centre, Laindon, Basildon, Essex, SS15 6EE (United Kingdom); Keen, S [GSI Group, Cosford Lane, Swift Valley, Rugby, Warwickshire, CV21 1QN (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-07

    This work involves a study on laser ignition (LI) in an internal combustion (IC) engine and investigates the effects on control of engine combustion performance and stability of varying specific laser parameters (beam energy, beam quality, minimum beam waist size, focal point volume and focal length). A Q-switched Nd : YAG laser operating at the fundamental wavelength 1064 nm was successfully used to ignite homogeneous stoichiometric gasoline and air mixtures in one cylinder of a 1.6 litre IC test engine, where the remaining three cylinders used conventional electrical spark ignition (SI). A direct comparison between LI and conventional SI is presented in terms of changes in coefficient of variability in indicated mean effective pressure (COV{sub IMEP}) and the variance in the peak cylinder pressure position (Var{sub PPP}). The laser was individually operated in three different modes by changing the diameter of the cavity aperture, where the results show that for specific parameters, LI performed better than SI in terms of combustion performance and stability. Minimum ignition energies for misfire free combustion ranging from 4 to 28 mJ were obtained for various optical and laser configurations and were compared with the equivalent minimum optical breakdown energies in air.

  5. The influence of beam energy, mode and focal length on the control of laser ignition in an internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullett, J D; Dodd, R; Williams, C J; Triantos, G; Dearden, G; Shenton, A T; Watkins, K G; Carroll, S D; Scarisbrick, A D; Keen, S

    2007-01-01

    This work involves a study on laser ignition (LI) in an internal combustion (IC) engine and investigates the effects on control of engine combustion performance and stability of varying specific laser parameters (beam energy, beam quality, minimum beam waist size, focal point volume and focal length). A Q-switched Nd : YAG laser operating at the fundamental wavelength 1064 nm was successfully used to ignite homogeneous stoichiometric gasoline and air mixtures in one cylinder of a 1.6 litre IC test engine, where the remaining three cylinders used conventional electrical spark ignition (SI). A direct comparison between LI and conventional SI is presented in terms of changes in coefficient of variability in indicated mean effective pressure (COV IMEP ) and the variance in the peak cylinder pressure position (Var PPP ). The laser was individually operated in three different modes by changing the diameter of the cavity aperture, where the results show that for specific parameters, LI performed better than SI in terms of combustion performance and stability. Minimum ignition energies for misfire free combustion ranging from 4 to 28 mJ were obtained for various optical and laser configurations and were compared with the equivalent minimum optical breakdown energies in air

  6. Linker length dependent binding of a focal adhesion kinase derived peptide to the Src SH3-SH2 domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Hanna E; Venkata, Bharat Somireddy; Drijfhout, Jan W; Ubbink, Marcellus

    2011-02-18

    The interaction between a peptide encompassing the SH3 and SH2 binding motifs of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the Src SH3-SH2 domains has been investigated with NMR spectroscopy and calorimetry. The binding to both motifs is anti-cooperative. Reduction of the long linker connecting the motifs does not lead to cooperativity. Short linkers that do not allow simultaneous intramolecular binding of the peptide to both motifs cause peptide-mediated dimerisation, even with a linker of only three amino acids. The role of the SH3 binding motif is discussed in view of the independent nature of the SH interactions. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Noise characteristics analysis of short wave infrared InGaAs focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunlei; Li, Xue; Yang, Bo; Huang, Songlei; Shao, Xiumei; Zhang, Yaguang; Gong, Haimei

    2017-09-01

    The increasing application of InGaAs short wave infrared (SWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) in low light level imaging requires ultra-low noise FPAs. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of FPA noise, and point out that both dark current and detector capacitance strongly affect the FPA noise. The impact of dark current and detector capacitance on FPA noise is compared in different situations. In order to obtain low noise performance FPAs, the demand for reducing detector capacitance is higher especially when pixel pitch is smaller, integration time is shorter, and integration capacitance is larger. Several InGaAs FPAs were measured and analyzed, the experiments' results could be well fitted to the calculated results. The study found that the major contributor of FPA noise is coupled noise with shorter integration time. The influence of detector capacitance on FPA noise is more significant than that of dark current. To investigate the effect of detector performance on FPA noise, two kinds of photodiodes with different concentration of the absorption layer were fabricated. The detectors' performance and noise characteristics were measured and analyzed, the results are consistent with that of theoretical analysis.

  8. Short telomere length, lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 46,396 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Bojesen, Stig Egil; Weischer, Maren

    2013-01-01

    A previous case-control study of 100 individuals found that short telomere length was associated with a 28-fold increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).......A previous case-control study of 100 individuals found that short telomere length was associated with a 28-fold increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)....

  9. Metal halide arc discharge lamp having short arc length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzeroll, Martin E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A metal halide arc discharge lamp includes a sealed light-transmissive outer jacket, a light-transmissive shroud located within the outer jacket and an arc tube assembly located within the shroud. The arc tube assembly includes an arc tube, electrodes mounted within the arc tube and a fill material for supporting an arc discharge. The electrodes have a spacing such that an electric field in a range of about 60 to 95 volts per centimeter is established between the electrodes. The diameter of the arc tube and the spacing of the electrodes are selected to provide an arc having an arc diameter to arc length ratio in a range of about 1.6 to 1.8. The fill material includes mercury, sodium iodide, scandium tri-iodide and a rare gas, and may include lithium iodide. The lamp exhibits a high color rendering index, high lumen output and high color temperature.

  10. Strong and long: effects of word length on phonological binding in verbal short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Frankish, Clive; Noble, Katie

    2011-02-01

    This study examined the effects of item length on the contribution of linguistic knowledge to immediate serial recall (ISR). Long words are typically recalled more poorly than short words, reflecting the greater demands that they place on phonological encoding, rehearsal, and production. However, reverse word length effects--that is, better recall of long than short words--can also occur in situations in which phonological maintenance is difficult, suggesting that long words derive greater support from long-term lexical knowledge. In this study, long and short words and nonwords (containing one vs. three syllables) were presented for immediate serial recall in (a) pure lists and (b) unpredictable mixed lists of words and nonwords. The mixed-list paradigm is known to disrupt the phonological stability of words, encouraging their phonemes to recombine with the elements of other list items. In this situation, standard length effects were seen for nonwords, while length effects for words were absent or reversed. A detailed error analysis revealed that long words were more robust to the mixed-list manipulation than short words: Their phonemes were less likely to be omitted and to recombine with phonemes from other list items. These findings support an interactive view of short-term memory, in which long words derive greater benefits from lexical knowledge than short words-especially when their phonological integrity is challenged by the inclusion of nonwords in mixed lists.

  11. Non-universality of critical exponents in the paraconductivity of short-coherence-length superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauzzi, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Aslamazov-Larkin paraconductivity term is calculated in the case of sufficiently small superconducting coherence length. It is found that the critical exponent of paraconductivity depends on the short-wavelength cut-off of the fluctuation spectrum in the whole Ginzburg-Landau mean-field region. Hence, it is predicted that the Aslamazov-Larkin universal relation between the critical exponent of paraconductivity and the dimensionality of the superconducting state is no longer valid in short-coherence-length superconductors. This prediction is confirmed by paraconductivity measurements on cuprate superconductors. (orig.)

  12. A Short Introduction to Model Selection, Kolmogorov Complexity and Minimum Description Length (MDL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannen, Volker

    2010-01-01

    The concept of overtting in model selection is explained and demon- strated. After providing some background information on information theory and Kolmogorov complexity, we provide a short explanation of Minimum Description Length and error minimization. We conclude with a discussion of the typical

  13. The investigation of properties of short-lived SF isotopes (Z > 100 at the focal plane of VASSILISSA separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svirikhin Alexandr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For experiments aimed at the study of spontaneous fission of transfermium nuclei improvements in the focal plane detector system of recoil separator VASSILISSA have been made. A neutron detector consisting of 54 3He-filled counters has been mounted around the focal-plane detector chamber. The reaction 48Ca + 206Pb = 2n + 252No is used for tuning the separator settings and calibrating the detector system with the spontaneous fission of the 252No. The average neutron number per 252No spontaneous fission event is as large as ν̅ = 4.06 ± 0.12. The short-lived heavy isotopes 244,246Fm, produced in the complete fusion reactions 40Ar + 206,208Pb, are investigated. The average number of neutrons per spontaneous fission of 244,246Fm from the experimental data were (ν̅ = 3.3 ± 0.3 and (ν̅ = 3.55 ± 0.50, respectively. Both values are determined for the first time.

  14. Simulation of a long focal length Wolter-I telescope for hard X-ray astronomy. Application to the Simbol-X and PheniX space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, M.

    2011-01-01

    The future of hard X-ray astronomy relies on the development of new instruments able to focus photons of a hundred keV. Indeed, focalization allows an important improvement in sensitivity and angular resolution. Achieved by grazing incidence reflections on Wolter-I mirrors, its use currently limited to tens of keV can be extended to higher energies thanks to a specific coating and a large focal length. As X-ray observations are only possible above the atmosphere, the size of the observatories, and hence their focal length, was limited by the launcher capacity. Over the past few years, different technologies like extendible masts or formation flight have been studied to go beyond this limit. To gain a better understanding of these telescopes, I detail the Wolter-I mirror geometry, their coating reflectivity, the detection in semi-conductor as well as the dynamic related to extendible masts and formation flight. These telescopes are complex optical systems, subject to deformations during observation and need a fine metrology system to measure these deformations for image correction. To study their performance, I developed a code reproducing the real functioning of such a telescope. Each photon is considered individually, its path and interactions depend on the behavior of the telescope structure along with time. Each component of the telescope is modeled, as well as the metrology needed for the restitution of its dynamic. The path of the photon is computed in a three dimensional vector space, using Monte-Carlo methods to reproduce the mirror defaults, their reflectivity and the interactions in the detector. The simulation produces images and energy spectra, from which we can infer the angular resolution, the field of view, the effective area and the detection efficiency. In 2006, the Simbol-X mission was selected in the framework of the formation flight studies. This concept allows a large focal length, the telescope being distributed on two independent spacecrafts

  15. Shot Noise Suppression in a Quantum Point Contact with Short Channel Length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Heejun

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study on the current shot noise of a quantum point contact with short channel length is reported. The experimentally measured maximum energy level spacing between the ground and the first excited state of the device reached up to 7.5 meV, probably due to the hard wall confinement by using shallow electron gas and sharp point contact geometry. The two-dimensional non-equilibrium shot noise contour map shows noise suppression characteristics in a wide range of bias voltage. Fano factor analysis indicates spin-polarized transport through a short quantum point contact. (paper)

  16. The effect of word length in short-term memory: Is rehearsal necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoy, Guillermo

    2008-05-01

    Three experiments investigated the effect of word length on a serial recognition task when rehearsal was prevented by a high presentation rate with no delay between study and test lists. Results showed that lists of short four-phoneme words were better recognized than lists of long six-phoneme words. Moreover, this effect was equivalent to that observed in conditions in which there was a delay between lists, thereby making rehearsal possible in the interval. These findings imply that rehearsal does not play a central role in the origin of the word length effect. An alternative explanation based on differences in the degree of retroactive interference generated by long and short words is proposed.

  17. Word-length effect in verbal short-term memory in individuals with Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, K; Ikeda, Y

    2002-11-01

    Many studies have indicated that individuals with Down's syndrome (DS) show a specific deficit in short-term memory for verbal information. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the length of words on verbal short-term memory in individuals with DS. Twenty-eight children with DS and 10 control participants matched for memory span were tested on verbal serial recall and speech rate, which are thought to involve rehearsal and output speed. Although a significant word-length effect was observed in both groups for the recall of a larger number of items with a shorter spoken duration than for those with a longer spoken duration, the number of correct recalls in the group with DS was reduced compared to the control subjects. The results demonstrating poor short-term memory in children with DS were irrelevant to speech rate. In addition, the proportion of repetition-gained errors in serial recall was higher in children with DS than in control subjects. The present findings suggest that poor access to long-term lexical knowledge, rather than overt articulation speed, constrains verbal short-term memory functions in individuals with DS.

  18. Screening and treatment for short cervical length in pregnancy: a physician survey in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Bridget; DiBenedetti, Dana B; Weiss, Herman; Zhou, Xiaolei; Reynolds, Maria; Berghella, Vincenzo; Hassan, Sonia S

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate how physicians in the United States (US) screen for, define, and treat a short cervix to prevent preterm birth. This was a cross-sectional, web-based survey of 500 physicians treating pregnant patients with a short cervix in the US. Respondents' geographic region was monitored to ensure balance across the nine US Census divisions. Respondents were predominantly obstetrician/gynecologists (86%, 429/500; mean age 49 years). Physicians reported that a median of 90% of their pregnant patients undergo cervical length screening; 81% (407/500) use transvaginal ultrasound. Physicians consult multiple evidence sources to inform their patient care, most commonly clinical guidelines (83%; 413/500) and published research (70%; 349/500). Most physicians (98%; 490/500) reported treating pregnant patients with a short cervix; 95% (474/500) use synthetic and/or natural progestogen, alone or in combination with other treatment modalities. If reimbursement was not a concern, 47% of physicians (230/500) would choose vaginal progesterone as their preferred treatment to prevent preterm birth in all patients with a short cervix, and 45% (218/500) would choose a synthetic progestogen. US guidelines recommend transvaginal ultrasound for cervical length screening; 81% of physicians in this study reported using this method. Most physicians surveyed use progestogens to treat a short cervix, with approximately half choosing a synthetic progestin (45%) and half choosing natural progesterone (47%) as their preferred treatment, despite national guidelines recommending only vaginal natural progesterone for this indication. Additional physician education is required to implement current and best practices.

  19. Investigation of the extraction of short diffusion lengths from simulated electron-beam induced current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wee, D.; Parish, G.; Nener, B. [Microelectronics Research Group, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, 6009 Crawley (Perth) (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    This paper reports on the investigations via 2-D simulation into the accuracy of diffusion length extraction from scanning electron-beam induced current measurements when the diffusion length, L is very short. L is extracted by using the direct method proposed by Chan et al.[1] and later refined by Kurniawan and Ong[2] to take finite junction depth into account. The 2-D simulations were undertaken using Synopsys {sup registered} Sentaurus TCAD and a realistic electron-hole pair generation volume was created using CASINO v2.42[3], a Monte Carlo Scanning Electron Microscope interaction simulation software, and imported into Sentaurus. The voltage and diameter of the electron beam and diffusion length and surface recombination velocity of the semiconductor materials were varied in the simulations to determine the errors in the diffusion length extracted from the EBIC signals as a function of these parameters. The results of the simulation show that the accuracy of the method proposed in[1] is reasonably accurate and that the beam voltage and spot size do not have significant effects on the accuracy (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Investigation of the extraction of short diffusion lengths from simulated electron-beam induced current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee, D.; Parish, G.; Nener, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the investigations via 2-D simulation into the accuracy of diffusion length extraction from scanning electron-beam induced current measurements when the diffusion length, L is very short. L is extracted by using the direct method proposed by Chan et al.[1] and later refined by Kurniawan and Ong[2] to take finite junction depth into account. The 2-D simulations were undertaken using Synopsys registered Sentaurus TCAD and a realistic electron-hole pair generation volume was created using CASINO v2.42[3], a Monte Carlo Scanning Electron Microscope interaction simulation software, and imported into Sentaurus. The voltage and diameter of the electron beam and diffusion length and surface recombination velocity of the semiconductor materials were varied in the simulations to determine the errors in the diffusion length extracted from the EBIC signals as a function of these parameters. The results of the simulation show that the accuracy of the method proposed in[1] is reasonably accurate and that the beam voltage and spot size do not have significant effects on the accuracy (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Construction of Short-length High-rates Ldpc Codes Using Difference Families

    OpenAIRE

    Deny Hamdani; Ery Safrianti

    2007-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) code is linear-block error-correcting code defined by sparse parity-check matrix. It isdecoded using the massage-passing algorithm, and in many cases, capable of outperforming turbo code. This paperpresents a class of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes showing good performance with low encoding complexity.The code is constructed using difference families from combinatorial design. The resulting code, which is designed tohave short code length and high code r...

  2. An inversion formula for the exponential Radon transform in spatial domain with variable focal-length fan-beam collimation geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Junhai; Liang Zhengrong

    2006-01-01

    Inverting the exponential Radon transform has a potential use for SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging in cases where a uniform attenuation can be approximated, such as in brain and abdominal imaging. Tretiak and Metz derived in the frequency domain an explicit inversion formula for the exponential Radon transform in two dimensions for parallel-beam collimator geometry. Progress has been made to extend the inversion formula for fan-beam and varying focal-length fan-beam (VFF) collimator geometries. These previous fan-beam and VFF inversion formulas require a spatially variant filtering operation, which complicates the implementation and imposes a heavy computing burden. In this paper, we present an explicit inversion formula, in which a spatially invariant filter is involved. The formula is derived and implemented in the spatial domain for VFF geometry (where parallel-beam and fan-beam geometries are two special cases). Phantom simulations mimicking SPECT studies demonstrate its accuracy in reconstructing the phantom images and efficiency in computation for the considered collimator geometries

  3. Construction of Short-Length High-Rates LDPC Codes Using Difference Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deny Hamdani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Low-density parity-check (LDPC code is linear-block error-correcting code defined by sparse parity-check matrix. It is decoded using the massage-passing algorithm, and in many cases, capable of outperforming turbo code. This paper presents a class of low-density parity-check (LDPC codes showing good performance with low encoding complexity. The code is constructed using difference families from  combinatorial design. The resulting code, which is designed to have short code length and high code rate, can be encoded with low complexity due to its quasi-cyclic structure, and performs well when it is iteratively decoded with the sum-product algorithm. These properties of LDPC code are quite suitable for applications in future wireless local area network.

  4. Modelling of the glass fiber length and the glass fiber length distribution in the compounding of short glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloke, P.; Herken, T.; Schöppner, V.; Rudloff, J.; Kretschmer, K.; Heidemeyer, P.; Bastian, M.; Walther, Dridger, A.

    2014-05-01

    The use of short glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics for the production of highly stressed parts in the plastics processing industry has experienced an enormous boom in the last few years. The reasons for this are primarily the improvements to the stiffness and strength properties brought about by fiber reinforcement. These positive characteristics of glass fiber-reinforced polymers are governed predominantly by the mean glass fiber length and the glass fiber length distribution. It is not enough to describe the properties of a plastics component solely as a function of the mean glass fiber length [1]. For this reason, a mathematical-physical model has been developed for describing the glass fiber length distribution in compounding. With this model, it is possible on the one hand to optimize processes for the production of short glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, and, on the other, to obtain information on the final distribution, on the basis of which much more detailed statements can be made about the subsequent properties of the molded part. Based on experimental tests, it was shown that this model is able to accurately describe the change in glass fiber length distribution in compounding.

  5. HAMSTRING ARCHITECTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ADAPTATIONS FOLLOWING LONG VS. SHORT MUSCLE LENGTH ECCENTRIC TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Guex

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most common preventive eccentric-based exercises, such as Nordic hamstring do not include any hip flexion. So, the elongation stress reached is lower than during the late swing phase of sprinting. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of hamstring architectural (fascicle length and pennation angle and functional (concentric and eccentric optimum angles and concentric and eccentric peak torques parameters following a 3-week eccentric resistance program performed at long (LML versus short muscle length (SML. Both groups performed eight sessions of 3-5x8 slow maximal eccentric knee extensions on an isokinetic dynamometer: the SML group at 0° and the LML group at 80° of hip flexion. Architectural parameters were measured using ultrasound imaging and functional parameters using the isokinetic dynamometer. The fascicle length increased by 4.9% (p<0.01, medium effect size in the SML and by 9.3% (p<0.001, large effect size in the LML group. The pennation angle did not change (p=0.83 in the SML and tended to decrease by 0.7° (p=0.09, small effect size in the LML group. The concentric optimum angle tended to decrease by 8.8° (p=0.09, medium effect size in the SML and by 17.3° (p<0.01, large effect size in the LML group. The eccentric optimum angle did not change (p=0.19, small effect size in the SML and tended to decrease by 10.7° (p=0.06, medium effect size in the LML group. The concentric peak torque did not change in the SML (p=0.37 and the LML (p=0.23 groups, whereas eccentric peak torque increased by 12.9% (p<0.01, small effect size and 17.9% (p<0.001, small effect size in the SML and the LML group, respectively. No group-by-time interaction was found for any parameters. A correlation was found between the training-induced change in fascicle length and the change in concentric optimum angle (r=-0.57, p<0.01. These results suggest that performing eccentric exercises lead to several architectural and functional adaptations. However

  6. Single-session endoscopic resection and focal radiofrequency ablation for short-segment Barrett's esophagus with early neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, Maximilien; Belghazi, Kamar; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; Bergman, Jacques J. G. H. M.; Pouw, Roos E.

    2016-01-01

    The management of early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE) requires endoscopic resection of visible lesions, followed by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the remaining BE. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of combining endoscopic resection and focal RFA in a single endoscopic session in

  7. Phonological short-term memory impairment and the word length effect in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloczek, Sebastian; Büttner, Gerhard; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) of nonspecific aetiology perform poorer on phonological short-term memory tasks than children matched for mental age indicating a structural deficit in a process contributing to short-term recall of verbal material. One explanation is that children with ID of nonspecific aetiology do not activate subvocal rehearsal to refresh degrading memory traces. However, existing research concerning this explanation is inconclusive since studies focussing on the word length effect (WLE) as indicator of rehearsal have revealed inconsistent results for samples with ID and because in several existing studies, it is unclear whether the WLE was caused by rehearsal or merely appeared during output of the responses. We assumed that in children with ID only output delays produce a small WLE while in typically developing 6- to 8-year-olds rehearsal and output contribute to the WLE. From this assumption we derived several predictions that were tested in an experiment including 34 children with mild or borderline ID and 34 typically developing children matched for mental age (MA). As predicted, results revealed a small but significant WLE for children with ID that was significantly smaller than the WLE in the control group. Additionally, for children with ID, a WLE was not found for the first word of each trial but the effect emerged only in later serial positions. The findings corroborate the notion that in children with ID subvocal rehearsal does not develop in line with their mental age and provide a potential explanation for the inconsistent results on the WLE in children with ID. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of epidural analgesia on labor length, instrumental delivery, and neonatal short-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Junichi; Farina, Antonio; Turchi, Giovanni; Hasegawa, Yuko; Zanello, Margherita; Baroncini, Simonetta

    2013-02-01

    We aimed to clarify whether the short-term adverse neonatal outcomes associated with epidural analgesia are due to the epidural analgesia itself or to the instrumental delivery. A retrospective case-control study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between epidural analgesia, labor length, and perinatal outcomes. A total of 350 pregnant women at term who delivered under epidural analgesia (cases) were compared with 1400 patients without epidural analgesia (controls). Vacuum extraction (6.5 vs. 2.9 %) and cesarean section (19.9 vs. 11.1 %) were more frequently performed in the cases than controls (p neonatal variables stratified by mode of delivery were not different in cases and controls, except for a slightly lower umbilical arterial pH in spontaneous delivery for the cases group. However, the Apgar scores and umbilical arterial pH were significantly lower in the neonates delivered by vacuum extraction compared with those in the neonates delivered by spontaneous delivery or cesarean section, regardless of whether epidural analgesia was performed. A multivariable analysis showed that vacuum extraction much more consistently affected the arterial pH than the analgesia itself (the β coefficients were -0.036 for epidural analgesia vs. -0.050 for vacuum extraction). Epidural analgesia was associated with slowly progressing labor, thus resulting in an increased rate of instrumental delivery. This instrumental delivery appears to adversely affect the neonatal outcomes more strongly than the analgesia itself.

  9. Correlation of scintigraphy with short interval autopsy in malignant focal liver disease. A study of 59 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiter, D.J.; Byck, W.; Pauwels, E.K.J.; Taconis, W.K.; Spaander, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    The accuracy of scintigraphy in focal liver disease was evaluated by comparing the scintigraphic and autopsy findings in 59 patients. The interval between scintigraphy and autopsy was not more than a few weeks. The overall agreement rate was 49 in 59 (83 percent), with four out of 26 (15 percent) false positive and six out of 33 (18 percent) false negative reports. Defects smaller than 2 1 / 2 cm were the principal source of false negative reports. The accuracy of interpretation in cases with liver weights up to 2000 g was significantly (P less than 0.025) lower than for higher weights. Detection of a single focal lesion by scintigraphy was found to be unreliable (only two out of 13 correct). Estimation of spleen weights by scintigraphy was disappointing. Liver weight estimates were somewhat more satisfactory

  10. Single-session endoscopic resection and focal radiofrequency ablation for short-segment Barrett's esophagus with early neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Maximilien; Belghazi, Kamar; Weusten, Bas L A M; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; Pouw, Roos E

    2016-07-01

    The management of early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE) requires endoscopic resection of visible lesions, followed by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the remaining BE. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of combining endoscopic resection and focal RFA in a single endoscopic session in patients with early BE neoplasia. This was a retrospective analysis of patients with early BE neoplasia and a visible lesion undergoing combined endoscopic resection and focal RFA in a single session. Consecutive ablation procedures were performed every 8 to 12 weeks until complete endoscopic and histologic eradication of dysplasia and intestinal metaplasia were reached. Forty patients were enrolled, with a median C1M2 BE segment, a visible lesion with a median diameter of 15 mm, and invasive carcinoma in 68% of cases. Endoscopic resection was performed by using the multiband mucosectomy technique in 80% of cases, and the Barrx(90) catheter (Barrx Medical, Sunnyvale, Calif) was used for focal ablation. When an intention-to-treat analysis was used, both complete remission of all neoplasia and intestinal metaplasia were 95% after a median follow-up of 19 months. Stenoses occurred in 33% of cases and were successfully managed with a median number of 2 dilations. In 43% of patients, 1 single-session treatment resulted in complete histologic remission of intestinal metaplasia. Combining endoscopic resection and focal RFA in a single session appears to be effective. Less-aggressive RFA regimens could limit the adverse event rates. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Recall of short word lists presented visually at fast rates: effects of phonological similarity and word length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltheart, V; Langdon, R

    1998-03-01

    Phonological similarity of visually presented list items impairs short-term serial recall. Lists of long words are also recalled less accurately than are lists of short words. These results have been attributed to phonological recoding and rehearsal. If subjects articulate irrelevant words during list presentation, both phonological similarity and word length effects are abolished. Experiments 1 and 2 examined effects of phonological similarity and recall instructions on recall of lists shown at fast rates (from one item per 0.114-0.50 sec), which might not permit phonological encoding and rehearsal. In Experiment 3, recall instructions and word length were manipulated using fast presentation rates. Both phonological similarity and word length effects were observed, and they were not dependent on recall instructions. Experiments 4 and 5 investigated the effects of irrelevant concurrent articulation on lists shown at fast rates. Both phonological similarity and word length effects were removed by concurrent articulation, as they were with slow presentation rates.

  12. Flexibility of short DNA helices with finite-length effect: From base pairs to tens of base pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yuan-Yan; Bao, Lei; Zhang, Xi; Tan, Zhi-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility of short DNA helices is important for the biological functions such as nucleosome formation and DNA-protein recognition. Recent experiments suggest that short DNAs of tens of base pairs (bps) may have apparently higher flexibility than those of kilo bps, while there is still the debate on such high flexibility. In the present work, we have studied the flexibility of short DNAs with finite-length of 5–50 bps by the all-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and Monte Carlo simulations with the worm-like chain model. Our microscopic analyses reveal that short DNAs have apparently high flexibility which is attributed to the significantly strong bending and stretching flexibilities of ∼6 bps at each helix end. Correspondingly, the apparent persistence length l p of short DNAs increases gradually from ∼29 nm to ∼45 nm as DNA length increases from 10 to 50 bps, in accordance with the available experimental data. Our further analyses show that the short DNAs with excluding ∼6 bps at each helix end have the similar flexibility with those of kilo bps and can be described by the worm-like chain model with l p ∼ 50 nm

  13. Effective length of short Fabry-Perot cavity formed by uniform fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmenkov, Yuri O; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Torres-Peiró, Salvador; Cruz, Jose L; Andrés, Miguel V

    2006-07-10

    In this paper, we describe the properties of Fabry-Perot fiber cavity formed by two fiber Bragg gratings in terms of the grating effective length. We show that the grating effective length is determined by the group delay of the grating, which depends on its diffraction efficiency and physical length. We present a simple analytical formula for calculation of the effective length of the uniform fiber Bragg grating and the frequency separation between consecutive resonances of a Fabry-Perot cavity. Experimental results on the cavity transmission spectra for different values of the gratings' reflectivity support the presented theory.

  14. Reliability and short-term intra-individual variability of telomere length measurement using monochrome multiplexing quantitative PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmi Kim

    Full Text Available Studies examining the association between telomere length and cancer risk have often relied on measurement of telomere length from a single blood draw using a real-time PCR technique. We examined the reliability of telomere length measurement using sequential samples collected over a 9-month period.Relative telomere length in peripheral blood was estimated using a single tube monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR assay in blood DNA samples from 27 non-pregnant adult women (aged 35 to 74 years collected in 7 visits over a 9-month period. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the components of variance for telomere length measurements attributed to variation among women and variation between time points within women. Mean telomere length measurement at any single visit was not significantly different from the average of 7 visits. Plates had a significant systematic influence on telomere length measurements, although measurements between different plates were highly correlated. After controlling for plate effects, 64% of the remaining variance was estimated to be accounted for by variance due to subject. Variance explained by time of visit within a subject was minor, contributing 5% of the remaining variance.Our data demonstrate good short-term reliability of telomere length measurement using blood from a single draw. However, the existence of technical variability, particularly plate effects, reinforces the need for technical replicates and balancing of case and control samples across plates.

  15. Short fetal leukocyte telomere length and preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Menon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rupture of the fetal membranes is a common harbinger of imminent labor and delivery. Telomere shortening is a surrogate for oxidative stress (OS and senescence. Fetal leukocyte and placental membrane DNA telomere lengths were evaluated to determine their association with preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (pPROM or spontaneous preterm births with intact membranes (PTB, compared to term birth. METHODS: Telomere lengths were quantified in cord blood leukocytes (n = 133 from three major groups: 1 pPROM (n = 28, 2 PTB (n = 69 and 3 uncomplicated full term births (controls, n = 35, using real-time quantitative PCR. Placental membrane specimens (n = 18 were used to correlate fetal leukocyte and placental telomere lengths. Telomere length differences among the groups were analyzed by ANOVA. Pearson correlation coefficients determined relationships between leukocyte and placental membrane telomere lengths. RESULTS: In pregnancies with intact membranes, fetal leukocyte telomere length was inversely proportional to gestational age. The mean telomere length decreased as gestation progressed, with the shortest at term. pPROM had telomere lengths (9962 ± 3124 bp that were significantly shorter than gestational age-matched PTB (11546 ± 4348 bp, p = 0.04, but comparable to term births (9011 ± 2497 bp, p = 0.31. Secondary analyses revealed no effects of race (African American vs. Caucasian or intraamniotic infection on telomere length. A strong Pearson's correlation was noted between fetal leukocyte and placental membrane telomere lengths (ρ = 0.77; p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal leukocyte telomere length is reduced in pPROM compared to PTB but is similar to term births. pPROM represents a placental membrane disease likely mediated by OS-induced senescence.

  16. Does length of common limb influence remission of diabetes? Short-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramraj V Nagendra Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite strict patient selection criteria, diabetes remission is not seen in all patients after gastric bypass. Can length of the common limb influence diabetes remission? Aim: To find if any correlation exists between the length of the common limb and remission of diabetes. Study Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five consecutive patients with Type II diabetes mellitus and a fasting C-peptide >1 ng/ml who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass were included. All patients had standard limb lengths and length of the common limb was measured in all patients. Patients were followed up and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c was repeated at 6 months postoperatively. Pre- and postoperative HbA1c were then correlated with the lengths of common limb to look for any relation. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Of the 25 patients, 15 were females and 10 were males. The mean age was 44.16 years and the mean body mass index (BMI was 43.96 kg/m 2 . Preoperative HbA1c varied from 5.8 to 12.3%. Length of the common limb varied from 210 to 790 cm (mean 470.4 cm. HbA1c at 6 months ranged from 4.8 to 7.7% (mean 5.81%. On comparison of preoperative and 6 months postoperative HbA1c and correlating with the length of common limb, we found that patients with a common limb of length 600 cm length (P = 0.004. Conclusion: A shorter common limb does appear to have better chances of resolution of Type II diabetes mellitus in our study, thus paving the way for further studies.

  17. Focal myositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kransdorf, M.J.; Temple, H.T.; Sweet, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Focal myositis is a pseudotumor of soft tissue that typically occurs in the deep soft tissue of the extremities, and is a relatively rare lesion. There is a wide clinical spectrum, with approximately one-third of patients with focal myositis subsequently developing polymyositis, and clinical symptoms of generalized weakness, fever, myalgia, and weight loss, with elevation of creatine phosphokinase. We report the case of a patient with focal myositis who subsequently developed myositis ossificans-like features. (orig.)

  18. Elasticity of short DNA molecules: theory and experiment for contour lengths of 0.6-7 microm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Yeonee; Li, Jinyu; Nelson, Philip C; Perkins, Thomas T; Betterton, M D

    2007-12-15

    The wormlike chain (WLC) model currently provides the best description of double-stranded DNA elasticity for micron-sized molecules. This theory requires two intrinsic material parameters-the contour length L and the persistence length p. We measured and then analyzed the elasticity of double-stranded DNA as a function of L (632 nm-7.03 microm) using the classic solution to the WLC model. When the elasticity data were analyzed using this solution, the resulting fitted value for the persistence length p(wlc) depended on L; even for moderately long DNA molecules (L = 1300 nm), this apparent persistence length was 10% smaller than its limiting value for long DNA. Because p is a material parameter, and cannot depend on length, we sought a new solution to the WLC model, which we call the "finite wormlike chain (FWLC)," to account for effects not considered in the classic solution. Specifically we accounted for the finite chain length, the chain-end boundary conditions, and the bead rotational fluctuations inherent in optical trapping assays where beads are used to apply the force. After incorporating these corrections, we used our FWLC solution to generate force-extension curves, and then fit those curves with the classic WLC solution, as done in the standard experimental analysis. These results qualitatively reproduced the apparent dependence of p(wlc) on L seen in experimental data when analyzed with the classic WLC solution. Directly fitting experimental data to the FWLC solution reduces the apparent dependence of p(fwlc) on L by a factor of 3. Thus, the FWLC solution provides a significantly improved theoretical framework in which to analyze single-molecule experiments over a broad range of experimentally accessible DNA lengths, including both short (a few hundred nanometers in contour length) and very long (microns in contour length) molecules.

  19. Visual discrimination and short-term memory for random patterns in patients with a focal cortical lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenlee, MW; Koessler, M; Cornelissen, FW; Mergner, T

    1997-01-01

    Visual discrimination and short-term recognition memory for computer-generated random patterns were explored in 23 patients with a postsurgical lesion in one of the cortical hemispheres. Their results are compared with those of 23 age-matched volunteers. In a same-different forced-choice

  20. Modelling of multiple short-length-scale stall cells in an axial compressor using evolved GMDH neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanifard, N.; Nariman-Zadeh, N.; Farahani, M.H.; Khalkhali, A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 15 years there have been several research efforts to capture the stall inception nature in axial flow compressors. However previous analytical models could not explain the formation of short-length-scale stall cells. This paper provides a new model based on evolved GMDH neural network for transient evolution of multiple short-length-scale stall cells in an axial compressor. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are also employed for optimal design of connectivity configuration of such GMDH-type neural networks. In this way, low-pass filter (LPF) pressure trace near the rotor leading edge is modelled with respect to the variation of pressure coefficient, flow rate coefficient, and number of rotor rotations which are defined as inputs

  1. Focal myositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, H.R.; Dahlstrom, J.E.; Bennett, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Focal myositis is a rare, benign focal inflammation of muscle. The lesion often presents as a mass that may be mistaken for a soft tissue sarcoma. This report describes the MRI and histopathological features of a case and illustrates how the diagnosis may be suspected on the basis of the MR findings. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  2. Increased Body Mass Index, Elevated C-reactive Protein, and Short Telomere Length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Weischer, Maren

    2014-01-01

    -reactive protein. SETTING AND DESIGN: We studied 45,069 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study with measurements of leukocyte telomere length, BMI, and C-reactive protein in a Mendelian randomization study. Using the three obesity-associated polymorphisms FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, and TMEM...

  3. Cut-To-Length Harvesting of Short Rotation Eucalyptus at Simpson Tehama Fiber Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Hartsough; David J. Cooper

    1999-01-01

    A system consisting of a cut-to-length harvester, forwarder, mobile chipper and chip screen was tested in a 7-year-old plantation. Three levels of debarking effort by the harvester (minimal, partial and full), and two levels of screening (with and without) were evaluated. The harvester had the lowest production rate and highest cost of the system elements. Harvester...

  4. Short telomere length is associated with impaired cognitive performance in European ancestry cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hägg, S.; Zhan, Y.; Karlsson, Robert; Gerritsen, L.; Ploner, A.; Lee, J.S.; Broer, L.; Deelen, J.; Marioni, R.E.; Wong, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/29867291X; Lundquist, A.; Zhu, G.; Hansell, N.K.; Sillanpää, E.; Fedko, I O; Amin, N.A.; Beekman, Jeffrey M.; de Craen, A.J.M.; Degerman, S.; Harris, S.E.; Kan, K.-J.; Martin-Ruiz, C.M.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Adolfsson, A.N.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Samani, Nilesh J; Suchiman, H.E.D.; Viljanen, A.; Von Zglinicki, T.; Wright, M J; Hottenga, J.J.; Boomsma, Dorret I; Rantanen, T.; Kaprio, J.A.; Nyholt, D.R.; Martin, N.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314123083; Nyberg, Lars; Adolfsson, R.; Kuh, D.; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Slagboom, P Eline; Van Duijn, C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068368232; Codd, V.; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    The association between telomere length (TL) dynamics on cognitive performance over the life-course is not well understood. This study meta-analyses observational and causal associations between TL and six cognitive traits, with stratifications on APOE genotype, in a Mendelian Randomization (MR)

  5. Short bunch length detector for ion beam with high bunch density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tron, A.M.; Shako, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    The secondary electron rf monitors for short ion bunch phase distribution measurements are presented. Construction particularities of the monitors, influence of space charge of both the primary and the secondary electron beams on the phase resolution, thermal regime of the target during beam-target interaction are considered

  6. Soliton scatterings by impurities in a short-length sine-Gordon chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikande, A.M.; Kofane, T.C.

    1995-07-01

    The scattering of soliton by impurities at the frontiers of a finite-length region of an infinite sine-Gordon chain is analyzed. The impurities consist of two isotopic inhomogeneities installed at the boundaries of the finite-length region. The soliton solution in the region is found in term of snoidal sine-Gordon soliton which properly takes into account the effects of the boundaries. By contrast, the soliton solutions in the neighboring sides of the region are obtained in terms of the so-called large-amplitude, localized kinks with limiting spatial extensions at x → ± ∞, which is equal ±π. Using the continuity of these soliton solutions at the frontiers as well as appropriate boundary conditions, it is shown that the soliton may be either i) reflected by the incident impurity; ii) trapped (with oscillating motions) between the two impurities (i.e. inside the infinite region); or iii) transmitted by the second impurity into the third, infinitely extended region. The threshold velocities for the reflection and transmission into different regions are found and shown to vary exponentially as a function of the length of the bounded region. The frequency of soliton oscillations between the impurities has also been calculated in some acceptable limit. (author). 28 refs, 1 fig

  7. Focal myositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kransdorf, M.J. [Saint Mary`s Hospital, Richmond, VA (United States). Dept. of Radiol.]|[Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Temple, H.T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)]|[Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Sweet, D.E. [Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Focal myositis is a pseudotumor of soft tissue that typically occurs in the deep soft tissue of the extremities, and is a relatively rare lesion. There is a wide clinical spectrum, with approximately one-third of patients with focal myositis subsequently developing polymyositis, and clinical symptoms of generalized weakness, fever, myalgia, and weight loss, with elevation of creatine phosphokinase. We report the case of a patient with focal myositis who subsequently developed myositis ossificans-like features. (orig.) With 3 figs., 25 refs.

  8. A short leucocyte telomere length is associated with development of insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhulst, Simon; Dalgård, Christine; Labat, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A number of studies have shown that leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is inversely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present longitudinal cohort study, utilising a twin design, was to assess whether shorter LTL predicts insulin resistance...... and insulin resistance over an average of 12 years were performed in a subset of the Registry consisting of 338 (184 monozygotic and 154 dizygotic) same-sex twin pairs. RESULTS: Age at baseline examination was 37.4 ± 9.6 (mean ± SD) years. Baseline insulin resistance was not associated with age......-dependent changes in LTL (attrition) over the follow-up period, whereas baseline LTL was associated with changes in insulin resistance during this period. The shorter the LTL at baseline, the more pronounced was the increase in insulin resistance over the follow-up period (p 

  9. Electron Cloud Cyclotron Resonances in the Presence of a Short-bunch-length Relativistic Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, Christine; Celata, C.M.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, J.-L.; Wu, Jennifer W.

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations using the 2D code 'POSINST' were used to study the formation of the electron cloud in the wiggler section of the positron damping ring of the International Linear Collider. In order to simulate an x-y slice of the wiggler (i.e., a slice perpendicular to the beam velocity), each simulation assumed a constant vertical magnetic field. At values of the magnetic field where the cyclotron frequency was an integral multiple of the bunch frequency, and where the field strength was less than approximately 0.6 T, equilibrium average electron densities were up to three times the density found at other neighboring field values. Effects of this resonance between the bunch and cyclotron frequency are expected to be non-negligible when the beam bunch length is much less than the product of the electron cyclotron period and the beam

  10. Development of a scanning tunneling potentiometry system for measurement of electronic transport at short length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozler, Michael

    It is clear that complete understanding of macroscopic properties of materials is impossible without a thorough knowledge of behavior at the smallest length scales. While the past 25 years have witnessed major advances in a variety of techniques that probe the nanoscale properties of matter, electrical transport measurements -- the heart of condensed matter research -- have lagged behind, never progressing beyond bulk measurements. This thesis describes a scanning tunneling potentiometry (STP) system developed to simultaneously map the transport-related electrochemical potential distribution of a biased sample along with its surface topography, extending electronic transport measurements to the nanoscale. Combining a novel sample biasing technique with a continuous current-nulling feedback scheme pushes the noise performance of the measurement to its fundamental limit - the Johnson noise of the STM tunnel junction. The resulting 130 nV voltage sensitivity allows us to spatially resolve local potentials at scales down to 2 nm, while maintaining atomic scale STM imaging, all at scan sizes of up to 15 microns. A mm-range two-dimensional coarse positioning stage and the ability to operate from liquid helium to room temperature with a fast turn-around time greatly expand the versatility of the instrument. Use of carefully selected model materials, combined with excellent topographic and voltage resolution has allowed us to distinguish measurement artifacts caused by surface roughness from true potentiometric features, a major problem in previous STP measurements. The measurements demonstrate that STP can produce physically meaningful results for homogeneous transport as well as non-uniform conduction dominated by material microstructures. Measurements of several physically interesting materials systems are presented as well, revealing new behaviors at the smallest length sales. The results establish scanning tunneling potentiometry as a useful tool for physics and

  11. Short leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shufeng; Yeh, Fawn; Lin, Jue; Matsuguchi, Tet; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2014-05-01

    Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been associated with a wide range of age-related disorders including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. Obesity is an important risk factor for CVD and diabetes. The association of LTL with obesity is not well understood. This study for the first time examines the association of LTL with obesity indices including body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio in 3,256 American Indians (14-93 years old, 60% women) participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Association of LTL with each adiposity index was examined using multivariate generalized linear mixed model, adjusting for chronological age, sex, study center, education, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption, and total energy intake), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hypertension and diabetes. Results show that obese participants had significantly shorter LTL than non-obese individuals (age-adjusted P=0.0002). Multivariate analyses demonstrate that LTL was significantly and inversely associated with all of the studied obesity parameters. Our results may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in pathogenesis of obesity and its comorbidities.

  12. Conflation of Short Identity-by-Descent Segments Bias Their Inferred Length Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charleston W. K. Chiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Identity-by-descent (IBD is a fundamental concept in genetics with many applications. In a common definition, two haplotypes are said to share an IBD segment if that segment is inherited from a recent shared common ancestor without intervening recombination. Segments several cM long can be efficiently detected by a number of algorithms using high-density SNP array data from a population sample, and there are currently efforts to detect shorter segments from sequencing. Here, we study a problem of identifiability: because existing approaches detect IBD based on contiguous segments of identity-by-state, inferred long segments of IBD may arise from the conflation of smaller, nearby IBD segments. We quantified this effect using coalescent simulations, finding that significant proportions of inferred segments 1–2 cM long are results of conflations of two or more shorter segments, each at least 0.2 cM or longer, under demographic scenarios typical for modern humans for all programs tested. The impact of such conflation is much smaller for longer (> 2 cM segments. This biases the inferred IBD segment length distribution, and so can affect downstream inferences that depend on the assumption that each segment of IBD derives from a single common ancestor. As an example, we present and analyze an estimator of the de novo mutation rate using IBD segments, and demonstrate that unmodeled conflation leads to underestimates of the ages of the common ancestors on these segments, and hence a significant overestimate of the mutation rate. Understanding the conflation effect in detail will make its correction in future methods more tractable.

  13. Recurrent Bilateral Focal Myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagafuchi, Hiroko; Nakano, Hiromasa; Ooka, Seido; Takakuwa, Yukiko; Yamada, Hidehiro; Tadokoro, Mamoru; Shimojo, Sadatomo; Ozaki, Shoichi

    This report describes a rare case of recurrent bilateral focal myositis and its successful treatment via methotrexate. A 38-year-old man presented myalgia of the right gastrocnemius in May 2005. Magnetic resonance imaging showed very high signal intensity in the right gastrocnemius on short-tau inversion recovery images. A muscle biopsy revealed inflammatory CD4+ cell-dominant myogenic change. Focal myositis was diagnosed. The first steroid treatment was effective. Tapering of prednisolone, however, repeatedly induced myositis relapse, which progressed to multiple muscle lesions of both lower limbs. Initiation of methotrexate finally allowed successful tapering of prednisolone, with no relapse in the past 4 years.

  14. Effects of fiber length on mechanical properties and fracture behavior of short carbon fiber reinforced geopolymer matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Tiesong; Jia Dechang; He Peigang; Wang Meirong; Liang Defu

    2008-01-01

    A kind of sheet-like carbon fiber preform was developed using short fibers (2, 7 and 12 mm, respectively) as starting materials and used to strengthen a geopolymer. Mechanical properties, fracture behavior, microstructure and toughening mechanisms of the as-prepared composites were investigated by three-point bending test, optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the short carbon fibers disperse uniformly in geopolymer matrix. The C f /geopolymer composites exhibit apparently improved mechanical properties and an obvious noncatastrophic failure behavior. The composite reinforced by the carbon fibers of 7 mm in length shows a maximum flexural strength as well as the highest work of facture, which are nearly 5 times and more than 2 orders higher than that of the geopolymer matrix, respectively. The predominant strengthening and toughening mechanisms are attributed to the apparent fiber bridging and pulling-out effect based on the weak fiber/matrix interface as well as the sheet-like carbon fiber preform

  15. Individual Assessment of Brain Tissue Changes in MS and the Effect of Focal Lesions on Short-Term Focal Atrophy Development in MS: A Voxel-Guided Morphometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Fox

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We performed voxel-guided morphometry (VGM investigating the mechanisms of brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS related to focal lesions. VGM maps detect regional brain changes when comparing 2 time points on high resolution T1-weighted (T1w magnetic resonace imaging (MRI. Two T1w MR datasets from 92 relapsing-remitting MS patients obtained 12 months apart were analysed with VGM. New lesions and volume changes of focal MS lesions as well as in the surrounding tissue were identified by visual inspection on colour coded VGM maps. Lesions were dichotomized in active and inactive lesions. Active lesions, defined by either new lesions (NL (volume increase > 5% in VGM, chronic enlarging lesions (CEL (pre-existent T1w lesions with volume increase > 5%, or chronic shrinking lesions (CSL (pre-existent T1w lesions with volume reduction > 5% in VGM, were accompanied by tissue shrinkage in surrounding and/or functionally related regions. Volume loss within the corpus callosum was highly correlated with the number of lesions in its close proximity. Volume loss in the lateral geniculate nucleus was correlated with lesions along the optic radiation. VGM analysis provides strong evidence that all active lesion types (NL, CEL, and CSL contribute to brain volume reduction in the vicinity of lesions and/or in anatomically and functionally related areas of the brain.

  16. Development of a focal-plane drift chamber for low-energetic pions and experimental determination of an inverse transfer matrix for the short-orbit spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, M.

    2004-10-01

    The three-spectrometer facility at the Mainz microtron MAMI was supplemented by an additional spectrometer, which is characterized by its short path-length and therefore is called Short Orbit Spectrometer (SOS). At nominal distance from target to SOS (66 cm) the particles to be detected cover a mean path-length between reaction point and detector of 165 cm. Thus for pion electroproduction close to threshold in comparison to the big spectrometers the surviving probability of charged pions with momentum 100 MeV/c raises from 15% to 73%. Consequently the systematic error (''myon contamination''), as for the proposed measurement of the weak form-factors G A (Q 2 ) and G P (Q 2 ), reduces significantly. The main subject of this thesis is the drift chamber for the SOS. Its small relative thickness (0.03% X 0 ), reducing multiple scattering, is optimized with regard to detecting low-energy pions. Due to the innovative character of the driftchamber geometry a dedicated software for track-reconstruction, efficiency-determination etc. had to be developed. A comfortable feature for calibrating the drift path-drift time-relation, represented by cubic splines, was implemented. The resolution of the track detector in the dispersive plane is 76 μaem for the spatial and 0.23 for the angular coordinate (most probable error) and, correspondingly, 110 μm and 0.29 in the non-dispersive plane. For backtracing the reaction quantities from the detector coordinates the inverse transfer-matrix of the spectrometer was determined. For this purpose electrons were scattered quasi-elastically from protons inside the 12 C-nucleus, thus defining the starting angles of the electrons by holes of a sieve collimator. The resulting experimental values for the angular resolution at the target amount to σ φ =1.3 mrad and σ θ =10.6 mrad resp. The momentum calibration of the SOS only can be achieved by quasi-elastic scattering (two-arm experiment). For this reason the contribution of the proton

  17. Transcranial focal electrical stimulation via tripolar concentric ring electrodes does not modify the short- and long-term memory formation in rats evaluated in the novel object recognition test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogel-Salazar, G; Luna-Munguía, H; Stevens, K E; Besio, W G

    2013-04-01

    Noninvasive transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) via tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCREs) has been under development as an alternative/complementary therapy for seizure control. Transcranial focal electrical stimulation has shown efficacy in attenuating penicillin-, pilocarpine-, and pentylenetetrazole-induced acute seizures in rat models. This study evaluated the effects of TFS via TCREs on the memory formation of healthy rats as a safety test of TFS. Short- and long-term memory formation was tested after the application of TFS using the novel object recognition (NOR) test. The following independent groups were used: naïve, control (without TFS), and TFS (treated). The naïve, control, and stimulated groups spent more time investigating the new object than the familiar one during the test phase. Transcranial focal electrical stimulation via TCREs given once does not modify the short- and long-term memory formation in rats in the NOR test. Results provide an important step towards a better understanding for the safe usage of TFS via TCREs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Retrospective cohort clinical investigation of a dental implant with a narrow diameter and short length for the partial rehabilitation of extremely atrophic jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maló, Paulo S; de Araújo Nobre, Miguel A; Lopes, Armando V; Ferro, Ana S

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the short-term clinical outcomes of narrow-diameter short-length implants for the fixed-prosthetic partial rehabilitation of extremely resorbed jaws. Twenty-three patients requiring partial rehabilitations with narrow-platform short-length implants in any jaw were included in this study. In total, 30 implants 3.3 mm in diameter and 7 (n = 15 implants) or 8.5 (n = 15 implants) mm in length were inserted. The primary outcome measure was implant cumulative survival rate (CSR); the secondary outcome measures were marginal bone resorption at 1 and 3 years and the incidence of biologic and mechanical complications. Five patients (21.7%) with six implants (20%) were lost to follow-up. Two implants failed in two patients, yielding a CSR at 3 years of follow-up of 93.4%. The average (standard deviation) marginal bone resorption was 1.34 mm (0.95 mm) after the first year and 1.38 mm (0.78 mm) after the third year. Biologic complications occurred in three patients; mechanical complications occurred in three patients. Despite the limitations of the study, our findings show that the use of new narrow-diameter short-length implants for the rehabilitation of extremely atrophic regions is viable in the short-term, and can be considered a treatment alternative in extremely resorbed jaws.

  19. FIELD INVESTIGATIONS OF PILED-RAFT FOUNDATIONS WITH SHORT-LENGTH CONIC PILES IN BUILDING AREAS OF MINSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sernov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent time piled foundations are extensively applied due to an increase of storeys in buildings constructed in Minsk and load increment on the soil. Preference is given to this approach even in the case when relatively firm soil occurs in the top part of the foundation bed. In this case maximum usage of the foundation bed bearing capacity and reduction of foundation cost are considered as top-priority tasks for designers. One of the ways to increase the bearing capacity of piled foundations is the necessity to take into account resistance of foundation bed soil located under raft bottom. The raft as well as a shallow foundation is capable to transfer a significant part of building load into the soil. Such approach makes it possible to reduce a number of piles in the foundation or shorten their length. Then it results in shortening of the construction period and significant reduction in zero cycle. However up to the present moment reliable calculation methods that permit to take into account soil resistance in the raft base. An analysis of previous investigations on the matter executed by various researchers and a number of field investigations have been carried out with the purpose to develop the proposed methods.The paper presents results of field investigations on foundations consisting of short stamped tapered piles which are joined together with the help of the raft fragment. Strength and deformation characteristics of the bases are increasing while making such foundations in the fill-up soil. In this case the filled-up ground layer becomes a bearing layer both for piles and rafts as well. Improvement of high-plastic clay-bearing soil properties is ensured by ramming dry concrete mix under pile foot. The paper describes an experience on application of the piled-raft foundation in complicated engineering and geological conditions while constructing the Orthodox Church in Minsk.

  20. Depressive and anxiety disorders and short leukocyte telomere length: mediating effects of metabolic stress and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Révész, D; Verhoeven, J E; Milaneschi, Y; Penninx, B W J H

    2016-08-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders are associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL), an indicator of cellular aging. It is, however, unknown which pathways underlie this association. This study examined the extent to which lifestyle factors and physiological changes such as inflammatory or metabolic alterations mediate the relationship. We applied mediation analysis techniques to data from 2750 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. LTL was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Independent variables were current depressive (30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptoms - Self Report) and anxiety (21-item Beck's Anxiety Inventory) symptoms and presence of a depressive or anxiety disorder diagnosis based on DSM-IV; mediator variables included physiological stress systems, metabolic syndrome components and lifestyle factors. Short LTL was associated with higher symptom severity (B = -2.4, p = 0.002) and current psychiatric diagnosis (B = -63.3, p = 0.024). C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cigarette smoking were significant mediators in the relationship between psychopathology and LTL. When all significant mediators were included in one model, the effect sizes of the relationships between LTL and symptom severity and current diagnosis were reduced by 36.7 and 32.7%, respectively, and the remaining direct effects were no longer significant. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, metabolic alterations and cigarette smoking are important mediators of the association between depressive and anxiety disorders and LTL. This calls for future research on intervention programs that take into account lifestyle changes in mental health care settings.

  1. The influence of length of relationship, gender and age on the relationship intention of short-term insurance clients: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derik Steyn

    2011-09-01

    insurance industry completed self-administered questionnaires. Findings indicate that, for a group of high relationship-intention clients of a short-term insurance organisation, no practically significant discrimination exists on any of the relationship-intention constructs for clients’ length of relationship, gender or age.

  2. Preventing Preterm Birth with Progesterone in Women with a Short Cervical Length from a Low-Risk Population: A Multicenter Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van der Ven, A.J.; Kleinrouweler, C.E.; Schuit, E.; Kazemier, B.M.; Verhoeven, C.J.M.; de Miranda, E.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.G.; Sikkema, J.M.; Woiski, M.D.; Bossuyt, P.M.; Pajkrt, E.; de Groot, C.J.M.; Mol, B.W.J.; Haak, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of vaginal progesterone in reducing adverse neonatal outcome due to preterm birth (PTB) in low-risk pregnant women with a short cervical length (CL). Study Design Women with a singleton pregnancy without a history of PTB

  3. Short Length of Stay After Elective Transfemoral Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement is Not Associated With Increased Early or Late Readmission Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Maneesh; Qui, Feng; Austin, Peter C; Ko, Dennis T; Wood, David; Czarnecki, Andrew; Patel, Vaidehi; Lee, Douglas S; Wijeysundera, Harindra C

    2017-04-24

    Elderly patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are at risk of hospital readmission postprocedure. It is not known whether the index hospital length of stay and, specifically, early discharge post-TAVR is associated with an increased risk of readmission. We hypothesized a nonlinear relationship whereby both short and long lengths of stay were associated with increased readmission risk. We performed a retrospective multicenter cohort analysis of patients undergoing elective transfemoral TAVR and surviving to discharge between January 2007 and March 2014. The exposure variable was hospital length of stay measured from the procedure date to the date of discharge and modeled as a continuous variable in a multivariable cause-specific Cox regression. Main outcome measures were 30-day and 1-year all-cause readmissions. The study population consisted of 709 patients with a median length of stay of 6 days (interquartile range, 4-8). At 30-days and 1-year, 13.5% and 44.0% of patients were readmitted, respectively. Although post-TAVR length of stay was not associated with 30-day all-cause readmissions ( P =0.925), there existed a significant association with 1-year readmission ( P =0.010) after adjustment for baseline clinical variables. The association between post-TAVR length of stay and 1-year readmission was linear ( P =0.549 for nonlinearity) with no evidence supporting an increased readmission risk for shorter length of stays. Among elderly survivors of elective transfemoral TAVR, a short postprocedural length of stay was not associated with an increased risk readmission within 30 days or 1 year. However, the risk of 1-year readmission increased with longer post-TAVR lengths of stay. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  4. A comparison of computerized adaptive testing and fixed-length short forms for the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-MTM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amtmann, Dagmar; Bamer, Alyssa M; Kim, Jiseon; Bocell, Fraser; Chung, Hyewon; Park, Ryoungsun; Salem, Rana; Hafner, Brian J

    2017-09-01

    New health status instruments can be administered by computerized adaptive test or short forms. The Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-M TM ) is a self-report measure of mobility for prosthesis users with lower limb loss. This study used the PLUS-M to examine advantages and disadvantages of computerized adaptive test and short forms. To compare scores obtained from computerized adaptive test to scores obtained from fixed-length short forms (7-item and 12-item) in order to provide guidance to researchers and clinicians on how to select the best form of administration for different uses. Cross-sectional, observational study. Individuals with lower limb loss completed the PLUS-M by computerized adaptive test and short forms. Administration time, correlations between the scores, and standard errors were compared. Scores and standard errors from the computerized adaptive test, 7-item short form, and 12-item short form were highly correlated and all forms of administration were efficient. Computerized adaptive test required less time to administer than either paper or electronic short forms; however, time savings were minimal compared to the 7-item short form. Results indicate that the PLUS-M computerized adaptive test is most efficient, and differences in scores between administration methods are minimal. The main advantage of the computerized adaptive test was more reliable scores at higher levels of mobility compared to short forms. Clinical relevance Health-related item banks, like the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-M TM ), can be administered by computerized adaptive testing (CAT) or as fixed-length short forms (SFs). Results of this study will help clinicians and researchers decide whether they should invest in a CAT administration system or whether SFs are more appropriate.

  5. Effect of stereochemistry, chain length and sequence pattern on antimicrobial properties of short synthetic β-sheet forming peptide amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Zhan Yuin; Cheng, Junchi; Huang, Yuan; Xu, Kaijin; Ji, Zhongkang; Fan, Weimin; Yang, Yi Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the face of mounting global antibiotics resistance, the identification and development of membrane-active antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as an alternative class of antimicrobial agent have gained significant attention. The physical perturbation and disruption of microbial membranes by the AMPs have been proposed to be an effective means to overcome conventional mechanisms of drug resistance. Recently, we have reported the design of a series of short synthetic β-sheet folding peptide amphiphiles comprised of recurring (X1Y1X2Y2)n-NH2 sequences where X: hydrophobic amino acids, Y: cationic amino acids and n: number of repeat units. In efforts to investigate the effects of key parameters including stereochemistry, chain length and sequence pattern on antimicrobial effects, systematic d-amino acid substitutions of the lead peptides (IRIK)2-NH2 (IK8-all L) and (IRVK)3-NH2 (IK12-all L) were performed. It was found that the corresponding D-enantiomers exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities with minimal or no change in hemolytic activities, hence translating very high selectivity indices of 407.0 and >9.8 for IK8-all D and IK12-all D respectively. IK8-all D was also demonstrated to be stable to degradation by broad spectrum proteases trypsin and proteinase K. The membrane disrupting bactericidal properties of IK8-all D effectively prevented drug resistance development and inhibited the growth of various clinically isolated MRSA, VRE, Acinetobacter baumanni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cryptococcus. neoformans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Significant reduction in intracellular bacteria counts was also observed following treatment with IK8-all D in the Staphylococcus. aureus infected mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the d-amino acids substituted β-sheet forming peptide IK8-all D with its enhanced antimicrobial activities and improved protease stability, is a promising therapeutic candidate with potential to combat

  6. The short mean length of stay of post-emergency geriatric units is associated with the rate of early readmission in frail elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traissac, Thalie; Videau, Marie-Neige; Bourdil, Marie-José; Bourdel-Marchasson, Isabelle; Salles, Nathalie

    2011-06-01

    Specific postemergency short-stay geriatric units may decrease length of hospital stay, functional decline, and early readmission rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors of early rehospitalization in a shortstay geriatric unit. This study was a prospective observational study comprising over one year patients aged over 75 years, admitted to the post-emergency short-stay geriatric unit (Hôpital Saint André, Bordeaux, France) and discharged home. Socio-demographic data, length of hospital stay, and a standardized geriatric assessment were collected for all patients. One month after home discharge, patients were followed-up by phone, and the hospital readmission rate was calculated. descriptive, unvaried and multivariate analyses were carried out. A total of 476 patients were included in this study (mean age 86.5±6 yrs; 154 men, 322 women). Mean length of stay in the post-emergency short-stay geriatric unit was 6.3±2.7 days, and a total of 68 (14.3%) patients were readmitted within one month after home discharge. The readmission rate was associated with a diagnosis of delirium (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.3; p=0.02), mean length of stay exceeding 6 days (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.5; p=0.02), and decision of home discharge (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.1; p=0.002). Short mean lengths of stay were not considered as a risk factor for readmissions within one month, even in frail, dependent, hospitalized elderly persons.

  7. Short telomere length is associated with NOTCH1/SF3B1/TP53 aberrations and poor outcome in newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Larry; Grabowski, Pawel; Degerman, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Most previous studies on telomere length (TL) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are based on referral cohorts including a high proportion of aggressive cases. Here, the impact of TL was analyzed in a population-based cohort of newly diagnosed CLL (n = 265) and in relation to other prognostic ...... markers. Short telomeres were particularly associated with high-risk genetic markers, such as NOTCH1, SF3B1, or TP53 aberrations, and predicted a short time to treatment (TTT) and overall survival (OS) (both P...

  8. Superconductivity, charge orderings, magnetism, and their phase separations in the ground state of lattice models of superconductor with very short coherence length

    OpenAIRE

    Kapcia, Konrad Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    This is an author-created, un-copyedited version of an article accepted for publication in Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism. We present the ground state results for lattice models of superconductor (SC) with extremely short coherence length, which also involve the interplay with charge (CO) and (anti-)ferromagnetic orderings. Our preliminary results at zero-temperature (derived by means of the variational approach which treats the on-site interaction term exactly and the in...

  9. Short- to mid-term follow-up effectiveness of US-guided focal extracorporeal shock wave therapy in the treatment of elbow lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentini, R; Mangano, T; Repetto, I; Cerruti, P; Kuqi, E; Trompetto, C; Franchin, F

    2015-09-01

    Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow is a common and disabling overuse syndrome. Several treatment modalities are currently available for this condition, but the optimal treatment method remains undefined. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been widely used in the last 10 years, although conflicting results are present in the literature. In this study, we evaluated 36 patients (37 elbows), with a mean follow-up time of 24.8 months. Focal ESWT was administered by means of an electromagnetic generator equipped with in-line ultrasound guidance, during one or more cycles of 3-4 weekly sessions. In the setting of the study, patients were clinically evaluated and subjective satisfaction and rate of relapse were investigated. A positive response was described in 75.7 % of the patients after treatment. Mean quickDASH score and VAS attested at 5.5 and 1.1, respectively. Roles and Maudsley score was rated as I or II in 33 cases. Four patients resulted not responders to the therapy, while 5 patients complained one or more episodes of symptoms relapse. No influence on the final outcome was evident with respect to demographic features and previous therapies as well. Response rate to further ESWT cycles in patients refractory to the first cycle of ESWT was 33.3 %. Focal ESWT represents a valuable and safe solution in case of elbow lateral epicondylitis, both in newly diagnosed and previously treated cases, representing a definitive treatment in the majority of patients. Patients refractory to a 3- to 4-session ESWT cycle have lower chances of positive response after further ESWT cycles.

  10. The processing of spatial information in short-term memory: insights from eye tracking the path length effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérard, Katherine; Tremblay, Sébastien; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2009-10-01

    Serial memory for spatial locations increases as the distance between successive stimuli locations decreases. This effect, known as the path length effect [Parmentier, F. B. R., Elford, G., & Maybery, M. T. (2005). Transitional information in spatial serial memory: Path characteristics affect recall performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 31, 412-427], was investigated in a systematic manner using eye tracking and interference procedures to explore the mechanisms responsible for the processing of spatial information. In Experiment 1, eye movements were monitored during a spatial serial recall task--in which the participants have to remember the location of spatially and temporally separated dots on the screen. In the experimental conditions, eye movements were suppressed by requiring participants to incessantly move their eyes between irrelevant locations. Ocular suppression abolished the path length effect whether eye movements were prevented during item presentation or during a 7s retention interval. In Experiment 2, articulatory suppression was combined with a spatial serial recall task. Although articulatory suppression impaired performance, it did not alter the path length effect. Our results suggest that rehearsal plays a key role in serial memory for spatial information, though the effect of path length seems to involve other processes located at encoding, such as the time spent fixating each location and perceptual organization.

  11. Short QTc Interval in Males with Klinefelter Syndrome-Influence of CAG Repeat Length, Body Composition, and Testosterone Replacement Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Inger Norlyk; Skakkebaek, Anne; Andersen, Niels Holmark

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundKlinefelter syndrome (KS) is a sex chromosomal aneuploidy (47,XXY) affecting 1/660 males. Based on findings in Turner syndrome, we hypothesized that electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities would be present in males with KS. ObjectiveTo investigate ECGs in males with KS and compare...... syndrome was determined in participants with a QTc ... interval comparable to controls. No mutations in genes related to short QT syndrome were found. ConclusionWe found short QTc interval in males with KS, with further shortening of the QTc interval by T. These results suggest that genes on the X chromosome could be involved in regulation of the QTc interval...

  12. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  13. Comparison of axial length, anterior chamber depth and intraocular lens power between IOLMaster and ultrasound in normal, long and short eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Zhang, Yaqin; Zhang, Haining; Jia, Zhijie; Zhang, Suhua; Wang, Xiaogang

    2018-01-01

    To compare the axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and intraocular lens power (IOLP) of IOLMaster and Ultrasound in normal, long and short eyes. Seventy-four normal eyes (≥ 22 mm and ≤ 25 mm), 74 long eyes (> 25 mm) and 78 short eyes (devices in the order of IOLMaster followed by Ultrasound. The IOLP were calculated using a free online LADAS IOL formula calculator. The difference in AL and IOLP between IOLMaster and Ultrasound was statistically significant when all three groups were combined. The difference in ACD between IOLMaster and Ultrasound was statistically significant in the normal group (Peye group (Peye group (P = 0.465). For the IOLP difference between IOLMaster and Ultrasound in the normal group, the percentage of IOLP differences eye group, they were 90.5%, 5.4%, 4.1% and 0%, respectively. For the short eye group, they were 61.5%, 23.1%, 10.3%, and 5.1%, respectively. IOLMaster and Ultrasound have statistically significant differences in AL measurements and IOLP (using LADAS formula) for normal, long eye and short eye. The two instruments agree regarding ACD measurements for the long eye group, but differ for the normal and short eye groups. Moreover, the high percentage of IOLP differences greater than |0.5|D in the short eye group is noteworthy.

  14. Short Is Beautiful: Dimensionality and Measurement Invariance in Two Length of the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction at Work Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårten Eriksson

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-determination theory proposes that all humans have three intrinsic psychological needs: the needs for Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness. These needs take different forms in different areas of life. The present study examines the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction at Work (BPNS-W scale. The fit of 10-factor structures previously suggested for related versions of the scale were compared. Cross-sectional data from 1,200 participants were examined in a confirmatory factor analysis framework. Both the original 21-item version and a reduced 12-item version of the BPNS-W were examined. The General Health Questionnaire was used for validation. The results supported a three-factor solution with correlated error variances for the reversed items. Invariance testing of the long and short scales gave best support to the short scale, for which partial scalar invariance was achieved. The external validity of the short scale was supported by a hierarchical regression analysis in which each need made a unique contribution in predicting psychological well-being. In conclusion, the results corroborate a three-factor structure of BPNS-W. Although not perfect the short scale should, it is argued, be preferred over the long version. Directions for the future development of the scale are discussed.

  15. A Comparison of the Psychometric Properties of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory Full-Length and Short-Form Versions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Rebecca M.; Sellbom, Martin; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2012-01-01

    The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) has shown promising construct validity as a measure of psychopathy. Because of its relative efficiency, a short-form version of the PPI (PPI-SF) was developed and has proven useful in many psychopathy studies. The validity of the PPI-SF, however, has not been thoroughly examined, and no studies have…

  16. Willow coppice systems in short rotation forestry: effects of plant spacing, rotation length and clonal composition on biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willebrand, E.; Ledin, S.; Verwijst, T. (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research)

    1993-01-01

    Above ground biomass production was determined for ten Salix clones grown in pure and mixed stands at a square spacing of 1 m and seven rotation periods (1 to 6 and 8 years), and of one clone grown at four square spacings (0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 1 m), with rotation cycles of 1 to 5 years. Most clones reached a maximum mean annual increment (8 to 14 tons dry matter ha[sup -1] yr[sup -1]) under a rotation period of 4 to 5 years. Densely spaced stands exhibited a higher production than wider spacings during the first harvests under the shortest rotation periods. Neither in later harvests of short cycles (1 to 3 years) nor in any harvests of longer cycles (> 3 years) did spacing affect biomass production. Some clones suffered from leaf rust and grazing by roe deer. Clone mixtures showed a higher biomass production in the later stages due to the compensatory effect of the successful clones which, when growing in mixtures, could fill out the gaps left by individuals that suffered from impacts other than competition. We conclude that extremely short rotations (1 to 2 years) are unsuitable for Swedish conditions, and that 4- to 6-year rotations perform best. In such longer rotations, biomass production of stands with 2 x 10[sup 4] plants per hectare equals the production of denser stands. (Author)

  17. Smoking and perceived stress in relation to short salivary telomere length among caregivers of children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Velez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Pepper, Micah; Andrade, Asterio; Stoner, Lee; De Vivo, Immaculata; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length (TL), the length of repeated DNA sequence that forms protective caps at the end of chromosomes, has emerged as a novel biomarker of cell aging and oxidative stress. There is increasing research exploring the associations of smoking and perceived stress with TL, and the results are inconsistent. This study aimed to examine whether smoking and perceived stress were associated with shortened salivary TL among primary caregivers of children with disabilities. Using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction method, salivary TL was assessed among 89 caregivers aged 19-69 years (87% were women) who took care of disabled children in the Patagonia Region, Chile. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. The 14-item Perceived Stress Scale was used to assess perceived stress. Mean relative TL was 0.92 (standard error = 0.03). Smokers had age-adjusted mean TL that was 0.07 units lower (β = -0.07, standard error = 0.03; p = 0.012) than non-smokers. Smokers were 2.17 times more likely to have shorter TL ( stress. Caregivers with higher perceived stress were 2.13 times more likely to have shorter TL (odds ratio = 3.13; 95% confidence interval = 1.03-9.55) than caregivers with lower perceived stress after adjustment for age and smoking. This study provides the first evidence of strong associations between smoking and perceived stress and shortened salivary TL among caregivers of children with disabilities. Larger studies with detailed information on smoking status are warranted to confirm our findings.

  18. Short-term retention of pictures and words as a function of type of distraction and length of delay interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, J W; Siegel, A W; Dhawan, M

    1976-01-01

    Picture and word triads were tested in a Brown-Peterson short-term retention task at varying delay intervals (3, 10, or 30 sec) and under acoustic and simultaneous acoustic and visual distraction. Pictures were superior to words at all delay intervals under single acoustic distraction. Dual distraction consistently reduced picture retention while simultaneously facilitating word retention. The results were interpreted in terms of the dual coding hypothesis with modality-specific interference effects in the visual and acoustic processing systems. The differential effects of dual distraction were related to the introduction of visual interference and differential levels of functional acoustic interference across dual and single distraction tasks. The latter was supported by a constant 2/1 ratio in the backward counting rates of the acoustic vs. dual distraction tasks. The results further suggest that retention may not depend on total processing load of the distraction task, per se, but rather that processing load operates within modalities.

  19. Investigations of the energy and angular dependence of ultra-short radiation lengths in Si, Ge and W single crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Very recently, experiments NA33 and WA81 have shown that pair production by energetic photons incident along crystalline directions is strongly enhanced as compared to the Bethe-Heitler value for amorphous targets. The enhanced pair production sets in at around 40 GeV in Ge crystals and rises almost linearly with photon energy up to a calculated maximum enhancement of around thirty. In Si, this maximum is expected to be nearly two orders of magnitude above the Bethe-Heitler value.\\\\ For GeV electrons/positrons incident along crystal axes, the radiation energy loss also shows a very large enhancement of approximately two orders of magnitude. In a 0.4 mm W crystal, a 100 GeV electron is expected to emit on average 70% of its total energy.\\\\ The combination of these two dramatic enhancements means that the electromagnetic shower develops much faster around crystalline directions, corresponding to ultrashort radiation lengths.\\\\ The aim of this experiment is to investigate the shower development in ...

  20. Immediate, short-, and long-term changes in tracheal stent diameter, length, and positioning after placement in dogs with tracheal collapse syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raske, Matthew; Weisse, Chick; Berent, Allyson C; McDougall, Renee; Lamb, Kenneth

    2018-03-01

    Intraluminal tracheal stenting is a minimally invasive procedure shown to have variable degrees of success in managing clinical signs associated with tracheal collapse syndrome (CTCS) in dogs. Identify immediate post-stent changes in tracheal diameter, determine the extent of stent migration, and stent shortening after stent placement in the immediate-, short-, and long-term periods, and evaluate inter-observer reliability of radiographic measurements. Fifty client-owned dogs. Retrospective study in which medical records were reviewed in dogs with CTCS treated with an intraluminal tracheal stent. Data collected included signalment, location, and type of collapse, stent diameter and length, and post-stent placement radiographic follow-up times. Radiographs were used to obtain pre-stent tracheal measurements and post-stent placement measurements. Immediate mean percentage change was 5.14%, 5.49%, and 21.64% for cervical, thoracic inlet, and intra-thoracic tracheal diameters, respectively. Ultimate mean follow-up time was 446 days, with mean percentage change of 2.55%, 15.09%, and 8.65% for cervical, thoracic inlet, and intra-thoracic tracheal diameters, respectively. Initial mean stent length was 26.72% higher than nominal length and ultimate long-term tracheal mean stent shortening was only 9.90%. No significant stent migration was identified in the immediate, short-, or long-term periods. Good inter-observer agreement of radiographic measurements was found among observers of variable experience level. Use of an intraluminal tracheal stent for CTCS is associated with minimal stent shortening with no clinically relevant stent migration after fluoroscopic placement. Precise stent sizing and placement techniques likely play important roles in avoiding these reported complications. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Enhanced ductility of Mg–3Al–1Zn alloy reinforced with short length multi-walled carbon nanotubes using a powder metallurgy method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rashad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mg–3Al–1Zn–CNTs composites, with different weight fractions (0.25–1.0 wt% of carbon nanotubes (CNTs were successfully fabricated via a powder metallurgy method. The processing parameters were adopted in such a way to have uniform dispersion of short length CNTs without any damage, as well as refined and dissolved β phases structures throughout the composite matrix. The composite exhibited impressive increase in microhardness (about +23% and tensile failure strain value (about +98% without significant compromise in tensile strength, compared to the un-reinforced Mg–3Al–1Zn alloy. The synthesized composites can be used in automotive and aerospace industries due to their low density and high specific strength.

  2. Mature clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats RNA (crRNA) length is measured by a ruler mechanism anchored at the precursor processing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoum-Aslan, Asma; Maniv, Inbal; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2011-12-27

    Precise RNA processing is fundamental to all small RNA-mediated interference pathways. In prokaryotes, clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci encode small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that protect against invasive genetic elements by antisense targeting. CRISPR loci are transcribed as a long precursor that is cleaved within repeat sequences by CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins. In many organisms, this primary processing generates crRNA intermediates that are subject to additional nucleolytic trimming to render mature crRNAs of specific lengths. The molecular mechanisms underlying this maturation event remain poorly understood. Here, we defined the genetic requirements for crRNA primary processing and maturation in Staphylococcus epidermidis. We show that changes in the position of the primary processing site result in extended or diminished maturation to generate mature crRNAs of constant length. These results indicate that crRNA maturation occurs by a ruler mechanism anchored at the primary processing site. We also show that maturation is mediated by specific cas genes distinct from those genes involved in primary processing, showing that this event is directed by CRISPR/Cas loci.

  3. Focal dermal hypoplasia without focal dermal hypoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contreras-Capetillo, Silvina N.; Lombardi, Maria Paola; Pinto-Escalante, Doris; Hennekam, Raoul C.

    2014-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH; Goltz-Gorlin syndrome) is an X-linked dominant disorder affecting mainly tissues of ectodermal and mesodermal origin. The phenotype is characterized by hypoplastic linear skin lesions, eye malformations, hair and teeth anomalies, and multiple limbs malformations. The

  4. Practice of teaching in (microhistory and cinematographic language: the short-length movie as ‘another’ historical narrative in and at the place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Perinelli Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article has the objective to rethink concepts, contents and objectives of themes connected with the area of History through the articulation between the use of audiovisual languages – in case, the cinema – the role of the narrative and the construction of practices of teaching, all based on the studies of micro-history. We do not want to discuss only the educational and empirical potential of the technological resources inside the classrooms, but, specially, we want to understand the possible and real ways of transformation of the students, when they turn into subjects who creates new knowledges, by making short-length movies. This pedagogic tool and technological can help us think about the PCN's prerogatives, like, the increase in value of the place and of the daily life (of the pupils, the respect to the diversity and plurality, the role of the subjects in History. The proposal here presented is a result of a project carried out at the Fundação Educacional de Fernandópolis between 2009 and 2010, as works of conclusion of course developed by pupils of the degree course in History.

  5. Short rest interval lengths between sets optimally enhance body composition and performance with 8 weeks of strength resistance training in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Matthew G; Lane, Christianne Joy; Schroeder, E Todd

    2015-02-01

    To determine if 8 weeks of periodized strength resistance training (RT) utilizing relatively short rest interval lengths (RI) in between sets (SS) would induce greater improvements in body composition and muscular performance, compared to the same RT program utilizing extended RI (SL). 22 male volunteers (SS: n = 11, 65.6 ± 3.4 years; SL: n = 11, 70.3 ± 4.9 years) were assigned to one of two strength RT groups, following 4 weeks of periodized hypertrophic RT (PHRT): strength RT with 60-s RI (SS) or strength RT with 4-min RI (SL). Prior to randomization, all 22 study participants trained 3 days/week, for 4 weeks, targeting hypertrophy; from week 4 to week 12, SS and SL followed the same periodized strength RT program for 8 weeks, with RI the only difference in their RT prescription. Following PHRT, all study participants experienced increases in lean body mass (LBM) (p body strength (p body fat (p high-intensity strength RT with shortened RI induces significantly greater enhancements in body composition, muscular performance, and functional performance, compared to the same RT prescription with extended RI, in older men. Applied professionals may optimize certain RT-induced adaptations, by incorporating shortened RI.

  6. Performance of the SRK/T formula using A-Scan ultrasound biometry after phacoemulsification in eyes with short and long axial lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabela, Yunus; Eliacik, Mustafa; Kaya, Faruk

    2016-07-08

    with PE and IOL types, AL, K1, K2, IOL power, and attempted value, besides with MAE and AL, K1, K2, age, attempted, achieved value were found in both groups. The SRK/T formula performs well and shows good predictability in eyes with short and long axial lengths.

  7. Short-length and high-density TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays for the efficient charge separation interface in perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Guannan; Shi, Chengwu, E-mail: shicw506@foxmail.com; Zhang, Zhengguo; Li, Nannan; Li, Long

    2017-05-15

    Preparation of TiO{sub 2} nanorod array with length of 70 nm and density of 1000 µm{sup −2}. • Influence of annealing temperatures on the -OH content of TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays. • Preparation of over-500 nm-thickness CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3−x}Br{sub x} absorber layer. • Combination of short-length TiO{sub 2} nanorod array and high-thickness perovskite layer. • The best and average PCE with TiO{sub 2} array of 15.93% and 13.41±2.52% at 50–54% RH.

  8. Short-length and high-density TiO2 nanorod arrays for the efficient charge separation interface in perovskite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Guannan; Shi, Chengwu; Zhang, Zhengguo; Li, Nannan; Li, Long

    2017-01-01

    O 2 nanorod arrays. • Preparation of over-500 nm-thickness CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3−x Br x absorber layer. • Combination of short-length TiO 2 nanorod array and high-thickness perovskite layer. • The best and average PCE with TiO 2 array of 15.93% and 13.41±2.52% at 50–54% RH.

  9. Impact of streamflow data assimilation and length of the verification period on the quality of short-term ensemble hydrologic forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianasolo, A.; Thirel, G.; Ramos, M. H.; Martin, E.

    2014-11-01

    Data assimilation has gained wide recognition in hydrologic forecasting due mainly to its capacity to improve the quality of short-term forecasts. In this study, a comparative analysis is conducted to assess the impact of discharge data assimilation on the quality of streamflow forecasts issued by two different modeling conceptualizations of catchment response. The sensitivity of the performance metrics to the length of the verification period is also investigated. The hydrological modeling approaches are: the coupled physically-based hydro-meteorological model SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU, a distributed model with a data assimilation procedure that uses streamflow measurements to assess the initial state of soil water content that optimizes discharge simulations, and the lumped soil moisture-accounting type rainfall-runoff model GRP, which assimilates directly the last observed discharge to update the state of the routing store. The models are driven by the weather ensemble prediction system PEARP of Météo-France, which is based on the global spectral ARPEGE model zoomed over France. It runs 11 perturbed members for a forecast range of 60 h. Forecast and observed data are available for 86 catchments over a 17-month period (March 2005-July 2006) for both models and for 82 catchments over a 52-month period (April 2005-July 2009) for the GRP model. The first dataset is used to investigate the impact of streamflow data assimilation on forecast quality, while the second is used to evaluate the impact of the length of the verification period on the assessment of forecast quality. Forecasts are compared to daily observed discharges and scores are computed for lead times 24 h and 48 h. Results indicate an overall good performance of both hydrological models forced by the PEARP ensemble predictions when the models are run with their data assimilation procedures. In general, when data assimilation is performed, the quality of the forecasts increases: median differences between

  10. Focal retinal phlebitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Quan V; Freund, K Bailey; Klancnik, James M; Sorenson, John A; Cunningham, Emmett T; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    To report three cases of solitary, focal retinal phlebitis. An observational case series. Three eyes in three patients were noted to have unilateral decreased vision, macular edema, and a focal retinal phlebitis, which was not at an arteriovenous crossing. All three patients developed a branch retinal vein occlusion at the site of inflammation. These patients had no other evidence of intraocular inflammation, including vitritis, retinitis, retinal vasculitis, or choroiditis, nor was there any systemic disorder associated with inflammation, infection, or coagulation identified. Focal retinal phlebitis appears to be an uncommon and unique entity that produces macular edema and ultimately branch retinal vein occlusion. In our patients, the focal phlebitis and venous occlusion did not occur at an arteriovenous crossing, which is the typical site for branch retinal venous occlusive disease. This suggests that our cases represent a distinct clinical entity, which starts with a focal abnormality in the wall of a retinal venule, resulting in surrounding exudation and, ultimately, ends with branch retinal vein occlusion.

  11. Lab-on-a-chip-based PCR-RFLP assay for the confirmed detection of short-length feline DNA in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Eaqub; Al Amin, Md; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Hossain, M A Motalib; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-01-01

    Wider availability but lack of legal market trades has given feline meat a high potential for use as an adulterant in common meat and meat products. However, mixing of feline meat or its derivatives in food is a sensitive issue, since it is a taboo in most countries and prohibited in certain religions such as Islam and Judaism. Cat meat also has potential for contamination with of severe acute respiratory syndrome, anthrax and hepatitis, and its consumption might lead to an allergic reaction. We developed a very short-amplicon-length (69 bp) PCR assay, authenticated the amplified PCR products by AluI-restriction digestion followed by its separation and detection on a lab-on-a-chip-based automated electrophoretic system, and proved its superiority over the existing long-amplicon-based assays. Although it has been assumed that longer DNA targets are susceptible to breakdown under compromised states, scientific evidence for this hypothesis has been rarely documented. Strong evidence showed that shorter targets are more stable than the longer ones. We confirmed feline-specificity by cross-challenging the primers against 10 different species of terrestrial, aquatic and plant origins in the presence of a 141-bp site of an 18S rRNA gene as a universal eukaryotic control. RFLP analysis separated 43- and 26-bp fragments of AluI-digest in both the gel-image and electropherograms, confirming the original products. The tested detection limit was 0.01% (w/w) feline meat in binary and ternary admixed as well as meatball matrices. Shorter target, better stability and higher sensitivity mean such an assay would be valid for feline identification even in degraded specimens.

  12. Spectral shifts of mammalian ultraviolet-sensitive pigments (short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1) are associated with eye length and photic niche evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerling, Christopher A; Huynh, Hieu T; Nguyen, Minh A; Meredith, Robert W; Springer, Mark S

    2015-11-22

    Retinal opsin photopigments initiate mammalian vision when stimulated by light. Most mammals possess a short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1 (SWS1) pigment that is primarily sensitive to either ultraviolet or violet light, leading to variation in colour perception across species. Despite knowledge of both ultraviolet- and violet-sensitive SWS1 classes in mammals for 25 years, the adaptive significance of this variation has not been subjected to hypothesis testing, resulting in minimal understanding of the basis for mammalian SWS1 spectral tuning evolution. Here, we gathered data on SWS1 for 403 mammal species, including novel SWS1 sequences for 97 species. Ancestral sequence reconstructions suggest that the most recent common ancestor of Theria possessed an ultraviolet SWS1 pigment, and that violet-sensitive pigments evolved at least 12 times in mammalian history. We also observed that ultraviolet pigments, previously considered to be a rarity, are common in mammals. We then used phylogenetic comparative methods to test the hypotheses that the evolution of violet-sensitive SWS1 is associated with increased light exposure, extended longevity and longer eye length. We discovered that diurnal mammals and species with longer eyes are more likely to have violet-sensitive pigments and less likely to possess UV-sensitive pigments. We hypothesize that (i) as mammals evolved larger body sizes, they evolved longer eyes, which limited transmittance of ultraviolet light to the retina due to an increase in Rayleigh scattering, and (ii) as mammals began to invade diurnal temporal niches, they evolved lenses with low UV transmittance to reduce chromatic aberration and/or photo-oxidative damage. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia due to occlusion of a major cerebral artery is the cause of ischemic stroke which is a major reason of mortality, morbidity and disability in the populations of the developed countries. In the seven studies summarized in the thesis focal ischemia in rats induced by occlusion...... in the penumbra is recruited in the infarction process leading to a progressive growth of the infarct. The penumbra hence constitutes an important target for pharmacological treatment because of the existence of a therapeutic time window during which treatment with neuroprotective compounds may prevent...

  14. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  15. Innovative compact focal plane array for wide field vis and ir orbiting telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, Emmanuel; Vives, Sébastien; Ferrari, Marc; Gaeremynck, Yann; Jahn, Wilfried

    2017-11-01

    The future generation of high angular resolution space telescopes will require breakthrough technologies to combine large diameters and large focal plane arrays with compactness and lightweight mirrors and structures. Considering the allocated volume medium-size launchers, short focal lengths are mandatory, implying complex optical relays to obtain diffraction limited images on large focal planes. In this paper we present preliminary studies to obtain compact focal plane arrays (FPA) for earth observations on low earth orbits at high angular resolution. Based on the principle of image slicers, we present an optical concept to arrange a 1D FPA into a 2D FPA, allowing the use of 2D detector matrices. This solution is particularly attractive for IR imaging requiring a cryostat, which volume could be considerably reduced as well as the relay optics complexity. Enabling the use of 2D matrices for such an application offers new possibilities. Recent developments on curved FPA allows optimization without concerns on the field curvature. This innovative approach also reduces the complexity of the telescope optical combination, specifically for fast telescopes. This paper will describe the concept and optical design of an F/5 - 1.5m telescope equipped with such a FPA, the performances and the impact on the system with a comparison with an equivalent 1.5m wide field Korsch telescope.

  16. Focal myositis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devic, P; Gallay, L; Streichenberger, N; Petiot, P

    2016-11-01

    Amongst the heterogeneous group of inflammatory myopathies, focal myositis stands as a rare and benign dysimmune disease. Although it can be associated with root and/or nerve lesions, traumatic muscle lesions and autoimmune diseases, its triggering factors remain poorly understood. Defined as an isolated inflammatory pseudotumour usually restricted to one skeletal muscle, clinical presentation of focal myositis is that of a rapidly growing solitary mass within a single muscle, usually in the lower limbs. Electromyography shows spontaneous activity associated with a myopathic pattern. MRI reveals a contrast enhanced enlarged muscle appearing hyper-intense on FAT-SAT T2 weighted images. Adjacent structures are spared and there are no calcifications. Serum creatine kinase (CK) levels are usually moderately augmented and biological markers of systemic inflammation are absent in most cases. Pathological histological features include marked variation in fibre size, inflammatory infiltrates mostly composed of T CD4+ lymphocytes and macrophages, degenerating/regenerating fibres and interstitial fibrosis. Differential diagnoses are numerous and include myositis of other origin with focal onset. Steroid treatment should be reserved for patients who present with major pain, nerve lesions, associated autoimmune disease, or elevated C reactive protein or CK. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Focal femoral condyle resurfacing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, S A

    2013-03-01

    Focal femoral inlay resurfacing has been developed for the treatment of full-thickness chondral defects of the knee. This technique involves implanting a defect-sized metallic or ceramic cap that is anchored to the subchondral bone through a screw or pin. The use of these experimental caps has been advocated in middle-aged patients who have failed non-operative methods or biological repair techniques and are deemed unsuitable for conventional arthroplasty because of their age. This paper outlines the implant design, surgical technique and biomechanical principles underlying their use. Outcomes following implantation in both animal and human studies are also reviewed. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:301-4.

  18. Systemic focal epileptogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remler, M.P.; Marcussen, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Rats that receive radiation to 0.25 cc of one cerebral hemisphere are clinically and electroencephalographically normal until there is a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) at 3 to 6 months postradiation. This BBB lesion can be detected by transient focal seizure activity produced by the BBB-excluded systemic convulsant bicuculline methiodide. In two rats the seizure activity induced by this one injection was self-sustaining. In seven of 15 other rats tested, the subsequent administration of repeated 2 mg/kg injections created a chronic focus that continued to spike with great frequency for 3 weeks or more without further administration of any convulsant. In three of eight other rats, implanted minipumps delivering 180 micrograms/h of bicuculline methiodide produced self-sustaining epileptic activity.

  19. Combination of short-length TiO_2 nanorod arrays and compact PbS quantum-dot thin films for efficient solid-state quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhengguo; Shi, Chengwu; Chen, Junjun; Xiao, Guannan; Li, Long

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The TiO_2 nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, the areal density of 500 μm"−"2 was successfully prepared. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film was firstly obtained on the TiO_2 nanorod array by spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film sensitized solar cells achieved 4.10% using spiro-OMeTAD as a hole transporting layer, while the PCE of the PbS quantum-dot sensitized solar cells was only 0.54%. - Highlights: • Preparation of TiO_2 nanorod arrays with the length of 600 nm, diameter of 20 nm. • The compact PbS QD thin film and short-length TiO_2 nanorod array were combined. • EDT addition improved PbS nanoparticle coverage and photovoltaic performance. • The compact PbS QD thin film sensitized solar cell achieved the PCE of 4.10%. - Abstract: Considering the balance of the hole diffusion length and the loading quantity of quantum-dots, the rutile TiO_2 nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 500 μm"−"2 is successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 105 min. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO_2 nanorod array is firstly obtained by the spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT). The result reveals that the strong interaction between lead and EDT is very important to control the crystallite size of PbS quantum-dots and obtain the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO_2 nanorod array. The all solid-state sensitized solar cell with the combination of the short-length, high-density TiO_2 nanorod array and the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film achieves the photoelectric conversion efficiency of 4.10%, along with an open

  20. Combination of short-length TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays and compact PbS quantum-dot thin films for efficient solid-state quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengguo [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beifang University of Nationalities, Yinchuan 750021 (China); Shi, Chengwu, E-mail: shicw506@foxmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Chen, Junjun; Xiao, Guannan; Li, Long [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Graphical abstract: The TiO{sub 2} nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, the areal density of 500 μm{sup −2} was successfully prepared. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film was firstly obtained on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array by spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film sensitized solar cells achieved 4.10% using spiro-OMeTAD as a hole transporting layer, while the PCE of the PbS quantum-dot sensitized solar cells was only 0.54%. - Highlights: • Preparation of TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays with the length of 600 nm, diameter of 20 nm. • The compact PbS QD thin film and short-length TiO{sub 2} nanorod array were combined. • EDT addition improved PbS nanoparticle coverage and photovoltaic performance. • The compact PbS QD thin film sensitized solar cell achieved the PCE of 4.10%. - Abstract: Considering the balance of the hole diffusion length and the loading quantity of quantum-dots, the rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 500 μm{sup −2} is successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 105 min. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array is firstly obtained by the spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT). The result reveals that the strong interaction between lead and EDT is very important to control the crystallite size of PbS quantum-dots and obtain the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array. The all solid-state sensitized solar cell with the combination of the short-length, high-density TiO{sub 2} nanorod array and the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film achieves the photoelectric conversion

  1. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  2. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  3. Ammonium and nitrate uptake lengths in a small forested stream determined by {sup 15}N tracer and short-term nutrient enrichment experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, P.J.; Tank, J.L.; Sanzone, D.M.; Webster, J.R.; Wollheim, W.; Peterson, B.J.; Meyer, J.L.

    1998-11-01

    Nutrient cycling is an important characteristic of all ecosystems, including streams. Nutrients often limit the growth rates of stream algae and heterotrophic microbes and the decomposition rate of allochthonous organic matter. Nutrient uptake (S{sub W}), defined as the mean distance traveled by a nutrient atom dissolved in stream water before uptake by biota is often used as an index of nutrient cycling in streams. It is often overlooked, however, that S{sub W} is not a measure of nutrient uptake rate per se, but rather a measure of the efficiency with which a stream utilizes the available nutrient supply. The ideal method for measuring S{sub W} involves short-term addition of a nutrient tracer. Regulatory constraints often preclude use of nutrient radiotracers in field studies and methodological difficulties and high analytical costs have previously hindered the use of stable isotope nutrient tracers (e.g., {sup 15}N). Short-term nutrient enrichments are an alternative to nutrient tracer additions for measuring S{sub W}.

  4. Focal midbrain tumors in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandertop, W. P.; Hoffman, H. J.; Drake, J. M.; Humphreys, R. P.; Rutka, J. T.; Amstrong, D. C.; Becker, L. E.

    1992-01-01

    The clinical and neuroradiological features of focal midbrain tumors in 12 children are described, and the results of their surgical management are presented. Patients with a focal midbrain tumor usually exhibit either symptoms and signs of raised intracranial pressure caused by an obstructive

  5. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  6. The dispersion-focalization theory of sound systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Abry, Christian; Boë, Louis-Jean; Vallée, Nathalie; Ménard, Lucie

    2005-04-01

    The Dispersion-Focalization Theory states that sound systems in human languages are shaped by two major perceptual constraints: dispersion driving auditory contrast towards maximal or sufficient values [B. Lindblom, J. Phonetics 18, 135-152 (1990)] and focalization driving auditory spectra towards patterns with close neighboring formants. Dispersion is computed from the sum of the inverse squared inter-spectra distances in the (F1, F2, F3, F4) space, using a non-linear process based on the 3.5 Bark critical distance to estimate F2'. Focalization is based on the idea that close neighboring formants produce vowel spectra with marked peaks, easier to process and memorize in the auditory system. Evidence for increased stability of focal vowels in short-term memory was provided in a discrimination experiment on adult French subjects [J. L. Schwartz and P. Escudier, Speech Comm. 8, 235-259 (1989)]. A reanalysis of infant discrimination data shows that focalization could well be the responsible for recurrent discrimination asymmetries [J. L. Schwartz et al., Speech Comm. (in press)]. Recent data about children vowel production indicate that focalization seems to be part of the perceptual templates driving speech development. The Dispersion-Focalization Theory produces valid predictions for both vowel and consonant systems, in relation with available databases of human languages inventories.

  7. Telomere length is short in PCOS and oral contraceptive does not affect the telomerase activity in granulosa cells of patients with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Deng, Bingbing; Ouyang, Nengyong; Yuan, Ping; Zheng, Lingyan; Wang, Wenjun

    2017-07-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the association of telomerase activity (TA) and telomere length (TL) in granulosa cells (GCs) with IVF outcomes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients, and the effects of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) pretreatment on these two parameters. One hundred sixty-three infertile women were enrolled and divided into a PCOS group (n = 65) and a non-PCOS group (n = 98). The PCOS group was further divided into an OCP pretreatment group (n = 35) and a non-OCP pretreatment group (n = 30), a TA PCOS group and 1.118 in non-PCOS group (P = 0.005). The patients with TL ≥1 accounted for 36.9% in PCOS group and 54.1% in non-PCOS group (P = 0.032). The average duration of infertility for PCOS patients was 5 years in TA PCOS patients. Shorter TL was found in PCOS patients. The TA levels did not change significantly in PCOS patients. PCOS patients with a lower TA level and shorter telomeres had an earlier onset of infertility symptoms. No predictive value was found for TA and TL in terms of embryo quality or IVF outcomes in PCOS patients, and no effect OCP pretreatment was observed on either TA and TL.

  8. Patients with gout have short telomeres compared with healthy participants: association of telomere length with flare frequency and cardiovascular disease in gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirpanah, N; Kienhorst, L B E; Van Lochem, E; Wichers, C; Rossato, M; Shiels, P G; Dalbeth, N; Stamp, L K; Merriman, T R; Janssen, M; Radstake, T R D J; Broen, J Ca

    2017-07-01

    Chronic inflammation associates with increased senescence, which is a strong predictor for cardiovascular disease. We hypothesised that inflammation accelerates senescence and thereby enhances the risk of cardiovascular disease in gout. We assessed replicative senescence by quantifying telomere length (TL) in a discovery cohort of 145 Dutch patients with gout and 273 healthy individuals and validated our results in 474 patients with gout and 293 healthy participants from New Zealand. Subsequently, we investigated the effect of cardiovascular disease on TL of all participants. Also, we measured TL of CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, monocytes, natural killer cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Additionally, we assessed the potential temporal difference in TL and telomerase activity. TL in PBMCs of healthy donors decreased over time, reflecting normal ageing. Patients with gout demonstrated shorter telomeres (p=0.001, R 2 =0.01873). In fact, the extent of telomere erosion in patients with gout was higher at any age compared with healthy counterparts at any age (pgout with cardiovascular disease had the shortest telomeres and TL was an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients with gout (p=0.001). TL was inversely associated with the number of gouty flares (p=0.005). Patients with gout have shorter telomeres than healthy participants, reflecting increased cellular senescence. Telomere shortening was associated with the number of flares and with cardiovascular disease in people with gout. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Shared Focal Plane Investigation for Serial Frame Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    capability will be restored. 41. -.. TrABLE 1-1 SYSTEM LEADING P) ARTICULARS Lens Focal Length (inches) Range (ft) Contrast 12 18 24 Coverage 22.1...can be expected that signature bands will be apparent in the imagery. Such bands are at best distracting and at worst hindrances to image interpretation

  10. Manipulating the stride length/stride velocity relationship of walking using a treadmill and rhythmic auditory cueing in non-disabled older individuals. A short-term feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikema, D J A; Forrester, L W; Whitall, J

    2014-09-01

    One target for rehabilitating locomotor disorders in older adults is to increase mobility by improving walking velocity. Combining rhythmic auditory cueing (RAC) and treadmill training permits the study of the stride length/stride velocity ratio (SL/SV), often reduced in those with mobility deficits. We investigated the use of RAC to increase velocity by manipulating the SL/SV ratio in older adults. Nine participants (6 female; age: 61.1 ± 8.8 years) walked overground on a gait mat at preferred and fast speeds. After acclimatization to comfortable speed on a treadmill, participants adjusted their cadence to match the cue for 3 min at 115% of preferred speed by either (a) increasing stride length only or (b) increasing stride frequency only. Following training, participants walked across the gait mat at preferred velocity without, and then with, RAC. Group analysis determined no immediate overground velocity increase, but reintroducing RAC did produce an increase in velocity after both conditions. Group and single subject analysis determined that the SL/SV ratio changed in the intended direction only in the stride length condition. We conclude that RAC is a powerful organizer of gait parameters, evidenced by its induced after-effects following short duration training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  12. Diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatareva, D.

    2013-01-01

    Focal epilepsies account for 60% of all seizure disorders worldwide. In this review the classic and new classification system of epileptic seizures and syndromes as well as genetic forms are discussed. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the technique of choice for diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast. The review is focused on the lack of consensus of imaging protocols and reported findings in refractory epilepsy. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics are depicted. Diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development as two major causes of refractory focal epilepsy is described in details. Some promising new techniques as positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) and MR and PET/CT fusion are briefly discussed. Also the relevance of adequate imaging in focal epilepsy, some practical points in imaging interpretation and differential diagnosis are highlighted. (author)

  13. Compressing and focusing a short laser pulse by a thin plasma lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, C.; Duda, B. J.; Hemker, R. G.; Mori, W. B.; Katsouleas, T.; Antonsen, T. M.; Mora, P.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the possibility of using a thin plasma slab as an optical element to both focus and compress an intense laser pulse. By thin we mean that the focal length is larger than the lens thickness. We derive analytic formulas for the spot size and pulse length evolution of a short laser pulse propagating through a thin uniform plasma lens. The formulas are compared to simulation results from two types of particle-in-cell code. The simulations give a greater final spot size and a shorter focal length than the analytic formulas. The difference arises from spherical aberrations in the lens which lead to the generation of higher-order vacuum Gaussian modes. The simulations also show that Raman side scattering can develop. A thin lens experiment could provide unequivocal evidence of relativistic self-focusing

  14. Focal irreversible electroporation as primary treatment for localized prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, Willemien; Scheltema, Matthijs J.; Siriwardana, Amila R.; Kalsbeek, Anton M. F.; Thompson, James E.; Ting, Francis; Böhm, Maret; Haynes, Anne-Maree; Shnier, Ron; Delprado, Warick; Stricker, Phillip D.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the safety, quality of life (QoL) and short-term oncological outcomes of primary focal IRE for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. To identify potential risk factors for oncological failure. Patients that met both the consensus guidelines on patient criteria and selection

  15. Systematic study of the focal shift effect in planar plasmonic slit lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Bin; Wang Qijie; Zhang Ying

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we systematically studied the focal shift effect in planar plasmonic slit lenses. Through theoretical derivations and numerical simulations, we found that there is a focal length shift between the traditional design model and the finite-difference time-domain simulations. The shift is not only dependent on the Fresnel number (FN) of the lens, like traditional dielectric lenses, determined by the lens width and the designed focal length, but also on the surface plasmon polariton (SPPs) interaction on the lens surfaces, dependent on the slit numbers. We also found that the FN-induced focal shift is predominant when FN 1. An approximated theoretical model is presented to estimate the focal shift of plasmonic slit lens with FN < 1. (paper)

  16. Short Telomere Length and Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madrid, Alexander Scheller; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    are associated with high risk of ischemic heart disease using a Mendelian randomization approach free of reverse causation and of most confounding. METHODS: We genotyped 3 genetic variants in OBFC1 (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding fold containing 1), TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase), and TERC...

  17. Infrared detectors and focal plane arrays; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 18, 19, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereniak, Eustace L.; Sampson, Robert E.

    1990-09-01

    The papers contained in this volume provide an overview of recent advances and the current state of developments in the field of infrared detectors and focal plane arrays. Topics discussed include nickel silicide Schottky-barrier detectors for short-wavelength infrared applications; high performance PtSi linear and focal plane arrays; and multispectral band Schottky-barrier IRSSD for remote-sensing applications. Papers are also presented on the performance of an Insi hybrid focal array; characterization of IR focal plane test stations; GaAs CCD readout for engineered bandgap detectors; and fire detection system for aircraft cargo bays.

  18. Testing of focal plane arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriam, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Problems associated with the testing of focal plane arrays are briefly examined with reference to the instrumentation and measurement procedures. In particular, the approach and instrumentation used as the Naval Ocean Systems Center is presented. Most of the measurements are made with flooded illumination on the focal plane array. The array is treated as an ensemble of individual pixels, data being taken on each pixel and array averages and standard deviations computed for the entire array. Data maps are generated, showing the pixel data in the proper spatial position on the array and the array statistics

  19. Focal therapy in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, W.

    2016-01-01

    Interesting developments took place in the treatment of prostate cancer including focal therapy for less aggressive organ-confined prostate cancer. Fortunately, curative treatment is often still an option for patients suffering from the lower staged tumors. In carefully selected patients, the

  20. Gallbladder adenoma with focal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurea, S; Matei, E; Petrisor, P; Luca, L; Boros, Mirela; Herlea, V; Popescu, I

    2008-01-01

    The majority of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder are cholesterolosis pseudopolyps. True neoplastic GB polyps are represented mainly by adenomas. The case of a 52-year old male patient with an adenomatous polyp of the GB with focal adenocarcinoma is presented.

  1. Charging as a Focal Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads

    This position paper reflects on Borgmann’s notion of ‘focal things’ and its applicability in the discourse about interaction with technologies in nature. Using the example of a combined cooking burner and thermoelectric 5W smartphone charger (a BioLite cook stove), this position paper gives...

  2. A focal plane detector for both light and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ophel, T.R.; Johnston, A.

    1978-05-01

    The characteristics of a multi-element, ionization-type focal plane detector with an effective length of 53 cm have been evaluated for various ions ranging between protons and 32 S. The position resolution obtained is typically 1 mm. Excellent energy (0.49% for 16 O) and angular resolution (0.2 degrees with respect to beam direction for 7 Li) have been obtained enabling clean separation of ion species at essentially full angular acceptance of a split-pole spectrograph

  3. [Focal myositis: An unknown disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, L; Streichenberger, N; Benveniste, O; Allenbach, Y

    2017-10-01

    Focal myositis are inflammatory muscle diseases of unknown origin. At the opposite from the other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, they are restricted to a single muscle or to a muscle group. They are not associated with extramuscular manifestations, and they have a good prognosis without any treatment. They are characterized by a localized swelling affecting mostly lower limbs. The pseudo-tumor can be painful, but is not associated with a muscle weakness. Creatine kinase level is normal. Muscle MRI shows an inflammation restricted to a muscle or a muscle group. Muscle biopsy and pathological analysis remain necessary for the diagnosis, showing inflammatory infiltrates composed by macrophages and lymphocytes without any specific distribution within the muscle. Focal overexpression of HLA-1 by the muscle fibers is frequently observed. The muscle biopsy permits to rule out differential diagnosis such a malignancy (sarcoma). Spontaneous remission occurs within weeks or months after the first symptoms, relapse is unusual. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  4. Focal cortical dysplasia – review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabat, Joanna; Król, Przemysław

    2012-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia is a malformation of cortical development, which is the most common cause of medically refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population and the second/third most common etiology of medically intractable seizures in adults. Both genetic and acquired factors are involved in the pathogenesis of cortical dysplasia. Numerous classifications of the complex structural abnormalities of focal cortical dysplasia have been proposed – from Taylor et al. in 1971 to the last modification of Palmini classification made by Blumcke in 2011. In general, three types of cortical dysplasia are recognized. Type I focal cortical dysplasia with mild symptomatic expression and late onset, is more often seen in adults, with changes present in the temporal lobe. Clinical symptoms are more severe in type II of cortical dysplasia usually seen in children. In this type, more extensive changes occur outside the temporal lobe with predilection for the frontal lobes. New type III is one of the above dysplasias with associated another principal lesion as hippocampal sclerosis, tumor, vascular malformation or acquired pathology during early life. Brain MRI imaging shows abnormalities in the majority of type II dysplasias and in only some of type I cortical dysplasias. The most common findings on MRI imaging include: focal cortical thickening or thinning, areas of focal brain atrophy, blurring of the gray-white junction, increased signal on T2- and FLAIR-weighted images in the gray and subcortical white matter often tapering toward the ventricle. On the basis of the MRI findings, it is possible to differentiate between type I and type II cortical dysplasia. A complete resection of the epileptogenic zone is required for seizure-free life. MRI imaging is very helpful to identify those patients who are likely to benefit from surgical treatment in a group of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. However, in type I cortical dysplasia, MR imaging is often normal, and also in both

  5. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more...... accountable, but the re-election incentive leads to policy-distortion as the government seeks to manipulate swing voters' beliefs to make its ideology more popular. This creates a trade-off: A short term length improves accountability but gives distortions. A short term length is best for swing voters when...

  6. O esôfago curto e o refluxo distal são fatores de risco para o refluxo proximal? Short length of the esophagus and distal reflux are risk factors for proximal esophageal reflux?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Oliveira Serra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Não está claro se pacientes que apresentam refluxo gastroesofágico distal têm maior risco de apresentar também refluxo proximal. O senso comum sugere que um episódio de refluxo poderia chegar mais facilmente à faringe em pacientes que tivessem menor distância a percorrer entre o esfíncter inferior do esôfago e o superior. OBJETIVO: Investigar se o esôfago curto e a presença de refluxo esofágico distal são fatores de risco para refluxo proximal nos pacientes com sintomas respiratórios. MÉTODO: Cento e sete pacientes foram avaliados prospectivamente por meio de entrevista, esofagoscopia, manometria e pHmetria. Utilizaram-se o teste t de Student, o de correlação de Spearman, o do Qui-quadrado e odds-ratio. O nível de significância foi 0,05. RESULTADOS: Os sintomas que motivaram a investigação da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico foram: tosse 43 (40,2%; pigarro 25 (23,4%, globo faríngeo 23 (21,5% e rouquidão 16 (14,9%. No estudo endoscópico 22 apresentaram esofagite e 14 hérnia de hiato. Na avaliação manométrica 11 (10,8% apresentaram hipotonia do esfíncter inferior. A média do comprimento do esôfago foi 24,3 (± 1,9 cm, variando de 20 a 30 cm. Na avaliação pHmétrica 23 (21,5% apresentaram refluxo distal patológico e 12 (11,2% refluxo proximal. CONCLUSÕES: O comprimento do esôfago não esteve associado com a presença de refluxo proximal. Pacientes que apresentaram refluxo gatroesofágico distal, independente do comprimento do esôfago, tiveram risco aumentado de 4,6 vezes para apresentarem refluxo proximal.BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether patients suffering from distal esophageal reflux also present high risk to proximal esophageal reflux. Common sense suggests that reflux would more easily reach the pharynx in patients who have a smaller distance between the lower esophageal sphincter and the upper one and, thus, short esophagus. AIM: To Investigate if short esophageal length and presence of

  7. Systems considerations in mosaic focal planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. P., III

    1983-08-01

    Two key reasons for pursuing the development of mosaic focal planes are reviewed and it is shown that rapid frame repetition rate is the only requirement that can be solved no other way than through mosaic focal planes. With the view that spaceborne mosaic focal plane sensors are necessarily 'smart sensors' requiring a lot of onboard processing just to function, it is pointed out that various artificial intelligence techniques may be the most appropriate to incorporate in the data processing. Finally, a novel mosaic focal plane design is proposed, termed a virtual mosaic focal plane, in response to other system constraints.

  8. TRIM15 is a focal adhesion protein that regulates focal adhesion disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchil, Pradeep D.; Pawliczek, Tobias; Reynolds, Tracy D.; Ding, Siyuan; Hinz, Angelika; Munro, James B.; Huang, Fang; Floyd, Robert W.; Yang, Haitao; Hamilton, William L.; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Xiong, Yong; Calderwood, David A.; Mothes, Walther

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Focal adhesions are macromolecular complexes that connect the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. Dynamic turnover of focal adhesions is crucial for cell migration. Paxillin is a multi-adaptor protein that plays an important role in regulating focal adhesion dynamics. Here, we identify TRIM15, a member of the tripartite motif protein family, as a paxillin-interacting factor and a component of focal adhesions. TRIM15 localizes to focal contacts in a myosin-II-independent manner by an interaction between its coiled-coil domain and the LD2 motif of paxillin. Unlike other focal adhesion proteins, TRIM15 is a stable focal adhesion component with restricted mobility due to its ability to form oligomers. TRIM15-depleted cells display impaired cell migration and reduced focal adhesion disassembly rates, in addition to enlarged focal adhesions. Thus, our studies demonstrate a cellular function for TRIM15 as a regulatory component of focal adhesion turnover and cell migration. PMID:25015296

  9. Heterogeneity of Focal Adhesions and Focal Contacts in Motile Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkikh, Aleena; Kovaleva, Anastasia; Tvorogova, Anna; Vorobjev, Ivan A

    2018-01-01

    Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion is an important property of virtually all cells in multicellular organisms. Cell-ECM adhesion studies, therefore, are very significant both for biology and medicine. Over the last three decades, biomedical studies resulted in a tremendous advance in our understanding of the molecular basis and functions of cell-ECM adhesion. Based on morphological and molecular criteria, several different types of model cell-ECM adhesion structures including focal adhesions, focal complexes, fibrillar adhesions, podosomes, and three-dimensional matrix adhesions have been described. All the subcellular structures that mediate cell-ECM adhesion are quite heterogeneous, often varying in size, shape, distribution, dynamics, and, to a certain extent, molecular constituents. The morphological "plasticity" of cell-ECM adhesion perhaps reflects the needs of cells to sense, adapt, and respond to a variety of extracellular environments. In addition, cell type (e.g., differentiation status, oncogenic transformation, etc.) often exerts marked influence on the structure of cell-ECM adhesions. Although molecular, genetic, biochemical, and structural studies provide important maps or "snapshots" of cell-ECM adhesions, the area of research that is equally valuable is to study the heterogeneity of FA subpopulations within cells. Recently time-lapse observations on the FA dynamics become feasible, and behavior of individual FA gives additional information on cell-ECM interactions. Here we describe a robust method of labeling of FA using plasmids with fluorescent markers for paxillin and vinculin and quantifying the morphological and dynamical parameters of FA.

  10. Interferon Induced Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kayar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Behçet’s disease is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology which involves recurring oral and genital aphthous ulcers and ocular lesions as well as articular, vascular, and nervous system involvement. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is usually seen in viral infections, immune deficiency syndrome, sickle cell anemia, and hyperfiltration and secondary to interferon therapy. Here, we present a case of FSGS identified with kidney biopsy in a patient who had been diagnosed with Behçet’s disease and received interferon-alpha treatment for uveitis and presented with acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome associated with interferon.

  11. Focal nodular hyperplasia: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Antoniou, A.; Hatziioannou, A.; Smyrniotis, V.; Trakadas, S.; Lahanis, S.; Vlahos, L. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Athens (Greece)

    2001-02-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is an uncommon benign hepatic tumor that continues to pose diagnostic dilemmas. Imaging techniques are of great value in diagnosis of this tumor. In this article we present the US, CT, MR imaging, scintigraphy, and angiography findings. The demonstration of a central vascular scar is very helpful. Although the radiologic features may be diagnostic, many atypical cases must be differentiated from other benign or malignant hepatic tumors. In these cases excisional biopsy and histopathologic examination are necessary to determine a definite diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. Focal nodular hyperplasia: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Antoniou, A.; Hatziioannou, A.; Smyrniotis, V.; Trakadas, S.; Lahanis, S.; Vlahos, L.

    2001-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is an uncommon benign hepatic tumor that continues to pose diagnostic dilemmas. Imaging techniques are of great value in diagnosis of this tumor. In this article we present the US, CT, MR imaging, scintigraphy, and angiography findings. The demonstration of a central vascular scar is very helpful. Although the radiologic features may be diagnostic, many atypical cases must be differentiated from other benign or malignant hepatic tumors. In these cases excisional biopsy and histopathologic examination are necessary to determine a definite diagnosis. (orig.)

  13. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez, D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz, D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle, G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-01-01

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R and D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics

  14. MRI of focal cortical dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.C.P.; Hatfield, G.A.; Bourgeois, B.; Park, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    We studied nine cases of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) by MRI, with surface-rendered 3D reconstructions. One case was also examined using single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy (MRS). The histological features were reviewed and correlated with the MRI findings. The gyri affected by FCD were enlarged and the signal of the cortex was slightly increased on T1-weighted images. The gray-white junction was indistinct. Signal from the subcortical white matter was decreased on T1- and increased on T2-weighted images in most cases. Contrast enhancement was seen in two cases. Proton MRS showed a spectrum identical to that of normal brain. (orig.) (orig.)

  15. Pathogenesis of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Jin Lim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is characterized by focal and segmental obliteration of glomerular capillary tufts with increased matrix. FSGS is classified as collapsing, tip, cellular, perihilar and not otherwise specified variants according to the location and character of the sclerotic lesion. Primary or idiopathic FSGS is considered to be related to podocyte injury, and the pathogenesis of podocyte injury has been actively investigated. Several circulating factors affecting podocyte permeability barrier have been proposed, but not proven to cause FSGS. FSGS may also be caused by genetic alterations. These genes are mainly those regulating slit diaphragm structure, actin cytoskeleton of podocytes, and foot process structure. The mode of inheritance and age of onset are different according to the gene involved. Recently, the role of parietal epithelial cells (PECs has been highlighted. Podocytes and PECs have common mesenchymal progenitors, therefore, PECs could be a source of podocyte repopulation after podocyte injury. Activated PECs migrate along adhesion to the glomerular tuft and may also contribute to the progression of sclerosis. Markers of activated PECs, including CD44, could be used to distinguish FSGS from minimal change disease. The pathogenesis of FSGS is very complex; however, understanding basic mechanisms of podocyte injury is important not only for basic research, but also for daily diagnostic pathology practice.

  16. Growth, nutritional, and gastrointestinal aspects of focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz-Gorlin syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motil, Kathleen J; Fete, Mary; Fete, Timothy J

    2016-03-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the PORCN gene located on the X-chromosome. In the present study, we characterized the pattern of growth, body composition, and the nutritional and gastrointestinal aspects of children and adults (n = 19) affected with this disorder using clinical anthropometry and a survey questionnaire. The mean birth length (P < 0.06) and weight (P < 0.001) z-scores of the participants were lower than the reference population. The mean head circumference (P < 0.001), height (length) (P < 0.001), weight (P < 0.01), and BMI (P < 0.05) for age z-scores of the participants were lower than the reference population. The height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores of the participants did not differ significantly between birth and current measurements. Three-fourths of the group reported having one or more nutritional or gastrointestinal problems including short stature (65%), underweight (77%), oral motor dysfunction (41%), gastroesophageal reflux (24%), gastroparesis (35%), and constipation (35%). These observations provide novel clinical information about growth, body composition, and nutritional and gastrointestinal aspects of children and adults with FDH and underscore the importance of careful observation and early clinical intervention in the care of individuals affected with this disorder. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. RTG diagnostics of dental focal infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrasova, A.; Ondrasovicova, J.; Cecctkova, A.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of focal infection has always been and still is a controversial issue for many dentists and scientists. Even though the focal infection does not occupy the first place in modern medicine, its understanding is imperative. The authors summarized the knowledge about dental focal infection and its relationship to systemic the diseases of the whole body in their publication and they also focused on the radiodiagnostics of this disease. (authors)

  18. Periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrova Е.А.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to investigate the mechanisms of formation and peculiarities of periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis. Patients with periodontitis and focal tuberculosis are proved to develop local inflammatory reaction with increased infection and activation of proinflammatory cytokines in parodontal pockets fluid. The main risk factor of frequent and durable recurrence of parodontal pathology in case of focal tuberculosis was the development of pathologic process as a cause of disbalance of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system, endotoxicosis syndrome

  19. Characterization of Erwinia amylovora strains from different host plants using repetitive-sequences PCR analysis, and restriction fragment length polymorphism and short-sequence DNA repeats of plasmid pEA29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barionovi, D; Giorgi, S; Stoeger, A R; Ruppitsch, W; Scortichini, M

    2006-05-01

    The three main aims of the study were the assessment of the genetic relationship between a deviating Erwinia amylovora strain isolated from Amelanchier sp. (Maloideae) grown in Canada and other strains from Maloideae and Rosoideae, the investigation of the variability of the PstI fragment of the pEA29 plasmid using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and the determination of the number of short-sequence DNA repeats (SSR) by DNA sequence analysis in representative strains. Ninety-three strains obtained from 12 plant genera and different geographical locations were examined by repetitive-sequences PCR using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus, BOX and Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic primer sets. Upon the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis, a deviating strain from Amelanchier sp. was analysed using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) analysis and the sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. This strain showed 99% similarity to other E. amylovora strains in the 16S gene and the same banding pattern with ARDRA. The RFLP analysis of pEA29 plasmid using MspI and Sau3A restriction enzymes showed a higher variability than that previously observed and no clear-cut grouping of the strains was possible. The number of SSR units reiterated two to 12 times. The strains obtained from pear orchards showing for the first time symptoms of fire blight had a low number of SSR units. The strains from Maloideae exhibit a wider genetic variability than previously thought. The RFLP analysis of a fragment of the pEA29 plasmid would not seem a reliable method for typing E. amylovora strains. A low number of SSR units was observed with first epidemics of fire blight. The current detection techniques are mainly based on the genetic similarities observed within the strains from the cultivated tree-fruit crops. For a more reliable detection of the fire blight pathogen also in wild and ornamentals Rosaceous plants the genetic

  20. Flux dynamics in ultrasensitive superconducting focal planes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The performance of superconducting focal planes will drive the achievable specifications of ultrasensitive instruments for NASA astrophysics missions, yet they have...

  1. Game Movement as Enactive Focalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Shibolet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates thought on game narrative and embodied cognition, in order to consider the significance of movement to the embodied narrative experience of games. If games are a mode of ‘environmental storytelling’, determining the player’s mobile situatedness within the gamespace is of crucial importance. The metaphor of game design as narrative architecture should be expanded to include te the design of movement dynamics, alongside geographical gamespace. I suggest a theoretical infrastructure that aims to enable further analysis of movement design’s role in this scope. The theory of enactive perception asserts that all perception is inherently negotiated through embodied understanding of moving within environment. According to this model, by giving meaning to perception, movement is also directly related to the structure of consciousness and thought. Cognitive definitions of ‘narrative’ that integrate embodiment are applied to argue it can relevantly account for part of thought’s role in enactive perception. Mieke Bal’s concept of focalization (1997 broaches narrative perspective by underscoring the constant “movement of the look”. For enactive perception, such mobility should be understood as inseparable from the movement of the body even when perspective could appear detached from embodiment. Therefore, I offer the supplementary concept of “enactive focalization” – narrative perception as interpreted through the interconnected dynamics or perspectival and physical movement. To exemplify my ideas and the potential of future research in this scope, I discuss the uniquely effective and affective movement dynamic design of Journey. This paper concludes by reflecting on enactive focalization in light of the increased utilization of embodiment in the contemporary digital media landscape.

  2. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  3. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong

    2002-01-01

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  4. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  5. Intracoronary infusion of catecholamines causes focal arrhythmias in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppalapudi, Harish; Jin, Qi; Dosdall, Derek J; Qin, Hao; Walcott, Gregory P; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Smith, William M; Ideker, Raymond E; Huang, Jian

    2008-09-01

    Acute ischemia causes myriad changes including increased catecholamines. We tested the hypothesis that elevated catecholamines alone are arrhythmogenic. A 504 electrode sock was placed over both ventricles in six open-chest pigs. During control infusion of saline through a catheter in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), no sustained arrhythmias occurred, and the refractory period estimated by the activation recovery interval (ARI) was 175 +/- 14 ms in the LAD bed below the catheter. After infusion of isoproterenol at 0.1 microg/kg/min through the catheter, the ARI in this bed was significantly reduced to 109 +/- 10 ms. A sharp gradient of refractoriness of 43 +/- 10 ms was at the border of the perfused bed. Sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia occurred after drug infusion in the perfused bed or near its boundary in all animals with a cycle length of 329 +/- 26 ms and a focal origin. The maximum slope of the ARI restitution curve at the focal origins of the tachyarrhythmias was always <1 (0.62 +/- 0.15). Similar results with a focal arrhythmia origin occurred in two additional pigs in which intramural mapping was performed with 36 plunge needle electrodes in the left ventricular perfused bed. Regional elevation of a catecholamine, which is one of the alterations produced by acute ischemia, can by itself cause tachyarrhythmias. These arrhythmias are closely associated with a shortened refractory period and a large gradient of the spatial distribution of refractoriness but not with a steep restitution curve.

  6. Early vision and focal attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  7. Does length or neighborhood size cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-10-01

    Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, and Surprenant (2011) suggested that past demonstrations of the word length effect, the finding that words with fewer syllables are recalled better than words with more syllables, included a confound: The short words had more orthographic neighbors than the long words. The experiments reported here test two predictions that would follow if neighborhood size is a more important factor than word length. In Experiment 1, we found that concurrent articulation removed the effect of neighborhood size, just as it removes the effect of word length. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this pattern is also found with nonwords. For Experiment 3, we factorially manipulated length and neighborhood size, and found only effects of the latter. These results are problematic for any theory of memory that includes decay offset by rehearsal, but they are consistent with accounts that include a redintegrative stage that is susceptible to disruption by noise. The results also confirm the importance of lexical and linguistic factors on memory tasks thought to tap short-term memory.

  8. Near infrared focal plane for the ISOCAM camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, G.; Stefanovitch, D.; Tiphene, D.; Carpentier, Y.; Lorans, D.

    1988-01-01

    ISOCAM is one of the science instruments in the Infrared Space Observatory. It is a 2-channel IR Astronomical Imager intended to observe at very low flux levels, thanks to the use of a liquid helium cooled telescope. This paper describes the Focal Plane Assembly design of the short wavelength channel. The operation of a 32 x 32 InSb CID-SAT array detector has been demonstrated. The problems encountered in the design of the cooled electronics and the component selection process are discussed in the light of specific ISO constraints, such as thermal control and radiation shielding. 6 references

  9. Immunogenic hyperthyroidism following radioiodine ablation of focal autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddenberg, B.; Voth, E.; Schicha, H.

    1993-01-01

    Immunogenic hyperthyroidism rarely develops after radioiodine elimination of focal autonomous thyroid tissue. We observed this phenomenon in 8 patients between 1989 and 1992. The occurrence of immunogenic hyperthyroidism shortly after elimination of autonomous nodules has not been studied nor is it properly understood. Most studies known today describe the development of autonomous nodules in the course of immunogenic hyperthyroidism or ignore the chronologic order of occurrence. The possibility that immunogenic hyperthyroidism may occur after radioiodine therapy of autonomous nodules, makes a consequent follow-up within the first year following radioiodine therapy mandatory. (orig.) [de

  10. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  11. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  12. Focal pancreatic enlargement: differentiation between pancreatic adenocarcinoma and focal pancreatitis on CT and ERCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Ki Whang; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Hee Soo; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Yu, Jeong Sik; Yoon, Sang Wook

    1995-01-01

    To differentiate the pancreatic adenocarcinoma from focal pancreatitis on CT and ERCP in cases of focal pancreatic enlargement. We analysed CT findings of 66 patients of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 45) or focal pancreatitis (n = 21) with respect to size, density, calcification, pancreatic or biliary duct dilatation, fat plane obliteration around the vessels, direction of retroperitoneal extension, lymphadenopathy, pseudocyst formation and atrophy of pancreas. ERCP available in 48 patients were analysed in respect to morphologic appearance of CBD and pancreatic duct, and distance between the two ducts. The patients in focal pancreatitis were younger with more common history of alcohol drinking. There was no statistical difference in calcifications of the mass (18% in the adenocarcinoma, 33% in the focal pancreatitis), but a tendency of denser, larger number of calcifications was noted in focal pancreatitis. The finding of fat plane obliteration around the vessels were more common in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and fascial thickenings were more prominent in focal pancreatitis, although not statistically significant. On ERCP, there were no differential points of CBD, pancreatic duct morphology, but distance between the two ducts at the lesion center was more wider in focal pancreatitis. Differentiating focal pancreatitis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma is difficult. However, we should consider the possibility of focal pancreatitis in cases of patients with young age, having alcoholic history in association with CT findings of large numbers of and dense calcifications, and ERCP findings of prominent separation of two duct at the lesion center

  13. Focal skin defect, limb anomalies and microphthalmia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, K.E.; Andersson, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    We describe two unrelated female patients with congenital single focal skin defects, unilateral microphthalmia and limb anomalies. Growth and psychomotor development were normal and no brain malformation was detected. Although eye and limb anomalies are commonly associated, clinical anophthalmia and

  14. Focal adhesions and cell-matrix interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    1988-01-01

    Focal adhesions are areas of cell surfaces where specializations of cytoskeletal, membrane and extracellular components combine to produce stable cell-matrix interactions. The morphology of these adhesions and the components identified in them are discussed together with possible mechanisms...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: focal dermal hypoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in people with focal dermal hypoplasia is an omphalocele , which is an opening in the wall of ... Dermal Hypoplasia MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Ectodermal dysplasia MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Omphalocele General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests ...

  16. Imprisonment length and post-prison employment prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, Anke; Apel, Robert; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Dirkzwager, Anja; Van Wilsem, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the relationship between imprisonment length and employment outcomes. The data are a unique prospective, longitudinal study of Dutch pretrial detainees (N = 702). All subjects thus experience prison confinement of varying lengths, although the durations are relatively short

  17. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Budinger, T.F.; Tobias, C.A.; Born, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  18. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)

  19. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented

  20. Treatment planning for prostate focal laser ablation in the face of needle placement uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cepek, Jeremy, E-mail: jcepek@robarts.ca; Fenster, Aaron [Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8, Canada and Biomedical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Lindner, Uri; Trachtenberg, John [Department of Surgical Oncology, Division of Urology, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4 (Canada); Davidson, Sean R. H. [Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Haider, Masoom A. [Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2J7 (Canada); Ghai, Sangeet [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To study the effect of needle placement uncertainty on the expected probability of achieving complete focal target destruction in focal laser ablation (FLA) of prostate cancer. Methods: Using a simplified model of prostate cancer focal target, and focal laser ablation region shapes, Monte Carlo simulations of needle placement error were performed to estimate the probability of completely ablating a region of target tissue. Results: Graphs of the probability of complete focal target ablation are presented over clinically relevant ranges of focal target sizes and shapes, ablation region sizes, and levels of needle placement uncertainty. In addition, a table is provided for estimating the maximum target size that is treatable. The results predict that targets whose length is at least 5 mm smaller than the diameter of each ablation region can be confidently ablated using, at most, four laser fibers if the standard deviation in each component of needle placement error is less than 3 mm. However, targets larger than this (i.e., near to or exceeding the diameter of each ablation region) require more careful planning. This process is facilitated by using the table provided. Conclusions: The probability of completely ablating a focal target using FLA is sensitive to the level of needle placement uncertainty, especially as the target length approaches and becomes greater than the diameter of ablated tissue that each individual laser fiber can achieve. The results of this work can be used to help determine individual patient eligibility for prostate FLA, to guide the planning of prostate FLA, and to quantify the clinical benefit of using advanced systems for accurate needle delivery for this treatment modality.

  1. A new focalize of quality auditorship for documentation control. A practical case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.B.; Malanij, D.

    1994-01-01

    Available as short communication only. A practical case of auditorship for Documentation Control System is described, showing the increase of efficiency when operated in the concept of Business Process Improvement, and this focalize is compatible with the nuclear area requirements. (C.G.C.). 2 refs

  2. Transparent meta-analysis: does aging spare prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Uttl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prospective memory (ProM is the ability to become aware of a previously-formed plan at the right time and place. For over twenty years, researchers have been debating whether prospective memory declines with aging or whether it is spared by aging and, most recently, whether aging spares prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues. Two recent meta-analyses examining these claims did not include all relevant studies and ignored prevalent ceiling effects, age confounds, and did not distinguish between prospective memory subdomains (e.g., ProM proper, vigilance, habitual ProM (see Uttl, 2008, PLoS ONE. The present meta-analysis focuses on the following questions: Does prospective memory decline with aging? Does prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues decline with aging? Does the size of age-related declines with focal vs. non-focal cues vary across ProM subdomains? And are age-related declines in ProM smaller than age-related declines in retrospective memory? METHODS AND FINDINGS: A meta-analysis of event-cued ProM using data visualization and modeling, robust count methods, and conventional meta-analysis techniques revealed that first, the size of age-related declines in ProM with both focal and non-focal cues are large. Second, age-related declines in ProM with focal cues are larger in ProM proper and smaller in vigilance. Third, age-related declines in ProM proper with focal cues are as large as age-related declines in recall measures of retrospective memory. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with Craik's (1983 proposal that age-related declines on ProM tasks are generally large, support the distinction between ProM proper vs. vigilance, and directly contradict widespread claims that ProM, with or without focal cues, is spared by aging.

  3. Focal thyroid inferno” on color Doppler ultrasonography: A specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xianshui; Guo, Limei; Zhang, Huabin; Ran, Weiqiang; Fu, Peng; Li, Zhiqiang; Chen, Wen; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jinrui; Jia, Jianwen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods: A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The χ 2 test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. Results: The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using “focal thyroid inferno” as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The vascularity type of “focal thyroid inferno” is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy.

  4. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun

    2003-01-01

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review

  5. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review.

  6. Seven tesla MRI improves detection of focal cortical dysplasia in patients with refractory focal epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veersema, Tim J; Ferrier, Cyrille H; van Eijsden, Pieter; Gosselaar, Peter H; Aronica, Eleonora; Visser, Fredy; Zwanenburg, Jaco M; de Kort, Gerard A P; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Luijten, Peter R; Braun, Kees P J

    Objective: The aim of this study is to determine whether the use of 7 tesla (T) MRI in clinical practice leads to higher detection rates of focal cortical dysplasias in possible candidates for epilepsy surgery. Methods: In our center patients are referred for 7 T MRI if lesional focal epilepsy is

  7. How much DNA is lost? Measuring DNA loss of short-tandem-repeat length fragments targeted by the PowerPlex 16® system using the Qiagen MinElute Purification Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Brian M; Winters, Misa; Monroe, Cara; Barta, Jodi Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The success in recovering genetic profiles from aged and degraded biological samples is diminished by fundamental aspects of DNA extraction, as well as its long-term preservation, that are not well understood. While numerous studies have been conducted to determine whether one extraction method was superior to others, nearly all of them were initiated with no knowledge of the actual starting DNA quantity in the samples prior to extraction, so they ultimately compared the outcome of all methods relative to the best. Using quantitative PCR to estimate the copy count of synthetic standards before (i.e., "copies in") and after (i.e., "copies out") purification by the Qiagen MinElute PCR Purification Kit, we documented DNA loss within a pool of 16 different-sized fragments ranging from 106 to 409 bp in length, corresponding to those targeted by the PowerPlex 16 System (Promega, Madison, WI). Across all standards from 10(4) to 10(7) copies/μL, loss averaged between 21.75% and 60.56% (mean, 39.03%), which is not congruent with Qiagen's claim that 80% of 70 bp to 4 kb fragments are retained using this product (i.e., 20% loss). Our study also found no clear relationship either between DNA strand length and retention or between starting copy number and retention. This suggests that there is no molecule bias across the MinElute column membrane and highlights the need for manufacturers to clearly and accurately describe on what their claims are based, and should also encourage researchers to document DNA retention efficiencies of their own methods and protocols. Understanding how and where to reduce loss of molecules during extraction and purification will serve to generate clearer and more accurate data, which will enhance the utility of ancient and low-copy-number DNA as a tool for closing forensic cases or in reconstructing the evolutionary history of humans and other organisms.

  8. Expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Emel Uzun; Acikgoz, Aydan; Ozan, Bora; Zengin, Ayse Zeynep; Gunhan, Omer

    2012-01-01

    To present a case of expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia and emphasize the importance of differential diagnosis. Cemento-osseous dysplasia is categorized into three subtypes on the basis of the clinical and radiographic features: Periapical, focal and florid. The focal type exhibits a single site of involvement in any tooth-bearing or edentulous area of the jaws. These lesions are usually asymptomatic; therefore, they are frequently diagnosed incidentally during routine radiographic examinations. Lesions are usually benign, show limited growth, and do not require further surgical intervention, but periodic follow-up is recommended because occasionally, this type of dysplasia progresses into florid osseous dysplasia and simple bone cysts are formed. A 24-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic for swelling in the left edentulous mandibular premolarmolar region and felt discomfort when she wore her prosthetics. She had no pain, tenderness or paresthesia. Clinical examination showed that the swelling in the posterior mandible that was firm, nonfluctuant and covered by normal mucosa. On panoramic radiography and computed tomography, a well defined lesion of approximately 1.5 cm in diameter of mixed density was observed. The swelling increased slightly in size over 2 years making it difficult to use prosthetics and, therefore, the lesion was totally excised under local anesthesia, and surgical specimens were submitted for histopathological examination. The histopathological diagnosis was focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. In the present case, because of the increasing size of the swelling making it difficult to use prosthetics, young age of the patient and localization of the lesion, in the initial examination, cemento-ossifying fibroma was suspected, and the lesion was excised surgically; the histopathological diagnosis confirmed it as focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. We present a case of expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. Differential diagnosis

  9. Large-format InGaAs focal plane arrays for SWIR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Andrew D.; MacDougal, Michael H.; Manzo, Juan; Follman, David; Geske, Jonathan C.

    2012-06-01

    FLIR Electro Optical Components will present our latest developments in large InGaAs focal plane arrays, which are used for low light level imaging in the short wavelength infrared (SWIR) regime. FLIR will present imaging from their latest small pitch (15 μm) focal plane arrays in VGA and High Definition (HD) formats. FLIR will present characterization of the FPA including dark current measurements as well as the use of correlated double sampling to reduce read noise. FLIR will show imagery as well as FPA-level characterization data.

  10. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis.

  11. Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as focal cortical dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. O'Rourke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare syndrome characterized by intractable seizures, often associated with epilepsia partialis continua and symptoms of progressive hemispheric dysfunction. Seizures are usually the hallmark of presentation, but antiepileptic drug treatment fails in most patients and is ineffective against epilepsia partialis continua, which often requires surgical intervention. Co-occurrence of focal cortical dysplasia has only rarely been described and may have implications regarding pathophysiology and management. We describe a rare case of dual pathology of Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as a focal cortical dysplasia (FCD and discuss the literature on this topic.

  12. Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as focal cortical dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, D.J.; Bergin, A.; Rotenberg, A.; Peters, J.; Gorman, M.; Poduri, A.; Cryan, J.; Lidov, H.; Madsen, J.; Harini, C.

    2014-01-01

    Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare syndrome characterized by intractable seizures, often associated with epilepsia partialis continua and symptoms of progressive hemispheric dysfunction. Seizures are usually the hallmark of presentation, but antiepileptic drug treatment fails in most patients and is ineffective against epilepsia partialis continua, which often requires surgical intervention. Co-occurrence of focal cortical dysplasia has only rarely been described and may have implications regarding pathophysiology and management. We describe a rare case of dual pathology of Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as a focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and discuss the literature on this topic. PMID:25667877

  13. Actinic Granuloma with Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruedee Phasukthaworn

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Actinic granuloma is an uncommon granulomatous disease, characterized by annular erythematous plaque with central clearing predominately located on sun-damaged skin. The pathogenesis is not well understood, ultraviolet radiation is recognized as precipitating factor. We report a case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with asymptomatic annular erythematous plaques on the forehead and both cheeks persisting for 2 years. The clinical presentation and histopathologic findings support the diagnosis of actinic granuloma. During that period of time, she also developed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The association between actinic granuloma and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis needs to be clarified by further studies.

  14. Focal splenic masses of the extramedullary hematopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incedayi, M.; Sivrioglu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Extramedullary hematopoiesis arises from pleuripotential stem cells distributed throughout the body. It is most common in patients with congenital hemolytic anemia, such as thalassemia, sickle cell anemia and hereditary spherocytosis as a response to ineffective red blood cell formation. Although microscopic foci of Extramedullary hematopoiesis are commonly seen in the spleen and liver parenchyma, focal mass-like lesion of extramedullary hematopoiesis in the liver and spleen are rare. We report a case of intrasplenic focal extramedullary hematopoiesis lesions and the imaging features of extramedullary hematopoiesis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Extramedullary hematopoiesis should always be considered as a diagnosis in a patient with a known hematological disorder

  15. Word length, set size, and lexical factors: Re-examining what causes the word length effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Dominic; Gabel, Andrew J; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Surprenant, Aimée M; Neath, Ian

    2018-04-19

    The word length effect, better recall of lists of short (fewer syllables) than long (more syllables) words has been termed a benchmark effect of working memory. Despite this, experiments on the word length effect can yield quite different results depending on set size and stimulus properties. Seven experiments are reported that address these 2 issues. Experiment 1 replicated the finding of a preserved word length effect under concurrent articulation for large stimulus sets, which contrasts with the abolition of the word length effect by concurrent articulation for small stimulus sets. Experiment 2, however, demonstrated that when the short and long words are equated on more dimensions, concurrent articulation abolishes the word length effect for large stimulus sets. Experiment 3 shows a standard word length effect when output time is equated, but Experiments 4-6 show no word length effect when short and long words are equated on increasingly more dimensions that previous demonstrations have overlooked. Finally, Experiment 7 compared recall of a small and large neighborhood words that were equated on all the dimensions used in Experiment 6 (except for those directly related to neighborhood size) and a neighborhood size effect was still observed. We conclude that lexical factors, rather than word length per se, are better predictors of when the word length effect will occur. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Word Length Effects in Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehan, Gerald; Tolan, Georgina Anne

    2007-01-01

    The word length effect has been a central feature of theorising about immediate memory. The notion that short-term memory traces rapidly decay unless refreshed by rehearsal is based primarily upon the finding that serial recall for short words is better than that for long words. The decay account of the word length effect has come under pressure…

  17. Evaluation of focused ultrasound algorithms: Issues for reducing pre-focal heating and treatment time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakou, Marinos; Trimikliniotis, Michael; Yiallouras, Christos; Damianou, Christakis

    2016-02-01

    Due to the heating in the pre-focal field the delay between successive movements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are sometimes as long as 60s, resulting to treatment time in the order of 2-3h. Because there is generally a requirement to reduce treatment time, we were motivated to explore alternative transducer motion algorithms in order to reduce pre-focal heating and treatment time. A 1 MHz single element transducer with 4 cm diameter and 10 cm focal length was used. A simulation model was developed that estimates the temperature, thermal dose and lesion development in the pre-focal field. The simulated temperature history that was combined with the motion algorithms produced thermal maps in the pre-focal region. Polyacrylimde gel phantom was used to evaluate the induced pre-focal heating for each motion algorithm used, and also was used to assess the accuracy of the simulation model. Three out of the six algorithms having successive steps close to each other, exhibited severe heating in the pre-focal field. Minimal heating was produced with the algorithms having successive steps apart from each other (square, square spiral and random). The last three algorithms were improved further (with small cost in time), thus eliminating completely the pre-focal heating and reducing substantially the treatment time as compared to traditional algorithms. Out of the six algorithms, 3 were successful in eliminating the pre-focal heating completely. Because these 3 algorithms required no delay between successive movements (except in the last part of the motion), the treatment time was reduced by 93%. Therefore, it will be possible in the future, to achieve treatment time of focused ultrasound therapies shorter than 30 min. The rate of ablated volume achieved with one of the proposed algorithms was 71 cm(3)/h. The intention of this pilot study was to demonstrate that the navigation algorithms play the most important role in reducing pre-focal heating. By evaluating in

  18. Improved image quality for asymmetric double-focal cone-beam SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Z.J.; Tsui, B.M.W.

    1993-01-01

    To optimize both spatial resolution and detection efficiency in brain SPECT imaging using a rectangular camera, an asymmetric double-focal cone-beam collimator is proposed with the focal points located near the base plane of the patient's head. To fit the entire head into the field-of-view of the collimator with dimensions of 50cmx40cm and at a radius-of-rotation of 15 cm, the focal lengths of the collimator are 55 and 70 cm, respectively, in the transverse and axial directions. With this geometry, the artifacts in the reconstructed image produced by the Feldkamp algorithm are more severe compared to those in a symmetric cone-beam geometry, due to the larger vertex angle between the top of the head and the base plane. To improve the reconstructed image quality, a fully three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction algorithm developed previously for single-focal cone-beam SPECT was extended to the asymmetric double-focal cone-beam geometry. The algorithm involves nonstationary 2D filtering and a reprojection technique for estimation of the missing data caused by a single-orbit cone-beam geometry. The results from simulation studies with the 3D Defrise slab phantom demonstrated that the fully 3D algorithm provided a much improved image quality in terms of reduced slice-to-slice cross talks and shape elongation compared to that produced by the conventional Feldkamp algorithm

  19. Infrared MUSIC from Z technology focal planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, C.R.; Sommese, A.; Johnston, D.; Landau, H.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm which uses the high frequency differences in sensed time signals to discriminate, count, and accurately locate closely spaced targets. Z technology focal planes allow the implementation of this algorithm and the trade-off between finer spatial resolution systems and systems with coarser resolution but higher sampling rates

  20. Focal dermal hypoplasia: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana M Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome.

  1. Third-generation intelligent IR focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John; Jack, Michael D.; Pettijohn, Kevin L.; Schlesselmann, John D.; Norworth, Joe

    1998-03-01

    SBRC is at the forefront of industry in developing IR focal plane arrays including multi-spectral technology and '3rd generation' functions that mimic the human eye. 3rd generation devices conduct advanced processing on or near the FPA that serve to reduce bandwidth while performing needed functions such as automatic target recognition, uniformity correction and dynamic range enhancement. These devices represent a solution for processing the exorbitantly high bandwidth coming off large area FPAs without sacrificing systems sensitivity. SBRC's two-color approach leverages the company's HgCdTe technology to provide simultaneous multiband coverage, from short through long wave IR, with near theoretical performance. IR systems that are sensitive to different spectral bands achieve enhanced capabilities for target identification and advanced discrimination. This paper will provide a summary of the issues, the technology and the benefits of SBRC's third generation smart and two-color FPAs.

  2. Fabrication of multi-focal microlens array on curved surface for wide-angle camera module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jun-Gu; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present a wide-angle and compact camera module that consists of microlens array with different focal lengths on curved surface. The design integrates the principle of an insect's compound eye and the human eye. It contains a curved hexagonal microlens array and a spherical lens. Compared with normal mobile phone cameras which usually need no less than four lenses, but our proposed system only uses one lens. Furthermore, the thickness of our proposed system is only 2.08 mm and diagonal full field of view is about 100 degrees. In order to make the critical microlens array, we used the inkjet printing to control the surface shape of each microlens for achieving different focal lengths and use replication method to form curved hexagonal microlens array.

  3. Short intense ion pulses for materials and warm dense matter research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, Peter A., E-mail: PASeidl@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Persaud, Arun; Waldron, William L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Barnard, John J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Davidson, Ronald C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Friedman, Alex [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Gilson, Erik P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Greenway, Wayne G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Grote, David P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Kaganovich, Igor D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Lidia, Steven M.; Stettler, Matthew; Takakuwa, Jeffrey H.; Schenkel, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-11

    We have commenced experiments with intense short pulses of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, by generating beam spots size with radius r<1 mm within 2 ns FWHM and approximately 10{sup 10} ions/pulse. To enable the short pulse durations and mm-scale focal spot radii, the 1.2 MeV Li{sup +} ion beam is neutralized in a 1.6-meter drift compression section located after the last accelerator magnet. An 8-Tesla short focal length solenoid compresses the beam in the presence of the large volume plasma near the end of this section before the target. The scientific topics to be explored are warm dense matter, the dynamics of radiation damage in materials, and intense beam and beam-plasma physics including selected topics of relevance to the development of heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion energy. Here we describe the accelerator commissioning and time-resolved ionoluminescence measurements of yttrium aluminum perovskite using the fully integrated accelerator and neutralized drift compression components.

  4. Short intense ion pulses for materials and warm dense matter research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, Peter A.; Persaud, Arun; Waldron, William L.; Barnard, John J.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Friedman, Alex; Gilson, Erik P.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Grote, David P.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Lidia, Steven M.; Stettler, Matthew; Takakuwa, Jeffrey H.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We have commenced experiments with intense short pulses of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, by generating beam spots size with radius r<1 mm within 2 ns FWHM and approximately 10"1"0 ions/pulse. To enable the short pulse durations and mm-scale focal spot radii, the 1.2 MeV Li"+ ion beam is neutralized in a 1.6-meter drift compression section located after the last accelerator magnet. An 8-Tesla short focal length solenoid compresses the beam in the presence of the large volume plasma near the end of this section before the target. The scientific topics to be explored are warm dense matter, the dynamics of radiation damage in materials, and intense beam and beam-plasma physics including selected topics of relevance to the development of heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion energy. Here we describe the accelerator commissioning and time-resolved ionoluminescence measurements of yttrium aluminum perovskite using the fully integrated accelerator and neutralized drift compression components.

  5. Quality parameters analysis of optical imaging systems with enhanced focal depth using the Wigner distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalvidea; Colautti; Sicre

    2000-05-01

    An analysis of the Strehl ratio and the optical transfer function as imaging quality parameters of optical elements with enhanced focal length is carried out by employing the Wigner distribution function. To this end, we use four different pupil functions: a full circular aperture, a hyper-Gaussian aperture, a quartic phase plate, and a logarithmic phase mask. A comparison is performed between the quality parameters and test images formed by these pupil functions at different defocus distances.

  6. Symmetry issues in a class of ion beam targets using short direct drive pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, J.W.K.; Lindl, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    We address a class of modified ion beam targets where the symmetry issues are ameliorated in the regime of short bursts of direct drive pulses. Short pulses are here defined so that the fractional change in target radii of peak beam energy deposition are assumed to be small (during each such direct drive burst with a fixed beam focal radius). This requirement is actually not stringent on the temporal pulse-length. In fact we show an explicit example where this can be satisfied by a ≥ 60 ns direct drive pulse-train. A new beam placement scheme is used which systematically eliminated low order spherical harmonic asymmetries. The residual asymmetries of such pulses are studied with both simple model and numerical simulations

  7. DESI focal plate mechanical integration and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, A. R.; Besuner, R. W.; Claybaugh, T. M.; Silber, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique[1]. The spectra of 40 million galaxies over 14000 sq. deg will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs. This paper describes the mechanical integration of the DESI focal plate and the thermal system design. The DESI focal plate is comprised of ten identical petal assemblies. Each petal contains 500 robotic fiber positioners. Each petal is a complete, self-contained unit, independent from the others, with integrated power supply, controllers, fiber routing, and cooling services. The major advantages of this scheme are: (1) supports installation and removal of complete petal assemblies in-situ, without disturbing the others, (2) component production, assembly stations, and test procedures are repeated and parallelizable, (3) a complete, full-scale prototype can be built and tested at an early date, (4) each production petal can be surveyed and tested as a complete unit, prior to integration, from the fiber tip at the focal surface to the fiber slit at the spectrograph. The ten petal assemblies will be installed in a single integration ring, which is mounted to the DESI corrector. The aluminum integration ring attaches to the steel corrector barrel via a flexured steel adapter, isolating the focal plate from differential thermal expansions. The plate scale will be kept stable by conductive cooling of the petal assembly. The guider and wavefront sensors (one per petal) will be convectively cooled by forced flow of air. Heat will be removed from the system at ten liquid-cooled cold plates, one per petal, operating at ambient temperature. The entire focal plate structure is enclosed in an insulating shroud, which serves as a thermal barrier

  8. Exon 3-deleted/full-length growth hormone receptor polymorphism genotype frequencies in Spanish short small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children and adolescents (n = 247) and in an adult control population (n = 289) show increased fl/fl in short SGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audí, Laura; Esteban, Cristina; Carrascosa, Antonio; Espadero, Rosa; Pérez-Arroyo, Annalisa; Arjona, Rosa; Clemente, María; Wollmann, Hartmut; Fryklund, Linda; Parodi, Luis A

    2006-12-01

    A polymorphism in the human GH receptor gene (d3/fl-GHR) resulting in genomic deletion of exon 3 has been associated with the degree of height increase in response to GH therapy. The objective of the study was to evaluate the frequencies of d3/fl-GHR polymorphism genotypes in control and short small-for-gestational-age (SGA) populations. An adult control population with heights normally distributed (ACPNH) between -2 and +2 sd score (SDS) and a short non-GH-deficient SGA child population were selected. Thirty Spanish hospitals participated in the selection of the short non-GH-deficient SGA children in the setting of a controlled, randomized trial, and one of these hospitals selected the ACPNH. CONTROLS AND PATIENTS: Two hundred eighty-nine adult subjects of both sexes constituted the ACPNH and 247 children and adolescents of both sexes the short SGA patients. Heights and weights were recorded in the ACPNH, and auxologic and biochemical data were recorded at each hospital for the SGA patients; d3/fl-GHR genotypes were determined and data analyzed in a single hospital. In short SGA patients, d3/fl-GHR genotype frequencies were significantly different from those in ACPNH, with a higher frequency of fl/fl genotype (P or=-2 SDS, n = 60). Our data showed significant differences in the frequency distribution of the d3/fl-GHR genotypes between a normally distributed adult height population and short SGA children, with the biologically less active fl/fl genotype being almost twice as frequent in SGA patients. These data suggest that the d3/fl-GHR polymorphism might be considered among the factors that contribute to the phenotypic expression of growth.

  9. Radiopneumographic characteristics of focal pneumonia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    Zonal ventilation and blood flow were studied by the radiopneumography method in 50 children of school age with lower-lobe-of-the lung focal pneumonia (26 with left-side and 24 with right-side). It is established that during right-side localization of pneumonic focus preserved was the predomination of ventilation of right lung relative to left. Complete normalization of common and regional indexes of ventilation and blood flow was established by the 21st day from the beginning of treatment during right-side focal pneumonias. In case of left-side localization of pneumonic focus only partial reduction of external respiration and perfusion comes. Therefore, compensatory and reducing capabilities of right lung are preferrable

  10. Membership Functions for Fuzzy Focal Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porębski Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on data-driven diagnostic rules, which are easy to interpret by human experts. To this end, the Dempster-Shafer theory extended for fuzzy focal elements is used. Premises of the rules (fuzzy focal elements are provided by membership functions which shapes are changing according to input symptoms. The main aim of the present study is to evaluate common membership function shapes and to introduce a rule elimination algorithm. Proposed methods are first illustrated with the popular Iris data set. Next experiments with five medical benchmark databases are performed. Results of the experiments show that various membership function shapes provide different inference efficiency but the extracted rule sets are close to each other. Thus indications for determining rules with possible heuristic interpretation can be formulated.

  11. Focal epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Gulløv, Christina Hedal; Fredholm, Merete

    2009-01-01

    and deceased) were ascertained through a telephone interview using a standardised questionnaire regarding seizure history and phenomenology. Living dogs were invited to a detailed clinical evaluation. Litters more than five years of age, or where epilepsy was present in all offspring before the age of five......, were included in the calculations of inheritance. results: Out of 199 family members, 66 dogs suffered from epilepsy. The prevalence of epilepsy in the family was 33%. Fifty-five dogs experienced focal seizures with or without secondary generalisation, while four dogs experienced primary generalised...... seizures. In seven dogs, seizures could not be classified. The mode of inheritance of epilepsy was simple Mendelian. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study identified that the Belgian shepherd suffers from genetically transmitted focal epilepsy. The seizure phenomenology expressed by family members have...

  12. Chest pain in focal musculoskeletal disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Christensen, Henrik Wulff

    2010-01-01

    overlapping conditions and syndromes of focal disorders, including Tietze syndrome, costochondritis, chest wall syndrome, muscle tenderness, slipping rib, cervical angina, and segmental dysfunction of the cervical and thoracic spine, have been reported to cause pain. For most of these syndromes, evidence......The musculoskeletal system is a recognized source of chest pain. However, despite the apparently benign origin, patients with musculoskeletal chest pain remain under-diagnosed, untreated, and potentially continuously disabled in terms of anxiety, depression, and activities of daily living. Several...... arises mainly from case stories and empiric knowledge. For segmental dysfunction, clinical features of musculoskeletal chest pain have been characterized in a few clinical trials. This article summarizes the most commonly encountered syndromes of focal musculoskeletal disorders in clinical practice....

  13. Characterization of LIL laser UV focal spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangeant, M.; Dubois, J.L.; Behar, G.; Arroyo, P.; Durand, V.; Lahonde, C.

    2006-01-01

    One way to get the fusion of hydrogen in laboratory consists in heating and compressing a DT fuel capsule by using a laser. To reach this aim requires a new generation of high power laser facility. Cea (French board for atomic energy) is developing for this purpose a new 240 laser line facility, the LMJ facility. The LIL which is the prototype of four LMJ laser lines is operational now. In order to confirm the technical choices, a systematic characterization of LIL was carried out. A particular effort has been provided to measure the 3ω high energy focal spot (1.5 kJ/700 ps and 5 ns for one beam) and the synchronization of laser beams onto the target, which are key issues for the plasma production. An experimental device, SAT-3ω (a 3ω laser focal spot analysis) has been designed to perform these measures. That diagnostic which is located at the end of the laser lines delivered its first results during the 2004 quadruplet qualification campaigns. The near field imaging showed no diaphony and vignetting. Low power spots allowed us to control we had no ghost. The energy measurement quality showed the photometric transfer function was perfectly known. Our caustic image are given with an average dynamic range of 800, a spatial resolution of 10 μm and diameter accuracy about 1% for 50% and 3% for 90% of encircled energy. The high energy focal spot diameters are in agreement with low and very low energy diameters. The phase plate and 14 GHz effects are similar to what we had expected. For a laser shot completed with a continuous phase plate at 14 GHz, and for an energy level of 1.5 kJ per beam at 351 nm, the focal beam diameter at 3% of the peak level is (875 ± 45) μm

  14. Proximal focal femoral deficiency: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD is a rare congenital anomaly resulting in limb shortening and disability in young. The exact cause of the disease is not known and it may present as varying grades of affection involving the proximal femur and the acetabulum. Recognition of this rare abnormality on radiographs can help manage these cases better since early institution of therapy may help in achieving adequate growth of the femur.

  15. Syndecan-4 and focal adhesion function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    2001-01-01

    Two groups have now reported the viability of mice that lack syndecan-4. These mice have wound healing/angiogenesis problems, and fibroblasts from these animals differ in adhesion and migration from normal. This is consistent with recent in vitro data indicating a need for signaling via syndecan-4...... for focal adhesion formation, and reports that overexpression of proteins that bind syndecan-4 can modify cell adhesion and migration....

  16. Scale Length of the Galactic Thin Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    thin disk density scale length, hR, is rather short (2.7 ± 0.1 kpc). Key words. ... The 2MASS near infrared data provide, for the first time, deep star counts on a ... peaks allows to adjust the spatial extinction law in the model. ... probability that fi.

  17. Focal adhesions, stress fibers and mechanical tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burridge, Keith, E-mail: Keith_Burridge@med.unc.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, 12-016 Lineberger, CB#7295, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Guilluy, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.guilluy@univ-nantes.fr [Inserm UMR-S1087, CNRS UMR-C6291, L' institut du Thorax, and Université de Nantes, Nantes (France)

    2016-04-10

    Stress fibers and focal adhesions are complex protein arrays that produce, transmit and sense mechanical tension. Evidence accumulated over many years led to the conclusion that mechanical tension generated within stress fibers contributes to the assembly of both stress fibers themselves and their associated focal adhesions. However, several lines of evidence have recently been presented against this model. Here we discuss the evidence for and against the role of mechanical tension in driving the assembly of these structures. We also consider how their assembly is influenced by the rigidity of the substratum to which cells are adhering. Finally, we discuss the recently identified connections between stress fibers and the nucleus, and the roles that these may play, both in cell migration and regulating nuclear function. - Highlights: • The different types of stress fiber and focal adhesion are described. • We discuss the controversy about tension and assembly of these structures. • We describe the different models used to investigate assembly of these structures. • The influence of substratum rigidity is discussed. • Stress fiber connections to the nucleus are reviewed.

  18. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  19. Classification of Focal and Non Focal Epileptic Seizures Using Multi-Features and SVM Classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraam, N; Raghu, S

    2017-09-02

    Identifying epileptogenic zones prior to surgery is an essential and crucial step in treating patients having pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is a significant measurement benchmark to assess patients suffering from epilepsy. This paper investigates the application of multi-features derived from different domains to recognize the focal and non focal epileptic seizures obtained from pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy patients from Bern Barcelona database. From the dataset, five different classification tasks were formed. Total 26 features were extracted from focal and non focal EEG. Significant features were selected using Wilcoxon rank sum test by setting p-value (p z > 1.96) at 95% significance interval. Hypothesis was made that the effect of removing outliers improves the classification accuracy. Turkey's range test was adopted for pruning outliers from feature set. Finally, 21 features were classified using optimized support vector machine (SVM) classifier with 10-fold cross validation. Bayesian optimization technique was adopted to minimize the cross-validation loss. From the simulation results, it was inferred that the highest sensitivity, specificity, and classification accuracy of 94.56%, 89.74%, and 92.15% achieved respectively and found to be better than the state-of-the-art approaches. Further, it was observed that the classification accuracy improved from 80.2% with outliers to 92.15% without outliers. The classifier performance metrics ensures the suitability of the proposed multi-features with optimized SVM classifier. It can be concluded that the proposed approach can be applied for recognition of focal EEG signals to localize epileptogenic zones.

  20. Substrate, focal adhesions, and actin filaments: a mechanical unit with a weak spot for mechanosensitive proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchenbuechler, David; Born, Simone; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Houben, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Bernd; Merkel, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Mechanosensing is a vital prerequisite for dynamic remodeling of focal adhesions and cytoskeletal structures upon substrate deformation. For example, tissue formation, directed cell orientation or cell differentiation are regulated by such mechanosensing processes. Focal adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton are believed to be involved in these processes, but where mechanosensing molecules are located and how elastic substrate, focal adhesions and the cytoskeleton couple with each other upon substrate deformation still remains obscure. To approach these questions we have developed a sensitive method to apply defined spatially decaying deformation fields to cells cultivated on ultrasoft elastic substrates and to accurately quantify the resulting displacements of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesions, as well as the substrate. Displacement fields were recorded in live cell microscopy by tracking either signals from fluorescent proteins or marker particles in the substrate. As model cell type we used myofibroblasts. These cells are characterized by highly stable adhesion and force generating structures but are still able to detect mechanical signals with high sensitivity. We found a rigid connection between substrate and focal adhesions. Furthermore, stress fibers were found to be barely extendable almost over their whole lengths. Plastic deformation took place only at the very ends of actin filaments close to focal adhesions. As a result, this area became elongated without extension of existing actin filaments by polymerization. Both ends of the stress fibers were mechanically coupled with detectable plastic deformations on either site. Interestingly, traction force dependent substrate deformation fields remained mostly unaffected even when stress fiber elongations were released. These data argue for a location of mechanosensing proteins at the ends of actin stress fibers and describe, except for these domains, the whole system to be relatively rigid for tensile

  1. Multispectral linear array (MLA) focal plane mechanical and thermal design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A. S.; Kaminski, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanical and thermal design of an integrated focal plane subsystem of a Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) instrument is discussed in terms of focal-plane alignment, thermoelastic performance, and thermal requirements. The modular construction and thermal control of the focal plane array are discussed.

  2. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  3. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hossenfelder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  4. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  5. Noonan syndrome: crossed fused ectopic kidneys and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis-a rare association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankur; Khaira, Ambar; Lal, Charanjit; Mahajan, Sandeep; Tiwari, Suresh C

    2009-10-01

    Noonan syndrome is characterised by short stature, typical facial dysmorphology and congenital heart defects. Urogenital abnormalities are reported in 10% of the cases. We present a 14-year-old girl with characteristic features of Noonan syndrome and nephrotic-range proteinuria. She had crossed fused ectopic kidneys. Renal biopsy showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Oral steroids were instituted and she responded well. The case highlights this novel renal presentation of Noonan syndrome.

  6. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  7. Focal Anterior Displacement of the Thoracic Spinal Cord without Evidence of Spinal Cord Herniation or an Intradural Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Yoon; Lee, Joon Woo; Lee, Guen Young; Kang, Heung Sik [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    We report magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings on focal anterior displacement of the thoracic spinal cord in asymptomatic patients without a spinal cord herniation or intradural mass. We identified 12 patients (male:female = 6:6; mean age, 51.7; range, 15-83 years) between 2007 and 2011, with focal anterior displacement of the spinal cord and without evidence of an intradural mass or spinal cord herniation. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the MRI findings in consensus. An asymmetric spinal cord deformity with a focal dented appearance was seen on the posterior surface of the spinal cord in all patients, and it involved a length of 1 or 2 vertebral segments in the upper thoracic spine (thoracic vertebrae 1-6). Moreover, a focal widening of the posterior subarachnoid space was also observed in all cases. None of the patients had myelopathy symptoms, and they showed no focal T2-hyperintensity in the spinal cord with the exception of one patient. In addition, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow artifacts were seen in the posterior subarachnoid space of the affected spinal cord level. Computed tomography myelography revealed preserved CSF flow in the two available patients. Focal anterior spinal cord indentation can be found in the upper thoracic level of asymptomatic patients without a spinal cord herniation or intradural mass.

  8. Focal Anterior Displacement of the Thoracic Spinal Cord without Evidence of Spinal Cord Herniation or an Intradural Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Yoon; Lee, Joon Woo; Lee, Guen Young; Kang, Heung Sik

    2014-01-01

    We report magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings on focal anterior displacement of the thoracic spinal cord in asymptomatic patients without a spinal cord herniation or intradural mass. We identified 12 patients (male:female = 6:6; mean age, 51.7; range, 15-83 years) between 2007 and 2011, with focal anterior displacement of the spinal cord and without evidence of an intradural mass or spinal cord herniation. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the MRI findings in consensus. An asymmetric spinal cord deformity with a focal dented appearance was seen on the posterior surface of the spinal cord in all patients, and it involved a length of 1 or 2 vertebral segments in the upper thoracic spine (thoracic vertebrae 1-6). Moreover, a focal widening of the posterior subarachnoid space was also observed in all cases. None of the patients had myelopathy symptoms, and they showed no focal T2-hyperintensity in the spinal cord with the exception of one patient. In addition, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow artifacts were seen in the posterior subarachnoid space of the affected spinal cord level. Computed tomography myelography revealed preserved CSF flow in the two available patients. Focal anterior spinal cord indentation can be found in the upper thoracic level of asymptomatic patients without a spinal cord herniation or intradural mass

  9. Impedance of finite length resistive cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krinsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor of radius a, length g, and conductivity σ attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency (k≫1/a. In the equilibrium regime, ka^{2}≪g, the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity σ. In the transient regime, ka^{2}≫g, where the contribution of transition radiation arising from the discontinuity in conductivity is important, we derive an analytic expression for the impedance and compute the short-range wakefield. The analytic results are shown to agree with numerical evaluation of the impedance.

  10. Synthesizer for decoding a coded short wave length irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The system uses point irradiation source, typically an X-ray emitter, which illuminates a three dimensional object consisting of a set of parallel planes, each of which acts as a source of coded information. The secondary source images are superimposed on a common flat screen. The decoding system comprises an imput light-screen detector, a picture screen amplifier, a beam deflector, on output picture screen, an optical focussing unit including three lenses, a masking unit, an output light screen detector and a video signal reproduction unit of cathode ray tube from, or similar, to create a three dimensional image of the object. (G.C.)

  11. The Simbol-X Focal Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, P.

    2009-05-01

    The Simbol-X focal plane is designed to detect photons focused by the mirror in the 0.5 to 100 keV energy band. Composed of two detectors, it will measure the position, energy, and arrival time of each incoming X-ray. On top of it will be a collimator to shield all photons not coming from the mirror field of view. The whole system is surrounded by an active and passive shielding in order to ensure the required very low background.

  12. Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oto, Aytekin; Akhan, Okan; Oezmen, Mustafa

    1999-01-01

    Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics

  13. Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oto, Aytekin; Akhan, Okan; Oezmen, Mustafa

    1999-10-01

    Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics.

  14. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  15. Zero-point length from string fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanini, Michele; Spallucci, Euro; Padmanabhan, T.

    2006-01-01

    One of the leading candidates for quantum gravity, viz. string theory, has the following features incorporated in it. (i) The full spacetime is higher-dimensional, with (possibly) compact extra-dimensions; (ii) there is a natural minimal length below which the concept of continuum spacetime needs to be modified by some deeper concept. On the other hand, the existence of a minimal length (zero-point length) in four-dimensional spacetime, with obvious implications as UV regulator, has been often conjectured as a natural aftermath of any correct quantum theory of gravity. We show that one can incorporate the apparently unrelated pieces of information-zero-point length, extra-dimensions, string T-duality-in a consistent framework. This is done in terms of a modified Kaluza-Klein theory that interpolates between (high-energy) string theory and (low-energy) quantum field theory. In this model, the zero-point length in four dimensions is a 'virtual memory' of the length scale of compact extra-dimensions. Such a scale turns out to be determined by T-duality inherited from the underlying fundamental string theory. From a low energy perspective short distance infinities are cutoff by a minimal length which is proportional to the square root of the string slope, i.e., α ' . Thus, we bridge the gap between the string theory domain and the low energy arena of point-particle quantum field theory

  16. Short philtrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm Short philtrum To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A short philtrum is a shorter than normal distance between ...

  17. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  18. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Idiopathic focal epilepsies: the "lost tribe".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Deb K; Ferrie, Colin; Addis, Laura; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Caraballo, Roberto; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Fejerman, Natalio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Helbig, Ingo; Ioannides, Andreas A; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Lal, Dennis; Lesca, Gaetan; Muhle, Hiltrud; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pisano, Tiziana; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Shibata, Takashi; Smith, Anna; Striano, Pasquale; Strug, Lisa J; Szepetowski, Pierre; Valeta, Thalia; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Koutroumanidis, Michalis

    2016-09-01

    The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community. Most neurologists would recognise the core syndromes of IFE to comprise: benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes or Rolandic epilepsy (BECTS/RE); Panayiotopoulos syndrome; and the idiopathic occipital epilepsies (Gastaut and photosensitive types). The Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the related (idiopathic) epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves in sleep (CSWS or ESES) are also often included, both as a consequence of the shared morphology of the interictal discharges and their potential evolution from core syndromes, for example, CSWS from BECTS. Atypical benign focal epilepsy of childhood also has shared electro-clinical features warranting inclusion. In addition, a number of less well-defined syndromes of IFE have been proposed, including benign childhood seizures with affective symptoms, benign childhood epilepsy with parietal spikes, benign childhood seizures with frontal or midline spikes, and benign focal seizures of adolescence. The

  20. Laparoscopic Partial Hepatectomy of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Sakata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal nodular hyperplasia is a benign liver lesion incidentally discovered with increasing frequency because of the proliferation of imaging studies. Radiographic characterization can diagnose this pathologic lesion and nonoperative therapy is the standard of care. However, surgical resection may be required for diagnostic reasons or symptomatic patients. Depending on the anatomic location of the lesion, biopsy and/or resection can be performed laparoscopically. We herein report the case of a 26-year-old Japanese woman with a hepatic tumor who required a medical examination. Her medical history was negative for alcohol abuse, oral contraceptive administration and trauma. Clinical examination showed no significant symptoms. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass located in the left lateral segment of the liver with a diameter of about 40 mm. It was difficult to diagnose the tumor definitively from these imaging studies, so we performed laparoscopic partial hepatectomy with successive firing of endoscopic staplers. The histopathological diagnosis was focal nodular hyperplasia. Surgical procedures and postoperative course were uneventful and the patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 5.

  1. CT scan findings in focal epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Eiki; Mihara, Tadahiro; Yamamoto, Kunimitsu; Yamashita, Kenji; Asakura, Tetsuhiko

    1980-01-01

    In 80 cases of focal epilepsy, excluding such cases as late onset after the age of 30 and traumatic or expansive lesions, the epileptogenic foci have been studied by comparing the CT findings with the seizure types and the EEG findings. The results were as follows: (1) Abnormal CT findings were observed in 36% of the patients. (2) These findings were classified into 4 large groups: localized cerebral atrophy, localized low density, localized high density with contrast enhancement and diffuse cerebral atrophy. (3) The incidence of CT abnormality was higher in the cases with continuous and localized EEG abnormality than in the cases with other types of EEG abnormality. In 48% of the cases, the location of the abnormal CT findings coincided with their EEG foci. (4) In the cases of temporal lobe epilepsy without abnormal CT images, the print-out data compared with the bilateral promised temporal regions, before and after contrast enhancement. The EMI-No. of the medial temporal focus increased more than that of the contralateral side in 3 cases out of 4 after contrast-media injection. (5) Moreover, for the purpose of comparing the CT findings on general seizures with those in focal seizures, we have studied 80 cases of general seizures. In the cases of the general seizures, abnormal CT findings were observed in only 16%. These abnormal findings were diffuse in 5 cases, localized in 6 cases, and combined in 3 cases. (author)

  2. The Sentinel-4 UVN focal plane assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinger, Jürgen; Hohn, Rüdiger; Gebhardt, Eyk; Reichardt, Jörg

    2017-09-01

    The Sentinel-4 UVN Instrument is a dispersive imaging spectrometer covering the UV-VIS and the NIR wavelength. It is developed and built under an ESA contract by an industrial consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space. It will be accommodated on board of the MTG-S (Meteosat Third Generation - Sounder) satellite that will be placed in a geostationary orbit over Europe sampling data for generating two-dimensional maps of a number of atmospheric trace gases. The incoming light is dispersed by reflective gratings and detected by the two (UVVIS and NIR) CCDs mounted inside the focal plane assemblies. Both CCD detectors acquire spectral channels and spatial sampling in two orthogonal directions and will be operated at about 215 K mainly to minimize random telegraph signal effects and to reduce dark current. Stringent detector temperature as well as alignment stability requirements of less than +/-0.1 K per day respectively of less than 2 micrometers/2 arcseconds from ground to orbit are driving the FPA thermo-mechanical design. A specific FPA design feature is the redundant LED-calibration system for bad pixel detection as well as pixel gain and linearity monitoring. This paper reports on the design and qualification of the Focal Plane Assemblies with emphasis on thermo-mechanical as well as alignment stability verification.

  3. The Sentinel 4 focal plane subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Rüdiger; Skegg, Michael P.; Hermsen, Markus; Hinger, Jürgen; Williges, Christian; Reulke, Ralf

    2017-09-01

    The Sentinel 4 instrument is an imaging spectrometer, developed by Airbus under ESA contract in the frame of the joint European Union (EU)/ESA COPERNICUS program with the objective of monitoring trace gas concentrations. Sentinel 4 will provide accurate measurements of key atmospheric constituents such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, as well as aerosol and cloud properties. Sentinel 4 is unique in being the first geostationary UVN mission. The SENTINEL 4 space segment will be integrated on EUMETSAT's Meteosat Third Generation Sounder satellite (MTG-S). Sentinel 4 will provide coverage of Europe and adjacent regions. The Sentinel 4 instrument comprises as a major element two Focal Plane Subsystems (FPS) covering the wavelength ranges 305 nm to 500 nm (UVVIS) and 750 nm to 775 nm (NIR) respectively. The paper describes the Focal Plane Subsystems, comprising the detectors, the optical bench and the control electronics. Further the design and development approach will be presented as well as first measurement results of FPS Qualification Model.

  4. Focal CT abnormality and epileptogenic focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Kazuichi; Mihara, Tadahiro; Tottori, Takayasu; Matsuda, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yutaka; Seino, Masakazu

    1989-01-01

    In 31 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, the precise site of epileptogenic focus was determined by means of a depth EEG recording as one of the presurgical evaluations. In 13 patients, a CT scan revealed focal lesions; 7 in the left temporal lobe and 6 in the right temporal lobe. In 5 of the 7 patients and in 5 of the 6 patients the epileptogenic foci were determined in the temporal lobe on the side of a CT lesion. However, in 2 of the patients with a CT lesion in the left temporal lobe, independent epileptogenic foci were found in both the temporal lobes, and in the other patient with a CT lesion in the right temporal lobe, they were found in the right frontal and left temporal lobes. Thus, the CT lesions agreed in lateralization and focality with the epileptogenic foci in 10 of the 13 patients (77%), but they disagreed in 3 (23%). A CT lesion disclosed in the temporal lobe does not necessarily indicate the side and/or site where the epileptogenic focus may be localized. Although exceptions may be made, spatial disagreement was exemplified between the CT lesion and epileptogenic focus. Therefore, extreme caution has to be taken on the side and/or site of the epileptogenic focus when functional surgical indication is to be made. (author)

  5. Serial neuroradiological studies in focal cerebritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, S.; Mochizuki, H.; Kuru, Y.; Miwa, H.; Kondo, T.; Mori, H.; Mizuno, Y.

    1994-01-01

    We report serial neuroradiological studies in a patient with focal cerebritis in the head of the left caudate nucleus. On the day after the onset of symptoms, CT showed an ill-defined low density lesion. The lack of contrast enhancement appeared to be the most important finding for differentiating focal cerebritis from an encapsulated brain abscess or a tumour. MRI two days later revealed the centre of the lesion to be of slightly low intensity on T1-weighted inversion recovery (IR) images and very low intensity on T2-weighted spin echo images, which appeared to correspond to the early cerebritis stage of experimentally induced cerebritis and brain abscess. Ten days after the onset of symptoms, CT revealed a thin ring of enhancement in the head of the caudate nucleus, and a similar small ring was seen in the hypothalamus 16 days after the onset, corresponding to the late cerebritis stage. MRI nine days later revealed ill-defined high signal lesions within the involved area on the T1-weighted IR images. To our knowledge, this is the first published MRI documentation of the early cerebritis stage developing into an encapsulated brain abscess. The mechanisms underlying of these radiographic changes are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Structural and effective connectivity in focal epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Parker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with medically-refractory focal epilepsy may be candidates for neurosurgery and some may require placement of intracranial EEG electrodes to localise seizure onset. Assessing cerebral responses to single pulse electrical stimulation (SPES may give diagnostically useful data. SPES produces cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs, which infer effective brain connectivity. Diffusion-weighted images and tractography may be used to estimate structural brain connectivity. This combination provides the opportunity to observe seizure onset and its propagation throughout the brain, spreading contiguously along the cortex explored with electrodes, or non-contiguously. We analysed CCEPs and diffusion tractography in seven focal epilepsy patients and reconstructed the effective and structural brain networks. We aimed to assess the inter-modal similarity of the networks at a large scale across the cortex, the effective and structural connectivity of the ictal-onset zone, and investigate potential mechanisms of non-contiguous seizure spread. We found a significant overlap between structural and effective networks. Effective network CCEP amplitude, baseline variation, and outward connectivity was higher at ictal-onset zones, while structural connection strength within the ictal-onset zone tended to be higher. These findings support the concept of hyperexcitable cortex being associated with seizure generation. The high prevalence of structural and effective connections from the ictal-onset zone to sites of non-contiguous spread suggests that macroscopic structural and effective connections are plausible routes for non-contiguous seizure spread.

  7. Ultrasound elastographic techniques in focal liver lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Clara Benedetta; Cavalcoli, Federica; Fraquelli, Mirella; Conte, Dario; Massironi, Sara

    2016-03-07

    Elastographic techniques are new ultrasound-based imaging techniques developed to estimate tissue deformability/stiffness. Several ultrasound elastographic approaches have been developed, such as static elastography, transient elastography and acoustic radiation force imaging methods, which include point shear wave and shear wave imaging elastography. The application of these methods in clinical practice aims at estimating the mechanical tissues properties. One of the main settings for the application of these tools has been liver stiffness assessment in chronic liver disease, which has been studied mainly using transient elastography. Another field of application for these techniques is the assessment of focal lesions, detected by ultrasound in organs such as pancreas, prostate, breast, thyroid, lymph nodes. Considering the frequency and importance of the detection of focal liver lesions through routine ultrasound, some studies have also aimed to assess the role that elestography can play in studying the stiffness of different types of liver lesions, in order to predict their nature and thus offer valuable non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of liver masses.

  8. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  9. Focal fatty infiltra- tion and focal fatty sparing of the liver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Department of Radiology. Nelson Mandela School of Health Sciences. Durban. Fig. 1a. Unenhanced CT of the liver in case 1 demonstrates multiple focal low density regions in both lobes of the liver. Region of interest 1 over the fatty left lobe measured 10 HU while region of interest 2 over the right lobe measure 40 HU in.

  10. Length, Lexicality, and Articulatory Suppression in Immediate Recall: Evidence against the Articulatory Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, C.; McAlpine, S.; Olson, A.; Tsouknida, E.; Martin, R.

    2005-01-01

    Influential models of short-term memory have attributed the fact that short words are recalled better than longer words in serial recall (the length effect) to articulatory rehearsal. Crucial for this link is the finding that the length effect disappears under articulatory suppression. We show, instead, that, under suppression, the length effect…

  11. CT appearance of focal fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, R.A.; Korobkin, M.; Ram, P.C.; Thompson, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is an entity that may be confused with liver metastasis on computed tomography (CT). The imaging results and medical records of 16 patients with CT appearance suggestive of focal fatty liver were reviewed, three of whom had the simultaneous presence of metastitic liver disease. Focal fatty liver often has a distinctive appearance with CT, usually with a nonspherical shape, absence of mass effect, and density close to water. Liver metastases are usually round or oval, and unless cystic or necrotic, they have CT attenuation values closer to normal liver parenchyma than water. A radionuclide liver scan almost always resolves any confusion about the differential diagnosis of focal fatty liver: a well defined focus of photon deficiency is due to neoplasm rather than focal fatty infiltration. Sonography sometimes helps to confirm the CT impression, but may be misleading if the diagnosis of focal or diffuse fatty infiltration is not suspected before the examination

  12. The study of the focal trough in panoramic radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. S.; Kim, H. P.

    1982-01-01

    In the study of the focal trough of panoramic radiograph, using the Moritta company Panex EC a series of 48 exposures were taken with the 6-18 brass pins placed in the holes of the plastic model plate, then evaluated by 4 observers. The author analyzed the focal trough defined by the sharpness criteria and calculated the vertical and horizontal magnification range in the corrected focal trough. The results were as follows; 1. Continuous focal trough was not defined in the anterior region using a very high degree of sharpness. 2. As degree of sharpness used in the analysis became less, focal trough was continuous in the anterior and posterior regions, symmetrized bilaterally, and the widths of the focal trough increased more in the posterior region. 3. As sharpness criteria were reduced, the percentage range of image magnification increased in both vertical and horizontal magnification, and especially the percentage range of horizontal magnification was greater than that of vertical magnification.

  13. Multi-focal Vision and Gaze Control Improve Navigation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolja Kuehnlenz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-focal vision systems comprise cameras with various fields of view and measurement accuracies. This article presents a multi-focal approach to localization and mapping of mobile robots with active vision. An implementation of the novel concept is done considering a humanoid robot navigation scenario where the robot is visually guided through a structured environment with several landmarks. Various embodiments of multi-focal vision systems are investigated and the impact on navigation performance is evaluated in comparison to a conventional mono-focal stereo set-up. The comparative studies clearly show the benefits of multi-focal vision for mobile robot navigation: flexibility to assign the different available sensors optimally in each situation, enhancement of the visible field, higher localization accuracy, and, thus, better task performance, i.e. path following behavior of the mobile robot. It is shown that multi-focal vision may strongly improve navigation performance.

  14. Odd Length Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-09-01

    Let's denote by VE the speed of the Earth and byVR the speed of the rocket. Both travel in the same direction on parallel trajectories. We consider the Earth as a moving (at a constant speed VE -VR) spacecraft of almost spherical form, whose radius is r and thus the diameter 2r, and the rocket as standing still. The non-proper length of Earth's diameter, as measured by the astronaut is: L = 2 r√{ 1 -|/VE -VR|2 c2 } rocket! Also, let's assume that the astronaut is laying down in the direction of motion. Therefore, he would also shrink, or he would die!

  15. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  16. Idiopathic short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaški Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a complex process and the basic characteristic of child- hood growth monitoring provides insight into the physiological and pathological events in the body. Statistically, the short stature means departure from the values of height for age and sex (in a particular environment, which is below -2 standard deviation score, or less than -2 standard deviation, i.e. below the third percentile. Advances in molecular genetics have contributed to the improvement of diagnostics in endocrinology. Analysis of patients’ genotypes should not be performed before taking a classical history, detailed clinical examination and appropriate tests. In patients with idiopathic short stature specific causes are excluded, such as growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, short stature due to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, dysmorphology syndromes and chronic childhood diseases. The exclusion of abovementioned conditions leaves a large number of children with short stature whose etiology includes patients with genetic short stature or familial short stature and those who are low in relation to genetic potential, and who could also have some unrecognized endocrine defect. Idiopathic short stature represents a short stature of unknown cause of heterogeneous etiology, and is characterized by a normal response of growth hormone during stimulation tests (>10 ng/ml or 20 mJ/l, without other disorders, of normal body mass and length at birth. In idiopathic short stature standard deviation score rates <-2.25 (-2 to -3 or <1.2 percentile. These are also criteria for the initiation of growth hormone therapy. In children with short stature there is also the presence of psychological and social suffering. Goals of treatment with growth hormone involve achieving normal height and normal growth rate during childhood.

  17. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia of mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankaya, Abdülkadir Burak; Erdem, Mehmet Ali; Olgac, Vakur; Firat, Deniz Refia

    2012-09-03

    Fibro-osseous lesions are disturbances in bone metabolism in which normal bone is replaced by a connective tissue matrix that then gradually develops into cemento-osseous tissue. Typically, the lesion is asymptomatic and is detected on routine radiographic examination. Radiologically, this lesion has three stages of maturation: pure radiolucent, radiopaque/mixed radiolucent, and radiopaque appearance. During these stages the lesion can be misdiagnosed. In this case report a 69-year- old patient with a a complaint of painless swelling of the left mandibular molar and premolar area is presented along with a review of the differential diagnoses considered in order to reach a final diagnosis of focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  18. Strong reducing of the laser focal volume

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godin, T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available equal to -1 or +1 modeled on the p light rings of the incident TEMp0 beam. The transformation quality of a 30TEM beam into a single-lobed pattern in the focal plane is shown in Fig. 3. It is clear that the intensity pattern of the rectified beam... DOE (blue solid line), rectified 30TEM (red solid line) -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 z=0 z=f DOE Fig. 2 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 TEM30 without DOE "rectified" TEM30 TEM00 In te ns...

  19. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  20. Minimal length uncertainty relation and ultraviolet regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Achim; Mangano, Gianpiero

    1997-06-01

    Studies in string theory and quantum gravity suggest the existence of a finite lower limit Δx0 to the possible resolution of distances, at the latest on the scale of the Planck length of 10-35 m. Within the framework of the Euclidean path integral we explicitly show ultraviolet regularization in field theory through this short distance structure. Both rotation and translation invariance can be preserved. An example is studied in detail.

  1. Pharmacological response of systemically derived focal epileptic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remler, M.P.; Sigvardt, K.; Marcussen, W.H.

    1986-11-01

    Focal epileptic lesions were made in rats by systemic focal epileptogenesis. In this method, a focal lesion of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is produced by focal alpha irradiation followed by repeated systemic injection of a convulsant drug that cannot cross the normal BBB, resulting in a chronic epileptic focus. Changes in the spike frequency of these foci in response to various drugs was recorded. The controls, saline and chlorpromazine, produced no change. Phenytoin, phenobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, and valproic acid produced the expected decrease in spike frequency. Pentobarbital and diazepam produced a paradoxical increase in spike frequency.

  2. Focal cryotherapy: step by step technique description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Redondo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and objective: Focal cryotherapy emerged as an efficient option to treat favorable and localized prostate cancer (PCa. The purpose of this video is to describe the procedure step by step. Materials and methods: We present the case of a 68 year-old man with localized PCa in the anterior aspect of the prostate. Results: The procedure is performed under general anesthesia, with the patient in lithotomy position. Briefly, the equipment utilized includes the cryotherapy console coupled with an ultrasound system, argon and helium gas bottles, cryoprobes, temperature probes and an urethral warming catheter. The procedure starts with a real-time trans-rectal prostate ultrasound, which is used to outline the prostate, the urethra and the rectal wall. The cryoprobes are pretested and placed in to the prostate through the perineum, following a grid template, along with the temperature sensors under ultrasound guidance. A cystoscopy confirms the right positioning of the needles and the urethral warming catheter is installed. Thereafter, the freeze sequence with argon gas is started, achieving extremely low temperatures (-40°C to induce tumor cell lysis. Sequentially, the thawing cycle is performed using helium gas. This process is repeated one time. Results among several series showed a biochemical disease-free survival between 71-93% at 9-70 month- follow-up, incontinence rates between 0-3.6% and erectile dysfunction between 0-42% (1–5. Conclusions: Focal cryotherapy is a feasible procedure to treat anterior PCa that may offer minimal morbidity, allowing good cancer control and better functional outcomes when compared to whole-gland treatment.

  3. Landsat 9 OLI 2 focal plane subsystem: design, performance, and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Kevin J.; Schrein, Ronald J.; Bradley, M. Scott; Irwin, Ronda; Berdanier, Barry; Donley, Eric

    2017-09-01

    The Landsat 9 mission will continue the legacy of Earth remote sensing that started in 1972. The Operational Land Imager 2 (OLI 2) is one of two instruments on the Landsat 9 satellite. The OLI 2 instrument is essentially a copy of the OLI instrument flying on Landsat 8. A key element of the OLI 2 instrument is the focal plane subsystem, or FPS, which consists of the focal plane array (FPA), the focal plane electronics (FPE) box, and low-thermal conductivity cables. This paper presents design details of the OLI 2 FPS. The FPA contains 14 critically-aligned focal plane modules (FPM). Each module contains 6 visible/near-IR (VNIR) detector arrays and three short-wave infrared (SWIR) arrays. A complex multi-spectral optical filter is contained in each module. Redundant pixels for each array provide exceptional operability. Spare detector modules from OLI were recharacterized after six years of storage. Radiometric test results are presented and compared with data recorded in 2010. Thermal, optical, mechanical and structural features of the FPA will be described. Special attention is paid to the thermal design of the FPA since thermal stability is crucial to ensuring low-noise and low-drift operation of the detectors which operate at -63°C. The OLI 2 FPE provides power, timing, and control to the focal plane modules. It also digitizes the video data and formats it for the solid-state recorder. Design improvements to the FPA-FPE cables will be discussed and characterization data will be presented. The paper will conclude with the status of the flight hardware assembly and testing.

  4. Effects on patient exposure dose and image quality by increasing focal film distance in abdominal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, You Hyun; Kwon, Soo Il

    1998-01-01

    We can and must improve the diagnostic images using available knowledge and technology. At the same time we must strive to reduce thr patient's integral and entrance radiation dose. Reducing the integral dose to the patient during the radiologic procedure is a primary concern of the patient, especially the pediatric patient, the radiologist and the technologist. A 100cm focal film distance generally is used for most over-table radiography. The early x-ray tubes and screen film combinations required long exposures, which often resulted in motion artifacts. But nowadays, we have the generators and x-ray tubes that can deliver the energy necessary in a very short time and the receptors that can record the information just as rapidly. And, we performed this studies to evaluate the patient exposure dose and the image quality by increasing focal film distance in diagnostic radiography. There are many factors which affected to exposure factor, but we studied to verify of FFD increase, only. Effect of increasing the focal film distance to a 140 cm distance was tested as follows ; 1. The focal film distances were set at 100, 120, and 140cm. 2. A 18cm acryl(tissue equivalent) phantom was placed on the table top. 3. An Capintec 192 electrometer with PM 05 ion chamber was placed at the entrance surface of the phantom, and exposure were made at each focal film distances. 4. The procedure was repeated in the same manner as above except the ion chamber was placed beneath the phantom at the film plane. 5. Exit exposure were normalize to 8mR for each portions of the experiment. Based on the success of the empirical measurements, a detailed mathematical analysis of the dose reduction was performed using the percent depth dose data

  5. Aminophylline increases seizure length during electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L; Dannon, P N; Hirschmann, S; Schriber, S; Amytal, D; Dolberg, O T; Grunhaus, L

    1999-12-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for patients with major depression and persistent psychosis. Seizure characteristics probably determine the therapeutic effect of ECT; as a consequence, short seizures are accepted as one of the factors of poor outcome. During most ECT courses seizure threshold increases and seizure duration decreases. Methylxanthine preparations, caffeine, and theophylline have been used to prolong seizure duration. The use of aminophylline, more readily available than caffeine, has not been well documented. The objective of this study was to test the effects of aminophylline on seizure length. Fourteen drug-free patients with diagnoses of affective disorder or psychotic episode receiving ECT participated in this study. Seizure length was assessed clinically and per EEG. Statistical comparisons were done using paired t tests. A significant increase (p < 0.04) in seizure length was achieved and maintained on three subsequent treatments with aminophylline. No adverse events were noted from the addition of aminophylline.

  6. Radiologic manifestations of focal cerebral hyperemia in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Skriver, E B; Herning, M

    1991-01-01

    In 16 acute stroke patients with focal cerebral hyperemia angiography and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were studied 1 to 4 days post stroke. CT was performed twice with and without contrast enhancement 3 +/- 1 days and 16 +/- 4 days post stroke. Angiographic evidence of focal cerebral hype...

  7. Focal decompositions for linear differential equations of the second order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Birbrair

    2003-01-01

    two-points problems to itself such that the image of the focal decomposition associated to the first equation is a focal decomposition associated to the second one. In this paper, we present a complete classification for linear second-order equations with respect to this equivalence relation.

  8. Focal necrotizing pneumonia is a distinct entity from lung abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyewon; Cha, Seung-Ick; Shin, Kyung-Min; Lim, Jaekwang; Yoo, Seung-Soo; Lee, Jaehee; Lee, Shin-Yup; Kim, Chang-Ho; Park, Jae-Yong

    2013-10-01

    'Focal necrotizing pneumonia' was defined as a localized type of necrotizing pneumonia characterized by a single or few cavities of low density without rim enhancement on computed tomography (CT) scan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical features and course of patients with focal necrotizing pneumonia, thereby elucidating its clinical relevance. The present study was conducted retrospectively in patients who had been interpreted as having lung abscess or necrotizing pneumonia on CT scan. Clinical and radiological characteristics were compared between the focal necrotizing pneumonia and lung abscess groups. Overall, 68 patients with focal necrotizing pneumonia (n = 35) or lung abscess (n = 33) were included in the present study. The frequency of risk factors for aspiration was significantly lower in the focal necrotizing group, compared with the lung abscess group (14.3% vs 45.5%, P = 0.005). Compared with lung abscess, focal necrotizing pneumonia was observed more commonly in non-gravity-dependent segments (66% vs 36%, P lung abscess group (31% vs 12%, P = 0.08). However, in terms of treatment outcomes, a similar high rate of success was observed in both groups: 97%, respectively. Compared to lung abscess, focal necrotizing pneumonia occurs more commonly in non-gravity-dependent segments with lower incidence of risk factors for aspiration. Similar to lung abscess, the rate of success for treatment of focal necrotizing pneumonia was high. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  9. Proximal Focal Femoral Deficiency in Ibadan a Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cultural aversion to amputation in our environment makes it difficult to employ that option of treatment. Proximal focal femoral deficiency in Ibadan a developing country's perspective and a review of the literature. Keywords: Proximal focal femoral deficiency , congenital malformations , limb malformations , lower limb ...

  10. Concordance of MRI and EEG Focal Slowing in Nonsyndromic Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the Kangwon National University, Korea, and The Epilepsy Center, Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, USA studied the correlation and significance of EEG focal slowing and focal MRI abnormalities in 253 children with nonsyndromic epilepsy.

  11. Influence of the distance between target surface and focal point on the expansion dynamics of a laser-induced silicon plasma with spatial confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Chen, Anmin; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Ying; Sui, Laizhi; Ke, Da; Li, Suyu; Jiang, Yuanfei; Jin, Mingxing

    2018-05-01

    Expansion dynamics of a laser-induced plasma plume, with spatial confinement, for various distances between the target surface and focal point were studied by the fast photography technique. A silicon wafer was ablated to induce the plasma with a Nd:YAG laser in an atmospheric environment. The expansion dynamics of the plasma plume depended on the distance between the target surface and focal point. In addition, spatially confined time-resolved images showed the different structures of the plasma plumes at different distances between the target surface and focal point. By analyzing the plume images, the optimal distance for emission enhancement was found to be approximately 6 mm away from the geometrical focus using a 10 cm focal length lens. This optimized distance resulted in the strongest compression ratio of the plasma plume by the reflected shock wave. Furthermore, the duration of the interaction between the reflected shock wave and the plasma plume was also prolonged.

  12. Fast Focal Point Correction in Prism-Coupled Total Internal Reflection Scanning Imager Using an Electronically Tunable Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Total internal reflection (TIR is useful for interrogating physical and chemical processes that occur at the interface between two transparent media. Yet prism-coupled TIR imaging microscopes suffer from limited sensing areas due to the fact that the interface (the object plane is not perpendicular to the optical axis of the microscope. In this paper, we show that an electrically tunable lens can be used to rapidly and reproducibly correct the focal length of an oblique-incidence scanning microscope (OI-RD in a prism-coupled TIR geometry. We demonstrate the performance of such a correction by acquiring an image of a protein microarray over a scan area of 4 cm2 with an effective resolution of less than 20 microns. The electronic focal length tuning eliminates the mechanical movement of the illumination lens in the scanning microscope and in turn the noise and background drift associated with the motion.

  13. An ionization-chamber type of focal-plane detector for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erskine, J.R.; Braid, T.H.; Stolfzfus, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    A focal-plane detector for heavy ions is described in which energy loss and total energy are measured with a gridded ionization chamber, and position along the focal plane and angle of incidence are measured with two resistive-wire proportional counters. The clean geometry of the detector makes it especially attractive for use with heavy ions of high specific ionization. Typical position resolutions of 1.0-1.5mm (fwhm) were observed over a 50 cm length of the detector in the focal plane of a split-pole magnetic spectrograph. Special tests were made which suggest that the limiting position resolution is 0.76 mm or better. The resolution of the energy-loss signal was typically 4.5% (fwhm). The resolution of the total energy signal was 1.0-1.5% (fwhm) for small entrance apertures of the spectrograph, although 0.7% resolution was observed under special circumstances. The angle of incidence was measured with an uncertainty of about 1.2% (fwhm). The availability of the many parameters needed for particle identification makes this detector especially useful for the study of weak reaction channels in heavy-ion-induced reactions. (Auth.)

  14. An empirical assessment of the focal species hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, D B; Lane, P W; Westgate, M J; Crane, M; Michael, D; Okada, S; Barton, P S

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity surrogates and indicators are commonly used in conservation management. The focal species approach (FSA) is one method for identifying biodiversity surrogates, and it is underpinned by the hypothesis that management aimed at a particular focal species will confer protection on co-occurring species. This concept has been the subject of much debate, in part because the validity of the FSA has not been subject to detailed empirical assessment of the extent to which a given focal species actually co-occurs with other species in an assemblage. To address this knowledge gap, we used large-scale, long-term data sets of temperate woodland birds to select focal species associated with threatening processes such as habitat isolation and loss of key vegetation attributes. We quantified co-occurrence patterns among focal species, species in the wider bird assemblage, and species of conservation concern. Some, but not all, focal species were associated with high levels of species richness. One of our selected focal species was negatively associated with the occurrence of other species (i.e., it was an antisurrogate)-a previously undescribed property of nominated focal species. Furthermore, combinations of focal species were not associated with substantially elevated levels of bird species richness, relative to levels associated with individual species. Our results suggest that although there is some merit to the underpinning concept of the FSA, there is also a need to ensure that actions are sufficiently flexible because management tightly focused on a given focal species may not benefit some other species, including species of conservation concern, such of which might not occur in species-rich assemblages. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. [Sotos syndrome associated with focal dystonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, M; Chacón, J; Bautista, E; Pérez-Camacho, I; Trujillo, A; Grande, M A

    Sotos syndrome is a form of infantile gigantism characterized by excessive body size from the time of birth, particular facies, acromegalic changes and signs of non-progressive cerebral involvement. The etiology is unknown. Diagnosis is based on somatometric data and the particular phenotype traits. Biochemical and endocrine studies are normal. Torticollis is a focal dystonia and therefore more common in adults. A 20 year old woman with macrosomic features since birth presented with: weight 104 kg, height 182 cm; prognathism, hypertelorism, a broad over hanging forehead with a high hair line; large ears, hands and feet; torticollis towards the right with elevation and anteroversion of the right shoulder which caused symptomatic scoliosis. She was bradypsychic and rather slow in speech. The complementary tests done (cerebral and cervical CT and MR, bone gammography, evoked potentials, EMG-ENG, sural nerve biopsy, biopsy of skin and muscle, EEG and hormone and biochemistry studies) were normal. The torticollis was treated with botulinus toxin and improved considerably, as did the scoliosis. To date, dystonia has not been described in association with Sotos syndrome. This may be a causal association, or even perhaps hereditary, since the patient's mother had dystonia (in the form of blepharospasm).

  16. Depression in focal, segmental and generalized dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L; Butler, A; Jahanshahi, M

    2008-11-01

    Dystonia causes body disfigurement in the majority of those affected. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that low self-esteem resulting from the sense of disfigurement is an important component of self-reported depression in focal, segmental and generalized dystonia. Questionnaires to assess self-reported depression, self-esteem, body concept, disfigurement, disability and quality of life were completed by 329 community based dystonia patients. Moderate to severe depression was reported by 30 %. Self-reported depression had a strong somatic component, but patients also showed a specific concern with self-image. Extent of dystonia, body parts affected and marital status influenced self-reported depression in dystonia. Self esteem, body concept, disfigurement and quality of life emerged as factors which accounted for the variance of self-reported depression in dystonia. These results suggest that in dystonia, disfigurement, negative body concept, low self-esteem, and the impact of the disease on quality of life make important contributions to depression. However, longitudinal followup is required to firmly establish the direction of causality between depression and these psychosocial variables in dystonia.

  17. Visual agnosia and focal brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinaud, O

    Visual agnosia encompasses all disorders of visual recognition within a selective visual modality not due to an impairment of elementary visual processing or other cognitive deficit. Based on a sequential dichotomy between the perceptual and memory systems, two different categories of visual object agnosia are usually considered: 'apperceptive agnosia' and 'associative agnosia'. Impaired visual recognition within a single category of stimuli is also reported in: (i) visual object agnosia of the ventral pathway, such as prosopagnosia (for faces), pure alexia (for words), or topographagnosia (for landmarks); (ii) visual spatial agnosia of the dorsal pathway, such as cerebral akinetopsia (for movement), or orientation agnosia (for the placement of objects in space). Focal brain injuries provide a unique opportunity to better understand regional brain function, particularly with the use of effective statistical approaches such as voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM). The aim of the present work was twofold: (i) to review the various agnosia categories according to the traditional visual dual-pathway model; and (ii) to better assess the anatomical network underlying visual recognition through lesion-mapping studies correlating neuroanatomical and clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Nonhuman primate models of focal cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rodents have been widely used in the production of cerebral ischemia models. However, successful therapies have been proven on experimental rodent stroke model, and they have often failed to be effective when tested clinically. Therefore, nonhuman primates were recommended as the ideal alternatives, owing to their similarities with the human cerebrovascular system, brain metabolism, grey to white matter ratio and even their rich behavioral repertoire. The present review is a thorough summary of ten methods that establish nonhuman primate models of focal cerebral ischemia; electrocoagulation, endothelin-1-induced occlusion, microvascular clip occlusion, autologous blood clot embolization, balloon inflation, microcatheter embolization, coil embolization, surgical suture embolization, suture, and photochemical induction methods. This review addresses the advantages and disadvantages of each method, as well as precautions for each model, compared nonhuman primates with rodents, different species of nonhuman primates and different modeling methods. Finally it discusses various factors that need to be considered when modelling and the method of evaluation after modelling. These are critical for understanding their respective strengths and weaknesses and underlie the selection of the optimum model.

  19. Evaluation of Hemodynamics in Focal Steatosis and Focal Spared Lesion of the Liver Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography with Sonazoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, K.; Watanabe, M.; Ikehara, T.; Kogame, M.; Shinohara, M.; Shinohara, M.; Ishii, K.; Igarashi, Y.; Sumino, Y.; Shiozawa, K.; Makino, H.

    2014-01-01

    We aim to investigate the hemodynamics in focal steatosis and focal spared lesion of the liver using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid. The subjects were 47 patients with focal steatosis and focal spared lesion. We evaluated enhancement patterns (hyper enhancement, iso enhancement, and hypo enhancement) in the vascular phase and the presence or absence of a hypoechoic area in the post vascular phase for these lesions using CEUS. Of the 24 patients with focal steatosis, the enhancement pattern was iso enhancement in 19 and hypo enhancement in 5. Hypoechoic areas were noted in the post vascular phase in 3 patients. Of the 23 patients with focal spared lesions, the enhancement pattern was iso enhancement in 18 and hyper enhancement in 5. No hypoechoic areas were noted in the post vascular phase in any patient. The hemodynamics in focal steatosis and focal spared lesions in non diffuse fatty liver can be observed using low-invasive procedures in real-time by CEUS. It was suggested that differences in the dynamics of enhancement in the vascular phase of CEUS were influenced by the fat deposits in the target lesion, the surrounding liver parenchyma, and the third inflow.

  20. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF P.T. KAYE

    . SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...

  2. InGaAs focal plane arrays for low-light-level SWIR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougal, Michael; Hood, Andrew; Geske, Jon; Wang, Jim; Patel, Falgun; Follman, David; Manzo, Juan; Getty, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Aerius Photonics will present their latest developments in large InGaAs focal plane arrays, which are used for low light level imaging in the short wavelength infrared (SWIR) regime. Aerius will present imaging in both 1280x1024 and 640x512 formats. Aerius will present characterization of the FPA including dark current measurements. Aerius will also show the results of development of SWIR FPAs for high temperaures, including imagery and dark current data. Finally, Aerius will show results of using the SWIR camera with Aerius' SWIR illuminators using VCSEL technology.

  3. Focal Atrichia: A Diagnostic Clue in Female Pattern Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Elise A; Whiting, David A

    2017-10-07

    Focal atrichia is a common clinical finding in female pattern hair loss whose specificity and histologic findings need further clarification. To determine the frequency of focal atrichia in various types of hair loss and its histologic characteristics in female pattern hair loss. Part 1: Review of 250 consecutive female patients seen with hair loss for the presence of focal atrichia and Part 2: paired biopsies of haired areas vs focal atrichia in 18 subjects with female pattern hair loss RESULTS: Focal atrichia was seen in 46/104 (44%) of women with female pattern hair loss, including 67% of late onset vs 15% of early onset, compared to 3/146 (2%) of those with other hair disorders Biopsy findings of focal atrichia in female pattern hair loss showed primarily a more progressive miniaturization process than that of haired areas of the scalp. Some women with female pattern hair loss may have had concomitant chronic telogen effluvium CONCLUSIONS: When present, focal atrichia is a clinical clue to the diagnosis of female pattern hair loss, particularly late onset subtype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The semiology of febrile seizures: Focal features are frequent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasu, Michihiko; Kubota, Tetsuo; Tsuji, Takeshi; Kurahashi, Hirokazu; Numoto, Shingo; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Akihisa

    2017-08-01

    To clarify the semiology of febrile seizures (FS) and to determine the frequency of FS with symptoms suggestive of focal onset. FS symptoms in children were reported within 24h of seizure onset by the parents using a structured questionnaire consisting principally of closed-ended questions. We focused on events at seizure commencement, including changes in behavior and facial expression, and ocular and oral symptoms. We also investigated the autonomic and motor symptoms developing during seizures. The presence or absence of focal and limbic features was determined for each patient. The associations of certain focal and limbic features with patient characteristics were assessed. Information was obtained on FS in 106 children. Various events were recorded at seizure commencement. Behavioral changes were observed in 35 children, changes in facial expression in 53, ocular symptoms in 78, and oral symptoms in 90. In terms of events during seizures, autonomic symptoms were recognized in 78, and convulsive motor symptoms were recognized in 68 children. Focal features were evident in 81 children; 38 children had two or more such features. Limbic features were observed in 44 children, 9 of whom had two or more such features. There was no significant relationship between any patient characteristic and the numbers of focal or limbic features. The semiology of FS varied widely among children, and symptoms suggestive of focal onset were frequent. FS of focal onset may be more common than is generally thought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Widespread EEG changes precede focal seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Perucca

    Full Text Available The process by which the brain transitions into an epileptic seizure is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the transition to seizure is associated with changes in brain dynamics detectable in the wideband EEG, and whether differences exist across underlying pathologies. Depth electrode ictal EEG recordings from 40 consecutive patients with pharmacoresistant lesional focal epilepsy were low-pass filtered at 500 Hz and sampled at 2,000 Hz. Predefined EEG sections were selected immediately before (immediate preictal, and 30 seconds before the earliest EEG sign suggestive of seizure activity (baseline. Spectral analysis, visual inspection and discrete wavelet transform were used to detect standard (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma and high-frequency bands (ripples and fast ripples. At the group level, each EEG frequency band activity increased significantly from baseline to the immediate preictal section, mostly in a progressive manner and independently of any modification in the state of vigilance. Preictal increases in each frequency band activity were widespread, being observed in the seizure-onset zone and lesional tissue, as well as in remote regions. These changes occurred in all the investigated pathologies (mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis, local/regional cortical atrophy, and malformations of cortical development, but were more pronounced in mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis. Our findings indicate that a brain state change with distinctive features, in the form of unidirectional changes across the entire EEG bandwidth, occurs immediately prior to seizure onset. We postulate that these changes might reflect a facilitating state of the brain which enables a susceptible region to generate seizures.

  6. Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis: A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Ayar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is one of the most common glomerulonephritis (GNP worldwide. Despite treatment, it may progress to end-stage renal disease. In the present study, we compared clinical and histopathological data on FSGS with primary and secondary GNP retrospectively. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data on clinical and laboratory findings, treatment response, and risk factors associated with mortality in patients, who had been diagnosed with FSGS and other GNP via renal biopsy between January 2009 and December 2014. The average follow-up time was 22 (8-76 months. Results: FSGS and primary GNP were more frequently seen in males than in females (55.9% vs. 65.3%, p=0.033. Nephrotic syndrome was more common in patients with FSGS (41.2% and primary GNP (57.7%, while chronic renal disease was more frequent in patients with secondary GNP (35%. In FSGS, the complete remission rate was 54.4%. 63.2% of patients had continued to receive treatment. According to the biopsy findings, interstitial inflammation and fibrosis were observed in 100% and 98.5% of patients with FSGS, respectively (p=0.010 and p<0.001, respectively. Serum albumin level was found to be increased and proteinuria, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL levels to be decreased after treatment (p<0.001. Serum creatinine levels and type of GNP (secondary GNP were detected to be 1.48 and 8.14 fold increased in mortality analysis, respectively. Conclusion: Renal biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of glomerular diseases. Renal function at the time of diagnosis, follow-up and appropriate immunosuppressive therapy have effects on mortality and clinical progress in FSGS as is the case in all GNPs.

  7. Short Communications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-03-26

    Mar 26, 1993 ... tics displayed by a population in each habitat. In addition a translocation experiment was perfonncd to determine whe- ther wave action was responsible for the observed variation in spine length between sea urchins of different habitats. Three populations inhabiting contrasting habitats within the intertidal ...

  8. The design of LMJ focal spots for indirect drive experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Garrec, B J; Sajer, J M

    2008-01-01

    LMJ is a 240 high power laser beam facility for achieving laser matter interaction experiments, high energy density science, including the demonstration of fusion ignition through Inertial Confinement. The Laser Integration Line (LIL) facility is currently a 4-beam prototype for LMJ. The intensity I 0 at the focal spot centre drives hydrodynamic and plasma instabilities and the intensity in the wings must be low to go through the laser entrance Hohlraum. A simple model has been developed to compute the LMJ focal spot. The model gives the intensity at the centre as a function of the focal spot area at 3% of the maximum

  9. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia: review and a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Y M Y; Osman, Y I; Norval, E J G

    2010-10-01

    Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia is a benign fibro-osseous condition that can be seen in dentate and edentulous patients. It is an asymptomatic lesion and needs no treatment; however follow-up is essential due to the possibility that focal cemento-osseous dysplasia can progress to a condition called florid osseous dysplasia that involves multiple sites. A case report is presented here, along with a review of the differential diagnoses considered in order to reach a final diagnosis of focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  10. Benign focal liver lesions: discrimination from malignant mimickers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobaidi, Mohammad; Shirkhoda, Ali

    2004-01-01

    Focal lesions of the liver often have various imaging characteristics which may be interpreted as either benign or malignant. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology of these liver lesions may lead to characteristic imaging manifestations, which direct the radiologist to the diagnosis. Benign lesions include congenital hepatic cyst, autosomal dominant polycystic disease, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), hepatic adenoma, inflammatory pseudotumor, peliosis hepatis, focal fatty infiltration, hamartoma, and infectious processes such as hepatic abscess, echinococcal cyst, and candidiasis. Characteristic imaging features, clinical symptoms, and treatment/prognosis will be discussed. Emphasis will be placed on key reliable features of each disease to develop a method of discriminating these lesions from other benign and malignant disorders.

  11. Focal mechanisms and tidal modulation for tectonic tremors in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, S.; Yabe, S.; Tai, H. J.; Chen, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Tectonic tremors in Taiwan have been discovered beneath the southern Central Range, but their hosting structure has been unknown. Here we constrain the focal mechanism of underground deformation related to tremors, using moment tensor inversion in the very low frequency band and tidal stress analysis. Three types of seismic data are used for two analysis steps: detection of tremors and the moment tensor inversion. Short-period seismograms from CWBSN are used for tremor detection. Broadband seismograms from BATS and the TAIGER project are used for both steps. About 1000 tremors were detected using an envelope correlation method in the high frequency band (2-8 Hz). Broadband seismograms are stacked relative to the tremor timing, and inverted for a moment tensor in the low frequency band (0.02-0.05 Hz). The best solution was obtained at 32 km depth, as a double-couple consistent with a low-angle thrust fault dipping to the east-southeast, or a high-angle thrust with a south-southwest strike. Almost all tremors occur when tidal shear stress is positive and normal stress is negative (clamping). Since the clamping stress is high for a high-angle thrust fault, the low-angle thrust fault is more likely to be the fault plane. Tremor rate increases non-linearly with increasing shear stress, suggesting a velocity strengthening friction law. The high tidal sensitivity is inconsistent with horizontal slip motion suggested by previous studies, and normal faults that dominates regional shallow earthquakes. Our results favor thrust slip on a low-angle fault dipping to the east-southeast, consistent with the subduction of the Eurasian plate. The tremor region is characterized by a deep thermal anomaly with decrease normal stress. This region has also experienced enough subduction to produce metamorphic fluids. A large amount of fluid and low vertical stress may explain the high tidal sensitivity.

  12. Short Stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Boye Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie

    2016-01-01

    -scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below......The use of appropriate growth standards/references is of significant clinical importance in assessing the height of children with short stature as it may determine eligibility for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of using World Health Organization (WHO) instead...... of national growth standards/references on height assessment in short children. Data were collected from routine clinical practice (1998-2014) from nine European countries that have available national growth references and were enrolled in NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (NCT00960128), a large...

  13. Motor cortex stimulation does not improve dystonia secondary to a focal basal ganglia lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu, Isabelle; Aya Kombo, Magaly; Thobois, Stéphane; Derost, Philippe; Pollak, Pierre; Xie, Jing; Pereira, Bruno; Vidailhet, Marie; Burbaud, Pierre; Lefaucheur, Jean Pascal; Lemaire, Jean Jacques; Mertens, Patrick; Chabardes, Stephan; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Durif, Franck

    2014-01-14

    To assess the efficacy of epidural motor cortex stimulation (MCS) on dystonia, spasticity, pain, and quality of life in patients with dystonia secondary to a focal basal ganglia (BG) lesion. In this double-blind, crossover, multicenter study, 5 patients with dystonia secondary to a focal BG lesion were included. Two quadripolar leads were implanted epidurally over the primary motor (M1) and premotor cortices, contralateral to the most dystonic side. The leads were placed parallel to the central sulcus. Only the posterior lead over M1 was activated in this study. The most lateral or medial contact of the lead (depending on whether the dystonia predominated in the upper or lower limb) was selected as the anode, and the other 3 as cathodes. One month postoperatively, patients were randomly assigned to on- or off-stimulation for 3 months each, with a 1-month washout between the 2 conditions. Voltage, frequency, and pulse width were fixed at 3.8 V, 40 Hz, and 60 μs, respectively. Evaluations of dystonia (Burke-Fahn-Marsden Scale), spasticity (Ashworth score), pain intensity (visual analog scale), and quality of life (36-Item Short Form Health Survey) were performed before surgery and after each period of stimulation. Burke-Fahn-Marsden Scale, Ashworth score, pain intensity, and quality of life were not statistically significantly modified by MCS. Bipolar epidural MCS failed to improve any clinical feature in dystonia secondary to a focal BG lesion. This study provides Class I evidence that bipolar epidural MCS with the anode placed over the motor representation of the most affected limb failed to improve any clinical feature in dystonia secondary to a focal BG lesion.

  14. Joint Source Location and Focal Mechanism Inversion: efficiency, accuracy and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.; Yu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The analysis of induced seismicity has become a common practice to evaluate the results of hydraulic fracturing treatment. Liang et al (2016) proposed a joint Source Scanning Algorithms (jSSA for short) to obtain microseismic events and focal mechanisms simultaneously. The jSSA is superior over traditional SSA in many aspects, but the computation cost is too significant to be applied in real time monitoring. In this study, we have developed several scanning schemas to reduce computation time. A multi-stage scanning schema is proved to be able to improve the efficiency significantly while also retain its accuracy. A series of tests have been carried out by using both real field data and synthetic data to evaluate the accuracy of the method and its dependence on noise level, source depths, focal mechanisms and other factors. The surface-based arrays have better constraints on horizontal location errors (0.5). For sources with varying rakes, dips, strikes and depths, the errors are mostly controlled by the partition of positive and negative polarities in different quadrants. More evenly partitioned polarities in different quadrants yield better results in both locations and focal mechanisms. Nevertheless, even with bad resolutions for some FMs, the optimized jSSA method can still improve location accuracies significantly. Based on much more densely distributed events and focal mechanisms, a gridded stress inversion is conducted to get a evenly distributed stress field. The full potential of the jSSA has yet to be explored in different directions, especially in earthquake seismology as seismic array becoming incleasingly dense.

  15. DEPDC5 takes a second hit in familial focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew P

    2018-04-30

    Loss-of-function mutations in a single allele of the gene encoding DEP domain-containing 5 protein (DEPDC5) are commonly linked to familial focal epilepsy with variable foci; however, a subset of patients presents with focal cortical dysplasia that is proposed to result from a second-hit somatic mutation. In this issue of the JCI, Ribierre and colleagues provide several lines of evidence to support second-hit DEPDC5 mutations in this disorder. Moreover, the authors use in vivo, in utero electroporation combined with CRISPR-Cas9 technology to generate a murine model of the disease that recapitulates human manifestations, including cortical dysplasia-like changes, focal seizures, and sudden unexpected death. This study provides important insights into familial focal epilepsy and provides a preclinical model for evaluating potential therapies.

  16. Managing focal fields of vector beams with multiple polarization singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lei; Liu, Sheng; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Cheng, Huachao; Gan, Xuetao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-11-10

    We explore the tight focusing behavior of vector beams with multiple polarization singularities, and analyze the influences of the number, position, and topological charge of the singularities on the focal fields. It is found that the ellipticity of the local polarization states at the focal plane could be determined by the spatial distribution of the polarization singularities of the vector beam. When the spatial location and topological charge of singularities have even-fold rotation symmetry, the transverse fields at the focal plane are locally linearly polarized. Otherwise, the polarization state becomes a locally hybrid one. By appropriately arranging the distribution of the polarization singularities in the vector beam, the polarization distributions of the focal fields could be altered while the intensity maintains unchanged.

  17. Focal myositis of lower extremity responsive to botulinum A toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Josko; Prka, Zeljko; Zic, Rado; Marusic, Srecko; Morovic-Vergles, Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    Focal myositis is a rare, mostly benign disease (pseudotumor) of skeletal muscle, histopathologically characterized by interstitial myositis and tumorous enlargement of a single muscle. The etiology of focal myositis remains unknown; however, localized myopathy has been postulated to be caused by denervation lesions. This case report describes a patient that presented with clinical, laboratory, electromyoneurography, and magnetic resonance imaging features of focal myositis complicated with intervertebral disk protrusion in the lumbosacral spine affected with radicular distress. In most cases, focal myositic lesions show spontaneous regression, relapses are rare, and long-term prognosis is good. There is a wide spectrum of therapeutic options, from no therapy at all through nonsteroidal antirheumatics and glucocorticoids to radiotherapy, surgical excision, and immunosuppressants. In the patient presented, treatment with glucocorticoids, methotrexate, and surgical excision failed to produce satisfactory results. Clinical improvement, pain relief, and reduction in lower leg volume were only achieved by local infiltration of botulinum A toxin.

  18. Mechanical design and analysis of focal plate for gravity deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Chu, Jiaru; Hu, Hongzhuan; Li, Kexuan; Zhou, Zengxiang

    2014-07-01

    The surface accuracy of astronomical telescope focal plate is a key indicator to precision stellar observation. To conduct accurate deformation measurement for focal plate in different status, a 6-DOF hexapod platform was used for attitude adjustment. For the small adjustment range of a classic 6-DOF hexapod platform, an improved structural arrangement method was proposed in the paper to achieve ultimate adjustment of the focal plate in horizontal and vertical direction. To validate the feasibility of this method, an angle change model which used ball hinge was set up for the movement and base plate. Simulation results in MATLAB suggested that the ball hinge angle change of movement and base plate is within the range of the limiting angle in the process of the platform plate adjusting to ultimate attitude. The proposed method has some guiding significance for accurate surface measurement of focal plate.

  19. FOCAL CORTICAL DYSPLASIAS: CLINICAL AND ELECTRO-NEUROIMAGING CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a notable advance made in epileptology, resistant epilepsies account for approximately 30 % of all forms of epilepsy particularly in patients with focal seizures. One of the main causes of therapy-resistant focal epilepsies is focal cortical dysplasias (FCD. This term was first introduced by D. Taylor et al. in 1971. FCD belongs to abnormal cortical development. Among all abnormalities of cortical development, FCD in surgically treated children amounts to 75 %. FCD is the most common cause of resistant epilepsy in children and the most frequent reason for diagnosing cryptogenic focal epilepsy with intractable seizures. The author gives a detailed literature review dedicated to FCD as a cause of resistant epilepsy, including the classification and histologic characteristics of FCD, its clinical manifestations and prognosis, and approaches to medical and surgical treatments. 

  20. Electrocorticographic discharge patterns in glioneuronal tumors and focal cortical dysplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrier, Cyrille H.; Aronica, Eleanora; Leijten, Frans S. S.; Spliet, Wim G. M.; van Huffelen, Alexander C.; van Rijen, Peter C.; Binnie, Colin D.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether highly epileptiform electrocorticographical discharge patterns occur in patients with glioneuronal tumors (GNTs) and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and whether specific histopathological features are related to such patterns. METHODS: The series consists of operated

  1. Short Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds...

  2. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  3. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  4. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: vani_chem@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.

  5. Short communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Vonk, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy veal calves (4-6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  6. Adult-onset Rasmussen encephalitis associated with focal cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenbichler, Katharina; Lelotte, Julie; Lhommel, Renaud; Tahry, Riëm El; Vrielynck, Pascal; Santos, Susana Ferrao

    2017-12-01

    Rasmussen encephalitis is a rare, devastating condition, typically presenting in childhood. Cases of adult-onset Rasmussen have also been described, but the clinical picture is less defined, rendering final diagnosis difficult. We present a case of adult-onset Rasmussen encephalitis with dual pathology, associated with focal cortical dysplasia and encephalitis. We interpreted the Rasmussen encephalitis to be caused by severe and continuous epileptic activity due to focal cortical dysplasia. The best therapeutic approach for such cases remains unclear.

  7. Focal plane for the next generation of earth observation instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranyies, P.; Toubhans, I.; Badoil, B.; Tanguy, F.; Descours, Francis

    2017-09-01

    Sodern is the French focal plane provider for Earth Observation (EO) satellites. Since the 1980's, Sodern has played an active role first in the SPOT program. Within the two-spacecraft constellation Pleiades 1A/1B over the next years, Sodern introduced advanced technologies as Silicon Carbide (SiC) focal plane structure and multispectral strip filters dedicated to multiple-lines detectors.

  8. HAb18G/CD147 regulates vinculin-mediated focal adhesion and cytoskeleton organization in cultured human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liang

    Full Text Available Focal adhesions (FAs, integrin-mediated macromolecular complexes located at the cell membrane extracellular interface, have been shown to regulate cell adhesion and migration. Our previous studies have indicated that HAb18G/CD147 (CD147 is involved in cytoskeleton reorganization and FA formation in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells. However, the precise mechanisms underlying these processes remain unclear. In the current study, we determined that CD147 was involved in vinculin-mediated FA focal adhesion formation in HCC cells. We also found that deletion of CD147 led to reduced vinculin-mediated FA areas (P<0.0001, length/width ratios (P<0.0001, and mean intensities (P<0.0001. CD147 promoted lamellipodia formation by localizing Arp2/3 to the leading edge of the cell. Deletion of CD147 significantly reduced the fluorescence (t1/2 recovery times (22.7±3.3 s of vinculin-mediated focal adhesions (P<0.0001. In cell-spreading assays, CD147 was found to be essential for dynamic focal adhesion enlargement and disassembly. Furthermore, the current data showed that CD147 reduced tyrosine phosphorylation in vinculin-mediated focal adhesions, and enhanced the accumulation of the acidic phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate (PIP2. Together, these results revealed that CD147 is involved in vinculin-mediated focal adhesion formation, which subsequently promotes cytoskeleton reorganization to facilitate invasion and migration of human HCC cells.

  9. Inverse-designed stretchable metalens with tunable focal distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, Francois; Velev, Vesselin; Jiang, Shizhou; Sahakian, Alan Varteres; Kumar, Prem; Aydin, Koray

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present an inverse-designed 3D-printed all-dielectric stretchable millimeter wave metalens with a tunable focal distance. A computational inverse-design method is used to design a flat metalens made of disconnected polymer building blocks with complex shapes, as opposed to conventional monolithic lenses. The proposed metalens provides better performance than a conventional Fresnel lens, using lesser amount of material and enabling larger focal distance tunability. The metalens is fabricated using a commercial 3D-printer and attached to a stretchable platform. Measurements and simulations show that the focal distance can be tuned by a factor of 4 with a stretching factor of only 75%, a nearly diffraction-limited focal spot, and with a 70% relative focusing efficiency, defined as the ratio between power focused in the focal spot and power going through the focal plane. The proposed platform can be extended for design and fabrication of multiple electromagnetic devices working from visible to microwave radiation depending on scaling of the devices.

  10. Thermomechanical architecture of the VIS focal plane for Euclid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martignac, Jerome; Carty, Michael; Tourette, Thierry; Bachet, Damien; Berthe, Michel; Augueres, Jean-Louis; Amiaux, Jerome; Fontignie, Jean; Horeau, Benoit; Renaud, Diana

    2014-01-01

    One of the main challenges for current and near future space experiments is the increase of focal plane complexity in terms of amount of pixels. In the frame work of the ESA Euclid mission to be launched in 2020, the Euclid Consortium is developing an extremely large and stable focal plane for the VIS instrument. CEA has developed the thermomechanical architecture of that Focal Plane taking into account all the very stringent performance and mission related requirements. The VIS Focal Plane Assembly integrates 36 CCDs (operated at 150 K) connected to their front end electronics (operated at 280 K) as to obtain one of the largest focal plane (0.6 billion pixels) ever built for space application after the GAIA one. The CCDs are CCD273 type specially designed and provided by the e2v company under ESA contract, front end electronics is studied and provided by MSSL. In this paper we first recall the specific requirements that have driven the overall architecture of the VIS-FPA and especially the solutions proposed to cope with the scientific needs of an extremely stable focal plane, both mechanically and thermally. The mechanical structure based on SiC material used for the cold sub assembly supporting the CCDs is detailed. We describe also the modular architecture concept that we have selected taking into account AIT-AIV and programmatic constraints. (authors)

  11. Dependence of paracentric inversion rate on tract length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    York, Thomas L; Durrett, Rick; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We develop a Bayesian method based on MCMC for estimating the relative rates of pericentric and paracentric inversions from marker data from two species. The method also allows estimation of the distribution of inversion tract lengths. RESULTS: We apply the method to data from...... Drosophila melanogaster and D. yakuba. We find that pericentric inversions occur at a much lower rate compared to paracentric inversions. The average paracentric inversion tract length is approx. 4.8 Mb with small inversions being more frequent than large inversions.If the two breakpoints defining...... a paracentric inversion tract are uniformly and independently distributed over chromosome arms there will be more short tract-length inversions than long; we find an even greater preponderance of short tract lengths than this would predict. Thus there appears to be a correlation between the positions...

  12. Focal Muscle Vibration and Physical Exercise in Postmastectomy Recovery: An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Celletti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical activity initiation and maintenance are particular challenges in the postmastectomy recovery and in particular Dragon Boat racing seems to be a useful sport activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of focal muscle vibration as a proprioceptive input to improve upper limb functioning in a group of “paddlers” patients. Methods. A group of paddlers has been evaluated before vibratory treatment (T0, immediately after therapy (T1, after one week (T2, and after one month (T3 with DASH questionnaire, Body Image Scale, McGill pain questionnaire, Constant Scale, and Short Form 36 questionnaire. Results. Fourteen patients showed a significant reduction in disability score (p=0,001 using DASH scale, an improvement of upper limb function (p=0,001 using the Constant scale, and a reduction of pain (p=0,007 at the McGill pain questionnaire. The Mental Composite Score of the Short Form 36 questionnaire showed significant results (p=0,04 while no significant results had been found regarding the physical mental score (p=0,08. Conclusion. Focal muscle vibration may be a useful treatment in a postmastectomy recovery of upper limb functionality.

  13. Blaschko Linear Enamel Defects - A Marker for Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: Case Report of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gysin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH is a rare genetic skin disorder. The inheritance of FDH or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is X-linked dominant and the disease is associated with a PORCN gene mutation. This gene plays a key role in the Wnt pathway, which has an impact on embryonic development. Every tissue derived from meso- and ectoderm can be affected. Patients suffer from cutaneous, ocular, osseous, oral and dental defects. The skin and dental alterations manifest along the Blaschko lines. We present a woman (born in 1962 suffering from FDH with congenital skin changes and Blaschko linear enamel defects. Typical symptoms (e.g. fat herniations, scoliosis, syndactyly, microphthalmia, caries and alopecia plus vertical grooving of all teeth gave a first indication. Molecular genetic testing confirmed the definitive diagnosis of FDH. We hypothesize that, in the context of typical skin changes, visible Blaschko lines on the teeth in the form of vertical grooves are almost pathognomonic for FDH.

  14. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Short Communication. QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural ...

  15. Telomere Length Reprogramming in Embryos and Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Kalmbach

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres protect and cap linear chromosome ends, yet these genomic buffers erode over an organism’s lifespan. Short telomeres have been associated with many age-related conditions in humans, and genetic mutations resulting in short telomeres in humans manifest as syndromes of precocious aging. In women, telomere length limits a fertilized egg’s capacity to develop into a healthy embryo. Thus, telomere length must be reset with each subsequent generation. Although telomerase is purportedly responsible for restoring telomere DNA, recent studies have elucidated the role of alternative telomeres lengthening mechanisms in the reprogramming of early embryos and stem cells, which we review here.

  16. Does neighborhood size really cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Dominic; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Tehan, Gerald; Tolan, Anne

    2018-02-01

    In short-term serial recall, it is well-known that short words are remembered better than long words. This word length effect has been the cornerstone of the working memory model and a benchmark effect that all models of immediate memory should account for. Currently, there is no consensus as to what determines the word length effect. Jalbert and colleagues (Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, & Surprenant, 2011a; Jalbert, Neath, & Surprenant, 2011b) suggested that neighborhood size is one causal factor. In six experiments we systematically examined their suggestion. In Experiment 1, with an immediate serial recall task, multiple word lengths, and a large pool of words controlled for neighborhood size, the typical word length effect was present. In Experiments 2 and 3, with an order reconstruction task and words with either many or few neighbors, we observed the typical word length effect. In Experiment 4 we tested the hypothesis that the previous abolition of the word length effect when neighborhood size was controlled was due to a confounded factor: frequency of orthographic structure. As predicted, we reversed the word length effect when using short words with less frequent orthographic structures than the long words, as was done in both of Jalbert et al.'s studies. In Experiments 5 and 6, we again observed the typical word length effect, even if we controlled for neighborhood size and frequency of orthographic structure. Overall, the results were not consistent with the predictions of Jalbert et al. and clearly showed a large and reliable word length effect after controlling for neighborhood size.

  17. Perception of Vowel Length by Japanese- and English-Learning Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugitani, Ryoko; Pons, Ferran; Fais, Laurel; Dietrich, Christiane; Werker, Janet F.; Amano, Shigeaki

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated vowel length discrimination in infants from 2 language backgrounds, Japanese and English, in which vowel length is either phonemic or nonphonemic. Experiment 1 revealed that English 18-month-olds discriminate short and long vowels although vowel length is not phonemically contrastive in English. Experiments 2 and 3 revealed…

  18. Recurrent focal choroidal excavation following multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) associated with acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbarpoor Bonyadi, Mohammad Hossein; Hassanpour, Kiana; Soheilian, Masoud

    2018-04-01

    To present a recurrent case of conforming focal choroidal excavation (FCE) following multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) in a 25-year-old woman. Following spontaneous MEWDS sings resolution our patient noted a recurrent decrease in vision. Repeated OCT revealed elevation and mild disruption of RPE layer at fovea without previous angiographic MEWDS signs. At this time, short-term systemic steroid therapy was started and visual acuity became normal. Following quiescence of the new-onset phase, the conforming type of FCE located in inferior macula appeared in OCT. In the following next 2 years recurrence of presumptive focal subfoveal choriocapillaritis occurred for three times presenting with blurred vision. During every acute attack, above-mentioned FCE disappeared and returned back again after resolution of presumptive focal choriocapillaritis. This is the first and unique case of recurrent type of FCE following MEWDS. It seems to disappear during active phase of presumptive focal choriocapillaritis and then returns after the eye has become quiescent.

  19. Performance evaluation of a 64-slice CT system with z-flying focal spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, T; Stierstorfer, K; Raupach, R; Ulzheimer, S; Bruder, H

    2004-12-01

    The meanwhile established generation of 16-slice CT systems enables routine sub-millimeter imaging at short breath-hold times. Clinical progress in the development of multidetector row CT (MDCT) technology beyond 16 slices can more likely be expected from further improvement in spatial and temporal resolution rather than from a mere increase in the speed of volume coverage. We present an evaluation of a recently introduced 64-slice CT system (SOMATOM Sensation 64, Siemens AG, Forchheim, Germany), which uses a periodic motion of the focal spot in longitudinal direction (z-flying focal spot) to double the number of simultaneously acquired slices. This technique acquires 64 overlapping 0.6 mm slices per rotation. The sampling scheme corresponds to that of a 64 x 0.3 mm detector, with the goal of improved longitudinal resolution and reduced spiral artifacts. After an introduction to the detector design, we discuss the basics of z-flying focal spot technology (z-Sharp). We present phantom and specimen scans for performance evaluation. The measured full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the thinnest spiral slice is 0.65 mm. All spiral slice widths are almost independent of the pitch, with deviations of less than 0.1 mm from the nominal value. Using a high-resolution bar pattern phantom (CATPHAN, Phantom Laboratories, Salem, NY), the longitudinal resolution can be demonstrated to be up to 15 lp/cm at the isocenter independent of the pitch, corresponding to a bar diameter of 0.33 mm. Longitudinal resolution is only slightly degraded for off-center locations. At a distance of 100 mm from the isocenter, 14 lp/cm can be resolved in the z-direction, corresponding to a bar diameter of 0.36 mm. Spiral "windmill" artifacts presenting as hyper- and hypodense structures around osseous edges are effectively reduced by the z-flying focal spot technique. Cardiac scanning benefits from the short gantry rotation time of 0.33 s, providing up to 83 ms temporal resolution with 2-segment ECG

  20. CT findings of focal organizing pneumonia: correlation with pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Young Goo; Park, Un Sup [College of Medicine, Chungang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-11-15

    To evaluate the CT findings of focal organizing pneumonia and to correlate them with pathologic findings to help differentiating from lung cancer. We evaluated radiologic and pathologic findings of five patients with solitary pulmonary nodule which were confirmed as focal organizing pneumonia pathologically. On CT scan, focal organizing pneumonia had irregular margin contacting the pleura in all five cases. The shape of the nodules were spherical to wedge or elliptical and the size from 3.5cm to 5.5cm(average 4.2 cm) in largest diameter. On postcontrast CT scan, all nodules showed enhancement and four cases showed central low density components. Two nodules contained air within the nodule. In four cases, pleural changes such as effusion and/or focal thickening were noted. No lymphadenopathy was found in all cases. Pathologically, the enhancing portion on CT showed findings of organizing pneumonia such as granulation tissue with fibroblast proliferation in alveolar space and interstitial thickening. The central low density areas on CT were due to ischemic necrosis, abscess and exudate, transudate and infiltration of foamy histiocyte. The possibility of focal organizing pneumonia should be considered when peripherally located solitary pulmonary nodule had enhancing component with no combined lymphadenopathy on CT scan.

  1. CT findings of focal organizing pneumonia: correlation with pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Young Goo; Park, Un Sup

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the CT findings of focal organizing pneumonia and to correlate them with pathologic findings to help differentiating from lung cancer. We evaluated radiologic and pathologic findings of five patients with solitary pulmonary nodule which were confirmed as focal organizing pneumonia pathologically. On CT scan, focal organizing pneumonia had irregular margin contacting the pleura in all five cases. The shape of the nodules were spherical to wedge or elliptical and the size from 3.5cm to 5.5cm(average 4.2 cm) in largest diameter. On postcontrast CT scan, all nodules showed enhancement and four cases showed central low density components. Two nodules contained air within the nodule. In four cases, pleural changes such as effusion and/or focal thickening were noted. No lymphadenopathy was found in all cases. Pathologically, the enhancing portion on CT showed findings of organizing pneumonia such as granulation tissue with fibroblast proliferation in alveolar space and interstitial thickening. The central low density areas on CT were due to ischemic necrosis, abscess and exudate, transudate and infiltration of foamy histiocyte. The possibility of focal organizing pneumonia should be considered when peripherally located solitary pulmonary nodule had enhancing component with no combined lymphadenopathy on CT scan

  2. Detection is unaffected by the deployment of focal attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff eMoher

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been much debate regarding how much information humans can extract from their environment without the use of limited attentional resources. In a recent study, Theeuwes, Van der Burg, and Belopolsky (2008 argued that even detection of simple feature targets is not possible without selection by focal attention. Supporting this claim, they found response time benefits in a simple feature (color detection task when a target letter’s identity was repeated on consecutive trials, suggesting that the letter was selected by focal attention and identified prior to detection. This intertrial repetition benefit remained even when observers were required to simultaneously identify a central digit. However, we found that intertrial repetition benefits disappeared when a simple color target was presented among a heterogeneously (rather than homogeneously colored set of distractors, thus reducing its bottom-up salience. Still, detection performance remained high. Thus, detection performance was unaffected by whether a letter was focally attended and identified prior to detection or not. Intertrial identity repetition benefits also disappeared when observers were required to perform a simultaneous, attention-demanding central task (Experiment 2, or when unfamiliar Chinese characters were used (Experiment 3. Together, these results suggest that while shifts of focal attention can be affected by target salience, by the availability of excess cognitive resources, and by target familiarity, detection performance itself is unaffected by these manipulations and is thus unaffected by the deployment of focal attention.

  3. EEG dynamical correlates of focal and diffuse causes of coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafashan, MohammadMehdi; Ryu, Shoko; Hargis, Mitchell J; Laurido-Soto, Osvaldo; Roberts, Debra E; Thontakudi, Akshay; Eisenman, Lawrence; Kummer, Terrance T; Ching, ShiNung

    2017-11-15

    Rapidly determining the causes of a depressed level of consciousness (DLOC) including coma is a common clinical challenge. Quantitative analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) has the potential to improve DLOC assessment by providing readily deployable, temporally detailed characterization of brain activity in such patients. While used commonly for seizure detection, EEG-based assessment of DLOC etiology is less well-established. As a first step towards etiological diagnosis, we sought to distinguish focal and diffuse causes of DLOC through assessment of temporal dynamics within EEG signals. We retrospectively analyzed EEG recordings from 40 patients with DLOC with consensus focal or diffuse culprit pathology. For each recording, we performed a suite of time-series analyses, then used a statistical framework to identify which analyses (features) could be used to distinguish between focal and diffuse cases. Using cross-validation approaches, we identified several spectral and non-spectral EEG features that were significantly different between DLOC patients with focal vs. diffuse etiologies, enabling EEG-based classification with an accuracy of 76%. Our findings suggest that DLOC due to focal vs. diffuse injuries differ along several electrophysiological parameters. These results may form the basis of future classification strategies for DLOC and coma that are more etiologically-specific and therefore therapeutically-relevant.

  4. A targeted resequencing gene panel for focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Michael S; Myers, Candace T; Carvill, Gemma L; Regan, Brigid M; Damiano, John A; Mullen, Saul A; Newton, Mark R; Nair, Umesh; Gazina, Elena V; Milligan, Carol J; Reid, Christopher A; Petrou, Steven; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Berkovic, Samuel F; Mefford, Heather C

    2016-04-26

    We report development of a targeted resequencing gene panel for focal epilepsy, the most prevalent phenotypic group of the epilepsies. The targeted resequencing gene panel was designed using molecular inversion probe (MIP) capture technology and sequenced using massively parallel Illumina sequencing. We demonstrated proof of principle that mutations can be detected in 4 previously genotyped focal epilepsy cases. We searched for both germline and somatic mutations in 251 patients with unsolved sporadic or familial focal epilepsy and identified 11 novel or very rare missense variants in 5 different genes: CHRNA4, GRIN2B, KCNT1, PCDH19, and SCN1A. Of these, 2 were predicted to be pathogenic or likely pathogenic, explaining ∼0.8% of the cohort, and 8 were of uncertain significance based on available data. We have developed and validated a targeted resequencing panel for focal epilepsies, the most important clinical class of epilepsies, accounting for about 60% of all cases. Our application of MIP technology is an innovative approach that will be advantageous in the clinical setting because it is highly sensitive, efficient, and cost-effective for screening large patient cohorts. Our findings indicate that mutations in known genes likely explain only a small proportion of focal epilepsy cases. This is not surprising given the established clinical and genetic heterogeneity of these disorders and underscores the importance of further gene discovery studies in this complex syndrome. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Quantum discord length is enhanced while entanglement length is not by introducing disorder in a spin chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Debasis; Roy, Sudipto Singha; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R; Sen De, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2016-01-01

    Classical correlation functions of ground states typically decay exponentially and polynomially, respectively, for gapped and gapless short-range quantum spin systems. In such systems, entanglement decays exponentially even at the quantum critical points. However, quantum discord, an information-theoretic quantum correlation measure, survives long lattice distances. We investigate the effects of quenched disorder on quantum correlation lengths of quenched averaged entanglement and quantum discord, in the anisotropic XY and XYZ spin glass and random field chains. We find that there is virtually neither reduction nor enhancement in entanglement length while quantum discord length increases significantly with the introduction of the quenched disorder.

  6. Torrance type of lethal neonatal short-limbed platyspondylic dwarfism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaibara, N.; Yokoyama, K.; Nakano, H.

    1983-01-01

    A rare case of lethal neonatal short-limbed platyspondylic dwarfism is described. Roentgenographic features of this case, distinctly different from those of the classical thanatophoric dysplasia, are indistinguishable from the other three types of short-limbed platyspondylic dwarfism. Histologic features of the cartilage in this case are not very different from those of the Torrance type, but the presence of focal disruption of column formation in this case suggests a wider spectrum for this entity. (orig.)

  7. Torrance type of lethal neonatal short-limbed platyspondylic dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaibara, N.; Yokoyama, K.; Nakano, H.

    1983-06-01

    A rare case of lethal neonatal short-limbed platyspondylic dwarfism is described. Roentgenographic features of this case, distinctly different from those of the classical thanatophoric dysplasia, are indistinguishable from the other three types of short-limbed platyspondylic dwarfism. Histologic features of the cartilage in this case are not very different from those of the Torrance type, but the presence of focal disruption of column formation in this case suggests a wider spectrum for this entity.

  8. Terapia Interpessoal: um modelo breve e focal Interpersonal Therapy: a brief and focal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Feijó de Mello

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A psicoterapia é uma forma particular de tratamento em psiquiatria. Seu uso é amplamente difundido e conta com várias linhas de abordagem. OBJETIVO: Neste trabalho, o autor faz considerações a respeito da terapia interpessoal (TIP, uma forma breve e focal de psicoterapia. Inicialmente usada para o tratamento da depressão, teve seu espectro de ação ampliado para outros transtornos. A TIP pode ser dividida em 3 fases: inicial, quando é feito um diagnóstico do transtorno nomeando os sintomas ao paciente e diagnosticando o foco interpessoal a ser trabalhado; fase intermediária, onde se trabalha o foco; e fase final, quando o paciente é encorajado a reconhecer e consolidar seus ganhos para usá-los no futuro. MÉTODOS: O autor faz uma revisão das evidências científicas da eficácia da TIP no tratamento da depressão. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostram que a TIP é uma forma terapêutica eficaz e bem tolerada de tratamento para a depressão.Psychotherapy is a particular form of treatment in Psychiatry. Its use is widespread and has many different approaches. OBJECTIVE: In this article, the author makes some considerations about Interpersonal Therapy (IPT, a brief and focal psychotherapy. Initially created to treat depression, other researchers had successfully increase its spectrum. It could be divided in three phases. Initial, when the therapist makes the diagnosis of the disorder and also the interpersonal problematic is pointed out; the patient received a sick role. Intermediary when the focus is treated, and the final phase when the therapist encourages the patient to recognize and consolidate gains and prepare the patient to use it in the future. METHODS: It is stressed that IPT is a testable form of psychotherapy and the scientific evidences of its efficacy are showed. CONCLUSIONS: The results assure that IPT is an efficient form of psychotherapy for depression with a great acceptability from the patients.

  9. Focal plane array based infrared thermography in fine physical experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainer, Boris G

    2008-01-01

    By two examples of dissimilar physical phenomena causing thermophysical effects, the unique capabilities of one of the up-to-date methods of experimental physics-focal plane array (FPA) based infrared (IR) thermography (IRT), are demonstrated distinctly. Experimenters inexperienced in IRT can grasp how this method provides a means for combining real-time visualization with quantitative analysis. A narrow-band short-wavelength IR camera was used in the experiments. It is discussed and stated that IRT is best matched and suited to the next two test conditions-when a heated specimen is thin and when heat is generated in the immediate region of a surface of a solid. The first prerequisite is realized in the search for directional patterns of combined low-power radiation sources with the use of the IRT-aided method. The second one is realized in studies of water vapour adsorption on uneven (irregular) surfaces of solid materials. With multiple swatches taken from a set of different fabrics and used as experimental samples, a sharp distinction between adsorptivities of their surfaces is strikingly illustrated by IRT time-domain measurements exhibiting the associated thermal effect ranging within an order of magnitude. It is justified that the described IRT-aided test can find practical implementation at least in the light industry. Emissivities of different fabrics are evaluated experimentally with the described reflection method based on the narrow spectral range of IRT. On the basis of direct IR observations, attention is paid to the need for close control over the surface temperature increase while the adsorption isotherms are being measured. Sensitivity of the FPA-based IRT method, as applied to examine the kinetics of initial stages of adsorption of gaseous molecules on the solid surface, is evaluated analytically and quantitatively. The relationship between the amount of adsorbate and the measurable excess of adsorbent temperature is found. It is discovered that

  10. Certain features of FELs with short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    The report is devoted to physics of free electron lasers operating in the short-wave domain where the bunch length could be less than the undulator length in the proper frame. Then the current component of the signal is locked within the bunch as in a cavity, while the electromagnetic component propagates freely. In contrast with gyrotrons where this regime can be of interest only for wavelengths comparable with the bunch length, we consider short waves in a bunch of arbitrary profile. Both amplification of an external harmonic signal and SASE regime, i.e. selective amplification of proper noises, are investigated

  11. Surgical treatment of convexity focal epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Ishijima, Buichi; Iio, Masaaki.

    1987-01-01

    We have hitherto applied PET study in 72 epileptic patients. The main contents of their seizures consists of complex partial in 32, elementary partial in 32, generalized in 6, and others in 3 cases. We administered perorally 10 mCi glucose labeled with C11 produced in the JSW Baby Cyclotron for the study of CMRG(cerebral metabolic rate of glucose). The continuous inhalation method of CO 2 and O 2 labeled with O15 produced in the same cyclotron was also employed for measurement of rCBE(cerebral blood flow) and CMRO 2 (cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen). In both studies, epileptic foci were shown as well demarcated hypometabolic zones with decreased CMRG, rCBF or CMRO 2 . The locations of PET diagnosed foci were not contradictory with the clinical symptoms, scalp EEGs or X-ray CT findings. Of the 32 patients with the convexity epileptic foci, 8 patients underwent surgical treatment. Prior to the surgical intervention, subdural strip electrodes were inserted in the four cases for further assessment of focus locations. Subdural EEG disclosed very active brain activity with high amplitude 4 to 5 times scalp EEG and revealed epileptiform discharges most of which were not detected by scalp recording. PET scans did not characterize epileptogenic nature of a lesion. Subdural recording therefore was useful for detecting the foci responsible for habitual seizures in the cases with multiple PET foci. Ambiguous hypometabolic zones on PECT images also could be confirmed by the subdural technique. Of the 8 operated cases, five patients are seizure free, one is signigicantly improved and two are not improved although the postoperative follow-up is too short for precise evaluation. (J.P.N.)

  12. Role of scintigraphy in focally abnormal sonograms of fatty livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisbona, R.; Mishkin, S.; Derbekyan, V.; Novales-Diaz, J.A.; Roy, A.; Sanders, L.

    1988-01-01

    Fatty infiltration of the liver may cause a range of focal abnormalities on hepatic sonography which may simulate hepatic nodular lesions. Discrete deposits of fat or islands of normal tissue which are uninvolved by fatty infiltration may stand out as potential space-occupying lesions on the sonograms. Twelve patients with such focally abnormal ultrasound images were referred for liver scintigraphy with 133 Xe and /sup 99m/Tc colloidal SPECT studies to clarify the issue. These examinations helped identify, in nine of 12 patients, the innocent nature of the sonographic abnormalities which were simply related to the fat deposition process. Further, [/sup 99m/Tc]RBC scans defined the additional pathologic process in three patients in whom actual space-occupying lesions were indeed present in the liver. Scintigraphy has an important role to play in the understanding of focal hepatic ultrasound abnormalities particularly in unsuspected hepatic steatosis

  13. Role of scintigraphy in focally abnormal sonograms of fatty livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisbona, R.; Mishkin, S.; Derbekyan, V.; Novales-Diaz, J.A.; Roy, A.; Sanders, L.

    1988-06-01

    Fatty infiltration of the liver may cause a range of focal abnormalities on hepatic sonography which may simulate hepatic nodular lesions. Discrete deposits of fat or islands of normal tissue which are uninvolved by fatty infiltration may stand out as potential space-occupying lesions on the sonograms. Twelve patients with such focally abnormal ultrasound images were referred for liver scintigraphy with /sup 133/Xe and /sup 99m/Tc colloidal SPECT studies to clarify the issue. These examinations helped identify, in nine of 12 patients, the innocent nature of the sonographic abnormalities which were simply related to the fat deposition process. Further, (/sup 99m/Tc)RBC scans defined the additional pathologic process in three patients in whom actual space-occupying lesions were indeed present in the liver. Scintigraphy has an important role to play in the understanding of focal hepatic ultrasound abnormalities particularly in unsuspected hepatic steatosis.

  14. US and CT findings in splenic focal lesions in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinina, V.; Rizzi, E.B.; Mazzuoli, G.; Bibbolilno, C.; David, V.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the role of US and CT in focal splenic lesions in AIDS patients in relation to etiology. Material and Methods: A total of 66 patients with AIDS and focal splenic lesions were examined with sonography. CT with administration of contrast medium was performed in 12 cases. Results: Of the focal splenic lesions, 67% were correlated with an infective pathology with prevalence of Mycobacteria tuberculosis (75%), 26% were neoplastic and 6% splenic infarcts. The lesions were hypoechoic in 60% of the cases, while 10% were hypoanechoic and 1% anechoic. At CT, all lesions appeared hypodense, even after i.v. administration of contrast medium. Conclusion: The combination of echographic reports and clinical and laboratory data allows for a diagnosis that can be confirmed, and making a decision for effective therapy of AIDS is possible. CT does not provide any additional information

  15. Simulation of the Focal Spot of the Accelerator Bremsstrahlung Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, V.; Bespalov, V.

    2016-06-01

    Testing of thick-walled objects by bremsstrahlung radiation (BR) is primarily performed via high-energy quanta. The testing parameters are specified by the focal spot size of the high-energy bremsstrahlung radiation. In determining the focal spot size, the high- energy BR portion cannot be experimentally separated from the low-energy BR to use high- energy quanta only. The patterns of BR focal spot formation have been investigated via statistical modeling of the radiation transfer in the target material. The distributions of BR quanta emitted by the target for different energies and emission angles under normal distribution of the accelerated electrons bombarding the target have been obtained, and the ratio of the distribution parameters has been determined.

  16. MRI of a family with focal abnormalities of gyration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntaner, L.; Perez-Ferron, J.J.; Herrera, M.; Rosell, J.; Taboada, D.; Climent, S.

    1997-01-01

    Focal abnormalities of gyration (FAG) are developmental disorders that may occur in isolated patients or, as in the case being reported, as part of a familial disorder. Analysis of individuals in a family spanning three generations was carried out using MRI. Abnormalities, present in all members of generations II and III, included focal cortical dysplasia (three patients), focal cortical infolding (two patients) and schizencephaly (one patient); associated minor anomalies, such as white matter abnormalities, were seen in the remaining three members of generations II and III. MRI recognition of FAG in the family being reported proved useful in defining their phenotypical expression and providing proper counselling for individual family members. (orig.). With 6 figs

  17. Protein kinase C involvement in focal adhesion formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    1992-01-01

    Matrix molecules such as fibronectin can promote cell attachment, spreading and focal adhesion formation. Although some interactions of fibronectin with cell surface receptors have now been identified, the consequent activation of intracellular messenger systems by cell/matrix interactions have...... still to be elucidated. We show here that the kinase inhibitors H7 and HA1004 reduce focal adhesion and stress fiber formation in response to fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner, and that activators of protein kinase C can promote their formation under conditions where they do not normally form....... Fibroblasts spread within 1h on substrata composed of fibronectin and formed focal adhesions by 3h, as monitored by interference reflection microscopy (IRM) and by labeling for talin, vinculin and integrin beta 1 subunits. In addition, stress fibers were visible. When cells were allowed to spread for 1h...

  18. Focal depth measurement of scanning helium ion microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hongxuan; Itoh, Hiroshi; Wang, Chunmei; Zhang, Han; Fujita, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    When facing the challenges of critical dimension measurement of complicated nanostructures, such as of the three dimension integrated circuit, characterization of the focal depth of microscopes is important. In this Letter, we developed a method for characterizing the focal depth of a scanning helium ion microscope (HIM) by using an atomic force microscope tip characterizer (ATC). The ATC was tilted in a sample chamber at an angle to the scanning plan. Secondary electron images (SEIs) were obtained at different positions of the ATC. The edge resolution of the SEIs shows the nominal diameters of the helium ion beam at different focal levels. With this method, the nominal shapes of the helium ion beams were obtained with different apertures. Our results show that a small aperture is necessary to get a high spatial resolution and high depth of field images with HIM. This work provides a method for characterizing and improving the performance of HIM.

  19. Earthquake focal mechanism forecasting in Italy for PSHA purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Pamela; Marzocchi, Warner; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Montone, Paola

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we put forward a procedure that aims to forecast focal mechanism of future earthquakes. One of the primary uses of such forecasts is in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA); in fact, aiming at reducing the epistemic uncertainty, most of the newer ground motion prediction equations consider, besides the seismicity rates, the forecast of the focal mechanism of the next large earthquakes as input data. The data set used to this purpose is relative to focal mechanisms taken from the latest stress map release for Italy containing 392 well-constrained solutions of events, from 1908 to 2015, with Mw ≥ 4 and depths from 0 down to 40 km. The data set considers polarity focal mechanism solutions until to 1975 (23 events), whereas for 1976-2015, it takes into account only the Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT)-like earthquake focal solutions for data homogeneity. The forecasting model is rooted in the Total Weighted Moment Tensor concept that weighs information of past focal mechanisms evenly distributed in space, according to their distance from the spatial cells and magnitude. Specifically, for each cell of a regular 0.1° × 0.1° spatial grid, the model estimates the probability to observe a normal, reverse, or strike-slip fault plane solution for the next large earthquakes, the expected moment tensor and the related maximum horizontal stress orientation. These results will be available for the new PSHA model for Italy under development. Finally, to evaluate the reliability of the forecasts, we test them with an independent data set that consists of some of the strongest earthquakes with Mw ≥ 3.9 occurred during 2016 in different Italian tectonic provinces.

  20. Pancreatic duct abnormalities in focal autoimmune pancreatitis: MR/MRCP imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrelli, Riccardo; Manfredi, Riccardo; Pedrinolla, Beatrice; Boninsegna, Enrico; Ventriglia, Anna; Mehrabi, Sara; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto [G.B. Rossi University Hospital, University of Verona, Department of Radiology, Verona (Italy); Frulloni, Luca [Universita di Verona, Department of Gastroenterology, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, Verona (Italy)

    2014-08-09

    To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-MR cholangiopancreatographic (MRCP) findings of focal forms of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) to describe ductal involvement at diagnosis. MR examinations of 123 patients affected by AIP were analysed. We included 26 patients who satisfied International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria and were suffering from focal AIP. Image analysis included: site of parenchymal enlargement, main pancreatic duct (MPD) diameter, MPD stenosis, stricture length, presence of upstream dilation within the stricture, signal intensity, and pancreatic enhancement. Signal intensity abnormalities were localized in the head in 10/26 (38.5 %) and in the body-tail in 16/26 (61.5 %) patients. MRCP showed a single MPD stenosis in 12/26 (46.1 %) and multiple MPD stenosis in 14/26 (53.8 %) patients, without a dilation of the upstream MPD (mean: 3.83 mm). Lesions showed hypointensity on T1-weighted images in all patients, and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images in 22/26 (84.6 %) patients. The affected parenchyma was hypovascular during the arterial phase in 25/26 (96.2 %) patients with contrast retention. MR-MRCP are effective techniques for the diagnosis of AIP showing the loss of the physiological lobulation and the typical contrastographic appearance. The presence of multiple, long stenoses without an upstream MPD dilation at MRCP suggests the diagnosis of AIP, and can be useful in differential diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. (orig.)

  1. Nonlinear focal shift beyond the geometrical focus in moderately focused acoustic beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarena, Francisco; Adrián-Martínez, Silvia; Jiménez, Noé; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor

    2013-08-01

    The phenomenon of the displacement of the position along the axis of the pressure, intensity, and radiation force maxima of focused acoustic beams under increasing driving voltages (nonlinear focal shift) is studied for the case of a moderately focused beam. The theoretical and experimental results show the existence of this shift along the axis when the initial pressure in the transducer increases until the acoustic field reaches the fully developed nonlinear regime of propagation. Experimental data show that at high amplitudes and for moderate focusing, the position of the on-axis pressure maximum and radiation force maximum can surpass the geometrical focal length. On the contrary, the on-axis pressure minimum approaches the transducer under increasing driving voltages, increasing the distance between the positive and negative peak pressure in the beam. These results are in agreement with numerical KZK model predictions and the existed data of other authors and can be explained according to the effect of self-refraction characteristic of the nonlinear regime of propagation.

  2. Nodular focal fatty infiltration of the liver: CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.E.; Silverman, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is a well recognized entity generally characterized by a nonspherical, low-density area without significant mass effect. CT usually distinguishes this from focal liver processes such as abscess or metastasis by its sharply marginated, geographic pattern and lack of mass effect on hepatic and portal veins. Recently, the authors formed a CT scan of the liver in one patient in whom fatty infiltration appeared nodular or rounded. The clinical presentation and radiographic and pathologic features form the basis of this report

  3. The radiological features of Goltz syndrome: Focal dermal hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothyrod, A.E.; Hall, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Two female infants with Goltz syndrome (focal dermal hypoplasia) were recently investigated for severe feeding problems and failure to thrive. Both demonstrated severe skeletal malformations and marked gastrooesophageal reflux with laxity of the hiatus. One child (case 1) exhibited nasal regurgitation during feeding. Interestingly, both children had undergone surgery; Case 1 or a right parasagittal abdominal hernia associated with focal dermal hypoplasia of the abdominal wall and Case 2 for an exomphalos also associated with dermal hypoplasia. This observation suggests more widespread mesodermal abnormality. (orig./GDG)

  4. Focal myositis of the thigh: unusual MR pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llauger, Jaume; Palmer, Jaume; San Roman, Luis; Bague, Silvia; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Doncel, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Focal myositis is a commonly referenced, infrequently reported and poorly documented benign inflammatory pseudotumor which may be misdiagnosed clinically as a malignant tumor. We report the clinicopathologic features and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a case of focal myositis in the thigh of a 55-year-old woman. A different radiologic presentation of this disorder is described. The gross appearance of the lesion, previously undescribed, appears to be rather specific for such a pseudoneoplastic disorder, and correlates very well with the magnetic resonance imaging features. (orig.)

  5. Focal myositis of the thigh: unusual MR pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llauger, Jaume; Palmer, Jaume; San Roman, Luis [Department of Radiology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Bague, Silvia; Matias-Guiu, Xavier [Department of Pathology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Doncel, Antonio [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2002-05-01

    Focal myositis is a commonly referenced, infrequently reported and poorly documented benign inflammatory pseudotumor which may be misdiagnosed clinically as a malignant tumor. We report the clinicopathologic features and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a case of focal myositis in the thigh of a 55-year-old woman. A different radiologic presentation of this disorder is described. The gross appearance of the lesion, previously undescribed, appears to be rather specific for such a pseudoneoplastic disorder, and correlates very well with the magnetic resonance imaging features. (orig.)

  6. Magnetic-resonance-guided biopsy of focal liver lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ethan A. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Grove, Jason J. [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Der Spek, Abraham F.L.V. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Anesthesiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Jarboe, Marcus D. [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Surgery, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Image-guided biopsy techniques are widely used in clinical practice. Commonly used methods employ either ultrasound (US) or computed tomography (CT) for image guidance. In certain patients, US or CT guidance may be suboptimal, or even impossible, because of artifacts, suboptimal lesion visualization, or both. We recently began performing magnetic resonance (MR)-guided biopsy of focal liver lesions in select pediatric patients with lesions that are not well visualized by US or CT. This report describes our experience performing MR-guided biopsy of focal liver lesions, with case examples to illustrate innovative techniques and novel aspects of these procedures. (orig.)

  7. Magnetic electroanatomical mapping for ablation of focal atrial tachycardias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchlinski, F; Callans, D; Gottlieb, C; Rodriguez, E; Coyne, R; Kleinman, D

    1998-08-01

    Uniform success for ablation of focal atrial tachycardias has been difficult to achieve using standard catheter mapping and ablation techniques. In addition, our understanding of the complex relationship between atrial anatomy, electrophysiology, and surface ECG P wave morphology remains primitive. The magnetic electroanatomical mapping and display system (CARTO) offers an on-line display of electrical activation and/or signal amplitude related to the anatomical location of the recorded sites in the mapped chamber. A window of electrical interest is established based on signals timed from an electrical reference that usually represents a fixed electrogram recording from the coronary sinus or the atrial appendage. This window of electrical interest is established to include atrial activation prior to the onset of the P wave activity associated with the site of origin of a focal atrial tachycardia. Anatomical and electrical landmarks are defined with limited fluoroscopic imaging support and more detailed global chamber and more focal atrial mapping can be performed with minimal fluoroscopic guidance. A three-dimensional color map representing atrial activation or voltage amplitude at the magnetically defined anatomical sites is displayed with on-line data acquisition. This display can be manipulated to facilitate viewing from any angle. Altering the zoom control, triangle fill threshold, clipping plane, or color range can all enhance the display of a more focal area of interest. We documented the feasibility of using this single mapping catheter technique for localizing and ablating focal atrial tachycardias. In a consecutive series of 8 patients with 9 focal atrial tachycardias, the use of the single catheter CARTO mapping system was associated with ablation success in all but one patient who had a left atrial tachycardia localized to the medial aspect of the orifice of the left atrial appendage. Only low power energy delivery was used in this patient because of the

  8. Regional cerebral blood flow in focal cortical epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Kristina Dupont; Oikawa, T; Sveinsdottir, E

    1976-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied in ten patients with focal cortical epilepsy. The blood flow was measured by the intra-arterial injection of xenon 133 (133Xe), and the isotope clearance was recorded by a multidetector scintillation camera with 254 detectors. Three patients were....... This finding accords with earlier studies. All nine patients studied in the interictal phase showed, either spontaneously or during activation by intermittent light, focal flow increases in areas presumed to comprise the epileptic focus. These interictal hyperemic foci probably reflect subictal neuronal...

  9. Incidental Detection of Temporary Focal FDG Retention in the Spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youn Joon; Lee, Jai Hyuen; Jee, Keum Nahn; Namgung, Hwan [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is a valuable tool in discriminating malignancy from benign lesion. But because various false positive results reduce the diagnostic specificity, nuclear medicine physicians should be familiar with possible false positive cases. Although many cases of high FDG uptake mimicking malignancy have been reported, temporary intense focal FDG uptake of normal spleen has not been reported previously. We report herein a phenomenon of temporary intense focal FDG uptake of normal spleen without evidence of metastasis in a 46 year old woman with a history of anal cancer.

  10. Expansion characteristics of coronary stents in focal stenoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Wolfram

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented experimental in vitro approach was designed to assess the expansion behavior of stent systems in a resistant focal stenosis model with respect to a potential dog-boning effect. Five different stent systems (nominal diameter 3.0 mm were investigated. The focal stenosis was simulated by a stainless steel tube (ID ≤ 1.20 mm. Stent expansion was performed using a proprietary test device consisting of a test chamber with 37 °C water, 2-axis laser scanner and a pressure controller.

  11. Exploiting publicly available biological and biochemical information for the discovery of novel short linear motifs.

    KAUST Repository

    Sayadi, Ahmed; Briganti, Leonardo; Tramontano, Anna; Via, Allegra

    2011-01-01

    The function of proteins is often mediated by short linear segments of their amino acid sequence, called Short Linear Motifs or SLiMs, the identification of which can provide important information about a protein function. However, the short length

  12. Measurements of plasma mirror reflectivity and focal spot quality for tens of picosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier-Colleoni, Pierre; Williams, Jackson; Scott, Graeme; Mariscal, Dereck. A.; McGuffey, Christopher; Beg, Farhat N.; Chen, Hui; Neely, David; Ma, Tammy

    2017-10-01

    The Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) laser at the NIF (LLNL) is high-energy ( 4 kJ) with a pulse length of 30ps, and is capable of focusing to an intensity of 1018W/cm2 with a 100 μm focal spot. The ARC laser is at an intensity which can be used to produce proton beams. However, for applications such as radiography and warm dense matter creation, a higher laser intensity may be desired to generate more energetic proton beams. One possibility to increase the intensity is to decrease the focused spot size by employing a smaller f-number optic. But it is difficult to implement such an optic or to bring the final focusing parabola closer to the target within the complicated NIF chamber geometry. A proposal is to use ellipsoidal plasma mirrors (PM) for fast focusing of the ARC laser light, thereby increasing the peak intensity. There is uncertainty, however, in the survivability and reflectivity of PM at such long pulse durations. Here, we show experimental results from the Titan laser to study the reflectivity of flat PM as a function of laser pulse length. A calorimeter was used to measure the PM reflectivity. We also observed degradation of the far and near field energy distribution of the laser after the reflection by the PM for pulse-lengths beyond 10ps. Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Funded by the LLNL LDRD program: tracking code 17-ERD-039.

  13. A simulation study on the focal plane detector of the LAUE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M.; Frontera, F.; Caroli, E.; Virgilli, E.; Valsan, V.

    2015-06-01

    The LAUE project, supported by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), is devoted to the development of a long focal length (even 20 m or longer) Laue lens for gamma ray astronomy between 80 and 600 keV. These lenses take advantage of Bragg diffraction to focus radiation onto a small spot drastically improving the signal to noise ratio as well as reducing the required size of the detector significantly. In this paper we present a Monte-Carlo simulation study with MEGALIB to optimize, for space applications, the detector size to achieve high detection efficiency, and to optimize the position resolution of the detector to reconstruct the Point Spread Function of the lens considered for the LAUE project. Then we will show simulations, using the SILVACO semiconductor simulation toolkit, on the optimized detector to estimate its capacitance per channel and depletion voltage. In all of the simulations, two materials were compared; a low density material (Silicon) and a high density material (Germanium).

  14. The impact of precise robotic lesion length measurement on stent length selection: ramifications for stent savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Paul T; Kruse, Kevin R; Kroll, Christopher R; Patterson, Janet Y; Esposito, Michele J

    2015-09-01

    Coronary stent deployment outcomes can be negatively impacted by inaccurate lesion measurement and inappropriate stent length selection (SLS). We compared visual estimate of these parameters to those provided by the CorPath 200® Robotic PCI System. Sixty consecutive patients who underwent coronary stent placement utilizing the CorPath System were evaluated. The treating physician assessed orthogonal images and provided visual estimates of lesion length and SLS. The robotic system was then used for the same measures. SLS was considered to be accurate when visual estimate and robotic measures were in agreement. Visual estimate SLSs were considered to be "short" or "long" if they were below or above the robotic-selected stents, respectively. Only 35% (21/60) of visually estimated lesions resulted in accurate SLS, whereas 33% (20/60) and 32% (19/60) of the visually estimated SLSs were long and short, respectively. In 5 cases (8.3%), 1 less stent was placed based on the robotic lesion measurement being shorter than the visual estimate. Visual estimate assessment of lesion length and SLS is highly variable with 65% of the cases being inaccurately measured when compared to objective measures obtained from the robotic system. The 32% of the cases where lesions were visually estimated to be short represents cases that often require the use of extra stents after the full lesion is not covered by 1 stent [longitudinal geographic miss (LGM)]. Further, these data showed that the use of the robotic system prevented the use of extra stents in 8.3% of the cases. Measurement of lesions with robotic PCI may reduce measurement errors, need for extra stents, and LGM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High-intensity interstitial ultrasound for thermal ablation of focal cancer targets in prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Scott, Serena; Kurhanewicz, John; Diederich, Chris J.

    2017-03-01

    Recent advances in image based techniques such as multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) can provide precise targeting of focal disease in the prostate. Thermal ablation of such cancer targets while avoiding rectum, urethra, neurovascular bundles (NVB) and sphincter is clinically challenging. The approach described here employs multi-element ultrasound linear arrays designed for transperineal placement within prostate. They consist of independently powered sectored tubular transducers (6.5 - 8.0 MHz) that provide spatial control of energy deposition in angle and length. Volumetric ablation strategies were investigated through patient-specific biothermal models based on Pennes bioheat transfer equation. The acoustic and heat transfer models used here have been validated in several previous simulation and experimental studies. Focal disease sites in prostate were identified through multi-parametric MR images of representative patient cases (n=3). Focal cancer lesions and critical anatomy (prostate, urethra, rectum, bladder, seminal vesicles) were manually segmented (Mimics, Materialise) and converted to 3D finite element meshes (3-Matic, Materialise). The chosen test cases consisted of patients with medium and large sized glands and models of bulk tissue ablation covered volumes in a single quadrant in posterior prostate, hemi-gland targets and "hockey-stick" targets (lesions in three quadrants). Ultrasound applicator placement was determined such that devices were positioned along the prostate periphery while avoiding surrounding anatomy. Transducer sector angles were chosen based on applicator location within limits of fabrication practicability. Thermal models were numerically solved using finite element methods (FEM) in COMSOL Multiphysics. Temperature and thermal dose distributions were calculated to determine treated volumes (> 240 CEM43C, >52 °C) and safety profiles (<10 CEM43C, <45 °C) for nerve, rectal and urethral sparing. Modeling studies indicated that focal

  16. Experimental tests of induced spatial incoherence using short laser wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenschain, S.P.; Grun, J.; Herbst, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a laser beam smoothing technique called induced spatial incoherence (ISI), which can produce the highly uniform focal profiles required for direct-drive laser fusion. Uniform well-controlled focal profiles are required to obtain the highly symmetric pellet implosions needed for high-energy gain. In recent experiments, the authors' tested the effects of ISI on high-power laser-target interaction. With short laser wavelength, the coupling physics dramatically improved over that obtained with an ordinary laser beam

  17. Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in sheep Encefalomalacia focal simétrica em ovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Pimentel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia by Clostridium perfringens type D. This paper reports FSE in sheep in Brazil. Six deaths occurred within a seven days period in a flock of 70, four to 30-month-old Santa Inês sheep in the state of Paraíba in the Brazilian semiarid. The flock was grazing a paddock of irrigated sprouting Cynodon dactylon (Tifton grass, and supplemented, ad libitum, with a concentrate of soybean, corn and wheat. Nervous signs included blindness and recumbence. A 19 month-old sheep was examined clinically and necropsied after a clinical course of three days. Gross lesions were herniation of the cerebellar vermis and multifocal, bilateral, symmetric brownish areas in the internal capsule, thalamus and cerebellar peduncles. Histologic lesions were multifocal, bilateral malacia with some neutrophils, swelling of blood vessels endothelium, perivascular edema, and hemorrhages. The flock was vaccinated, before the outbreak, with only one dose of Clostridium perfringens type D vaccine. Two factors are suggested to be important for the occurrence of the disease: insufficient immunity due to the incorrect vaccination; and high nutritional levels by the supplementation with highly fermentable carbohydrates.Encefalomalacia focal simétrica (EFS é a lesão mais proeminente vista nas formas subaguda ou crônica da enterotoxemia por Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Este trabalho relata EFS em ovinos no semiárido do estado da Paraíba. Seis ovinos morreram, em um período de sete dias, dentro de um rebanho de 70 animais, da raça Santa Inês, entre 4-30 meses de idade, que pastavam em piquete de Cynodon dactylon (capim Tifton, que estava rebrotando. Os ovinos eram suplementados com um concentrado de soja, trigo e milho. Os sinais nervosos incluíam cegueira e decúbito lateral. Um ovino de 19 meses de idade foi examinado clinicamente e necropsiado, depois de um curso

  18. A Comparison of the Outcomes for Cartilage Defects of the Knee Treated With Biologic Resurfacing Versus Focal Metallic Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Daley, Erika; Verma, Nikhil N; Cole, Brian J

    2017-02-01

    To compare the results of focal metallic resurfacing with biologic procedures in patients more than 35 years of age with isolated, full thickness defects of the femoral condyle. A total of 61 patients met the selection criteria resulting in 30 patients treated with biological procedures, including debridement, microfracture, osteochondral autograft transplantation, osteochondral allograft, and autologous chondrocyte implantation (BIO group), and 32 patients treated with focal metallic resurfacing (CAP group). The BIO and CAP groups were matched according to treatment location, defect grade and size, and age profile. Outcomes included Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Short Form-12, and satisfaction. The primary combination endpoint was determined as a 20% improvement (minimum clinically important difference-20) on WOMAC pain and function at 2 years and no additional index lesion-related surgical intervention. Safety and effectiveness were also reported. Thirty patients in the BIO group (mean age of 44.6, range 35-64) had an average follow-up of 2.6 years and 32 patients in the CAP group (mean age 47.9, range 37-68) were followed for 2.0 years. Fifty-three percent in the BIO group and 75% in the CAP group achieved success per the endpoint definition. The mean total WOMAC score improved significantly for both groups (BIO: 57-78; P metal resurfacing procedures for the treatment of isolated focal chondral lesions of the femoral condyle in the knee. Focal metallic resurfacing results in similar clinical outcomes and provides excellent success rates at short-term follow-up. Level III comparative study. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  20. MR imaging findings of focal myositis: a pseudotumour that may mimic muscle neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta, Michele; Mazziotti, Silvio; Minutoli, Fabio; Genitori, Antonino; Blandino, Alfredo; Toscano, Antonio; Rodolico, Carmelo

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings in eight patients with histologically confirmed focal myositis. In each patient, axial TSE T1-weighted and fast short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) images were obtained using a 1.5-T MR scanner. Three patients also underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MR examination using a GE T1-weighted sequence. The following features were evaluated: anatomical distribution, extent of the involvement, signal intensity characteristics, dynamic enhancement pattern and outcome at follow-up examinations. Seven of eight lesions were located in the lower extremities, one of eight in the arm; four of eight involved part of a muscle, two of eight diffusely involved a muscle and two of eight showed multifocal involvement of two or more muscles. All lesions were hyperintense on fast-STIR images: the hyperintensity was homogeneous in six of eight and inhomogeneous in two of eight. On T1-weighted unenhanced images, all lesions but two appeared isointense or slightly hypointense in comparison to normal muscles; two lesions showed a slight hyperintensity. Dynamic enhancement pattern corresponded to the type usually seen in benign soft tissue lesions. All lesions disappeared. Focal myositis is an uncommon pseudotumour which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of muscular masses and myopathies. (orig.)

  1. MR imaging findings of focal myositis: a pseudotumour that may mimic muscle neoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, Michele; Mazziotti, Silvio; Minutoli, Fabio; Genitori, Antonino; Blandino, Alfredo [University of Messina, A.O.U. ' ' Policlinico G. Martino' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Messina (Italy); Toscano, Antonio; Rodolico, Carmelo [University of Messina, A.O.U. ' ' Policlinico G. Martino' ' , Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatry and Anaesthesiology, Messina (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    The authors describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings in eight patients with histologically confirmed focal myositis. In each patient, axial TSE T1-weighted and fast short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) images were obtained using a 1.5-T MR scanner. Three patients also underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MR examination using a GE T1-weighted sequence. The following features were evaluated: anatomical distribution, extent of the involvement, signal intensity characteristics, dynamic enhancement pattern and outcome at follow-up examinations. Seven of eight lesions were located in the lower extremities, one of eight in the arm; four of eight involved part of a muscle, two of eight diffusely involved a muscle and two of eight showed multifocal involvement of two or more muscles. All lesions were hyperintense on fast-STIR images: the hyperintensity was homogeneous in six of eight and inhomogeneous in two of eight. On T1-weighted unenhanced images, all lesions but two appeared isointense or slightly hypointense in comparison to normal muscles; two lesions showed a slight hyperintensity. Dynamic enhancement pattern corresponded to the type usually seen in benign soft tissue lesions. All lesions disappeared. Focal myositis is an uncommon pseudotumour which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of muscular masses and myopathies. (orig.)

  2. Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: a favourable prognosis in untreated patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deegens, J.K.J.; Assmann, K.J.M.; Steenbergen, E.; Hilbrands, L.B.; Gerlag, P.G.G.; Jansen, J.L.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) are considered to have a poor prognosis and spontaneous remissions are seldom reported. However, FSGS is not a single disease entity. Our aim was to describe the clinical course in initially untreated patients with recently

  3. Laser Beam Caustic Measurement with Focal Spot Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Gong, Hui; Bagger, Claus

    2005-01-01

    In industrial applications of high power CO2-lasers the caustic characteristics of the laser beam have great effects on the performance of the lasers. A welldefined high intense focused spot is essential for reliable production results. This paper presents a focal spot analyser that is developed...

  4. Mass Equivalent Pantographs for Synthesis of Balanced Focal Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Lenarcic, Jadran; Merlet, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Force balance is an important property in the design of high-speed high precision machinery to reduce base vibrations and also for the design of inherently safe large movable structures. This paper presents the synthesis of inherently balanced overconstrained focal mechanisms with mass equivalent

  5. A 1.3 giga pixels focal plane for GAIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborie, Anouk; Pouny, Pierre; Vetel, Cyril; Collados, Emmanuel; Rougier, Gilles; Davancens, Robert; Zayer, Igor; Perryman, Michael; Pace, Oscar

    2004-06-01

    The astrometric mission GAIA is a cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency, due for launch in the 2010 time frame. Requiring extremely demanding performance GAIA calls for the development of an unprecedented large focal plane featuring innovative technologies. For securing the very challenging GAIA development, a significant number of technology activities have been initiated by ESA through a competitive selection process. In this context, an industrial consortium led by EADS-Astrium (France) with e2v technologies (UK) as major subcontractor was selected for the GAIA CCD and Focal Plane Technology Demonstrators programme, which is by far the most significant and the most critical GAIA pre-development for all aspects: science performance, development schedule and cost. This programme has started since August 2002 and will end early 2005 prior to commencement of the GAIA Phase B. While the GAIA payload will host three instruments and related focal planes, the major mission objectives are assigned to the Astrometric (ASTRO) Focal Plane, which is the subject of this presentation.

  6. A case of pathological rib fractures: focal osteolysis or osteoporosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbanić, T S L; Novak, S; Sestan, B; Tudor, A; Gulan, G

    2008-03-01

    This paper reports on a unique, previously unreported, successful outcome in the case of a patient with focal osteolytic lesions of the ribs as a first sign of osteoporosis. The lesions were detected by chance after acute cough-induced rib fractures were seen on plain chest radiographs. The diagnosis had to be approached as a diagnosis of exclusion since known causes of the osteolytic process had to be eliminated. The authors describe multiple focal osteolytic lesions with rib fractures appearing in a pattern that could be confused with metastases. Laboratory results were normal. Final diagnosis was based on plain radiography, bone scan and bone densitometry. Pharmacomedical treatments for osteoporosis were applied. The patient was observed between the year 2000 and 2005. Five years later radiological and bone scintigraphy revealed resolution of the lesion. We conclude that osteoporosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic focal osteolysis of the ribs with rib fractures as a complication of acute cough. The case suggests that focal osteolytic lesions of the ribs may regress over time and become scintigraphically inactive.

  7. Tratamento focal e perifocal contra Aëdes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Moura Lima

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Em quatro bairros da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, foram feitos ensaios de tratamento focal com abate granulado a 1 ppm e perifocal com pó molhável de Sumition a 2,5%. Esses tratamentos foram feitos tanto isoladamente quanto em conjunto e, também, associados à aplicação de inseticida a ultrabaixo volume. Os índices prediais, levantados um mês depois de terminado o trabalho, mostraram que o tratamento focal dispensa qualquer medida auxiliar. O tratamento perifocal mostrou-se inócuo e incapaz de impedir o aparecimento de larvas de Aëdes aegypti e de outros insetos, em pneus pintados, na face externa, com Sumition e com Malation.In four districts of the city of Rio dc Janeiro focal treatment essays with granulated Abate at 1 ppm and perifocal treatment essays with wettable powder of Sumithion at 2,5% were performed. These were made either alone or in combination as well as associated to insecticides applied at ultra low volume. The premise indices obtained one month after the treatments indicates that the focal treatment alone is effective, no other addicional methods being necessary. The perifocal treatment is not effective and did not prevent the development of Aedes aegypti larvae and other insects in tires which had their external surface painted with Sumithion and Malathion.

  8. Axial and focal-plane diffraction catastrophe integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, M V; Howls, C J

    2010-01-01

    Exact expressions in terms of Bessel functions are found for some of the diffraction catastrophe integrals that decorate caustics in optics and mechanics. These are the axial and focal-plane sections of the elliptic and hyperbolic umbilic diffraction catastrophes, and symmetric elliptic and hyperbolic unfoldings of the X 9 diffraction catastrophes. These representations reveal unexpected relations between the integrals.

  9. Neurophysiological evidence for cerebellar dysfunction in primary focal dystonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teo, J.T.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Schneider, S.A.; Rothwell, J.C.; Bhatia, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that there may be functional and structural changes in the cerebellum of patients with adult onset primary focal dystonia. The aim of this study was to establish whether there is any neurophysiological indicator of abnormal cerebellar function, using the classic

  10. The Localizing Value Of Focal Delta Slowing In Temporal Lobe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slow wave EEG had a higher marginal probability than neuropsychological assessment of predicting the focus, and was equally effective as other investigative methods. Conclusion These results suggest that focal temporal delta slowing is useful in the localization of epileptogenic foci. There was no discordance with the ...

  11. Management of HIV-associated focal brain lesions in developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. HIV-associated focal brain lesions (FBLs) are caused by opportunistic infections, neoplasms, or cerebrovascular diseases. In developed countries toxoplasma encephalitis (TE) is the most frequent cause followed by primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL). Guidelines based on these causes have been proposed ...

  12. Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Plane Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhabvala, Murzy; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Hess, Larry A.; Hartmann, Thomas M.; La, Anh T.

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), a QWIP-based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The TIRS instrument is a far-infrared imager operating in the pushbroom mode with two IR channels: 10.8 and 12 microns. The focal plane will contain three 640x512 QWIP arrays mounted on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is a custom-fabricated carrier board with a single layer of aluminum interconnects. The general fabrication process starts with a 4-in. (approx.10-cm) diameter silicon wafer. The wafer is oxidized, a single substrate contact is etched, and aluminum is deposited, patterned, and alloyed. This technology development is aimed at incorporating three large-format infrared detecting arrays based on GaAs QWIP technology onto a common focal plane with precision alignment of all three arrays. This focal plane must survive the rigors of flight qualification and operate at a temperature of 43 K (-230 C) for five years while orbiting the Earth. The challenges presented include ensuring thermal compatibility among all the components, designing and building a compact, somewhat modular system and ensuring alignment to very tight levels. The multi-array focal plane integrated onto a single silicon substrate is a new application of both QWIP array development and silicon wafer scale integration. The Invar-based assembly has been tested to ensure thermal reliability.

  13. [Primary focal dystonia: descriptive study of 205 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé, F M; Fanjul, S; Cantarero, S; Hernández, J; García Ruiz, P J

    2003-03-01

    To describe the clinical and epidemiologic aspects of different types of focal dystonia. A total of 205 patients with primary focal dystonia were studied retrospectively and the following variables were analyzed: gender, age of onset, age at examination, evolution time, history of trauma, association with other movement disorders, fluctuations of dystonic symptoms as well as a family history of dystonia, Parkinson's disease, tremor, and lefthandedness or stuttering. We compared these variables among the different clinical categories of focal dystonia. Those patients with cranial and laryngeal dystonia were significantly older at the onset of symptoms compared with patients with writer's cramp. Males were more prevalent than females in all categories of focal dystonia except for cranial dystonia. Prior history of trauma and association with tremor were more frequent in patients with cervical dystonia than in those with others dystonic categories. Most patients with cranial, cervical and laryngeal dystonia had fluctuations in the intensity of dystonic symptoms, unlike the patients with writer's cramp. There is a caudo-cranial gradient in age of onset and the age of onset increases as the cranial presentation becomes greater. Females are more prevalent in cranial dystonia and there is a preponderance of males in the dystonias with a lower location. The dystonias with cranial distribution frequently present fluctuations of symptoms during the day. Association with other movement disorders, such as tremor, and prior history of trauma, is common in patients with cervical dystonia.

  14. Focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia and tibia vara: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockshott, W.P.; Martin, R.; Friedman, L.; Yuen, M.

    1994-01-01

    A 2-year-old black boy with focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia is described with illustrations of the typical radiographic appearances supplemented by computed tomographic and magnetic resonance images. Since this rare condition is self-correcting, diagnosis is important so that surgical intervention and biopsy can be avoided and conservative management instituted. (orig.)

  15. Focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia and tibia vara: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockshott, W P; Martin, R; Friedman, L; Yuen, M

    1994-07-01

    A 2-year-old black boy with focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia is described with illustrations of the typical radiographic appearances supplemented by computed tomographic and magnetic resonance images. Since this rare condition is self-correcting, diagnosis is important so that surgical intervention and biopsy can be avoided and conservative management instituted.

  16. Focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia and tibia vara: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockshott, W.P. (Dept. of Radiology, McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, ON (Canada)); Martin, R. (Dept. of Orthopedics, McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, ON (Canada)); Friedman, L. (Dept. of Radiology, McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, ON (Canada)); Yuen, M. (Dept. of Radiology, McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, ON (Canada))

    1994-07-01

    A 2-year-old black boy with focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia is described with illustrations of the typical radiographic appearances supplemented by computed tomographic and magnetic resonance images. Since this rare condition is self-correcting, diagnosis is important so that surgical intervention and biopsy can be avoided and conservative management instituted. (orig.)

  17. Contrast enhanced ultrasound in CT-undetermined focal liver lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrose, Sebastian; Karstrup, S.; Gerke, Oke

    2016-01-01

    , surgical resection, PET/CT and clinical follow-up. Results: The 78 included patients had 163 undetermined focal liver lesions, mean size 1.1 cm, range 0.1–5.3 cm. There were 18 malignant and 145 benign liver lesions, as defined by the standard of reference. In differentiating between benign vs. malignant...

  18. Automatic test comes to focal plane array production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, Frank L.; Barton, T. D.

    1992-08-01

    To meet the needs of military and commercial markets, the infrared focal plane array industry must develop new, effective and low cost methods of fabricating and testing imaging detectors. This paper describes Texas Instruments new concepts in automated testing and cold probe technology as they apply to volume production.

  19. Position sensitive proportional counters as focal plane detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.L.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The rise time and charge division techniques for position decoding with RC-line proportional counters are reviewed. The advantages that these detectors offer as focal plane counters for nuclear spectroscopy performed with magnetic spectrographs are discussed. The theory of operation of proportional counters as position sensing devices is summarized, as well as practical aspects affecting their application. Factors limiting the position and energy resolutions obtainable with a focal plane proportional counter are evaluated and measured position and energy loss values are presented for comparison. Detector systems capable of the multiparameter measurements required for particle identification, background suppression and ray-tracing are described in order to illustrate the wide applicability of proportional counters within complex focal plane systems. Examples of the use of these counters other than with magnetic spectrographs are given in order to demonstrate their usefulness in not only nuclear physics but also in fields such as solid state physics, biology, and medicine. The influence of the new focal plane detector systems on future magnetic spectrograph designs is discussed. (Auth.)

  20. White matter integrity and cerebral network topology in focal epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide more than fifty million people suffer from recurrent spontaneous seizures. Seizures are considered to be harmful to the brain and may have adverse long-term behavioral and cognitive consequences in particular in people with focal epilepsies that do not respond to pharmacotherapy.

  1. Mutations in KCNT1 cause a spectrum of focal epilepsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Rikke S.; Heron, Sarah E.; Larsen, Line H. G.; Lim, Chiao Xin; Ricos, Michael G.; Bayly, Marta A.; van Kempen, Marjan J. A.; Klinkenberg, Sylvia; Andrews, Ian; Kelley, Kent; Ronen, Gabriel M.; Callen, David; McMahon, Jacinta M.; Yendle, Simone C.; Carvill, Gemma L.; Mefford, Heather C.; Nabbout, Rima; Poduri, Annapurna; Striano, Pasquale; Baglietto, Maria G.; Zara, Federico; Smith, Nicholas J.; Pridmore, Clair; Gardella, Elena; Nikanorova, Marina; Dahl, Hans Atli; Gellert, Pia; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Gunning, Boudewijn; Kragh-Olsen, Bente; Dibbens, Leanne M.

    2018-01-01

    Summary Autosomal dominant mutations in the sodium-gated potassium channel subunit gene KCNT1 have been associated with two distinct seizure syndromes, nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) and malignant migrating focal seizures of infancy (MMFSI). To further explore the phenotypic spectrum associated with KCNT1, we examined individuals affected with focal epilepsy or an epileptic encephalopathy for mutations in the gene. We identified KCNT1 mutations in 12 previously unreported patients with focal epilepsy, multifocal epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmia, and in a family with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), in addition to patients with NFLE and MMFSI. In contrast to the 100% penetrance so far reported for KCNT1 mutations, we observed incomplete penetrance. It is notable that we report that the one KCNT1 mutation, p.Arg398Gln, can lead to either of the two distinct phenotypes, ADNFLE or MMFSI, even within the same family. This indicates that genotype–phenotype relationships for KCNT1 mutations are not straightforward. We demonstrate that KCNT1 mutations are highly pleiotropic and are associated with phenotypes other than ADNFLE and MMFSI. KCNT1 mutations are now associated with Ohtahara syndrome, MMFSI, and nocturnal focal epilepsy. They may also be associated with multifocal epilepsy and cardiac disturbances. PMID:26122718

  2. Differential diagnosis of focal pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulik, T. M.; Moojen, T. M.; van Geenen, R.; Rauws, E. A.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    The differentiation of focal, chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic cancer (PAC) poses a diagnostic dilemma. Both conditions may present with the same symptoms and signs. The complexity of differential diagnosis is enhanced because PAC is frequently associated with secondary inflammatory changes

  3. Mutations in KCNT1 cause a spectrum of focal epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rikke Steensbjerre; Heron, Sarah E.; Larsen, Line H. G.

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant mutations in the sodium-gated potassium channel subunit gene KCNT1 have been associated with two distinct seizure syndromes, nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) and malignant migrating focal seizures of infancy (MMFSI). To further explore the phenotypic spectrum associated w...

  4. History-dependence of muscle slack length following contraction and stretch in the human vastus lateralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Peter W; Walsh, Lee D; D'Souza, Arkiev; Héroux, Martin E; Bolsterlee, Bart; Gandevia, Simon C; Herbert, Robert D

    2018-06-01

    In reduced muscle preparations, the slack length and passive stiffness of muscle fibres have been shown to be influenced by previous muscle contraction or stretch. In human muscles, such behaviours have been inferred from measures of muscle force, joint stiffness and reflex magnitudes and latencies. Using ultrasound imaging, we directly observed that isometric contraction of the vastus lateralis muscle at short lengths reduces the slack lengths of the muscle-tendon unit and muscle fascicles. The effect is apparent 60 s after the contraction. These observations imply that muscle contraction at short lengths causes the formation of bonds which reduce the effective length of structures that generate passive tension in muscles. In reduced muscle preparations, stretch and muscle contraction change the properties of relaxed muscle fibres. In humans, effects of stretch and contraction on properties of relaxed muscles have been inferred from measurements of time taken to develop force, joint stiffness and reflex latencies. The current study used ultrasound imaging to directly observe the effects of stretch and contraction on muscle-tendon slack length and fascicle slack length of the human vastus lateralis muscle in vivo. The muscle was conditioned by (a) strong isometric contractions at long muscle-tendon lengths, (b) strong isometric contractions at short muscle-tendon lengths, (c) weak isometric contractions at long muscle-tendon lengths and (d) slow stretches. One minute after conditioning, ultrasound images were acquired from the relaxed muscle as it was slowly lengthened through its physiological range. The ultrasound image sequences were used to identify muscle-tendon slack angles and fascicle slack lengths. Contraction at short muscle-tendon lengths caused a mean 13.5 degree (95% CI 11.8-15.0 degree) shift in the muscle-tendon slack angle towards shorter muscle-tendon lengths, and a mean 5 mm (95% CI 2-8 mm) reduction in fascicle slack length, compared to the

  5. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  6. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  7. Summary of neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, L.

    1981-12-01

    All available neutron-nuclei scattering lengths are collected together with their error bars in a uniform way. Bound scattering lengths are given for the elements, the isotopes, and the various spin-states. They are discussed in the sense of their use as basic parameters for many investigations in the field of nuclear and solid state physics. The data bank is available on magnetic tape, too. Recommended values and a map of these data serve for an uncomplicated use of these quantities. (orig.)

  8. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  9. Dosimetry Modeling for Focal Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Qaisieh, Bashar [Leeds Cancer Centre, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom); Mason, Josh, E-mail: joshua.mason@nhs.net [Leeds Cancer Centre, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom); Bownes, Peter; Henry, Ann [Leeds Cancer Centre, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Louise [Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Northwick Park Hospital, London North West NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Ahmed, Hashim U. [Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom); University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Emberton, Mark [University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Langley, Stephen [St Luke' s Cancer Centre, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Focal brachytherapy targeted to an individual lesion(s) within the prostate may reduce side effects experienced with whole-gland brachytherapy. The outcomes of a consensus meeting on focal prostate brachytherapy were used to investigate optimal dosimetry of focal low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy targeted using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) and transperineal template prostate mapping (TPM) biopsy, including the effects of random and systematic seed displacements and interseed attenuation (ISA). Methods and Materials: Nine patients were selected according to clinical characteristics and concordance of TPM and mp-MRI. Retrospectively, 3 treatment plans were analyzed for each case: whole-gland (WG), hemi-gland (hemi), and ultra-focal (UF) plans, with 145-Gy prescription dose and identical dose constraints for each plan. Plan robustness to seed displacement and ISA were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. Results: WG plans used a mean 28 needles and 81 seeds, hemi plans used 17 needles and 56 seeds, and UF plans used 12 needles and 25 seeds. Mean D90 (minimum dose received by 90% of the target) and V100 (percentage of the target that receives 100% dose) values were 181.3 Gy and 99.8% for the prostate in WG plans, 195.7 Gy and 97.8% for the hemi-prostate in hemi plans, and 218.3 Gy and 99.8% for the focal target in UF plans. Mean urethra D10 was 205.9 Gy, 191.4 Gy, and 92.4 Gy in WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. Mean rectum D2 cm{sup 3} was 107.5 Gy, 77.0 Gy, and 42.7 Gy in WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. Focal plans were more sensitive to seed displacement errors: random shifts with a standard deviation of 4 mm reduced mean target D90 by 14.0%, 20.5%, and 32.0% for WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. ISA has a similar impact on dose-volume histogram parameters for all plan types. Conclusions: Treatment planning for focal LDR brachytherapy is feasible. Dose constraints are easily met with a notable

  10. METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF FOCAL PLANE LOCATION OF FOCUSING COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Ivashko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass-production of different laser systems often requires utilization of the focal spot size method for determination of output laser beam spatial characteristics. The main challenge of this method is high accuracy maintenance of a CCD camera beam profiler in the collecting lens focal plane. The aim of our work is development of new method for placing of photodetector array in the collecting lens focal plane with high accuracy.Proposed technique is based on focusing of several parallel laser beams. Determination of the focal plane position requires only longitudinal translation of the CCD-camera to find a point of laser beams intersection. Continuous-wave (CW diode-pumped laser emitting in the spectral region near 1μm was created to satisfy the requirements of the developed technique. Designed microchip laser generates two stigmatic Gaussian beams with automatically parallel beam axes due to independent pumping of different areas of the one microchip crystal having the same cavity mirrors.It was theoretically demonstrated that developed method provides possibility of the lenses focal plane determination with 1 % accuracy. The microchip laser generates two parallel Gaussian beams with divergence of about 10 mrad. Laser output power can be varied in the range of 0.1–1.5 W by changing the pumping laser diode electrical current. The distance between two beam axes can be changed in the range of 0.5–5.0 mm.We have proposed method for determination of positive lens focal plane location by using of CCDcamera and two laser beams with parallel axes without utilization of additional optical devices. We have developed CW longitudinally diode pumped microchip laser emitting in the 1-μm spectral region that can be used in the measuring instrument that doesn’t require precision mechanical components for determination of focal plane location with 1 % accuracy. The overall dimensions of laser head was 70 × 40 × 40 mm3 and maximum power consumption was

  11. Context cue focality influences strategic prospective memory monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter Ball, B; Bugg, Julie M

    2018-02-12

    Monitoring the environment for the occurrence of prospective memory (PM) targets is a resource-demanding process that produces cost (e.g., slower responding) to ongoing activities. However, research suggests that individuals are able to monitor strategically by using contextual cues to reduce monitoring in contexts in which PM targets are not expected to occur. In the current study, we investigated the processes supporting context identification (i.e., determining whether or not the context is appropriate for monitoring) by testing the context cue focality hypothesis. This hypothesis predicts that the ability to monitor strategically depends on whether the ongoing task orients attention to the contextual cues that are available to guide monitoring. In Experiment 1, participants performed an ongoing lexical decision task and were told that PM targets (TOR syllable) would only occur in word trials (focal context cue condition) or in items starting with consonants (nonfocal context cue condition). In Experiment 2, participants performed an ongoing first letter judgment (consonant/vowel) task and were told that PM targets would only occur in items starting with consonants (focal context cue condition) or in word trials (nonfocal context cue condition). Consistent with the context cue focality hypothesis, strategic monitoring was only observed during focal context cue conditions in which the type of ongoing task processing automatically oriented attention to the relevant features of the contextual cue. These findings suggest that strategic monitoring is dependent on limited-capacity processing resources and may be relatively limited when the attentional demands of context identification are sufficiently high.

  12. Progress in Long Scale Length Laser-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenzer, S H; Arnold, P; Bardsley, G; Berger, R L; Bonanno, G; Borger, T; Bower, D E; Bowers, M; Bryant, R; Buckman, S.; Burkhart, S C; Campbell, K; Chrisp, M P; Cohen, B I; Constantin, G; Cooper, F; Cox, J; Dewald, E; Divol, L; Dixit, S; Duncan, J; Eder, D; Edwards, J; Erbert, G; Felker, B; Fornes, J; Frieders, G; Froula, D H; Gardner, S D; Gates, C; Gonzalez, M; Grace, S; Gregori, G; Greenwood, A; Griffith, R; Hall, T; Hammel, B A; Haynam, C; Heestand, G; Henesian, M; Hermes, G; Hinkel, D; Holder, J; Holdner, F; Holtmeier, G; Hsing, W; Huber, S; James, T; Johnson, S; Jones, O S; Kalantar, D; Kamperschroer, J H; Kauffman, R; Kelleher, T; Knight, J; Kirkwood, R K; Kruer, W L; Labiak, W; Landen, O L; Langdon, A B; Langer, S; Latray, D; Lee, A; Lee, F D; Lund, D; MacGowan, B; Marshall, S; McBride, J; McCarville, T; McGrew, L; Mackinnon, A J; Mahavandi, S; Manes, K; Marshall, C; Mertens, E; Meezan, N; Miller, G; Montelongo, S; Moody, J D; Moses, E; Munro, D; Murray, J; Neumann, J; Newton, M; Ng, E; Niemann, C; Nikitin, A; Opsahl, P; Padilla, E; Parham, T; Parrish, G; Petty, C; Polk, M; Powell, C; Reinbachs, I; Rekow, V; Rinnert, R; Riordan, B; Rhodes, M.

    2003-01-01

    The first experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have employed the first four beams to measure propagation and laser backscattering losses in large ignition-size plasmas. Gas-filled targets between 2 mm and 7 mm length have been heated from one side by overlapping the focal spots of the four beams from one quad operated at 351 nm (3ω) with a total intensity of 2 x 10 15 W cm -2 . The targets were filled with 1 atm of CO 2 producing of up to 7 mm long homogeneously heated plasmas with densities of n e = 6 x 10 20 cm -3 and temperatures of T e = 2 keV. The high energy in a NIF quad of beams of 16kJ, illuminating the target from one direction, creates unique conditions for the study of laser plasma interactions at scale lengths not previously accessible. The propagation through the large-scale plasma was measured with a gated x-ray imager that was filtered for 3.5 keV x rays. These data indicate that the beams interact with the full length of this ignition-scale plasma during the last ∼1 ns of the experiment. During that time, the full aperture measurements of the stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering show scattering into the four focusing lenses of 6% for the smallest length (∼2 mm). increasing to 12% for ∼7 mm. These results demonstrate the NIF experimental capabilities and further provide a benchmark for three-dimensional modeling of the laser-plasma interactions at ignition-size scale lengths

  13. Relation of Stump Length with Various Gait Parameters in Trans-tibial Amputee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyel Majumdar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is evaluating the impact of stump length of unilateral below knee amputees (BKA on different gait parameters. Nine unilateral BKA were chosen and divided into three groups comprising patients with short, medium, and long stump length. Each of them underwent gait analysis test by Computer Dynography (CDG system to measure the gait parameters. It was found that the ground reaction force is higher in the patients with medium stump length whereas the velocity, step length both for the prosthetic and sound limb and cadence were high in longer stump length. Statistical analysis shows a significant difference (p<0.05 between the gait parameters of BKA with medium and longer stump length. The patients with longer stump length were more efficient than medium and short stump patients as they consumed comparatively lesser energy while walking with self-selected velocity and conventional (Solid ankle cushioned heel SACH foot.

  14. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tube Length and Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ruktantichoke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study water flowed through a straight horizontal plastic tube placed at the bottom of a large tank of water. The effect of changing the length of tubing on the velocity of flow was investigated. It was found that the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation is valid when the effect of water entering the tube is accounted for.

  16. Finite length Taylor Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.

  17. Chronic transcranial focal stimulation from tripolar concentric ring electrodes does not disrupt memory formation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Matthew D; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Besio, Walter G

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive electrical brain stimulation has shown potential utility as a treatment for seizures in epilepsy patients. Transcranial focal stimulation (TFS) via tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCREs) has been effective in reducing seizure severity in acute rodent models, but it has yet to be determined whether or not it will serve as a viable long-term treatment strategy. Prior experiments indicate that a single dose of TFS via TCRE does not impact short- or long-term memory formation. The present study investigated if five daily doses of TFS via a TCRE on the scalp affected the memory. The spontaneous object recognition (SOR) test was used to evaluate the memory. Sham and TFS-treated groups were evaluated and both showed comparable levels of preference for novel objects, indicating successful memory formation. More work on repeated dosage strategies is important for establishing the safety and efficacy of TFS as a putative treatment.

  18. Semiclassical asymptotics for the scattering amplitude in the presence of focal points at infinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohberger, H.

    2006-10-16

    We consider scattering in R{sup n}, n{>=}2, described by the Schroedinger operator P(h)=-h{sup 2}{delta}+V, where V is a short-range potential. With the aid of Maslov theory, we give a geometrical formula for the semiclassical asymptotics as h{yields}0 of the scattering amplitude f({omega}{sub -},{omega}{sub +};{lambda},h) ({omega}{sub +}{ne}{omega}{sub -}) which remains valid in the presence of focal points at infinity (caustics). Crucial for this analysis are precise estimates on the asymptotics of the classical phase trajectories and the relationship between caustics in euclidean phase space and caustics at infinity. (orig.)

  19. Flotillins Regulate Focal Adhesions by Interacting with α-Actinin and by Influencing the Activation of Focal Adhesion Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Banning

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell–matrix adhesion and cell migration are physiologically important processes that also play a major role in cancer spreading. In cultured cells, matrix adhesion depends on integrin-containing contacts such as focal adhesions. Flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 are frequently overexpressed in cancers and are associated with poor survival. Our previous studies have revealed a role for flotillin-2 in cell–matrix adhesion and in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. We here show that flotillins are important for cell migration in a wound healing assay and influence the morphology and dynamics of focal adhesions. Furthermore, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar is enhanced by flotillins. In the absence of flotillins, especially flotillin-2, phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and extracellularly regulated kinase is diminished. Flotillins interact with α-actinin, a major regulator of focal adhesion dynamics. These findings are important for understanding the molecular mechanisms of how flotillin overexpression in cancers may affect cell migration and, especially, enhance metastasis formation.

  20. Short bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2012-02-01

    The short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a state of malabsorption following intestinal resection where there is less than 200 cm of intestinal length. The management of short bowel syndrome can be challenging and is best managed by a specialised multidisciplinary team. A good understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of resection of different portions of the small intestine is necessary to anticipate and prevent, where possible, consequences of SBS. Nutrient absorption and fluid and electrolyte management in the initial stages are critical to stabilisation of the patient and to facilitate the process of adaptation. Pharmacological adjuncts to promote adaptation are in the early stages of development. Primary restoration of bowel continuity, if possible, is the principle mode of surgical treatment. Surgical procedures to increase the surface area of the small intestine or improve its function may be of benefit in experienced hands, particularly in the paediatric population. Intestinal transplant is indicated at present for patients who have failed to tolerate long-term parenteral nutrition but with increasing experience, there may be a potentially expanded role for its use in the future.

  1. Role of Fiber Length on Phagocytosis & Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkevich, Leonid; Stark, Carahline; Champion, Julie

    2014-03-01

    Asbestos fibers have long been associated with lung cancer death. The inability of immune cells (e.g. macrophages) to effectively remove asbestos leads to chronic inflammation and disease. This study examines the role of fiber length on toxicity at the cellular level using model glass fibers. A major challenge is obtaining single diameter fibers but differing in length. Samples of 1 micron diameter fibers with different length distributions were prepared: short fibers (less than 15 microns) by aggressive crushing, and long fibers (longer than 15 microns) by successive sedimentation. Time-lapse video microscopy monitored the interaction of MH-S murine alveolar macrophages with the fibers: short fibers were easily internalized by the macrophages, but long fibers resisted internalization over many hours. Production of TNF- α (tumor necrosis factor alpha), a general inflammatory secreted cytokine, and Cox-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2), an enzyme that produces radicals, each exhibited a dose-dependence that was greater for long than for short fibers. These results corroborate the importance of fiber length in both physical and biochemical cell response and support epidemiological observations of higher toxicity for longer fibers.

  2. The flexible engagement of monitoring processes in non-focal and focal prospective memory tasks with salient cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefer, Carmen; Cohen, Anna-Lisa; Jaudas, Alexander; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2017-09-01

    Prospective memory (PM) refers to the ability to remember to perform a delayed intention. Here, we aimed to investigate the ability to suspend such an intention and thus to confirm previous findings (Cohen, Gordon, Jaudas, Hefer, & Dreisbach, 2016) demonstrating the ability to flexibly engage in monitoring processes. In the current study, we presented a perceptually salient PM cue (bold and red) to rule out that previous findings were limited to non-salient and, thus, easy to ignore PM cues. Moreover, we used both a non-focal (Experiment 1) and a focal PM (Experiment 2) cue. In both Experiments, three groups of participants performed an Eriksen flanker task as an ongoing task with an embedded PM task (they had to remember to press the F1 key if a pre-specified cue appeared). Participants were assigned to either a control condition (performed solely the flanker task), a standard PM condition (performed the flanker task along with the PM task), or a PM delayed condition (performed the flanker task but were instructed to postpone their PM task intention). The results of Experiment 1 with the non-focal PM cue closely replicated those of Cohen et al. (2016) and confirmed that participants were able to successfully postpone the PM cue intention without additional costs even when the PM cue was a perceptually salient one. However, when the PM cue was focal (Experiment 2), it was much more difficult for participants to ignore it as evidenced by commission errors and slower latencies on PM cue trials. In sum, results showed that the focality of the PM cue plays a more crucial role in the flexibility of the monitoring process whereas the saliency of the PM cue does not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Long and the Short of It: The Use of Short Films in the German Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, John

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the benefits of using short film in the German classroom at the secondary or post-secondary level. The article addresses a number of characteristics of short films that lend themselves well to the classroom, including their abbreviated length, artistic innovation, and compact storytelling. In addition to discussing specific…

  4. Telomere Length and the Cancer-Atherosclerosis Trade-Off.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivka C Stone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern humans, the longest-living terrestrial mammals, display short telomeres and repressed telomerase activity in somatic tissues compared with most short-living small mammals. The dual trait of short telomeres and repressed telomerase might render humans relatively resistant to cancer compared with short-living small mammals. However, the trade-off for cancer resistance is ostensibly increased age-related degenerative diseases, principally in the form of atherosclerosis. In this communication, we discuss (a the genetics of human telomere length, a highly heritable complex trait that is influenced by genetic ancestry, sex, and paternal age at conception, (b how cancer might have played a role in the evolution of telomere biology across mammals, (c evidence that in modern humans telomere length is a determinant (rather than only a biomarker of cancer and atherosclerosis, and (d the potential influence of relatively recent evolutionary forces in fashioning the variation in telomere length across and within populations, and their likely lasting impact on major diseases in humans. Finally, we propose venues for future research on human telomere genetics in the context of its potential role in shaping the modern human lifespan.

  5. Natural-focal diseases: mapping experience in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkhazova, Svetlana M; Mironova, Varvara A; Kotova, Tatiana V; Shartova, Natalia V; Orlov, Dmitry S

    2014-06-14

    Natural-focal diseases constitute a serious hazard for human health. Agents and vectors of such diseases belong to natural landscapes. The aim of this study is to identify the diversity and geography of natural-focal diseases in Russia and to develop cartographic approaches for their mapping, including mathematical-cartographical modeling. Russian medico-geographical mapping of natural-focal diseases is highly developed regionally and locally but extremely limited at the national level. To solve this problem, a scientific team of the Faculty of Geography at Lomonosov Moscow State University has developed and implemented a project of a medico-geographical Atlas of Russia "Natural-Focal Diseases". The mapping is based on medical statistics data. The Atlas contains a series of maps on disease incidence, long-term dynamics of disease morbidity, etc. In addition, other materials available to the authors were used: mapping of the natural environment, field data, archival materials, analyzed satellite images, etc. The maps are processed using ArcGIS (ESRI) software application. Different methods of rendering of mapped phenomena are used (geographical ranges, diagrams, choropleth maps etc.). A series of analytical, integrated, and synthetic maps shows disease incidence in the population at both the national and regional levels for the last 15 years. Maps of the mean annual morbidity of certain infections and maps of morbidity dynamics and nosological profiles allow for a detailed analysis of the situation for each of 83 administrative units of the Russian Federation. The degree of epidemic hazard in Russia by natural-focal diseases is reflected in a synthetic medico-geographical map that shows the degree of epidemic risks due to such diseases in Russia and allows one to estimate the risk of disease manifestation in a given region. This is the first attempt at aggregation and public presentation of diverse and multifaceted information about natural-focal diseases in Russia

  6. CT and ERCP findings of chronic focal pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Soo; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Kim, Eun Kyeong [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To evaluate the major radiologic features of chronic focal pancreatitis in various imaging studies, with special emphasis on CT and ERCP findings. From 1991 to 1995, twelve patients were pathologically proved to be suffering from focal chronic pancreatitis after pancreatico-duodenectomy;for retrospective evaluation, imaging studies were available for eight(seven men, one woman;mean age 58.9{+-}6.6, range 47 to 67). Clinical, surgical, and radiological findings, including CT(n=8), ultrasound(n=7), ERCP(n=8) and UGI(n=3) were analysed. Seven male patients had suffered from chronic alcoholism for between 20 and 50 years. Serum bilirubin levels were normal in eight patients and alkaline phosphatase levels were normal in seven patients. Serum CA 19-9 levels were normal in all five patients who had undergone preoperative evaluation. Seven patients(87.5%) showed focal enlargement without definable margin on CT, and five of the six lesions detectable on ultrasound(83.3%) were ill defined hypoechoic nodules. Dilated side branches within lesions were seen in five of eight patients(83.3%) on CT and ERCP. Double duct signs were observed in siven(87.5%) patients, and dilated intrahepatic ducts in six(75%), with diameters ranging from 5 to 8mm(average:5.42{+-}1.96mm). The average ratio of pancreatic duct caliber to gland width was 0.33{+-}0.19. None of the patients had calcification within the lesion and one case showed intraductal calcification. None showed perivascular fat obliteration around the superior mesenteric artery or celiac axis. The average biductal distance between abnormal common bile duct and the immediately adjacent pancreatic duct was 4.0{+-}1.15mm. One of three cases who under went a UGI examination showed severe luminal narrowing and mucosal thickening in the second protion of the duodenum, another showed double contour, and the other merely showed widening of the C-loop of the duodenum. Chronic focal pancreatitis mostly demonstrated ill defined focal

  7. CT and ERCP findings of chronic focal pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Soo; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Kim, Eun Kyeong

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the major radiologic features of chronic focal pancreatitis in various imaging studies, with special emphasis on CT and ERCP findings. From 1991 to 1995, twelve patients were pathologically proved to be suffering from focal chronic pancreatitis after pancreatico-duodenectomy;for retrospective evaluation, imaging studies were available for eight(seven men, one woman;mean age 58.9±6.6, range 47 to 67). Clinical, surgical, and radiological findings, including CT(n=8), ultrasound(n=7), ERCP(n=8) and UGI(n=3) were analysed. Seven male patients had suffered from chronic alcoholism for between 20 and 50 years. Serum bilirubin levels were normal in eight patients and alkaline phosphatase levels were normal in seven patients. Serum CA 19-9 levels were normal in all five patients who had undergone preoperative evaluation. Seven patients(87.5%) showed focal enlargement without definable margin on CT, and five of the six lesions detectable on ultrasound(83.3%) were ill defined hypoechoic nodules. Dilated side branches within lesions were seen in five of eight patients(83.3%) on CT and ERCP. Double duct signs were observed in siven(87.5%) patients, and dilated intrahepatic ducts in six(75%), with diameters ranging from 5 to 8mm(average:5.42±1.96mm). The average ratio of pancreatic duct caliber to gland width was 0.33±0.19. None of the patients had calcification within the lesion and one case showed intraductal calcification. None showed perivascular fat obliteration around the superior mesenteric artery or celiac axis. The average biductal distance between abnormal common bile duct and the immediately adjacent pancreatic duct was 4.0±1.15mm. One of three cases who under went a UGI examination showed severe luminal narrowing and mucosal thickening in the second protion of the duodenum, another showed double contour, and the other merely showed widening of the C-loop of the duodenum. Chronic focal pancreatitis mostly demonstrated ill defined focal enlargement and

  8. Proper Measurement of the Prostate Volume by Transrectal Ultrasound: Experimental Study about the Prostate with Focal Intravesical Protrusion of the Enlarged Central Gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Kyoung; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To evaluate the proper volume measurement of prostate with focal intravesical protrusion of enlarged central gland by comparison between methods using craniocaudal length from top of protruded central gland and from prostate base near bladder neck to prostate apex. We made 20 prostate models with focal intravesical protrusion (volume range: 20{approx}50 mL, height of protrusion: about 1 cm) using devil's tongue jelly. Two radiologists measured volume of models 3 times by two kinds of methods using craniocaudal length from top of protruded central gland (method 1) and from prostate base near bladder neck (method 2) by transrectal ultrasound. The accuracy of volume measurement of models was evaluated statistically by comparing their average volume to true volume. Intra- and interobserver agreement was also evaluated. Average true volume of models was 31.05 mL. Each average volume using method 1 by two observers was 37.07 mL and 38.56 mL. Each average volume using method 2 was 30.69 mL and 31.55 mL. Volume measurement using method 2 was approximated to true volume of prostate statistically (p = .654, .823). There was no significant inter- and intra-observer variation in both methods. To measure the accurate volume of prostate with focal intravesical protrusion of enlarged central gland, its craniocaudal length should be measured from prostate base near bladder neck

  9. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  10. Minimal Length, Measurability and Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shalyt-Margolin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of the previous papers written by the author on the subject. In terms of the measurability (or measurable quantities notion introduced in a minimal length theory, first the consideration is given to a quantum theory in the momentum representation. The same terms are used to consider the Markov gravity model that here illustrates the general approach to studies of gravity in terms of measurable quantities.

  11. A phenomenological π-p scattering length from pionic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, T.E.O.; Loiseau, B.; Wycech, S.

    2004-01-01

    We derive a closed, model independent, expression for the electromagnetic correction factor to a phenomenological hadronic scattering length a h extracted from a hydrogenic atom. It is obtained in a non-relativistic approach and in the limit of a short ranged hadronic interaction to terms of order α 2 logα using an extended charge distribution. A hadronic πN scattering length a h π - p =0.0870(5)m π -1 is deduced leading to a πNN coupling constant from the GMO relation g c 2 /(4π)=14.04(17)

  12. A phenomenological $\\pi^{-}p$ scattering length from pionic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Ericson, Torleif Eric Oskar; Wycech, S

    2004-01-01

    We derive a closed, model independent, expression for the electromagnetic correction factor to a phenomenological hadronic scattering length a/sup h/ extracted from a hydrogenic atom. It is obtained in a non-relativistic approach and in the limit of a short ranged hadronic interaction to terms of order alpha /sup 2/ log alpha using an extended charge distribution. A hadronic pi N scattering length a/sub pi -p//sup h/ = 0.0870(5)m/sub pi //sup -1/ is deduced leading to a pi NN coupling constant from the GMO relation g/sub c //sup 2//(4 pi ) = 14.04(17). (28 refs).

  13. πK-scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Osipov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The msub(π)asub(0)sup(1/2)=0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup(3/2)=-0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup((-))=0.07, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup(1/2)=0.018, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)aup(3/2)=0.002, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup((-))=0.0044, msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(1/2)=2.4x10sup(-4) and msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(3/2)=-1.2x10sup(-4) scattering lengths are calculated in the framework of the composite meson model which is based on four-quark interaction. The decay form factors of (rho, epsilon, S*) → 2π, (K tilde, K*) → Kπ are used. The q 2 -terms of the quark box diagrams are taken into account. It is shown that the q 2 -terms of the box diagrams give the main contribution to the s-wave scattering lengths. The diagrams with the intermediate vector mesons begin to play the essential role at calculation of the p- and d-wave scattering lengths

  14. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalayani, Parichehr; Tavakoli, Payam; Eftekhari, Mehdi; Haghighi, Mohammad Akhondzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia or Heck's disease is an infrequent asymptomatic condition caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32 affecting the mucous membrane of the mouth and is commonly seen in young individuals. Firstly, it was described in Indians and Eskimos, but it exists in various populations. We present three cases of Heck's disease in an Afghan immigrant family group living in Iran that seem to have familial predominance. The disease was identified as oral focal epithelial hyperplasia on the basis of histopathologic and clinical findings. The lesions were reduced significantly after 4 months of good oral hygiene. Dentists should be familiar with the clinical manifestations of these types of lesions that affect the oral cavity. In fact, histopathologic assessment and clinical observation are necessary to establish the diagnosis.

  15. Uncooled infrared focal plane array imaging in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shuyu

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the development of uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIFPA) imaging in China in the past decade. Sensors based on optical or electrical read-out mechanism were developed but the latter dominates the market. In resistive bolometers, VOx and amorphous silicon are still the two major thermal-sensing materials. The specifications of the IRFPA made by different manufactures were collected and compared. Currently more than five Chinese companies and institutions design and fabricate uncooled infrared focal plane array. Some devices have sensitivity as high as 30 mK; the largest array for commercial products is 640×512 and the smallest pixel size is 17 μm. Emphasis is given on the pixel MEMS design, ROIC design, fabrication, and packaging of the IRFPA manufactured by GWIC, especially on design for high sensitivities, low noise, better uniformity and linearity, better stabilization for whole working temperature range, full-digital design, etc.

  16. Focal points and principal solutions of linear Hamiltonian systems revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šepitka, Peter; Šimon Hilscher, Roman

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we present a novel view on the principal (and antiprincipal) solutions of linear Hamiltonian systems, as well as on the focal points of their conjoined bases. We present a new and unified theory of principal (and antiprincipal) solutions at a finite point and at infinity, and apply it to obtain new representation of the multiplicities of right and left proper focal points of conjoined bases. We show that these multiplicities can be characterized by the abnormality of the system in a neighborhood of the given point and by the rank of the associated T-matrix from the theory of principal (and antiprincipal) solutions. We also derive some additional important results concerning the representation of T-matrices and associated normalized conjoined bases. The results in this paper are new even for completely controllable linear Hamiltonian systems. We also discuss other potential applications of our main results, in particular in the singular Sturmian theory.

  17. Focal sparing around the gallbladder in fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kemin; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Yunoki, Masanori; Hirano, Yoko

    1989-01-01

    In evaluating fatty liver with CT, the residual normal liver tissues without fat deposits are occasionally detected on CT as high attenuation regions, especially surrounding the gallbladder. This study examined the incidence of this phenomenon in terms of the diagnostic value of CT in fatty liver. Fifty-seven patients with fatty liver were examined with CT. The incidence of focal sparing area was the highest in the gallbladder bed (42/57, 74%), followed by the interlobar fissure or subcapsular area (13, 23%), quadrate lobe (8, 14%), caudate lobe (2, 4%), and right lobe (one, 1.8%). These CT appearances were of spot, band, ring, and the mixed type. In 38 patients, fatty liver was too moderate to be detected without CT attenuation numbers. Among them, 27 patients (71%) had focal sparing area surrounding the gallbladder. This CT appearance seemed to be of significance in preventing the missing of moderate fatty liver. (Namekawa, K)

  18. Segmented focal plane detector for light and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfs, F.L.H.; Bryan, D.C.; Kurz, K.L.; Herrick, D.M.; Perera, P.A.A.; White, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    A segmented focal plane detector for an Enge split-pole spectrograph has been developed for the study of breakup reactions at very low relative energies. It consists of a 61 cm long segmented position-sensitive parallel plate avalanche counter backed by a large Bragg curve detector. A segmented plastic scintillator is mounted behind the anode of the Bragg curve detector and is used for particle identification of low-ionizing particles. The dead space between the two sections of the focal plane detector is 2.5 mm. The intrinsic position resolution of the detector is 1 mm. The intrinsic energy resolution depends on the energy of the incident ion and can be as good as 0.55%. The nuclear charge and mass resolutions are 0.3 e and 0.3 u, respectively. (orig.)

  19. Focal adhesion kinase-dependent focal adhesion recruitment of SH2 domains directs SRC into focal adhesions to regulate cell adhesion and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jui-Chung; Chen, Yu-Chen; Kuo, Chih-Ting; Wenshin Yu, Helen; Chen, Yin-Quan; Chiou, Arthur; Kuo, Jean-Cheng

    2015-12-18

    Directed cell migration requires dynamical control of the protein complex within focal adhesions (FAs) and this control is regulated by signaling events involving tyrosine phosphorylation. We screened the SH2 domains present in tyrosine-specific kinases and phosphatases found within FAs, including SRC, SHP1 and SHP2, and examined whether these enzymes transiently target FAs via their SH2 domains. We found that the SRC_SH2 domain and the SHP2_N-SH2 domain are associated with FAs, but only the SRC_SH2 domain is able to be regulated by focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The FAK-dependent association of the SRC_SH2 domain is necessary and sufficient for SRC FA targeting. When the targeting of SRC into FAs is inhibited, there is significant suppression of SRC-mediated phosphorylation of paxillin and FAK; this results in an inhibition of FA formation and maturation and a reduction in cell migration. This study reveals an association between FAs and the SRC_SH2 domain as well as between FAs and the SHP2_N-SH2 domains. This supports the hypothesis that the FAK-regulated SRC_SH2 domain plays an important role in directing SRC into FAs and that this SRC-mediated FA signaling drives cell migration.

  20. Childhood motocross truncal injuries: high-velocity, focal force to the chest and abdomen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Raelene D; Potter, D Dean; Osborn, John B; Zietlow, Scott; Zarroug, Abdalla E; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B; McIntosh, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To review the need for operative intervention and critical care services for motocross truncal injuries in children. Design cohort Retrospective review of patients identified via the hospital trauma registry. Setting Our Level 1 Pediatric Trauma Center serves five motocross tracks. These patients require frequent medical care for injuries. Participants All patients ≤17 years of age with truncal injuries sustained during motocross activities, between 2000 and 2011, were identified through the trauma registry. Primary and secondary outcome measures Operative intervention, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, length of stay, morbidity and demographics were reviewed. Results Motocross injured 162 children. Thirty (18.5%) were thoracic or abdominal injuries. Operative intervention was required in eight (27%) patients. Mean injury severity score (ISS) was 11.8. ICU admission was required in 50% and average hospital length of stay was 4.1 days. The most common injuries include pulmonary contusion, pneumothorax, spleen and liver lacerations. 13% of subjects suffered truncal injury from motocross on more than one occasion. Conclusions Paediatric motocross-related truncal injuries are significant. Surgical intervention is required in 27% of patients. The lower ISS incurred from motocross combined with high surgical and ICU admission rates suggests focal high-impact injuries to the chest and abdomen. Despite significant injury, 13% of motocross patients suffer recurrent injuries. Parents and children need injury prevention education. PMID:23166134

  1. BAMBOO: Accelerating Closed Itemset Mining by Deeply Pushing the Length-Decreasing Support Constraint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Jianyong; Karypis, George

    2003-01-01

    Previous study has shown that mining frequent patterns with length-decreasing support constraint is very helpful in removing some uninteresting patterns based on the observation that short patterns...

  2. Perampanel for focal epilepsy: insights from early clinical experience

    OpenAIRE

    Trinka, E.; Steinhoff, B. J.; Nikanorova, M.; Brodie, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Perampanel is approved for adjunctive therapy of focal epilepsy with or without secondarily generalized seizures in patients aged >12 years. This narrative review uses real-world and clinical trial data to elucidate perampanel's role in the clinic. Audit data show good tolerability with perampanel and higher freedom-from-seizure rates in elderly vs younger patients. When using perampanel in elderly patients, special attention should be given to comorbidities and co-medication to avoid potenti...

  3. Primary Focal Dystonia: Evidence for Distinct Neuropsychiatric and Personality Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: Primary focal dystonia (PFD) is characterized by motor symptoms. Frequent co-occurrence of abnormal mental conditions has been mentioned for decades but is less well defined. We evaluated prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders, personality disorders and traits in a large cohort of PFD patients. Methods: Prevalence rates of clinical psychiatric diagnoses in 86 PFD patients were compared to a population-based sample (N=3943) using a multiple regress...

  4. The extracellular matrix and altered diffusion in focal cortical dysplasia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homola, Aleš; Vargová, Lýdia; Cicanič, Michal; Zámečník, J.; Marusič, P.; Kršek, P.; Syková, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, S1 (2011), S106-S106 ISSN 0894-1491. [European meeting on Glia l Cells in Health and Disease /10./. 13.09.2011-17.09.2011, Prague] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538; GA ČR GA309/09/1597 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : focal cortical dysplasia * diffusion * extracellular matrix Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  5. Atypical Focal Osteomyelitis as Initial Manifestation of AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Akiki; Y. Bilde

    2011-01-01

    Persistent pain development after a skeletal contusion rarely poses the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. We report the case of a fibular head contusion as an initial manifestation of a focal abscess development in a healthy young patient. The traditional treatment of surgical drainage revealed the presence of an atypical Mycobacterium haemophilum isolates in the abscess. This lead to further investigations that concluded and established the diagnosis of AIDS. Conclusion. Isolation of an atypical M...

  6. Explaining focal points: Cognitive hierarchy theory versus team reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Bardsley, Nicholas; Mehta, Judith; Starmer, Chris; Sugden, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports experimental tests of two alternative explanations of how players use focal points to select equilibria in one-shot coordination games. Cognitive hierarchy theory explains coordination as the result of common beliefs about players’ pre-reflective inclinations towards the relevant strategies; the theory of team reasoning explains it as the result of the players’ using a non-standard form of reasoning. We report two experiments. One finds strong support for team reasoning; th...

  7. Focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Cerminara, Caterina; El Malhany, Nadia; Roberto, Denis; Curatolo, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain is an unusual partial epilepsy characterized by paroxysmal episodes of abdominal or visceral pain, disturbance of awareness and electroencephalographic abnormalities. We describe a new case of ictal abdominal pain in which gastrointestinal complaints were the only manifestation of seizures and review the previously described pediatric patients. In our patient clinical findings, ictal EEG abnormalities, and a good response to antiepileptic drugs allowed...

  8. Seizure ending signs in patients with dyscognitive focal seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavvala, Jay R; Gerard, Elizabeth E; Macken, Mícheál; Schuele, Stephan U

    2015-09-01

    Signs indicating the end of a focal seizure with loss of awareness and/or responsiveness but without progression to focal or generalized motor symptoms are poorly defined and can be difficult to determine. Not recognizing the transition from ictal to postictal behaviour can affect seizure reporting accuracy by family members and may lead to delayed or a lack of examination during EEG monitoring, erroneous seizure localization and inadequate medical intervention for prolonged seizure duration. Our epilepsy monitoring unit database was searched for focal seizures without secondary generalization for the period from 2007 to 2011. The first focal seizure in a patient with loss of awareness and/or responsiveness and/or behavioural arrest, with or without automatisms, was included. Seizures without objective symptoms or inadequate video-EEG quality were excluded. A total of 67 patients were included, with an average age of 41.7 years. Thirty-six of the patients had seizures from the left hemisphere and 29 from the right. All patients showed an abrupt change in motor activity and resumed contact with the environment as a sign of clinical seizure ending. Specific ending signs (nose wiping, coughing, sighing, throat clearing, or laughter) were seen in 23 of 47 of temporal lobe seizures and 7 of 20 extra-temporal seizures. Seizure ending signs are often subtle and the most common finding is a sudden change in motor activity and resumption of contact with the environment. More distinct signs, such as nose wiping, coughing or throat clearing, are not specific to temporal lobe onset. A higher proportion of seizures during sleep went unexamined, compared to those during wakefulness. This demonstrates that seizure semiology can be very subtle and arousals from sleep during monitoring should alert staff. Patient accounts of seizure frequency appear to be unreliable and witness reports need to be taken into account. [Published with video sequences].

  9. [A case of focal epilepsy manifesting multiple psychiatric auras].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezura, Michinori; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jin, Kazutaka; Kato, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Masaki; Fujikawa, Mayu; Aoki, Masashi; Nakasato, Nobukazu

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of epilepsy with multiple types of focal seizures that were misdiagnosed as psychiatric disorders. A 20-year-old female patient presented with a variety of episodes, including loss of consciousness, deja vu, fear, delusion of possession, violent movements, and generalized convulsions. Each of these symptoms appeared in a stereotypic manner. She was initially diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder and treated with psychoactive medications, which had no effect. Long-term video electroencephalography revealed that her episodes of violent movement with impaired consciousness and secondarily generalized seizure were epileptic events originating in the right hemisphere. High-field brain magnetic resonance imaging for detecting subtle lesions revealed bilateral lesions from periventricular nodular heterotopia. Her final diagnosis was right hemispheric focal epilepsy. Carbamazepine administration was started, which successfully controlled all seizures. The present case demonstrates the pitfall of diagnosing focal epilepsy when it presents with multiple types of psychiatric aura. Epilepsy should thus be included in differential diagnoses, considering the stereotypic nature of symptoms, to avoid misdiagnosis.

  10. How to diagnose and treat focal therapy failure and recurrence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Eric; Harvey-Bryan, Kadi-Ann; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Rozet, Francois; Galiano, Marc; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Focal therapy presents an alternative option for disease-targeted therapy while preserving erectile and urinary function without compromising oncological outcome. Such treatment, which preserves normal prostate parenchyma, presents a clinical challenge to the urologist, as typical disease surveillance parameters are not as reliable in post-ablation follow-up. We propose an integrated approach to post-ablation surveillance to identify treatment failure as well as recurrence. Post-ablation prostate-specific antigen kinetics, imaging based on multiparametric MRI and control biopsies are the tools currently used to follow patients after focal therapy. Good treatment response is indicated by a negative control biopsy, absence of persistent lesion on post-treatment imaging and a reduction in prostate-specific antigen of at least 50%. When histological evidence of therapeutic failure or recurrence is present, different options of management may be proposed to the patient including active surveillance, focal salvage therapy or radical salvage treatment, depending on the characteristics of the lesion found. A recommended post-ablation surveillance protocol is presented as well as a discussion of management strategies based on the data currently available.

  11. Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

  12. Focal lesions in the central nervous system: stereotaxic radioneurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Budinger, T.f.; Hosobuchi, Y.; Born, J.L.; Tobias, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The application of heavy-ion beams for fundamental and applied brain research has unusual potential. Methods are being developed in our laboratory for producing focal lesions in the central nervous system (e.g., the hypothalamus, thalamus, pituitary gland) to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating certain pathological disorders of the brain with stereotaxic Bragg peak heavy-ion radiosurgery. Studies in animals are demonstrating the value of this neuroscience tool for investigating mammalian brain response to induction of discrete focal lesions in the hypothalamus or in the cerebral cortex. These studies are also elucidating the neuroendocrinological response follwing ablation of various portions of the midbrain, without requiring complex neurosurgical preparations. Clinical studies are demonstrating the feasibility of stereotaxic neurological radiosurgery for treating certain inoperable vascular disorders of the brain [e.g., arteriovenous malformations (AVM), internal carotid artery-cavernous sinus fistulas and other cerebrovascular disorders] in patients who are already demonstrating progressive neurological deficit. Further applications of focal lesion production with the Bragg ionization peak can be extended to include localized radiation to centers of the brain and spinal cord for treatment of such disorders as Parkinson's disease, pituitary microadenomas, acoustic neuromas, and the control of pain. The eventual application of radioactive beams will provide accurate localization of the stopping points of the beam, thereby making it feasible to stop the beam accurately at a defined depth within the central nervous system

  13. A Micro-Thermal Sensor for Focal Therapy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Harishankar; Hodges, Wyatt; Choi, Jeunghwan; Lubner, Sean; Dames, Chris; Bischof, John

    2016-02-01

    There is an urgent need for sensors deployed during focal therapies to inform treatment planning and in vivo monitoring in thin tissues. Specifically, the measurement of thermal properties, cooling surface contact, tissue thickness, blood flow and phase change with mm to sub mm accuracy are needed. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that a micro-thermal sensor based on the supported “3ω” technique can achieve this in vitro under idealized conditions in 0.5 to 2 mm thick tissues relevant to cryoablation of the pulmonary vein (PV). To begin with “3ω” sensors were microfabricated onto flat glass as an idealization of a focal probe surface. The sensor was then used to make new measurements of ‘k’ (W/m.K) of porcine PV, esophagus, and phrenic nerve, all needed for PV cryoabalation treatment planning. Further, by modifying the sensor use from traditional to dynamic mode new measurements related to tissue vs. fluid (i.e. water) contact, fluid flow conditions, tissue thickness, and phase change were made. In summary, the in vitro idealized system data presented is promising and warrants future work to integrate and test supported “3ω” sensors on in vivo deployed focal therapy probe surfaces (i.e. balloons or catheters).

  14. Fast multifrequency focal beam analysis for 3D seismic acquisition geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, W.; Fu, L.; Blacquiere, G.

    2012-01-01

    A method for the efficient computation of multifrequency focal beams for 3D seismic acquisition geometry analysis has been developed. By computing them for all the frequency components of seismic data, single-frequency focal beams can be extended to multifrequency focal beams. However, this

  15. HIGH PERFORMANCE PIAA CORONAGRAPHY WITH COMPLEX AMPLITUDE FOCAL PLANE MASKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Belikov, Ruslan; Soummer, Remi

    2010-01-01

    We describe a coronagraph approach where the performance of a Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph is improved by using a partially transmissive phase-shifting focal plane mask and a Lyot stop. This approach combines the low inner working angle offered by phase mask coronagraphy, the full throughput and uncompromized angular resolution of the PIAA approach, and the design flexibility of Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph. A PIAA complex mask coronagraph (PIAACMC) is fully described by the focal plane mask size, or, equivalently, its complex transmission which ranges from 0 (opaque) to -1 (phase shifting). For all values of the transmission, the PIAACMC theoretically offers full on-axis extinction and 100% throughput at large angular separations. With a pure phase focal plane mask (complex transmission = -1), the PIAACMC offers 50% throughput at 0.64 λ/D while providing total extinction of an on-axis point source. This performance is very close to the 'fundamental performance limit' of coronagraphy derived from first principles. For very high contrast level, imaging performance with PIAACMC is in practice limited by the angular size of the on-axis target (usually a star). We show that this fundamental limitation must be taken into account when choosing the optimal value of the focal plane mask size in the PIAACMC design. We show that the PIAACMC enables visible imaging of Jupiter-like planets at ∼1.2 λ/D from the host star, and can therefore offer almost three times more targets than a PIAA coronagraph optimized for this type of observation. We find that for visible imaging of Earth-like planets, the PIAACMC gain over a PIAA is probably much smaller, as coronagraphic performance is then strongly constrained by stellar angular size. For observations at 'low' contrast (below ∼ 10 8 ), the PIAACMC offers significant performance enhancement over PIAA. This is especially relevant for ground-based high contrast imaging systems in the near-IR, where

  16. Electrophysiological and pathological study of focal cortical dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodozuka, Akira; Hashizume, Kiyotaka; Hayashi, Yoshimitsu; Tanaka, Tatsuya

    2008-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies on focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) were carried out. For the experimental study, an experimental FCD model of rats was developed. Twenty Wistar rats at 0-2 days after birth were used for the study. Kainic acid (KA) solution was injected stereotaxically into medial and lateral sites of the sensori-motor cortex. Bipolar electrodes were inserted. The behavior of the rats and electroencephalography (EEG) were recorded using a digital video-EEG monitoring system. After observation periods of 1, 2 and 6 months, the rats were perfused for pathological study. FCD was observed adjacent to the site of KA injection in all rats more than one month after the injection. EEG recording demonstrated focal spike discharges in and around the site of injection. However, clinical seizure was not observed. Pathological studies showed decrease in gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptors and increase in GABA-B receptors not only in the lesion but also in perilesional areas. Fifteen surgical cases of FCD with intractable epilepsy were included in the clinical study. Neuro-imaging studies including high-resolution MRI and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed. Conventional EEG studies demonstrated focal EEG abnormalities with epileptic phenomena. At surgery, intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) was performed in order to localize epileptic foci under neuroleptanalgesia. Fourteen patients showed epileptiform discharges on preresection ECoG. All foci in non-eloquent areas were resected. Pathological studies including immunohistochemical staining were performed, and characteristics of the FCD in relation to EEG findings were analyzed. Electrophysiological examination revealed epileptogenecity not only in the lesions but also in perilesional areas. In the lesions, immunohistochemical studies showed decrease in GABA-A receptors and increase in GABA-B receptors in both the lesions and perilesional areas, but N

  17. Determining the influence of muscle operating length on muscle performance during frog swimming using a bio-robotic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Christofer J; Richards, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Frogs are capable of impressive feats of jumping and swimming. Recent work has shown that anuran hind limb muscles can operate at lengths longer than the ‘optimal length’. To address the implications of muscle operating length on muscle power output and swimming mechanics, we built a robotic frog hind limb model based upon Xenopus laevis. The model simulated the force–length and force–velocity properties of vertebrate muscle, within the skeletal environment. We tested three muscle starting lengths, representing long, optimal and short starting lengths. Increasing starting length increased maximum muscle power output by 27% from 98.1 W kg −1 when muscle begins shortening from the optimal length, to 125.1 W kg −1 when the muscle begins at longer initial lengths. Therefore, longer starting lengths generated greater hydrodynamic force for extended durations, enabling faster swimming speeds of the robotic frog. These swimming speeds increased from 0.15 m s −1 at short initial muscle lengths, to 0.39 m s −1 for the longest initial lengths. Longer starting lengths were able to increase power as the muscle's force–length curve was better synchronized with the muscle's activation profile. We further dissected the underlying components of muscle force, separating force–length versus force–velocity effects, showing a transition from force–length limitations to force–velocity limitations as starting length increased. (paper)

  18. Shorter leukocyte telomere length is associated with higher risk of infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helby, Jens; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benfield, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In the general population, older age is associated with short leukocyte telomere length and with high risk of infections. In a recent study of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for severe aplastic anemia, long donor leukocyte telomere length was associated with improved survival...

  19. Biotic and Abiotic factors governing nestling-period length in the ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Stodola; David Buehler; Daniel Kim; Kathleen Franzreb; Daniel Linder

    2010-01-01

    In many songbirds, the nesting period for a breeding attempt is extremely short, often lasting only a few weeks. Breeding adults can shorten this period by decreasing the number of eggs laid or reducing the length of the nestling period. Nestling-period length has received little attention in the literature but could have profound effects on annual fecundity, because...

  20. Formation of multiple focal spots using a high NA lens with a complex spiral phase mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalithambigai, K.; Anbarasan, P. M.; Rajesh, K. B.

    2014-07-01

    The formation of a transversally polarized beam by transmitting a tightly focused double-ring-shaped azimuthally polarized beam through a complex spiral phase mask and high numerical aperture lens is presented based on vector diffraction theory. The generation of transversally polarized focal spot segment splitting and multiple focal spots is illustrated numerically. Moreover, we found that a properly designed complex spiral phase mask can move the focal spots along the optical axis in the z direction. Therefore, one can achieve a focal segment of two, three or multiple completely transversely polarized focal spots, which finds applications in optical trapping and in material processing technologies.

  1. Inertial Effects on Finite Length Pipe Seismic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Corrado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A seismic analysis for soil-pipe interaction which accounts for length and constraining conditions at the ends of a continuous pipe is developed. The Winkler model is used to schematize the soil-structure interaction. The approach is focused on axial strains, since bending strains in a buried pipe due to the wave propagation are typically a second-order effect. Unlike many works, the inertial terms are considered in solving equations. Accurate numerical simulations are carried out to show the influence of pipe length and constraint conditions on the pipe seismic strain. The obtained results are compared with results inferred from other models present in the literature. For free-end pipelines, inertial effects have significant influence only for short length. On the contrary, their influence is always important for pinned pipes. Numerical simulations show that a simple rigid model can be used for free-end pipes, whereas pinned pipes need more accurate models.

  2. Intraflagellar transport particle size scales inversely with flagellar length: revisiting the balance-point length control model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Benjamin D; Ludington, William B; Marshall, Wallace F

    2009-10-05

    The assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic flagella are regulated by intraflagellar transport (IFT), the bidirectional traffic of IFT particles (recently renamed IFT trains) within the flagellum. We previously proposed the balance-point length control model, which predicted that the frequency of train transport should decrease as a function of flagellar length, thus modulating the length-dependent flagellar assembly rate. However, this model was challenged by the differential interference contrast microscopy observation that IFT frequency is length independent. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to quantify protein traffic during the regeneration of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella, we determined that anterograde IFT trains in short flagella are composed of more kinesin-associated protein and IFT27 proteins than trains in long flagella. This length-dependent remodeling of train size is consistent with the kinetics of flagellar regeneration and supports a revised balance-point model of flagellar length control in which the size of anterograde IFT trains tunes the rate of flagellar assembly.

  3. Extreme telomere length dimorphism in the Tasmanian devil and related marsupials suggests parental control of telomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah S Bender

    Full Text Available Telomeres, specialised structures that protect chromosome ends, play a critical role in preserving chromosome integrity. Telomere dynamics in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii are of particular interest in light of the emergence of devil facial tumour disease (DFTD, a transmissible malignancy that causes rapid mortality and threatens the species with extinction. We used fluorescent in situ hybridisation to investigate telomere length in DFTD cells, in healthy Tasmanian devils and in four closely related marsupial species. Here we report that animals in the Order Dasyuromorphia have chromosomes characterised by striking telomere length dimorphism between homologues. Findings in sex chromosomes suggest that telomere length dimorphism may be regulated by events in the parental germlines. Long telomeres on the Y chromosome imply that telomere lengthening occurs during spermatogenesis, whereas telomere diminution occurs during oogenesis. Although found in several somatic cell tissue types, telomere length dimorphism was not found in DFTD cancer cells, which are characterised by uniformly short telomeres. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of naturally occurring telomere length dimorphism in any species and suggests a novel strategy of telomere length control. Comparative studies in five distantly related marsupials and a monotreme indicate that telomere dimorphism evolved at least 50 million years ago.

  4. Is the word-length effect linked to subvocal rehearsal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemot, Charlotte; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2011-04-01

    Models of phonological short-term memory (pSTM) generally distinguish between two components: a phonological buffer and a subvocal rehearsal. Evidence for these two components comes, respectively, from the phonological similarity effect and the word-length effect which disappears under articulatory suppression. But alternative theories posit that subvocal rehearsal is only an optional component of the pSTM. According to them, the depletion of the length effect under articulatory suppression results from the interference of the self-produced speech rather than the disruption of subvocal rehearsal. In order to disentangle these two theories, we tested two patients with a short-term memory deficit. FA, who presents a pseudoword repetition deficit, and FL, who does not. FA's deficit allowed for the observance of an ecological case of subvocal rehearsal disruption without any articulatory suppression task. FA's performance in pSTM tasks reveals as controls a phonological similarity effect, and contrary to controls no word-length effect. In contrast, the second patient, FL, exhibits the same effects as control subjects. This result is in accordance with models of pSTM in which the word-length effect emerges from subvocal rehearsal and disappears when this latter is disrupted. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  5. 'Focal thyroid inferno' on color Doppler ultrasonography: A specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xianshui, E-mail: fuxs1968@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Guo, Limei, E-mail: guolimei@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Pathology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Huabin, E-mail: huabinzhang@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Ran, Weiqiang, E-mail: ranwq-sina@vip.sina.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Fu, Peng, E-mail: fupeng01@gmail.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Zhiqiang, E-mail: lizhq126@126.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Chen, Wen, E-mail: wendy7989@sina.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Jiang, Ling, E-mail: papayaling@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Jinrui, E-mail: jinrui_wang@sina.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Jia, Jianwen, E-mail: drjia88@sohu.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods: A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The {chi}{sup 2} test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. Results: The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using 'focal thyroid inferno' as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The vascularity type of 'focal thyroid inferno' is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy.

  6. Contribution of the LIM domain and nebulin-repeats to the interaction of Lasp-2 with actin filaments and focal adhesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Nakagawa

    Full Text Available Lasp-2 binds to actin filaments and concentrates in the actin bundles of filopodia and lamellipodia in neural cells and focal adhesions in fibroblastic cells. Lasp-2 has three structural regions: a LIM domain, a nebulin-repeat region, and an SH3 domain; however, the region(s responsible for its interactions with actin filaments and focal adhesions are still unclear. In this study, we revealed that the N-terminal fragment from the LIM domain to the first nebulin-repeat module (LIM-n1 retained actin-binding activity and showed a similar subcellular localization to full-length lasp-2 in neural cells. The LIM domain fragment did not interact with actin filaments or localize to actin filament bundles. In contrast, LIM-n1 showed a clear subcellular localization to filopodial actin bundles. Although truncation of the LIM domain caused the loss of F-actin binding activity and the accumulation of filopodial actin bundles, these truncated fragments localized to focal adhesions. These results suggest that lasp-2 interactions with actin filaments are mediated through the cooperation of the LIM domain and the first nebulin-repeat module in vitro and in vivo. Actin filament binding activity may be a major contributor to the subcellular localization of lasp-2 to filopodia but is not crucial for lasp-2 recruitment to focal adhesions.

  7. Termination of seizure clusters is related to the duration of focal seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferastraoaru, Victor; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Lipton, Richard B; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Legatt, Alan D; Blumberg, Julie; Haut, Sheryl R

    2016-06-01

    Clustered seizures are characterized by shorter than usual interseizure intervals and pose increased morbidity risk. This study examines the characteristics of seizures that cluster, with special attention to the final seizure in a cluster. This is a retrospective analysis of long-term inpatient monitoring data from the EPILEPSIAE project. Patients underwent presurgical evaluation from 2002 to 2009. Seizure clusters were defined by the occurrence of at least two consecutive seizures with interseizure intervals of <4 h. Other definitions of seizure clustering were examined in a sensitivity analysis. Seizures were classified into three contextually defined groups: isolated seizures (not meeting clustering criteria), terminal seizure (last seizure in a cluster), and intracluster seizures (any other seizures within a cluster). Seizure characteristics were compared among the three groups in terms of duration, type (focal seizures remaining restricted to one hemisphere vs. evolving bilaterally), seizure origin, and localization concordance among pairs of consecutive seizures. Among 92 subjects, 77 (83%) had at least one seizure cluster. The intracluster seizures were significantly shorter than the last seizure in a cluster (p = 0.011), whereas the last seizure in a cluster resembled the isolated seizures in terms of duration. Although focal only (unilateral), seizures were shorter than seizures that evolved bilaterally and there was no correlation between the seizure type and the seizure position in relation to a cluster (p = 0.762). Frontal and temporal lobe seizures were more likely to cluster compared with other localizations (p = 0.009). Seizure pairs that are part of a cluster were more likely to have a concordant origin than were isolated seizures. Results were similar for the 2 h definition of clustering, but not for the 8 h definition of clustering. We demonstrated that intracluster seizures are short relative to isolated seizures and terminal seizures. Frontal

  8. Focal hand dystonia: individualized intervention with repeated application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberley, Teresa Jacobson; Borich, Michael R; Schmidt, Rebekah L; Carey, James R; Gillick, Bernadette

    2015-04-01

    To examine for individual factors that may predict response to inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in focal hand dystonia (FHD); to present the method for determining optimal stimulation to increase inhibition in a given patient; and to examine individual responses to prolonged intervention. Single-subject design to determine optimal parameters to increase inhibition for a given subject and to use the selected parameters once per week for 6 weeks, with 1-week follow-up, to determine response. Clinical research laboratory. A volunteer sample of subjects with FHD (N = 2). One participant had transcranial magnetic stimulation responses indicating impaired inhibition, and the other had responses within normative limits. There were 1200 pulses of 1-Hz rTMS delivered using 4 different stimulation sites/intensity combinations: primary motor cortex at 90% or 110% of resting motor threshold (RMT) and dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) at 90% or 110% of RMT. The parameters producing the greatest within-session increase in cortical silent period (CSP) duration were then used as the intervention. Response variables included handwriting pressure and velocity, subjective symptom rating, CSP, and short latency intracortical inhibition and facilitation. The individual with baseline transcranial magnetic stimulation responses indicating impaired inhibition responded favorably to the repeated intervention, with reduced handwriting force, an increase in the CSP, and subjective report of moderate symptom improvement at 1-week follow-up. The individual with normative baseline responses failed to respond to the intervention. In both subjects, 90% of RMT to the PMd produced the greatest lengthening of the CSP and was used as the intervention. An individualized understanding of neurophysiological measures can be an indicator of responsiveness to inhibitory rTMS in focal dystonia, with further work needed to determine likely responders versus nonresponders. Copyright

  9. Natural short sleeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep - natural short sleeper ... 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. Short sleepers sleep less than 75% of what is normal for their age. Natural short sleepers are different from people who chronically do ...

  10. FOCAL EPILEPTIC MYOCLONUS IN KOZHEVNIKOV–RASMUSSEN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Kvaskova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the clinical, electroencephalographic (EEG and neuroimaging features, as well as the results of treatment of patients with focal epileptic myoclonus (FEM with the Kozhevnikov–Rasmussen syndrome (KRS. FEM in KRS-patients was identified in 11 cases, accounting for 0.9 % of all the cases of epilepsy with the onset of seizures up to 18 years (n = 1261. The age at onset of KRS ranged from 3 to 21 years (average – 9.2 ± 5.7 years. In the active period of the disease of all patients in the clinical picture the active FEM appeared and increasing frequency of the secondary generalized seizures (SGS. In addition SGS and FEM, the clinical picture of the disease in most patients (91 % the focal motor (clonic and the somatosensory focal seizures were observed. As the disease progressed, the FEM became more pronounced in frequency and intensity, seized more muscle groups, localizing mainly in the muscles of the trunk and limbs. The typical EEG pattern of FEM patients with KRS was regional epileptiform activity that occurs in the structure of the continued regional slowing localizing maximum of the fronto-central-temporal region. During the magnetic resonance tomography of the brain in dynamics all the patients observed the increase in total cortical hemiatrophy. In all the cases, the appointment of antiepileptic therapy resulted in a slowing of the FEM, however, a complete remission was reached at none of the patients. Two patients were made surgical treatment of epilepsy. In one case remission of epileptic seizures was observed after right-side hemispherotomy. Our study showed that FEM is very resistant type of epileptic seizures. This fact calls for the identification of the FEM at the early stages of the disease with the purpose to improve the prognosis, as well as for an earlier surgical treatment.

  11. Temperament and character properties of primary focal hyperhidrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ak Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a health problem, which has negative effects on the patient's quality of life and significantly affects the patients’ daily activities, social and business life. The aim of this study is to evaluate temperament and character properties of patients diagnosed with primary focal hyperhidrosis. Methods Fifty-six primary focal hyperhidrosis (22.42 ± 7.80 and 49 control subjects (24.48 ± 5.17 participated in the study. Patients who met the diagnostic criteria for PFH were referred to psychiatry clinic where the subjects were evaluated through Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders-I and Temperament and Character Inventory. Results In order to examine the difference between the PFH and control group in terms of temperament and character properties, one-way Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA was conducted. In terms of temperament properties, PFH group took significantly higher scores than control group in Fatigability and asthenia dimension. In terms of character properties, PFH group scored significantly lower than control group in Purposefulness , Resourcefulness , Self-Directedness and scored significantly higher than control group in Self-forgetfulness and Self-Transcendence. Conclusion Temperament and character features of PFH patients were different from healthy group and it was considered that these features were affected by many factors including genetic, biological, environmental, socio-cultural elements. During the follow-up of PFH cases, psychiatric evaluation is important and interventions, especially psychotherapeutic interventions can increase the chances of success of the dermatological treatments and can have a positive impact on the quality of life and social cohesion of chronic cases.

  12. Reperfusion promotes mitochondrial dysfunction following focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the cell death observed after cerebral ischemia, and several mechanisms for this dysfunction have been proposed. Reperfusion after transient cerebral ischemia may cause continued and even more severe damage to the brain. Many lines of evidence have shown that mitochondria suffer severe damage in response to ischemic injury. The purpose of this study was to observe the features of mitochondrial dysfunction in isolated mitochondria during the reperfusion period following focal cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia. Mitochondria were isolated using Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The isolated mitochondria were fixed for electron microscopic examination; calcium-induced mitochondrial swelling was quantified using spectrophotometry. Cyclophilin D was detected by Western blotting. Fluorescent probes were used to selectively stain mitochondria to measure their membrane potential and to measure reactive oxidative species production using flow cytometric analysis. RESULTS: Signs of damage were observed in the mitochondrial morphology after exposure to reperfusion. The mitochondrial swelling induced by Ca(2+ increased gradually with the increasing calcium concentration, and this tendency was exacerbated as the reperfusion time was extended. Cyclophilin D protein expression peaked after 24 hours of reperfusion. The mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased significantly during the reperfusion period, with the greatest decrease observed after 24 hours of reperfusion. The surge in mitochondrial reactive oxidative species occurred after 2 hours of reperfusion and was maintained at a high level during the reperfusion period. CONCLUSIONS: Reperfusion following focal cerebral ischemia induced significant mitochondrial morphological damage and Ca(2+-induced mitochondrial swelling. The mechanism of this swelling may be mediated by

  13. Kalman Filter for Calibrating a Telescope Focal Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bryan; Bayard, David

    2006-01-01

    The instrument-pointing frame (IPF) Kalman filter, and an algorithm that implements this filter, have been devised for calibrating the focal plane of a telescope. As used here, calibration signifies, more specifically, a combination of measurements and calculations directed toward ensuring accuracy in aiming the telescope and determining the locations of objects imaged in various arrays of photodetectors in instruments located on the focal plane. The IPF Kalman filter was originally intended for application to a spaceborne infrared astronomical telescope, but can also be applied to other spaceborne and ground-based telescopes. In the traditional approach to calibration of a telescope, (1) one team of experts concentrates on estimating parameters (e.g., pointing alignments and gyroscope drifts) that are classified as being of primarily an engineering nature, (2) another team of experts concentrates on estimating calibration parameters (e.g., plate scales and optical distortions) that are classified as being primarily of a scientific nature, and (3) the two teams repeatedly exchange data in an iterative process in which each team refines its estimates with the help of the data provided by the other team. This iterative process is inefficient and uneconomical because it is time-consuming and entails the maintenance of two survey teams and the development of computer programs specific to the requirements of each team. Moreover, theoretical analysis reveals that the engineering/ science iterative approach is not optimal in that it does not yield the best estimates of focal-plane parameters and, depending on the application, may not even enable convergence toward a set of estimates.

  14. Brivaracetam: a novel antiepileptic drug for focal-onset seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Linda J; Brodie, Martin J

    2018-01-01

    Brivaracetam (BRV), the n -propyl analogue of levetiracetam (LEV), is the latest antiepileptic drug (AED) to be licensed in Europe and the USA for the adjunctive treatment of focal-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization in patients aged 16 years or older. Like LEV, BRV binds to synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A), but BRV has more selective binding and a 15- to 30-fold higher binding affinity than LEV. BRV is more effective than LEV in slowing synaptic vesicle mobilization and the two AEDs may act at different binding sites or interact with different conformational states of the SV2A protein. In animal models, BRV provides protection against focal and secondary generalized seizures and has significant anticonvulsant effects in genetic models of epilepsy. The drug undergoes first-order pharmacokinetics with an elimination half-life of 7-8 h. Although BRV is metabolized extensively, the main circulating compound is unchanged BRV. Around 95% of metabolites undergo renal elimination. No dose reduction is required in renal impairment, but it is recommended that the daily dose is reduced by one-third in hepatic dysfunction that may prolong half-life. BRV has a low potential for drug interactions. The efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive BRV in adults with focal-onset seizures have been explored in six randomized, placebo-controlled studies. These showed significant efficacy outcomes for doses of 50-200 mg/day. The most common adverse events reported were headache, somnolence, dizziness, fatigue and nausea. Patients who develop psychiatric symptoms with LEV appear to be at risk of similar side effects with BRV, although preliminary data suggest that these issues are likely to be less frequent and perhaps less severe. As with all AEDs, a low starting dose and slow titration schedule help to minimize side effects and optimize seizure control and thereby quality of life.

  15. Modeling characterization of the National Ignition Facility focal spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The predicted focal spot size of the National Ignition Facility laser is parameterized against the finish quality of the optics in the system. Results are reported from simulations which include static optics aberrations, as well as pump-induced distortions, beam self-focusing, and the effect of an adaptive optic. The simulations do not include contributions from optics mounting errors, residual thermal noise in laser slabs from previous shots, air turbulence, a kinoform phase plate, or smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD). Consequently, these results represent ''first shot of the day'', without-SSD, predictions

  16. Difficulties in the interpretation of focal changes on liver scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derimanov, S.G. (Oblastnoj Onkologicheskij Dispanser, Veliko-Tyrnovo (Bulgaria))

    1983-01-01

    A series of cases are presented in which erroneous conclusions were arrived at by liver scans. The analysis of these errors has shown that they are determined by the similarity of a scanographic picture of focal changes in various diseases of the liver (cancer, cirrhosis, echinococcus, etc.) and the adjacent organs (bronchogenic cyst, renal tumor, etc.). In this connection all attempts to determine the etiology of a pathological process by liver scans without correlation with the results of multidimensional examination frequently result in errors.

  17. Focal dystonia in musicians: From phenomenology to therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Christian Jabusch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musician's dystonia is a task-specific movement disorder which manifests itself as a loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. In many cases, the disorder terminates the careers of affected musicians. Approximately 1% of all professional musicians are affected.Etiology and Pathophysiology: The pathophysiology of the disorder is still unclear. Findings include (a reduced inhibition in different levels of the central nervous system, (b maladaptive plasticity, e.g. in the somatosensory cortex and in the basal ganglia, and (c alterations in sensorimotor processing. Epidemiological data demon-strated a higher risk for those musicians who play instruments requiring maximal fine-motorskills. For instruments where workload differs across hands, focal dystonia appears more often in the more intensely used hand. In psychological studies, musicians with dystonia had more perfectionist tendencies than healthy musicians. These findings streng then the assumption that behavioral factors may be involved in the etiology of musician's dystonia. Hereditary factors may play a greater role than previously assumed. Preliminary findings suggest a genetic contributiont o focal task-specific dystonia with phenotypic variations including musician's dystonia.Treatment: Treatment options for musician's dystonia include pharmacological interventions such as administration of Trihexyphenidyl or Botulinum Toxin-A as well as retraining programs and ergonomic changes in the instrument. A long-term follow-up study was performed in 144 patients with musician's dystonia. The outcome was revealed on average 8.4 years after onset of symptoms. Outcome was assessed by patients' subjective rating of cumulative treatmentresponse and response to individual therapies. Seventy-seven patients (54% reported an alleviation of symptoms: 33% of the patients with Trihexyphenidyl, 49% with Botulinum Toxin, 50% with pedagogical retraining, 56% with unmonitored

  18. New focal plane detector system for the broad range spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    A focal plane detector system consisting of a vertical drift chamber, parallel plate avalanche counters, and an ionization chamber with segmented anodes has been installed in the Broad Range Spectrometer at the Holifield Facility at Oak Ridge. The system, which has been designed for use with light-heavy ions with energies ranging from 10 to 25 MeV/amu, has a position resolution of approx. 0.1 mm, a scattering angle resolution of approx. 3 mrad, and a mass resolution of approx. 1/60

  19. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia masquerading as a residual cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Rajat; Sandhu, Simarpreet V; Bansal, Himanta; Behl, Rashi; Bhullar, Ramanpreet Kaur

    2012-04-01

    Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) is a benign fibroosseous condition that can be seen in dentulous and edentulous patients. It is an asymptomatic lesion and needs no treatment; however, follow-up is essential due to the possibility that it can progress to a condition called florid cemento-osseous dysplasia. We report a case of FCOD of mandible in a 25-year-old female. Clinically, the lesion resembled periapical pathosis of odontogenic origin. An attempt has been made to discuss the clinical and histopathologic features along with differential diagnosis of cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  20. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia masquerading as a residual cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD is a benign fibroosseous condition that can be seen in dentulous and edentulous patients. It is an asymptomatic lesion and needs no treatment; however, follow-up is essential due to the possibility that it can progress to a condition called florid cemento-osseous dysplasia. We report a case of FCOD of mandible in a 25-year-old female. Clinically, the lesion resembled periapical pathosis of odontogenic origin. An attempt has been made to discuss the clinical and histopathologic features along with differential diagnosis of cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  1. Slow Activity in Focal Epilepsy During Sleep and Wakefulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrino, Giovanni; Tombini, Mario; Curcio, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to test differences between healthy subjects and patients with respect to slow wave activity during wakefulness and sleep. Methods Fifteen patients affected by nonlesional focal epilepsy originating within temporal areas and fourteen matched controls underwent a 24-hour EEG....... The effect was widespread for alpha band and above, while localized over the affected hemisphere for delta (sleep cycle 1, P = .006; sleep cycle 2, P = .008; sleep cycle 3, P = .017). The analysis of interhemispheric differences showed that the only frequency band stronger over the affected regions...

  2. Caso severo de manifestaciones bucales de la hiperplasia epitelial focal

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Harris Ricardo; Natalia Fortich Mesa

    2012-01-01

    La hiperplasia epitelial focal, conocida también como enfermedad de Heck, es una patología benigna que se caracteriza por la presencia de múltiples pápulas en la mucosa de la cavidad bucal; es producida por los subtipos 13 y 32 del virus del papiloma humano, aunque también se le relaciona con factores genéticos, inmunosupresión e higiene bucal deficiente pero con poco sustento científico; afecta principalmente a niños y adolescentes. Se reporta caso clínico de paciente femenina de 7 años de e...

  3. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  4. Subdural Empyema Presenting with Seizure, Confusion, and Focal Weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Bruner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While sinusitis is a common ailment, intracranial suppurative complications of sinusitis are rare and difficult to diagnose and treat. The morbidity and mortality of intracranial complications of sinusitis have decreased significantly since the advent of antibiotics, but diseases such as subdural empyemas and intracranial abscesses still occur, and they require prompt diagnosis, treatment, and often surgical drainage to prevent death or long-term neurologic sequelae. We present a case of an immunocompetent adolescent male with a subdural empyema who presented with seizures,confusion, and focal arm weakness after a bout of sinusitis.

  5. Subdural Empyema Presenting with Seizure, Confusion, and Focal Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, David I.; Littlejohn, Lanny; Pritchard, Amy

    2012-01-01

    While sinusitis is a common ailment, intracranial suppurative complications of sinusitis are rare and difficult to diagnose and treat. The morbidity and mortality of intracranial complications of sinusitis have decreased significantly since the advent of antibiotics, but diseases such as subdural empyemas and intracranial abscesses still occur, and they require prompt diagnosis, treatment, and often surgical drainage to prevent death or long-term neurologic sequelae. We present a case of an immunocompetent adolescent male with a subdural empyema who presented with seizures, confusion, and focal arm weakness after a bout of sinusitis. PMID:23358438

  6. Electrodiagnosis in the management of focal neuropathies: the "WOG" syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W F; Dellon, A L; Campbell, W W

    1994-11-01

    The role of electrodiagnosis in managing patients with focal neuropathies is discussed from the differing perspectives of a peripheral nerve surgeon and a practitioner of electrodiagnostic medicine. Both clinical evaluation and electrodiagnosis are useful methodologies, each having limitations. Dr. Dellon labels the overreliance on electrodiagnosis and the "WOG" (Word of God) syndrome, and describes its signs, symptoms, and treatment. Dr. Brown contends Dr. Dellon's crusade is misdirected. The exchange is an eloquent polemic on the virtues and foibles of these different approaches to evaluating peripheral nerve function and the imperative to practice them in a complementary rather than a contentious manner.

  7. Past Tense in Children with Focal Brain Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinopoulou, P.; Stavrakaki, S.; Manouilidou, C.; Zafeiriou, D.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 22 children with early left hemisphere (LHD) or right hemisphere (RHD) focal brain lesions (FL, n ¼ 14 LHD,\\ud n ¼ 8 RHD) were administered an English past tense elicitation test (M ¼ 6:5 years). Proportion correct and frequency of overregularization\\ud and zero-marking errors were compared to age-matched samples of children with specific language impairment (SLI,\\ud n ¼ 27) and with typical language development (TD, n ¼ 27). Similar rates of correct production and error patter...

  8. The immunological synapse: a focal point for endocytosis and exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Gillian M; Tsun, Andy; Stinchcombe, Jane C

    2010-05-03

    There are many different cells in the immune system. To mount an effective immune response, they need to communicate with each other. One way in which this is done is by the formation of immunological synapses between cells. Recent developments show that the immune synapse serves as a focal point for exocytosis and endocytosis, directed by centrosomal docking at the plasma membrane. In this respect, formation of the immunological synapse bears striking similarities to cilia formation and cytokinesis. These intriguing observations suggest that the centrosome may play a conserved role in designating a specialized area of membrane for localized endocytosis and exocytosis.

  9. Cosmetic Effect of Botulinum Toxin In Focal Hyperhydrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhydrosis of axillae, palm and sole is not a very uncommon problem. It leads to great embarrassment and considerable emotional stress to the individuals. Botulinum toxins prevent the release of acetylcholine at nerve terminals, therefore, reduces sweat secretion. Six patients of axillary and 4 patients of palmer and planter hyperhydrosis were treated with botulinum toxin. All patients experienced relatively satisfactory reduction of hyperhydrosis for period ranging between 4-7 months. No adverse effects were observed. Botulinum toxin therefore can be considered as an effective treatment in focal hyperhydrosis.

  10. Radiofrequency Ablation Effectively Treated Focal Recurrence of Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akifumi; Takuwa, Teruhisa; Hashimoto, Masaki; Kondo, Nobuyuki; Takaki, Haruyuki; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Yamakado, Koichiro; Hasegawa, Seiki

    2018-02-01

    A 55-year-old man with malignant pleural mesothelioma underwent multimodality treatment comprising induction chemotherapy followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy and radiation therapy. After 2.5 years, focal recurrence occurred, with computed tomography revealing a tumor in the left cardiophrenic angle. Surgery was considered a problem for the patient because of the previous extrapleural pneumonectomy and difficult tumor location. Radiofrequency ablation was thus performed; the course was uneventful, and there was no recurrence. Radiofrequency ablation should be considered an option to treat recurrence of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The word-length effect and disyllabic words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovatt, P; Avons, S E; Masterson, J

    2000-02-01

    Three experiments compared immediate serial recall of disyllabic words that differed on spoken duration. Two sets of long- and short-duration words were selected, in each case maximizing duration differences but matching for frequency, familiarity, phonological similarity, and number of phonemes, and controlling for semantic associations. Serial recall measures were obtained using auditory and visual presentation and spoken and picture-pointing recall. In Experiments 1a and 1b, using the first set of items, long words were better recalled than short words. In Experiments 2a and 2b, using the second set of items, no difference was found between long and short disyllabic words. Experiment 3 confirmed the large advantage for short-duration words in the word set originally selected by Baddeley, Thomson, and Buchanan (1975). These findings suggest that there is no reliable advantage for short-duration disyllables in span tasks, and that previous accounts of a word-length effect in disyllables are based on accidental differences between list items. The failure to find an effect of word duration casts doubt on theories that propose that the capacity of memory span is determined by the duration of list items or the decay rate of phonological information in short-term memory.

  12. Resorption of lateral incisors during canine eruption: two clinical cases with focus on root length and heredity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zargham, Mostafa; Kjær, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: It is well-known that pressure from orthodontic appliance can provoke root resorption in dentitions with short roots. The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate two clinical cases with focus on root length in dentitions exposed due to pressure from erupting teeth...... resorption on her lateral incisor roots, extremely short roots in the central incisors, and short roots. The intraoral photos demonstrated light crowding in the maxilla. The orthopantomogram of the girl’s mother demonstrated extremely short roots in general. Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that short...... root length in general and abnormal incisor morphology are phenotypic traits that were characteristic for both girls who presented with severe lateral incisor resorption due to erupting canines. Furthermore, short roots were also demonstrated in the mothers. Accordingly, short root length in general...

  13. Determination of Onramp Weaving Length for Resolving Merging Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Liu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is physically known that onramp merging may turn out to be difficult if the onramp (weaving/merging length is too short because a driver under certain driving circumstances may find that either merging ahead or merging behind a neighboring vehicle on the adjacent highway lane cannot be completed. Various existing guidelines or design manuals provide no clear physical understanding and explanations to the design onramp weaving length but often based on evolved empirical experiences. By integrating human factors, vehicle dynamic characteristics, roadway surface condition, and the onramp weaving design into a single unified analytic framework, the onramp length required for a driver to merge into the highway traffic successfully is determined exactly with formulas and physical solutions to avoid the merging dilemma and enhance driving safety at highway interchanges. The design onramp weaving length is examined and evaluated with various foreseeable merging scenarios and physical examples. This analytic framework sheds light on the understanding of the onramp weaving the first time strictly on a physical human-vehicle-roadway interaction setting. Practitioners can easily apply these user friendly formulae and equations derived from the unified framework to calculate the onramp weaving length to resolve the merging dilemma and enhance driving safety for any highway interchanges.

  14. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Tatarinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  15. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Salih, Bilal; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Cohen, Irit; Bolshoy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases) may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content) tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  16. The telomere length dynamic and methods of its assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kah-Wai; Yan, Ju

    2005-01-01

    Human telomeres are composed of long repeating sequences of TTAGGG, associated with a variety of telomere-binding proteins. Its function as an end-protector of chromosomes prevents the chromosome from end-to-end fusion, recombination and degradation. Telomerase acts as reverse transcriptase in the elongation of telomeres, which prevent the loss of telomeres due to the end replication problems. However, telomerase activity is detected at low level in somatic cells and high level in embryonic stem cells and tumor cells. It confers immortality to embryonic stem cells and tumor cells. In most tumor cells, telomeres are extremely short and stable. Telomere length is an important indicator of the telomerase activity in tumor cells and it may be used in the prognosis of malignancy. Thus, the assessment of telomeres length is of great experimental and clinical significance. This review describes the role of telomere and telomerase in cancer pathogenesis and the dynamics of the telomeres length in different cell types. The various methods of measurement of telomeres length, i.e. southern blot, hybridization protection assay, fluorescence in situ hybridization, primed in situ, quantitative PCR and single telomere length analysis are discussed. The principle and comparative evaluation of these methods are reviewed. The detection of G-strand overhang by telomeric-oligonucleotide ligation assay, primer extension/nick translation assay and electron microscopy are briefly discussed.

  17. Focal colors across languages are representative members of color categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Joshua T; Griffiths, Thomas L; Regier, Terry

    2016-10-04

    Focal colors, or best examples of color terms, have traditionally been viewed as either the underlying source of cross-language color-naming universals or derived from category boundaries that vary widely across languages. Existing data partially support and partially challenge each of these views. Here, we advance a position that synthesizes aspects of these two traditionally opposed positions and accounts for existing data. We do so by linking this debate to more general principles. We show that best examples of named color categories across 112 languages are well-predicted from category extensions by a statistical model of how representative a sample is of a distribution, independently shown to account for patterns of human inference. This model accounts for both universal tendencies and variation in focal colors across languages. We conclude that categorization in the contested semantic domain of color may be governed by principles that apply more broadly in cognition and that these principles clarify the interplay of universal and language-specific forces in color naming.

  18. VERIFICATION OF THE SENTINEL-4 FOCAL PLANE SUBSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Williges

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sentinel-4 payload is a multi-spectral camera system which is designed to monitor atmospheric conditions over Europe. The German Aerospace Center (DLR in Berlin, Germany conducted the verification campaign of the Focal Plane Subsystem (FPS on behalf of Airbus Defense and Space GmbH, Ottobrunn, Germany. The FPS consists, inter alia, of two Focal Plane Assemblies (FPAs, one for the UV-VIS spectral range (305 nm … 500 nm, the second for NIR (750 nm … 775 nm. In this publication, we will present in detail the opto-mechanical laboratory set-up of the verification campaign of the Sentinel-4 Qualification Model (QM which will also be used for the upcoming Flight Model (FM verification. The test campaign consists mainly of radiometric tests performed with an integrating sphere as homogenous light source. The FPAs have mainly to be operated at 215 K ± 5 K, making it necessary to exploit a thermal vacuum chamber (TVC for the test accomplishment. This publication focuses on the challenge to remotely illuminate both Sentinel-4 detectors as well as a reference detector homogeneously over a distance of approximately 1 m from outside the TVC. Furthermore selected test analyses and results will be presented, showing that the Sentinel-4 FPS meets specifications.

  19. Encephalitozoon cuniculi causes focal anterior cataract and uveitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell, B; Csokai, J; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, A; Maaß, G

    2015-01-01

    Three mongrel dogs, aged 10 months (case 1), 14 months (case 2) and 7.5 years (case 3), were presented because of ophthalmologic disorders of 4 months, 6 months and 7 years duration, respectively. All three dogs were offspring of stray dogs from Hungary and Serbia and had positive serum antibody titres against Encephalitozoon (E.) cuniculi. The two young dogs showed unilateral, the older dog bilateral chronic anterior uveitis with posterior synechia and focal anterior cortical cataract. The fundi that could be evaluated developed focal tapetal hyporeflective lesions in the course of the disease. Dogs 1 and 2 underwent removal of the lens via phacoemulsification. PCR of the lens material was positive for E. cuniculi strains IV and II, respectively. In dog 2 findings suggestive of microsporidia were detected underneath the anterior lens capsule by immunohistochemical staining. In all cases medical treatment consisted of systemic fenbendazole, prednisolone, and topical anti-inflammatory drugs, and additional brinzolamid/timolol for dog 3. For the time being all cases (follow up 23 months, 6 months and 3 months, respectively) are still on topical anti-inflammatory therapy. It is concluded that E. cuniculi infections can cause cataract and chorioretinal lesions in dogs.

  20. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-coil design with improved focality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, P.; Lee, E. G.; Hadimani, R. L.; Jiles, D. C.

    2017-05-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a technique for neuromodulation that can be used as a non-invasive therapy for various neurological disorders. In TMS, a time varying magnetic field generated from an electromagnetic coil placed on the scalp is used to induce an electric field inside the brain. TMS coil geometry plays an important role in determining the focality and depth of penetration of the induced electric field responsible for stimulation. Clinicians and basic scientists are interested in stimulating a localized area of the brain, while minimizing the stimulation of surrounding neural networks. In this paper, a novel coil has been proposed, namely Quadruple Butterfly Coil (QBC) with an improved focality over the commercial Figure-8 coil. Finite element simulations were conducted with both the QBC and the conventional Figure-8 coil. The two coil's stimulation profiles were assessed with 50 anatomically realistic MRI derived head models. The coils were positioned on the vertex and the scalp over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to stimulate the brain. Computer modeling of the coils has been done to determine the parameters of interest-volume of stimulation, maximum electric field, location of maximum electric field and area of stimulation across all 50 head models for both coils.

  1. Caso severo de manifestaciones bucales de la hiperplasia epitelial focal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Harris Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La hiperplasia epitelial focal, conocida también como enfermedad de Heck, es una patología benigna que se caracteriza por la presencia de múltiples pápulas en la mucosa de la cavidad bucal; es producida por los subtipos 13 y 32 del virus del papiloma humano, aunque también se le relaciona con factores genéticos, inmunosupresión e higiene bucal deficiente pero con poco sustento científico; afecta principalmente a niños y adolescentes. Se reporta caso clínico de paciente femenina de 7 años de edad, remitida al servicio de Estomatología y Cirugía Oral de la Corporación Universitaria Rafael Núñez por presentar múltiples pápulas en mucosa bucal, de tamaño variable, asintomáticas, 8 meses de evolución, relacionadas clínicas e histológicamente con hiperplasia epitelial focal.

  2. High operating temperature interband cascade focal plane arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Z.-B.; Godoy, S. E.; Kim, H. S.; Schuler-Sandy, T.; Montoya, J. A.; Krishna, S. [Center for High Technology Materials, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    In this paper, we report the initial demonstration of mid-infrared interband cascade (IC) photodetector focal plane arrays with multiple-stage/junction design. The merits of IC photodetectors include low noise and efficient photocarrier extraction, even for zero-bias operation. By adopting enhanced electron barrier design and a total absorber thickness of 0.7 μm, the 5-stage IC detectors show very low dark current (1.10 × 10{sup −7} A/cm{sup 2} at −5 mV and 150 K). Even with un-optimized fabrication and standard commercial (mis-matched) read-out circuit technology, infrared images are obtained by the 320 × 256 IC focal plane array up to 180 K with f/2.3 optics. The minimum noise equivalent temperature difference of 28 mK is obtained at 120 K. These initial results indicate great potential of IC photodetectors, particularly for high operating temperature applications.

  3. High operating temperature interband cascade focal plane arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Z.-B.; Godoy, S. E.; Kim, H. S.; Schuler-Sandy, T.; Montoya, J. A.; Krishna, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the initial demonstration of mid-infrared interband cascade (IC) photodetector focal plane arrays with multiple-stage/junction design. The merits of IC photodetectors include low noise and efficient photocarrier extraction, even for zero-bias operation. By adopting enhanced electron barrier design and a total absorber thickness of 0.7 μm, the 5-stage IC detectors show very low dark current (1.10 × 10 −7 A/cm 2 at −5 mV and 150 K). Even with un-optimized fabrication and standard commercial (mis-matched) read-out circuit technology, infrared images are obtained by the 320 × 256 IC focal plane array up to 180 K with f/2.3 optics. The minimum noise equivalent temperature difference of 28 mK is obtained at 120 K. These initial results indicate great potential of IC photodetectors, particularly for high operating temperature applications

  4. Multivariate analysis of magnetic resonance imaging of focal hepatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishima, Mamoru; Suemitsu, Ichizou; Sei, Tetsurou; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Hiraki, Yoshio

    1993-01-01

    A total of 124 lesions from 1 to 6 cm in diameter, including 31 cavernous hemangiomas, 32 metastases and 61 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) were analyzed to study the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 0.5 Tesla to differentiate focal hepatic lesions on the basis of qualitative criteria. Each focal hepatic lesion was assessed for shape, internal architecture and signal intensity relative to normal liver parenchyma. While all cavernous hemangiomas and metastases except one lesion could be detected, detection rate of HCC was significantly inferior to that of the other two diseases. A tumor capsule and a hyperintense focus on T 1 -weighted images were demonstrated in only HCC lesions in strong contrast with the other two diseases; however, metastases with slow-growing characteristics or subacute hematoma may appear as similar images. Cavernous hemangiomas appeared markedly hyperintense on T 2 -weighted images in 23 of 31 lesions, but one metastasis and one HCC had similar images. A multivariate analysis of several MRI resulted in the following mean discriminant scores: cavernous hemangioma, -1.2652; metastasis, 0.1830; and HCC, 0.7138. It appeared to be possible to differentiate the three diseases with 84.4 percent accuracy. (author)

  5. Verification of the Sentinel-4 focal plane subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williges, Christian; Uhlig, Mathias; Hilbert, Stefan; Rossmann, Hannes; Buchwinkler, Kevin; Babben, Steffen; Sebastian, Ilse; Hohn, Rüdiger; Reulke, Ralf

    2017-09-01

    The Sentinel-4 payload is a multi-spectral camera system, designed to monitor atmospheric conditions over Europe from a geostationary orbit. The German Aerospace Center, DLR Berlin, conducted the verification campaign of the Focal Plane Subsystem (FPS) during the second half of 2016. The FPS consists, of two Focal Plane Assemblies (FPAs), two Front End Electronics (FEEs), one Front End Support Electronic (FSE) and one Instrument Control Unit (ICU). The FPAs are designed for two spectral ranges: UV-VIS (305 nm - 500 nm) and NIR (750 nm - 775 nm). In this publication, we will present in detail the set-up of the verification campaign of the Sentinel-4 Qualification Model (QM). This set up will also be used for the upcoming Flight Model (FM) verification, planned for early 2018. The FPAs have to be operated at 215 K +/- 5 K, making it necessary to exploit a thermal vacuum chamber (TVC) for the test accomplishment. The test campaign consists mainly of radiometric tests. This publication focuses on the challenge to remotely illuminate both Sentinel-4 detectors as well as a reference detector homogeneously over a distance of approximately 1 m from outside the TVC. Selected test analyses and results will be presented.

  6. O uso do grupo focal em pesquisa qualitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Beatriz Ressel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo presentar el uso del grupo focal como técnica de recolección de datos en una tesis de doctorado, resultado de una investigación cualitativa. El grupo focal utiliza sesiones grupales de discusión, teniendo como foco central un tópico específico a ser debatido por los participantes. La investigación focalizó la temática de la sexualidad en la asistencia de enfermería, bajo una perspectiva cultural, siendo desarrollada con dos grupos de enfermeras: docentes y asistenciales. Comprendió ocho encuentros, y cada uno fue planeado por separado. La evaluación del proceso se realizó por medio de entrevistas con las enfermeras, destacando como puntos positivos la conducción hacia el pensamiento crítico y al proceso de desalineación; y la posibilidad de que esta técnica revele significados singulares y a que ellos se relacionen desde el punto de vista de los sujetos investigados. Esa técnica facilitó el abordaje de la sexualidad, desconstruyendo y reconstruyendo conceptos y buscando respuestas para las inquietudes del tema.

  7. Differentiation of focal liver lesions by contrast-enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintz, P.; Ehrenheim, C.

    1989-01-01

    47 patients with liver tumours (haemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, hepatocellular carcinoma) underwent MRI of the liver before and after i.v. injection of 0.2 ml./kg. gadolinium-DTPA in addition to other imaging methods. The demarcation of focal nodular hyperplasia is not influenced by use of the contrast agent as it almost behaves like surrounding normal liver tissue, thus only indirectly facilitating its identification. With regard to liver haemangiomas that show the most intensive uptake of gadolinium-DTPA, the contrast enhanced image does not reach to contrast and sensitivity of a native T 2 -weighted SE image, especially in cases of small haemangiomas. The contrast agent is helpful, however, in the recognition of large cavernous haemangiomas that are partially fibrotic or thrombotic. Emphasis is given to the contrast agent in hepatomas: gadolinium-DTPA presents a pattern of uptake and distribution frequently found in hepatocellular carcinoma providing additional information on the delineation of internal tumour details. (orig.) [de

  8. Zinc translocation accelerates infarction after mild transient focal ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J-M; Zipfel, G J; Park, K H; He, Y Y; Hsu, C Y; Choi, D W

    2002-01-01

    Excess release of chelatable zinc (Zn(2+)) from central synaptic vesicles may contribute to the pathogenesis of selective neuronal cell death following transient forebrain ischemia, but a role in neurodegeneration after focal ischemia has not been defined. Adult male Long-Evans rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 30 min followed by reperfusion developed delayed cerebral infarction reaching completion 3 days after the insult. One day after the insult, many degenerating cerebral neurons exhibited increased intracellular Zn(2+), and some labeled with the antibody against activated caspase-3. I.c.v. administration of the Zn(2+) chelator, EDTA saturated with equimolar Ca(2+) (CaEDTA), 15 min prior to ischemia attenuated subsequent Zn(2+) translocation into cortical neurons, and reduced infarct volume measured 3 days after ischemia. Although the protective effect of CaEDTA at this endpoint was substantial (about 70% infarct reduction), it was lost when insult severity was increased (from 30 to 60 min MCAO), or when infarct volume was measured at a much later time point (14 days instead of 3 days after ischemia). These data suggest that toxic Zn(2+) translocation, from presynaptic terminals to post-synaptic cell bodies, may accelerate the development of cerebral infarction following mild transient focal ischemia.

  9. Efficacy observation on multiple wave length laser for diabetic retinopathy and central retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Tian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the efficacy of the multiple wave length laser in treating diabetic retinopathy combined with central retinal vein occlusion. METHODS:Totally 95 cases(100 eyeswith diabetic retinopathy combined with central retinal vein occlusion were treated by multiple wave length laser. Krypton yellow laser was used for macular edema in focal photocoagulation and diffuse photocoagulation. For peripheral retina, krypton green or krypton red laser were used. Visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy and fundus fluorescein angiography were performed preoperatively and postoperatively. The patients were followed up for 12 to 48wk. In this study, change in visual acuity and macular edema were observed in both groups, and statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS:The effective rate was 61.2% in diffuse macular edema group and 86.3% in focal macular edema group. The general effective rate of later was higher than the former, while the treatment effect had significant statistical difference(PCONCLUSION: Multiple wave length laser is an effective and safe way to treat diabetic macular edema of diabetic retinopathy combined with central retinal vein occlusion,which is worth widely applying in clinical practice.

  10. High-throughput telomere length quantification by FISH and its application to human population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Vera, Elsa; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-03-27

    A major limitation of studies of the relevance of telomere length to cancer and age-related diseases in human populations and to the development of telomere-based therapies has been the lack of suitable high-throughput (HT) assays to measure telomere length. We have developed an automated HT quantitative telomere FISH platform, HT quantitative FISH (Q-FISH), which allows the quantification of telomere length as well as percentage of short telomeres in large human sample sets. We show here that this technique provides the accuracy and sensitivity to uncover associations between telomere length and human disease.

  11. Nutritive support in short Bowel syndrome (sbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Dušica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Short bowel syndrome most commonly result after bowel resection for necrosis of the bowel. It may be caused by arterial or venous thrombosis, volvolus and in children, necrotizing enterocolitis. The other causes are Crohn,s disease intestinal atresia. The factors influencing the risk on short bowel syndrome are the remaining length of the small bowel, the age of onset, the length of the colon, the presence or absence of the ileo-coecal valve and the time after resection. Besides nutritional deficiencies there some other consequences of extensive resections of the small intestine (gastric acid hypersecretion, d-lactic acidosis, nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, which must be diagnosed, treated, and if possible, prevented. With current therapy most patients with short bowel have normal body mass index and good quality of life.

  12. Focal neuronal loss, reversible subcortical focal T2 hypointensity in seizures with a nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavendra, S.; Ashalatha, R.; Thomas, Sanjeev V.; Kesavadas, C.

    2007-01-01

    Neuroimaging in seizures associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia (NKH) is considered normal. We report magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in four patients with NKH and seizures. We prospectively evaluated clinical and radiological abnormalities in four patients with NKH during the period March 2004 to December 2005. All patients presented with seizures, either simple or complex partial seizures or epilepsia partialis continua. Two of them had transient hemianopia. MRI showed subcortical T2 hypointensity in the occipital white matter and in or around the central sulcus (two patients each), T2 hyperintensity of the overlying cortex (two patients), focal overlying cortical enhancement (three patients) and bilateral striatal hyperintensity (one patient). Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) performed in three patients showed restricted diffusion. The ictal semiology and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings correlated with the MRI abnormalities. On clinical recovery, the subcortical T2 hypointensity and striatal hyperintensity reversed in all patients. The initial cortical change evolved to FLAIR hyperintensity suggestive of focal cortical gliosis. The radiological differential diagnosis considered initially included encephalitis, malignancy and hemorrhagic infarct rendering a diagnostic dilemma. We identified subcortical T2 hypointensity rather than hyperintensity as a characteristic feature of seizures associated with NKH. Only very few similar reports exist in literature. Reversible bilateral striatal T2 hyperintensity in NKH has not been reported to the best of our knowledge. (orig.)

  13. Focal neuronal loss, reversible subcortical focal T2 hypointensity in seizures with a nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavendra, S.; Ashalatha, R.; Thomas, Sanjeev V. [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India); Kesavadas, C. [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum (India)

    2007-04-15

    Neuroimaging in seizures associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia (NKH) is considered normal. We report magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in four patients with NKH and seizures. We prospectively evaluated clinical and radiological abnormalities in four patients with NKH during the period March 2004 to December 2005. All patients presented with seizures, either simple or complex partial seizures or epilepsia partialis continua. Two of them had transient hemianopia. MRI showed subcortical T2 hypointensity in the occipital white matter and in or around the central sulcus (two patients each), T2 hyperintensity of the overlying cortex (two patients), focal overlying cortical enhancement (three patients) and bilateral striatal hyperintensity (one patient). Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) performed in three patients showed restricted diffusion. The ictal semiology and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings correlated with the MRI abnormalities. On clinical recovery, the subcortical T2 hypointensity and striatal hyperintensity reversed in all patients. The initial cortical change evolved to FLAIR hyperintensity suggestive of focal cortical gliosis. The radiological differential diagnosis considered initially included encephalitis, malignancy and hemorrhagic infarct rendering a diagnostic dilemma. We identified subcortical T2 hypointensity rather than hyperintensity as a characteristic feature of seizures associated with NKH. Only very few similar reports exist in literature. Reversible bilateral striatal T2 hyperintensity in NKH has not been reported to the best of our knowledge. (orig.)

  14. Hiperceratose focal acral associada à hipocromia de dermatóglifos Focal acral hyperkeratosis with hypochromic dermatoglyphics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rheingantz da Cunha Filho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiperceratose focal acral é dermatose rara caracterizada por pápulas ceratóticas acrais que afetam preferencialmente as superfícies marginais das mãos e dos pés, pertencendo ao grupo das hiperceratoses marginais. Apresentamos variante inédita de mulher de 45 anos de idade, branca, dona-de-casa, sem história familiar, com lesões ceratóticas papulosas localizadas nos pés e hipocromia de dermatóglifos na região afetada. Histologicamente apresentou hiperortoceratose, desnível da epiderme (degrau, acantose e hipergranulose. Os tratamentos com ceratolíticos tópicos foram ineficientes, de forma semelhante aos casos descritos na literatura atual.Focal acral hyperkeratosis is a rare condition, characterized by acral keratotic papules that preferably affect hand and foot surfaces, and are included in the spectrum of marginal papular keratodermas. We report an unpublished variant of this condition, the case of a 45-year-old Caucasian woman with acral keratotic papular lesions and hypochromic dermatoglyphics in the feet. Histological examination revealed orthohyperkeratosis, depression of the epidermis, acanthosis and hypergranulosis. Topical treatments with keratolytics were ineffective, similarly to previously described cases.

  15. A simulation study on the focal plane detector of the LAUE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.; Frontera, F.; Caroli, E.; Virgilli, E.; Valsan, V.

    2015-01-01

    The LAUE project, supported by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), is devoted to the development of a long focal length (even 20 m or longer) Laue lens for gamma ray astronomy between 80 and 600 keV. These lenses take advantage of Bragg diffraction to focus radiation onto a small spot drastically improving the signal to noise ratio as well as reducing the required size of the detector significantly. In this paper we present a Monte-Carlo simulation study with MEGALIB to optimize, for space applications, the detector size to achieve high detection efficiency, and to optimize the position resolution of the detector to reconstruct the Point Spread Function of the lens considered for the LAUE project. Then we will show simulations, using the SILVACO semiconductor simulation toolkit, on the optimized detector to estimate its capacitance per channel and depletion voltage. In all of the simulations, two materials were compared; a low density material (Silicon) and a high density material (Germanium). - Highlights: • The quantized Hall plateaus and Shubnikov de Haas oscillations in transition metal doped topological insulators are observed. • The evidence of a two-dimensional/layered transport of the bulk electrons is reported. • An obvious ferromagnetism in doped topological insulators is observed. • Care should be taken to pindown the transport of the topological SS in topological insulators

  16. A simulation study on the focal plane detector of the LAUE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, M., E-mail: mkhalil@in2p3.fr [APC Laboratory, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat, 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Frontera, F. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat, 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); INAF/IASF-Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna (Italy); Caroli, E. [INAF/IASF-Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna (Italy); Virgilli, E.; Valsan, V. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat, 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2015-06-21

    The LAUE project, supported by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), is devoted to the development of a long focal length (even 20 m or longer) Laue lens for gamma ray astronomy between 80 and 600 keV. These lenses take advantage of Bragg diffraction to focus radiation onto a small spot drastically improving the signal to noise ratio as well as reducing the required size of the detector significantly. In this paper we present a Monte-Carlo simulation study with MEGALIB to optimize, for space applications, the detector size to achieve high detection efficiency, and to optimize the position resolution of the detector to reconstruct the Point Spread Function of the lens considered for the LAUE project. Then we will show simulations, using the SILVACO semiconductor simulation toolkit, on the optimized detector to estimate its capacitance per channel and depletion voltage. In all of the simulations, two materials were compared; a low density material (Silicon) and a high density material (Germanium). - Highlights: • The quantized Hall plateaus and Shubnikov de Haas oscillations in transition metal doped topological insulators are observed. • The evidence of a two-dimensional/layered transport of the bulk electrons is reported. • An obvious ferromagnetism in doped topological insulators is observed. • Care should be taken to pindown the transport of the topological SS in topological insulators.

  17. Determining the relationship between sleep architecture, seizure variables and memory in patients with focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurie A; Ricci, Monica; van Schalkwijk, Frank J; Mohamed, Armin; van der Werf, Ysbrand D

    2016-06-01

    Sleep has been shown to be important to memory. Both sleep and memory have been found to be abnormal in patients with epilepsy. In this study, we explored the effects that nocturnal epileptiform discharges and the presence of a hippocampal lesion have on sleep patterns and memory. Twenty-five patients with focal epilepsy who underwent a 24-hr ambulatory EEG also completed the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ). The EEG record was scored for length of time spent in the various sleep stages, time spent awake after sleep onset, and rapid eye movement (REM) latency. Of these sleep variables, only REM latency differed when the epilepsy patients were divided on the bases of either presence/absence of nocturnal discharges or presence/absence of a hippocampal lesion. In both cases, presence of the abnormality was associated with longer latency. Furthermore, longer REM latency was found to be a better predictor of EMQ score than either number of discharges or presence of a hippocampal lesion. Longer REM latency was associated with a smaller percentage of time spent in slow-wave sleep in the early part of the night and may serve as a particularly sensitive marker to disturbances in sleep architecture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT of epileptic patients showing focal paroxysm on electroencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaishi, Yasuko; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Fujino, Osamu; Kamayachi, Satoshi; Fujita, Takehisa; Enokido, Hisashi; Komatsuzaki, Hideki; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Hirayama, Tsunenori

    1995-01-01

    The usefulness of 99m Tc-HM-PAO SPECT in diagnosing epilepsy was studied. The subjects were 33 epileptic patients, ranging in age from 5 years and 5 months to 28 years and 3 months, who showed focal paroxysm on electroencephalograms. Lowered accumulation site was found on SPECT in 19 patients. Four patients with abnormal findings on X-ray CT or MRI showed lowered accumulation and focal paroxysm at the same site. Of 29 patients with normal X-ray CT or MRI findings, 15 (52%) showed lowered accumulation. Five patients showed a focal paroxysm at the site of lowered accumulation. In 8 patients the focal paroxysm site was partly coincided with the accumulation site. In some patients the focal site predicted by the findings of clinical symptoms and the lowered accumulation site coincided. SPECT is therefore a useful method in diagnosing a focal site in epilepsy and considered to reflect the severity of disease. (Y.S.)

  19. Quantifying Short-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin Congener Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Bo; Bogdal, Christian; Berger, Urs; MacLeod, Matthew; Gebbink, Wouter A.; Alsberg, Tomas; Wit, de Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate quantification of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) poses an exceptional challenge to analytical chemists. SCCPs are complex mixtures of chlorinated alkanes with variable chain length and chlorination level; congeners with a fixed chain length (n) and number of chlorines (m) are

  20. Oligonucleotide Length-Dependent Formation of Virus-Like Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maassen, Stan J; de Ruiter, Mark V; Lindhoud, Saskia; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M

    2018-05-23

    Understanding the assembly pathway of viruses can contribute to creating monodisperse virus-based materials. In this study, the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is used to determine the interactions between the capsid proteins of viruses and their cargo. The assembly of the capsid proteins in the presence of different lengths of short, single-stranded (ss) DNA is studied at neutral pH, at which the protein-protein interactions are weak. Chromatography, electrophoresis, microscopy, and light scattering data show that the assembly efficiency and speed of the particles increase with increasing length of oligonucleotides. The minimal length required for assembly under the conditions used herein is 14 nucleotides. Assembly of particles containing such short strands of ssDNA can take almost a month. This slow assembly process enabled the study of intermediate states, which confirmed a low cooperative assembly for CCMV and allowed for further expansion of current assembly theories. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.