WorldWideScience

Sample records for short film sequences

  1. "Fate: The short film"

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Quintana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    "Fate: The Short Film" is a four minute short film which reflects the idea that nobody can escape from the fate. It has a good picture and sound quality with an understandable message for all public and with the collaboration of actors, filmmaker, stylist, script advisor and media technician.

  2. A Long Look at the Short Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Franklin, Jr.

    1971-01-01

    The history of the short film and the single concept film loop is presented. Lists fourteen reasons why it may be necessary to make and use a film loop. Film loop projectors are analyzed according to present features and deficiencies with predictions on future improvements. (DS)

  3. Short sequence motifs, overrepresented in mammalian conservednon-coding sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minovitsky, Simon; Stegmaier, Philip; Kel, Alexander; Kondrashov,Alexey S.; Dubchak, Inna

    2007-02-21

    Background: A substantial fraction of non-coding DNAsequences of multicellular eukaryotes is under selective constraint. Inparticular, ~;5 percent of the human genome consists of conservednon-coding sequences (CNSs). CNSs differ from other genomic sequences intheir nucleotide composition and must play important functional roles,which mostly remain obscure.Results: We investigated relative abundancesof short sequence motifs in all human CNSs present in the human/mousewhole-genome alignments vs. three background sets of sequences: (i)weakly conserved or unconserved non-coding sequences (non-CNSs); (ii)near-promoter sequences (located between nucleotides -500 and -1500,relative to a start of transcription); and (iii) random sequences withthe same nucleotide composition as that of CNSs. When compared tonon-CNSs and near-promoter sequences, CNSs possess an excess of AT-richmotifs, often containing runs of identical nucleotides. In contrast, whencompared to random sequences, CNSs contain an excess of GC-rich motifswhich, however, lack CpG dinucleotides. Thus, abundance of short sequencemotifs in human CNSs, taken as a whole, is mostly determined by theiroverall compositional properties and not by overrepresentation of anyspecific short motifs. These properties are: (i) high AT-content of CNSs,(ii) a tendency, probably due to context-dependent mutation, of A's andT's to clump, (iii) presence of short GC-rich regions, and (iv) avoidanceof CpG contexts, due to their hypermutability. Only a small number ofshort motifs, overrepresented in all human CNSs are similar to bindingsites of transcription factors from the FOX family.Conclusion: Human CNSsas a whole appear to be too broad a class of sequences to possess strongfootprints of any short sequence-specific functions. Such footprintsshould be studied at the level of functional subclasses of CNSs, such asthose which flank genes with a particular pattern of expression. Overallproperties of CNSs are affected by

  4. Short-film Festival at the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Get out your diaries and prepare to be star-struck as the Globe of Science and Innovation meets the silver screen! The CERN "Open Your Eyes Films" film-making club is organising a festival of short films entitled CinéGlobe from Thursday 8 to Saturday 10 November. On the Thursday and Friday, you’ll be able to watch 47 short films free of charge in the Globe of Science and Innovation at various times of the day. The short films to be screened come from 21 different countries and have been selected from among 1400 entrees! All film genres will be represented : comedy, drama, animation, documentaries, experimental films, etc. Members of the public will even be able to vote for their favourite film: the audience’s favourite will be awarded a "Coup de coeur" award. An awards ceremony to honour the films that have received most votes will be held on Friday evening in the Globe of Science and Innovation. The Golden CinéGlobe for bes...

  5. Targeted assembly of short sequence reads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René L Warren

    Full Text Available As next-generation sequence (NGS production continues to increase, analysis is becoming a significant bottleneck. However, in situations where information is required only for specific sequence variants, it is not necessary to assemble or align whole genome data sets in their entirety. Rather, NGS data sets can be mined for the presence of sequence variants of interest by localized assembly, which is a faster, easier, and more accurate approach. We present TASR, a streamlined assembler that interrogates very large NGS data sets for the presence of specific variants by only considering reads within the sequence space of input target sequences provided by the user. The NGS data set is searched for reads with an exact match to all possible short words within the target sequence, and these reads are then assembled stringently to generate a consensus of the target and flanking sequence. Typically, variants of a particular locus are provided as different target sequences, and the presence of the variant in the data set being interrogated is revealed by a successful assembly outcome. However, TASR can also be used to find unknown sequences that flank a given target. We demonstrate that TASR has utility in finding or confirming genomic mutations, polymorphisms, fusions and integration events. Targeted assembly is a powerful method for interrogating large data sets for the presence of sequence variants of interest. TASR is a fast, flexible and easy to use tool for targeted assembly.

  6. Cinematic diamonds : narrative storytelling strategies in short fiction film

    OpenAIRE

    Cantell, Saara (kirjoittaja); Jeremiah, Fleur (kääntäjä)

    2012-01-01

    Saara Cantell proposes and discusses alternative ways of approaching short film. This book emphasizes short film as an independent and challenging cinematic art form of its own right. The "mystery" of short film is approached by examining the aesthetics of other short forms, The structural parallels between e.g. jokes and short films, as well as narrative strategies found in poetry, offer meaningful references. The research consists of both the analysis of selected short films and the five sh...

  7. Long life of a short film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, R V

    2000-01-01

    What follows is an account of my personal experiences as an independent Indian film director who had the fortune to make the country's first openly gay film, the short BOMgAY That said, I would like this essay to be accepted as, rather than a critical appraisal of Indian cinema, a humbly autobiographical account of one individual caught in the hectic throes of political (and cinematic) visibility.

  8. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Reis Milagres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

  9. Plat du jour – Short Films!

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2014-01-01

    Next week, take a break from the cafeteria and have a ciné-lunch at the Globe!   How about if, for a change, you forgot your lunch meeting and went to the movies with your colleagues (or that person that you always wanted to ask out) right here on the CERN site? CERN will be hosting the next CineGlobe International Film Festival from 18 to 23 March in the Globe of Science and Innovation, with the theme "Beyond the Frontier". The 4th annual festival will see 66 short films "inspired by science" in competition, including fiction films as well as documentaries. From Tuesday 18 to Friday 21, special lunch sessions will take place from 12.30 p.m. to 1.30 p.m. Food will be available for purchase at the “Café Cinéma” tent next to the Globe. Special evenings: While the short film screenings are the heart of the festival, each year CineGlobe also organises compelling special events every night, from feature fil...

  10. Optimization of short amino acid sequences classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcz, Aleksy; Szymański, Zbigniew

    This article describes processing methods used for short amino acid sequences classification. The data processed are 9-symbols string representations of amino acid sequences, divided into 49 data sets - each one containing samples labeled as reacting or not with given enzyme. The goal of the classification is to determine for a single enzyme, whether an amino acid sequence would react with it or not. Each data set is processed separately. Feature selection is performed to reduce the number of dimensions for each data set. The method used for feature selection consists of two phases. During the first phase, significant positions are selected using Classification and Regression Trees. Afterwards, symbols appearing at the selected positions are substituted with numeric values of amino acid properties taken from the AAindex database. In the second phase the new set of features is reduced using a correlation-based ranking formula and Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. Finally, the preprocessed data is used for training LS-SVM classifiers. SPDE, an evolutionary algorithm, is used to obtain optimal hyperparameters for the LS-SVM classifier, such as error penalty parameter C and kernel-specific hyperparameters. A simple score penalty is used to adapt the SPDE algorithm to the task of selecting classifiers with best performance measures values.

  11. Colliding droplets: a short film presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    A series of experiments were performed in which liquid droplets were caused to collide. Impact velocities to several meters per second and droplet diameters up to 600 micrometers were used. The impact parameters in the collisions vary from zero to greater than the sum of the droplet radii. Photographs of the collisions were taken with a high speed framing camera in order to study the impacts and subsequent behavior of the droplets. The experiments will be discussed and a short movie film presentation of some of the impacts will be shown

  12. Developing Short Films of Geoscience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.; Harrild, M.; Kienenberger, D.; Salganek, M.

    2015-12-01

    In today's prevalence of social media and networking, video products are becoming increasingly more useful to communicate research quickly and effectively to a diverse audience, including outreach activities as well as within the research community and to funding agencies. Due to the observational nature of geoscience, researchers often take photos and video footage to document fieldwork or to record laboratory experiments. Here we present how researchers can become more effective storytellers by collaborating with filmmakers to produce short documentary films of their research. We will focus on the use of traditional high-definition (HD) camcorders and HD DSLR cameras to record the scientific story while our research topic focuses on the use of remote sensing techniques, specifically thermal infrared imaging that is often used to analyze time varying natural processes such as volcanic hazards. By capturing the story in the thermal infrared wavelength range, in addition to traditional red-green-blue (RGB) color space, the audience is able to experience the world differently. We will develop a short film specifically designed using thermal infrared cameras that illustrates how visual storytellers can use these new tools to capture unique and important aspects of their research, convey their passion for earth systems science, as well as engage and captive the viewer.

  13. Short read sequence typing (SRST: multi-locus sequence types from short reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inouye Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST has become the gold standard for population analyses of bacterial pathogens. This method focuses on the sequences of a small number of loci (usually seven to divide the population and is simple, robust and facilitates comparison of results between laboratories and over time. Over the last decade, researchers and population health specialists have invested substantial effort in building up public MLST databases for nearly 100 different bacterial species, and these databases contain a wealth of important information linked to MLST sequence types such as time and place of isolation, host or niche, serotype and even clinical or drug resistance profiles. Recent advances in sequencing technology mean it is increasingly feasible to perform bacterial population analysis at the whole genome level. This offers massive gains in resolving power and genetic profiling compared to MLST, and will eventually replace MLST for bacterial typing and population analysis. However given the wealth of data currently available in MLST databases, it is crucial to maintain backwards compatibility with MLST schemes so that new genome analyses can be understood in their proper historical context. Results We present a software tool, SRST, for quick and accurate retrieval of sequence types from short read sets, using inputs easily downloaded from public databases. SRST uses read mapping and an allele assignment score incorporating sequence coverage and variability, to determine the most likely allele at each MLST locus. Analysis of over 3,500 loci in more than 500 publicly accessible Illumina read sets showed SRST to be highly accurate at allele assignment. SRST output is compatible with common analysis tools such as eBURST, Clonal Frame or PhyloViz, allowing easy comparison between novel genome data and MLST data. Alignment, fastq and pileup files can also be generated for novel alleles. Conclusions SRST is a novel

  14. The Long and the Short of It: The Use of Short Films in the German Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, John

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the benefits of using short film in the German classroom at the secondary or post-secondary level. The article addresses a number of characteristics of short films that lend themselves well to the classroom, including their abbreviated length, artistic innovation, and compact storytelling. In addition to discussing specific…

  15. A Short Is Worth a Thousand Films!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, Maria Palmira; Blázquez, Bettiana Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The importance of visual input in the contemporary ELT classroom is such that it is commonplace to use audiovisual elements provided by pictures, films, clips and the like. The power of images is unquestionable, and as the old saying goes, an image is worth a thousand words. Following this line of reasoning, the objective of this article is to…

  16. A short TE gradient-echo sequence using asymmetric sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Norihiko; Harada, Kohshi; Sakurai, Kosuke; Nakanishi, Katsuyuki; Kim, Shyogen; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1990-01-01

    We have developed a gradient-echo pulse sequence with a short TE less than 4 msec using a data set of asymmetric off-center sampling with a broad bandwidth. The use of such a short TE significantly reduces T 2 * dephasing effect even in a two-dimensional mode, and by collecting an off-center echo, motion-induced phase dispersion is also considerably decreased. High immunity of this sequence to these dephasing effects permits clear visualization of anatomical details near the skull base where large local field inhomogeneities and rapid blood flow such as in the internal carotid artery are present. (author)

  17. Design and production of a short 2D animated film

    OpenAIRE

    Prusnik, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Design and production of a short 2D animated film The thesis aims at analysing animation, the process of creating an ani- mated film with its technical and compositional details as well as show the process of making a short 2D animated movie with Toon Boom Studio. It is composed of theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part of this thesis consists of the definition of the term "animation", a quick overview of its history and evolution, and an in-depth look into var...

  18. Studying a free fall experiment using short sequences of images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, Francisco; Romanque, Cristian

    2008-01-01

    We discuss a new alternative for obtaining position and time coordinates from a video of a free fall experiment. In our approach, after converting the video to a short sequence of images, the images are analyzed using a web page application developed by the author. The main advantage of the setup explained in this work, is that it is simple to use, no software license fees are necessary, and can be scaled-up to be used by a big number of students in introductory physics courses. The steps involved in the full analysis of a falling object are: we grab a short digital video of the experiment and convert it to a sequence of images, then, using a web page that includes all the necessary javascript, the student can easily click on the object of interest to obtain the (x,y,t) coordinates, finally, the student analyze motion using a spreadsheet.

  19. SAAS: Short Amino Acid Sequence - A Promising Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Method of Single Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yuan Wu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In statistical methods of predicting protein secondary structure, many researchers focus on single amino acid frequencies in α-helices, β-sheets, and so on, or the impact near amino acids on an amino acid forming a secondary structure. But the paper considers a short sequence of amino acids (3, 4, 5 or 6 amino acids as integer, and statistics short sequence's probability forming secondary structure. Also, many researchers select low homologous sequences as statistical database. But this paper select whole PDB database. In this paper we propose a strategy to predict protein secondary structure using simple statistical method. Numerical computation shows that, short amino acids sequence as integer to statistics, which can easy see trend of short sequence forming secondary structure, and it will work well to select large statistical database (whole PDB database without considering homologous, and Q3 accuracy is ca. 74% using this paper proposed simple statistical method, but accuracy of others statistical methods is less than 70%.

  20. "YouTube Geology" - Increasing Geoscience Visibility Through Short Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piispa, E. J.; Lerner, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have the responsibility to communicate their science to a broad audience: scientists, non-scientist, young and old. Effective ways of reaching these groups include using pathways that genuinely spark interest in the target audience. Communication techniques should evolve as the means of communication evolve. Here we talk about our experiences using short films to increase geoscience visibility and appreciation. At a time when brevity and quick engagement are vital to capturing people's attention, creating videos that fit popular formats is an effective way to draw and hold people's interest, and spreading these videos on popular sites is a good way to reach a non-academic audience. Creating videos that are fun, exciting, and catchy in order to initially increase awareness and interest is equally important as the educational content. The visual medium can also be powerful way to make complex scientific concepts seem less intimidating. We have experimented with this medium of geoscience communication by creating a number of short films that target a variety of audiences: short summaries of research topics, mock movie trailers, course advertisements, fieldwork highlight reels and geology lessons for elementary school children. Our two rules of thumb are to put the audience first and use style as a vital element. This allows for the creation of films that are more engaging and often less serious than standard informational (and longer-format) videos. Science does not need to be dry and dull - it can be humorous and entertaining while remaining highly accurate. Doing these short films has changed our own mindset as well - thinking about what to film while doing research helps keep the practical applications of our research in focus. We see a great deal of potential for collaboration between geoscientists and amateur or professional filmmakers creating hip and edgy videos that further raise awareness and interest. People like movies. We like movies. We like

  1. Regulated and Liberated Bodies of Schoolgirls in a Finnish Short Film from the 1950s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Marjo

    2018-01-01

    This article focuses on the bodies of schoolgirls as visualised and represented in a short film of Finnish secondary schools for girls in the 1950s. The film, "Oma tyttökouluni" ("My Own Girls' School") was released in 1957 and was screened in cinemas in advance of feature films. Although the short film was made in a…

  2. AGU Cinema: Festival of short science films at Fall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Douglas A.

    2012-11-01

    New technologies have revolutionized the use of video as a means of science communication and have made it easier to create, distribute, and view. With video having become omnipresent in our culture, it sometime supplements or even replaces writing in many science and education applications. An inaugural science film festival sponsored by AGU at the 2012 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif., in December will showcase short videos—30 minutes or less in length—developed to disseminate scientific results to various audiences and to enhance learning in the classroom. AGU Cinema will feature professionally produced, big budget films alongside low-budget videos aimed at niche audiences and made by amateurs. The latter category includes videos made by governmental agency scientists, educators, communications specialists within scientific organizations, and Fall Meeting oral and poster presenters.

  3. A Quantitative Approach to Variables Affecting Production of Short Films in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Akman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the influence of various variables affecting the production of migration themed short films in Turkey. We proceeded to our analysis using descriptive statistics to describe the main futures of the sample data quantitatively. Due to non-uniformity of the data available, we were unable to use inductive statistics. Our basic sample statistical results indicated that short film producers prefered to produce short films on domestic migration theme rather than international. Gender and university seemed on surface as significant determinants to the production of migration themed short films in Turkey. We also looked at the demografic variables to provide more insights into our quantitative approach.

  4. Quantitative and qualitative problems of short film production in cinema education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkanı Mehmet Emrah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Turkish cinema has completed its 100 years, short film could not find the place it deserves in the institutions and in the sector. There are problems in terms of the narrative and technical characteristics of short films beside presentation, marketing and international festival attendance issues. Low budgets, course schedules and structures of the cinema departments and short films and the sector’s ignorance of the importance of short film are the obstacles to the development of short films in Turkey. Increasing the government support, strengthening the cooperation between the sector and the university, improving the festivals’ screening conditions, reforming the arrangements to increase the sponsorship incentives, solving the equipment problems of the institutions will positively affect the productivity of Turkish cinema.

  5. De novo assembly of human genomes with massively parallel short read sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ruiqiang; Zhu, Hongmei; Ruan, Jue

    2010-01-01

    genomes from short read sequences. We successfully assembled both the Asian and African human genome sequences, achieving an N50 contig size of 7.4 and 5.9 kilobases (kb) and scaffold of 446.3 and 61.9 kb, respectively. The development of this de novo short read assembly method creates new opportunities...... for building reference sequences and carrying out accurate analyses of unexplored genomes in a cost-effective way....

  6. Interference by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) RNA is governed by a seed sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenova, E.V.; Jore, M.M.; Westra, E.R.; Oost, van der J.; Brouns, S.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Prokaryotic clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas (CRISPR-associated sequences) systems provide adaptive immunity against viruses when a spacer sequence of small CRISPR RNA (crRNA) matches a protospacer sequence in the viral genome. Viruses that escape CRISPR/Cas

  7. [Teaching coping strategies to parents of children suffering from cancer using a short film].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, M C; Barón, Ma Carmen Espada; Grau, C; Rubio, Claudia Grau; Fortes, M C; Fortes del Valle, Ma Carmen

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the usefulness of a short film in teaching strategies for parents of children with cancer to cope with the situation. The short film is based on an analysis of the transcripts from eight sessions of a self-help group. The short film has been evaluated by psychologists working for each of the parent groups belonging to the Federation of parents of children with cancer. Furthermore, the film has been exhibited in group sessions that took place in the Valencia and Alicante branches of ASPANION (Association of Parents with Oncologic Children in the Valencia Region). About 70% of the experts have declared that the film is a valuable resource for teaching useful strategies to parents. The film also improves the group sessions since it addresses a number of issues that had not been addressed before, and it stimulates the participation of, and communication between, parents during the session.

  8. ISRNA: an integrative online toolkit for short reads from high-throughput sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guan-Zheng; Yang, Wei; Ma, Ying-Ke; Wang, Xiu-Jie

    2014-02-01

    Integrative Short Reads NAvigator (ISRNA) is an online toolkit for analyzing high-throughput small RNA sequencing data. Besides the high-speed genome mapping function, ISRNA provides statistics for genomic location, length distribution and nucleotide composition bias analysis of sequence reads. Number of reads mapped to known microRNAs and other classes of short non-coding RNAs, coverage of short reads on genes, expression abundance of sequence reads as well as some other analysis functions are also supported. The versatile search functions enable users to select sequence reads according to their sub-sequences, expression abundance, genomic location, relationship to genes, etc. A specialized genome browser is integrated to visualize the genomic distribution of short reads. ISRNA also supports management and comparison among multiple datasets. ISRNA is implemented in Java/C++/Perl/MySQL and can be freely accessed at http://omicslab.genetics.ac.cn/ISRNA/.

  9. Car sequencing is NP-hard: a short proof

    OpenAIRE

    B Estellon; F Gardi

    2013-01-01

    In this note, a new proof is given that the car sequencing (CS) problem is NP-hard. Established from the Hamiltonian Path problem, the reduction is direct while closing some gaps remaining in the previous NP-hardness results. Since CS is studied in many operational research courses, this result and its proof are particularly interesting for teaching purposes.

  10. Short Note DNA sequences from the Little Brown Bustard Eupodotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxonomic classification of birds based exclusively on morphology and plumage traits has often been found to be inconsistent with true evolutionary history when tested with molecular phylogenies based on neutrally evolving markers. Here we present cytochrome-b gene sequences for the poorly known Little Brown ...

  11. Tools for analyzing genetic variants from sequencing data Case study: short tandem repeats

    OpenAIRE

    Gymrek, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    This was presented as a BitesizeBio Webinar entitled "Tools for analyzing genetic variants from sequencing data Case study: short tandem repeats"Accompanying scripts can be accessed on github:https://github.com/mgymrek/mgymrek-bitesizebio-webinar 

  12. Heat wave propagation in a thin film irradiated by ultra-short laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Gwon; Kim, Cheol Jung; Lim, C. H.

    2004-01-01

    A thermal wave solution of a hyperbolic heat conduction equation in a thin film is developed on the basis of the Green's function formalism. Numerical computations are carried out to investigate the temperature response and the propagation of the thermal wave inside a thin film due to a heat pulse generated by ultra-short laser pulses with various laser pulse durations and thickness of the film

  13. Student production: making a realistic stereo CG short film in six months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Celambarasan

    2010-02-01

    This paper breaks down the R&D and production challenges faced on a stereoscopic CG short film that was developed on a six month time budget. Using this film as an example, the manner in which technical innovation and story telling techniques can be used to emphasize the strengths and hide the weaknesses of a limited timeframe student production is discussed.

  14. Annealing of SnO2 thin films by ultra-short laser pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scorticati, D.; Illiberi, A.; Bor, T.; Eijt, S.W.H.; Schut, H.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Lange, D.F. de; Huis In't Veld, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Post-deposition annealing by ultra-short laser pulses can modify the optical properties of SnO2 thin films by means of thermal processing. Industrial grade SnO2 films exhibited improved optical properties after picosecond laser irradiation, at the expense of a slightly increased sheet resistance

  15. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni applying flaA short variable region sequencing, multilocus sequencing and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Bonnichsen, Lise; Larsson, Jonas

    flaA short variable region sequencing and phenetic Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was applied on a collection of 102 Campylobacter jejuni isolated from continuous sampling of organic, free range geese and chickens. FTIR has been shown to serve as a valuable tool in typing...

  16. Finish your film! tips and tricks for making an animated short in Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Kenny

    2014-01-01

    Finish Your Film! Tips and Tricks for Making an Animated Short in Maya is a first-of-its-kind book that walks the reader step-by-step through the actual production processes of creating a 3D Short film with Maya. Other books focus solely on the creative decisions of 3D Animation and broadly cover the multiple phases of animation production with no real applicable methods for readers to employ. This book shows you how to successfully manage the entire Maya animation pipeline. This book blends together valuable technical tips on film production and real-world shortcuts in a step-by-step approach

  17. Temperature dependence of dynamical permeability characterization of magnetic thin films using shorted microstrip line probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiling; Li, Chengyi; Chai, Guozhi

    2017-01-01

    A temperature dependence microwave permeability characterization system of magnetic thin film up to 10 GHz is designed and fabricated. This system can be used at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 200 °C, and is based on a shorted microstrip probe, which is made by microwave printed circuit board. Without contacting the magnetic thin films to the probe, the microwave permeability of the film can be detected without any limitations of sample size and with almost the same accuracy, as shown by comparison with the results obtained from a shorted microstrip transmission-line fixture. The complex permeability can be deduced by an analytical approach from the measured reflection coefficient of a strip line ( S 11 ) with and without a ferromagnetic film material on it. The procedures are the same with the shorted microstrip transmission-line method. The microwave permeability of an oblique deposited CoZr thin film was investigated with this probe. The results show that the room temperature dynamic permeability of the CoZr film is in good agreement with the results obtained from the established short-circuited microstrip perturbation method. The temperature dependence permeability results fit well with the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. Development of the temperature-dependent measurement of the magnetic properties of magnetic thin film may be useful for the high-frequency application of magnetic devices at high temperatures. (paper)

  18. Structure of the short-range atomic order of WO3 amorphous films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olevskij, S.S.; Sergeev, M.S.; Tolstikhina, A.L.; Avilov, A.S.; Shkornyakov, S.M.; Semiletov, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    To study the causes of electrochromism manifestation in thin tungsten oxide films, the structure of WO 3 amorphous films has been investigated. The films were obtained by three different methods: by W(CO) 6 tungsten carbonyl pyrolysis, by high-frequency ion-plasma sputtering of a target prepared by WO 3 powder sintering, and by WO 3 powder thermal evaporation. Monocrystalline wafers of silicon and sodium chloride were used as substrates. The structure of short-range order in WO 3 amorphous films varies versus, the method of preparation in compliance with the type of polyhedral elements, (WO 6 , WO 5 ) and with the character of their packing (contacts via edges or vertices). Manifestation of electroc ro mism in WO 3 films prepared by varions methods and having different structure of short-range order is supposed to be realized through various mechanisms. One cannot exclude a potential simultaneous effect of the two coloration mechanisms

  19. Chromium carbide thin films deposited by ultra-short pulse laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teghil, R.; Santagata, A.; De Bonis, A.; Galasso, A.; Villani, P.

    2009-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition performed by a laser with a pulse duration of 250 fs has been used to deposit films from a Cr 3 C 2 target. Due to the different processes involved in the laser ablation when it is performed by an ultra-short pulse source instead of a conventional short pulse one, it has been possible to obtain in vacuum films containing only one type of carbide, Cr 3 C 2 , as shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On the other hand, Cr 3 C 2 is not the only component of the films, since a large amount of amorphous carbon is also present. The films, deposited at room temperature, are amorphous and seem to be formed by the coalescence of a large number of particles with nanometric size. The film composition can be explained in terms of thermal evaporation from particles ejected from the target.

  20. SRComp: short read sequence compression using burstsort and Elias omega coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy John Selva

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies permit the rapid production of vast amounts of data at low cost. Economical data storage and transmission hence becomes an increasingly important challenge for NGS experiments. In this paper, we introduce a new non-reference based read sequence compression tool called SRComp. It works by first employing a fast string-sorting algorithm called burstsort to sort read sequences in lexicographical order and then Elias omega-based integer coding to encode the sorted read sequences. SRComp has been benchmarked on four large NGS datasets, where experimental results show that it can run 5-35 times faster than current state-of-the-art read sequence compression tools such as BEETL and SCALCE, while retaining comparable compression efficiency for large collections of short read sequences. SRComp is a read sequence compression tool that is particularly valuable in certain applications where compression time is of major concern.

  1. Hybridization Capture Using Short PCR Products Enriches Small Genomes by Capturing Flanking Sequences (CapFlank)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Wales, Nathan; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    , a non-negligible fraction of the resulting sequence reads are not homologous to the bait. We demonstrate that during capture, the bait-hybridized library molecules add additional flanking library sequences iteratively, such that baits limited to targeting relatively short regions (e.g. few hundred...... nucleotides) can result in enrichment across entire mitochondrial and bacterial genomes. Our findings suggest that some of the off-target sequences derived in capture experiments are non-randomly enriched, and that CapFlank will facilitate targeted enrichment of large contiguous sequences with minimal prior...

  2. Characterizing novel endogenous retroviruses from genetic variation inferred from short sequence reads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourier, Tobias; Mollerup, Sarah; Vinner, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    From Illumina sequencing of DNA from brain and liver tissue from the lion, Panthera leo, and tumor samples from the pike-perch, Sander lucioperca, we obtained two assembled sequence contigs with similarity to known retroviruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the pike-perch retrovirus belongs...... to the epsilonretroviruses, and the lion retrovirus to the gammaretroviruses. To determine if these novel retroviral sequences originate from an endogenous retrovirus or from a recently integrated exogenous retrovirus, we assessed the genetic diversity of the parental sequences from which the short Illumina reads...

  3. Salt-bridging effects on short amphiphilic helical structure and introducing sequence-based short beta-turn motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarracino, Danielle A; Gentile, Kayla; Grossman, Alec; Li, Evan; Refai, Nader; Mohnot, Joy; King, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Determining the minimal sequence necessary to induce protein folding is beneficial in understanding the role of protein-protein interactions in biological systems, as their three-dimensional structures often dictate their activity. Proteins are generally comprised of discrete secondary structures, from α-helices to β-turns and larger β-sheets, each of which is influenced by its primary structure. Manipulating the sequence of short, moderately helical peptides can help elucidate the influences on folding. We created two new scaffolds based on a modestly helical eight-residue peptide, PT3, we previously published. Using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and changing the possible salt-bridging residues to new combinations of Lys, Arg, Glu, and Asp, we found that our most helical improvements came from the Arg-Glu combination, whereas the Lys-Asp was not significantly different from the Lys-Glu of the parent scaffold, PT3. The marked 3 10 -helical contributions in PT3 were lessened in the Arg-Glu-containing peptide with the beginning of cooperative unfolding seen through a thermal denaturation. However, a unique and unexpected signature was seen for the denaturation of the Lys-Asp peptide which could help elucidate the stages of folding between the 3 10 and α-helix. In addition, we developed a short six-residue peptide with β-turn/sheet CD signature, again to help study minimal sequences needed for folding. Overall, the results indicate that improvements made to short peptide scaffolds by fine-tuning the salt-bridging residues can enhance scaffold structure. Likewise, with the results from the new, short β-turn motif, these can help impact future peptidomimetic designs in creating biologically useful, short, structured β-sheet-forming peptides.

  4. Accurate typing of short tandem repeats from genome-wide sequencing data and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungtammasan, Arkarachai; Ananda, Guruprasad; Hile, Suzanne E; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Sun, Chen; Harris, Robert; Medvedev, Paul; Eckert, Kristin; Makova, Kateryna D

    2015-05-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) are implicated in dozens of human genetic diseases and contribute significantly to genome variation and instability. Yet profiling STRs from short-read sequencing data is challenging because of their high sequencing error rates. Here, we developed STR-FM, short tandem repeat profiling using flank-based mapping, a computational pipeline that can detect the full spectrum of STR alleles from short-read data, can adapt to emerging read-mapping algorithms, and can be applied to heterogeneous genetic samples (e.g., tumors, viruses, and genomes of organelles). We used STR-FM to study STR error rates and patterns in publicly available human and in-house generated ultradeep plasmid sequencing data sets. We discovered that STRs sequenced with a PCR-free protocol have up to ninefold fewer errors than those sequenced with a PCR-containing protocol. We constructed an error correction model for genotyping STRs that can distinguish heterozygous alleles containing STRs with consecutive repeat numbers. Applying our model and pipeline to Illumina sequencing data with 100-bp reads, we could confidently genotype several disease-related long trinucleotide STRs. Utilizing this pipeline, for the first time we determined the genome-wide STR germline mutation rate from a deeply sequenced human pedigree. Additionally, we built a tool that recommends minimal sequencing depth for accurate STR genotyping, depending on repeat length and sequencing read length. The required read depth increases with STR length and is lower for a PCR-free protocol. This suite of tools addresses the pressing challenges surrounding STR genotyping, and thus is of wide interest to researchers investigating disease-related STRs and STR evolution. © 2015 Fungtammasan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. The effect of music background on the emotional appraisal of film sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Ivanka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of musical background on the emotional appraisal of film sequences was investigated. Four pairs of polar emotions defined in Plutchik’s model were used as basic emotional qualities: joy-sadness, anticipation-surprise, fear-anger, and trust disgust. In the preliminary study eight film sequences and eight music themes were selected as the best representatives of all eight Plutchik’s emotions. In the main experiment the participant judged the emotional qualities of film-music combinations on eight seven-point scales. Half of the combinations were congruent (e.g. joyful film - joyful music, and half were incongruent (e.g. joyful film - sad music. Results have shown that visual information (film had greater effects on the emotion appraisal than auditory information (music. The modulation effects of music background depend on emotional qualities. In some incongruent combinations (joysadness the modulations in the expected directions were obtained (e.g. joyful music reduces the sadness of a sad film, in some cases (anger-fear no modulation effects were obtained, and in some cases (trust-disgust, anticipation-surprise the modulation effects were in an unexpected direction (e.g. trustful music increased the appraisal of disgust of a disgusting film. These results suggest that the appraisals of conjoint effects of emotions depend on the medium (film masks the music and emotional quality (three types of modulation effects.

  6. Exploring the Impact of a Culturally Tailored Short Film in Modifying Dementia Stigma Among Chinese Americans: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Chung, Jamie O P; Woo, Benjamin K P

    2016-04-01

    Chinese Americans, one of the fastest growing ethnic groups among the US elderly population, perceive high levels of dementia stigma. The authors examined the extent of the stigma and explored the impact of media through a culturally tailored short film to modify dementia stigma. Chinese American participants were asked to answer a dementia questionnaire. A short film was then used to address the impact of media on dementia stigma. Among 90 randomly selected participants, 89% (n = 80) found the short film to be a useful way to modify their misconceptions about dementia. In the comparison between the group who felt less influenced by the short film and the group who recognized the short film to be extremely helpful, the latter group had a higher baseline of stigma toward dementia, as well as a shorter duration of residence in the USA. Chinese Americans still perceive severe dementia stigma. Nevertheless, a culturally tailored short film demonstrated promising impact in modifying stigma toward dementia.

  7. Preparation and properties of biodegradable films from Sterculia urens short fiber/cellulose green composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaramudu, J; Reddy, G Siva Mohan; Varaprasad, K; Sadiku, E R; Sinha Ray, S; Varada Rajulu, A

    2013-04-02

    The development of commercially viable "green products", based on natural resources for the matrices and reinforcements, in a wide range of applications, is on the rise. The present paper focuses on Sterculia urens short fiber reinforced pure cellulose matrix composite films. The morphologies of the untreated and 5% NaOH (alkali) treated S. urens fibers were observed by SEM. The effect of 5% NaOH treated S. urens fiber (5, 10, 15 and 20% loading) on the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the composites films is discussed. This paper presents the developments made in the area of biodegradable S. urens short fiber/cellulose (SUSF/cellulose) composite films, buried in the soil and later investigated by the (POM), before and after biodegradation has taken place. SUSF/cellulose composite films have great potential in food packaging and for medical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness of Combined Tear Film Therapy in Patients with Evaporative Dry Eye with Short Tear Film Breakup Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yung Hui; Kang, Yeon Soo; Lee, Hyo Seok; Choi, Won; You, In Cheon; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of combined tear film therapy targeted to aqueous, mucin, and lipid layers in patients with refractory evaporative dry eye (EDE) with short tear film breakup time (TBUT). The patients who had EDE with short TBUT and severe symptoms refractory to artificial tears were treated with hyaluronic acid (HA) 0.15% and diquafosol tetrasodium (DQS) 3% (Group 1), HA and carbomer-based lipid-containing eyedrops (Liposic EDO Gel, LPO) (Group 2), or HA, DQS, and LPO (Group 3). Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, visual analog scale (VAS) symptom score, TBUT, Schirmer score, and corneal and conjunctival staining scores were evaluated, and noninvasive tear film breakup time (NIBUT) and tear meniscus height were measured using Keratograph ® 5 M before and 1 and 3 months after treatment. OSDI scores, VAS scores, TBUT, and NIBUT were improved at 1 and 3 months after treatment in all groups (all P film layers was most effective in improving ocular symptoms and tear film quality.

  9. Magneto-optical enhancement of TbFeCo/Al films at short wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, K.; Ito, H.; Naoe, M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the bilayered films composed of magneto-optical (MO) amorphous Tb-Te-Co alloy and reflective Al layers were deposited successively on glass slide substrates without plasma exposure by using the facing targets sputtering system. The specimen films with the thickness of MO layer t MO below 5 nm showed apparent perpendicular magnetic anisotropy constant Ku of 2 to 3 x 10 6 erg/cm3 and rectangular Kerr loop. The specimen film with t MO of 14 nm took the Kerr rotation angle θ k as large as about 0.36 degree, at the wavelength λ as short as about 400 nm. These values of θ k is considerably larger than those of the bilayered films in the conventional MO media. Normally, the bilayered films with t MO above 50 nm took θ k of about 0.25 degree at θ k of 400 nm

  10. The influence of sequence of precursor films on CZTSe thin films prepared by ion-beam sputtering deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Liang, Guangxing; Zeng, Yang; Fan, Ping; Hu, Juguang; Luo, Jingting; Zhang, Dongping

    2017-02-01

    The CuZnSn (CZT) precursor thin films are grown by ion-beam sputtering Cu, Zn, Sn targets with different orders and then sputtering Se target to fabricate Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) absorber thin films on molybdenum substrates. They are annealed in the same vacuum chamber at 400 °C. The characterization methods of CZTSe thin films include X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) in order to study the crystallographic properties, composition, surface morphology, electrical properties and so on. The results display that the CZTSe thin films got the strongest diffraction peak intensity and were with good crystalline quality and its morphology appeared smooth and compact with a sequence of Cu/Zn/Sn/Se, which reveals that the expected states for CZTSe are Cu1+, Zn2+, Sn4+, Se2+. With the good crystalline quality and close to ideal stoichiometric ratio the resistivity of the CZTSe film with the sequence of Cu/Zn/Sn/Se is lower, whose optical band gap is about 1.50 eV. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61404086), the Basical Research Program of Shenzhen (Nos. JCYJ20150324140036866, JCYJ20150324141711581), and the Natural Science Foundation of SZU (No. 2014017).

  11. Experimental assessment of film cooling performance of short cylindrical holes on a flat surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuldeep; Premachandran, B.; Ravi, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    The present study is an experimental investigation of film-cooling over a flat surface from the short cylindrical holes. The film cooling holes used in the combustion chamber and the afterburner liner of an aero engine has length-to-diameter (L/D) typically in the range 1-2, while the cooling holes used in turbine blades has L/D > 3. Based on the classification given in the literature, cooling holes with L/D ≤ 3 are named as short holes and cooling holes with L/D > 3 are named as long holes. Short film cooling holes cause jetting of the secondary fluid whereas the secondary fluid emerging from long holes has characteristics similar to fully developed turbulent flow in pipe. In order to understand the difference in the film cooling performance of long and short cooling holes, experimental study is carried out for five values of L/D in the range 1-5, five injection angles, α = 15°-90° and five mainstream Reynolds number 1.25 × 105-6.25 × 105 and two blowing ratios, M = 0.5-1.0. The surface temperature of the test plate is monitored using infrared thermography. The results obtained from the present study showed that the film-cooling effectiveness is higher for the longest holes (L/D = 5) investigated in the present work in comparison to that for the shorter holes. Short holes are found to give better effectiveness at the lowest investigated injection angle i.e. α = 15° in the near cooling hole region, whereas film cooling effectiveness obtained at injection angle, α = 45° is found to be better than other injection angles for longest investigated holes, i.e. L/D = 5.

  12. TMS Over the Cerebellum Interferes with Short-term Memory of Visual Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, C; Cattaneo, Z; Oldrati, V; Casiraghi, L; Castelli, F; D'Angelo, E; Vecchi, T

    2018-04-30

    Growing evidence suggests that the cerebellum is not only involved in motor functions, but it significantly contributes to sensory and cognitive processing as well. In particular, it has been hypothesized that the cerebellum identifies recurrent serial events and recognizes their violations. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to shed light on the role of the cerebellum in short-term memory of visual sequences. In two experiments, we found that TMS over the right cerebellar hemisphere impaired participants' ability to recognize the correct order of appearance of geometrical stimuli varying in shape and/or size. In turn, cerebellar TMS did not affect recognition of highly familiar short sequences of letters or numbers. Overall, our data suggest that the cerebellum is involved in memorizing the order in which (concatenated) stimuli appear, this process being important for sequence learning.

  13. Three Short Films about Water: Presenting Basic Concepts to Students and Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, J. S.; Hooper, R. P.; Michel, A.; Wilde, P.; Lilienfeld, L.

    2011-12-01

    Three short form (3 - 5 minute) movies were produced for CUAHSI, to convey basic concepts such as a hydrologic budget, stores and fluxes of water, and the flowpaths and residence time of water. The films were originally intended to be used by scientists to explain the concepts behind potential environmental observatories, but evolved into serving a broader purpose. The films combine still photos, satellite images, animation and video clips, and interviews with CUAHSI members explaining hydrologic concepts in simple, accessible terms. In producing these films, we have found the importance of engaging scientists in conversation first, to develop a script around key accessible concepts and relevant information. Film and communication professionals play a critical role in distilling the scientific explanation and concepts into accessible, engaging film material. The films have been widely distributed through CD and online to educators for use in courses. Additionally, they provide a way to engage stakeholders, particularly land owners, by conveying basic concepts that are necessary to understand the hydrologic and earth science foundation of many of today's political and environmental issues. The films can be viewed online at the CUAHSI website, which also contains links to other film related resources and programs.

  14. A sensitive short read homology search tool for paired-end read sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techa-Angkoon, Prapaporn; Sun, Yanni; Lei, Jikai

    2017-10-16

    Homology search is still a significant step in functional analysis for genomic data. Profile Hidden Markov Model-based homology search has been widely used in protein domain analysis in many different species. In particular, with the fast accumulation of transcriptomic data of non-model species and metagenomic data, profile homology search is widely adopted in integrated pipelines for functional analysis. While the state-of-the-art tool HMMER has achieved high sensitivity and accuracy in domain annotation, the sensitivity of HMMER on short reads declines rapidly. The low sensitivity on short read homology search can lead to inaccurate domain composition and abundance computation. Our experimental results showed that half of the reads were missed by HMMER for a RNA-Seq dataset. Thus, there is a need for better methods to improve the homology search performance for short reads. We introduce a profile homology search tool named Short-Pair that is designed for short paired-end reads. By using an approximate Bayesian approach employing distribution of fragment lengths and alignment scores, Short-Pair can retrieve the missing end and determine true domains. In particular, Short-Pair increases the accuracy in aligning short reads that are part of remote homologs. We applied Short-Pair to a RNA-Seq dataset and a metagenomic dataset and quantified its sensitivity and accuracy on homology search. The experimental results show that Short-Pair can achieve better overall performance than the state-of-the-art methodology of profile homology search. Short-Pair is best used for next-generation sequencing (NGS) data that lack reference genomes. It provides a complementary paired-end read homology search tool to HMMER. The source code is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/short-pair/ .

  15. Numerical analysis of short-pulse laser interactions with thin metal film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Majchrzak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thin metal film subjected to a short-pulse laser heating is considered. The hyperbolic two-temperature model describing the temporal andspatial evolution of the lattice and electrons temperatures is discussed. At the stage of numerical computations the finite difference method is used. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.

  16. Using Short Films in the Classroom as a Stimulus for Digital Text Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantei, Jessica; Kervin, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Reading and creating stories is a longstanding pedagogical approach to literacy learning in elementary school classrooms because stories offer personal and human experiences to which students can relate and respond. Stories, including digital forms such as short films, offer accounts of what it is to belong to a community and its worldviews and…

  17. Features of the mechanoluminescence of thin metal films, excited by short and long laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banishev, A.F.; Panchenko, V.Ya.; Shishkov, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The results of the study on the deformation-induced luminescence of the fine grain metal films, originating by the impact of the short (submicrosecond) and long (millisecond) laser pulses, are presented. The supposition os made relative to the luminescence excitation mechanism [ru

  18. Short-range order in amorphous thin films of indium selenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.P.; Poltavtsev, Yu.G.; Sheremet, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    A structure of the short-range order and a character of interatomic interactions in indium selenides Insub(1-x)Sesub(x) with 0.333 <= x <= 0.75, obtained in the form of amorphous films 0.05-0.80 μm thick are studied using electron diffraction method. It is found out that mostly tetrahedrical coordination of nearest neighbours in the vicinity of indium atoms is characteristic for studied amorphous films, and coordination of selenium atoms is different. Amorphous film with x=0.75 posesses a considereably microheterogeneous structure of the short-range order, which is characterized by the presence of microunclusions of amorphous selenium and atoms of indium, octohedrically coordinated by selenium atoms

  19. Sequence composition and gene content of the short arm of rye (Secale cereale chromosome 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Fluch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study is to elucidate the sequence composition of the short arm of rye chromosome 1 (Secale cereale with special focus on its gene content, because this portion of the rye genome is an integrated part of several hundreds of bread wheat varieties worldwide. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Multiple Displacement Amplification of 1RS DNA, obtained from flow sorted 1RS chromosomes, using 1RS ditelosomic wheat-rye addition line, and subsequent Roche 454FLX sequencing of this DNA yielded 195,313,589 bp sequence information. This quantity of sequence information resulted in 0.43× sequence coverage of the 1RS chromosome arm, permitting the identification of genes with estimated probability of 95%. A detailed analysis revealed that more than 5% of the 1RS sequence consisted of gene space, identifying at least 3,121 gene loci representing 1,882 different gene functions. Repetitive elements comprised about 72% of the 1RS sequence, Gypsy/Sabrina (13.3% being the most abundant. More than four thousand simple sequence repeat (SSR sites mostly located in gene related sequence reads were identified for possible marker development. The existence of chloroplast insertions in 1RS has been verified by identifying chimeric chloroplast-genomic sequence reads. Synteny analysis of 1RS to the full genomes of Oryza sativa and Brachypodium distachyon revealed that about half of the genes of 1RS correspond to the distal end of the short arm of rice chromosome 5 and the proximal region of the long arm of Brachypodium distachyon chromosome 2. Comparison of the gene content of 1RS to 1HS barley chromosome arm revealed high conservation of genes related to chromosome 5 of rice. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed the gene content and potential gene functions on this chromosome arm and demonstrated numerous sequence elements like SSRs and gene-related sequences, which can be utilised for future research as well as in breeding of wheat and rye.

  20. The genome of flax (Linum usitatissimum) assembled de novo from short shotgun sequence reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwen; Hobson, Neil; Galindo, Leonardo; Zhu, Shilin; Shi, Daihu; McDill, Joshua; Yang, Linfeng; Hawkins, Simon; Neutelings, Godfrey; Datla, Raju; Lambert, Georgina; Galbraith, David W; Grassa, Christopher J; Geraldes, Armando; Cronk, Quentin C; Cullis, Christopher; Dash, Prasanta K; Kumar, Polumetla A; Cloutier, Sylvie; Sharpe, Andrew G; Wong, Gane K-S; Wang, Jun; Deyholos, Michael K

    2012-11-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is an ancient crop that is widely cultivated as a source of fiber, oil and medicinally relevant compounds. To accelerate crop improvement, we performed whole-genome shotgun sequencing of the nuclear genome of flax. Seven paired-end libraries ranging in size from 300 bp to 10 kb were sequenced using an Illumina genome analyzer. A de novo assembly, comprised exclusively of deep-coverage (approximately 94× raw, approximately 69× filtered) short-sequence reads (44-100 bp), produced a set of scaffolds with N(50) =694 kb, including contigs with N(50)=20.1 kb. The contig assembly contained 302 Mb of non-redundant sequence representing an estimated 81% genome coverage. Up to 96% of published flax ESTs aligned to the whole-genome shotgun scaffolds. However, comparisons with independently sequenced BACs and fosmids showed some mis-assembly of regions at the genome scale. A total of 43384 protein-coding genes were predicted in the whole-genome shotgun assembly, and up to 93% of published flax ESTs, and 86% of A. thaliana genes aligned to these predicted genes, indicating excellent coverage and accuracy at the gene level. Analysis of the synonymous substitution rates (K(s) ) observed within duplicate gene pairs was consistent with a recent (5-9 MYA) whole-genome duplication in flax. Within the predicted proteome, we observed enrichment of many conserved domains (Pfam-A) that may contribute to the unique properties of this crop, including agglutinin proteins. Together these results show that de novo assembly, based solely on whole-genome shotgun short-sequence reads, is an efficient means of obtaining nearly complete genome sequence information for some plant species. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Correction of echo shift in reconstruction processing for ultra-short TE pulse sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Masahiro; Ootsuka, Takehiro; Abe, Takayuki; Takahashi, Tetsuhiko

    2010-01-01

    An ultra-short echo time (TE) pulse sequence is composed of a radial sampling that acquires echo signals radially in the K-space and a half-echo acquisition that acquires only half of the echo signal. The shift in the position of the echo signal (echo shift) caused by the timing errors in the gradient magnetic field pulses affects the image quality in the radial sampling with the half-echo acquisition. To improve image quality, we have developed a signal correction algorithm that detects and eliminates this echo shift during reconstruction by performing a pre-scan within 10 seconds. The results showed that image quality is improved under oblique and/or off-centering conditions that frequently cause image distortion due to hardware error. In conclusion, we have developed a robust ultra-short TE pulse sequence that allows wide latitude in the scan parameters, including oblique and off-centering conditions. (author)

  2. SeqEntropy: genome-wide assessment of repeats for short read sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Ting Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies on genome assembly from short-read sequencing data reported the limitation of this technology to reconstruct the entire genome even at very high depth coverage. We investigated the limitation from the perspective of information theory to evaluate the effect of repeats on short-read genome assembly using idealized (error-free reads at different lengths. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We define a metric H(k to be the entropy of sequencing reads at a read length k and use the relative loss of entropy ΔH(k to measure the impact of repeats for the reconstruction of whole-genome from sequences of length k. In our experiments, we found that entropy loss correlates well with de-novo assembly coverage of a genome, and a score of ΔH(k>1% indicates a severe loss in genome reconstruction fidelity. The minimal read lengths to achieve ΔH(k<1% are different for various organisms and are independent of the genome size. For example, in order to meet the threshold of ΔH(k<1%, a read length of 60 bp is needed for the sequencing of human genome (3.2 10(9 bp and 320 bp for the sequencing of fruit fly (1.8×10(8 bp. We also calculated the ΔH(k scores for 2725 prokaryotic chromosomes and plasmids at several read lengths. Our results indicate that the levels of repeats in different genomes are diverse and the entropy of sequencing reads provides a measurement for the repeat structures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed entropy-based measurement, which can be calculated in seconds to minutes in most cases, provides a rapid quantitative evaluation on the limitation of idealized short-read genome sequencing. Moreover, the calculation can be parallelized to scale up to large euakryotic genomes. This approach may be useful to tune the sequencing parameters to achieve better genome assemblies when a closely related genome is already available.

  3. Impact of high temperature and short period annealing on SnS films deposited by E-beam evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedi, Sreedevi; Reddy, Vasudeva Reddy Minnam; Kang, Jeong-yoon; Jeon, Chan-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparation SnS films using electron beam evaporation at room temperature. • SnS films were annealed at a high temperaure for different short period of times. • The films showed highly oriented (111) planes with orthorhombic crystal structure. • Surface morphology showed bigger and faceted grains embedded in orthorombic. • The TEM confirmed that big orthorombic slabs had single-crystalline nature. - Abstract: Thin films of SnS were deposited on Mo-substrate using electron beam evaporation at room temperature. As-deposited SnS films were annealed at a constant high temperaure of 860 K for different short period of times, 1 min, 3 min, and 5 min. The impact of heat treatment period on the physical properties of SnS films was investigated using appropriate characterization tools. XRD analysis revealed that the films were highly oriented along (111) plane with orthorhombic crystal structure. Surface morphology of as-deposited SnS films showed an identical leaf texture where as the annealed films showed large orthorombic slab shape grains in adidition to the leaf shape grains, which indicates the significance of short period annealing at high temperature. The transmission electron microscopy confirmed that those large orthorombic slabs had single-crystalline nature. The results emphasized that the short period annealing treatment at high temperature stimulated the growth of film towards the single crystallinity.

  4. Impact of high temperature and short period annealing on SnS films deposited by E-beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedi, Sreedevi; Reddy, Vasudeva Reddy Minnam; Kang, Jeong-yoon; Jeon, Chan-Wook, E-mail: cwjeon@ynu.ac.kr

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Preparation SnS films using electron beam evaporation at room temperature. • SnS films were annealed at a high temperaure for different short period of times. • The films showed highly oriented (111) planes with orthorhombic crystal structure. • Surface morphology showed bigger and faceted grains embedded in orthorombic. • The TEM confirmed that big orthorombic slabs had single-crystalline nature. - Abstract: Thin films of SnS were deposited on Mo-substrate using electron beam evaporation at room temperature. As-deposited SnS films were annealed at a constant high temperaure of 860 K for different short period of times, 1 min, 3 min, and 5 min. The impact of heat treatment period on the physical properties of SnS films was investigated using appropriate characterization tools. XRD analysis revealed that the films were highly oriented along (111) plane with orthorhombic crystal structure. Surface morphology of as-deposited SnS films showed an identical leaf texture where as the annealed films showed large orthorombic slab shape grains in adidition to the leaf shape grains, which indicates the significance of short period annealing at high temperature. The transmission electron microscopy confirmed that those large orthorombic slabs had single-crystalline nature. The results emphasized that the short period annealing treatment at high temperature stimulated the growth of film towards the single crystallinity.

  5. A short literature survey on iron and cobalt ion doped TiO2 thin films and photocatalytic activity of these films against fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatlıdil, İlknur; Bacaksız, Emin; Buruk, Celal Kurtuluş; Breen, Chris; Sökmen, Münevver

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Co or Fe doped TiO 2 thin films were prepared by sol–gel method. ► We obtained lower E g values for Fe-doped and Co-TiO 2 thin films. ► Doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO 2 nanoparticles. ► Photocatalytic killing effect of the doped TiO 2 thin films on C. albicans and A. niger was significantly higher than undoped TiO 2 thin film for short exposure periods. - Abstract: In this study, a short recent literature survey which concentrated on the usage of Fe 3+ or Co 2+ ion doped TiO 2 thin films and suspensions were summarized. Additionally, a sol–gel method was used for preparation of the 2% Co or Fe doped TiO 2 thin films. The surface of the prepared materials was characterised using scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and band gap of the films were calculated from the transmission measurements that were taken over the range of 190 and 1100 nm. The E g value was 3.40 eV for the pure TiO 2 , 3.00 eV for the Fe-doped TiO 2 film and 3.25 eV for Co-TiO 2 thin film. Iron or cobalt doping at lower concentration produce more uniformed particles and doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO 2 nanoparticles. Photocatalytic killing effect of the 2% Co doped TiO 2 thin film on Candida albicans was significantly higher than Fe doped TiO 2 thin film for short and long exposure periods. Doped thin films were more effective on Aspergillus niger for short exposure periods.

  6. Screening of SHOX gene sequence variants in Saudi Arabian children with idiopathic short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharthi, Abdulla A; El-Hallous, Ehab I; Talaat, Iman M; Alghamdi, Hamed A; Almalki, Matar I; Gaber, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Short stature affects approximately 2%-3% of children, representing one of the most frequent disorders for which clinical attention is sought during childhood. Despite assumed genetic heterogeneity, mutations or deletions in the short stature homeobox-containing gene ( SHOX ) are frequently detected in subjects with short stature. Idiopathic short stature (ISS) refers to patients with short stature for various unknown reasons. The goal of this study was to screen all the exons of SHOX to identify related mutations. We screened all the exons of SHOX for mutations analysis in 105 ISS children patients (57 girls and 48 boys) living in Taif governorate, KSA using a direct DNA sequencing method. Height, arm span, and sitting height were recorded, and subischial leg length was calculated. A total of 30 of 105 ISS patients (28%) contained six polymorphic variants in exons 1, 2, 4, and 6. One mutation was found in the DNA domain binding region of exon 4. Three of these polymorphic variants were novel, while the others were reported previously. There were no significant differences in anthropometric measures in ISS patients with and without identifiable polymorphic variants in SHOX . In Saudi Arabia ISS patients, rather than SHOX , it is possible that new genes are involved in longitudinal growth. Additional molecular analysis is required to diagnose and understand the etiology of this disease.

  7. Easy and accurate reconstruction of whole HIV genomes from short-read sequence data with shiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanquart, François; Golubchik, Tanya; Gall, Astrid; Bakker, Margreet; Bezemer, Daniela; Croucher, Nicholas J; Hall, Matthew; Hillebregt, Mariska; Ratmann, Oliver; Albert, Jan; Bannert, Norbert; Fellay, Jacques; Fransen, Katrien; Gourlay, Annabelle; Grabowski, M Kate; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Günthard, Huldrych F; Kivelä, Pia; Kouyos, Roger; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Liitsola, Kirsi; Meyer, Laurence; Porter, Kholoud; Ristola, Matti; van Sighem, Ard; Cornelissen, Marion; Kellam, Paul; Reiss, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Studying the evolution of viruses and their molecular epidemiology relies on accurate viral sequence data, so that small differences between similar viruses can be meaningfully interpreted. Despite its higher throughput and more detailed minority variant data, next-generation sequencing has yet to be widely adopted for HIV. The difficulty of accurately reconstructing the consensus sequence of a quasispecies from reads (short fragments of DNA) in the presence of large between- and within-host diversity, including frequent indels, may have presented a barrier. In particular, mapping (aligning) reads to a reference sequence leads to biased loss of information; this bias can distort epidemiological and evolutionary conclusions. De novo assembly avoids this bias by aligning the reads to themselves, producing a set of sequences called contigs. However contigs provide only a partial summary of the reads, misassembly may result in their having an incorrect structure, and no information is available at parts of the genome where contigs could not be assembled. To address these problems we developed the tool shiver to pre-process reads for quality and contamination, then map them to a reference tailored to the sample using corrected contigs supplemented with the user’s choice of existing reference sequences. Run with two commands per sample, it can easily be used for large heterogeneous data sets. We used shiver to reconstruct the consensus sequence and minority variant information from paired-end short-read whole-genome data produced with the Illumina platform, for sixty-five existing publicly available samples and fifty new samples. We show the systematic superiority of mapping to shiver’s constructed reference compared with mapping the same reads to the closest of 3,249 real references: median values of 13 bases called differently and more accurately, 0 bases called differently and less accurately, and 205 bases of missing sequence recovered. We also

  8. Keeping it together: Semantic coherence stabilizes phonological sequences in short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savill, Nicola; Ellis, Rachel; Brooke, Emma; Koa, Tiffany; Ferguson, Suzie; Rojas-Rodriguez, Elena; Arnold, Dominic; Smallwood, Jonathan; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    Our ability to hold a sequence of speech sounds in mind, in the correct configuration, supports many aspects of communication, but the contribution of conceptual information to this basic phonological capacity remains controversial. Previous research has shown modest and inconsistent benefits of meaning on phonological stability in short-term memory, but these studies were based on sets of unrelated words. Using a novel design, we examined the immediate recall of sentence-like sequences with coherent meaning, alongside both standard word lists and mixed lists containing words and nonwords. We found, and replicated, substantial effects of coherent meaning on phoneme-level accuracy: The phonemes of both words and nonwords within conceptually coherent sequences were more likely to be produced together and in the correct order. Since nonwords do not exist as items in long-term memory, the semantic enhancement of phoneme-level recall for both item types cannot be explained by a lexically based item reconstruction process employed at the point of retrieval ("redintegration"). Instead, our data show, for naturalistic input, that when meaning emerges from the combination of words, the phonological traces that support language are reinforced by a semantic-binding process that has been largely overlooked by past short-term memory research.

  9. MATAM: reconstruction of phylogenetic marker genes from short sequencing reads in metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pericard, Pierre; Dufresne, Yoann; Couderc, Loïc; Blanquart, Samuel; Touzet, Hélène

    2018-02-15

    Advances in the sequencing of uncultured environmental samples, dubbed metagenomics, raise a growing need for accurate taxonomic assignment. Accurate identification of organisms present within a community is essential to understanding even the most elementary ecosystems. However, current high-throughput sequencing technologies generate short reads which partially cover full-length marker genes and this poses difficult bioinformatic challenges for taxonomy identification at high resolution. We designed MATAM, a software dedicated to the fast and accurate targeted assembly of short reads sequenced from a genomic marker of interest. The method implements a stepwise process based on construction and analysis of a read overlap graph. It is applied to the assembly of 16S rRNA markers and is validated on simulated, synthetic and genuine metagenomes. We show that MATAM outperforms other available methods in terms of low error rates and recovered fractions and is suitable to provide improved assemblies for precise taxonomic assignments. https://github.com/bonsai-team/matam. pierre.pericard@gmail.com or helene.touzet@univ-lille1.fr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Genome dynamics of short oligonucleotides: the example of bacterial DNA uptake enhancing sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Bakkali

    Full Text Available Among the many bacteria naturally competent for transformation by DNA uptake-a phenomenon with significant clinical and financial implications- Pasteurellaceae and Neisseriaceae species preferentially take up DNA containing specific short sequences. The genomic overrepresentation of these DNA uptake enhancing sequences (DUES causes preferential uptake of conspecific DNA, but the function(s behind this overrepresentation and its evolution are still a matter for discovery. Here I analyze DUES genome dynamics and evolution and test the validity of the results to other selectively constrained oligonucleotides. I use statistical methods and computer simulations to examine DUESs accumulation in Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae genomes. I analyze DUESs sequence and nucleotide frequencies, as well as those of all their mismatched forms, and prove the dependence of DUESs genomic overrepresentation on their preferential uptake by quantifying and correlating both characteristics. I then argue that mutation, uptake bias, and weak selection against DUESs in less constrained parts of the genome combined are sufficient enough to cause DUESs accumulation in susceptible parts of the genome with no need for other DUES function. The distribution of overrepresentation values across sequences with different mismatch loads compared to the DUES suggests a gradual yet not linear molecular drive of DNA sequences depending on their similarity to the DUES. Other genomically overrepresented sequences, both pro- and eukaryotic, show similar distribution of frequencies suggesting that the molecular drive reported above applies to other frequent oligonucleotides. Rare oligonucleotides, however, seem to be gradually drawn to genomic underrepresentation, thus, suggesting a molecular drag. To my knowledge this work provides the first clear evidence of the gradual evolution of selectively constrained oligonucleotides, including repeated, palindromic and protein

  11. Accurate estimation of short read mapping quality for next-generation genome sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffalo, Matthew; Koyutürk, Mehmet; Ray, Soumya; LaFramboise, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Several software tools specialize in the alignment of short next-generation sequencing reads to a reference sequence. Some of these tools report a mapping quality score for each alignment—in principle, this quality score tells researchers the likelihood that the alignment is correct. However, the reported mapping quality often correlates weakly with actual accuracy and the qualities of many mappings are underestimated, encouraging the researchers to discard correct mappings. Further, these low-quality mappings tend to correlate with variations in the genome (both single nucleotide and structural), and such mappings are important in accurately identifying genomic variants. Approach: We develop a machine learning tool, LoQuM (LOgistic regression tool for calibrating the Quality of short read mappings, to assign reliable mapping quality scores to mappings of Illumina reads returned by any alignment tool. LoQuM uses statistics on the read (base quality scores reported by the sequencer) and the alignment (number of matches, mismatches and deletions, mapping quality score returned by the alignment tool, if available, and number of mappings) as features for classification and uses simulated reads to learn a logistic regression model that relates these features to actual mapping quality. Results: We test the predictions of LoQuM on an independent dataset generated by the ART short read simulation software and observe that LoQuM can ‘resurrect’ many mappings that are assigned zero quality scores by the alignment tools and are therefore likely to be discarded by researchers. We also observe that the recalibration of mapping quality scores greatly enhances the precision of called single nucleotide polymorphisms. Availability: LoQuM is available as open source at http://compbio.case.edu/loqum/. Contact: matthew.ruffalo@case.edu. PMID:22962451

  12. CORE-SINEs: eukaryotic short interspersed retroposing elements with common sequence motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, N; Labuda, D

    1999-03-16

    A 65-bp "core" sequence is dispersed in hundreds of thousands copies in the human genome. This sequence was found to constitute the central segment of a group of short interspersed elements (SINEs), referred to as mammalian-wide interspersed repeats, that proliferated before the radiation of placental mammals. Here, we propose that the core identifies an ancient tRNA-like SINE element, which survived in different lineages such as mammals, reptiles, birds, and fish, as well as mollusks, presumably for >550 million years. This element gave rise to a number of sequence families (CORE-SINEs), including mammalian-wide interspersed repeats, whose distinct 3' ends are shared with different families of long interspersed elements (LINEs). The evolutionary success of the generic CORE-SINE element can be related to the recruitment of the internal promoter from highly transcribed host RNA as well as to its capacity to adapt to changing retropositional opportunities by sequence exchange with actively amplifying LINEs. It reinforces the notion that the very existence of SINEs depends on the cohabitation with both LINEs and the host genome.

  13. Short-pulse-laser-induced optical damage and fracto-emission of amorphous, diamond-like carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski-Tinten, Klaus; Ziegler, Wolfgang; von der Linde, Dietrich; Siegal, Michael P.; Overmyer, D. L.

    2005-03-01

    Short-pulse-laser-induced damage and ablation of thin films of amorphous, diamond-like carbon have been investigated. Material removal and damage are caused by fracture of the film and ejection of large fragments. The fragments exhibit a delayed, intense and broadband emission of microsecond duration. Both fracture and emission are attributed to the laser-initiated relaxation of the high internal stresses of the pulse laser deposition-grown films.

  14. Investigation into short-range order, electric conductivity and optical absorption edge of indium selenide thin amorphous films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilyj, M.N.; Didyk, G.V.; Stetsiv, Ya.I.; Yurechko, R.Ya.

    1980-01-01

    Thin amorphous films of InSe have been obtained by the method of discrete vacuum evaporation of about 10 -2 Pa. The short-range order is investigated according to the radial distribution curves. The temperature and film thickness are shown to affect the character of conductivity. The width of the forbidden band determined by the fundamental absorption edge is found to depend on the time of film annealing

  15. Effects of High Intensity White Noise on Short-Term Memory for Position in a List and Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daee, Safar; Wilding, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Seven experiments are described investigating the effecy of high intensity white noise during the visual presentation of words on a number of short-term memory tasks. Examines results relative to position learning and sequence learning. (Editor/RK)

  16. Phonon transport in a curved aluminum thin film due to laser short pulse irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Saad Bin; Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2018-05-01

    Laser short-pulse heating of a curved aluminum thin film is investigated. The Boltzmann transport equation is incorporated to formulate the heating situation. A Gaussian laser intensity distribution is considered along the film arc and time exponentially decaying of pulse intensity is incorporated in the analysis. The governing equations of energy transport in the electron and lattice sub-systems are coupled through the electron-phonon coupling parameter. To quantify the phonon intensity distribution in the thin film, equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced, which is associated with the average energy of all phonons around a local point when the phonon energies are redistributed adiabatically to an equilibrium state. It is found the numerical simulations that electron temperature follows similar trend to the spatial distribution of the laser pulse intensity at the film edge. Temporal variation of electron temperature does not follow the laser pulse intensity distribution. The rise of temperature in the electron sub-system is fast while it remains slow in the lattice sub-system.

  17. Efficient and controllable thermal ablation induced by short-pulsed HIFU sequence assisted with perfluorohexane nanodroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Nan; Lu, Shukuan; Qin, Dui; Xu, Tianqi; Han, Meng; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2018-07-01

    A HIFU sequence with extremely short pulse duration and high pulse repetition frequency can achieve thermal ablation at a low acoustic power using inertial cavitation. Because of its cavitation-dependent property, the therapeutic outcome is unreliable when the treatment zone lacks cavitation nuclei. To overcome this intrinsic limitation, we introduced perfluorocarbon nanodroplets as extra cavitation nuclei into short-pulsed HIFU-mediated thermal ablation. Two types of nanodroplets were used with perfluorohexane (PFH) as the core material coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or an anionic fluorosurfactant (FS) to demonstrate the feasibility of this study. The thermal ablation process was recorded by high-speed photography. The inertial cavitation activity during the ablation was revealed by sonoluminescence (SL). The high-speed photography results show that the thermal ablation volume increased by ∼643% and 596% with BSA-PFH and FS-PFH, respectively, than the short-pulsed HIFU alone at an acoustic power of 19.5 W. Using nanodroplets, much larger ablation volumes were created even at a much lower acoustic power. Meanwhile, the treatment time for ablating a desired volume significantly reduced in the presence of nanodroplets. Moreover, by adjusting the treatment time, lesion migration towards the HIFU transducer could also be avoided. The SL results show that the thermal lesion shape was significantly dependent on the inertial cavitation in this short-pulsed HIFU-mediated thermal ablation. The inertial cavitation activity became more predictable by using nanodroplets. Therefore, the introduction of PFH nanodroplets as extra cavitation nuclei made the short-pulsed HIFU thermal ablation more efficient by increasing the ablation volume and speed, and more controllable by reducing the acoustic power and preventing lesion migration. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Hydrodynamics experiments with soap films and soap bubbles: A short review of recent experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellay, H.

    2017-11-01

    In this short review, I focus on recent experiments that benefit from the advantages offered by the two-dimensionality of the flow in suspended thin liquid films to reconsider hydrodynamics problems which have resisted a full understanding. The first problem discussed here concerns friction drag in channel flows. The use of turbulent channel flows, using thin liquid films, allows measurements of friction drag as well as mean velocity profiles for flows with different spectral exponents. Is there a link between the spectral properties of the turbulence and the mean velocity profiles or the frictional drag? This is the first question considered. The second issue examined considers the long time dynamics of large scale vortices. These are obtained in half bubbles rendered "turbulent" through thermal convection. These vortices, which live in a quasi two-dimensional environment, have a long time dynamics where their vorticity goes through what seems to be a well-defined cycle with generic features.

  19. Initial color development in radiochromic dye films after a short intense pulse of accelerated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe, R.M.; Barcelo, M.; Rios, J.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Buenfil, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation response of different dye precursors in several host plastics has been investigated after a single short-pulse irradiation with 2.5-MeV electrons. It was observed that in most films the radiation-initiated color development proceeds mainly during the first 300 seconds, after such high dose-rate irradiation (∼ 10 12 Gy/s). Absorption spectra show that the main absorption band increases at the expense of a shorter-wavelength precursor absorption band, showing an isosbestic point approximately midway bwetwen the two absorption bands. It was found that a certain combination of dye precursor and host plastic (namely a polyamide containing an aromatic group) constitutes a film which shows a very fast increase in optical density of the main absorption band, making it suitable for immediate dosimetric analysis in very high dose-rate installations. (author)

  20. Computational complexity of algorithms for sequence comparison, short-read assembly and genome alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baichoo, Shakuntala; Ouzounis, Christos A

    A multitude of algorithms for sequence comparison, short-read assembly and whole-genome alignment have been developed in the general context of molecular biology, to support technology development for high-throughput sequencing, numerous applications in genome biology and fundamental research on comparative genomics. The computational complexity of these algorithms has been previously reported in original research papers, yet this often neglected property has not been reviewed previously in a systematic manner and for a wider audience. We provide a review of space and time complexity of key sequence analysis algorithms and highlight their properties in a comprehensive manner, in order to identify potential opportunities for further research in algorithm or data structure optimization. The complexity aspect is poised to become pivotal as we will be facing challenges related to the continuous increase of genomic data on unprecedented scales and complexity in the foreseeable future, when robust biological simulation at the cell level and above becomes a reality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Coffee-Ring Defined Short Channels for Inkjet-Printed Metal Oxide Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuzhi; Lan, Linfeng; Xiao, Peng; Sun, Sheng; Lin, Zhenguo; Song, Wei; Song, Erlong; Gao, Peixiong; Wu, Weijing; Peng, Junbiao

    2016-08-03

    Short-channel electronic devices several micrometers in length are difficult to implement by direct inkjet printing due to the limitation of position accuracy of the common inkjet printer system and the spread of functional ink on substrates. In this report, metal oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) with channel lengths of 3.5 ± 0.7 μm were successfully fabricated with a common inkjet printer without any photolithography steps. Hydrophobic CYTOP coffee stripes, made by inkjet-printing and plasma-treating processes, were utilized to define the channel area of TFTs with channel lengths as short as ∼3.5 μm by dewetting the inks of the source/drain (S/D) precursors. Furthermore, by introduction of an ultrathin layer of PVA to modify the S/D surfaces, the spreading of precursor ink of the InOx semiconductor layer was well-controlled. The inkjet-printed short-channel TFTs exhibited a maximum mobility of 4.9 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and an on/off ratio of larger than 10(9). This approach of fabricating short-channel TFTs by inkjet printing will promote the large-area fabrication of short-channel TFTs in a cost-effective manner.

  2. The genome of flax (Linum usitatissimum) assembled de novo from short shotgun sequence reads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhiwen; Hobson, Neil; Galindo, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is an ancient crop that is widely cultivated as a source of fiber, oil and medicinally relevant compounds. To accelerate crop improvement, we performed whole-genome shotgun sequencing of the nuclear genome of flax. Seven paired-end libraries ranging in size from 300 bp...... these results show that de novo assembly, based solely on whole-genome shotgun short-sequence reads, is an efficient means of obtaining nearly complete genome sequence information for some plant species....

  3. Correlation of optical energy gap with the nearest neighbour short range order in amorphous V2O5 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhawan, Sahil; Vedeshwar, Agnikumar G; Tandon, R P

    2011-01-01

    The optical and structural properties of well characterized vacuum-evaporated amorphous V 2 O 5 films were studied in the thickness range 5-500 nm. The structural analyses show that V-O, O-O and V-V nearest neighbour distances defining the short range order vary nonlinearly with film thickness. The optical absorption shows thickness-dependent energy gap (E g ) and the nonlinear behaviour of thickness-dependent E g is similar to that of nearest neighbour distance with film thickness. The E g correlates linearly very well with all the three nearest neighbour distances. The variation of E g with film thickness is attributed to the residual stress in the film which causes the changes in short range order. The change in E g corresponding to the change in V-O distance was found to be 35 eV nm -1 . This change is almost three times of that with V-V distance.

  4. Study of the fast inversion recovery pulse sequence. With reference to fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery and fast short TI inversion recovery pulse sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Maki, Toshio; Suzuki, Takeshi

    1997-01-01

    The fast inversion recovery (fast IR) pulse sequence was evaluated. We compared the fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery (fast FLAIR) pulse sequence in which inversion time (TI) was established as equal to the water null point for the purpose of the water-suppressed T 2 -weighted image, with the fast short TI inversion recovery (fast STIR) pulse sequence in which TI was established as equal to the fat null point for purpose of fat suppression. In the fast FLAIR pulse sequence, the water null point was increased by making TR longer. In the FLAIR pulse sequence, the longitudinal magnetization contrast is determined by TI. If TI is increased, T 2 -weighted contrast improves in the same way as increasing TR for the SE pulse sequence. Therefore, images should be taken with long TR and long TI, which are longer than TR and longer than the water null point. On the other hand, the fat null point is not affected by TR in the fast STIR pulse sequence. However, effective TE was affected by variation of the null point. This increased in proportion to the increase in effective TE. Our evaluation indicated that the fast STIR pulse sequence can control the extensive signals from fat in a short time. (author)

  5. [Short-term effect of black film covering on Oncomelania hupensis snail control in marshland and lake regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sheng-bang; Zhou, Yi-biao; Li, Lin-han; Wu, Jin-yi; Yao, Bao-dong; Zhu, Shao-ping; Wei, Cheng-jian; Li, Fu-ping; Hu, Ben-jiao; Ren, Guang-hui; Yi, Ping; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the short-term effect of the black film covering combined with niclosamide on Oncomelania hupensis snail control in marshland and lake regions. A ditch with snails in Anxiang County was selected as the experimental sites. The ditch was divided into 3 groups: a film group, a niclosamide group, and a niclosamide and film group. The snails were surveyed before the test and 1, 3, 5, 7 days after the experiment. After the film covering, the highest temperature of the surface of soil was 63.7 degrees C on the first day, and the temperature higher than 40 degrees C lasted 4.34 hours. On the second day, the highest temperature was 52.3 degrees C, and the temperature higher than 40 degrees C lasted 4.96 hours. On the fourth day and fifth day, the temperature was lower than 30 degrees C, while the temperature was lower than 34 degrees C on the sixth day. On the seventh day of the experiment, the snail death rates of the film group, the niclosamide group, and the niclosamide and film group on the soil surface were 16.36%, 58.40% and 53.57%, respectively. On the seventh day, the snail death rates of the film group, and the niclosamide and film group under the soil were 20.00% and 40.00%, respectively, while no snails were found under the soil in the niclosamide group 3 days after the experiment. In mesh bags, the snail death rates of the film group, the niclosamide group, and the niclosamide and film group were 84.00%, 95.33% and 95.33%, respectively. The short-term effect of the black film covering on snail control is not obvious, and the black film covering does no promote the molluscicidal effect of niclosamide.

  6. A short literature survey on iron and cobalt ion doped TiO{sub 2} thin films and photocatalytic activity of these films against fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I dil, Ilknur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Bacaks Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I z, Emin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Buruk, Celal Kurtulus [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Breen, Chris [Materials and Engineering Research Institution, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Soekmen, Muenevver, E-mail: msokmen@ktu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co or Fe doped TiO{sub 2} thin films were prepared by sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained lower E{sub g} values for Fe-doped and Co-TiO{sub 2} thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalytic killing effect of the doped TiO{sub 2} thin films on C. albicans and A. niger was significantly higher than undoped TiO{sub 2} thin film for short exposure periods. - Abstract: In this study, a short recent literature survey which concentrated on the usage of Fe{sup 3+} or Co{sup 2+} ion doped TiO{sub 2} thin films and suspensions were summarized. Additionally, a sol-gel method was used for preparation of the 2% Co or Fe doped TiO{sub 2} thin films. The surface of the prepared materials was characterised using scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and band gap of the films were calculated from the transmission measurements that were taken over the range of 190 and 1100 nm. The E{sub g} value was 3.40 eV for the pure TiO{sub 2}, 3.00 eV for the Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} film and 3.25 eV for Co-TiO{sub 2} thin film. Iron or cobalt doping at lower concentration produce more uniformed particles and doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Photocatalytic killing effect of the 2% Co doped TiO{sub 2} thin film on Candida albicans was significantly higher than Fe doped TiO{sub 2} thin film for short and long exposure periods. Doped thin films were more effective on Aspergillus niger for short exposure periods.

  7. Short-term annealing of mixed amorphous molybdenum-silicon films by means of a conventional diffusion equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, C.; Raschke, T.; Rockoff, A.; Temmler, D.

    1985-01-01

    A short-term annealing procedure is described of mixed amorphous Mo-Si films in a retrofitted conventional diffusion equipment. By means of a special charging jig it is possible to siliconize repeatably between 1 and 120 s in oxygen-free atmosphere. The heat-treated films transform into crystalline MoSi 2 films at temperatures of 1100 0 C and 1200 0 C, respectively, and attain resistance values which correspond to a one-hour treatment at temperatures of 900 0 C up to 1000 0 C. Therefore, the procedure could be used for the production of VLSI circuits with silicide metallization. After short-term annealing the MoSi 2 films show smaller grain sizes compared to conventionally annealed samples

  8. [Clinical characteristics of short tear film breakup time (BUT) -type dry eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuji; Yokoi, Norihiko; Higashihara, Hisayo; Inagaki, Kayoko; Sonomura, Yukiko; Komuro, Aoi; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical characteristics and management of short tear film breakup time (BUT) -type dry eye. Clinical background and post-treatment changes of symptoms in 77 patients with short BUT -type dry eye were investigated. Treatment consisted of artificial-tear eye-drop instillation and, if necessary, the addition of a low-density-level steroid, hyaluronic acid, a low-density-level cyclopentolate prepared by ourselves and punctal plugs inserted into the upper and lower lacrimal puncta. There were three times more women than men among the patients, and the peak age of occurrence was in the twenties in the men and in the sixties in the women. Our findings show that visual display terminal (VDT) work, contact lens (CL) wear, and changes in the sex hormones may initiate subjective symptoms. Some patients had simultaneous conjunctivochalasis, allergic conjunctivitis, and meibomian gland dysfunction. Nineteen patients (24.7%) were effectively treated with eye-drop instillation alone. Thirty-seven patients (48.1%) required punctal-plug insertion, which was completely effective in only 8 of them (21.6%). Mainly young men and menopausal women contract short BUT -type dry eye. Changes in sex hormones, VDT work and CL wear may be causal, and the disease cannot be controlled by eyedrop and punctal-plug treatment alone.

  9. Choice of reference sequence and assembler for alignment of Listeria monocytogenes short-read sequence data greatly influences rates of error in SNP analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur W Pightling

    Full Text Available The wide availability of whole-genome sequencing (WGS and an abundance of open-source software have made detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in bacterial genomes an increasingly accessible and effective tool for comparative analyses. Thus, ensuring that real nucleotide differences between genomes (i.e., true SNPs are detected at high rates and that the influences of errors (such as false positive SNPs, ambiguously called sites, and gaps are mitigated is of utmost importance. The choices researchers make regarding the generation and analysis of WGS data can greatly influence the accuracy of short-read sequence alignments and, therefore, the efficacy of such experiments. We studied the effects of some of these choices, including: i depth of sequencing coverage, ii choice of reference-guided short-read sequence assembler, iii choice of reference genome, and iv whether to perform read-quality filtering and trimming, on our ability to detect true SNPs and on the frequencies of errors. We performed benchmarking experiments, during which we assembled simulated and real Listeria monocytogenes strain 08-5578 short-read sequence datasets of varying quality with four commonly used assemblers (BWA, MOSAIK, Novoalign, and SMALT, using reference genomes of varying genetic distances, and with or without read pre-processing (i.e., quality filtering and trimming. We found that assemblies of at least 50-fold coverage provided the most accurate results. In addition, MOSAIK yielded the fewest errors when reads were aligned to a nearly identical reference genome, while using SMALT to align reads against a reference sequence that is ∼0.82% distant from 08-5578 at the nucleotide level resulted in the detection of the greatest numbers of true SNPs and the fewest errors. Finally, we show that whether read pre-processing improves SNP detection depends upon the choice of reference sequence and assembler. In total, this study demonstrates that researchers

  10. Short- and long-term evolutionary dynamics of bacterial insertion sequences: insights from Wolbachia endosymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveau, Nicolas; Leclercq, Sébastien; Leroy, Elodie; Bouchon, Didier; Cordaux, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Transposable elements (TE) are one of the major driving forces of genome evolution, raising the question of the long-term dynamics underlying their evolutionary success. Long-term TE evolution can readily be reconstructed in eukaryotes, thanks to many degraded copies constituting genomic fossil records of past TE proliferations. By contrast, bacterial genomes usually experience high sequence turnover and short TE retention times, thereby obscuring ancient TE evolutionary patterns. We found that Wolbachia bacterial genomes contain 52-171 insertion sequence (IS) TEs. IS account for 11% of Wolbachia wRi, which is one of the highest IS genomic coverage reported in prokaryotes to date. We show that many IS groups are currently expanding in various Wolbachia genomes and that IS horizontal transfers are frequent among strains, which can explain the apparent synchronicity of these IS proliferations. Remarkably, >70% of Wolbachia IS are nonfunctional. They constitute an unusual bacterial IS genomic fossil record providing direct empirical evidence for a long-term IS evolutionary dynamics following successive periods of intense transpositional activity. Our results show that comprehensive IS annotations have the potential to provide new insights into prokaryote TE evolution and, more generally, prokaryote genome evolution. Indeed, the identification of an important IS genomic fossil record in Wolbachia demonstrates that IS elements are not always of recent origin, contrary to the conventional view of TE evolution in prokaryote genomes. Our results also raise the question whether the abundance of IS fossils is specific to Wolbachia or it may be a general, albeit overlooked, feature of prokaryote genomes.

  11. Short-period oscillations in photoemission from thin films of Cr(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyalikh, Denis V.; Zahn, Peter; Richter, Manuel; Dedkov, Yu. S.; Molodtsov, S. L.

    2005-07-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission (PE) study of thin films of Cr grown on Fe(100) reveals thickness-dependent short-period oscillations of the PE intensity close to the Fermi energy at k‖˜0 . The oscillations are assigned to quantum-well states (QWS) caused by the nesting between the Fermi-surface sheets around the Γ and the X points in the Brillouin zone of antiferromagnetic Cr. The experimental data are confirmed by density-functional calculations applying a screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green’s function method. The period of the experimentally observed QWS oscillations amounts to about 2.6 monolayers and is larger than the fundamental 2-monolayer period of antiferromagnetic coupling in Cr.

  12. Large magnetoelectric coupling in magnetically short-range ordered Bi₅Ti₃FeO₁₅ film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyang; Kimura, Hideo; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Osada, Minoru; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Xiaolin; Dou, Shixue; Liu, Yan; Yu, Jianding; Matsumoto, Takao; Tohei, Tetsuya; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2014-06-11

    Multiferroic materials, which offer the possibility of manipulating the magnetic state by an electric field or vice versa, are of great current interest. However, single-phase materials with such cross-coupling properties at room temperature exist rarely in nature; new design of nano-engineered thin films with a strong magneto-electric coupling is a fundamental challenge. Here we demonstrate a robust room-temperature magneto-electric coupling in a bismuth-layer-structured ferroelectric Bi₅Ti₃FeO₁₅ with high ferroelectric Curie temperature of ~1000 K. Bi₅Ti₃FeO₁₅ thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition are single-phase layered perovskit with nearly (00l)-orientation. Room-temperature multiferroic behavior is demonstrated by a large modulation in magneto-polarization and magneto-dielectric responses. Local structural characterizations by transmission electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy reveal the existence of Fe-rich nanodomains, which cause a short-range magnetic ordering at ~620 K. In Bi₅Ti₃FeO₁₅ with a stable ferroelectric order, the spin canting of magnetic-ion-based nanodomains via the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction might yield a robust magneto-electric coupling of ~400 mV/Oe·cm even at room temperature.

  13. Assessing the 5S ribosomal RNA heterogeneity in Arabidopsis thaliana using short RNA next generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Maciej; Karlowski, Wojciech M

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, ribosomal 5S rRNAs are products of multigene families organized within clusters of tandemly repeated units. Accumulation of genomic data obtained from a variety of organisms demonstrated that the potential 5S rRNA coding sequences show a large number of variants, often incompatible with folding into a correct secondary structure. Here, we present results of an analysis of a large set of short RNA sequences generated by the next generation sequencing techniques, to address the problem of heterogeneity of the 5S rRNA transcripts in Arabidopsis and identification of potentially functional rRNA-derived fragments.

  14. The representation of older people playing a digital game in the short film 'Pony Place': A semiotic and narratological analysis : The representation of older people playing a digital game in the short film 'Pony Place': A semiotic and narratological analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, E.F.; Kubiński, Piotr; Romero, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on Dutch older adults’ use of digital devices in general, and digital games in particular, from an intergenerational perspective. We first present some facts related to provide insight into how Dutch older adults use such new media. Then, the case of the Dutch short film Pony

  15. Optical and electrical properties of SnO2 thin films after ultra-short pulsed laser annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Scorticati, D.; Illiberi, A.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Bor, T.; Ogieglo, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, M.; Lenferink, A.; Otto, C.; Skolski, J.Z.P.; Grob, F.; Lange, D.F. de; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-short pulsed laser sources, with pulse durations in the ps and fs regime, are commonly exploited for cold ablation. However, operating ultra-short pulsed laser sources at fluence levels well below the ablation threshold allows for fast and selective thermal processing. The latter is especially advantageous for the processing of thin films. A precise control of the heat affected zone, as small as tens of nanometers, depending on the material and laser conditions, can be achieved. It enab...

  16. The Knowledge Capsules: Very Short Films on Earth Science for Mainstream Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlow, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    The Knowledge Capsules are outreach and communication videos that present practical science research to mainstream audiences and take viewers on a journey into different aspects of Earth science and natural hazards. The innovative shorts are the result of an interdisciplinary development and production process. They include a combination of interviews, visualizations of scientific research, and documentation of fieldwork. They encapsulate research insights about volcanoes, tsunamis, and climate change in Southeast Asia. These short films were actively distributed free-of-charge during 2012-2014 and all of them are available online. The paper provides an overview of the motivations, process and accomplished results. Our approach for producing the Knowledge Capsules includes: an engaging mix of information and a fresh delivery style, a style suitable for a primary audience of non-scientists, a simple but experientially rich production style, Diagrams and animations based on the scientists' visuals, and a running time between five and twenty minutes. The completed Knowledge Capsules include: "Coastal Science" on Coastal Hazards, "The Ratu River Expedition" on Structural Geology, "Forensic Volcano Petrology by Fidel Costa, Volcano Petrology, "A Tale of Two Tsunamis" on Tsunami Stratigraphy, "Unlocking Climate Secrets" on Marine Geochemistry, and "Earth Girl 2: A Casual Strategy Game to Prepare for the Tsunami" on Natural Hazards and Science Outreach.

  17. Polyamorphism and substructure of short-range order in amorphous boron films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palatnik, L.S.; Nechitajlo, A.A.; Koz'ma, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The structure and substructure of boron amorphous films are studied in detail. Amorphous condensate of Bsup(a) boron is built of the same (but only disorientedly located) 12 B icosahedrons as boron crystalline modifications: B 105 -equilibrium β-rhombic, metastable: B 50 -tetragonal, B 12 -α-rhombohedral Coordination number for Bsup(a) (Z 1 =6.4) is lower than in B 105 (Z 1 =6.6) but higher than in B 50 modification (Z 1 =6.1). In crystalline modifications B 105 , B 50 , B 12 coordination numbers ω in first coordination spheres of icosahedrons are equal to ν 105 =6+4.6=10.6; ν 50 =10+3=14; ν 12 =6 respectively. Both amorphous modifications of boron Bsub(1)sup(a) and Bsub(15)sup(a) are analogs to B 50 in respect of the short-range order of icosahedron location. The difference between them is in ''substructure'' of short-range order: part of boron atoms (approximately 12%) do not occupy the vertices (so that vacancies appear) and enter the emptinesses between icosahedrons. In other words, the structure B 50 is the model basis of both amorphous phases [ru

  18. Resonant magnetoelectric response of composite cantilevers: Theory of short vs. open circuit operation and layer sequence effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias C. Krantz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The magnetoelectric effect in layered composite cantilevers consisting of strain coupled layers of magnetostrictive (MS, piezoelectric (PE, and substrate materials is investigated for magnetic field excitation at bending resonance. Analytic theories are derived for the transverse magnetoelectric (ME response in short and open circuit operation for three different layer sequences and results presented and discussed for the FeCoBSi-AlN-Si and the FeCoBSi-PZT-Si composite systems. Response optimized PE-MS layer thickness ratios are found to greatly change with operation mode shifting from near equal MS and PE layer thicknesses in the open circuit mode to near vanishing PE layer thicknesses in short circuit operation for all layer sequences. In addition the substrate layer thickness is found to differently affect the open and short circuit ME response producing shifts and reversal between ME response maxima depending on layer sequence. The observed rich ME response behavior for different layer thicknesses, sequences, operating modes, and PE materials can be explained by common neutral plane effects and different elastic compliance effects in short and open circuit operation.

  19. [Possibilities in the differential diagnosis of brain neoplasms using the long and short time sequences of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gajewicz, W.; Goraj, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Currently to perform proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) with single voxel spectroscopy (SVS) technique long and/or short echo time sequences are used in order to provide complementary information. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of STEAM (time echo, TE, 20

  20. Transport physics and device modeling of zinc oxide thin-film transistors. Pt. II: Contact Resistance in Short Channel Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torricelli, F.; Meijboom, J.R.; Smits, E.; Tripathi, A.K.; Gelinck, G.H.; Colalongo, L.; Kovacs-Vajna, Z.M.; Leeuw, D. de; Cantatore, E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract—Short-channel zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are investigated in a wide range of temperatures and bias conditions. Scaling down the channel length, the TFT performance is seriously affected by contact resistances, which depend on gate voltage and temperature. To account for

  1. Location Matters: Investigation of Responses to Intercultural Differences and Tensions as Represented in Fictional Short Stories and Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jenna Min

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation I investigated how teachers interpreted intercultural differences and tensions embodied in fictional short stories and films. Participants in the study were 14 English teachers from China, South Korea, and the United States. My key research questions were: How are cultural differences understood and articulated by teachers…

  2. Transport physics and device modeling of zinc oxide thin film transistors - part II : contact resistance in short channel devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torricelli, F.; Smits, E.C.P.; Meijboom, J.R.; Tripathi, A.K.; Gelinck, G.H.; Colalongo, L.; Kovacs-Vajna, Z.M.; Cantatore, E.

    2011-01-01

    Short-channel zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are investigated in a wide range of temperatures and bias conditions. Scaling down the channel length, the TFT performance is seriously affected by contact resistances, which depend on gate voltage and temperature. To account for the

  3. The representation of older people playing a digital game in the short film 'Pony Place': A semiotic and narratological analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, E.; Kubiński, P.; Romero, M.

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on Dutch older adults’ use of digital devices in general, and digital games in particular, from an intergenerational perspective. We first present some facts related to provide insight into how Dutch older adults use such new media. Then, the case of the Dutch short film Pony

  4. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  5. Exploiting BAC-end sequences for the mining, characterization and utility of new short sequences repeat (SSR) markers in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Chai, Lijun; Mayer, Christoph; Xu, Qiang; Guo, Wenwu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a large set of microsatellite markers based on publicly available BAC-end sequences (BESs), and to evaluate their transferability, discriminating capacity of genotypes and mapping ability in Citrus. A set of 1,281 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from the 46,339 Citrus clementina BAC-end sequences (BES), of them 20.67% contained SSR longer than 20 bp, corresponding to roughly one perfect SSR per 2.04 kb. The most abundant motifs were di-nucleotide (16.82%) repeats. Among all repeat motifs (TA/AT)n is the most abundant (8.38%), followed by (AG/CT)n (4.51%). Most of the BES-SSR are located in the non-coding region, but 1.3% of BES-SSRs were found to be associated with transposable element (TE). A total of 400 novel SSR primer pairs were synthesized and their transferability and polymorphism tested on a set of 16 Citrus and Citrus relative's species. Among these 333 (83.25%) were successfully amplified and 260 (65.00%) showed cross-species transferability with Poncirus trifoliata and Fortunella sp. These cross-species transferable markers could be useful for cultivar identification, for genomic study of Citrus, Poncirus and Fortunella sp. Utility of the developed SSR marker was demonstrated by identifying a set of 118 markers each for construction of linkage map of Citrus reticulata and Poncirus trifoliata. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship among 40 Citrus and its related species were conducted with the aid of 25 randomly selected SSR primer pairs and results revealed that citrus genomic SSRs are superior to genic SSR for genetic diversity and germplasm characterization of Citrus spp.

  6. Preferential growth of short aligned, metallic-rich single-walled carbon nanotubes from perpendicular layered double hydroxide film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Nie, Jing-Qi; Wei, Fei

    2012-04-07

    Direct bulk growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with required properties, such as diameter, length, and chirality, is the first step to realize their advanced applications in electrical and optical devices, transparent conductive films, and high-performance field-effect transistors. Preferential growth of short aligned, metallic-rich SWCNTs is a great challenge to the carbon nanotube community. We report the bulk preferential growth of short aligned SWCNTs from perpendicular Mo-containing FeMgAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) film by a facile thermal chemical vapor deposition with CH(4) as carbon source. The growth of the short aligned SWCNTs showed a decreased growth velocity with an initial value of 1.9 nm s(-1). Such a low growth velocity made it possible to get aligned SWCNTs shorter than 1 μm with a growth duration less than 15 min. Raman spectra with different excitation wavelengths indicated that the as-grown short aligned SWCNTs showed high selectivity of metallic SWCNTs. Various kinds of materials, such as mica, quartz, Cu foil, and carbon fiber, can serve as the substrates for the growth of perpendicular FeMoMgAl LDH films and also the growth of the short aligned SWCNTs subsequently. These findings highlight the easy route for bulk preferential growth of aligned metallic-rich SWCNTs with well defined length for further bulk characterization and applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  7. Use of short tandem repeat sequences to study Mycobacterium leprae in leprosy patients in Malawi and India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj K Young

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate understanding of the transmission of Mycobacterium leprae makes it difficult to predict the impact of leprosy control interventions. Genotypic tests that allow tracking of individual bacterial strains would strengthen epidemiological studies and contribute to our understanding of the disease.Genotyping assays based on variation in the copy number of short tandem repeat sequences were applied to biopsies collected in population-based epidemiological studies of leprosy in northern Malawi, and from members of multi-case households in Hyderabad, India. In the Malawi series, considerable genotypic variability was observed between patients, and also within patients, when isolates were collected at different times or from different tissues. Less within-patient variability was observed when isolates were collected from similar tissues at the same time. Less genotypic variability was noted amongst the closely related Indian patients than in the Malawi series.Lineages of M. leprae undergo changes in their pattern of short tandem repeat sequences over time. Genetic divergence is particularly likely between bacilli inhabiting different (e.g., skin and nerve tissues. Such variability makes short tandem repeat sequences unsuitable as a general tool for population-based strain typing of M. leprae, or for distinguishing relapse from reinfection. Careful use of these markers may provide insights into the development of disease within individuals and for tracking of short transmission chains.

  8. Cinema as a site of memory: thoughts from amateur Super-8 films re-edited in the short film 'Supermemórias'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Magalhães Bosi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study amateur films, made in a private context, as a powerful way of creating memory. To do so, we first present a theoretical analisys on the idea of “sites os memory” (Nora 1984 and also on the desire to protect memory, that calls to action the amateur filmmaker. At least, we analyze two Super-8 amateur films produced in Fortaleza (Brazil, in 1978, which were re-edited in the short movie Supermemorias (Danilo Carvalho, 2010. This analysis evidences to us the editing process as a way of constructing new sites of memory and also allow us to reafirm that the amateur film production can instigate interesting and relevant contemporary investigations.

  9. Sequence control of phase separation and dewetting in PS/PVME blend thin films by changing molecular weight of PS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tian; Qin, Yaping; Huang, Yajiang; Huang, Ting; Xu, Jianhui; Li, Youbing

    2016-11-28

    The morphology evolution mechanism of polystyrene (PS)/poly (vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) blend thin films with different PS molecular weights (M w ) was studied. It was found that the morphology evolution was closely related to the molecular weight asymmetry between PS and PVME. In the film where M w (PS) ≈ M w (PVME), dewetting happened at the interface between the bottom layer and substrate after SD phase separation. While in the film where M w (PS) > M w (PVME), dewetting happened at the interface between the middle PS/PVME blend layer and bottom PVME layer near the substrate prior to phase separation. The different sequences of phase separation and dewetting and different interface for dewetting occurrence were studied by regarding the competitive effects of viscoelasticity contrast between polymer components and preferential wetting between PVME and the substrate. The viscoelastic nature of the PS component played a crucial role in the sequence of phase separation and dewetting.

  10. Effects of diquafosol sodium eye drops on tear film stability in short BUT type of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki-Den, Seika; Iseda, Hiroyuki; Dogru, Murat; Shimazaki, Jun

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effects of diquafosol sodium (DQS) eye drops, a purinergic P2Y2 receptor agonist, on tear film stability in patients with unstable tear film (UTF). Two prospective studies were conducted. One was an exploratory nonrandomized trial on 39 eyes with dry eye symptoms and short tear film break-up time (BUT), but without epithelial damage. Changes in symptoms, BUT, Schirmer value, and ocular surface fluorescein staining (FS) scores were studied for 3 months. The other was a randomized clinical trial of DQS and artificial tears (AT) in 17 eyes with short BUT. Eyes with decreased Schirmer values (≤ 5 mm) were excluded. Changes in symptoms, BUT, FS scores, and tear film stability using continuous corneal topographic analysis were studied for 4 weeks. In the exploratory study, while Schirmer values were not significantly increased, significant improvements in symptoms and BUT were noted at both 1 and 3 months. In the randomized clinical trial, significant improvements in symptoms were noted in the DQS group, but not in the AT group, at 2 weeks. BUT was significantly prolonged in the DQS group at 4 weeks but not in the AT group. No significant changes were noted in FS scores or tear film stability. DQS improved subjective symptoms and prolonged BUT in eyes with UTF not associated with low tear secretion and ocular surface epithelial damage. Because many patients who have UTF are refractory to conventional treatments, DQS may offer benefits in the treatment of dry eyes.

  11. Isolation and amino acid sequence of a short-chain neurotoxin from an Australian elapid snake, Pseudechis australis.

    OpenAIRE

    Takasaki, C; Tamiya, N

    1985-01-01

    A short-chain neurotoxin Pseudechis australis a (toxin Pa a) was isolated from the venom of an Australian elapid snake Pseudechis australis (king brown snake) by sequential chromatography on CM-cellulose, Sephadex G-50 and CM-cellulose columns. Toxin Pa a has an LD50 (intravenous) value of 76 micrograms/kg body wt. in mice and consists of 62 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence of Pa a shows considerable homology with those of short-chain neurotoxins of elapid snakes, especially of tr...

  12. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE Sequences in the Genome of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Af293.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakkhana Kanhayuwa

    Full Text Available Novel families of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE sequences in the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, clinical isolate Af293, were identified and categorised into tRNA-related and 5S rRNA-related SINEs. Eight predicted tRNA-related SINE families originating from different tRNAs, and nominated as AfuSINE2 sequences, contained target site duplications of short direct repeat sequences (4-14 bp flanking the elements, an extended tRNA-unrelated region and typical features of RNA polymerase III promoter sequences. The elements ranged in size from 140-493 bp and were present in low copy number in the genome and five out of eight were actively transcribed. One putative tRNAArg-derived sequence, AfuSINE2-1a possessed a unique feature of repeated trinucleotide ACT residues at its 3'-terminus. This element was similar in sequence to the I-4_AO element found in A. oryzae and an I-1_AF long nuclear interspersed element-like sequence identified in A. fumigatus Af293. Families of 5S rRNA-related SINE sequences, nominated as AfuSINE3, were also identified and their 5'-5S rRNA-related regions show 50-65% and 60-75% similarity to respectively A. fumigatus 5S rRNAs and SINE3-1_AO found in A. oryzae. A. fumigatus Af293 contains five copies of AfuSINE3 sequences ranging in size from 259-343 bp and two out of five AfuSINE3 sequences were actively transcribed. Investigations on AfuSINE distribution in the fungal genome revealed that the elements are enriched in pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions and inserted within gene-rich regions. We also demonstrated that some, but not all, AfuSINE sequences are targeted by host RNA silencing mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated that infection of the fungus with mycoviruses had no apparent effects on SINE activity.

  13. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE) Sequences in the Genome of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Af293.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhayuwa, Lakkhana; Coutts, Robert H A

    2016-01-01

    Novel families of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) sequences in the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, clinical isolate Af293, were identified and categorised into tRNA-related and 5S rRNA-related SINEs. Eight predicted tRNA-related SINE families originating from different tRNAs, and nominated as AfuSINE2 sequences, contained target site duplications of short direct repeat sequences (4-14 bp) flanking the elements, an extended tRNA-unrelated region and typical features of RNA polymerase III promoter sequences. The elements ranged in size from 140-493 bp and were present in low copy number in the genome and five out of eight were actively transcribed. One putative tRNAArg-derived sequence, AfuSINE2-1a possessed a unique feature of repeated trinucleotide ACT residues at its 3'-terminus. This element was similar in sequence to the I-4_AO element found in A. oryzae and an I-1_AF long nuclear interspersed element-like sequence identified in A. fumigatus Af293. Families of 5S rRNA-related SINE sequences, nominated as AfuSINE3, were also identified and their 5'-5S rRNA-related regions show 50-65% and 60-75% similarity to respectively A. fumigatus 5S rRNAs and SINE3-1_AO found in A. oryzae. A. fumigatus Af293 contains five copies of AfuSINE3 sequences ranging in size from 259-343 bp and two out of five AfuSINE3 sequences were actively transcribed. Investigations on AfuSINE distribution in the fungal genome revealed that the elements are enriched in pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions and inserted within gene-rich regions. We also demonstrated that some, but not all, AfuSINE sequences are targeted by host RNA silencing mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated that infection of the fungus with mycoviruses had no apparent effects on SINE activity.

  14. Hybridization Capture Using Short PCR Products Enriches Small Genomes by Capturing Flanking Sequences (CapFlank)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Wales, Nathan; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    nucleotides) can result in enrichment across entire mitochondrial and bacterial genomes. Our findings suggest that some of the off-target sequences derived in capture experiments are non-randomly enriched, and that CapFlank will facilitate targeted enrichment of large contiguous sequences with minimal prior...

  15. Distribution and congener profiles of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in indoor/outdoor glass window surface films and their film-air partitioning in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-02-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are a group of n-alkanes with carbon chain length of 10-13. In this work, paired indoor/outdoor samples of organic films on window glass surfaces from urban buildings in Beijing, China, were collected to measure the concentrations and congener distributions of SCCPs. The total SCCP levels ranged from 337 ng/m(2) to 114 μg/m(2), with total organic carbon (TOC) normalized concentrations of 365 μg/m(2)-365 mg/m(2). Overall, the concentrations of SCCPs on the interior films were higher than the concentrations on the exterior films, suggesting an important indoor environmental exposure of SCCPs to the general public. A significant linear relationship was found between the SCCP concentrations and TOC, with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.34 (p film-air partitioning model suggests that the indoor gas-phase SCCPs are related to their corresponding window film levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genomic Sequence of a Ranavirus Isolated from Short-Finned Eel (Anguilla australis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subramaniam, Kuttichantran; Toffan, Anna; Cappellozza, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    The short-finned eel ranavirus (SERV) was isolated from short-finned eel imported to Italy from New Zealand. Phylogenomic analyses revealed that SERV is a unique member of the genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae, branching at the base of the tree near other fish ranaviruses....

  17. Grating-coupled surface plasmon enhanced short-circuit current in organic thin-film photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Akira; Aoki, Nobutaka; Shinbo, Kazunari; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication of grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance (SPR) enhanced organic thin-film photovoltaic cells and their improved photocurrent properties. The cell consists of a grating substrate/silver/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS structure. Blu-ray disk recordable substrates are used as the diffraction grating substrates on which silver films are deposited by vacuum evaporation. P3HT:PCBM films are spin-coated on silver/grating substrates. Low conductivity PEDOT:PSS/PDADMAC layer-by-layer ultrathin films deposited on P3HT:PCBM films act as the hole transport layer, whereas high conductivity PEDOT:PSS films deposited by spin-coating act as the anode. SPR excitations are observed in the fabricated cells upon irradiation with white light. Up to a 2-fold increase in the short-circuit photocurrent is observed when the surface plasmon (SP) is excited on the silver gratings as compared to that without SP excitation. The finite-difference time-domain simulation indicates that the electric field in the P3HT:PCBM layer can be increased using the grating-coupled SP technique. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Through-thickness thermal conductivity enhancement of graphite film/epoxy composite via short duration acidizing modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Wang, Shaokai; Lu, Weibang; Li, Min; Gu, Yizhou; Zhang, Yongyi; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2018-06-01

    Graphite films have excellent in-plane thermal conductivity but extremely low through-thickness thermal conductivity because of their intrinsic inter-layer spaces. To improve the inter-layer heat transfer of graphite films, we developed a simple interfacial modification with a short duration mixed-acid treatment. The effects of the mixture ratio of sulfuric and nitric acids and treatment time on the through-thickness thermal properties of graphite films were studied. The modification increased the through-thickness thermal conductivity by 27% and 42% for the graphite film and its composite, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy results indicated that the acidification process had two competing effects: the positive contribution made by the enhanced interaction between the graphite layers induced by the functional groups and the negative effect from the destruction of the graphite layers. As a result, an optimal acidification method was found to be sulfuric/nitric acid treatment with a mixture ratio of 3:1 for 15 min. The resultant through-thickness thermal conductivity of the graphite film could be improved to 0.674 W/mK, and the corresponding graphite/epoxy composite shows a through-thickness thermal conductivity of 0.587 W/mK. This method can be directly used for graphite films and their composite fabrication to improve through-thickness thermal conductivity.

  19. BarraCUDA - a fast short read sequence aligner using graphics processing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klus Petr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the maturation of next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS technologies, the throughput of DNA sequencing reads has soared to over 600 gigabases from a single instrument run. General purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU, extracts the computing power from hundreds of parallel stream processors within graphics processing cores and provides a cost-effective and energy efficient alternative to traditional high-performance computing (HPC clusters. In this article, we describe the implementation of BarraCUDA, a GPGPU sequence alignment software that is based on BWA, to accelerate the alignment of sequencing reads generated by these instruments to a reference DNA sequence. Findings Using the NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA software development environment, we ported the most computational-intensive alignment component of BWA to GPU to take advantage of the massive parallelism. As a result, BarraCUDA offers a magnitude of performance boost in alignment throughput when compared to a CPU core while delivering the same level of alignment fidelity. The software is also capable of supporting multiple CUDA devices in parallel to further accelerate the alignment throughput. Conclusions BarraCUDA is designed to take advantage of the parallelism of GPU to accelerate the alignment of millions of sequencing reads generated by NGS instruments. By doing this, we could, at least in part streamline the current bioinformatics pipeline such that the wider scientific community could benefit from the sequencing technology. BarraCUDA is currently available from http://seqbarracuda.sf.net

  20. BarraCUDA - a fast short read sequence aligner using graphics processing units

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Klus, Petr

    2012-01-13

    Abstract Background With the maturation of next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) technologies, the throughput of DNA sequencing reads has soared to over 600 gigabases from a single instrument run. General purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU), extracts the computing power from hundreds of parallel stream processors within graphics processing cores and provides a cost-effective and energy efficient alternative to traditional high-performance computing (HPC) clusters. In this article, we describe the implementation of BarraCUDA, a GPGPU sequence alignment software that is based on BWA, to accelerate the alignment of sequencing reads generated by these instruments to a reference DNA sequence. Findings Using the NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) software development environment, we ported the most computational-intensive alignment component of BWA to GPU to take advantage of the massive parallelism. As a result, BarraCUDA offers a magnitude of performance boost in alignment throughput when compared to a CPU core while delivering the same level of alignment fidelity. The software is also capable of supporting multiple CUDA devices in parallel to further accelerate the alignment throughput. Conclusions BarraCUDA is designed to take advantage of the parallelism of GPU to accelerate the alignment of millions of sequencing reads generated by NGS instruments. By doing this, we could, at least in part streamline the current bioinformatics pipeline such that the wider scientific community could benefit from the sequencing technology. BarraCUDA is currently available from http:\\/\\/seqbarracuda.sf.net

  1. Musicians' and nonmusicians' short-term memory for verbal and musical sequences: comparing phonological similarity and pitch proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria J; Baddeley, Alan D; Hitch, Graham J

    2010-03-01

    Language-music comparative studies have highlighted the potential for shared resources or neural overlap in auditory short-term memory. However, there is a lack of behavioral methodologies for comparing verbal and musical serial recall. We developed a visual grid response that allowed both musicians and nonmusicians to perform serial recall of letter and tone sequences. The new method was used to compare the phonological similarity effect with the impact of an operationalized musical equivalent-pitch proximity. Over the course of three experiments, we found that short-term memory for tones had several similarities to verbal memory, including limited capacity and a significant effect of pitch proximity in nonmusicians. Despite being vulnerable to phonological similarity when recalling letters, however, musicians showed no effect of pitch proximity, a result that we suggest might reflect strategy differences. Overall, the findings support a limited degree of correspondence in the way that verbal and musical sounds are processed in auditory short-term memory.

  2. Liquid film and interfacial wave behavior in air-water countercurrent flow through vertical short multi-tube geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinzhao; Giot, M.

    1992-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on air-water countercurrent flow through short multi-tube geometries (tube number n = 3, diameter d = 36mm, length I = 2d, 10d and 20d). The time-varying thicknesses of the liquid films trickling down the individual tubes are measured by means of conductance probes mounted flush at different locations of the inner wall surfaces. Detailed time series analyses of the measured film thicknesses provide some useful information about the film flow behavior as well as the interfacial wave characteristics in individual tubes, which can be used as some guidelines for developing more general predictive flooding models. 18 refs., 18 figs., 1 tabs

  3. A short review on the pulsed laser deposition of Er3+ ion doped oxide glass thin films for integrated optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irannejad, M.; Zhao, Z.; Jose, G.; Steenson, D.P.; Jha, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short pulsed (ns) excimer laser was employed as a technique for the deposition of more than 2 μm thick glassy films from phosphorous pentoxide and tungsten lanthanum modified tellurite bulk glasses. High quality glass thin films with measured propagation loss less than 0.15, 0.71 and 2.3 dB.cm -1 were obtained after optimization of deposition parameters for silica, siloxane and semiconductor substrates. The optical, spectroscopic and microstructural properties of deposited thin films were compared with bulk glass materials for demonstrating the differences in the properties, which must be optimized for device engineering. Channel waveguides were fabricated after using reactive ion etching technique, up to 2 μm thickness by using CHF 3 and Ar gas mixture

  4. Non-classical polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistor with embedded block-oxide for suppressing the short channel effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jyi-Tsong; Huang, Kuo-Dong; Hu, Shu-Fen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) thin-film transistor with a block oxide enclosing body, BTFT, is fabricated and investigated. By utilizing the block-oxide structure of thin-film transistors, the BTFT is shown to suppress the short channel effect. This proposed structure is formed by burying self-aligned oxide spacers along the sidewalls of the source and drain junctions, which reduces the P–N junction area, thereby reducing the junction capacitance and leakage current. Measurements demonstrate that the BTFT eliminates the punch-through effect even down to gate lengths of 1.5 µm, whereas the conventional TFT suffers serious short channel effects at this gate length

  5. Atomic Layer Control of Thin Film Growth Using Binary Reaction Sequence Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    George, Steven

    1997-01-01

    Our research is focusing on the atomic layer control of thin film growth. Our goal is to deposit films with precise control of thickness and conformality on both flat and high aspect ratio structures...

  6. Short review on chemical bath deposition of thin film and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugle, Dhananjay, E-mail: dhananjayforu@gmail.com; Jadhav, Ghanshyam, E-mail: ghjadhav@rediffmail.com [Depertment of Physics, Shri Chhatrapati Shivaji College, Omerga-413606 (India)

    2016-05-06

    This reviews the theory of early growth of the thin film using chemical deposition methods. In particular, it critically reviews the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method for preparation of thin films. The different techniques used for characterizations of the chemically films such as X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Electrical conductivity and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) are discussed. Survey shows the physical and chemical properties solely depend upon the time of deposition, temperature of deposition.

  7. RNA-Seq analysis and gene discovery of Andrias davidianus using Illumina short read sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenggang Li

    Full Text Available The Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus, is an important species in the course of evolution; however, there is insufficient genomic data in public databases for understanding its immunologic mechanisms. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing is necessary to generate an enormous number of transcript sequences from A. davidianus for gene discovery. In this study, we generated more than 40 million reads from samples of spleen and skin tissue using the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. De novo assembly yielded 87,297 transcripts with a mean length of 734 base pairs (bp. Based on the sequence similarities, searching with known proteins, 38,916 genes were identified. Gene enrichment analysis determined that 981 transcripts were assigned to the immune system. Tissue-specific expression analysis indicated that 443 of transcripts were specifically expressed in the spleen and skin. Among these transcripts, 147 transcripts were found to be involved in immune responses and inflammatory reactions, such as fucolectin, β-defensins and lymphotoxin beta. Eight tissue-specific genes were selected for validation using real time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR. The results showed that these genes were significantly more expressed in spleen and skin than in other tissues, suggesting that these genes have vital roles in the immune response. This work provides a comprehensive genomic sequence resource for A. davidianus and lays the foundation for future research on the immunologic and disease resistance mechanisms of A. davidianus and other amphibians.

  8. ReadDepth: a parallel R package for detecting copy number alterations from short sequencing reads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Copy number alterations are important contributors to many genetic diseases, including cancer. We present the readDepth package for R, which can detect these aberrations by measuring the depth of coverage obtained by massively parallel sequencing of the genome. In addition to achieving higher accuracy than existing packages, our tool runs much faster by utilizing multi-core architectures to parallelize the processing of these large data sets. In contrast to other published methods, readDepth does not require the sequencing of a reference sample, and uses a robust statistical model that accounts for overdispersed data. It includes a method for effectively increasing the resolution obtained from low-coverage experiments by utilizing breakpoint information from paired end sequencing to do positional refinement. We also demonstrate a method for inferring copy number using reads generated by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, thus enabling integrative study of epigenomic and copy number alterations. Finally, we apply this tool to two genomes, showing that it performs well on genomes sequenced to both low and high coverage. The readDepth package runs on Linux and MacOSX, is released under the Apache 2.0 license, and is available at http://code.google.com/p/readdepth/.

  9. Short- and medium-range order of atomic structure and electronic properties of arsenic salinide and sulphide amorphous films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarsembinov, Sh.Sh.; Prikhodko, O.Yu.; Ryaguzov, A.P.; Maksimova, S.Ya.; Ushanov, V.Zh.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The relationship between short- and medium-range order of atomic structure and electronic properties is the object of invariable attention of disordered matter physics. This problem is the most important for non-crystalline semiconductors, and specifically for chalcogenide glassy semiconductors (ChGS) films due to low co-ordination of atoms, which leads to lability of their structure. In this report we present results of atomic structure, electric, optical properties and carrier drift investigation in amorphous films of As 2 Se 3 and As 2 S 3 prepared by thermal evaporation in a vacuum (TE films) and by RF ion-plasma sputtering (RF films). These techniques strongly differing in the conditions of substance vaporization and condensation atoms on a substrate. The short- and medium-range order of the films atomic structure has been studied by X-ray diffraction analysis using the CuKα radiation (λ=1.5418 Angstrom) and by Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were measured at room temperature on Perkin-Elmer Spectrum GX Raman FT-IR Spectrometer (180 deg. backscattering). Vibrational modes were excited vertically polarized light of DPY Nd:YAG laser (1.064 μm). The radii of the first and second coordination spheres, number of the nearest neighbours of As and Se (S) atoms in the first coordination sphere, dimension of the medium-range order domain and 'quasi-period' in that region have been determined for the studied samples. The identification of the structural units in matrix of the film has been carried out, too. It is established that the films prepared by different methods have differences in the parameters of short- and medium range orders. It follows from the comparative analysis of Raman spectra that spectrum of RF films is significantly more complex than that of glass and TE films. The matrix of RF films contains, along with the structural units AsSe 3/2 (AsS 3/2 ) inherent in TE films and glass, other structural units with As and Se (S) excess. It may be

  10. Short-read reading-frame predictors are not created equal: sequence error causes loss of signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimble William L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene prediction algorithms (or gene callers are an essential tool for analyzing shotgun nucleic acid sequence data. Gene prediction is a ubiquitous step in sequence analysis pipelines; it reduces the volume of data by identifying the most likely reading frame for a fragment, permitting the out-of-frame translations to be ignored. In this study we evaluate five widely used ab initio gene-calling algorithms—FragGeneScan, MetaGeneAnnotator, MetaGeneMark, Orphelia, and Prodigal—for accuracy on short (75–1000 bp fragments containing sequence error from previously published artificial data and “real” metagenomic datasets. Results While gene prediction tools have similar accuracies predicting genes on error-free fragments, in the presence of sequencing errors considerable differences between tools become evident. For error-containing short reads, FragGeneScan finds more prokaryotic coding regions than does MetaGeneAnnotator, MetaGeneMark, Orphelia, or Prodigal. This improved detection of genes in error-containing fragments, however, comes at the cost of much lower (50% specificity and overprediction of genes in noncoding regions. Conclusions Ab initio gene callers offer a significant reduction in the computational burden of annotating individual nucleic acid reads and are used in many metagenomic annotation systems. For predicting reading frames on raw reads, we find the hidden Markov model approach in FragGeneScan is more sensitive than other gene prediction tools, while Prodigal, MGA, and MGM are better suited for higher-quality sequences such as assembled contigs.

  11. Temporal Clustering and Sequencing in Short-Term Memory and Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon

    2012-01-01

    A model of short-term memory and episodic memory is presented, with the core assumptions that (a) people parse their continuous experience into episodic clusters and (b) items are clustered together in memory as episodes by binding information within an episode to a common temporal context. Along with the additional assumption that information…

  12. Detection of short repeated genomic sequences on metaphase chromosomes using padlock probes and target primed rolling circle DNA synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stougaard Magnus

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In situ detection of short sequence elements in genomic DNA requires short probes with high molecular resolution and powerful specific signal amplification. Padlock probes can differentiate single base variations. Ligated padlock probes can be amplified in situ by rolling circle DNA synthesis and detected by fluorescence microscopy, thus enhancing PRINS type reactions, where localized DNA synthesis reports on the position of hybridization targets, to potentially reveal the binding of single oligonucleotide-size probe molecules. Such a system has been presented for the detection of mitochondrial DNA in fixed cells, whereas attempts to apply rolling circle detection to metaphase chromosomes have previously failed, according to the literature. Methods Synchronized cultured cells were fixed with methanol/acetic acid to prepare chromosome spreads in teflon-coated diagnostic well-slides. Apart from the slide format and the chromosome spreading everything was done essentially according to standard protocols. Hybridization targets were detected in situ with padlock probes, which were ligated and amplified using target primed rolling circle DNA synthesis, and detected by fluorescence labeling. Results An optimized protocol for the spreading of condensed metaphase chromosomes in teflon-coated diagnostic well-slides was developed. Applying this protocol we generated specimens for target primed rolling circle DNA synthesis of padlock probes recognizing a 40 nucleotide sequence in the male specific repetitive satellite I sequence (DYZ1 on the Y-chromosome and a 32 nucleotide sequence in the repetitive kringle IV domain in the apolipoprotein(a gene positioned on the long arm of chromosome 6. These targets were detected with good efficiency, but the efficiency on other target sites was unsatisfactory. Conclusion Our aim was to test the applicability of the method used on mitochondrial DNA to the analysis of nuclear genomes, in particular as

  13. Far-UV-induced dimeric photoproducts in short oligonucleotides: sequence effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douki, T.; Zalizniak, T.; Cadet, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and pyrimidine (6-4)pyrimidone adducts represent the two major classes of far-UV-induced DNA photoproducts. Because of the lack of appropriate detection methods for each individual photoproduct, little is known about the effect of the sequence on their formaiton. In the present work, the photoproduct distribution obtained upon exposure of a series of dinucleoside monophosphate to 254 nm light was determined. (author)

  14. [Topographic mapping of retinal function with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope and multifocal electroretinography using short M-sequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, G; Bechmann, M; Berninger, T; Kutschbach, E; Held, U; Tornow, R P; Kalpadakis, P; Zol'nikova, I V; Shamshinova, A M

    2001-01-01

    A new method of multifocal electroretinography making use of scanning laser ophthalmoscope with a wavelength of 630 nm (SLO-m-ERG), evoking short spatial visual stimuli on the retina, is proposed. Algorithm of presenting the visual stimuli and analysis of distribution of local electroretinograms on the surface of the retina is based on short m-sequences. Mathematical cross correlation analysis shows a three-dimensional distribution of bioelectrical activity of the retina in the central visual field. In normal subjects the cone bioelectrical activity is the maximum in the macular area (corresponding to the density of cone distribution) and absent in the blind spot. The method detects the slightest pathological changes in the retina under control of the site of stimulation and ophthalmoscopic picture of the fundus oculi. The site of the pathological process correlates with the topography of changes in bioelectrical activity of the examined retinal area in diseases of the macular area and pigmented retinitis detectable by ophthalmoscopy.

  15. Analysing breast tissue composition with MRI using currently available short, simple sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, A.C.M.; Hua, J.; Taylor, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the most robust commonly available magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence to quantify breast tissue composition at 1.5 T. Materials and methods: Two-dimensional (2D) T1-weighted, Dixon fat, Dixon water and SPAIR images were obtained from five participants and a breast phantom using a 1.5 T Siemens Aera MRI system. Manual segmentation of the breasts was performed, and an in-house computer program was used to generate signal intensity histograms. Relative trough depth and relative peak separation were used to determine the robustness of the images for quantifying the two breast tissues. Total breast volumes and percentage breast densities calculated using the four sequences were compared. Results: Dixon fat histograms had consistently low relative trough depth and relative peak separation compared to those obtained using other sequences. There was no significant difference in total breast volumes and percentage breast densities of the participants or breast phantom using Dixon fat and 2D T1-weighted histograms. Dixon water and SPAIR histograms were not suitable for quantifying breast tissue composition. Conclusion: Dixon fat images are the most robust for the quantification of breast tissue composition using a signal intensity histogram. - Highlights: • Signal intensity histogram analysis can determine robustness of images for quantification of breast tissue composition. • Dixon fat images are the most robust. • The characteristics of the signal intensity histograms from Dixon water and SPAIR images make quantification unsuitable.

  16. [Short interspersed repetitive sequences (SINEs) and their use as a phylogenetic tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramerov, D A; Vasetskiĭ, N S

    2009-01-01

    The data on one of the most common repetitive elements of eukaryotic genomes, short interspersed elements (SINEs), are reviewed. Their structure, origin, and functioning in the genome are discussed. The variation and abundance of these neutral genomic markers makes them a convenient and reliable tool for phylogenetic analysis. The main methods of such analysis are presented, and the potential and limitations of this approach are discussed using specific examples.

  17. Whole Genome Sequencing Identifies a Missense Mutation in HES7 Associated with Short Tails in Asian Domestic Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Sun, Xin; Hu, Xue-Song; Zhuang, Yan; Liu, Yue-Chen; Meng, Hao; Miao, Lin; Yu, He; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2016-08-25

    Domestic cats exhibit abundant variations in tail morphology and serve as an excellent model to study the development and evolution of vertebrate tails. Cats with shortened and kinked tails were first recorded in the Malayan archipelago by Charles Darwin in 1868 and remain quite common today in Southeast and East Asia. To elucidate the genetic basis of short tails in Asian cats, we built a pedigree of 13 cats segregating at the trait with a founder from southern China and performed linkage mapping based on whole genome sequencing data from the pedigree. The short-tailed trait was mapped to a 5.6 Mb region of Chr E1, within which the substitution c. 5T > C in the somite segmentation-related gene HES7 was identified as the causal mutation resulting in a missense change (p.V2A). Validation in 245 unrelated cats confirmed the correlation between HES7-c. 5T > C and Chinese short-tailed feral cats as well as the Japanese Bobtail breed, indicating a common genetic basis of the two. In addition, some of our sampled kinked-tailed cats could not be explained by either HES7 or the Manx-related T-box, suggesting at least three independent events in the evolution of domestic cats giving rise to short-tailed traits.

  18. Laser short-pulse heating of an aluminum thin film: Energy transfer in electron and lattice sub-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin Mansoor, Saad; Sami Yilbas, Bekir, E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa

    2015-08-15

    Laser short-pulse heating of an aluminum thin film is considered and energy transfer in the film is formulated using the Boltzmann equation. Since the heating duration is short and the film thickness is considerably small, thermal separation of electron and lattice sub-systems is incorporated in the analysis. The electron–phonon coupling is used to formulate thermal communication of both sub-systems during the heating period. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to account for the average energy of all phonons around a local point when they redistribute adiabatically to an equilibrium state. Temperature predictions of the Boltzmann equation are compared with those obtained from the two-equation model. It is found that temperature predictions from the Boltzmann equation differ slightly from the two-equation model results. Temporal variation of equivalent equilibrium temperature does not follow the laser pulse intensity in the electron sub-system. The time occurrence of the peak equivalent equilibrium temperature differs for electron and lattice sub-systems, which is attributed to phonon scattering in the irradiated field in the lattice sub-system. In this case, time shift is observed for occurrence of the peak temperature in the lattice sub-system.

  19. Laser short-pulse heating of an aluminum thin film: Energy transfer in electron and lattice sub-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin Mansoor, Saad; Sami Yilbas, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    Laser short-pulse heating of an aluminum thin film is considered and energy transfer in the film is formulated using the Boltzmann equation. Since the heating duration is short and the film thickness is considerably small, thermal separation of electron and lattice sub-systems is incorporated in the analysis. The electron–phonon coupling is used to formulate thermal communication of both sub-systems during the heating period. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to account for the average energy of all phonons around a local point when they redistribute adiabatically to an equilibrium state. Temperature predictions of the Boltzmann equation are compared with those obtained from the two-equation model. It is found that temperature predictions from the Boltzmann equation differ slightly from the two-equation model results. Temporal variation of equivalent equilibrium temperature does not follow the laser pulse intensity in the electron sub-system. The time occurrence of the peak equivalent equilibrium temperature differs for electron and lattice sub-systems, which is attributed to phonon scattering in the irradiated field in the lattice sub-system. In this case, time shift is observed for occurrence of the peak temperature in the lattice sub-system

  20. Solid-state dewetting of Au-Ni bi-layer films mediated through individual layer thickness and stacking sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Andreas; Theska, Felix; Rossberg, Diana; Kups, Thomas; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter

    2018-06-01

    In the present work, the solid-state dewetting of Au-Ni bi-layer thin films deposited on SiO2/Si is systematically studied with respect to individual layer thickness and stacking sequence. For this purpose, a rapid heat treatment at medium temperatures is applied in order to examine void formation at the early stages of the dewetting. Compositional variations are realized by changing the thickness ratio of the bi-layer films, while the total thickness is maintained at 20 nm throughout the study. In the event of Au/Ni films annealed at 500 °C, crystal voids exposing the substrate are missing regardless of chemical composition. In reverse order, the number of voids per unit area in two-phase Au-Ni thin films is found to be governed by the amount of Au-rich material. At higher temperatures up to 650 °C, a decreased probability of nucleation comes at the expense of a major portion of cavities, resulting in the formation of bubbles in 15 nm Ni/5 nm Au bi-layers. Film buckling predominantly occurred at phase boundaries crossing the bubbles.

  1. THE ESTHETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SHORT FILM “MY SHOES” IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL MEDIA AND VISUAL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk ULUTAS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the visual products which has become widespread through the visual media in general and the social media in particular is highly effecting individuals’ way of thinking, perception, interpretation and vision. The short films shot recently spread over social media moves this affect to another dimension. This affect sometimes arises in a rational level in individuals’ minds but sometimes it takes place in an emotional level and occurs in an irrational way. This study examines the existence of an esthetic phenomenon spreading over social media and the final procuct in an esthetical extent after the processes of the production stage with the sample film. The purpose of this study is to exposure, while an esthetic phenomenon is produced how the producer’s world of though and the perspective creates reality and in this context how the product appeals to the receivers’ cognition levels and accordingly to their emotions.

  2. A short autocomplementary sequence plays an essential role in avian sarcoma-leukosis virus RNA dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossé, P; Motté, N; Roumier, A; Gabus, C; Muriaux, D; Darlix, J L; Paoletti, J

    1996-12-24

    Retroviral genomes consist of two identical RNA molecules joined noncovalently near their 5'-ends. Recently, two models have been proposed for RNA dimer formation on the basis of results obtained in vitro with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA and Moloney murine leukemia virus RNA. It was first proposed that viral RNA dimerizes by forming an interstrand quadruple helix with purine tetrads. The second model postulates that RNA dimerization is initiated by a loop-loop interaction between the two RNA molecules. In order to better characterize the dimerization process of retroviral genomic RNA, we analyzed the in vitro dimerization of avian sarcoma-leukosis virus (ASLV) RNA using different transcripts. We determined the requirements for heterodimer formation, the thermal dissociation of RNA dimers, and the influence of antisense DNA oligonucleotides on dimer formation. Our results strongly suggest that purine tetrads are not involved in dimer formation. Data show that an autocomplementary sequence located upstream from the splice donor site and within a major packaging signal plays a crucial role in ASLV RNA dimer formation in vitro. This sequence is able to form a stem-loop structure, and phylogenetic analysis reveals that it is conserved in 28 different avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses. These results suggest that dimerization of ASLV RNA is initiated by a loop-loop interaction between two RNA molecules and provide an additional argument for the ubiquity of the dimerization process via loop-loop interaction.

  3. Science Fiction on Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, David

    1985-01-01

    Reviews science fiction films used in a science fiction class. Discusses feature films, short science fiction films, short story adaptations, original science fiction pieces and factual science films that enrich literature. (EL)

  4. Thin film surface processing by UltraShort Laser Pulses (USLP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scorticati, D.; Skolski, J.Z.P.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.; Workum, M.; Theelen, M.J.; Zeman, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we studied the feasibility of surface texturing of thin molybdenum layers on a borosilicate glass substrate with Ultra-Short Laser Pulses (USLP). Large areas of regular diffraction gratings were produced consisting of Laserinduced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). A short pulsed

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii Strain #22 Isolated from a Patient with Short Bowel Syndrome and Previous d-Lactic Acidosis and Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domann, Eugen; Fischer, Florence; Glowatzki, Fabian; Fritzenwanker, Moritz; Hain, Torsten; Zechel-Gran, Silke; Giffhorn-Katz, Susanne; Neubauer, Bernd A

    2016-07-28

    d-Lactic acidosis with associated encephalopathy caused by overgrowth of intestinal lactic acid bacteria is a rarely diagnosed neurological complication of patients with short bowel syndrome. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii strain #22 isolated from a patient with short bowel syndrome and previous d-lactic acidosis/encephalopathy. Copyright © 2016 Domann et al.

  6. Structural and mechanical characteristics of film using modified corn starch by the same two chemical processes used in different sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liping; Hu, Fei; Peng, Yali

    2013-01-16

    Structure of dual modified starches, cross-linked esterified corn starch (CES) and esterified cross-linked corn starch (ECS), and product films (CEF and ECF) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The peak 1730cm(-1) of IR spectra confirmed the formation of ester carbonyl groups in starch matrix. The sequence of modification procedure had an impact on the final modification degree, resulting in structural differences of modified starches and starch films. Compared to native starch film (NF), CEF and ECF showed improved transparence (77.59% and 74.39% respectively) with compact structure, lower crystallinity (6.5% and 7.4% respectively). Results of mechanical test indicated that structure of ECF was more flexible than CEF, whereas tensile strength was higher in CEF. Accordingly, complex modification could be an effective method to adequate properties of starch films for specific processing requirements. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Foreshock sequences and short-term earthquake predictability on East Pacific Rise transform faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jeffrey J; Boettcher, Margaret S; Jordan, Thomas H

    2005-03-24

    East Pacific Rise transform faults are characterized by high slip rates (more than ten centimetres a year), predominantly aseismic slip and maximum earthquake magnitudes of about 6.5. Using recordings from a hydroacoustic array deployed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, we show here that East Pacific Rise transform faults also have a low number of aftershocks and high foreshock rates compared to continental strike-slip faults. The high ratio of foreshocks to aftershocks implies that such transform-fault seismicity cannot be explained by seismic triggering models in which there is no fundamental distinction between foreshocks, mainshocks and aftershocks. The foreshock sequences on East Pacific Rise transform faults can be used to predict (retrospectively) earthquakes of magnitude 5.4 or greater, in narrow spatial and temporal windows and with a high probability gain. The predictability of such transform earthquakes is consistent with a model in which slow slip transients trigger earthquakes, enrich their low-frequency radiation and accommodate much of the aseismic plate motion.

  8. VARIOUS SPEECH SEQUENCES OF ENGLISH DEPARTMENT STUDENTS IN DOING REQUEST VIA SHORT MESSAGE SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike Revita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Interaction, if not wisely considered, may be very risky. The unwise utterances may lead to misunderstanding. When this happens, pragmatic failure is of great possibility occur. This writing is aimed at describing the some variations of speech seqeunces in doing request and the reasons of using each variation. The data are the request uttered by English Department students Andalas University to their friends, their lecturer and vice versa at the campus. Data are collected by observational method, interviewing and note-taking technique. To analyze the data, pragmatic and referential identity method is used. The result of analysis is naratively and descriptively presented. Having been related to the concept of speech act of request (Revita, 2008 and context (Yule, 1986, it is found that there are four variations of speech sequence when English Department students do request. They are (a (1 1 in 1; (b 2 in 1; (c 3 in 1; and (d multi acts in 1. The choice of these variations is basically based on several reasons, namely (i social; (iipsychological; (iii cultural ; and (iv religious aspect.

  9. Preparation and properties of biodegradable films from Sterculia urens short fiber/celluose green composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jayaramudu, J

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available cellulose matrix composite films. The morphologies of the untreated and 5% NaOH (alkali) treated S. urens fibers were observed by SEM. The effect of 5% NaOH treated S. urens fiber (5, 10, 15 and 20% loading) on the mechanical properties and thermal stability...

  10. Characterization of ultrathin SOI film and application to short channel MOSFETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaohui; Reckinger, Nicolas; Larrieu, Guilhem; Dubois, Emmanuel; Flandre, Denis; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Nysten, Bernard; Jonas, Alain M; Bayot, Vincent

    2008-04-23

    In this study, a very dilute solution (NH(4)OH:H(2)O(2):H(2)O 1:8:64 mixture) was employed to reduce the thickness of commercially available SOI wafers down to 3 nm. The etch rate is precisely controlled at 0.11 Å s(-1) based on the self-limited etching speed of the solution. The thickness uniformity of the thin film, evaluated by spectroscopic ellipsometry and by high-resolution x-ray reflectivity, remains constant through the thinning process. Moreover, the film roughness, analyzed by atomic force microscopy, slightly improves during the thinning process. The residual stress in the thin film is much smaller than that obtained by sacrificial oxidation. Mobility, measured by means of a bridge-type Hall bar on 15 nm film, is not significantly reduced compared to the value of bulk silicon. Finally, the thinned SOI wafers were used to fabricate Schottky-barrier metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with a gate length down to 30 nm, featuring state-of-the-art current drive performance.

  11. Spike Lee, Short Films and Social Issues in the English Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ernece B.

    In the past few years many movies have addressed social issues such as AIDS, parental estrangement, aging, battered women and children, and racism. Teachers of teenagers can capitalize on these kinds of serious films in two ways: by assuming that students have thought about some serious issues and by building on that assumption. Three movies of…

  12. Convolutional neural network regression for short-axis left ventricle segmentation in cardiac cine MR sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li Kuo; Liew, Yih Miin; Lim, Einly; McLaughlin, Robert A

    2017-07-01

    Automated left ventricular (LV) segmentation is crucial for efficient quantification of cardiac function and morphology to aid subsequent management of cardiac pathologies. In this paper, we parameterize the complete (all short axis slices and phases) LV segmentation task in terms of the radial distances between the LV centerpoint and the endo- and epicardial contours in polar space. We then utilize convolutional neural network regression to infer these parameters. Utilizing parameter regression, as opposed to conventional pixel classification, allows the network to inherently reflect domain-specific physical constraints. We have benchmarked our approach primarily against the publicly-available left ventricle segmentation challenge (LVSC) dataset, which consists of 100 training and 100 validation cardiac MRI cases representing a heterogeneous mix of cardiac pathologies and imaging parameters across multiple centers. Our approach attained a .77 Jaccard index, which is the highest published overall result in comparison to other automated algorithms. To test general applicability, we also evaluated against the Kaggle Second Annual Data Science Bowl, where the evaluation metric was the indirect clinical measures of LV volume rather than direct myocardial contours. Our approach attained a Continuous Ranked Probability Score (CRPS) of .0124, which would have ranked tenth in the original challenge. With this we demonstrate the effectiveness of convolutional neural network regression paired with domain-specific features in clinical segmentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dependence of intermetallic compound formation on the sublayer stacking sequence in Ag–Sn bilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, P.J.; Zotov, N.; Bischoff, E.; Mittemeijer, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Intermetallic compound (IMC) formation in thermally-evaporated Ag–Sn bilayer thin films has been investigated employing especially X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (S)TEM methods. The specific IMCs that are present in the as-deposited state depend sensitively on the stacking sequence of the sublayers. In case of Sn on top of Ag, predominantly Ag 3 Sn is formed, whereas Ag 4 Sn is predominantly present in the as-deposited state for Ag on top of Sn. In the latter case this is accompanied by an extremely fast uptake of a large amount of Sn by the Ag sublayer, leaving behind macroscopic voids in the Sn sublayer. The results are discussed on the basis of the thermodynamics and kinetics of (IMC) product-layer growth in thin films. It is shown that both thermodynamic and kinetic arguments explain the contrasting phenomena observed.

  14. Long-term earthquake forecasts based on the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS model for short-term clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancang Zhuang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the ETAS (epidemic-type aftershock sequence model, which is used for describing the features of short-term clustering of earthquake occurrence, this paper presents some theories and techniques related to evaluating the probability distribution of the maximum magnitude in a given space-time window, where the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquake magnitude distribution cannot be directly applied. It is seen that the distribution of the maximum magnitude in a given space-time volume is determined in the longterm by the background seismicity rate and the magnitude distribution of the largest events in each earthquake cluster. The techniques introduced were applied to the seismicity in the Japan region in the period from 1926 to 2009. It was found that the regions most likely to have big earthquakes are along the Tohoku (northeastern Japan Arc and the Kuril Arc, both with much higher probabilities than the offshore Nankai and Tokai regions.

  15. Short Films in the EFL Classroom: Creating Resources for Teachers and Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paikar Fatima Mazhar Hameed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to promote the use of films in learning English language in Qassim University, Saudi Arabia.  It also tends to explore whether or not the inappropriate use of media like computers and mobiles is the cause behind the learners' low level of proficiency in English. Further, it will shed light on the importance of using multimedia in creating a collaborative and more meaningful learning environment. With the growing use of ICT in education, pedagogies the world over have become more learner centered and function oriented. In Saudi Arabia, however, old, outmoded and conventional methods including the now redundant Grammar Translation Method are followed. The result is that EFL learners are barely equipped in the use of English in real life situations. This study is not only an analysis of the current situation but also a resource for the teachers who wish to include films in their EFL classrooms. Empirically, the study proves, albeit with a small sample of fifty students, that learning outcomes improve drastically with the use of films in English language teaching.

  16. Alignment of Short Reads: A Crucial Step for Application of Next-Generation Sequencing Data in Precision Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Precision medicine or personalized medicine has been proposed as a modernized and promising medical strategy. Genetic variants of patients are the key information for implementation of precision medicine. Next-generation sequencing (NGS is an emerging technology for deciphering genetic variants. Alignment of raw reads to a reference genome is one of the key steps in NGS data analysis. Many algorithms have been developed for alignment of short read sequences since 2008. Users have to make a decision on which alignment algorithm to use in their studies. Selection of the right alignment algorithm determines not only the alignment algorithm but also the set of suitable parameters to be used by the algorithm. Understanding these algorithms helps in selecting the appropriate alignment algorithm for different applications in precision medicine. Here, we review current available algorithms and their major strategies such as seed-and-extend and q-gram filter. We also discuss the challenges in current alignment algorithms, including alignment in multiple repeated regions, long reads alignment and alignment facilitated with known genetic variants.

  17. Short term reproducibility of a high contrast 3-D isotropic optic nerve imaging sequence in healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Robert L.; Smith, Alex K.; Mawn, Louise A.; Smith, Seth A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-03-01

    The optic nerve (ON) plays a crucial role in human vision transporting all visual information from the retina to the brain for higher order processing. There are many diseases that affect the ON structure such as optic neuritis, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and multiple sclerosis. Because the ON is the sole pathway for visual information from the retina to areas of higher level processing, measures of ON damage have been shown to correlate well with visual deficits. Increased intracranial pressure has been shown to correlate with the size of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounding the ON. These measures are generally taken at an arbitrary point along the nerve and do not account for changes along the length of the ON. We propose a high contrast and high-resolution 3-D acquired isotropic imaging sequence optimized for ON imaging. We have acquired scan-rescan data using the optimized sequence and a current standard of care protocol for 10 subjects. We show that this sequence has superior contrast-to-noise ratio to the current standard of care while achieving a factor of 11 higher resolution. We apply a previously published automatic pipeline to segment the ON and CSF sheath and measure the size of each individually. We show that these measures of ON size have lower short- term reproducibility than the population variance and the variability along the length of the nerve. We find that the proposed imaging protocol is (1) useful in detecting population differences and local changes and (2) a promising tool for investigating biomarkers related to structural changes of the ON.

  18. De novo assembly of a 40 Mb eukaryotic genome from short sequence reads: Sordaria macrospora, a model organism for fungal morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrousian, Minou; Stajich, Jason E; Chu, Meiling; Engh, Ines; Espagne, Eric; Halliday, Karen; Kamerewerd, Jens; Kempken, Frank; Knab, Birgit; Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Osiewacz, Heinz D; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Read, Nick D; Seiler, Stephan; Smith, Kristina M; Zickler, Denise; Kück, Ulrich; Freitag, Michael

    2010-04-08

    Filamentous fungi are of great importance in ecology, agriculture, medicine, and biotechnology. Thus, it is not surprising that genomes for more than 100 filamentous fungi have been sequenced, most of them by Sanger sequencing. While next-generation sequencing techniques have revolutionized genome resequencing, e.g. for strain comparisons, genetic mapping, or transcriptome and ChIP analyses, de novo assembly of eukaryotic genomes still presents significant hurdles, because of their large size and stretches of repetitive sequences. Filamentous fungi contain few repetitive regions in their 30-90 Mb genomes and thus are suitable candidates to test de novo genome assembly from short sequence reads. Here, we present a high-quality draft sequence of the Sordaria macrospora genome that was obtained by a combination of Illumina/Solexa and Roche/454 sequencing. Paired-end Solexa sequencing of genomic DNA to 85-fold coverage and an additional 10-fold coverage by single-end 454 sequencing resulted in approximately 4 Gb of DNA sequence. Reads were assembled to a 40 Mb draft version (N50 of 117 kb) with the Velvet assembler. Comparative analysis with Neurospora genomes increased the N50 to 498 kb. The S. macrospora genome contains even fewer repeat regions than its closest sequenced relative, Neurospora crassa. Comparison with genomes of other fungi showed that S. macrospora, a model organism for morphogenesis and meiosis, harbors duplications of several genes involved in self/nonself-recognition. Furthermore, S. macrospora contains more polyketide biosynthesis genes than N. crassa. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that some of these genes may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer from a distantly related ascomycete group. Our study shows that, for typical filamentous fungi, de novo assembly of genomes from short sequence reads alone is feasible, that a mixture of Solexa and 454 sequencing substantially improves the assembly, and that the resulting data can be used for

  19. De novo assembly of a 40 Mb eukaryotic genome from short sequence reads: Sordaria macrospora, a model organism for fungal morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minou Nowrousian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi are of great importance in ecology, agriculture, medicine, and biotechnology. Thus, it is not surprising that genomes for more than 100 filamentous fungi have been sequenced, most of them by Sanger sequencing. While next-generation sequencing techniques have revolutionized genome resequencing, e.g. for strain comparisons, genetic mapping, or transcriptome and ChIP analyses, de novo assembly of eukaryotic genomes still presents significant hurdles, because of their large size and stretches of repetitive sequences. Filamentous fungi contain few repetitive regions in their 30-90 Mb genomes and thus are suitable candidates to test de novo genome assembly from short sequence reads. Here, we present a high-quality draft sequence of the Sordaria macrospora genome that was obtained by a combination of Illumina/Solexa and Roche/454 sequencing. Paired-end Solexa sequencing of genomic DNA to 85-fold coverage and an additional 10-fold coverage by single-end 454 sequencing resulted in approximately 4 Gb of DNA sequence. Reads were assembled to a 40 Mb draft version (N50 of 117 kb with the Velvet assembler. Comparative analysis with Neurospora genomes increased the N50 to 498 kb. The S. macrospora genome contains even fewer repeat regions than its closest sequenced relative, Neurospora crassa. Comparison with genomes of other fungi showed that S. macrospora, a model organism for morphogenesis and meiosis, harbors duplications of several genes involved in self/nonself-recognition. Furthermore, S. macrospora contains more polyketide biosynthesis genes than N. crassa. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that some of these genes may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer from a distantly related ascomycete group. Our study shows that, for typical filamentous fungi, de novo assembly of genomes from short sequence reads alone is feasible, that a mixture of Solexa and 454 sequencing substantially improves the assembly, and that the resulting data

  20. Temperature field analysis of single layer TiO2 film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Hongchao; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Xi; Ni, Xiaowu; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian

    2011-07-10

    To study the differences between the damaging of thin film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers, a model of single layer TiO(2) film components with platinum high-absorptance inclusions was established. The temperature rises of TiO(2) films with inclusions of different sizes and different depths induced by a 1 ms long-pulse and a 10 ns short-pulse lasers were analyzed based on temperature field theory. The results show that there is a radius range of inclusions that corresponds to high temperature rises. Short-pulse lasers are more sensitive to high-absorptance inclusions and long-pulse lasers are more easily damage the substrate. The first-damage decision method is drawn from calculations. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  1. Temperature field analysis of single layer TiO2 film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bin; Zhang Hongchao; Qin Yuan; Wang Xi; Ni Xiaowu; Shen Zhonghua; Lu Jian

    2011-01-01

    To study the differences between the damaging of thin film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers, a model of single layer TiO 2 film components with platinum high-absorptance inclusions was established. The temperature rises of TiO 2 films with inclusions of different sizes and different depths induced by a 1 ms long-pulse and a 10 ns short-pulse lasers were analyzed based on temperature field theory. The results show that there is a radius range of inclusions that corresponds to high temperature rises. Short-pulse lasers are more sensitive to high-absorptance inclusions and long-pulse lasers are more easily damage the substrate. The first-damage decision method is drawn from calculations.

  2. Atomic layer deposition of absorbing thin films on nanostructured electrodes for short-wavelength infrared photosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jixian; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Fan, Fengjia; Sargent, Edward H., E-mail: ted.sargent@utoronto.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Kinge, Sachin [Advanced Technology, Materials and Research, Research and Development, Hoge Wei 33- Toyota Technical Centre, B-1930 Zaventem (Belgium)

    2015-10-12

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD), prized for its high-quality thin-film formation in the absence of high temperature or high vacuum, has become an industry standard for the large-area deposition of a wide array of oxide materials. Recently, it has shown promise in the formation of nanocrystalline sulfide films. Here, we demonstrate the viability of ALD lead sulfide for photodetection. Leveraging the conformal capabilities of ALD, we enhance the absorption without compromising the extraction efficiency in the absorbing layer by utilizing a ZnO nanowire electrode. The nanowires are first coated with a thin shunt-preventing TiO{sub 2} layer, followed by an infrared-active ALD PbS layer for photosensing. The ALD PbS photodetector exhibits a peak responsivity of 10{sup −2} A W{sup −1} and a shot-derived specific detectivity of 3 × 10{sup 9} Jones at 1530 nm wavelength.

  3. Atomic layer deposition of absorbing thin films on nanostructured electrodes for short-wavelength infrared photosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jixian; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Fan, Fengjia; Sargent, Edward H.; Kinge, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD), prized for its high-quality thin-film formation in the absence of high temperature or high vacuum, has become an industry standard for the large-area deposition of a wide array of oxide materials. Recently, it has shown promise in the formation of nanocrystalline sulfide films. Here, we demonstrate the viability of ALD lead sulfide for photodetection. Leveraging the conformal capabilities of ALD, we enhance the absorption without compromising the extraction efficiency in the absorbing layer by utilizing a ZnO nanowire electrode. The nanowires are first coated with a thin shunt-preventing TiO 2 layer, followed by an infrared-active ALD PbS layer for photosensing. The ALD PbS photodetector exhibits a peak responsivity of 10 −2  A W −1 and a shot-derived specific detectivity of 3 × 10 9  Jones at 1530 nm wavelength

  4. Solid-state dewetting of single- and bilayer Au-W thin films: Unraveling the role of individual layer thickness, stacking sequence and oxidation on morphology evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembly of ultrathin Au, W, and Au-W bilayer thin films is investigated using a rapid thermal annealing technique in an inert ambient. The solid-state dewetting of Au films is briefly revisited in order to emphasize the role of initial film thickness. W films deposited onto SiO2 evolve into needle-like nanocrystals rather than forming particle-like agglomerates upon annealing at elevated temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that such nanocrystals actually consist of tungsten (VI oxide (WO3 which is related to an anisotropic oxide crystal growth out of the thin film. The evolution of W films is highly sensitive to the presence of any residual oxygen. Combination of both the dewetting of Au and the oxide crystal growth of WO3 is realized by using various bilayer film configurations of the immiscible Au and W. At low temperature, Au dewetting is initiated while oxide crystal growth is still suppressed. Depending on the stacking sequence of the Au-W bilayer thin film, W acts either as a substrate or as a passivation layer for the dewetting of Au. Being the ground layer, W changes the wettability of Au which clearly modifies its initial state for the dewetting. Being the top layer, W prevents Au from dewetting regardless of Au film thickness. Moreover, regular pattern formation of Au-WO3 nanoparticles is observed at high temperature demonstrating how bilayer thin film dewetting can create unique nanostructure arrangements.

  5. Solid-state dewetting of single- and bilayer Au-W thin films: Unraveling the role of individual layer thickness, stacking sequence and oxidation on morphology evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herz, A., E-mail: andreas.herz@tu-ilmenau.de, E-mail: dong.wang@tu-ilmenau.de; Franz, A.; Theska, F.; Hentschel, M.; Kups, Th.; Wang, D., E-mail: andreas.herz@tu-ilmenau.de, E-mail: dong.wang@tu-ilmenau.de; Schaaf, P. [Department of Materials for Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, TU Ilmenau, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Self-assembly of ultrathin Au, W, and Au-W bilayer thin films is investigated using a rapid thermal annealing technique in an inert ambient. The solid-state dewetting of Au films is briefly revisited in order to emphasize the role of initial film thickness. W films deposited onto SiO{sub 2} evolve into needle-like nanocrystals rather than forming particle-like agglomerates upon annealing at elevated temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that such nanocrystals actually consist of tungsten (VI) oxide (WO{sub 3}) which is related to an anisotropic oxide crystal growth out of the thin film. The evolution of W films is highly sensitive to the presence of any residual oxygen. Combination of both the dewetting of Au and the oxide crystal growth of WO{sub 3} is realized by using various bilayer film configurations of the immiscible Au and W. At low temperature, Au dewetting is initiated while oxide crystal growth is still suppressed. Depending on the stacking sequence of the Au-W bilayer thin film, W acts either as a substrate or as a passivation layer for the dewetting of Au. Being the ground layer, W changes the wettability of Au which clearly modifies its initial state for the dewetting. Being the top layer, W prevents Au from dewetting regardless of Au film thickness. Moreover, regular pattern formation of Au-WO{sub 3} nanoparticles is observed at high temperature demonstrating how bilayer thin film dewetting can create unique nanostructure arrangements.

  6. Thin film beam splitter multiple short pulse generation for enhanced Ni-like Ag x-ray laser emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Gabriel V; Ungureanu, Razvan G; Banici, Romeo A; Ursescu, Daniel; Delmas, Olivier; Pittman, Moana; Guilbaud, Olivier; Kazamias, Sophie; Cassou, Kevin; Demailly, Julien; Neveu, Olivier; Baynard, Elsa; Ros, David

    2014-04-15

    An alternative, novel multiple pulse generation scheme was implemented directly after the optical compressor output of an x-ray pump laser. The new method uses a polarization sensitive thin film beam splitter and a half-wavelength wave plate for tuning the energy ratio in the multiple short pulses. Based on this method, an extensive study was made of the running parameters for a grazing incidence pumped silver x-ray laser (XRL) pumped with a long pulse of 145 mJ in 6 ns at 532 nm and up to 1.45 J in few picoseconds at 810 nm. Fivefold enhancement in the emission of the silver XRL was demonstrated using the new pump method.

  7. Fine de novo sequencing of a fungal genome using only SOLiD short read data: verification on Aspergillus oryzae RIB40.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myco Umemura

    Full Text Available The development of next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies has dramatically increased the throughput, speed, and efficiency of genome sequencing. The short read data generated from NGS platforms, such as SOLiD and Illumina, are quite useful for mapping analysis. However, the SOLiD read data with lengths of <60 bp have been considered to be too short for de novo genome sequencing. Here, to investigate whether de novo sequencing of fungal genomes is possible using only SOLiD short read sequence data, we performed de novo assembly of the Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 genome using only SOLiD read data of 50 bp generated from mate-paired libraries with 2.8- or 1.9-kb insert sizes. The assembled scaffolds showed an N50 value of 1.6 Mb, a 22-fold increase than those obtained using only SOLiD short read in other published reports. In addition, almost 99% of the reference genome was accurately aligned by the assembled scaffold fragments in long lengths. The sequences of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes and clusters, whose products are of considerable interest in fungal studies due to their potential medicinal, agricultural, and cosmetic properties, were also highly reconstructed in the assembled scaffolds. Based on these findings, we concluded that de novo genome sequencing using only SOLiD short reads is feasible and practical for molecular biological study of fungi. We also investigated the effect of filtering low quality data, library insert size, and k-mer size on the assembly performance, and recommend for the assembly use of mild filtered read data where the N50 was not so degraded and the library has an insert size of ∼2.0 kb, and k-mer size 33.

  8. Evaluation of short repetition time, partial flip angle, gradient recalled echo pulse sequences in cervical spine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzmann, D.; Rubin, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    A short repetition time (TR), partial flip angle, gradient recalled echo pulse sequence (GRASS) was prospectively studied to optimize it for the diagnosis of cervical disk and cord disease in 98 patients. Changes in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast were measured as the following parameters were varied: flip angle (3 0 to 18 0 ), TR (22-60 msec), and echo time (TE) (12.5-25 msec). Flip angle was the single most important parameter. For disk disease, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) SNR peaked at an 8 0 flip angle in the axial view but at a 4 0 flip angle in the sagittal view. In the sagittal view, disk-CSF contrast decreased progressively from a flip angle of 3 0 , while in the axial view it peaked at 10 0 . For cord lesions the findings were similar except that lesion-cord contrast could be increased by lengthening both TR and TE. No one combination of parameters proved greatly superior for either disk disease or cord disease. The selection of parameters required balancing of several factors that often had opposing effects

  9. A novel family of sequence-specific endoribonucleases associated with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglazova, Natalia; Brown, Greg; Zimmerman, Matthew D; Proudfoot, Michael; Makarova, Kira S; Kudritska, Marina; Kochinyan, Samvel; Wang, Shuren; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Minor, Wladek; Koonin, Eugene V; Edwards, Aled M; Savchenko, Alexei; Yakunin, Alexander F

    2008-07-18

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) together with the associated CAS proteins protect microbial cells from invasion by foreign genetic elements using presently unknown molecular mechanisms. All CRISPR systems contain proteins of the CAS2 family, suggesting that these uncharacterized proteins play a central role in this process. Here we show that the CAS2 proteins represent a novel family of endoribonucleases. Six purified CAS2 proteins from diverse organisms cleaved single-stranded RNAs preferentially within U-rich regions. A representative CAS2 enzyme, SSO1404 from Sulfolobus solfataricus, cleaved the phosphodiester linkage on the 3'-side and generated 5'-phosphate- and 3'-hydroxyl-terminated oligonucleotides. The crystal structure of SSO1404 was solved at 1.6A resolution revealing the first ribonuclease with a ferredoxin-like fold. Mutagenesis of SSO1404 identified six residues (Tyr-9, Asp-10, Arg-17, Arg-19, Arg-31, and Phe-37) that are important for enzymatic activity and suggested that Asp-10 might be the principal catalytic residue. Thus, CAS2 proteins are sequence-specific endoribonucleases, and we propose that their role in the CRISPR-mediated anti-phage defense might involve degradation of phage or cellular mRNAs.

  10. All-optical short pulse translation through cross-phase modulation in a VO₂ thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardad, Shima; Das, Susobhan; Salandrino, Alessandro; Breckenfeld, Eric; Kim, Heungsoo; Wu, Judy; Hui, Rongqing

    2016-01-15

    VO2 is a promising material for reconfigurable photonic devices due to the ultrafast changes in electronic and optical properties associated with its dielectric-to-metal phase transition. Based on a fiber-optic, pump-probe setup at 1550 nm wavelength window, and by varying the pump-pulse duration, we show that the material phase transition is primarily caused by the pump-pulse energy. For the first time, we demonstrate that the instantaneous optical phase modulation of probe during pump leading edge can be utilized to create short optical pulses at probe wavelength, through optical frequency discrimination. This circumvents the impact of long recovery time well known for the phase transition of VO2.

  11. Intrinsic and Induced Arousal in the Short- and Long-Term Retention of Film Content by Elementary School Children in Puerto Rico. Technical Report No. 274.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Salvador; Farley, Frank H.

    A study was designed to examine the contribution of intrinsic arousal (individual differences) and induced arousal to children's comprehension of film content with short- and long-term retention intervals. Intrinsic arousal was measured by a salivary response measure; induced arousal was manipulated by white auditory noise. The latter was…

  12. Modeling of UV laser-induced patterning of ultrathin Co films on bulk SiO2: verification of short- and long-range ordering mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trice, Justin; Favazza, Christopher; Kalyanaraman, Ramki; Sureshkumar, R.

    2006-03-01

    Irradiating ultrathin Co films (1 to 10 nm) by a short-pulsed UV laser leads to pattern formation with both short- and long-range order (SRO, LRO). Single beam irradiation produces SRO, while two-beam interference irradiation produces a quasi-2D arrangement of nanoparticles with LRO and SRO. The pattern formation primarily occurs in the molten phase. An estimate of the thermal behavior of the film/substrate composite following a laser pulse is presented. The thermal behavior includes the lifetime of the liquid phase and the thermal gradient during interference heating. Based on this evidence, the SRO is attributed to spinodal dewetting of the film while surface tension gradients induced by the laser interference pattern appear to influence LRO [1]. [1] C.Favazza, J.Trice, H.Krishna, R.Sureshkumar, and R.Kalyanaraman, unpublished.

  13. MetaVelvet: An Extension of Velvet Assembler to de novo Metagenome Assembly from Short Sequence Reads (Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakakibara, Yasumbumi

    2011-10-13

    Keio University's Yasumbumi Sakakibara on "MetaVelvet: An Extension of Velvet Assembler to de novo Metagenome Assembly from Short Sequence Reads" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.

  14. A Novel Method for Measurements of the Penetration Depth of MgB2 Superconductor Films by Using Sapphire Resonators with Short-Circuited Parallel Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ho Sang; Lee, J. H.; Cho, Y. H.; Lee, Sang Young; Seong, W. K.; Lee, N. H.; Kang, W. N.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a measurement method that enables to measure the penetration depth(λ) of superconductor films by using a short-ended parallel plate sapphire resonator. Variations in the (λof MgB 2 films could be measured down to the lowest temperature using a sapphire resonator with a YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x film at the bottom. A model equation of λλ 0 [1-(T/T c ) τ ] -1/2 for MgB 2 films appeared to describe the observed variations of the resonant frequency of the sapphire resonator with temperature, with λ 0 , τ and T c used as the fitting parameters.

  15. Effect of stereochemistry, chain length and sequence pattern on antimicrobial properties of short synthetic β-sheet forming peptide amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Zhan Yuin; Cheng, Junchi; Huang, Yuan; Xu, Kaijin; Ji, Zhongkang; Fan, Weimin; Yang, Yi Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the face of mounting global antibiotics resistance, the identification and development of membrane-active antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as an alternative class of antimicrobial agent have gained significant attention. The physical perturbation and disruption of microbial membranes by the AMPs have been proposed to be an effective means to overcome conventional mechanisms of drug resistance. Recently, we have reported the design of a series of short synthetic β-sheet folding peptide amphiphiles comprised of recurring (X1Y1X2Y2)n-NH2 sequences where X: hydrophobic amino acids, Y: cationic amino acids and n: number of repeat units. In efforts to investigate the effects of key parameters including stereochemistry, chain length and sequence pattern on antimicrobial effects, systematic d-amino acid substitutions of the lead peptides (IRIK)2-NH2 (IK8-all L) and (IRVK)3-NH2 (IK12-all L) were performed. It was found that the corresponding D-enantiomers exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities with minimal or no change in hemolytic activities, hence translating very high selectivity indices of 407.0 and >9.8 for IK8-all D and IK12-all D respectively. IK8-all D was also demonstrated to be stable to degradation by broad spectrum proteases trypsin and proteinase K. The membrane disrupting bactericidal properties of IK8-all D effectively prevented drug resistance development and inhibited the growth of various clinically isolated MRSA, VRE, Acinetobacter baumanni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cryptococcus. neoformans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Significant reduction in intracellular bacteria counts was also observed following treatment with IK8-all D in the Staphylococcus. aureus infected mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the d-amino acids substituted β-sheet forming peptide IK8-all D with its enhanced antimicrobial activities and improved protease stability, is a promising therapeutic candidate with potential to combat

  16. Narrative versus Style: Effect of Genre Typical Events versus Genre Typical Filmic Realizations on Film Viewers' Genre Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genretypical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization cues are similar to stylistic surface cues of a film sequence. It was predicted that genre recognition of short film fragments is cued more by filmic realization cues than by event cues. The results...

  17. Surface impedance of epitaxial films Y-Ba-Cu-O in short wave region of range millimetric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojnovskij, I.V.; Pustyl'nik, O.D.; Boguslavskij, Yu.M.; Shapovalov, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Epitaxial Y-Ba-Cu-O films on MgO substrate with perfect crystal structure are obtained due to nonaxial magnetron HF-spraying. Temperature dependence of the surface impedance of the films within 66 and 134 GHz frequency is studied. The obtained value of residual surface resistance within 134 GHz frequency (60 mohm) confirms high quality of the films

  18. GenHtr: a tool for comparative assessment of genetic heterogeneity in microbial genomes generated by massive short-read sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu GongXin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microevolution is the study of short-term changes of alleles within a population and their effects on the phenotype of organisms. The result of the below-species-level evolution is heterogeneity, where populations consist of subpopulations with a large number of structural variations. Heterogeneity analysis is thus essential to our understanding of how selective and neutral forces shape bacterial populations over a short period of time. The Solexa Genome Analyzer, a next-generation sequencing platform, allows millions of short sequencing reads to be obtained with great accuracy, allowing for the ability to study the dynamics of the bacterial population at the whole genome level. The tool referred to as GenHtr was developed for genome-wide heterogeneity analysis. Results For particular bacterial strains, GenHtr relies on a set of Solexa short reads on given bacteria pathogens and their isogenic reference genome to identify heterogeneity sites, the chromosomal positions with multiple variants of genes in the bacterial population, and variations that occur in large gene families. GenHtr accomplishes this by building and comparatively analyzing genome-wide heterogeneity genotypes for both the newly sequenced genomes (using massive short-read sequencing and their isogenic reference (using simulated data. As proof of the concept, this approach was applied to SRX007711, the Solexa sequencing data for a newly sequenced Staphylococcus aureus subsp. USA300 cell line, and demonstrated that it could predict such multiple variants. They include multiple variants of genes critical in pathogenesis, e.g. genes encoding a LysR family transcriptional regulator, 23 S ribosomal RNA, and DNA mismatch repair protein MutS. The heterogeneity results in non-synonymous and nonsense mutations, leading to truncated proteins for both LysR and MutS. Conclusion GenHtr was developed for genome-wide heterogeneity analysis. Although it is much more time

  19. Effect of Si additions on thermal stability and the phase transition sequence of sputtered amorphous alumina thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolvardi, H.; Baben, M. to; Nahif, F.; Music, D., E-mail: music@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Schnabel, V.; Shaha, K. P.; Mráz, S.; Schneider, J. M. [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Kopernikusstr. 10, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Bednarcik, J.; Michalikova, J. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, FS-PE group, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-01-14

    Si-alloyed amorphous alumina coatings having a silicon concentration of 0 to 2.7 at. % were deposited by combinatorial reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of Al and Al-Si (90-10 at. %) split segments in Ar/O{sub 2} atmosphere. The effect of Si alloying on thermal stability of the as-deposited amorphous alumina thin films and the phase formation sequence was evaluated by using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability window of the amorphous phase containing 2.7 at. % of Si was increased by more than 100 °C compared to that of the unalloyed phase. A similar retarding effect of Si alloying was also observed for the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation temperature, which increased by more than 120 °C. While for the latter retardation, the evidence for the presence of SiO{sub 2} at the grain boundaries was presented previously, this obviously cannot explain the stability enhancement reported here for the amorphous phase. Based on density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments for amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with and without Si incorporation, we suggest that the experimentally identified enhanced thermal stability of amorphous alumina with addition of Si is due to the formation of shorter and stronger Si–O bonds as compared to Al–O bonds.

  20. Effect of Si additions on thermal stability and the phase transition sequence of sputtered amorphous alumina thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolvardi, H.; Baben, M. to; Nahif, F.; Music, D.; Schnabel, V.; Shaha, K. P.; Mráz, S.; Schneider, J. M.; Bednarcik, J.; Michalikova, J.

    2015-01-01

    Si-alloyed amorphous alumina coatings having a silicon concentration of 0 to 2.7 at. % were deposited by combinatorial reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of Al and Al-Si (90-10 at. %) split segments in Ar/O 2 atmosphere. The effect of Si alloying on thermal stability of the as-deposited amorphous alumina thin films and the phase formation sequence was evaluated by using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability window of the amorphous phase containing 2.7 at. % of Si was increased by more than 100 °C compared to that of the unalloyed phase. A similar retarding effect of Si alloying was also observed for the α-Al 2 O 3 formation temperature, which increased by more than 120 °C. While for the latter retardation, the evidence for the presence of SiO 2 at the grain boundaries was presented previously, this obviously cannot explain the stability enhancement reported here for the amorphous phase. Based on density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments for amorphous Al 2 O 3 with and without Si incorporation, we suggest that the experimentally identified enhanced thermal stability of amorphous alumina with addition of Si is due to the formation of shorter and stronger Si–O bonds as compared to Al–O bonds

  1. Genome-wide detection of chromosomal rearrangements, indels, and mutations in circular chromosomes by short read sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Ole; Bak, Mads; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    a combination of WGS and genome copy number analysis, for the identification of mutations that suppress the growth deficiency imposed by excessive initiations from the Escherichia coli origin of replication, oriC. The E. coli chromosome, like the majority of bacterial chromosomes, is circular, and DNA...... replication is initiated by assembling two replication complexes at the origin, oriC. These complexes then replicate the chromosome bidirectionally toward the terminus, ter. In a population of growing cells, this results in a copy number gradient, so that origin-proximal sequences are more frequent than...... origin-distal sequences. Major rearrangements in the chromosome are, therefore, readily identified by changes in copy number, i.e., certain sequences become over- or under-represented. Of the eight mutations analyzed in detail here, six were found to affect a single gene only, one was a large chromosomal...

  2. In situ detection of a heat-shock regulatory element binding protein using a soluble short synthetic enhancer sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harel-Bellan, A; Brini, A T; Farrar, W L [National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (USA); Ferris, D K [Program Resources, Inc., Frederick, MD (USA); Robin, P [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)

    1989-06-12

    In various studies, enhancer binding proteins have been successfully absorbed out by competing sequences inserted into plasmids, resulting in the inhibition of the plasmid expression. Theoretically, such a result could be achieved using synthetic enhancer sequences not inserted into plasmids. In this study, a double stranded DNA sequence corresponding to the human heat shock regulatory element was chemically synthesized. By in vitro retardation assays, the synthetic sequence was shown to bind specifically a protein in extracts from the human T cell line Jurkat. When the synthetic enhancer was electroporated into Jurkat cells, not only the enhancer was shown to remain undegraded into the cells for up to 2 days, but also its was shown to bind intracellularly a protein. The binding was specific and was modulated upon heat shock. Furthermore, the binding protein was shown to be of the expected molecular weight by UV crosslinking. However, when the synthetic enhancer element was co-electroporated with an HSP 70-CAT reporter construct, the expression of the reporter plasmid was consistently enhanced in the presence of the exogenous synthetic enhancer.

  3. Hubble Goes IMAX: 3D Visualization of the GOODS Southern Field for a Large Format Short Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, F. J.; Stoke, J. M.; Albert, L. J.; Bacon, G. T.; Barranger, C. L.; Feild, A. R.; Frattare, L. M.; Godfrey, J. P.; Levay, Z. G.; Preston, B. S.; Fletcher, L. M.; GOODS Team

    2003-12-01

    The Office of Public Outreach at the Space Telescope Science Institute is producing a several minute IMAX film that will have its world premiere at the January 2004 AAS meeting. The film explores the rich tapestry of galaxies in the GOODS Survey Southern Field in both two and three dimensions. This poster describes the visualization efforts from FITS files through the galaxy processing pipeline to 3D modelling and the rendering of approximately 100 billion pixels. The IMAX film will be shown at a special session at Fernbank Science Center, and the video will be shown at the STScI booth.

  4. High color rendering index of remote-type white LEDs with multi-layered quantum dot-phosphor films and short-wavelength pass dichroic filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hee Chang; Oh, Ji Hye; Do, Young Rag

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces high color rendering index (CRI) white light-emitting diodes (W-LEDs) coated with red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors and yellowish-green emitting AgIn5S8/ZnS (AIS/ZS) quantum dots (QDs) on glass or a short-wavelength pass dichroic filter (SPDF), which transmit blue wavelength regions and reflect yellow wavelength regions. The red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphor film is coated on glass and a SPDF using a screen printing method, and then the yellowish-green emitting AIS/ZS QDs are coated on the red phosphor (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu film-coated glass and SPDF using the electrospray (e-spray) method.To fabricate the red phosphor film, the optimum amount of phosphor is dispersed in a silicon binder to form a red phosphor paste. The AIS/ZS QDs are mixed with dimethylformamide (DMF), toluene, and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for the e-spray coating. The substrates are spin-coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to fabricate a conductive surface. The CRI of the white LEDs is improved through inserting the red phosphor film between the QD layer and the glass substrate. Furthermore, the light intensities of the multi-layered phosphor films are enhanced through changing the glass substrate to the SPDF. The correlated color temperatures (CCTs) vary as a function of the phosphor concentration in the phosphor paste. The optical properties of the yellowish-green AIS/ZS QDs and red (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors are characterized using photoluminescence (PL), and the multi-layered QD-phosphor films are measured using electroluminescence (EL) with an InGaN blue LED (λmax = 450 nm) at 60 mA.

  5. Short-range order parameters in amorphous YBaS4X7(X-S, SE, TE) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajiyev, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Electron scattering intensity curves from amorphous YbAs 4 X 7 (X-S, SE, TE) films have ben obtained by the transmission electron diffraction (TED) method with rotation sector before screen up. The energy of electrons was 100 keV. Amorphous samples were crystallized and the composition of the products were measured by TED. The atomic radial distribution function has been calculated by the Fourier synthesis of intensities in the TED of amorphous YbAs 4 X 7 (X-S, SE, TE) films. The interatomic average distances of As - S (Se, Te) and As-Yb + 2 and partial coordination numbers have been estimated in these thilms. Based on these numbers, chemical orders in these films differ. This difference is due to differing topological order in the amorphous YbAs 4 X 7 (X-S, SE, TE) films

  6. Miscibility and interaction between 1-alkanol and short-chain phosphocholine in the adsorbed film and micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takajo, Yuichi; Matsuki, Hitoshi; Kaneshina, Shoji; Aratono, Makoto; Yamanaka, Michio

    2007-09-01

    The miscibility and interaction of 1-hexanol (C6OH) and 1-heptanol (C7OH) with 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) in the adsorbed films and micelles were investigated by measuring the surface tension of aqueous C6OH-DHPC and aqueous C7OH-DHPC solutions. The surface density, the mean molecular area, the composition of the adsorbed film, and the excess Gibbs energy of adsorption g(H,E), were estimated. Further, the critical micelle concentration of the mixtures was determined from the surface tension versus molality curves; the micellar composition was calculated. The miscibility of the 1-alkanols and DHPC molecules in the adsorbed film and micelles was examined using the phase diagram of adsorption (PDA) and that of micellization (PDM). The PDA and the composition dependence of g(H,E) indicated the non-ideal mixing of the 1-alkanols and DHPC molecules due to the attractive interaction between the molecules in the adsorbed film, while the PDM indicated that the 1-alkanol molecules were not incorporated in the micelles within DHPC rich region. The dependence of the mean molecular area of the mixtures on the surface composition suggested that the packing property of the adsorbed film depends on the chain length of 1-alkanol: C6OH expands the DHPC adsorbed film more than C7OH.

  7. "I know your name, but not your number"--Patients with verbal short-term memory deficits are impaired in learning sequences of digits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Tobias; Seyboth, Margret; Umarova, Roza; Weiller, Cornelius

    2015-06-01

    Studies on verbal learning in patients with impaired verbal short-term memory (vSTM) have revealed dissociations among types of verbal information. Patients with impaired vSTM are able to learn lists of known words but fail to acquire new word forms. This suggests that vSTM is involved in new word learning. The present study assessed both new word learning and the learning of digit sequences in two patients with impaired vSTM. In two experiments, participants were required to learn people's names, ages and professions, or their four digit 'phone numbers'. The STM patients were impaired on learning unknown family names and phone numbers, but managed to acquire other verbal information. In contrast, a patient with a severe verbal episodic memory impairment was impaired across information types. These results indicate verbal STM involvement in the learning of digit sequences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MRI in multiple sclerosis of the spinal cord: evaluation of fast short-tan inversion-recovery and spin-echo sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietemann, J.L.; Thibaut-Menard, A.; Neugroschl, C.; Gillis, C.; Abu Eid, M.; Bogorin, A.; Warter, J.M.; Tranchant, C.

    2000-01-01

    We compared the sensitivity of T2-weighted spin-echo (FSE) and fast short-tau inversion-recovery (fSTIR) sequences in detection of multiple sclerosis of the spinal cord in 100 consecutive patients with clinically confirmed multiple sclerosis (MS); 86 patients underwent also brain MRI. In all, 310 focal lesions were detected on fSTIR and 212 on T2-weighted FSE, spinal cord lesions were seen better on fSTIR images, with a higher contrast between the lesion and the normal spinal cord. In 24 patients in whom cord plaques were shown with both sequences, the cranial study was normal or inconclusive. Assessment of spinal plaques can be particularly important when MRI of the brain is inconclusive, and in there situations fSTIR can be helpful. (orig.)

  9. A simple, flexible and efficient PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure for gene fusion, site-directed mutagenesis, short sequence insertion and domain deletions and swaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etchells J Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progress and completion of various plant genome sequencing projects has paved the way for diverse functional genomic studies that involve cloning, modification and subsequent expression of target genes. This requires flexible and efficient procedures for generating binary vectors containing: gene fusions, variants from site-directed mutagenesis, addition of protein tags together with domain swaps and deletions. Furthermore, efficient cloning procedures, ideally high throughput, are essential for pyramiding of multiple gene constructs. Results Here, we present a simple, flexible and efficient PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure for construction of binary vectors for a range of gene fusions or variants with single or multiple nucleotide substitutions, short sequence insertions, domain deletions and swaps. Results from selected applications of the procedure which include ORF fusion, introduction of Cys>Ser mutations, insertion of StrepII tag sequence and domain swaps for Arabidopsis secondary cell wall AtCesA genes are demonstrated. Conclusion The PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure described provides an elegant, simple and efficient solution for a wide range of diverse and complicated cloning tasks. Through streamlined cloning of sets of gene fusions and modification variants into binary vectors for systematic functional studies of gene families, our method allows for efficient utilization of the growing sequence and expression data.

  10. Subtyping Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis isolates from different sources by using sequence typing based on virulence genes and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenyun; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Jayarao, Bhushan M; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Ribot, Efrain M; Knabel, Stephen J; Dudley, Edward G

    2011-07-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major cause of food-borne salmonellosis in the United States. Two major food vehicles for S. Enteritidis are contaminated eggs and chicken meat. Improved subtyping methods are needed to accurately track specific strains of S. Enteritidis related to human salmonellosis throughout the chicken and egg food system. A sequence typing scheme based on virulence genes (fimH and sseL) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs)-CRISPR-including multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (designated CRISPR-MVLST)-was used to characterize 35 human clinical isolates, 46 chicken isolates, 24 egg isolates, and 63 hen house environment isolates of S. Enteritidis. A total of 27 sequence types (STs) were identified among the 167 isolates. CRISPR-MVLST identified three persistent and predominate STs circulating among U.S. human clinical isolates and chicken, egg, and hen house environmental isolates in Pennsylvania, and an ST that was found only in eggs and humans. It also identified a potential environment-specific sequence type. Moreover, cluster analysis based on fimH and sseL identified a number of clusters, of which several were found in more than one outbreak, as well as 11 singletons. Further research is needed to determine if CRISPR-MVLST might help identify the ecological origins of S. Enteritidis strains that contaminate chickens and eggs.

  11. Characteristic interpersonal behavior in dependent and avoidant personality disorder can be observed within very short interaction sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, Daniel; Sporberg, Doreen; Rehbein, Diana

    2006-08-01

    We present a behavior observation study of interpersonal behavior in 96 female subjects, who had been screened for the presence of dependent, avoidant, narcissistic and histrionic personality disorder features. Each subject took part in three short role-plays, taken from assertiveness training. Afterwards, both the subject and her role-play partner judged, how assertive the subject had been. Although observation time was very short, dependent and avoidant subjects could be easily identified from their overly submissive behavior in the role-plays. Histrionic and narcissistic subjects did not show distinctive interpersonal behavior. Contrary to a common belief, higher scores on some personality disorder (PD) scales were positively related to cross-situational variability of behavior. Results are discussed with regard to their implications for clinical diagnostics, therapy and the methodology of personality disorder research in general.

  12. Multiple regulatory mechanisms of hepatocyte growth factor expression in malignant cells with a short poly(dA) sequence in the HGF gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kazuko; Takeda, Masayuki; Okamoto, Isamu; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Nishio, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) expression is a poor prognostic factor in various types of cancer. Expression levels of HGF have been reported to be regulated by shorter poly(dA) sequences in the promoter region. In the present study, the poly(dA) mononucleotide tract in various types of human cancer cell lines was examined and compared with the HGF expression levels in those cells. Short deoxyadenosine repeat sequences were detected in five of the 55 cell lines used in the present study. The H69, IM95, CCK-81, Sui73 and H28 cells exhibited a truncated poly(dA) sequence in which the number of poly(dA) repeats was reduced by ≥5 bp. Two of the cell lines exhibited high HGF expression, determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The CCK-81, Sui73 and H28 cells with shorter poly(dA) sequences exhibited low HGF expression. The cause of the suppression of HGF expression in the CCK-81, Sui73 and H28 cells was clarified by two approaches, suppression by methylation and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the HGF gene. Exposure to 5-Aza-dC, an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase 1, induced an increased expression of HGF in the CCK-81 cells, but not in the other cells. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs72525097 in intron 1 was detected in the Sui73 and H28 cells. Taken together, it was found that the defect of poly(dA) in the HGF promoter was present in various types of cancer, including lung, stomach, colorectal, pancreas and mesothelioma. The present study proposes the negative regulation mechanisms by methylation and SNP in intron 1 of HGF for HGF expression in cancer cells with short poly(dA).

  13. RECOGNIZING REFERENCES TO PHYSICAL PLACES INSIDE SHORT TEXTS BY USING PATTERNS AS A SEQUENCE OF GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Romero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Collecting data by crowdsourcing is an explored trend to support database population and update. This kind of data is unstructured and comes from text, in particular text in social networks. Geographic database is a particular case of database that can be populated by crowdsourcing which can be done when people report some urban event in a social network by writing a short message. An event can describe an accident or a non-functioning device in the urban area. The authorities then need to read and to interpret the message to provide some help for injured people or to fix a problem in a device installed in the urban area like a light or a problem on road. Our main interest is located on working with short messages organized in a collection. Most of the messages do not have geographical coordinates. The messages can then be classified by text patterns describing a location. In fact, people use a text pattern to describe an urban location. Our work tries to identify patterns inside a short text and to indicate when it describes a location. When a pattern is identified our approach look to describe the place where the event is located. The source messages used are tweets reporting events from several Mexican cities.

  14. Recognizing References to Physical Places Inside Short Texts by Using Patterns as a Sequence of Grammatical Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A.; Sol, D.

    2017-09-01

    Collecting data by crowdsourcing is an explored trend to support database population and update. This kind of data is unstructured and comes from text, in particular text in social networks. Geographic database is a particular case of database that can be populated by crowdsourcing which can be done when people report some urban event in a social network by writing a short message. An event can describe an accident or a non-functioning device in the urban area. The authorities then need to read and to interpret the message to provide some help for injured people or to fix a problem in a device installed in the urban area like a light or a problem on road. Our main interest is located on working with short messages organized in a collection. Most of the messages do not have geographical coordinates. The messages can then be classified by text patterns describing a location. In fact, people use a text pattern to describe an urban location. Our work tries to identify patterns inside a short text and to indicate when it describes a location. When a pattern is identified our approach look to describe the place where the event is located. The source messages used are tweets reporting events from several Mexican cities.

  15. Film in Education: This Worked For Me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Myles P.

    Several techniques for teaching film appreciation to adults are discussed, including the use of audio cassettes, instructional films, silent films, and film dissection. Included are the techniques, philosophy, and content of a seminar on the short film, in which the short film is viewed as a variant of a short story, a pop song, a joke, and a…

  16. Ultra-fast Movies Resolve Ultra-short Pulse Laser Ablation and Bump Formation on Thin Molybdenum Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, Matthias; Rapp, Stephan; Huber, Heinz

    For the monolithic serial interconnection of CIS thin film solar cells, 470 nm molybdenum films on glass substrates must be separated galvanically. The single pulse ablation with a 660 fs laser at a wavelength of 1053 nm is investigated in a fluence regime from 0.5 to 5.0 J/cm2. At fluences above 2.0 J/cm2 bump and jet formation can be observed that could be used for creating microstructures. For the investigation of the underlying mechanisms of the laser ablation process itself as well as of the bump or jet formation, pump probe microscopy is utilized to resolve the transient ablation behavior.

  17. Optical and electrical properties of SnO2 thin films after ultra-short pulsed laser annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scorticati, D.; Illiberi, A.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Bor, T.; Ogieglo, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, M.; Lenferink, A.; Otto, C.; Skolski, J.Z.P.; Grob, F.; Lange, D.F. de; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-short pulsed laser sources, with pulse durations in the ps and fs regime, are commonly exploited for cold ablation. However, operating ultra-short pulsed laser sources at fluence levels well below the ablation threshold allows for fast and selective thermal processing. The latter is especially

  18. Survey of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and their associated Cas proteins (CRISPR/Cas) systems in multiple sequenced strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostria-Hernández, Martha Lorena; Sánchez-Vallejo, Carlos Javier; Ibarra, J Antonio; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela

    2015-08-04

    In recent years the emergence of multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains has been an increasingly common event. This opportunistic species is one of the five main bacterial pathogens that cause hospital infections worldwide and multidrug resistance has been associated with the presence of high molecular weight plasmids. Plasmids are generally acquired through horizontal transfer and therefore is possible that systems that prevent the entry of foreign genetic material are inactive or absent. One of these systems is CRISPR/Cas. However, little is known regarding the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and their associated Cas proteins (CRISPR/Cas) system in K. pneumoniae. The adaptive immune system CRISPR/Cas has been shown to limit the entry of foreign genetic elements into bacterial organisms and in some bacteria it has been shown to be involved in regulation of virulence genes. Thus in this work we used bioinformatics tools to determine the presence or absence of CRISPR/Cas systems in available K. pneumoniae genomes. The complete CRISPR/Cas system was identified in two out of the eight complete K. pneumoniae genomes sequences and in four out of the 44 available draft genomes sequences. The cas genes in these strains comprises eight cas genes similar to those found in Escherichia coli, suggesting they belong to the type I-E group, although their arrangement is slightly different. As for the CRISPR sequences, the average lengths of the direct repeats and spacers were 29 and 33 bp, respectively. BLAST searches demonstrated that 38 of the 116 spacer sequences (33%) are significantly similar to either plasmid, phage or genome sequences, while the remaining 78 sequences (67%) showed no significant similarity to other sequences. The region where the CRISPR/Cas systems were located is the same in all the Klebsiella genomes containing it, it has a syntenic architecture, and is located among genes encoding for proteins likely involved in

  19. Thermal annealing using ultra-short laser pulses to improve the electrical properties of Al:ZnO thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scorticati, D.; Illiberi, A.; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Eijt, S.W.H.; Schut, H.; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Klein Gunnewiek, Michel; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Kniknie, B.; Joy, R.M.; Dorenkamper, M.S.; de Lange, D.F.; Otto, Cornelis; Borsa, D.; Soppe, W.J.; Huis in 't Veld, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Industrial-grade Al:ZnO thin films, were annealed by UV picosecond laser irradiation in argon atmosphere. A remarkable increase of both the carrier density and electron mobility was measured, while the optical properties in the 400–1000 nm range did not change significantly. We studied the

  20. Thermal annealing using ultra-short laser pulses to improve the electrical properties of Al:ZnO thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scorticati, D.; Illiberi, A.; Bor, T.C.; Eijt, S.W.H.; Schut, H.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Klein Gunnewiek, M.; Lenferink, A.T.M.; Kniknie, B.J.; Mary Joy, R.; Dorenkamper, M.S.; Lange, D.F. de; Otto, C.; Borsa, D.; Soppe, W.J.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Industrial-grade Al:ZnO thin films, were annealed by UV picosecond laser irradiation in argon atmosphere. A remarkable increase of both the carrier density and electron mobility was measured, while the optical properties in the 400-1000 nm range did not change significantly. We studied the

  1. Comparing Short- and Long-Term Learning Effects between Stereoscopic and Two-Dimensional Film at a Planetarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C. Aaron; Lee, Hee-Sun; Subbarao, Mark; Kasal, Evan; Aguileara, Julieta

    2015-01-01

    Science centers such as museums and planetariums have used stereoscopic ("three-dimensional") films to draw interest from and educate their visitors for decades. Despite the fact that most adults who are finished with their formal education get their science knowledge from such free-choice learning settings very little is known about the…

  2. The effect of PBL and film showing, frequent quizzes and lecture-based method on short-term performance of dentistry students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadr Lahijani M.S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advocates have proposed that frequent testing increases the effectiveness of instruction by encouraging learners to study and review more often. It has also been argued that in this way, student errors can be identified and corrected earlier and good performance can be recognized, leading to more positive attitudes toward learning process. In problem-based learning (PBL, medical students reportedly take a more active role in learning and have better recall than students in a conventional learning environment. The hypothetical benefits of a PBL and studentbased environment and use of films in the class are the development of self-learning and problem-solving skills and enhancement of knowledge and motivation. Purpose: To examine the effect of combination of PBL method and film showing on the short-term performance of dentistry students and to compare it with lecture-based method and frequent quizzes. Methods: All students of 3 years (from 2000 till 2002 that had theoretical endodontic course (part 1 participated in this descriptive-analytic study. The scores of final examinations of this course were obtained from their files. Data were analyzed by SPSS software & ANOVA. Results: The results showed that by changing the way of learning (PBL and film showing in 2001, there was a statistical difference between scores of the students of 2000 and 2001. Also there was a statistical difference with the students’ scores in 2002- the group with frequent quizzes. Conclusion: The variables such as changing the way of learning, using different methods in teaching, showing scientific films in class or, as a whole, active learning have significant effects on the results of final examination. Key Words: PBL, lecture based method, education, frequent quizzes

  3. Overcoming Short-Circuit in Lead-Free CH3NH3SnI3 Perovskite Solar Cells via Kinetically Controlled Gas-Solid Reaction Film Fabrication Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Takamichi; Cao, Duyen H; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Song, Tze-Bin; Sato, Yoshiharu; Aramaki, Shinji; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2016-03-03

    The development of Sn-based perovskite solar cells has been challenging because devices often show short-circuit behavior due to poor morphologies and undesired electrical properties of the thin films. A low-temperature vapor-assisted solution process (LT-VASP) has been employed as a novel kinetically controlled gas-solid reaction film fabrication method to prepare lead-free CH3NH3SnI3 thin films. We show that the solid SnI2 substrate temperature is the key parameter in achieving perovskite films with high surface coverage and excellent uniformity. The resulting high-quality CH3NH3SnI3 films allow the successful fabrication of solar cells with drastically improved reproducibility, reaching an efficiency of 1.86%. Furthermore, our Kelvin probe studies show the VASP films have a doping level lower than that of films prepared from the conventional one-step method, effectively lowering the film conductivity. Above all, with (LT)-VASP, the short-circuit behavior often obtained from the conventional one-step-fabricated Sn-based perovskite devices has been overcome. This study facilitates the path to more successful Sn-perovskite photovoltaic research.

  4. A non-accelerating foreshock sequence followed by a short period of quiescence for a large inland earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, I.; Kawakata, H.

    2012-12-01

    Laboratory experiments [e.g. Scholz, 1968; Lockner et al., 1992] and field observations [e.g. Dodge et al., 1996; Helmstetter and Sornette, 2003; Bouchon et al., 2011] have elucidated part of foreshock behavior and mechanism, but we cannot identify foreshocks while they are occurring. Recently, in Japan, a dense seismic network, Hi-net (High Sensitivity Seismograph Network), provides continuous waveform records for regional seismic events. The data from this network enable us to analyze small foreshocks which occur on long period time scales prior to a major event. We have an opportunity to grasp the more detailed pattern of foreshock generation. Using continuous waveforms recorded at a seismic station located in close proximity to the epicenter of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi inland earthquake, we conducted a detailed investigation of its foreshocks. In addition to the two officially recognized foreshocks, calculation of cross-correlation coefficients between the continuous waveform record and one of the previously recognized foreshocks revealed that 20 micro foreshocks occurred within the same general area. Our analysis also shows that all of these foreshocks occurred within the same general area relative to the main event. Over the two week period leading up to the Iwate-Miyagi earthquake, such foreshocks only occurred during the last 45 minutes, specifically over a 35 minute period followed by a 10 minute period of quiescence just before the mainshock. We found no evidence of acceleration of this foreshock sequence. Rock fracturing experiments using a constant loading rate or creep tests have consistently shown that the occurrence rate of small fracturing events (acoustic emissions; AEs) increases before the main rupture [Scholz, 1968]. This accelerative pattern of preceding events was recognized in case of the 1999 Izmit earthquake [Bouchon et al., 2011]. Large earthquakes however need not be accompanied by acceleration of foreshocks if a given fault's host rock

  5. The influence of alloying on the phase formation sequence of ultra-thin nickel silicide films and on the inheritance of texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, F. A.; Solano, E.; Jordan-Sweet, J.; Lavoie, C.; Mocuta, C.; Detavernier, C.

    2018-05-01

    The controlled formation of silicide materials is an ongoing challenge to facilitate the electrical contact of Si-based transistors. Due to the ongoing miniaturisation of the transistor, the silicide is trending to ever-thinner thickness's. The corresponding increase in surface-to-volume ratio emphasises the importance of low-energetic interfaces. Intriguingly, the thickness reduction of nickel silicides results in an abrupt change in phase sequence. This paper investigates the sequence of the silicides phases and their preferential orientation with respect to the Si(001) substrate, for both "thin" (i.e., 9 nm) and "ultra-thin" (i.e., 3 nm) Ni films. Furthermore, as the addition of ternary elements is often considered in order to tailor the silicides' properties, additives of Al, Co, and Pt are also included in this study. Our results show that the first silicide formed is epitaxial θ-Ni2Si, regardless of initial thickness or alloyed composition. The transformations towards subsequent silicides are changed through the additive elements, which can be understood through solubility arguments and classical nucleation theory. The crystalline alignment of the formed silicides with the substrate significantly differs through alloying. The observed textures of sequential silicides could be linked through texture inheritance. Our study illustrates the nucleation of a new phase drive to reduce the interfacial energy at the silicide-substrate interface as well as at the interface with the silicide which is being consumed for these sub-10 nm thin films.

  6. Development of an imaging-planning program for screen/film and computed radiography mammography for breasts with short chest wall to nipple distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S L; Su, J L; Yeh, Y H; Chu, T C; Lin, Y C; Chuang, K S

    2011-04-01

    Imaging breasts with a short chest wall to nipple distance (CWND) using a traditional mammographic X-ray unit is a technical challenge for mammographers. The purpose of this study is the development of an imaging-planning program to assist in determination of imaging parameters of screen/film (SF) and computed radiography (CR) mammography for short CWND breasts. A traditional mammographic X-ray unit (Mammomat 3000, Siemens, Munich, Germany) was employed. The imaging-planning program was developed by combining the compressed breast thickness correction, the equivalent polymethylmethacrylate thickness assessment for breasts and the tube loading (mAs) measurement. Both phantom exposures and a total of 597 exposures were used for examining the imaging-planning program. Results of the phantom study show that the tube loading rapidly decreased with the CWND when the automatic exposure control (AEC) detector was not fully covered by the phantom. For patient exposures with the AEC fully covered by breast tissue, the average fractional tube loadings, defined as the ratio of the predicted mAs using the imaging-planning program and mAs of the mammogram, were 1.10 and 1.07 for SF and CR mammograms, respectively. The predicted mAs values were comparable to the mAs values, as determined by the AEC. By applying the imaging-planning program in clinical practice, the experiential dependence of the mammographer for determination of the imaging parameters for short CWND breasts is minimised.

  7. Simulation of synaptic short-term plasticity using Ba(CF3SO3)2-doped polyethylene oxide electrolyte film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C T; Zeng, F; Li, X J; Dong, W S; Lu, S H; Gao, S; Pan, F

    2016-01-07

    The simulation of synaptic plasticity using new materials is critical in the study of brain-inspired computing. Devices composed of Ba(CF3SO3)2-doped polyethylene oxide (PEO) electrolyte film were fabricated and with pulse responses found to resemble the synaptic short-term plasticity (STP) of both short-term depression (STD) and short-term facilitation (STF) synapses. The values of the charge and discharge peaks of the pulse responses did not vary with input number when the pulse frequency was sufficiently low(~1 Hz). However, when the frequency was increased, the charge and discharge peaks decreased and increased, respectively, in gradual trends and approached stable values with respect to the input number. These stable values varied with the input frequency, which resulted in the depressed and potentiated weight modifications of the charge and discharge peaks, respectively. These electrical properties simulated the high and low band-pass filtering effects of STD and STF, respectively. The simulations were consistent with biological results and the corresponding biological parameters were successfully extracted. The study verified the feasibility of using organic electrolytes to mimic STP.

  8. Unusual mechanism for the short-range electron transfer within gold-alkanethiol-ionic-liquid films of subnanometer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshtariya, Dimitri E.; Dolidze, Tina D.; Eldik, Rudi van

    2009-01-01

    Exploiting nanoscopically tunable composite gold-alkanethiol-ionic-liquid/ferrocene self-assembled systems with tunable electron transfer distance, we discovered in the case of thinner alkanethiol films a thermally activated electron transfer pattern totally controlled by the viscosity-related slow relaxation mode(s) of the ionic liquid acting as the reactant's fluctuating environment. This pattern manifested through the activation enthalpy and volume parameters that are identical to those for viscous flow was explained in terms of the extreme adiabatic mechanism with a vanishing Marcus barrier (via the exponential Franck-Condon-like term approaching unity).

  9. Representing 9/11: Alejandro González Iñárritu’s short film in 11'09"01: September 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine CLEMENTE

    2011-09-01

    mesure, être lu comme une mise en scène du retour du trauma des attentats du 11 septembre.In his 11'9"01: September 11 short film, Alejandro González Iñárritu responds to the oversaturated broadcast of the burning Twin Towers that characterises 9/11 by confronting his audience with a black screen that is haunted by sounds recorded around the world on September 11th, 2001. Two minutes into the film a first image finally appears on the screen and the viewer can glimpse the footage of a person falling down the Twin Towers. Similar flashes soon sporadically burst through the black screen and, as these visions have an extremely fleeting quality to them, room is left for the viewer to wonder whether he truly saw ‘jumpers’. Ungraspable by essence, the viewing of Iñarritu’s short film can be likened to a traumatic experience, which Cathy Caruth defines as ‘an event that … is experienced too soon, too unexpectedly, to be fully known and is therefore not available to consciousness until it imposes itself again, repeatedly, in the nightmares and repetitive actions of the survivor’ – the flashes of the ‘jumpers’ that pervade the short film bearing undeniable similarities to the return of the trauma.The paper shows how Iñárritu’s short film attempts to represent the unrepresentable dimension of 9/11. Stressing the fact that the film uses images of the ‘jumpers’ that were widely censored by the media in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, it analyses how the director transcends the sphere of representation by deconstructing the viewers’ habitual cinematic experience. As he explores the limits of sight and sound, Iñárritu produces an extremely unsettling viewing experience for his audience who is forced to adopt a type of perception that verges on the traumatic experience and his film can, to a certain extent, be read as staging the return of the trauma of the 9/11 attacks.

  10. Effect of Temperature and Electric Field on the Damping and Stiffness Characteristics of ER Fluid Short Squeeze Film Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Jagadish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Squeeze film dampers are novel rotor dynamic devices used to alleviate small amplitude, large force vibrations and are used in conjunction with antifriction bearings in aircraft jet engine bearings to provide external damping as these possess very little inherent damping. Electrorheological (ER fluids are controllable fluids in which the rheological properties of the fluid, particularly viscosity, can be controlled in accordance with the requirements of the rotor dynamic system by controlling the intensity of the applied electric field and this property can be utilized in squeeze film dampers, to provide variable stiffness and damping at a particular excitation frequency. The paper investigates the effect of temperature and electric field on the apparent viscosity and dynamic (stiffness and damping characteristics of ER fluid (suspension of diatomite in transformer oil using the available literature. These characteristics increase with the field as the viscosity increases with the field. However, these characteristics decrease with increase in temperature and shear strain rate as the viscosity of the fluid decreases with temperature and shear strain rate. The temperature is an important parameter as the aircraft jet engine rotors are located in a zone of high temperature gradients and the damper fluid is susceptible to large variations in temperature.

  11. Characterization of Erwinia amylovora strains from different host plants using repetitive-sequences PCR analysis, and restriction fragment length polymorphism and short-sequence DNA repeats of plasmid pEA29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barionovi, D; Giorgi, S; Stoeger, A R; Ruppitsch, W; Scortichini, M

    2006-05-01

    The three main aims of the study were the assessment of the genetic relationship between a deviating Erwinia amylovora strain isolated from Amelanchier sp. (Maloideae) grown in Canada and other strains from Maloideae and Rosoideae, the investigation of the variability of the PstI fragment of the pEA29 plasmid using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and the determination of the number of short-sequence DNA repeats (SSR) by DNA sequence analysis in representative strains. Ninety-three strains obtained from 12 plant genera and different geographical locations were examined by repetitive-sequences PCR using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus, BOX and Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic primer sets. Upon the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis, a deviating strain from Amelanchier sp. was analysed using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) analysis and the sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. This strain showed 99% similarity to other E. amylovora strains in the 16S gene and the same banding pattern with ARDRA. The RFLP analysis of pEA29 plasmid using MspI and Sau3A restriction enzymes showed a higher variability than that previously observed and no clear-cut grouping of the strains was possible. The number of SSR units reiterated two to 12 times. The strains obtained from pear orchards showing for the first time symptoms of fire blight had a low number of SSR units. The strains from Maloideae exhibit a wider genetic variability than previously thought. The RFLP analysis of a fragment of the pEA29 plasmid would not seem a reliable method for typing E. amylovora strains. A low number of SSR units was observed with first epidemics of fire blight. The current detection techniques are mainly based on the genetic similarities observed within the strains from the cultivated tree-fruit crops. For a more reliable detection of the fire blight pathogen also in wild and ornamentals Rosaceous plants the genetic

  12. The representation of older people playing a digital game in the short film ‘Pony Place’: A semiotic and narratological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugène Loos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Dutch older adults’ use of digital devices in general, and digital games in particular, from an intergenerational perspective. We first present some facts related to provide insight into how Dutch older adults use such new media. Then, the case of the Dutch short film Pony Place is analyzed using a semiotic and narratological approach, to examine how older adults are represented as so-called ‘digital immigrants’, digitally illiterate persons who are unable to master a digital game device. Finally, an intergenerational digital game design approach is presented to show how older adults can actively be involved in the world of digital games, which could lead to a change from their unbalanced representation as digital immigrants to persons who are, like younger players, able to be active in the world of digital games.

  13. Size optimization for complex permeability measurement of magnetic thin films using a short-circuited microstrip line up to 30 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shigeru; Naoe, Masayuki

    2018-03-01

    High-frequency permeability spectra of magnetic films were measured over a wideband frequency range of 0.1-30 GHz using a shielded and short-circuited microstrip line jig. In this measurement, spurious resonances had to be suppressed up to the highest frequency. To suppress these resonances, characteristic impedance of the microstrip line should approach 50 Ω at the junction between connector and microstrip line. The main factors dominating these resonances were structures of the jig and the sample. The dimensions were optimized in various experiments, and results demonstrated that the frequency could be raised to at least 20 GHz. For the transverse electromagnetic mode to transmit stably along the microstrip line, the preferred sample was rectangular, with the shorter side parallel to the line and the longer side perpendicular to it, and characteristic impedance strongly depended on the signal line width of the jig. However, too small a jig and sample led to a lower S/N ratio.

  14. Tuning Surface Properties of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Film Using Poly(perfluoromethyl methacrylate)s with Short Perfluorinated Side Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Eun-Ho; Ha, Jong-Wook; Lee, Soo-Bok; Park, In Jun

    2016-09-27

    To control the surface properties of a commonly used polymer, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(perfluoromethyl methacrylate)s (PFMMAs) with short perfluorinated side groups (i.e., -CF3, -CF2CF3, -(CF3)2, -CF2CF2CF3) were used as blend components because of their good solubility in organic solvents, low surface energies, and high optical transmittance. The surface energies of the blend films of PFMMA with the -CF3 group and PMMA increased continuously with increasing PMMA contents from 17.6 to 26.0 mN/m, whereas those of the other polymer blend films remained at very low levels (10.2-12.6 mN/m), similar to those of pure PFMMAs, even when the blends contained 90 wt %PMMA. Surface morphology and composition measurements revealed that this result originated from the different blend structures, such as lateral and vertical phase separations. We expect that these PFMMAs will be useful in widening the applicable window of PMMA.

  15. Ab initio molecular dynamics model for density, elastic properties and short range order of Co-Fe-Ta-B metallic glass thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostert, C; Music, D; Schneider, J M; Bednarcik, J; Keckes, J; Kapaklis, V; Hjörvarsson, B

    2011-01-01

    Density, elastic modulus and the pair distribution function of Co-Fe-Ta-B metallic glasses were obtained by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and measured for sputtered thin films using x-ray reflectivity, nanoindentation and x-ray diffraction using high energy photons. The computationally obtained density of 8.19 g cm -3 for Co 43 Fe 20 Ta 5.5 B 31.5 and 8.42 g cm -3 for Co 45.5 Fe 24 Ta 6 B 24.5 , as well as the Young’s moduli of 273 and 251 GPa, respectively, are consistent with our experiments and literature data. These data, together with the good agreement between the theoretical and the experimental pair distribution functions, indicate that the model established here is useful to describe the density, elasticity and short range order of Co-Fe-Ta-B metallic glass thin films. Irrespective of the investigated variation in chemical composition, (Co, Fe)-B cluster formation and Co-Fe interactions are identified by density-of-states analysis. Strong bonds within the structural units and between the metallic species may give rise to the comparatively large stiffness. (paper)

  16. Can a short film impact HIV-related risk and stigma perceptions? Results from an experiment in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Nwulu, Paul

    2008-09-01

    HIV/AIDS-related stigma is believed to result in negative social consequences for people with the disease and to be a deterrent to HIV serostatus testing. The ability of communicators to change people's stigma perceptions and subsequently impact decisions to test, however, is not well understood. Based on the entertainment-education approach, this article presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Abuja, Nigeria, testing a mediated intervention designed to reduce HIV-related stigma and risk perceptions. The results indicate that the intervention was effective relative to a control in impacting perceptions of the severity of HIV and some stigma-related attitudes, particularly for male participants; and that for this sample, risk and stigma perceptions significantly impact intentions to test for HIV. It also showed that severity perceptions mediated the relationship between viewing the film and testing intent.

  17. Detection of optic nerve atrophy following a single episode of unilateral optic neuritis by MRI using a fat-saturated short-echo fast FLAIR sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, S.J.; Brex, P.A.; Silver, N.C.; Barker, G.J.; Miller, D.H.; Brierley, C.M.H.; Compston, D.A.S.; Scolding, N.J.; Moseley, I.F.; Plant, G.T.

    2001-01-01

    We describe an MRI technique for quantifying optic nerve atrophy resulting from a single episode of unilateral optic neuritis. We imaged 17 patients, with a median time since onset of optic neuritis of 21 months (range 3-81 months), using a coronal-oblique fat-saturated short-echo fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (sTE fFLAIR) sequence. The mean cross-sectional area of the intraorbital portion of the optic nerves was calculated by a blinded observer from five consecutive 3 mm slices from the orbital apex forwards using a semiautomated contouring technique and compared with data from 16 controls. The mean optic nerve area was 11.2mm 2 in the affected eye of the patients, 12.9mm 2 in the contralateral eye (P = 0.006 compared to the affected eye) and 12.8mm 2 in controls (P = 0.03 compared to the affected eyes). There was a significant negative correlation between disease duration and the size of the affected optic nerve (r = -0.59, P = 0.012). The measurement coefficient of variation was 4.8 %. The sTE fFLAIR sequence enables measurement of optic nerve area with sufficient reproducibility to show optic nerve atrophy following a single episode of unilateral optic neuritis. The correlation of increasing optic nerve atrophy with disease duration would be consistent with ongoing axonal loss in a persistently demyelinated lesion, or Wallerian degeneration following axonal damage during the acute inflammatory phase. (orig.)

  18. Immobilization of the enzyme β-lactamase by self-assembly on thin films of a poly(phenyleneethynylene) sequenced with flexible segments containing sulfur atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Erika; Aguilar, Abdieel Esquivel; Moggio, Ivana; Arias, Eduardo; Romero, Jorge; Barrientos, Hector; Torres, Jose Roman; Luz Reyes Vega, Maria de la

    2007-01-01

    A novel poly(phenyleneethynylene) sequenced in the main conjugated chain with flexible groups containing sulfur atoms has been synthesized by Heck-Sonogashira coupling reaction. Layer-by-layer films of the polymer have been prepared with a linear growth in thickness up to four layers as evidenced by UV-Vis spectroscopy and perfilometry. On the top of these multilayers, the enzyme β-lactamase was deposited by self-assembly. The enzymatic activity was measured by a modified spectrophotometric standard assay method for penicillin G, ampicillin and amoxicillin. A higher and faster activity was obtained for penicillin G and thus preliminary study of the biosensor response by fluorescence was carried out for this antibiotic revealing a decrease in the polymer fluorescence as function of the penicillin G concentration

  19. Immobilization of the enzyme {beta}-lactamase by self-assembly on thin films of a poly(phenyleneethynylene) sequenced with flexible segments containing sulfur atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Erika [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Blvd. Enrique Reyna 140, 25253, Saltillo (Mexico); Aguilar, Abdieel Esquivel [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Blvd. Enrique Reyna 140, 25253, Saltillo (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Blvd. V. Carranza and Ing. J. Cardenas, 25000 Saltillo (Mexico); Moggio, Ivana [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Blvd. Enrique Reyna 140, 25253, Saltillo (Mexico)]. E-mail: imoggio@ciqa.mx; Arias, Eduardo [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Blvd. Enrique Reyna 140, 25253, Saltillo (Mexico); Romero, Jorge [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Blvd. Enrique Reyna 140, 25253, Saltillo (Mexico); Barrientos, Hector [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Blvd. Enrique Reyna 140, 25253, Saltillo (Mexico); Torres, Jose Roman [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Blvd. Enrique Reyna 140, 25253, Saltillo (Mexico); Luz Reyes Vega, Maria de la [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Blvd. V. Carranza and Ing. J. Cardenas, 25000 Saltillo (Mexico)

    2007-05-16

    A novel poly(phenyleneethynylene) sequenced in the main conjugated chain with flexible groups containing sulfur atoms has been synthesized by Heck-Sonogashira coupling reaction. Layer-by-layer films of the polymer have been prepared with a linear growth in thickness up to four layers as evidenced by UV-Vis spectroscopy and perfilometry. On the top of these multilayers, the enzyme {beta}-lactamase was deposited by self-assembly. The enzymatic activity was measured by a modified spectrophotometric standard assay method for penicillin G, ampicillin and amoxicillin. A higher and faster activity was obtained for penicillin G and thus preliminary study of the biosensor response by fluorescence was carried out for this antibiotic revealing a decrease in the polymer fluorescence as function of the penicillin G concentration.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of pelvic entheses - a systematic comparison between short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and T1-weighted, contrast-enhanced, fat-saturated sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klang, Eyal; Aharoni, Dvora; Rimon, Uri; Eshed, Iris; Hermann, Kay-Geert; Herman, Amir; Shazar, Nachshon

    2014-01-01

    To assess the contribution of contrast material in detecting and evaluating enthesitis of pelvic entheses by MRI. Sixty-seven hip or pelvic 1.5-T MRIs (30:37 male:female, mean age: 53 years) were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of hamstring and gluteus medius (GM) enthesitis by two readers (a resident and an experienced radiologist). Short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and T1-weighted pre- and post-contrast (T1+Gd) images were evaluated by each reader at two sessions. A consensus reading of two senior radiologists was regarded as the gold standard. Clinical data was retrieved from patients' referral form and medical files. Cohen's kappa was used for intra- and inter-observer agreement calculation. Diagnostic properties were calculated against the gold standard reading. A total of 228 entheses were evaluated. Gold standard analysis diagnosed 83 (36 %) enthesitis lesions. Intra-reader reliability for the experienced reader was significantly (p = 0.0001) higher in the T1+Gd images compared to the STIR images (hamstring: k = 0.84/0.45, GM: k = 0.84/0.47). Sensitivity and specificity increased from 0.74/0.8 to 0.87/0.9 in the STIR images and T1+Gd sequences. Intra-reader reliability for the inexperienced reader was lower (p > 0.05). Evidence showing that contrast material improves the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of detecting enthesitis supports its use in this setting. (orig.)

  1. The influence of wavelength, temporal sequencing, and pulse duration on resonant infrared matrix-assisted laser processing of polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, S. M.; Schoeffling, Jonathan; Jimenez, Richard; Zinderman, Brian; Yi, SunYong; Bubb, D. M.

    2014-06-01

    We have carried out a systematic investigation of laser ablation plume interactions in resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation. The laser source utilized in this study was a mid-infrared OPO capable of dual sequential ns pulses with adjustable delay ranging from 1 to 100 μs. This unique capability enabled us both to probe the ablation plume with a second laser pulse, and to effectively double the laser fluence. The primary ablation target used for this study consisted of poly(methyl methacrylate) dissolved in a binary mixture of methanol and toluene. Both the critical thermodynamic and optical properties of the binary mixture were determined and used to interpret our results. We found that deposition rates associated with single pulse irradiation tracks with the optical absorption coefficient in the spectral range from 2,700 to 3,800 nm. In the case of dual sequential pulses, discrepancies in this trend have been linked to the rate of change in the optical absorption coefficient with temperature. The influence of fluence on deposition rate was found to follow a sigmoidal dependence. Surface roughness was observed to have a diametrically opposed trend with pulse delay depending on whether the OH or CH vibrational mode was excited. In the case of CH excitation, we suggest that the rougher films are due to the absorbance of the second pulse by droplets within the plume containing residual solvent which leads to the formation of molecular balloons and hence irregularly shaped features on the substrate.

  2. Whole body sodium MRI at 3T using an asymmetric birdcage resonator and short echo time sequence: first images of a male volunteer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterling, Friedrich; Corteville, Dominique M.; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Rennings, Andreas; Konstandin, Simon; Nagel, Armin M.; Stark, Helmut; Schad, Lothar R.

    2012-07-01

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging (23Na MRI) is a non-invasive technique which allows spatial resolution of the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) in the human body. TSC measurements could potentially serve to monitor early treatment success of chemotherapy on patients who suffer from whole body metastases. Yet, the acquisition of whole body sodium (23Na) images has been hampered so far by the lack of large resonators and the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) achieved with existing resonator systems. In this study, a 23Na resonator was constructed for whole body 23Na MRI at 3T comprising of a 16-leg, asymmetrical birdcage structure with 34 cm height, 47.5 cm width and 50 cm length. The resonator was driven in quadrature mode and could be used either as a transceiver resonator or, since active decoupling was included, as a transmit-only resonator in conjunction with a receive-only (RO) surface resonator. The relative B1-field profile was simulated and measured on phantoms, and 3D whole body 23Na MRI data of a healthy male volunteer were acquired in five segments with a nominal isotropic resolution of (6 × 6 × 6) mm3 and a 10 min acquisition time per scan. The measured SNR values in the 23Na-MR images varied from 9 ± 2 in calf muscle, 15 ± 2 in brain tissue, 23 ± 2 in the prostate and up to 42 ± 5 in the vertebral discs. Arms, legs, knees and hands could also be resolved with applied resonator and short time-to-echo (TE) (0.5 ms) radial sequence. Up to fivefold SNR improvement was achieved through combining the birdcage with local RO surface coil. In conclusion, 23Na MRI of the entire human body provides sub-cm spatial resolution, which allows resolution of all major human body parts with a scan time of less than 60 min.

  3. De Novo Assembly of Human Herpes Virus Type 1 (HHV-1) Genome, Mining of Non-Canonical Structures and Detection of Novel Drug-Resistance Mutations Using Short- and Long-Read Next Generation Sequencing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamitros, Timokratis; Harrison, Ian; Piorkowska, Renata; Katzourakis, Aris; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Mbisa, Jean Lutamyo

    2016-01-01

    Human herpesvirus type 1 (HHV-1) has a large double-stranded DNA genome of approximately 152 kbp that is structurally complex and GC-rich. This makes the assembly of HHV-1 whole genomes from short-read sequencing data technically challenging. To improve the assembly of HHV-1 genomes we have employed a hybrid genome assembly protocol using data from two sequencing technologies: the short-read Roche 454 and the long-read Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencers. We sequenced 18 HHV-1 cell culture-isolated clinical specimens collected from immunocompromised patients undergoing antiviral therapy. The susceptibility of the samples to several antivirals was determined by plaque reduction assay. Hybrid genome assembly resulted in a decrease in the number of contigs in 6 out of 7 samples and an increase in N(G)50 and N(G)75 of all 7 samples sequenced by both technologies. The approach also enhanced the detection of non-canonical contigs including a rearrangement between the unique (UL) and repeat (T/IRL) sequence regions of one sample that was not detectable by assembly of 454 reads alone. We detected several known and novel resistance-associated mutations in UL23 and UL30 genes. Genome-wide genetic variability ranged from genomes will be useful in determining genetic determinants of drug resistance, virulence, pathogenesis and viral evolution. The numerous, complex repeat regions of the HHV-1 genome currently remain a barrier towards this goal.

  4. Short Communication Phylogenetic Characterization of HIV Type 1 CRF01_AE V3 Envelope Sequences in Pregnant Women in Northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridha, Rozina; Ha, Tran Thi Thanh; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Hung, Pham Viet; Anh, Nguyen Mai; Bao, Nguyen Huy; Khang, Dinh Duy; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Cam, Phung Dac; Chiodi, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Characterization of HIV-1 strains is important for surveillance of the HIV-1 epidemic. In Vietnam HIV-1-infected pregnant women often fail to receive the care they are entitled to. Here, we analyzed phylogenetically HIV-1 env sequences from 37 HIV-1-infected pregnant women from Ha Noi (n=22) and Hai Phong (n=15), where they delivered in 2005–2007. All carried CRF01_AE in the gp120 V3 region. In 21 women CRF01_AE was also found in the reverse transcriptase gene. We compared their env gp120 V3 sequences phylogenetically in a maximum likelihood tree to those of 198 other CRF01_AE sequences in Vietnam and 229 from neighboring countries, predominantly Thailand, from the HIV-1 database. Altogether 464 sequences were analyzed. All but one of the maternal sequences colocalized with sequences from northern Vietnam. The maternal sequences had evolved the least when compared to sequences collected in Ha Noi in 2002, as shown by analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous changes, than to other Vietnamese sequences collected earlier and/or elsewhere. Since the HIV-1 epidemic in women in Vietnam may still be underestimated, characterization of HIV-1 in pregnant women is important to observe how HIV-1 has evolved and follow its molecular epidemiology. PMID:21936713

  5. Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from turkey farms and different stages at slaughter using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and flaA-short variable region sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko-Mäkelä, P; Alter, T; Isohanni, P; Zimmermann, S; Lyhs, U

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diversity of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. isolated from turkey flocks at six rearing farms 1-2 weeks prior to slaughter (360 faecal swab samples) and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse (636 caecal, environmental, neck skin and meat samples). A total of 121 Campylobacter isolates were identified to species level using a multiplex PCR assay and were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and flaA-short variable region (SVR) sequencing. All Campylobacter isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. PFGE analysis with KpnI restriction enzyme resulted in 11 PFGE types (I-XI) and flaA SVR typing yielded in nine flaA-SVR alleles. The Campylobacter-positive turkey flocks A, C and E were colonized by a limited number of Campylobacter clones at the farm and slaughter. The present study confirms the traceability of flock-specific strains (PFGE types I, V and IX; flaA types 21, 36 and 161) from the farm along the entire processing line to meat cuts. It seems that stress factors such as high temperature of the defeathering water (54-56 °C), drying of the carcass skin during air chilling (24 h at 2 °C), and oxygen in the air could not eliminate Campylobacter completely. Campylobacter-negative flocks became contaminated during processing by the same subtypes of Campylobacter introduced into the slaughter house by preceeding positive flocks even if they were slaughtered on subsequent days. Proper and efficient cleaning and disinfection of slaughter and processing premises are needed to avoid cross-contamination, especially in countries with a low prevalence of Campylobacter spp. The majority of flaA SVR alleles displayed a distinct association with a specific PFGE type. However, a linear relationship for all strains among both typing methods could not be established. To specify genetic relatedness of strains, a combination of different genotyping methods, is needed. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Emission Behavior of Crystalline 1,4-Bis(4-phenylthiophene-2-yl)benzene Film Under Optical Excitation with Ultra Short Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Yoshizo; Sasaki, Fumio; Hotta, Shu

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated emission behaviors of crystallized films of 1,4-bis(5-phenylthiophene-2-yl)benzene (AC5) in detail which was a representative thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer. The crystallized AC5 films were prepared by vapor deposition onto a substrate and thermal treatment. The AC5 films consisted of a crystalline domain with the size of several tens of micrometers. We used femtosecond laser pulses for the excitation of the AC5 films. As a result, the femtosecond laser pulses did not induce re-absorption above excitation energy densities of their laser threshold. The obtained gain value for AC5 crystallized film was large, over 150 cm-1. Furthermore, the emission cross section of the crystallized AC5 film was nearly 10(-16) cm2.

  7. Rapid change of AM fungal community in a rain-fed wheat field with short-term plastic film mulching practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjun; Mao, Lin; He, Xinhua; Cheng, Gang; Ma, Xiaojun; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan

    2012-01-01

    Plastic film mulching (PFM) is a widely used agricultural practice in the temperate semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. However, how beneficial soil microbes, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in particular, respond to the PFM practice is not known. Here, a field experiment was performed to study the effects of a 3-month short-term PFM practice on AM fungi in plots planted with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Dingxi-2) in the Loess Plateau. AM colonization, spore density, wheat spike weight, and grain phosphorus (P) content were significantly increased in the PFM treatments, and these changes were mainly attributable to changes in soil properties such as available P and soil moisture. Alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher in PFM soils, but levels of AM fungal-related glomalin were similar between treatments. A total of nine AM fungal phylotypes were detected in root samples based on AM fungal SSU rDNA analyses, with six and five phylotypes in PFM and no-PFM plots, respectively. Although AM fungal phylotype richness was not statistically different between treatments, the community compositions were different, with four and three specific phylotypes in the PFM and no-PFM plots, respectively. A significant and rapid change in AM fungal, wheat, and soil variables following PFM suggested that the functioning of the AM symbiosis had been changed in the wheat field under PFM. Future studies are needed to investigate whether PFM applied over a longer term has a similar effect on the AM fungal community and their functioning in an agricultural ecosystem.

  8. Short-term effect of topical antiglaucoma medication on tear-film stability, tear secretion, and corneal sensitivity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Naim; Müller-Holz, Matthias; Spoerl, Eberhard; Pillunat, Lutz E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of topical antiglaucoma medication on tear-film stability, tear secretion, and corneal sensitivity in healthy subjects. In this prospective, double-blind crossover trial, break-up time and basal secretion (Jones test) were measured 60 minutes before, and 30, 60, and 90 minutes after topical antiglaucoma drop application in 30 healthy subjects. Corneal sensitivity was measured 60 minutes before, and five, 10, and 15 minutes after drop application using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Reduction of break-up time in the latanoprost group was -23.8% after 30 minutes (P = 0.21), -26.7% after 60 minutes (P = 0.03) and -51.4% after 90 minutes (P ≤ 0.003), which was statistically significant. Reduction of break-up time in all other treatment groups was not statistically significant. The Jones test revealed a significant reduction of basal secretion after application of brimonidine (-17.8%, P = 0.002; -22.5%, P < 0.001; -30.5%, P < 0.001), followed by apraclonidine (-10%, P = 0.06; -20.1%, P = 0.02; -22.1%, P = 0.002), latanoprost (-2.4%, P = 0.64; -18.6%, P = 0.001; -20.1%, P = 0.001) and dorzolamide (-0.5%, P = 0.9; 14.3%, P = 0.018; -17.3%, P = 0.004) at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after drop application. Reduction of basal secretion in all other treatment groups was not statistically significant. Latanoprost showed the most statistically significant reduction in break-up time, and brimonidine showed the most significant reduction in basal secretion of all the glaucoma medications used in this study. In conclusion, our data may be helpful for treatment decisions in glaucoma patients who also suffer from ocular surface problems.

  9. Sequence and expression pattern of a novel human orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, GPRC5B, a family C receptor with a short amino-terminal domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P

    2000-01-01

    Query of GenBank with the amino acid sequence of human metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2 (mGluR2) identified a predicted gene product of unknown function on BAC clone CIT987SK-A-69G12 (located on chromosome band 16p12) as a homologous protein. The transcript, entitled GPRC5B, was cloned f...... from an expressed sequence tag clone that contained the entire open reading frame of the transcript encoding a protein of 395 amino acids. Analysis of the protein sequence reveal that GPRC5B contains a signal peptide and seven transmembrane alpha-helices, which is a hallmark of G...

  10. Combination of short-length TiO_2 nanorod arrays and compact PbS quantum-dot thin films for efficient solid-state quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhengguo; Shi, Chengwu; Chen, Junjun; Xiao, Guannan; Li, Long

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The TiO_2 nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, the areal density of 500 μm"−"2 was successfully prepared. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film was firstly obtained on the TiO_2 nanorod array by spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film sensitized solar cells achieved 4.10% using spiro-OMeTAD as a hole transporting layer, while the PCE of the PbS quantum-dot sensitized solar cells was only 0.54%. - Highlights: • Preparation of TiO_2 nanorod arrays with the length of 600 nm, diameter of 20 nm. • The compact PbS QD thin film and short-length TiO_2 nanorod array were combined. • EDT addition improved PbS nanoparticle coverage and photovoltaic performance. • The compact PbS QD thin film sensitized solar cell achieved the PCE of 4.10%. - Abstract: Considering the balance of the hole diffusion length and the loading quantity of quantum-dots, the rutile TiO_2 nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 500 μm"−"2 is successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 105 min. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO_2 nanorod array is firstly obtained by the spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT). The result reveals that the strong interaction between lead and EDT is very important to control the crystallite size of PbS quantum-dots and obtain the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO_2 nanorod array. The all solid-state sensitized solar cell with the combination of the short-length, high-density TiO_2 nanorod array and the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film achieves the photoelectric conversion efficiency of 4.10%, along with an open

  11. Combination of short-length TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays and compact PbS quantum-dot thin films for efficient solid-state quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengguo [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beifang University of Nationalities, Yinchuan 750021 (China); Shi, Chengwu, E-mail: shicw506@foxmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Chen, Junjun; Xiao, Guannan; Li, Long [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Graphical abstract: The TiO{sub 2} nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, the areal density of 500 μm{sup −2} was successfully prepared. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film was firstly obtained on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array by spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film sensitized solar cells achieved 4.10% using spiro-OMeTAD as a hole transporting layer, while the PCE of the PbS quantum-dot sensitized solar cells was only 0.54%. - Highlights: • Preparation of TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays with the length of 600 nm, diameter of 20 nm. • The compact PbS QD thin film and short-length TiO{sub 2} nanorod array were combined. • EDT addition improved PbS nanoparticle coverage and photovoltaic performance. • The compact PbS QD thin film sensitized solar cell achieved the PCE of 4.10%. - Abstract: Considering the balance of the hole diffusion length and the loading quantity of quantum-dots, the rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 500 μm{sup −2} is successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 105 min. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array is firstly obtained by the spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT). The result reveals that the strong interaction between lead and EDT is very important to control the crystallite size of PbS quantum-dots and obtain the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array. The all solid-state sensitized solar cell with the combination of the short-length, high-density TiO{sub 2} nanorod array and the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film achieves the photoelectric conversion

  12. Analysis of a new strain of Euphorbia mosaic virus with distinct replication specificity unveils a lineage of begomoviruses with short Rep sequences in the DNA-B intergenic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argüello-Astorga Gerardo R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Euphorbia mosaic virus (EuMV is a member of the SLCV clade, a lineage of New World begomoviruses that display distinctive features in their replication-associated protein (Rep and virion-strand replication origin. The first entirely characterized EuMV isolate is native from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; subsequently, EuMV was detected in weeds and pepper plants from another region of Mexico, and partial DNA-A sequences revealed significant differences in their putative replication specificity determinants with respect to EuMV-YP. This study was aimed to investigate the replication compatibility between two EuMV isolates from the same country. Results A new isolate of EuMV was obtained from pepper plants collected at Jalisco, Mexico. Full-length clones of both genomic components of EuMV-Jal were biolistically inoculated into plants of three different species, which developed symptoms indistinguishable from those induced by EuMV-YP. Pseudorecombination experiments with EuMV-Jal and EuMV-YP genomic components demonstrated that these viruses do not form infectious reassortants in Nicotiana benthamiana, presumably because of Rep-iteron incompatibility. Sequence analysis of the EuMV-Jal DNA-B intergenic region (IR led to the unexpected discovery of a 35-nt-long sequence that is identical to a segment of the rep gene in the cognate viral DNA-A. Similar short rep sequences ranging from 35- to 51-nt in length were identified in all EuMV isolates and in three distinct viruses from South America related to EuMV. These short rep sequences in the DNA-B IR are positioned downstream to a ~160-nt non-coding domain highly similar to the CP promoter of begomoviruses belonging to the SLCV clade. Conclusions EuMV strains are not compatible in replication, indicating that this begomovirus species probably is not a replicating lineage in nature. The genomic analysis of EuMV-Jal led to the discovery of a subgroup of SLCV clade viruses that contain in

  13. Film Scriptwriting: A Practical Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Dwight V.

    Dealing with both documentary and feature films, this book is a guide to using particular tools and procedures in developing ideas and concepts for writing film scripts. Part one deals with the factual, or documentary, film and discusses the proposal outline, film treatment, sequence outline, shooting script, and narration writing. Part two…

  14. Discovery in Film, Book Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Malcolm W.

    Approximately 80 16 millimeter (16mm) short films are reviewed in this introduction and guide which attempts to be comprehensive in touching the major areas and styles of 16mm films now being produced. An attempt is made to describe as carefully as possible the style and content of each film and suggest ways in which the films might be used. Films…

  15. Breast MRI at very short TE (minTE). Image analysis of minTE sequences on non-fat-saturated, subtracted T1-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenkel, Evelyn; Janka, Rolf; Kaemmerer, Nadine; Uder, Michael; Hammon, Matthias; Brand, Michael; Hartmann, Arndt

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate a minimum echo time (minTE) protocol for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with breast lesions compared to a standard TE (nTE) time protocol. Breasts of 144 women were examined with a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. Additionally to the standard gradient-echo sequence with nTE (4.8 ms), a variant with minimum TE (1.2 ms) was used in an interleaved fashion which leads to a better temporal resolution and should reduce the scan time by approximately 50%. Lesion sizes were measured and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as well as the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Subjective confidence was evaluated using a 3-point scale before looking at the nTE sequences (1 = very sure that I can identify a lesion and classify it, 2 = quite sure that I can identify a lesion and classify it, 3 = definitely want to see nTE for final assessment) and the subjective image quality of all examinations was evaluated using a four-grade scale (1 = sharp, 2 = slight blur, 3 = moderate blur and 4 = severe blur/not evaluable) for lesion and skin sharpness. Lesion morphology and contrast enhancement were also evaluated. With minTE sequences, no lesion was rated with ''definitely want to see nTE sequences for final assessment''. The difference of the longitudinal and transverse diameter did not differ significantly (p>0.05). With minTE, lesions and skin were rated to be significantly more blurry (p<0.01 for lesions and p<0.05 for skin). There was no difference between both sequences with respect to SNR, CNR, lesion morphology, contrast enhancement and detection of multifocal disease. Dynamic breast MRI with a minTE protocol is feasible without a major loss of information (SNR, CNR, lesion morphology, contrast enhancement and lesion sizes) and the temporal resolution can be increased by a factor of 2 using minTE sequences.

  16. Breast MRI at very short TE (minTE). Image analysis of minTE sequences on non-fat-saturated, subtracted T1-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenkel, Evelyn; Janka, Rolf; Kaemmerer, Nadine; Uder, Michael; Hammon, Matthias; Brand, Michael [Univ. Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Geppert, Christian [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Hartmann, Arndt [Univ. Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Pathology

    2017-02-15

    The aim was to evaluate a minimum echo time (minTE) protocol for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with breast lesions compared to a standard TE (nTE) time protocol. Breasts of 144 women were examined with a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. Additionally to the standard gradient-echo sequence with nTE (4.8 ms), a variant with minimum TE (1.2 ms) was used in an interleaved fashion which leads to a better temporal resolution and should reduce the scan time by approximately 50%. Lesion sizes were measured and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as well as the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Subjective confidence was evaluated using a 3-point scale before looking at the nTE sequences (1 = very sure that I can identify a lesion and classify it, 2 = quite sure that I can identify a lesion and classify it, 3 = definitely want to see nTE for final assessment) and the subjective image quality of all examinations was evaluated using a four-grade scale (1 = sharp, 2 = slight blur, 3 = moderate blur and 4 = severe blur/not evaluable) for lesion and skin sharpness. Lesion morphology and contrast enhancement were also evaluated. With minTE sequences, no lesion was rated with ''definitely want to see nTE sequences for final assessment''. The difference of the longitudinal and transverse diameter did not differ significantly (p>0.05). With minTE, lesions and skin were rated to be significantly more blurry (p<0.01 for lesions and p<0.05 for skin). There was no difference between both sequences with respect to SNR, CNR, lesion morphology, contrast enhancement and detection of multifocal disease. Dynamic breast MRI with a minTE protocol is feasible without a major loss of information (SNR, CNR, lesion morphology, contrast enhancement and lesion sizes) and the temporal resolution can be increased by a factor of 2 using minTE sequences.

  17. A short note on the paper of Liu et al. (2012). A relative Lempel-Ziv complexity: Application to comparing biological sequences. Chemical Physics Letters, volume 530, 19 March 2012, pages 107-112

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arit, Turkan; Keskin, Burak; Firuzan, Esin; Cavas, Cagin Kandemir; Liu, Liwei; Cavas, Levent

    2018-04-01

    The report entitled "L. Liu, D. Li, F. Bai, A relative Lempel-Ziv complexity: Application to comparing biological sequences, Chem. Phys. Lett. 530 (2012) 107-112" mentions on the powerful construction of phylogenetic trees based on Lempel-Ziv algorithm. On the other hand, the method explained in the paper does not give promising result on the data set on invasive Caulerpa taxifolia in the Mediterranean Sea. The phylogenetic trees are obtained by the proposed method of the aforementioned paper in this short note.

  18. Two short basic sequences surrounding the zinc finger of nucleocapsid protein NCp10 of Moloney murine leukemia virus are critical for RNA annealing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rocquigny, H; Ficheux, D; Gabus, C; Allain, B; Fournie-Zaluski, M C; Darlix, J L; Roques, B P

    1993-02-25

    The 56 amino acid nucleocapsid protein (NCp10) of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, contains a CysX2CysX4HisX4Cys zinc finger flanked by basic residues. In vitro NCp10 promotes genomic RNA dimerization, a process most probably linked to genomic RNA packaging, and replication primer tRNA(Pro) annealing to the initiation site of reverse transcription. To characterize the amino-acid sequences involved in the various functions of NCp10, we have synthesized by solid phase method the native protein and a series of derived peptides shortened at the N- or C-terminus with or without the zinc finger domain. In the latter case, the two parts of the protein were linked by a Glycine - Glycine spacer. The in vitro studies of these peptides show that nucleic acid annealing activities of NCp10 do not require a zinc finger but are critically dependent on the presence of specific sequences located on each side of the CCHC domain and containing proline and basic residues. Thus, deletion of 11R or 49PRPQT, of the fully active 29 residue peptide 11RQGGERRRSQLDRDGGKKPRGPRGPRPQT53 leads to a complete loss of NCp10 activity. Therefore it is proposed that in NCp10, the zinc finger directs the spatial recognition of the target RNAs by the basic domains surrounding the zinc finger.

  19. A new mathematical model of a short magnetorheological squeeze film damper for rotordynamic applications based on a bilinear oil representation – derivation of the governing equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapoměl, Jaroslav; Ferfecki, P.; Forte, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, December (2017), s. 558-575 ISSN 0307-904X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-06621S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : magnetorheological squeeze film damper * bilinear material * stability of computational procedures * Bingham theoretical material Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2016

  20. Super-bright and short-lived photoluminescence of textured Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ phosphor film on quartz glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jehong; Park, Kwangwon; Lee, Jaebum; Kim, Jongsu; Seo, Kwangil; Kwon, Kevin; Kung, Patrick; Kim, Seongsin M.

    2010-02-01

    Green-emissive textured Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ phosphor film was fabricated by a thermal diffusion of ZnO:Mn on quartz glass. The characterization has been performed in terms of Mn2+ ions concentration (Mn/Zn=1~9 mol %). As an increase of Mn2+ ions concentration in the Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ phosphor film, the emission peak was red shifted from 519 nm to 526 nm, and the decay time to 10% of the maximum intensity was shorter from 20 ms to 0.5 ms. All annealed Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ phosphor films became textured along some hexagonal directions on the amorphous quartz glass. The brightest Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ film at optimal Mn2+ concentration of 5 % showed the photoluminescence brightness of 65 % and the shortened decay time of 4.4 ms in comparison with a commercially Zn2SiO4: Mn2+ powder phosphor screen. The excellencies can be attributed to a unique textured structure.

  1. Motivational and Effective Film Activities for the Language Lab Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Yun

    Many teachers hesitate to integrate film into English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classrooms because of the uncertainty of the educational efficacy of viewing an entire film in class and the motivational value of the repeated use of short film clips. However, both short film clips and longer films can be used in class to motivate ESL students and…

  2. Two RNAs or DNAs May Artificially Fuse Together at a Short Homologous Sequence (SHS) during Reverse Transcription or Polymerase Chain Reactions, and Thus Reporting an SHS-Containing Chimeric RNA Requires Extra Caution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bingkun; Yang, Wei; Ouyang, Yongchang; Chen, Lichan; Jiang, Hesheng; Liao, Yuying; Liao, D. Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Tens of thousands of chimeric RNAs have been reported. Most of them contain a short homologous sequence (SHS) at the joining site of the two partner genes but are not associated with a fusion gene. We hypothesize that many of these chimeras may be technical artifacts derived from SHS-caused mis-priming in reverse transcription (RT) or polymerase chain reactions (PCR). We cloned six chimeric complementary DNAs (cDNAs) formed by human mitochondrial (mt) 16S rRNA sequences at an SHS, which were similar to several expression sequence tags (ESTs).These chimeras, which could not be detected with cDNA protection assay, were likely formed because some regions of the 16S rRNA are reversely complementary to another region to form an SHS, which allows the downstream sequence to loop back and anneal at the SHS to prime the synthesis of its complementary strand, yielding a palindromic sequence that can form a hairpin-like structure.We identified a 16S rRNA that ended at the 4th nucleotide(nt) of the mt-tRNA-leu was dominant and thus should be the wild type. We also cloned a mouse Bcl2-Nek9 chimeric cDNA that contained a 5-nt unmatchable sequence between the two partners, contained two copies of the reverse primer in the same direction but did not contain the forward primer, making it unclear how this Bcl2-Nek9 was formed and amplified. Moreover, a cDNA was amplified because one primer has 4 nts matched to the template, suggesting that there may be many more artificial cDNAs than we have realized, because the nuclear and mt genomes have many more 4-nt than 5-nt or longer homologues. Altogether, the chimeric cDNAs we cloned are good examples suggesting that many cDNAs may be artifacts due to SHS-caused mis-priming and thus greater caution should be taken when new sequence is obtained from a technique involving DNA polymerization. PMID:27148738

  3. The earthquake sequence of 21-22 February, 1983 at Ramnicu Sarat, Romania: source parameters retrieved by short period local data inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardeleanu, L.; Radulian, M.; Sileny, J.; Panza, G. F.

    2002-01-01

    High-frequency seismograms from the Romanian telemetered local network are inverted to retrieve the seismic moment tensor of five weak earthquakes (2.9 ≤ M L ≤ 3.6) belonging to the seismic sequence of Ramnicu Sarat (Romania) of 21-22 February 1983. A grossly simplified 1-D approximation of the crust - the horizontally layered inelastic earth model - is used to construct the Green's function by modal summation. The deviation from the real velocity structure originates the error in forward modelling, which is roughly estimated from the differences in the moment tensor rate functions obtained from subsets of the complete station network. This error is transformed into estimates of confidence regions of the time function, moment tensor and its principal axes, and error bars of the scalar moment. The 1-D approximation of the crust results in a large uncertainty of the source time function, which is almost completely undetermined. The mechanism is more confident, especially the determination of the orientation of its deviatoric part. The most robust source parameter from the three investigated items is the scalar moment. (authors)

  4. Genome-wide analysis of short interspersed nuclear elements SINES revealed high sequence conservation, gene association and retrotranspositional activity in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Smadar; Yaakov, Beery; Kashkush, Khalil

    2013-10-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous non-LTR retroelements that are present in most eukaryotic species. While SINEs have been intensively investigated in humans and other animal systems, they are poorly studied in plants, especially in wheat (Triticum aestivum). We used quantitative PCR of various wheat species to determine the copy number of a wheat SINE family, termed Au SINE, combined with computer-assisted analyses of the publicly available 454 pyrosequencing database of T. aestivum. In addition, we utilized site-specific PCR on 57 Au SINE insertions, transposon methylation display and transposon display on newly formed wheat polyploids to assess retrotranspositional activity, epigenetic status and genetic rearrangements in Au SINE, respectively. We retrieved 3706 different insertions of Au SINE from the 454 pyrosequencing database of T. aestivum, and found that most of the elements are inserted in A/T-rich regions, while approximately 38% of the insertions are associated with transcribed regions, including known wheat genes. We observed typical retrotransposition of Au SINE in the second generation of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid, and massive hypermethylation in CCGG sites surrounding Au SINE in the third generation. Finally, we observed huge differences in the copy numbers in diploid Triticum and Aegilops species, and a significant increase in the copy numbers in natural wheat polyploids, but no significant increase in the copy number of Au SINE in the first four generations for two of three newly formed allopolyploid species used in this study. Our data indicate that SINEs may play a prominent role in the genomic evolution of wheat through stress-induced activation. © 2013 Ben-Gurion University The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Applications of ultra-short pulsed laser ablation: thin films deposition and fs/ns dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teghil, R; De Bonis, A; Galasso, A; Santagata, A; Albano, G; Villani, P; Spera, D; Parisi, G P

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report a survey of two of the large number of possible practical applications of the laser ablation performed by an ultra-short pulse laser, namely pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and fs/ns dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS). These applications differ from those using just longer pulsed lasers as a consequence of the distinctive characteristics of the plasma produced by ultra-short laser beams. The most important feature of this plasma is the large presence of particles with nanometric size which plays a fundamental role in both applications.

  6. Optimization of de novo transcriptome assembly from high-throughput short read sequencing data improves functional annotation for non-model organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haznedaroglu Berat Z

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The k-mer hash length is a key factor affecting the output of de novo transcriptome assembly packages using de Bruijn graph algorithms. Assemblies constructed with varying single k-mer choices might result in the loss of unique contiguous sequences (contigs and relevant biological information. A common solution to this problem is the clustering of single k-mer assemblies. Even though annotation is one of the primary goals of a transcriptome assembly, the success of assembly strategies does not consider the impact of k-mer selection on the annotation output. This study provides an in-depth k-mer selection analysis that is focused on the degree of functional annotation achieved for a non-model organism where no reference genome information is available. Individual k-mers and clustered assemblies (CA were considered using three representative software packages. Pair-wise comparison analyses (between individual k-mers and CAs were produced to reveal missing Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG ortholog identifiers (KOIs, and to determine a strategy that maximizes the recovery of biological information in a de novo transcriptome assembly. Results Analyses of single k-mer assemblies resulted in the generation of various quantities of contigs and functional annotations within the selection window of k-mers (k-19 to k-63. For each k-mer in this window, generated assemblies contained certain unique contigs and KOIs that were not present in the other k-mer assemblies. Producing a non-redundant CA of k-mers 19 to 63 resulted in a more complete functional annotation than any single k-mer assembly. However, a fraction of unique annotations remained (~0.19 to 0.27% of total KOIs in the assemblies of individual k-mers (k-19 to k-63 that were not present in the non-redundant CA. A workflow to recover these unique annotations is presented. Conclusions This study demonstrated that different k-mer choices result in various quantities

  7. PIPE: a protein-protein interaction prediction engine based on the re-occurring short polypeptide sequences between known interacting protein pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenblatt Jack

    2006-07-01

    included in genome-wide yeast TAP tagging projects. Conclusion PIPE analysis can predict yeast protein-protein interactions. Also, PIPE analysis can be used to study the internal architecture of yeast protein complexes. The data also suggests that a finite set of short polypeptide signals seem to be responsible for the majority of the yeast protein-protein interactions.

  8. Contributions of Film Introductions and Film Summaries to Learning from Instructional Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, C. W., Jr.; Norford, C. A.

    An exploratory study of the contribution to learning of typical introductory and summarizing sequences in instructional films underlined the need for further experimental work to determine what kinds of introductory and concluding sequences are most useful in promoting learning from films. The first part of the study was concerned with film…

  9. Reducing Short-Wavelength Blue Light in Dry Eye Patients with Unstable Tear Film Improves Performance on Tests of Visual Acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaido, Minako; Toda, Ikuko; Oobayashi, Tomoo; Kawashima, Motoko; Katada, Yusaku; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether suppression of blue light can improve visual function in patients with short tear break up time (BUT) dry eye (DE). Twenty-two patients with short BUT DE (10 men, 12 women; mean age, 32.4 ± 6.4 years; age range, 23-43 years) and 18 healthy controls (10 men, 8 women; mean age, 30.1 ± 7.4 years; age range, 20-49 years) underwent functional visual acuity (VA) examinations with and without wearing eyeglasses with 50% blue light blocked lenses. The functional VA parameters were starting VA, functional VA, and visual maintenance ratio. The baseline mean values (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, logMAR) of functional VA and the visual maintenance ratio were significantly worse in the DE patients than in the controls (P 0.05). The DE patients had significant improvement in mean functional VA and visual maintenance ratio while wearing the glasses (P 0.05). Protecting the eyes from short-wavelength blue light may help to ameliorate visual impairment associated with tear instability in patients with DE. This finding represents a new concept, which is that the blue light exposure might be harmful to visual function in patients with short BUT DE.

  10. Reducing Short-Wavelength Blue Light in Dry Eye Patients with Unstable Tear Film Improves Performance on Tests of Visual Acuity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minako Kaido

    Full Text Available To investigate whether suppression of blue light can improve visual function in patients with short tear break up time (BUT dry eye (DE.Twenty-two patients with short BUT DE (10 men, 12 women; mean age, 32.4 ± 6.4 years; age range, 23-43 years and 18 healthy controls (10 men, 8 women; mean age, 30.1 ± 7.4 years; age range, 20-49 years underwent functional visual acuity (VA examinations with and without wearing eyeglasses with 50% blue light blocked lenses. The functional VA parameters were starting VA, functional VA, and visual maintenance ratio.The baseline mean values (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, logMAR of functional VA and the visual maintenance ratio were significantly worse in the DE patients than in the controls (P 0.05. The DE patients had significant improvement in mean functional VA and visual maintenance ratio while wearing the glasses (P 0.05.Protecting the eyes from short-wavelength blue light may help to ameliorate visual impairment associated with tear instability in patients with DE. This finding represents a new concept, which is that the blue light exposure might be harmful to visual function in patients with short BUT DE.

  11. A preliminary study of the effects of plastic film-mulched raised beds on soil temperature and crop performance of early-sown short-season spring maize (Zea mays L. in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Dang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To identify a strategy for earlier sowing and harvesting of spring maize (Zea mays L. in an alternative maize–maize double cropping system, a 2-year field experiment was performed at Quzhou experimental station of China Agricultural University in 2014 and 2015. A short-season cultivar, Demeiya number 1 (KX7349, was used in the experiment. Soil temperature to 5 cm depth in the early crop growth stage, crop growth, crop yield, and water use of different treatments (plastic film-mulched raised bed (RF and flat field without plastic film mulching (CK in 2014; RF, plastic film-mulched flat field (FF, and CK in 2015 were measured or calculated and compared. Soil temperature in the film-mulched treatments was consistently higher than that in CK (1.6–3.5 °C in average during the early growth stage. Crops in plastic film-mulched treatments used 214 fewer growing-degree days (GDDs in 2014 and 262 fewer GDDs in 2015. In 2014, the RF treatment yielded 32.7% higher biomass than CK, although its 9.4% higher grain yield was not statistically significant. Also, RF used 17.9% less water and showed 33.1% higher water use efficiency (WUE than CK. In 2015, RF and FF showed 56.2% and 49.5% higher yield, 15.0% and 4.5% lower water use (ET, and 63.4% and 75.7% higher WUE, respectively, than CK. RF markedly increased soil temperature in the early crop season, accelerated crop growth, reduced ET, and greatly increased crop yield and WUE. Compared with FF, RF had no obvious effect on crop growth rate, although soil temperature during the period between sowing and stem elongation was slightly increased. However, RF resulted in lower ET and higher WUE than FF. Effects of RF on soil water dynamics as well as its cost-effectiveness remain topics for further study.

  12. Krátkometrážní hraný film a jeho distribuce

    OpenAIRE

    Fojtíková, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Bachelor thesis Short film and its distribution explores the phenomenon of the short film and its possible spread. Thesis deals with the definition of short film and film distribution. By using the interviews will be held to analyze the possibilities of distribution of short films. Based on these interviews, the reader will be able to get a rough idea of how one can currently run film distribution of this type of film.

  13. Switching, storage, and erasure effects in a superconducting thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testardi, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    Thin niobium films can be switched from a superconducting to a resistive state permanently by application of a short electrical pulse. Application of a short pulse of opposite polarity returns the film to the superconducting state

  14. Evaluation of T2-weighted versus short-tau inversion recovery sagittal sequences in the identification and localization of canine intervertebral disc extrusion with low-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, Daniel; Caine, Abby; Cherubini, Giunio; Taeymans, Olivier

    2017-07-01

    Sagittal T2-weighted sequences (T2-SAG) are the foundation of spinal protocols when screening for the presence of intervertebral disc extrusion. We often utilize sagittal short-tau inversion recovery sequences (STIR-SAG) as an adjunctive screening series, and experience suggests that this combined approach provides superior detection rates. We hypothesized that STIR-SAG would provide higher sensitivity than T2-SAG in the identification and localization of intervertebral disc extrusion. We further hypothesized that the parallel evaluation of paired T2-SAG and STIR-SAG series would provide a higher sensitivity than could be achieved with either independent sagittal series when viewed in isolation. This retrospective diagnostic accuracy study blindly reviewed T2-SAG and STIR-SAG sequences from dogs (n = 110) with surgically confirmed intervertebral disc extrusion. A consensus between two radiologists found no significant difference in sensitivity between T2-SAG and STIR-SAG during the identification of intervertebral disc extrusion (T2-SAG: 92.7%, STIR-SAG: 94.5%, P = 0.752). Nevertheless, STIR-SAG accurately identified intervertebral disc extrusion in 66.7% of cases where the evaluation of T2-SAG in isolation had provided a false negative diagnosis. Additionally, one radiologist found that the parallel evaluation of paired T2-SAG and STIR-SAG series provided a significantly higher sensitivity than T2-SAG in isolation, during the identification of intervertebral disc extrusion (T2-SAG: 78.2%, paired T2-SAG, and STIR-SAG: 90.9%, P = 0.017). A similar nonsignificant trend was observed when the consensus of both radiologists was taken into consideration (T2-SAG: 92.7%, paired T2-SAG, and STIR-SAG = 97.3%, P = 0.392). We therefore conclude that STIR-SAG is capable of identifying intervertebral disc extrusion that is inconspicuous in T2-SAG, and that STIR-SAG should be considered a useful adjunctive sequence during preliminary sagittal screening for intervertebral disc

  15. Evaluation of Nitrification Inhibition Using Sequencing Batch Reactors and BioWin Modeling, and the Effect of Aqueous Film Forming Foam on Biological Nutrient Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Hingley, Daniel McCabe

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate continuous and sporadic nitrification inhibition at the HRSD Nansemond Wastewater Treatment Plant, which has a history of nitrification upsets, continuous sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated to simulate the full-scale plant. Four reactors were operated in this study. One reactor was fed with raw influent (RWI) from the Nansemond Wastewater Treatment Plant (NP). Another was fed with NP primary clarifier influent (PCI), which includes the raw influent, as well as plant re...

  16. As Film Goes Byte: The Change From Analog to Digital Film Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Loertscher, Miriam Laura; Weibel, David; Spiegel, Simon; Flueckiger, Barbara; Mennel, Pierre; Mast, Fred; Iseli, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The digital revolution changed film production in many ways. Until the end of the 20th century, most film professionals and critics preferred celluloid film. However, no previous empirical study compared complete narrative films recorded with analog and digital cinematography. Three short narrative films were produced with an analog and a digital camera attached to a 3D rig in order to control all optical parameters. In postproduction, a third version of a digital film was created to mimic th...

  17. As Film Goes Byte: The Change From Analog to Digital Film Perception.

    OpenAIRE

    Loertscher M. L. Weibel D. Spiegel S. Flueckiger B. Mennel P. Mast F. W. & Iseli C.

    2016-01-01

    The digital revolution changed film production in many ways. Until the end of the 20th century most film professionals and critics preferred celluloid film. However no previous empirical study compared complete narrative films recorded with analog and digital cinematography. Three short narrative films were produced with an analog and a digital camera attached to a 3D rig in order to control all optical parameters. In postproduction a third version of a digital film was created to mimic the a...

  18. Screening of transgenic proteins expressed in transgenic food crops for the presence of short amino acid sequences identical to potential, IgE – binding linear epitopes of allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peijnenburg Ad ACM

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transgenic proteins expressed by genetically modified food crops are evaluated for their potential allergenic properties prior to marketing, among others by identification of short identical amino acid sequences that occur both in the transgenic protein and allergenic proteins. A strategy is proposed, in which the positive outcomes of the sequence comparison with a minimal length of six amino acids are further screened for the presence of potential linear IgE-epitopes. This double track approach involves the use of literature data on IgE-epitopes and an antigenicity prediction algorithm. Results Thirty-three transgenic proteins have been screened for identities of at least six contiguous amino acids shared with allergenic proteins. Twenty-two transgenic proteins showed positive results of six- or seven-contiguous amino acids length. Only a limited number of identical stretches shared by transgenic proteins (papaya ringspot virus coat protein, acetolactate synthase GH50, and glyphosate oxidoreductase and allergenic proteins could be identified as (part of potential linear epitopes. Conclusion Many transgenic proteins have identical stretches of six or seven amino acids in common with allergenic proteins. Most identical stretches are likely to be false positives. As shown in this study, identical stretches can be further screened for relevance by comparison with linear IgE-binding epitopes described in literature. In the absence of literature data on epitopes, antigenicity prediction by computer aids to select potential antibody binding sites that will need verification of IgE binding by sera binding tests. Finally, the positive outcomes of this approach warrant further clinical testing for potential allergenicity.

  19. Phenotypic silencing of cytoplasmic genes using sequence-specific double-stranded short interfering RNA and its application in the reverse genetics of wild type negative-strand RNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barik Sailen

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS by short interfering RNA has opened up new directions in the phenotypic mutation of cellular genes. However, its efficacy on non-nuclear genes and its effect on the interferon pathway remain unexplored. Since directed mutation of RNA genomes is not possible through conventional mutagenesis, we have tested sequence-specific 21-nucleotide long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs for their ability to silence cytoplasmic RNA genomes. Results Short dsRNAs were generated against specific mRNAs of respiratory syncytial virus, a nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA virus with a cytoplasmic life cycle. At nanomolar concentrations, the dsRNAs specifically abrogated expression of the corresponding viral proteins, and produced the expected mutant phenotype ex vivo. The dsRNAs did not induce an interferon response, and did not inhibit cellular gene expression. The ablation of the viral proteins correlated with the loss of the specific mRNAs. In contrast, viral genomic and antigenomic RNA, which are encapsidated, were not directly affected. Conclusions Synthetic inhibitory dsRNAs are effective in specific silencing of RNA genomes that are exclusively cytoplasmic and transcribed by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. RNA-directed RNA gene silencing does not require cloning, expression, and mutagenesis of viral cDNA, and thus, will allow the generation of phenotypic null mutants of specific RNA viral genes under normal infection conditions and at any point in the infection cycle. This will, for the first time, permit functional genomic studies, attenuated infections, reverse genetic analysis, and studies of host-virus signaling pathways using a wild type RNA virus, unencumbered by any superinfecting virus.

  20. Film Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Larry M.; Atwater, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Reviews four Human Sexuality films and videos. These are: "Personal Decisions" (Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1985); "The Touch Film" (Sterling Production, 1986); "Rethinking Rape" (Film Distribution Center, 1985); "Not A Love Story" (National Film Board of Canada, 1981). (AEM)

  1. Short philtrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm Short philtrum To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A short philtrum is a shorter than normal distance between ...

  2. Three dimensional sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions-short time of the inversion recovery sequence for the post-ganglionic segments of the brachial plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Naiqi; Zhou Hongyu; Zheng Zhuozhao; Zhao Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the contrast-enhanced 3D sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions-short TI inversion recovery sequence (SPACE-STIR) for the imaging of the post-ganglionic segments of the brachial plexus. Methods: Forty-three patients with suspected brachial plexus lesions were examined with 3D SPACE-STIR and contrast-enhanced 3D SPACE-STIR prospectively. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR), and the conspicuousness of roots, trunks,divisions and cords of the brachial plexus of the two 3D sequences were retrospectively compared. Statistical analysis was performed by using student t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: Compared with 3D SPACE-STIR, contrast-enhanced 3D SPACE-STIR provided the similar SNRs (left, 37.41 ± 7.34 vs 36.27 ± 7.66, t = 1.574, P = 0.123, right, 43.85 ± 9.56 vs 42.34 ± 9.74, t = 1.937, P = 0.073), but significantly higher nerve-to-muscle CNRs (left, 24.01 ± 6.31 vs 26.39 ± 6.95, right, 29.31 ± 7.84 vs 31.77 ± 8.85, t = -3.278, -3.278, both P < 0.01) and nerve-to-lymph gland CNRs(left, -0.84 ± 10.51 vs 15.35 ± 8.02, right, -8.47 ± 10.85 vs 19.30 ± 10.35, t = -15.984, -15.651, both P < 0.01). The conspicuousness of roots and trunks on contrast-enhanced 3D SPACE-STIR was significantly better than that on 3D SPACE-STIR (Z = -3.606, -4.472, P < 0.01), while the conspicuousness of divisions and cords was similar(Z = -1.732, -1.414, P = 0.083, 0.157). The signal intensity of neoplastic lesions on contrast-enhanced 3D SPACE-STIR tended to decrease rapidly, thus the lesion conspicuousness was worse than that on 3D SPACE-STIR. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced 3D SPACE-STIR has obvious advantages in displaying normal brachial plexus and revealing non-neoplastic lesions of the brachial plexus, but may be insufficient for the diagnosis of neoplastic lesions of the brachial plexus. (authors)

  3. Analysis of the fluctuation-induced excess dc conductivity of epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7 films: Influence of a short-wavelength cutoff in the fluctuation spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopfengaertner, R.; Hensel, B.; Saemann-Ischenko, G.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the temperature dependence of the in-plane dc conductivity on various high-quality epitaxial YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 films are presented. The rounding of the resistivity in the transition region has been analyzed in terms of the anisotropic Aslamazov-Larkin (AL), Lawrence-Doniach (LD), and Maki-Thompson theories. In the framework of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (GL) approach we have investigated the influence of a short-wavelength cutoff parameter in the fluctuation spectrum of the AL and LD term. In both theories this physically reasonable cutoff leads to a considerable reduction of the predicted excess dc conductivity at higher temperatures. Moreover, the three-dimensional anisotropic AL term, taking the cutoff into account, predicts nearly the same excess conductivity as the original LD term, although these two approaches describe different systems. A good agreement between experimental data and LD as well as the modified three-dimensional anisotropic AL term was found in the region 1.01T c ≤T≤1.1T c . The zero-temperature GL coherence length ξ c (0) has been estimated to be about 1.5 A

  4. Molecular dynamics simulation about porous thin-film growth in secondary deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huawei; Tieu, A. Kiet; Liu Qiang; Hagiwara, Ichiro; Lu Cheng

    2007-01-01

    The thin film growth has been confirmed to be assembled by an enormous number of clusters in experiments of CVD. Sequence of clusters' depositions proceeds to form the thin film at short time as gas fluids through surface of substrate. In order to grow condensed thin film using series of cluster deposition, the effect of initial velocity, substrate temperature and density of clusters on property of deposited thin film, especially appearance of nanoscale pores inside thin film must be investigated. In this simulation, three different cluster sizes of 203, 653, 1563 atoms with different velocities (0, 10, 100, 1000 and 3000 m/s) were deposited on a Cu(0 0 1) substrate whose temperatures were set between 300 and 1000 K. Four clusters and one cluster were used in primary deposition and secondary deposition, respectively. We have clarified that adhesion between clusters and substrate is greatly influenced by initial velocity. As a result, the exfoliation pattern of deposited thin film is dependent on initial velocity and different between them. One borderline dividing whole region into porous region and nonporous region are obtained to show the effect of growth conditions on appearance of nanoscale pores inside thin film. Moreover, we have also shown that the likelihood of porous thin film is dependent on the point of impact of a cluster relative to previously deposited clusters

  5. Molecular dynamics simulation about porous thin-film growth in secondary deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Huawei [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, No. 37 Xuyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing (China) and Mechanical Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, NSW 2522 (Australia)]. E-mail: chen_hua_wei@yahoo.com; Tieu, A. Kiet [Mechanical Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, NSW 2522 (Australia); Liu Qiang [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, No. 37 Xuyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing (China); Hagiwara, Ichiro [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Lu Cheng [Mechanical Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2007-07-15

    The thin film growth has been confirmed to be assembled by an enormous number of clusters in experiments of CVD. Sequence of clusters' depositions proceeds to form the thin film at short time as gas fluids through surface of substrate. In order to grow condensed thin film using series of cluster deposition, the effect of initial velocity, substrate temperature and density of clusters on property of deposited thin film, especially appearance of nanoscale pores inside thin film must be investigated. In this simulation, three different cluster sizes of 203, 653, 1563 atoms with different velocities (0, 10, 100, 1000 and 3000 m/s) were deposited on a Cu(0 0 1) substrate whose temperatures were set between 300 and 1000 K. Four clusters and one cluster were used in primary deposition and secondary deposition, respectively. We have clarified that adhesion between clusters and substrate is greatly influenced by initial velocity. As a result, the exfoliation pattern of deposited thin film is dependent on initial velocity and different between them. One borderline dividing whole region into porous region and nonporous region are obtained to show the effect of growth conditions on appearance of nanoscale pores inside thin film. Moreover, we have also shown that the likelihood of porous thin film is dependent on the point of impact of a cluster relative to previously deposited clusters.

  6. USPIO-enhanced 3D-cine self-gated cardiac MRI based on a stack-of-stars golden angle short echo time sequence: Application on mice with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotier, Aurélien J; Castets, Charles R; Lefrançois, William; Ribot, Emeline J; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Thiaudière, Eric; Miraux, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    To develop and assess a 3D-cine self-gated method for cardiac imaging of murine models. A 3D stack-of-stars (SOS) short echo time (STE) sequence with a navigator echo was performed at 7T on healthy mice (n = 4) and mice with acute myocardial infarction (MI) (n = 4) injected with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles. In all, 402 spokes were acquired per stack with the incremental or the golden angle method using an angle increment of (360/402)° or 222.48°, respectively. A cylindrical k-space was filled and repeated with a maximum number of repetitions (NR) of 10. 3D cine cardiac images at 156 μm resolution were reconstructed retrospectively and compared for the two methods in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The golden angle images were also reconstructed with NR = 10, 6, and 3, to assess cardiac functional parameters (ejection fraction, EF) on both animal models. The combination of 3D SOS-STE and USPIO injection allowed us to optimize the identification of cardiac peaks on navigator signal and generate high CNR between blood and myocardium (15.3 ± 1.0). The golden angle method resulted in a more homogeneous distribution of the spokes inside a stack (P cine images could be obtained without electrocardiogram or respiratory gating in mice. It allows precise measurement of cardiac functional parameters even on MI mice. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:355-365. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Parallel motif extraction from very long sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sahli, Majed; Mansour, Essam; Kalnis, Panos

    2013-01-01

    Motifs are frequent patterns used to identify biological functionality in genomic sequences, periodicity in time series, or user trends in web logs. In contrast to a lot of existing work that focuses on collections of many short sequences, modern

  8. Colliding droplets: A short film presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, C. D.

    1981-12-01

    A series of experiments were performed in which liquid droplets were caused to collide. Impact velocities to several meters per second and droplet diameters up to 600 micrometers were used. The impact parameters in the collisions vary from zero to greater than the sum of the droplet radii. Photographs of the collisions were taken with a high speed framing camera in order to study the impacts and subsequent behavior of the droplets.

  9. Newsreels, documentary, experimental film, shorts and animation

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Biosca, Vicente; Cerdán, Josetxo

    2013-01-01

    One of the obsessions of Spanish critics writing about Spanish cinema has been the issue of “realism.” This dates back to the initial attempts at constructing a national cinema in the late 1920s, which set up an opposition between the españolada (stereotypical representation of Spain) and a cinema that would depict Spain as it “really” was; that is, an opposition between the artificial and the genuinely Spanish. This was reactivated after the Civil War by Francoism, which equat...

  10. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-02-01

    Feb 1, 2017 ... which no bacterial cause had been found by culture or by molecular biology. Isolation of ... Germany for sequencing. Analysis with the Blast .... Alain Farra was the principal investigator, working from levies on sites, cultivation ...

  11. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    SNP was screened by comparing sequences of PCR products, and the ... A sharp rise in plasma PRL level may induce incubation behaviour and thus terminate ... Therefore, PRL exhibits similar changing profiles in the reproduction cycle and.

  12. Yeast genome sequencing:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piskur, Jure; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold

    2004-01-01

    For decades, unicellular yeasts have been general models to help understand the eukaryotic cell and also our own biology. Recently, over a dozen yeast genomes have been sequenced, providing the basis to resolve several complex biological questions. Analysis of the novel sequence data has shown...... of closely related species helps in gene annotation and to answer how many genes there really are within the genomes. Analysis of non-coding regions among closely related species has provided an example of how to determine novel gene regulatory sequences, which were previously difficult to analyse because...... they are short and degenerate and occupy different positions. Comparative genomics helps to understand the origin of yeasts and points out crucial molecular events in yeast evolutionary history, such as whole-genome duplication and horizontal gene transfer(s). In addition, the accumulating sequence data provide...

  13. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  14. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF P.T. KAYE

    . SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...

  15. Bioequivalence of two film-coated tablets of imatinib mesylate 400 mg: a randomized, open-label, single-dose, fasting, two-period, two-sequence crossover comparison in healthy male South American volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrillo-Campiglia, Susana; Ercoli, Mónica Cedres; Umpierrez, Ofelia; Rodríguez, Patricia; Márquez, Sara; Guarneri, Carolina; Estevez-Parrillo, Francisco T; Laurenz, Marilena; Estevez-Carrizo, Francisco E

    2009-10-01

    Imatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been established as a highly effective therapy for chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. A new generic, once-daily 400-mg tablet of imatinib has been developed by a pharmaceutical company in Argentina, where the regulatory standard for marketing authorization of an imatinib generic is in vitro dissolution testing. The aim of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of a new generic film-coated test tablet formulation versus a film-coated reference tablet formulation of imatinib 400 mg. The local manufacturer seeks to validate the in vitro performance of this new formulation with a bioequivalence study. A randomized, open-label, single-dose, fasting, 2-period, 2-sequence crossover design with a 2-week washout period was used in this study. The study population consisted of healthy male South American (Uruguayan) volunteers, who were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to a randomized sequence (test-reference or reference-test). In each period, the test or reference formulation was administered after an overnight fast. During the 72-hour follow-up period, participants were monitored for vital signs and symptoms. Blood samples were collected at 15 time points, including baseline, until 72 hours. Physical examination and laboratory tests (blood, urine) were repeated 1 week after study completion. A noncompartmental model was used to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of imatinib. The 90% CIs of the test/reference ratios for AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) were determined; the test and reference formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs were between 0.80 and 1.25. Adverse events were assessed by a nurse who administered a questionnaire while the healthy volunteers were admitted in the unit. The bioequivalence study was conducted in 30 Uruguayan male volunteers. Demographic characteristics (mean [SD]) included age, 27.8 (6.5) years; weight, 71.2 (9.8) kg; height, 1.71 (0.09) m; and body

  16. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies and...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  17. Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, Shusei; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2014-01-01

    The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based on transcr......The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based...

  18. Short Stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Boye Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie

    2016-01-01

    -scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below......The use of appropriate growth standards/references is of significant clinical importance in assessing the height of children with short stature as it may determine eligibility for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of using World Health Organization (WHO) instead...... of national growth standards/references on height assessment in short children. Data were collected from routine clinical practice (1998-2014) from nine European countries that have available national growth references and were enrolled in NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (NCT00960128), a large...

  19. Fiction into Film: Learning Literature with a Movie Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, William V.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a "fiction into film" class course, in which students are brought to many significant insights about the workings of literature by collaborating on a short film based on a literary work. (FL)

  20. Short Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds...

  1. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  2. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  3. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: vani_chem@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.

  4. Short communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Vonk, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy veal calves (4-6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  5. Method and apparatus for biological sequence comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, T.G.; Chang, W.I.

    1997-12-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for comparing biological sequences from a known source of sequences, with a subject (query) sequence. The apparatus takes as input a set of target similarity levels (such as evolutionary distances in units of PAM), and finds all fragments of known sequences that are similar to the subject sequence at each target similarity level, and are long enough to be statistically significant. The invention device filters out fragments from the known sequences that are too short, or have a lower average similarity to the subject sequence than is required by each target similarity level. The subject sequence is then compared only to the remaining known sequences to find the best matches. The filtering member divides the subject sequence into overlapping blocks, each block being sufficiently large to contain a minimum-length alignment from a known sequence. For each block, the filter member compares the block with every possible short fragment in the known sequences and determines a best match for each comparison. The determined set of short fragment best matches for the block provide an upper threshold on alignment values. Regions of a certain length from the known sequences that have a mean alignment value upper threshold greater than a target unit score are concatenated to form a union. The current block is compared to the union and provides an indication of best local alignment with the subject sequence. 5 figs.

  6. Analysis of the overdispersed clock in the short-term evolution of hepatitis C virus: Using the E1/E2 gene sequences to infer infection dates in a single source outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Borys; Torres-Puente, Manuela; Jiménez, Nuria; Bracho, María Alma; García-Robles, Inmaculada; Moya, Andrés; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2006-06-01

    The assumption of a molecular clock for dating events from sequence information is often frustrated by the presence of heterogeneity among evolutionary rates due, among other factors, to positively selected sites. In this work, our goal is to explore methods to estimate infection dates from sequence analysis. One such method, based on site stripping for clock detection, was proposed to unravel the clocklike molecular evolution in sequences showing high variability of evolutionary rates and in the presence of positive selection. Other alternatives imply accommodating heterogeneity in evolutionary rates at various levels, without eliminating any information from the data. Here we present the analysis of a data set of hepatitis C virus (HCV) sequences from 24 patients infected by a single individual with known dates of infection. We first used a simple criterion of relative substitution rate for site removal prior to a regression analysis. Time was regressed on maximum likelihood pairwise evolutionary distances between the sequences sampled from the source individual and infected patients. We show that it is indeed the fastest evolving sites that disturb the molecular clock and that these sites correspond to positively selected codons. The high computational efficiency of the regression analysis allowed us to compare the site-stripping scheme with random removal of sites. We demonstrate that removing the fast-evolving sites significantly increases the accuracy of estimation of infection times based on a single substitution rate. However, the time-of-infection estimations improved substantially when a more sophisticated and computationally demanding Bayesian method was used. This method was used with the same data set but keeping all the sequence positions in the analysis. Consequently, despite the distortion introduced by positive selection on evolutionary rates, it is possible to obtain quite accurate estimates of infection dates, a result of especial relevance for

  7. Thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strongin, M.; Miller, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    This article reviews the phenomena that occur in films from the point of view of a solid state physicist. Films form the basis for many established and developing technologies. Metal layers have always been important for optical coatings and as protective coatings. In the most sophisticated cases, films and their interaction on silicon surfaces form the basis of modern electronic technology. Films of silicon, GaAs and composites of these materials promise to lead to practical photovoltaic devices

  8. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Short Communication. QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural ...

  9. Nuclear films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, Peter.

    1985-01-01

    This booklet is a resource for the study of feature films that highlight the theme of nuclear war. It provides basic credits and brief indication of the theme, treatment, quality and particular notable aspects; and a series of questions raised by the film. Seventy feature films and thirty documentaries are examined

  10. Photograms of a city: a didactic sequency to avanced level in SFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Portes-Fernández

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows a designed proposal with the objective of contributing with the teaching learning process of Spanish as Foreign Language (SFL in Santiago of Cuba. It takes into consideration the relevance, practicality and impact of the audiovisual materials –but only those that are considered authentic materials- in education, with a particular emphasis on language classrooms. In this sense, it focuses on the utility of the aforementioned materials to deal with the cultural component, for which a didactic sequence has been elaborated of the short film Cuando vuelvo. The proposal is particularly targeted towards the advanced level.

  11. New Media and Film Festivals in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Akser

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about two things. On the one hand it tries to observe some of the changes after the digital revolution, changes that had an impact on film festivals. The digital projection and acceptance of digital films to film festivals have been achieved. Yet an aspect of this digitization is under attack. The film submissions through digital portals. The second aspect is often neglected and an under the other topic: short film festivals, especially for and by the young.

  12. The novel as short story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Schlueter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent history, the novel has been thought of and defined primarily as a long prose narrative. However, this has not been the case historically, as the original meaning of "novel" was for "a piece of news" or "a short story or novella." Returning to this original definition, I propose a new way of viewing the work known contemporarily as the novel as a collection, or sequence, of united short stories rather than a single indivisible work, with the component short stories or novellas comprising the sequence renamed as "novels." A brief examination of several classic works traditionally considered novels serves to illustrate how this change in definition will affect reading.

  13. Thermogravimetric analysis of fuel film evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zongjie; LI Liguang; YU Shui

    2006-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was compared with the petrochemical distillation measurement method to better understand the characteristics of fuel film evaporation at different wall tem- peratures. The film evaporation characteristics of 90# gasoline, 93# gasoline and 0# diesel with different initial thicknesses were investigated at different environmental fluxes and heating rates. The influences of heating rate, film thickness and environmental flux on fuel film evaporation for these fuels were found. The results showed that the environmental conditions in TGA were similar to those for fuel films in the internal combustion engines, so data from TGA were suitable for the analysis of fuel film evaporation. TGA could simulate the key influencing factors for fuel film evaporation and could investigate the basic quantificational effect of heating rate and film thickness. To get a rapid and sufficient fuel film evaporation, sufficiently high wall temperature is necessary. Evaporation time decreases at a high heating rate and thin film thickness, and intense gas flow is important to promoting fuel film evaporation. Data from TGA at a heating rate of 100℃/min are fit to analyze the diesel film evaporation during cold-start and warming-up. Due to the tense molecular interactions, the evaporation sequence could not be strictly divided according to the boiling points of each component for multicomponent dissolved mixture during the quick evaporation process, and the heavier components could vaporize before reaching their boiling points. The 0# diesel film would fully evaporate when the wall temperature is beyond 250℃.

  14. Connecting community through film in ITE English

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, Joanna; Jones, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This chapter offers a critical exploration of the work of beginning teachers of secondary English at the University of Nottingham, who have been involved, alongside their own pupils, in a series of film-making projects which have taken place annually since 2010. During these projects, beginning teachers are mentored by creative practitioners to support their pupils in the creation of short films about their schools and communities. Pupils are supported to develop films from original screenpl...

  15. Film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The processing was made not only to show what are in the film but also to produce radiograph with high quality where the information gathered really presented level of the quality of the object inspected. Besides that, good procedure will make the film with good quality can keep the film in long time for reference. Here, more detailed on how the dark room functioned and its design. So, the good procedure while processed the film will be discussed detailed in this chapter from entering the dark room to exit from there.

  16. Demens Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Møller

    2012-01-01

    Vi vil skabe film til mennesker med demens – ikke film om demens sygdommen eller beretninger om livet og hverdagen med en kronisk lidelse. Filmene skal medvirke til at frembringe en behagelig stemning omkring og hos mennesker med demens, så hverdagen bliver så tryg som mulig. Filmene skal samtidig...... var at afgrænse og prioritere projektet, samt komme med anbefalinger omkring hvad der er vigtigt, i forbindelse med produktion af film målrettet mennesker med demens. Resultat af ekspertgruppen sammenfattes i denne rapport. Projektet gennemføres som et samarbejde mellem Retrospect Film...

  17. [The good PBL tutor--to be or not to be: instructional films for tutors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelin, Silvia; Huwendiek, Sören; Nikendei, Christoph; Dieter, Peter; Kirschfink, Michael; Bosse, Hans-Martin

    2008-01-01

    Many faculties worldwide apply the method of problem-based learning (PBL) in their curricula as a form of instruction by which students in small groups develop problem-solving strategies on the basis of a specific case. This approach fosters self-responsible and context-dependent learning, which aims at providing an improved anchoring of knowledge. For this reason, the previous decades have seen a distribution of the method to medical schools across the world. The role of the tutor assumes particular importance since, in contrast to the traditional university system, he or she serves as a facilitator who fosters and structures content-related and group-dynamic learning processes. In some cases, this requires an intervention by the tutor. The major challenge is to intervene at the right time and in an appropriate manner. This paper presents examples of difficult PBL situations using short film sequences to demonstrate and comments on potential approaches of the tutor in attempting to resolve the problem. Standard problem situations within a PBL tutorial were defined and produced in a film. A collection of seven frequent critical PBL situations are presented in short film sequences. Potential instruments of intervention are demonstrated in the videos and discussed. The film sequences may be downloaded in the supplementary of the electronic version of this article (www.sciencedirect.com). Within the framework of a tutor-training programme, the problematic situations and interventions presented in this article will help to sensitise tutors to potentially critical PBL tutorial situations and aid the development of individual resolution approaches.

  18. Room for Women : YouTube film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CWI CWI

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractThe Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) signed the "Talent to the Top" Charter. CWI is highlighting the objective of this national task force to enable more women to flow to senior talent positions. To illustrate this CWI created the short film 'Room for Women'. In this film four female

  19. Rapid Multiplex Small DNA Sequencing on the MinION Nanopore Sequencing Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Wei

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Real-time sequencing of short DNA reads has a wide variety of clinical and research applications including screening for mutations, target sequences and aneuploidy. We recently demonstrated that MinION, a nanopore-based DNA sequencing device the size of a USB drive, could be used for short-read DNA sequencing. In this study, an ultra-rapid multiplex library preparation and sequencing method for the MinION is presented and applied to accurately test normal diploid and aneuploidy samples’ genomic DNA in under three hours, including library preparation and sequencing. This novel method shows great promise as a clinical diagnostic test for applications requiring rapid short-read DNA sequencing.

  20. The Shortcomings of Medical Education Highlighted through Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Pranav

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this report are to highlight the shortcomings in medical education. To use a student made short film as an example of how issues that cause medical student distress can be displayed. To show that the process of film-making is a useful tool in reflection. To display that film is an effective device in raising awareness. (Contains 3…

  1. Dictionary of Films. Translated, Edited, and Updated by Peter Morris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoul, Georges

    In an attempt ot give a panorama of world cinema since its origins, this dictionary contains entries for about 1200 films from all over the world. A brief description of the plot of the film, the personnel involved in the production, and often some short, critical comments are included for each film. This dictionary is a companion volume to a…

  2. English and Film: Connecting Children to the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the processes behind drawing different kinds of inference from a single short film. It examines the range knowledge that groups of viewers are able to derive from listening to film sound, and from summarizing the work of a whole film, using the concepts of "aesthetic" and "efferent" reading set out by Louise…

  3. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopy (SEM) studies, respectively. The Fourier transform ... Thin films; chemical synthesis; hydrous tin oxide; FTIR; electrical properties. 1. Introduction ... dehydrogenation of organic compounds (Hattori et al 1987). .... SEM images of (a) bare stainless steel and (b) SnO2:H2O thin film on stainless steel substrate at a ...

  4. Into films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Ed S.; Doicaru, Miruna M.; Hakemulder, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Most film viewers know the experience of being deeply absorbed in the story of a popular film. It seems that at such moments they lose awareness of watching a movie. And yet it is highly unlikely that they completely ignore the fact that they watch a narrative and technological construction. Perh...

  5. Boleslas Matuszewski: Pioneer of medical film-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matanović Dragana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Boleslas Matuszewski, born in 1856, was a pioneer in medical film-making. He worked simultaneously on improving his movie camera, film-making, collecting film documentation, and the idea of establishing an archive of medical films. Although his first attempts at filming and showing surgical operations didn't gain widespread approval, he was not discouraged, and succeeded in garnering support from a number of French doctors, who realized the importance of his ideas, not only in filming and forming medical film documentation, but also in the use of film for educative purposes. His visionary ideas gained acceptance when Dr. Doyen, on the occasion of the 66th Convention of the British Medical Society, in 1898, used film material as part of his lecture. Shortly afterwards, the Medical Academy took steps to show certain operative techniques, which represented both the confirmation and fruition of Matuszewski's ideas about filmmaking and the establishment of an archive of medical films.

  6. A Short History of the Movies. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Gerald

    This second edition of "A Short History of the Movies" includes expanded information and judgments about some of the "old masters" of film; an updated discussion of the "new masters"; and new sections on Japanese, Indian, and Czech cinema. In general, this history reveals significant trends in film history. American…

  7. Exploiting publicly available biological and biochemical information for the discovery of novel short linear motifs.

    KAUST Repository

    Sayadi, Ahmed; Briganti, Leonardo; Tramontano, Anna; Via, Allegra

    2011-01-01

    The function of proteins is often mediated by short linear segments of their amino acid sequence, called Short Linear Motifs or SLiMs, the identification of which can provide important information about a protein function. However, the short length

  8. Magnetic anisotropies in SmCo thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.

    1993-01-01

    A systemic study of the deposition processes and magnetic properties for the Sm-Co film system has been carried out. Films of Sm-Co system with various magnetic anisotropies have been synthesized through sputter deposition in both crystalline and amorphous phases. The origins of various anisotropies have been studied. Thermalized sputter deposition process control was used to synthesize Fe enriched Sm-Co films with rhombohedral Th 2 Zn 17 type structure. The film exhibited unusually strong textures with the crystallographic c axes of the crystallites aligned in the film plane. A large anisotropy was resulted with easy axis in the film plane. A well defined and large in-the-film-plane anisotropy of exceptionally high value of 3.3 x 10 6 erg/cm 3 has been obtained in the amorphous SmCo films by applying a magnetic field in the film plane during deposition. It was found that the in-the-film-plane anisotropy depended essentially on the applied field and Sm concentration. For films not synthesized through thermallized sputtering, the easy axis of the film could reoriented. A perpendicular anisotropy was also presented in the film synthesized through thermallized sputtering deposition. A large in-plane anisotropy was obtained in films deposited above ambient temperatures. It was concluded that the surface induced short range ordering was the origin of the in-the-film-phase anisotropy observed in amorphous film deposited in the presence of a magnetic field. The formation mechanism was different from that of the short range ordering induced by field annealing. The perpendicular anisotropy was shown to be growth induced. Large in-plane anisotropy in amorphous films was resulted form partial crystallization in the film. Both the formation of growth induced structure and partial crystallization in the film prevented the formation of the pair ordering and decreased in-the-film-plane anisotropy

  9. Strategic Talk in Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payr, Sabine; Skowron, Marcin; Dobrosovestnova, Anna; Trapp, Martin; Trappl, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Conversational robots and agents are being designed for educational and/or persuasive tasks, e.g., health or fitness coaching. To pursue such tasks over a long time, they will need a complex model of the strategic goal, a variety of strategies to implement it in interaction, and the capability of strategic talk. Strategic talk is incipient ongoing conversation in which at least one participant has the objective of changing the other participant's attitudes or goals. The paper is based on the observation that strategic talk can stretch over considerable periods of time and a number of conversational segments. Film dialogues are taken as a source to develop a model of the strategic talk of mentor characters. A corpus of film mentor utterances is annotated on the basis of the model, and the data are interpreted to arrive at insights into mentor behavior, especially into the realization and sequencing of strategies.

  10. Demens Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2012-01-01

    I forbindelse med opstarten af Demens Film projektet har der været nedsat en ekspertgruppe, som er kommet med en række anbefalinger omkring film til mennesker med demens. Anbefalingerne skal bruges i de næste faser af projektet. Deltagerne i ekspertgruppen var sammensat af en bred gruppe...... fagpersoner inde for forskellige fagområder. Læs mere om gruppens anbefalinger og sammensætning af ekspertgruppen i den kort rapport som er offentlig tilgængelig. Læs Ekspertgruppe anbefalingerne til Demens Film projekt....

  11. Design of Long Period Pseudo-Random Sequences from the Addition of -Sequences over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Jian

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudo-random sequence with good correlation property and large linear span is widely used in code division multiple access (CDMA communication systems and cryptology for reliable and secure information transmission. In this paper, sequences with long period, large complexity, balance statistics, and low cross-correlation property are constructed from the addition of -sequences with pairwise-prime linear spans (AMPLS. Using -sequences as building blocks, the proposed method proved to be an efficient and flexible approach to construct long period pseudo-random sequences with desirable properties from short period sequences. Applying the proposed method to , a signal set is constructed.

  12. Massively parallel sequencing of forensic STRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parson, Walther; Ballard, David; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) is reviewing factors that need to be considered ahead of the adoption by the forensic community of short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping by massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies. MPS produces sequence data that...

  13. Polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2004-05-25

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  14. Memory and learning with rapid audiovisual sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Arielle S.; Sekuler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We examined short-term memory for sequences of visual stimuli embedded in varying multisensory contexts. In two experiments, subjects judged the structure of the visual sequences while disregarding concurrent, but task-irrelevant auditory sequences. Stimuli were eight-item sequences in which varying luminances and frequencies were presented concurrently and rapidly (at 8 Hz). Subjects judged whether the final four items in a visual sequence identically replicated the first four items. Luminances and frequencies in each sequence were either perceptually correlated (Congruent) or were unrelated to one another (Incongruent). Experiment 1 showed that, despite encouragement to ignore the auditory stream, subjects' categorization of visual sequences was strongly influenced by the accompanying auditory sequences. Moreover, this influence tracked the similarity between a stimulus's separate audio and visual sequences, demonstrating that task-irrelevant auditory sequences underwent a considerable degree of processing. Using a variant of Hebb's repetition design, Experiment 2 compared musically trained subjects and subjects who had little or no musical training on the same task as used in Experiment 1. Test sequences included some that intermittently and randomly recurred, which produced better performance than sequences that were generated anew for each trial. The auditory component of a recurring audiovisual sequence influenced musically trained subjects more than it did other subjects. This result demonstrates that stimulus-selective, task-irrelevant learning of sequences can occur even when such learning is an incidental by-product of the task being performed. PMID:26575193

  15. Memory and learning with rapid audiovisual sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Arielle S; Sekuler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We examined short-term memory for sequences of visual stimuli embedded in varying multisensory contexts. In two experiments, subjects judged the structure of the visual sequences while disregarding concurrent, but task-irrelevant auditory sequences. Stimuli were eight-item sequences in which varying luminances and frequencies were presented concurrently and rapidly (at 8 Hz). Subjects judged whether the final four items in a visual sequence identically replicated the first four items. Luminances and frequencies in each sequence were either perceptually correlated (Congruent) or were unrelated to one another (Incongruent). Experiment 1 showed that, despite encouragement to ignore the auditory stream, subjects' categorization of visual sequences was strongly influenced by the accompanying auditory sequences. Moreover, this influence tracked the similarity between a stimulus's separate audio and visual sequences, demonstrating that task-irrelevant auditory sequences underwent a considerable degree of processing. Using a variant of Hebb's repetition design, Experiment 2 compared musically trained subjects and subjects who had little or no musical training on the same task as used in Experiment 1. Test sequences included some that intermittently and randomly recurred, which produced better performance than sequences that were generated anew for each trial. The auditory component of a recurring audiovisual sequence influenced musically trained subjects more than it did other subjects. This result demonstrates that stimulus-selective, task-irrelevant learning of sequences can occur even when such learning is an incidental by-product of the task being performed.

  16. Short pulse laser-induced optical damage and fracto-emission of amorphous, diamond-like carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SOKOLOWSKI-TINTEN,K.; VON DER LINDE,D.; SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.

    2000-02-07

    Short pulse laser damage and ablation of amorphous, diamond-like carbon films is investigated. Material removal is due to fracture of the film and ejection of large fragments, which exhibit a broadband emission of microsecond duration.

  17. Adaptive Basis Selection for Exponential Family Smoothing Splines with Application in Joint Modeling of Multiple Sequencing Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Ping; Zhang, Nan; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Zhong, Wenxuan

    2017-01-01

    Second-generation sequencing technologies have replaced array-based technologies and become the default method for genomics and epigenomics analysis. Second-generation sequencing technologies sequence tens of millions of DNA/cDNA fragments in parallel. After the resulting sequences (short reads) are mapped to the genome, one gets a sequence of short read counts along the genome. Effective extraction of signals in these short read counts is the key to the success of sequencing technologies. No...

  18. Thermoelectric properties of ZnSb films grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatasubramanian, R; Watko, E; Colpitts, T

    1997-07-01

    The thermoelectric properties of ZnSb films grown by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are reported. The growth conditions necessary to obtain stoichiometric ZnSb films and the effects of various growth parameters on the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficients of the films are described. The as-grown ZnSb films are p-type. It was observed that the thicker ZnSb films offer improved carrier mobilities and lower free-carrier concentration levels. The Seebeck coefficient of ZnSb films was found to rise rapidly at approximately 160 C. The thicker films, due to the lower doping levels, indicate higher Seebeck coefficients between 25 to 200 C. A short annealing of the ZnSb film at temperatures of {approximately}200 C results in reduced free-carrier level. Thermal conductivity measurements of ZnSb films using the 3-{omega} method are also presented.

  19. Languages on the screen: is film comprehension related to the viewers' fluency level and to the language in the subtitles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaur, Jean-Marc; Bairstow, Dominique

    2011-12-01

    This research aimed at studying the role of subtitling in film comprehension. It focused on the languages in which the subtitles are written and on the participants' fluency levels in the languages presented in the film. In a preliminary part of the study, the most salient visual and dialogue elements of a short sequence of an English film were extracted by the means of a free recall task after showing two versions of the film (first a silent, then a dubbed-into-French version) to native French speakers. This visual and dialogue information was used in the setting of a questionnaire concerning the understanding of the film presented in the main part of the study, in which other French native speakers with beginner, intermediate, or advanced fluency levels in English were shown one of three versions of the film used in the preliminary part. Respectively, these versions had no subtitles or they included either English or French subtitles. The results indicate a global interaction between all three factors in this study: For the beginners, visual processing dropped from the version without subtitles to that with English subtitles, and even more so if French subtitles were provided, whereas the effect of film version on dialogue comprehension was the reverse. The advanced participants achieved higher comprehension for both types of information with the version without subtitles, and dialogue information processing was always better than visual information processing. The intermediate group similarly processed dialogues in a better way than visual information, but was not affected by film version. These results imply that, depending on the viewers' fluency levels, the language of subtitles can have different effects on movie information processing.

  20. [Molluscicidal effect of film on ditches in mountainous schistosomiasis endemic regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Qing; Zhong, Bo; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Tang, Shu-Gui; Cao, Chun-Li; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Jia, Bin; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jian-Guo; Fu, Tao; Chen, Lin; Lu, Ding; Bao, Zi-Ping

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the molluscicidal effect of film on ditches in mountainous schistosomiasis endemic regions. A ditch with Oncomelania hupensis snails was selected as experimental field. The ditch was divided into 3 parts (groups): a niclosamide plus film covering group (film covering after spraying by wettable powder of 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt upon 2 g/m2), a film covering group (film covering directly without niclosamide spraying), and a control group (no molluscicidal measures). The snail investigation was performed 7, 10, 40, 60 d and 90 d after film covering. The temperatures outside and inside film were determined twice a day during the experiment. The temperature inside the film was significantly higher than that outside the film (t = 4.12, P film in the niclosamide plus film covering group and film covering group respectively; 96.58% and 93.06% ten days post-film respectively; both 100% forty days post-film. The multi-factor regression model indicated that covering film with niclosamide applying, extending film covering time, and increasing cumulate temperature inside film could enhance the molluscicidal effect. The film covering has well molluscicidal effect. The molluscicidal effect of covering film with niclosamide is better than that of covering film alone in short time. However, the covering film alone also has good molluscicidal effect when increasing covering time.

  1. Natural short sleeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep - natural short sleeper ... 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. Short sleepers sleep less than 75% of what is normal for their age. Natural short sleepers are different from people who chronically do ...

  2. Effects of a vanadium post-metallocene catalyst-induced polymer backbone inhomogeneity on UV oxidative degradation of the resulting polyethylene film

    KAUST Repository

    Atiqullah, M.

    2012-07-01

    A Group 5 post-metallocene precatalyst, (ONO)VCl(THF) 2 (ONO = a bis(phenolate)pyridine LX 2 pincer ligand), activated with modified methylaluminoxane (MMAO-3A) produced a linear ethylene homopolymer (nm-HomoPE)and an unusual inhomogeneous copolymer (nm-CopolyPE) with 1-hexene having very low backbone unsaturation. The nm-CopolyPE inhomogeneity was reflected in the distributions of short chain branches, 1-hexene composition, and methylene sequence length. The 1-hexene incorporation into the polyethylene backbone strongly depended on the molecular weight of the growing polymer chain. (ONO)VCl(THF) 2, because of site diversity and easier removal of a tertiary (vs. a secondary) hydrogen, produced a skewed short chain branching (SCB) profile, incorporating 1-hexene more efficiently in the low molecular weight region than in the high molecular weight region. The significant decrease in molecular weight by 1-hexene showed that the (ONO)VCl(THF) 2 catalytic sites were also highly responsive to chain-transfer directly to 1-hexene itself, producing vinyl and trans-vinylene termini. Subsequently, the effect of backbone inhomogeneity on the UV oxidative degradation of films made from both polyethylenes was investigated. The major functional group accumulated in the branched nm-CopolyPE film was carbonyl followed by carboxyl, then vinyl/ester, whereas that in the linear nm-HomoPE film was carboxyl. However, (carbonyl, carboxyl, vinyl, and ester) nm-CopolyPE film >> (carboxyl) nm-HomoPE film). The distributions of the tertiary C-H sites and methylene sequence length in the branched nm-CopolyPE film enhanced abstraction of H, decomposition of hydroperoxide group ROOH, and generation of carbonyl compounds as compared with those in the linear nm-HomoPE film. This clearly establishes the role played by the backbone inhomogeneity. The effect of short chain branches and sequence length distributions on peak melting temperature T pm, and most probably lamellar thickness L o, was

  3. 3D reconstruction software comparison for short sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupczewski, Adam; Czupryński, BłaŻej

    2014-11-01

    Large scale multiview reconstruction is recently a very popular area of research. There are many open source tools that can be downloaded and run on a personal computer. However, there are few, if any, comparisons between all the available software in terms of accuracy on small datasets that a single user can create. The typical datasets for testing of the software are archeological sites or cities, comprising thousands of images. This paper presents a comparison of currently available open source multiview reconstruction software for small datasets. It also compares the open source solutions with a simple structure from motion pipeline developed by the authors from scratch with the use of OpenCV and Eigen libraries.

  4. Sinusoidal Wave Estimation Using Photogrammetry and Short Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Rupnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work is to model the shape of the sinusoidal shape of regular water waves generated in a laboratory flume. The waves are traveling in time and render a smooth surface, with no white caps or foam. Two methods are proposed, treating the water as a diffuse and specular surface, respectively. In either case, the water is presumed to take the shape of a traveling sine wave, reducing the task of the 3D reconstruction to resolve the wave parameters. The first conceived method performs the modeling part purely in 3D space. Having triangulated the points in a separate phase via bundle adjustment, a sine wave is fitted into the data in a least squares manner. The second method presents a more complete approach for the entire calculation workflow beginning in the image space. The water is perceived as a specular surface, and the traveling specularities are the only observations visible to the  cameras, observations that are notably single image. The depth ambiguity is removed given additional constraints encoded within the law of reflection and the modeled parametric surface. The observation and constraint equations compose a single system of equations that is solved with the method of least squares adjustment. The devised approaches are validated against the data coming from a capacitive level sensor and on physical targets floating on the surface. The outcomes agree to a high degree.

  5. Restauration automatique de films anciens

    OpenAIRE

    Decencière , Etienne

    1997-01-01

    Most motion pictures produced before the fifties have a very short life span. They are very damaged and their condition continues to deteriorate. It is necessary and urgent to restore and preserve them. Besides, if these films were restored they could be used to feed the rapidly increasing audio visual market. Classical restoration methods can correct some defects but not all. Computer based restoration methods are paid more attention, but most of them treat the frames manually, one by one, r...

  6. Black Films and Film-Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Lindsay, Ed.

    The development of black films and the attitudes of the film industry toward black films and black actors are some of the topics examined in this anthology of essays. Section 1, "Nigger to Supernigger," contains such articles as "The Death of Rastus: Negroes in American Films" by Thomas R. Cripps and "Folk Values in a New Medium" by Alain Locke…

  7. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  8. Thermal conductivity of sputtered amorphous Ge films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Tianzhuo; Xu, Yibin; Goto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Kato, Ryozo; Sasaki, Michiko; Kagawa, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    We measured the thermal conductivity of amorphous Ge films prepared by magnetron sputtering. The thermal conductivity was significantly higher than the value predicted by the minimum thermal conductivity model and increased with deposition temperature. We found that variations in sound velocity and Ge film density were not the main factors in the high thermal conductivity. Fast Fourier transform patterns of transmission electron micrographs revealed that short-range order in the Ge films was responsible for their high thermal conductivity. The results provide experimental evidences to understand the underlying nature of the variation of phonon mean free path in amorphous solids

  9. Effect of low thermal budget annealing on surface passivation of silicon by ALD based aluminum oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandana; Batra, Neha; Gope, Jhuma; Singh, Rajbir; Panigrahi, Jagannath; Tyagi, Sanjay; Pathi, P; Srivastava, S K; Rauthan, C M S; Singh, P K

    2014-10-21

    Thermal ALD deposited Al2O3 films on silicon show a marked difference in surface passivation quality as a function of annealing time (using a rapid thermal process). An effective and quality passivation is realized in short anneal duration (∼100 s) in nitrogen ambient which is reflected in the low surface recombination velocity (SRV passivation. Both as-deposited and low thermal budget annealed films show the presence of positive fixed charges and this is never been reported in the literature before. The role of field and chemical passivation is investigated in terms of fixed charge and interface defect densities. Further, the importance of the annealing step sequence in the MIS structure fabrication protocol is also investigated from the view point of its effect on the nature of fixed charges.

  10. Thermal propagation and stability in superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, K.E.; Kampwirth, R.T.; Zasadzinski, J.F.; Ducharme, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal propagation and stable hot spots (normal domains) are studied in various high Tsub(c) superconducting films (Nb 3 Sn, Nb, NbN and Nb 3 Ge). A new energy balance is shown to give reasonable quantitative agreement of the dependence of the propagation velocity on the length of short normal domains. The steady state (zero velocity) measurements indicate the existence of two distinct situations for films on high thermal conductivity (sapphire) substrates. For low power per unit area the film and substrate have the same temperature, and the thermal properties of the substrate dominate. However, for higher power densities in short hot spots, the coupling is relatively weak and the thermal properties of the film alone are important. Here a connection is made between the critical current stability of superconducting films and a critical hot spot size for thermal propagation. As a result efficient heat removal is shown to dominate the stabilisation of superconducting films. The strong and weak coupling situations also lead to modifications of the models for propagation velocities on sapphire substrates. Self-healing of hot spots and other phenomena in superconducting film are explained. The potential use of the thermal propagation model in applications of superconductors, especially switches is discussed. (author)

  11. Multimodal sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemény, Ferenc; Meier, Beat

    2016-02-01

    While sequence learning research models complex phenomena, previous studies have mostly focused on unimodal sequences. The goal of the current experiment is to put implicit sequence learning into a multimodal context: to test whether it can operate across different modalities. We used the Task Sequence Learning paradigm to test whether sequence learning varies across modalities, and whether participants are able to learn multimodal sequences. Our results show that implicit sequence learning is very similar regardless of the source modality. However, the presence of correlated task and response sequences was required for learning to take place. The experiment provides new evidence for implicit sequence learning of abstract conceptual representations. In general, the results suggest that correlated sequences are necessary for implicit sequence learning to occur. Moreover, they show that elements from different modalities can be automatically integrated into one unitary multimodal sequence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sequence Read Archive (SRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sequence Read Archive (SRA) stores raw sequencing data from the next generation of sequencing platforms including Roche 454 GS System®, Illumina Genome...

  13. UNLAMINATED GAFCHROMIC EBT3 FILM FOR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION MONITORING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, David; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Spotnitz, Henry M; Brenner, David J

    2017-11-01

    Measurement of ultraviolet (UV) radiation is important for human health, especially with the expanded usage of short wavelength UV for sterilization purposes. This work examines unlaminated Gafchromic EBT3 film for UV radiation monitoring. The authors exposed the film to select wavelengths in the UV spectrum, ranging from 207 to 328 nm, and measured the change in optical density. The response of the film is wavelength dependent, and of the wavelengths tested, the film was most sensitive to 254 nm light, with measurable values as low as 10 µJ/cm2. The film shows a dose-dependent response that extends over more than four orders of magnitude. The response of the film to short wavelength UV is comparable to the daily safe exposure limits for humans, thus making it valuable as a tool for passive UV radiation monitoring. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Film: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, John L.

    "Understanding Film," the opening section of this book, discusses perceptions of and responses to film and the way in which experiences with and knowledge of other media affect film viewing. The second section, "Film Elements," analyzes the basic elements of film: the use of space and time, the impact of editing, sound and color, and the effects…

  15. Film and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Robin L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on using film to teach history. Includes Web sites in five areas: (1) film and education; (2) history of cinema; (3) film and history resources; (4) film and women; and (5) film organizations. (CMK)

  16. Implicitly Defined Neural Networks for Sequence Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-31

    ularity has soared for the Long Short - Term Memory (LSTM) (Hochreiter and Schmidhuber, 1997) and vari- ants such as Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) (Cho et...610. Sepp Hochreiter and Jürgen Schmidhuber. 1997. Long short - term memory . Neural computation 9(8):1735– 1780. Zhiheng Huang, Wei Xu, and Kai Yu. 2015...network are coupled together, in order to improve perfor- mance on complex, long -range dependencies in either direction of a sequence. We contrast our

  17. Plasma-deposited a-C(N) H films

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschini, D E

    2000-01-01

    The growth behaviour, film structure and mechanical properties of plasma-deposited amorphous hydrogenated carbon-nitrogen films are shortly reviewed. The effect of nitrogen-containing gas addition to the deposition to the hydrocarbon atmospheres used is discussed, considering the modifications observed in the chemical composition growth kinetics, carbon atom hybridisation and chemical bonding arrangements of a-C(N):H films. The overall structure behaviour is correlated to the variation of the mechanical properties.

  18. Come out, Come out: Frameline Films' Holiday Havoc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James H., III

    2009-01-01

    Five Frameline short films by and about LGBT youth's coming-out narratives are reviewed by a professor and his (under)graduate university students studying visual culture and the socio/cinematic construction of (homo)sexualities. Respondents collectively found the group of films moving and well suited for viewing by middle- and high-school-age…

  19. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with air (called pneumotho- rax), it will hinder expansion of the lung, resulting in shortness of ... of Chest Physi- cians. Shortness of Breath: Patient Education. http: / / www. onebreath. org/ document. doc? id= 113. ...

  20. Ferroelectric ultrathin perovskite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappe, Andrew M; Kolpak, Alexie Michelle

    2013-12-10

    Disclosed herein are perovskite ferroelectric thin-film. Also disclosed are methods of controlling the properties of ferroelectric thin films. These films can be used in a variety materials and devices, such as catalysts and storage media, respectively.

  1. Pure and Sn-doped ZnO films produced by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmelund, E.; Schou, Jørgen; Tougaard, S.

    2002-01-01

    A new technique, metronome doping, has been used for doping of films during pulsed laser deposition (PLD). This technique makes it possible to dope continuously during film growth with different concentrations of a dopant in one deposition sequence. Films of pure and doped ZnO have been produced...

  2. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  3. Film Noir Style Genealogy

    OpenAIRE

    Rietuma, Dita

    2012-01-01

    Annotation for the Doctoral Work Film Noir Style Genealogy (The Genealogy of the Film Noir Style) The doctoral work topic Film Noir Style Genealogy encompasses traditionally approved world film theory views on the concept of film noir and its related cinematographic heritage, and an exploration of its evolution and distinctive style, including – the development of film noir in the USA, Europe, and also in Latvia, within the context of both socio-political progression and the paradigm of m...

  4. Order-disorder criticality, wetting, and morphological phase transitions in the irreversible growth of far-from-equilibrium magnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candia, J.Julian; Albano, E.V.Ezequiel V.

    2003-01-01

    An exhaustive numerical investigation of the growth of magnetic films in confined (d+1)-dimensional stripped geometries (d=1,2) is carried out by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Films in contact with a thermal bath at temperature T, are grown by adding spins having two possible orientations and considering ferromagnetic (nearest-neighbor) interactions. At low temperatures, thin films of thickness L are constituted by a sequence of well-ordered domains of average length l D >>L. These domains have opposite magnetization. So, the films exhibit 'spontaneous magnetization reversal' during the growth process. Such reversal occurs within a short characteristic length l R , such that l D >>l R ∼L. Furthermore, it is found that for d=1 the system is non-critical, while a continuous order-disorder phase transition at finite temperature takes place in the d=2 case. Using standard finite-size scaling procedures, the critical temperature and some relevant critical exponents are determined. Finally, the growth of magnetic films in (2+1) dimensions with competing short-range magnetic fields acting along the confinement walls is studied. Due to the antisymmetric condition considered, an interface between domains with spins having opposite orientation develops along the growing direction. Such an interface undergoes a localization-delocalization transition that is the precursor of a wetting transition in the thermodynamic limit. Furthermore, the growing interface also undergoes morphological transitions in the growth mode. A comparison between the well-studied equilibrium Ising model and the studied irreversible magnetic growth model is performed throughout. Although valuable analogies are encountered, it is found that the non-equilibrium nature of the latter introduces new and rich physical features of interest

  5. Designing from Cinema: Film as Trigger of the Creative Process in Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergera, Iñaki

    2018-01-01

    The present paper examines, in a case study format, the use of films, short films and audiovisual documentaries as reasoning and references for design assignments during the first years of an architectural degree course. The aim of this fruitful and comparable experience is not so much to study and verify the well-known synergies between film and…

  6. Optical thin films and coatings from materials to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Flory, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Optical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. This book provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas.$bOptical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. Optical thin films and coatings provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas. Part one explores the design and manufacture of optical coatings. Part two highlights unconventional features of optical thin films including scattering properties of random structures in thin films, optical properties of thin film materials at short wavelengths, thermal properties and colour effects. Part three focusses on novel materials for optical thin films and coatings...

  7. Polycystalline silicon thin films for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Christian Claus

    2012-01-15

    For the thin polycrystalline Si films fabricated with the aluminium-induced-layer-exchange (ALILE) process a good structural quality up to a layer-thickness value of 10 nm was determined. For 5 nm thick layers however after the layer exchange no closes poly-silicon film was present. In this case the substrate was covered with spherically arranged semiconductor material. Furthermore amorphous contributions in the layer could be determined. The electrical characterization of the samples at room temperature proved a high hole concentration in the range 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} up to 9.10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, which is influenced by the process temperature and the layer thickness. Hereby higher hole concentrations at higher process temperatures and thinner films were observed. Furthermore above 150-200 K a thermically activated behaviour of the electrical conductivity was observed. At lower temperatures a deviation of the measured characteristic from the exponential Arrhenius behaviour was determined. For low temperatures (below 20 K) the conductivity follows the behaviour {sigma}{proportional_to}[-(T{sub 0}/T){sup 1/4}]. The hole mobility in the layers was lowered by a passivation step, which can be explained by defect states at the grain boundaries. The for these very thin layers present situation was simulated in the framework of the model of Seto, whereby both the defect states at the grain boundaries (with an area density Q{sub t}) and the defect states at the interfaces (with an area density Q{sub it}) were regarded. By this the values Q{sub t}{approx}(3-4).10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and Q{sub it}{approx}(2-5).10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} could be determined for these thin ALILE layers on quartz substrates. Additionally th R-ALILE process was studied, which uses the reverse precursor-layer sequence substrate/amorphous silicon/oxide/aluminium. Hereby two steps in the crystallization process of the R-ALILE process were found. First a substrate/Al-Si mixture/poly-Si layer structure

  8. Perkembangan Motif Sineas Film Indie dalam Menghadapi Industri Film Mainstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoppy Ardiyono

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to review to review determine the effect and its impact raised by motive - a motive the ada in the hearts period travel time history of film short against cinematographer-filmmaker as principal especially filmmakers left path (indie. The used platform theory research hearts singer adopts from theory commodification media vincent mosco. Singer helped shift theory understanding the motive filmmakers working hearts differences fundamental basis of political pressure economic happens under with demands regime. The method used is descriptive qualitative research methods. Data collection techniques through observation of the environment of an independent film live and in-depth interviews with speakers including mr. Yang prayer orangutan direct contact 'with realm of research. Coupled with study to review the literature references adding insight research. And that was concluded change appears motif among indie film cinematographer it is true the situation is closely linked to the mainstream industry, konstilasi politics, and the orientation of capitalism. Necessary their one thing is clear and systematic regulation from the government to the future movement of currents sidestream (indie more with good operates professionally arranged, the air so that the contribution of indie cinema film land for progress can feels good to yourself indie filmmakers as well as those of its main industries.

  9. Not spreading in reverse: The dewetting of a liquid film into a single drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Andrew M J; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo; Newton, Michael I; Brown, Carl V; McHale, Glen

    2016-09-01

    Wetting and dewetting are both fundamental modes of motion of liquids on solid surfaces. They are critically important for processes in biology, chemistry, and engineering, such as drying, coating, and lubrication. However, recent progress in wetting, which has led to new fields such as superhydrophobicity and liquid marbles, has not been matched by dewetting. A significant problem has been the inability to study the model system of a uniform film dewetting from a nonwetting surface to a single macroscopic droplet-a barrier that does not exist for the reverse wetting process of a droplet spreading into a film. We report the dewetting of a dielectrophoresis-induced film into a single equilibrium droplet. The emergent picture of the full dewetting dynamics is of an initial regime, where a liquid rim recedes at constant speed and constant dynamic contact angle, followed by a relatively short exponential relaxation of a spherical cap shape. This sharply contrasts with the reverse wetting process, where a spreading droplet follows a smooth sequence of spherical cap shapes. Complementary numerical simulations and a hydrodynamic model reveal a local dewetting mechanism driven by the equilibrium contact angle, where contact line slip dominates the dewetting dynamics. Our conclusions can be used to understand a wide variety of processes involving liquid dewetting, such as drop rebound, condensation, and evaporation. In overcoming the barrier to studying single film-to-droplet dewetting, our results provide new approaches to fluid manipulation and uses of dewetting, such as inducing films of prescribed initial shapes and slip-controlled liquid retraction.

  10. Tiradentes: the film festival and opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Maciel Guimarães

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This text is a report of my own experience as curator of short films at the Mostra de Cinema de Tiradentes for the past 5 years. Created in 1988, the festival has a focun in independent, auteur brazilian cinema, and has become one of the larger platforms for the exhibition and discussion of contemporary brazilian cinema.

  11. The Handbook of Canadian Film. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Eleanor

    The core of this book consists of 131 short entries on individual Canadian filmmakers, arranged in alphabetical order, with filmographies and suggestions for further reading. The majority of the filmmakers who are described are directors; other members of the film community--producers, sound engineers, camera operators, and so on--are discussed in…

  12. Contemporary Films' Mini Course on Film Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Peter

    This minicourse on film study can be a unit in English, in arts, or in the humanities. It can help to launch a film study course or complement an introduction to theater. Whatever form it takes, it helps to build a bridge to the student's media environment. Part one, the language of images, utilizes four films which demonstrate the basic elements…

  13. The Evolution of Film: Rethinking Film Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Harbord, Janet P.

    2007-01-01

    How is film changing? What does it do, and what do we do with it? This book examines the reasons why we should be studying film in the twenty-first century, connecting debates from philosophy, anthropology and new media with historical concerns of film studies.

  14. Quality Assessment of Film Processing Chemicals in Dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Chul

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the qualities of the four different processing chemicals (solutions). With EP 21 films (Ektaspeed plus film, Kodak Co., USA), nine unexposed and nine exposed films of a step wedge were processed utilizing automatic film processor (XR 24, Durr Co., Germany) for 5 days. During 5 days, the total number of processed films including out-patient's intraoral films were about 400-500 for each brand. Base plus fog density, film density, contrast of processed films were measured with densitometer (model 07-443 digital densitometer, Victoreen Co., USA). These measurements were analyzed for comparison. The results were as follows,1. For the base plus fog density, there was significant difference among the four chemicals (p<0.05). The sequence of the base plus fog densities was in ascending order by Kodak, X-dol 90, Agfa and Konica. 2. For the film density, all chemicals showed useful range of photographic densities (0.25-2.5). The sequence of the film densities was in ascending order by Kodak, X-dol 90, Konica and Agfa. But there was no statistically significant difference of film density between X-dol and Kodak (p<0.05). 3. The sequence of the contrasts was in ascending order by Konica, X-dol 90, Kodak and Agfa. But there was no statistically significant difference of contrast between X-dol and Konica (p<0.05). These results indicated that the four processing chemicals had the clinically useful film density and contrast, but only Kodak processing chemical had useful base plus fog density.

  15. Prediction and phylogenetic analysis of mammalian short interspersed elements (SINEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozin, I B; Mayorov, V I; Lavrentieva, M V; Milanesi, L; Adkison, L R

    2000-09-01

    The presence of repetitive elements can create serious problems for sequence analysis, especially in the case of homology searches in nucleotide sequence databases. Repetitive elements should be treated carefully by using special programs and databases. In this paper, various aspects of SINE (short interspersed repetitive element) identification, analysis and evolution are discussed.

  16. Nonparametric combinatorial sequence models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauthier, Fabian L; Jordan, Michael I; Jojic, Nebojsa

    2011-11-01

    This work considers biological sequences that exhibit combinatorial structures in their composition: groups of positions of the aligned sequences are "linked" and covary as one unit across sequences. If multiple such groups exist, complex interactions can emerge between them. Sequences of this kind arise frequently in biology but methodologies for analyzing them are still being developed. This article presents a nonparametric prior on sequences which allows combinatorial structures to emerge and which induces a posterior distribution over factorized sequence representations. We carry out experiments on three biological sequence families which indicate that combinatorial structures are indeed present and that combinatorial sequence models can more succinctly describe them than simpler mixture models. We conclude with an application to MHC binding prediction which highlights the utility of the posterior distribution over sequence representations induced by the prior. By integrating out the posterior, our method compares favorably to leading binding predictors.

  17. Attention and the evolution of Hollywood film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, James E; DeLong, Jordan E; Nothelfer, Christine E

    2010-03-01

    Reaction times exhibit a spectral patterning known as 1/f, and these patterns can be thought of as reflecting time-varying changes in attention. We investigated the shot structure of Hollywood films to determine if these same patterns are found. We parsed 150 films with release dates from 1935 to 2005 into their sequences of shots and then analyzed the pattern of shot lengths in each film. Autoregressive and power analyses showed that, across that span of 70 years, shots became increasingly more correlated in length with their neighbors and created power spectra approaching 1/f. We suggest, as have others, that 1/f patterns reflect world structure and mental process. Moreover, a 1/f temporal shot structure may help harness observers' attention to the narrative of a film.

  18. Nonlinear Squeeze Film Dampers without Centralized Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Changsheng

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the bifurcation behavior of a flexible rotor supported on nonlinear squeeze film dampers without centralized springs is analyzed numerically by means of rotor trajectories, Poincar maps, bifurcation diagrams and power spectra, based on the short bearing and cavitated film assumptions. It is shown that there also exist two different operations (i.e., socalled bistable operations in some speed regions in the rotor system supported on the nonlinear squeeze film dampers without centralized springs. In the bistable operation speed regions, the rotor system exhibits synchronous, sub-synchronous, sub-super-synchronous and almost-periodic as well as nonperiodic motions. The periodic bifurcation behaviors of the rotor system supported on nonlinear squeeze film dampers without centralized springs are very complex and require further investigations.

  19. Nanostructured thin films as functional coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, Manoj A; Tadvani, Jalil K; Tung, Wing Sze; Lopez, Lorena; Daoud, Walid A, E-mail: Walid.Daoud@sci.monash.edu.au [School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Churchill, VIC 3842 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    Nanostructured thin films is one of the highly exploiting research areas particularly in applications such as photovoltaics, photocatalysis and sensor technologies. Highly tuned thin films, in terms of thickness, crystallinity, porosity and optical properties, can be fabricated on different substrates using the sol-gel method, chemical solution deposition (CSD), electrochemical etching, along with other conventional methods such as chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and physical vapour deposition (PVD). The above mentioned properties of these films are usually characterised using surface analysis techniques such as XRD, SEM, TEM, AFM, ellipsometry, electrochemistry, SAXS, reflectance spectroscopy, STM, XPS, SIMS, ESCA, X-ray topography and DOSY-NMR. This article presents a short review of the preparation and characterisation of thin films of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and modified silicon as well as their application in solar cells, water treatment, water splitting, self cleaning fabrics, sensors, optoelectronic devices and lab on chip systems.

  20. Ultrashort pulse laser deposition of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2002-01-01

    Short pulse PLD is a viable technique of producing high quality films with properties very close to that of crystalline diamond. The plasma generated using femtosecond lasers is composed of single atom ions with no clusters producing films with high Sp.sup.3 /Sp.sup.2 ratios. Using a high average power femtosecond laser system, the present invention dramatically increases deposition rates to up to 25 .mu.m/hr (which exceeds many CVD processes) while growing particulate-free films. In the present invention, deposition rates is a function of laser wavelength, laser fluence, laser spot size, and target/substrate separation. The relevant laser parameters are shown to ensure particulate-free growth, and characterizations of the films grown are made using several diagnostic techniques including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  1. Genome Sequence Databases (Overview): Sequencing and Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla L.

    2009-01-01

    From the date its role in heredity was discovered, DNA has been generating interest among scientists from different fields of knowledge: physicists have studied the three dimensional structure of the DNA molecule, biologists tried to decode the secrets of life hidden within these long molecules, and technologists invent and improve methods of DNA analysis. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of DNA occupies a special place among the methods developed. Thanks to the variety of sequencing technologies available, the process of decoding the sequence of genomic DNA (or whole genome sequencing) has become robust and inexpensive. Meanwhile the assembly of whole genome sequences remains a challenging task. In addition to the need to assemble millions of DNA fragments of different length (from 35 bp (Solexa) to 800 bp (Sanger)), great interest in analysis of microbial communities (metagenomes) of different complexities raises new problems and pushes some new requirements for sequence assembly tools to the forefront. The genome assembly process can be divided into two steps: draft assembly and assembly improvement (finishing). Despite the fact that automatically performed assembly (or draft assembly) is capable of covering up to 98% of the genome, in most cases, it still contains incorrectly assembled reads. The error rate of the consensus sequence produced at this stage is about 1/2000 bp. A finished genome represents the genome assembly of much higher accuracy (with no gaps or incorrectly assembled areas) and quality ({approx}1 error/10,000 bp), validated through a number of computer and laboratory experiments.

  2. Film quality in film mammography. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.; Weskamp, P.; Freie Univ. Berlin

    1976-01-01

    During consideration of three film mammographic systems, the concept of signal/noise ratio is developed as a quantitative measure of film quality. The ability to recognise detail related to detail size, film blackening and exposure geometry was studied for various systems, and the quality profiles are discussed. There is a considerable difference in quality between industrial films without screens and film-screen combinations; however, exposure geometry during mammography has a considerable effect which tends to reduce the difference. Consequently, detail sizes of 200 μ to 1,000 μ (including the majority of mammographic micro-calcifications) are shown about equally well. Contrast for the lo-dose system is somewhat less than for adequately exposed industrial film. Over-exposure with the lo-dose system, contrary to industrial film, rapidly leads to unsatisfactory results. On the other hand it is often not possible to obtain an adequate exposure when using industrial film. For these reasons it is often an advantage to examine large breasts and the dense breasts of young women with a film-screen combination which requires approximately one eighth of the dose necessary for industrial film. For small or easily compressable breasts best results are obtained, using an adequate exposure by employing industril film; radiation dose it then acceptable. (orig./ORU) [de

  3. Uniformly irradiated polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    Irradiated film having substantial uniformity in the radiation dosage profile is produced by irradiating the film within a trough having lateral deflection blocks disposed adjacent the film edges for deflecting electrons toward the surface of the trough bottom for further deflecting the electrons toward the film edge

  4. Films and dark room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    After we know where the radiographic come from, then we must know about the film and also dark room. So, this chapter 5 discusses the two main components for radiography work that is film and dark room, places to process the film. Film are structured with three structured that are basic structured, emulsion and protection structured. So, this film can be classified either with their speed, screen and standard that used. The process to wash the film must be done in dark room otherwise the radiographer cannot get what are they inspected. The processing of film will be discussed briefly in next chapter.

  5. Physical stability and moisture sorption of aqueous chitosan-amylose starch films plasticized with polyols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera, Mirna Fernández; Karjalainen, Milja; Airaksinen, Sari

    2004-01-01

    The short-term stability and the water sorption of films prepared from binary mixtures of chitosan and native amylose maize starch (Hylon VII) were evaluated using free films. The aqueous polymer solutions of the free films contained 2% (w/w) film formers, glycerol, or erythritol as a plasticizer...... in the crystallinity of the films are evident within a 3-month period of storage, and the changes in the solid state are dependent on the plasticizer and storage conditions. When stored at ambient conditions for 3 months, the aqueous chitosan-amylose starch films plasticized with erythritol exhibited a partly...

  6. Long sequence correlation coprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    1994-09-01

    A long sequence correlation coprocessor (LSCC) accelerates the bitwise correlation of arbitrarily long digital sequences by calculating in parallel the correlation score for 16, for example, adjacent bit alignments between two binary sequences. The LSCC integrated circuit is incorporated into a computer system with memory storage buffers and a separate general purpose computer processor which serves as its controller. Each of the LSCC's set of sequential counters simultaneously tallies a separate correlation coefficient. During each LSCC clock cycle, computer enable logic associated with each counter compares one bit of a first sequence with one bit of a second sequence to increment the counter if the bits are the same. A shift register assures that the same bit of the first sequence is simultaneously compared to different bits of the second sequence to simultaneously calculate the correlation coefficient by the different counters to represent different alignments of the two sequences.

  7. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  8. Anomaly Detection in Sequences

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a set of novel algorithms which we call sequenceMiner, that detect and characterize anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences that...

  9. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook-Deegan, R.M. [Georgetown Univ., Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Washington, DC (United States); Venter, J.C. [National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Strokes, Bethesda, MD (United States); Gilbert, W. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Mulligan, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mansfield, B.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  10. sequenceMiner algorithm

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  11. Sequence-to-Sequence Prediction of Vehicle Trajectory via LSTM Encoder-Decoder Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seong Hyeon; Kim, ByeongDo; Kang, Chang Mook; Chung, Chung Choo; Choi, Jun Won

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a deep learning based vehicle trajectory prediction technique which can generate the future trajectory sequence of surrounding vehicles in real time. We employ the encoder-decoder architecture which analyzes the pattern underlying in the past trajectory using the long short-term memory (LSTM) based encoder and generates the future trajectory sequence using the LSTM based decoder. This structure produces the $K$ most likely trajectory candidates over occupancy grid ma...

  12. JVM: Java Visual Mapping tool for next generation sequencing read.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Liu, Juan

    2015-01-01

    We developed a program JVM (Java Visual Mapping) for mapping next generation sequencing read to reference sequence. The program is implemented in Java and is designed to deal with millions of short read generated by sequence alignment using the Illumina sequencing technology. It employs seed index strategy and octal encoding operations for sequence alignments. JVM is useful for DNA-Seq, RNA-Seq when dealing with single-end resequencing. JVM is a desktop application, which supports reads capacity from 1 MB to 10 GB.

  13. Chemical Annealing of Zinc Tetraphenylporphyrin Films: Effects on Film Morphology and Organic Photovoltaic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Trinh, Cong

    2012-07-10

    We present a chemical annealing process for organic thin films. In this process, a thin film of a molecular material, such as zinc tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP), is exposed to a vapor of nitrogen-based ligand (e.g., pyrazine, pz, and triazine, tz), forming a film composed of the metal-ligand complex. Fast and quantitative formation of the complex leads to marked changes in the morphology and optical properties of the film. X-ray diffraction studies show that the chemical annealing process converts amorphous ZnTPP films to crystalline ZnTPP•ligand films, whose porphryin planes lie nearly parallel to the substrate (average deviation is 8° for the ZnTPP•pz film). Organic solar cells were prepared with ZnTPP donor and C 60 acceptor layers. Devices were prepared with and without chemical annealing of the ZnTPP layer with a pyrazine ligand. The devices with chemically annealed ZnTPP donor layer show an increase in short-circuit current (J SC) and fill factor (FF) relative to analogous unannealed devices, presumably because of enhanced exciton diffusion length and improved charge conductivity. The open circuit voltages (V OC) of the chemically annealed devices are lower than their unannealed counterpart because of enhanced polaron pair recombination at the donor/acceptor heterojunction. A net improvement of 5-20% in efficiency has been achieved, after chemical annealing of ZnTPP films with pyrazine. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. Ion beam-based characterization of multicomponent oxide thin films and thin film layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Rangaswamy, M.; Lin, Yuping; Gruen, D.M.; Schultz, J.A.; Schmidt, H.K.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Fabrication of thin film layered structures of multi-component materials such as high temperature superconductors, ferroelectric and electro-optic materials, and alloy semiconductors, and the development of hybrid materials requires understanding of film growth and interface properties. For High Temperature Superconductors, the superconducting coherence length is extremely short (5--15 Angstrom), and fabrication of reliable devices will require control of film properties at extremely sharp interfaces; it will be necessary to verify the integrity of thin layers and layered structure devices over thicknesses comparable to the atomic layer spacing. Analytical techniques which probe the first 1--2 atomic layers are therefore necessary for in-situ characterization of relevant thin film growth processes. However, most surface-analytical techniques are sensitive to a region within 10--40 Angstrom of the surface and are physically incompatible with thin film deposition and are typically restricted to ultra high vacuum conditions. A review of ion beam-based analytical methods for the characterization of thin film and multi-layered thin film structures incorporating layers of multicomponent oxides is presented. Particular attention will be paid to the use of time-of-flight techniques based on the use of 1- 15 key ion beams which show potential for use as nondestructive, real-time, in-situ surface diagnostics for the growth of multicomponent metal and metal oxide thin films

  15. [Shunt and short circuit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Abundis, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Shunt and short circuit are antonyms. In French, the term shunt has been adopted to denote the alternative pathway of blood flow. However, in French, as well as in Spanish, the word short circuit (court-circuit and cortocircuito) is synonymous with shunt, giving rise to a linguistic and scientific inconsistency. Scientific because shunt and short circuit made reference to a phenomenon that occurs in the field of the physics. Because shunt and short circuit are antonyms, it is necessary to clarify that shunt is an alternative pathway of flow from a net of high resistance to a net of low resistance, maintaining the stream. Short circuit is the interruption of the flow, because a high resistance impeaches the flood. This concept is applied to electrical and cardiovascular physiology, as well as to the metabolic pathways.

  16. Idiopathic short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaški Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a complex process and the basic characteristic of child- hood growth monitoring provides insight into the physiological and pathological events in the body. Statistically, the short stature means departure from the values of height for age and sex (in a particular environment, which is below -2 standard deviation score, or less than -2 standard deviation, i.e. below the third percentile. Advances in molecular genetics have contributed to the improvement of diagnostics in endocrinology. Analysis of patients’ genotypes should not be performed before taking a classical history, detailed clinical examination and appropriate tests. In patients with idiopathic short stature specific causes are excluded, such as growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, short stature due to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, dysmorphology syndromes and chronic childhood diseases. The exclusion of abovementioned conditions leaves a large number of children with short stature whose etiology includes patients with genetic short stature or familial short stature and those who are low in relation to genetic potential, and who could also have some unrecognized endocrine defect. Idiopathic short stature represents a short stature of unknown cause of heterogeneous etiology, and is characterized by a normal response of growth hormone during stimulation tests (>10 ng/ml or 20 mJ/l, without other disorders, of normal body mass and length at birth. In idiopathic short stature standard deviation score rates <-2.25 (-2 to -3 or <1.2 percentile. These are also criteria for the initiation of growth hormone therapy. In children with short stature there is also the presence of psychological and social suffering. Goals of treatment with growth hormone involve achieving normal height and normal growth rate during childhood.

  17. The effect of radiosterilization on cytotoxicity of polyurethane film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays a sequence of tests for evaluation of sterilized biomaterial includes an initial set of tests in vitro, both biological (cell culture) and non-biological (mechanical tests). In this paper the cytotoxicity of a sterilized polyurethane film, in order to use as biomaterial, has been investigated. For this purpose NCO-terminated urethane prepolymer in medical quality was synthesized without ingredients beside monomers (polyethylene glycol/castor oil and toluene diisocyanate). The cured prepolymer films were prepared under ambient conditions due to the reaction of free NCO-groups of prepolymer with air moisture. The polyurethane films were sterilized by gamma-ray (25 kGy). The surface structure of sterilized polyurethane film was observed by SEM and compared to that of the unsterilized film. Also, the in vitro interaction of fibroblast cells and sterilized polyurethane film in culture medium containing serum was evaluated in comparison with control samples. Results showed no signs of cell toxicity

  18. PP/clay nanocomposite films for food package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Arthur R.A.; Silva, Suedina M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Small contents of organoclays (1 wt %) were incorporated to PP modified with maleic anhydride by melt intercalation, in order to prepare polymeric films for further applications in food package sector. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and mechanical properties. The data indicates that the incorporation of organoclay to PP results in transparent films with intercalated morphology and highly. The mechanical properties of nanocomposites films were superior from those pristine films. The results evidences that the PP/PP-g-MA/organoclay nanocomposite films, prepared in this study might be promissory to the food package market and, in short time, be used like a new product by industries of this sector. (author)

  19. Struggling bodies and body struggles: explorations of body and religion in contemporary Nordic film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Sjö

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on representations of the body and religion in Nordic film. The aim is to illustrate the kinds of representations of religion and the body that can be found in contemporary Nordic films, demonstrate how these representations relate to religion, the body and film more generally, and explore what perceptions of and attitudes to the body and religion the representations suggest. The analysis begins with an introduction to religion and film studies, religion in Nordic film and the themes and films chosen for this study. After this a short overview of earlier studies dealing with the body, film, and religion is presented, before delving into the issue of the body and religion in Nordic film. The article is concluded by reflecting on the more over-arching ideas and attitudes that the material can be argued to point to and the possible changes and challenges the films express.

  20. Fabrication of Yttria stabilized zirconia thin films on poroussubstrates for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leming, Andres [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-06-16

    A process for the deposition of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films, on porous substrates, has been developed. These films have possible applications as electrolyte membranes in fuel cells. The films were deposited from colloidal suspensions through the vacuum infiltration technique. Films were deposited on both fully sintered and partially sintered substrates. A critical cracking thickness for the films was identified and strategies are presented to overcome this barrier. Green film density was also examined, and a method for improving green density by changing suspension pH and surfactant was developed. A dependence of film density on film thickness was observed, and materials interactions are suggested as a possible cause. Non-shorted YSZ films were obtained on co-fired substrates, and a cathode supported solid oxide fuel cell was constructed and characterized.

  1. Parallel motif extraction from very long sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sahli, Majed

    2013-01-01

    Motifs are frequent patterns used to identify biological functionality in genomic sequences, periodicity in time series, or user trends in web logs. In contrast to a lot of existing work that focuses on collections of many short sequences, modern applications require mining of motifs in one very long sequence (i.e., in the order of several gigabytes). For this case, there exist statistical approaches that are fast but inaccurate; or combinatorial methods that are sound and complete. Unfortunately, existing combinatorial methods are serial and very slow. Consequently, they are limited to very short sequences (i.e., a few megabytes), small alphabets (typically 4 symbols for DNA sequences), and restricted types of motifs. This paper presents ACME, a combinatorial method for extracting motifs from a single very long sequence. ACME arranges the search space in contiguous blocks that take advantage of the cache hierarchy in modern architectures, and achieves almost an order of magnitude performance gain in serial execution. It also decomposes the search space in a smart way that allows scalability to thousands of processors with more than 90% speedup. ACME is the only method that: (i) scales to gigabyte-long sequences; (ii) handles large alphabets; (iii) supports interesting types of motifs with minimal additional cost; and (iv) is optimized for a variety of architectures such as multi-core systems, clusters in the cloud, and supercomputers. ACME reduces the extraction time for an exact-length query from 4 hours to 7 minutes on a typical workstation; handles 3 orders of magnitude longer sequences; and scales up to 16, 384 cores on a supercomputer. Copyright is held by the owner/author(s).

  2. Film thickness determining method of the silicon isotope superlattices by SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Akio; Shimizu, Yasuo; Itoh, Kohei M.

    2008-01-01

    It is becoming important to evaluate silicon self-diffusion with progress of a silicon semiconductor industry. In order to evaluate the self-diffusion of silicon, silicon isotope superlattices (SLs) is the only marker. For this reason, it is important to correctly evaluate a film thickness and a depth distribution of isotope SLs by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As for film thickness, it is difficult to estimate the thicknesses correctly if the cycles of SLs are short. In this work, first, we report the determination of the film thickness for short-period SLs using mixing roughness-information (MRI) analysis to SIMS profile. Next, the uncertainty of the conventional method to determine the film thicknesses of SLs is determined. It was found that the conventional methods cannot correctly determine film thickness of short-period-isotope SLs where film thickness differs for every layer

  3. Time-dependent protection of ground and polished Cu using graphene film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yuhua; Liu, Qingqing; Zhou, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene was deposited on polished and ground Cu sheets by CVD. • Graphene films provide better protection to polished Cu for short time. • Multilayer graphene films provide better protection for short time. - Abstract: Graphene was deposited on Cu sheets with different morphologies by chemical vapor deposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that the morphology of the Cu sheet affected the graphene film properties. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed that the graphene film did not effectively protect Cu against corrosion because of prolonged exposure to ionic environments (3.5 wt.% NaCl solution). For short durations, graphene films provided better protection to polished Cu than ground Cu. Prolonged electrolyte immersion of graphene-coated Cu samples showed that the graphene film from the polished Cu surface was detached more easily than that from ground Cu

  4. PP/clay nanocomposite films for food package; Filmes de nanocomposito PP/argila organofilica para embalagens de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Arthur R.A.; Silva, Suedina M.L., E-mail: suedina@dema.ufcg.ed [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMat/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Andrade, Daniela L.A.C.S. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Processos; Mesquita, Wandemberg B [Felinto Industria e Comercio Ltda., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Small contents of organoclays (1 wt %) were incorporated to PP modified with maleic anhydride by melt intercalation, in order to prepare polymeric films for further applications in food package sector. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and mechanical properties. The data indicates that the incorporation of organoclay to PP results in transparent films with intercalated morphology and highly. The mechanical properties of nanocomposites films were superior from those pristine films. The results evidences that the PP/PP-g-MA/organoclay nanocomposite films, prepared in this study might be promissory to the food package market and, in short time, be used like a new product by industries of this sector. (author)

  5. Imaging in short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2012-09-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  6. Imaging in short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  7. THE EFFECTS ON LEARNING FROM A MOTION PICTURE FILM OF SELECTIVE CHANGES IN SOUND TRACK LOUDNESS LEVEL. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOAKLEY, FRANCIS X.

    EFFECTS OF PERIODIC VARIATIONS IN AN INSTRUCTIONAL FILM'S NORMAL LOUDNESS LEVEL FOR RELEVANT AND IRRELEVANT FILM SEQUENCES WERE MEASURED BY A MULTIPLE CHOICE TEST. RIGOROUS PILOT STUDIES, RANDOM GROUPING OF SEVENTH GRADERS FOR TREATMENTS, AND RATINGS OF RELEVANT AND IRRELEVANT PORTIONS OF THE FILM BY AN UNSPECIFIED NUMBER OF JUDGES PRECEDED THE…

  8. Mixed Sequence Reader: A Program for Analyzing DNA Sequences with Heterozygous Base Calling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Tien; Tsai, Chi-Neu; Tang, Chuan Yi; Chen, Chun-Houh; Lian, Jang-Hau; Hu, Chi-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Lung; Chao, Angel; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Lee, Yun-Shien

    2012-01-01

    The direct sequencing of PCR products generates heterozygous base-calling fluorescence chromatograms that are useful for identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion-deletions (indels), short tandem repeats (STRs), and paralogous genes. Indels and STRs can be easily detected using the currently available Indelligent or ShiftDetector programs, which do not search reference sequences. However, the detection of other genomic variants remains a challenge due to the lack of appropriate tools for heterozygous base-calling fluorescence chromatogram data analysis. In this study, we developed a free web-based program, Mixed Sequence Reader (MSR), which can directly analyze heterozygous base-calling fluorescence chromatogram data in .abi file format using comparisons with reference sequences. The heterozygous sequences are identified as two distinct sequences and aligned with reference sequences. Our results showed that MSR may be used to (i) physically locate indel and STR sequences and determine STR copy number by searching NCBI reference sequences; (ii) predict combinations of microsatellite patterns using the Federal Bureau of Investigation Combined DNA Index System (CODIS); (iii) determine human papilloma virus (HPV) genotypes by searching current viral databases in cases of double infections; (iv) estimate the copy number of paralogous genes, such as β-defensin 4 (DEFB4) and its paralog HSPDP3. PMID:22778697

  9. libgapmis: extending short-read alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachiotis, Nikolaos; Berger, Simon; Flouri, Tomáš; Pissis, Solon P; Stamatakis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of short-read alignment programmes have been published recently to tackle the problem of mapping millions of short reads to a reference genome, focusing on different aspects of the procedure such as time and memory efficiency, sensitivity, and accuracy. These tools allow for a small number of mismatches in the alignment; however, their ability to allow for gaps varies greatly, with many performing poorly or not allowing them at all. The seed-and-extend strategy is applied in most short-read alignment programmes. After aligning a substring of the reference sequence against the high-quality prefix of a short read--the seed--an important problem is to find the best possible alignment between a substring of the reference sequence succeeding and the remaining suffix of low quality of the read--extend. The fact that the reads are rather short and that the gap occurrence frequency observed in various studies is rather low suggest that aligning (parts of) those reads with a single gap is in fact desirable. In this article, we present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. Apart from the standard CPU version, it includes ultrafast SSE- and GPU-based implementations. libgapmis is based on an algorithm computing a modified version of the traditional dynamic-programming matrix for sequence alignment. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the functions of the CPU version provided in this library accelerate the computations by a factor of 20 compared to other programmes. The analogous SSE- and GPU-based implementations accelerate the computations by a factor of 6 and 11, respectively, compared to the CPU version. The library also provides the user the flexibility to split the read into fragments, based on the observed gap occurrence frequency and the length of the read, thereby allowing for a variable, but bounded, number of gaps in the alignment. We present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. We

  10. Short bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, L.G.J.B.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of short bowel syndrome. When approximately 1 m or less small bowel is retained after extensive resection, a condition called short bowel syndrome is present. Since the advent of parenteral nutrition, the prognosis of patients with a very short bowel has dramatically improved. Patients with 40 to 100 cm remaining jejunum and/or ileum can generally be maintained with oral nutrition due to increased absorption of the small bowel remnant as result of intestinal adaptation. This study reports clinical, biochemical and nutritional aspects of short bowel patients on oral or parenteral nutrition, emphasizing data on absorption of various nutrients and on bone metabolism. Furthermore, some technical apsects concerning long-term parenteral nutrition are discussed. (Auth.)

  11. Catapults fall short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    In reply to the news story "UK Catapults fall short, claims review of technology centres", which describes an independent review that criticized the management of the UK's network of technology innovation centres.

  12. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    1984-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  13. Estimating the short-circuit impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1997-01-01

    A method for establishing a complex value of the short-circuit impedance from naturally occurring variations in voltage and current is discussed. It is the symmetrical three phase impedance at the fundamental grid frequency there is looked for. The positive sequence components in voltage...... and current are derived each period, and the short-circuit impedance is estimated from variations in these components created by load changes in the grid. Due to the noisy and dynamic grid with high harmonic distortion it is necessary to threat the calculated values statistical. This is done recursively...... through a RLS-algorithm. The algorithms have been tested and implemented on a PC at a 132 kV substation supplying a rolling mill. Knowing the short-circuit impedance gives the rolling mill an opportunity to adjust the arc furnace operation to keep flicker below a certain level. Therefore, the PC performs...

  14. Imaging in short stature

    OpenAIRE

    Vikas Chaudhary; Shahina Bano

    2012-01-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions ...

  15. Ecological and economical solutions for film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marstboom, K.

    2004-01-01

    Film radiography may be perceived as technology with environmental concerns, involving the application of chemicals and the discharge of drained waters with high silver levels. Ecological legislation concerning silver content of the wash water differs from country to country. GE Inspection Technologies now offers industrial radiographers several ways to address regulatory limits silver in drained waters. First, two brand new film processors, the Agfa NDT Si and M eco, are introduced to the NDT market. Both machines are equipped with Cascade Fixing Technology, which reduces silver content in the wash water and increases the ability to comply with stricter discharge standards. Next the new eco Film System is presented. This system is based on the new machines, specially adapted films and carefully developed new chemicals. Eco stands for ecological and economic performance. The customer can now process films in a very short cycle, saving money while increasing its ability to comply with environmental limits on discharges of silver into drained waters. This paper will also address other means to reduce the silver freight in the wash water. Opportunities but most of all issues involved in the application of these technologies will be highlighted. Thus the presenter of this paper will demonstrate how film radiography responds to environmental concerns without causing extra financial burdens for the user. (author)

  16. Processing of thin SU-8 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Stephan; Blagoi, Gabriela; Lillemose, Michael; Haefliger, Daniel; Boisen, Anja

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the process optimization for SU-8 films with thicknesses ≤5 µm. The influence of soft-bake conditions, exposure dose and post-exposure-bake parameters on residual film stress, structural stability and lithographic resolution was investigated. Conventionally, the SU-8 is soft-baked after spin coating to remove the solvent. After the exposure, a post-exposure bake at a high temperature T PEB ≥ 90 °C is required to cross-link the resist. However, for thin SU-8 films this often results in cracking or delamination due to residual film stress. The approach of the process optimization is to keep a considerable amount of the solvent in the SU-8 before exposure to facilitate photo-acid diffusion and to increase the mobility of the monomers. The experiments demonstrate that a replacement of the soft-bake by a short solvent evaporation time at ambient temperature allows cross-linking of the thin SU-8 films even at a low T PEB = 50 °C. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy is used to confirm the increased cross-linking density. The low thermal stress due to the reduced T PEB and the improved structural stability result in crack-free structures and solve the issue of delamination. The knowledge of the influence of different processing parameters on the responses allows the design of optimized processes for thin SU-8 films depending on the specific application

  17. Film som kunst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2013-01-01

    Films by artists induce scholars to work across art, film and cultural history. Accordingly, this article adopts an interdisciplinary approach to the British-Nigerian artist Yinka Shonibare’s film Un Ballo in Maschera (2004). The film is grounded in Shonibare’s unique use of African-print fabric...... in conjunction with references to European cultural and political history, but the film is also – it is alleged – rooted in Black British cinema and the transnational postcolonialism which emerged in the UK of the 1980s. The article starts with a general introduction to Shonibare’s art and the colonial...... connotations of the African-print fabric, which are also central to the critique of power in Un Ballo in Maschera. Its critical agenda is then analysed and put into historical perspective by relating the film to Black British film. A comparison with the Black Audio Film Collective’s key work Handsworth Songs...

  18. The Educational Film Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Vincent R.; Schillaci, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Increased dialog is needed among educational film producers, distributors, and consumers in order to be sure that what is being produced meets educators' needs and also to help solve the financial problems of the film industry. (LS)

  19. Electrochromic nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Delia; Llordes, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Garcia, Guillermo

    2018-04-10

    The present invention provides an electrochromic nanocomposite film. In an exemplary embodiment, the electrochromic nanocomposite film, includes (1) a solid matrix of oxide based material and (2) transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanostructures embedded in the matrix. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic nanocomposite film farther includes a substrate upon which the matrix is deposited. The present invention also provides a method of preparing an electrochromic nanocomposite film.

  20. Lars von Triers film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Overgaard

    2007-01-01

    Afhandlingen undersøger Lars von Triers filmæstetik, som den kommer til udtryk i spillefilmene fra perioden 1984-2007. Afhandlingen analyserer de enkelte films stil, virkningsstrategi og betydningsdannelse.......Afhandlingen undersøger Lars von Triers filmæstetik, som den kommer til udtryk i spillefilmene fra perioden 1984-2007. Afhandlingen analyserer de enkelte films stil, virkningsstrategi og betydningsdannelse....

  1. Defining Documentary Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  2. Clinical evaluation of further-developed MRCP sequences in comparison with standard MRCP sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundt, W.; Scheidler, J.; Reiser, M.; Petsch, R.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the comparison of technically improved single-shot magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) sequences with standard single-shot rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) and half-Fourier acquired single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) sequences in evaluating the normal and abnormal biliary duct system. The bile duct system of 45 patients was prospectively investigated on a 1.5-T MRI system. The investigation was performed with RARE and HASTE MR cholangiography sequences with standard and high spatial resolutions, and with a delayed-echo half-Fourier RARE (HASTE) sequence. Findings of the improved MRCP sequences were compared with the standard MRCP sequences. The level of confidence in assessing the diagnosis was divided into five groups. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test at a level of p<0.05 was applied. In 15 patients no pathology was found. The MRCP showed stenoses of the bile duct system in 10 patients and choledocholithiasis and cholecystolithiasis in 16 patients. In 12 patients a dilatation of the bile duct system was found. Comparison of the low- and high spatial resolution sequences and the short and long TE times of the half-Fourier RARE (HASTE) sequence revealed no statistically significant differences regarding accuracy of the examination. The diagnostic confidence level in assessing normal or pathological findings for the high-resolution RARE and half-Fourier RARE (HASTE) was significantly better than for the standard sequences. For the delayed-echo half-Fourier RARE (HASTE) sequence no statistically significant difference was seen. The high-resolution RARE and half-Fourier RARE (HASTE) sequences had a higher confidence level, but there was no significant difference in diagnosis in terms of detection and assessment of pathological changes in the biliary duct system compared with standard sequences. (orig.)

  3. Personnel photographic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    Technology of personnel photographic film dosimetry (PPD) based on the photographic effect of ionizing radiation is described briefly. Kinds of roentgen films used in PPD method are enumerated, compositions of a developer and fixing agents for these films are given [ru

  4. Radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhiyong

    2002-01-01

    Radiochromic film dosimetry was developed to measure ionization irradiation dose for industry and medicine. At this time, there are no comprehensive guideline on the medical application, calibration method and densitometer system for medicine. The review gives update on Radiochromic film dosimetry used for medicine, including principles, film model and material, characteristics, calibration method, scanning densitometer system and medical application

  5. Australian Film Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  6. Getting into Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Mel

    This book describes the various aspects of the film industry and the many jobs related to filmmaking, stressing that no "formula" exists for finding a successful career in the film industry. Chapters provide information on production, writing for film, cinematography, editing, music, sound, animation and graphics, acting and modeling, the "unsung…

  7. The Sponsored Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Walter J.

    For public relations professionals and would-be sponsors of films, this book provides guidelines for understanding the film medium and its potential as a persuasive force in industry, government, organizations, and religious orders. For filmmakers, it brings together practical information needed to survive in the sponsored-film industry and to…

  8. Introduction to Film Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert E.

    This booklet is intended for teachers who are now teaching units in film production as part of a program in communication or who wish to begin work with filmmaking in such a program. The first section is intended to serve as a brief introduction to film theory, while a major portion of the rest of the booklet is devoted to film projects which may…

  9. Teaching Culture Through Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐婷

    2016-01-01

    Cultural teaching is an issue which is associated with complexity and paradox and also it is a big challenge for faculty. Teaching culture through films has become an important way of cross-cultural teaching This paper focuses on the reasons for teaching culture through films, the value and how it works. And finally it leads out the prospects of cultural teaching through films.

  10. Does tonality boost short-term memory in congenital amusia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, Philippe; Schulze, Katrin; Caclin, Anne; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-11-06

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. Recent findings have demonstrated that this deficit is linked to an impaired short-term memory for tone sequences. As it has been shown before that non-musicians' implicit knowledge of musical regularities can improve short-term memory for tone information, the present study investigated if this type of implicit knowledge could also influence amusics' short-term memory performance. Congenital amusics and their matched controls, who were non-musicians, had to indicate whether sequences of five tones, presented in pairs, were the same or different; half of the pairs respected musical regularities (tonal sequences) and the other half did not (atonal sequences). As previously reported for non-musician participants, the control participants showed better performance (as measured with d') for tonal sequences than for atonal ones. While this improvement was not observed in amusics, both control and amusic participants showed faster response times for tonal sequences than for atonal sequences. These findings suggest that some implicit processing of tonal structures is potentially preserved in congenital amusia. This observation is encouraging as it strengthens the perspective to exploit implicit knowledge to help reducing pitch perception and memory deficits in amusia. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Toroidal plasma enhanced CVD of diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvanya, John; Cullen, Christopher; Morris, Thomas; Krchnavek, Robert R.; Holber, William; Basnett, Andrew; Basnett, Robert; Hettinger, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    An inductively coupled toroidal plasma source is used as an alternative to microwave plasmas for chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. The source, operating at a frequency of 400 kHz, synthesizes diamond films from a mixture of argon, methane, and hydrogen. The toroidal design has been adapted to create a highly efficient environment for diamond film deposition: high gas temperature and a short distance from the sample to the plasma core. Using a toroidal plasma geometry operating in the medium frequency band allows for efficient (≈90%) coupling of AC line power to the plasma and a scalable path to high-power and large-area operation. In test runs, the source generates a high flux of atomic hydrogen over a large area, which is favorable for diamond film growth. Using a deposition temperature of 900–1050 °C and a source to sample distance of 0.1–2.0 cm, diamond films are deposited onto silicon substrates. The results showed that the deposition rate of the diamond films could be controlled using the sample temperature and source to sample spacing. The results also show the films exhibit good-quality polycrystalline diamond as verified by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results show that the samples exhibit diamond (111) and diamond (022) crystallites. The Raman results show that the sp 3 peak has a narrow spectral width (FWHM 12 ± 0.5 cm −1 ) and that negligible amounts of the sp 2 band are present, indicating good-quality diamond films

  12. Approaches for in silico finishing of microbial genome sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Schmitt Kremer

    Full Text Available Abstract The introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS had a significant effect on the availability of genomic information, leading to an increase in the number of sequenced genomes from a large spectrum of organisms. Unfortunately, due to the limitations implied by the short-read sequencing platforms, most of these newly sequenced genomes remained as “drafts”, incomplete representations of the whole genetic content. The previous genome sequencing studies indicated that finishing a genome sequenced by NGS, even bacteria, may require additional sequencing to fill the gaps, making the entire process very expensive. As such, several in silico approaches have been developed to optimize the genome assemblies and facilitate the finishing process. The present review aims to explore some free (open source, in many cases tools that are available to facilitate genome finishing.

  13. Order and correlations in genomic DNA sequences. The spectral approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobzin, Vasilii V; Chechetkin, Vladimir R

    2000-01-01

    The structural analysis of genomic DNA sequences is discussed in the framework of the spectral approach, which is sufficiently universal due to the reciprocal correspondence and mutual complementarity of Fourier transform length scales. The spectral characteristics of random sequences of the same nucleotide composition possess the property of self-averaging for relatively short sequences of length M≥100-300. Comparison with the characteristics of random sequences determines the statistical significance of the structural features observed. Apart from traditional applications to the search for hidden periodicities, spectral methods are also efficient in studying mutual correlations in DNA sequences. By combining spectra for structure factors and correlation functions, not only integral correlations can be estimated but also their origin identified. Using the structural spectral entropy approach, the regularity of a sequence can be quantitatively assessed. A brief introduction to the problem is also presented and other major methods of DNA sequence analysis described. (reviews of topical problems)

  14. Approaches for in silico finishing of microbial genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Frederico Schmitt; McBride, Alan John Alexander; Pinto, Luciano da Silva

    The introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) had a significant effect on the availability of genomic information, leading to an increase in the number of sequenced genomes from a large spectrum of organisms. Unfortunately, due to the limitations implied by the short-read sequencing platforms, most of these newly sequenced genomes remained as "drafts", incomplete representations of the whole genetic content. The previous genome sequencing studies indicated that finishing a genome sequenced by NGS, even bacteria, may require additional sequencing to fill the gaps, making the entire process very expensive. As such, several in silico approaches have been developed to optimize the genome assemblies and facilitate the finishing process. The present review aims to explore some free (open source, in many cases) tools that are available to facilitate genome finishing.

  15. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)

  16. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented

  17. Sequences for Student Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jeffrey; Feil, David; Lartigue, David; Mullins, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    We describe two classes of sequences that give rise to accessible problems for undergraduate research. These problems may be understood with virtually no prerequisites and are well suited for computer-aided investigation. The first sequence is a variation of one introduced by Stephen Wolfram in connection with his study of cellular automata. The…

  18. Repeat Sequence Proteins as Matrices for Nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummy, L.; Koerner, H; Phillips, D; McAuliffe, J; Kumar, M; Farmer, B; Vaia, R; Naik, R

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant protein-inorganic nanocomposites comprised of exfoliated Na+ montmorillonite (MMT) in a recombinant protein matrix based on silk-like and elastin-like amino acid motifs (silk elastin-like protein (SELP)) were formed via a solution blending process. Charged residues along the protein backbone are shown to dominate long-range interactions, whereas the SELP repeat sequence leads to local protein/MMT compatibility. Up to a 50% increase in room temperature modulus and a comparable decrease in high temperature coefficient of thermal expansion occur for cast films containing 2-10 wt.% MMT.

  19. Pixels Intensity Evolution to Describe the Plastic Films Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Briñez-De León

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes an approach for mechanical behavior description in the plastic film deformation using techniques for the images analysis, which are based on the intensities evolution of fixed pixels applied to an images sequence acquired through polarizing optical assembly implemented around the platform of the plastic film deformation. The pixels intensities evolution graphs, and mechanical behavior graphic of the deformation has dynamic behaviors zones which could be associated together.

  20. Sequence History Update Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; DelGuercio, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Sequence History Update Tool performs Web-based sequence statistics archiving for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Using a single UNIX command, the software takes advantage of sequencing conventions to automatically extract the needed statistics from multiple files. This information is then used to populate a PHP database, which is then seamlessly formatted into a dynamic Web page. This tool replaces a previous tedious and error-prone process of manually editing HTML code to construct a Web-based table. Because the tool manages all of the statistics gathering and file delivery to and from multiple data sources spread across multiple servers, there is also a considerable time and effort savings. With the use of The Sequence History Update Tool what previously took minutes is now done in less than 30 seconds, and now provides a more accurate archival record of the sequence commanding for MRO.

  1. Solid Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure physics particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures as well as to superconductor/semiconductor interfaces and magnetic thin films. The latter topic was significantly extended in this new edition by more details about the giant magnetoresistance and a section about the spin-transfer torque mechanism including one new problem as exercise. Two new panels about Kerr-effect and spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy were added, too. Furthermore, the meanwhile important group III-nitride surfaces and high-k oxide/semiconductor interfaces are shortly discu...

  2. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Crotti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Short QT Syndrome is a recently described new genetic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT interval, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This autosomal dominant syndrome can afflict infants, children, or young adults; often a remarkable family background of cardiac sudden death is elucidated. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, with atrial fibrillation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. Gain of function mutations in three genes encoding K+ channels have been identified, explaining the abbreviated repolarization seen in this condition: KCNH2 for Ikr (SQT1, KCNQ1 for Iks (SQT2 and KCNJ2 for Ik1 (SQT3. The currently suggested therapeutic strategy is an ICD implantation, although many concerns exist for asymptomatic patients, especially in pediatric age. Pharmacological treatment is still under evaluation; quinidine has shown to prolong QT and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, but awaits additional confirmatory clinical data.

  3. Short notice inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouchkarev, V.

    1998-01-01

    For 30 years the IAEA safeguards system have evolved and have been strengthened by the regular introduction of new methods and techniques, improving both its effectiveness and efficiency. The member States of the IAEA have indicated their willingness to accept new obligations and associated technical measure that greatly strengthen the nuclear safeguards system. One element of this is the extent to which the IAEA inspectors have physical access to relevant locations for the purpose of providing independent verification of the exclusively peaceful intent of a State nuclear program. The Protocol to Safeguards granted new legal authority with respect to information on, and short notice inspector access to, all buildings on a nuclear site and administrative agreements that improve the process of designating inspectors and IAEA access to modern means of communication. This report is a short description of unannounced or short notice inspections as measures on which the new strengthened and cost efficient system will be based

  4. Film studies the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Villarejo, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Film Studies: The Basics is a compelling guide to the study of cinema in all its forms. This second edition has been thoroughly revised and updated to take account of recent scholarship, the latest developments in the industry and the explosive impact of new technologies. Core topics covered include:   The history, technology and art of cinema Theories of stardom, genre and film-making The movie industry from Hollywood to Bollywood Who does what on a film set   Complete with film stills, end-of-chapter summaries and a substantial glossary, Film Studies: The Basics is the ideal introduction to those new to the study of cinema.

  5. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  6. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  7. Polyadenylated Sequencing Primers Enable Complete Readability of PCR Amplicons Analyzed by Dideoxynucleotide Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Beránek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dideoxynucleotide DNA sequencing is one of the principal procedures in molecular biology. Loss of an initial part of nucleotides behind the 3' end of the sequencing primer limits the readability of sequenced amplicons. We present a method which extends the readability by using sequencing primers modified by polyadenylated tails attached to their 5' ends. Performing a polymerase chain reaction, we amplified eight amplicons of six human genes (AMELX, APOE, HFE, MBL2, SERPINA1 and TGFB1 ranging from 106 bp to 680 bp. Polyadenylation of the sequencing primers minimized the loss of bases in all amplicons. Complete sequences of shorter products (AMELX 106 bp, SERPINA1 121 bp, HFE 208 bp, APOE 244 bp, MBL2 317 bp were obtained. In addition, in the case of TGFB1 products (366 bp, 432 bp, and 680 bp, respectively, the lengths of sequencing readings were significantly longer if adenylated primers were used. Thus, single strand dideoxynucleotide sequencing with adenylated primers enables complete or near complete readability of short PCR amplicons.

  8. Development of the reactor safety film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheheen, N.N.; Hodson, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The first computer-generated film of LASL's Reactor Safety efforts was developed using the ANIMATE framework, a program that adds visual capabilities to MAPPER. Numerous software limitations had to be overcome within a very limited production schedule. A significant achievement was the 15,000-vector-per-frame sequence depicting a pressurized water reactor core with parts flashing while pumps circulate fluid through the system

  9. Detecting short circuits during assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Detector circuit identifies shorts between bus bars of electronic equipment being wired. Detector sounds alarm and indicates which planes are shorted. Power and ground bus bars are scanned continuously until short circuit occurs.

  10. Short wavelength FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs

  11. Short wavelength FELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Screen-film mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, W.W.; Janus, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The development of screen-film mammography has resulted in the re-emergence of confidence, rather than fear, in mammography. When screen-film mammography is performed with state-of-the-art dedicated equipment utilizing vigorous breast compression and a ''soft'' x-ray beam for improved contrast, screen-film images are equivalent or superior to those of reduced-dose xeromammography and superior to those of nonscreen film mammography. Technological aids for conversion from xeromammographic or nonscreen film mammographic techniques to screen-film techniques have been described. Screen-film mammography should not be attempted until dedicated equipment has been obtained and the importance of vigorous compression has been understood

  13. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  14. Structure and density for As23Se67Ge10 amorphous films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchurova, T.N.; Savchenko, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of thermal annealing and argon laser irradiation on structure and volume for thin amorphous As 23 Se 67 Ge 10 films deposited by thermal evaporation has been investigated. The short-range structure for the annealed films has been found to be more ordered as compared to the irradiated films. The decrease in film volume under thermal annealing and its increase under laser irradiation have been shown. The changes in film volume have been discussed in the context of non-ergodic model for the amorphous state equilibrium taking into account forces acting from the substrate

  15. Sequence dependent aggregation of peptides and fibril formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen Ba; Le, Duy-Manh; Hoang, Trinh X.

    2017-09-01

    Deciphering the links between amino acid sequence and amyloid fibril formation is key for understanding protein misfolding diseases. Here we use Monte Carlo simulations to study the aggregation of short peptides in a coarse-grained model with hydrophobic-polar (HP) amino acid sequences and correlated side chain orientations for hydrophobic contacts. A significant heterogeneity is observed in the aggregate structures and in the thermodynamics of aggregation for systems of different HP sequences and different numbers of peptides. Fibril-like ordered aggregates are found for several sequences that contain the common HPH pattern, while other sequences may form helix bundles or disordered aggregates. A wide variation of the aggregation transition temperatures among sequences, even among those of the same hydrophobic fraction, indicates that not all sequences undergo aggregation at a presumable physiological temperature. The transition is found to be the most cooperative for sequences forming fibril-like structures. For a fibril-prone sequence, it is shown that fibril formation follows the nucleation and growth mechanism. Interestingly, a binary mixture of peptides of an aggregation-prone and a non-aggregation-prone sequence shows the association and conversion of the latter to the fibrillar structure. Our study highlights the role of a sequence in selecting fibril-like aggregates and also the impact of a structural template on fibril formation by peptides of unrelated sequences.

  16. HIV Sequence Compendium 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Brian Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leitner, Thomas Kenneth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Apetrei, Cristian [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hahn, Beatrice [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mizrachi, Ilene [National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mullins, James [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rambaut, Andrew [Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Wolinsky, Steven [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-05

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. We try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2015. Hence, though it is published in 2015 and called the 2015 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2014 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing. In total, at the end of 2014, there were 624,121 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 7% since the previous year. This is the first year that the number of new sequences added to the database has decreased compared to the previous year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 5834 by end of 2014. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a fraction of these. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  17. Mapping sequences by parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guziolowski Carito

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: We present the N-map method, a pairwise and asymmetrical approach which allows us to compare sequences by taking into account evolutionary events that produce shuffled, reversed or repeated elements. Basically, the optimal N-map of a sequence s over a sequence t is the best way of partitioning the first sequence into N parts and placing them, possibly complementary reversed, over the second sequence in order to maximize the sum of their gapless alignment scores. Results: We introduce an algorithm computing an optimal N-map with time complexity O (|s| × |t| × N using O (|s| × |t| × N memory space. Among all the numbers of parts taken in a reasonable range, we select the value N for which the optimal N-map has the most significant score. To evaluate this significance, we study the empirical distributions of the scores of optimal N-maps and show that they can be approximated by normal distributions with a reasonable accuracy. We test the functionality of the approach over random sequences on which we apply artificial evolutionary events. Practical Application: The method is illustrated with four case studies of pairs of sequences involving non-standard evolutionary events.

  18. NILAI PENDIDIKAN KARAKTER BERBASIS KEARIFAN LOKAL DALAM FILM INDIE BANYUMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Trianton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Film is entertainment for people who are able to penetrate the social class boundaries. The ability to reach various segments of the film class, film making has the potential to affect masyarakt audience. Strategic value of the film not only serves as entertainment, the film has the potential as a medium of education, which can effectively communicate educational messages, and even be able to influence a person's behavior. This is the one of the spirit for student filmmakers in Purbalingga, Banyumas, Cilacap and Banjarnegara continues to be creative by producing indie films. Film is the medium for the message menyampaiakn, storytelling and expression. As with any work of literature (novels, short stories, drama, theater, in the film there is also a story, the scene, dialogue, scene, conflict, character, character, and setting. One of the benefits is being able to visualize movie various human characters so that it can easily intervene or influence the minds of the audience. This is where the potential effectiveness of the film in instilling moral values as part of the educational aspect of the nation's character.

  19. Thermoplastic processing of proteins for film formation--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Izquierdo, V M; Krochta, J M

    2008-03-01

    Increasing interest in high-quality food products with increased shelf life and reduced environmental impact has encouraged the study and development of edible and/or biodegradable polymer films and coatings. Edible films provide the opportunity to effectively control mass transfer among different components in a food or between the food and its surrounding environment. The diversity of proteins that results from an almost limitless number of side-chain amino-acid sequential arrangements allows for a wide range of interactions and chemical reactions to take place as proteins denature and cross-link during heat processing. Proteins such as wheat gluten, corn zein, soy protein, myofibrillar proteins, and whey proteins have been successfully formed into films using thermoplastic processes such as compression molding and extrusion. Thermoplastic processing can result in a highly efficient manufacturing method with commercial potential for large-scale production of edible films due to the low moisture levels, high temperatures, and short times used. Addition of water, glycerol, sorbitol, sucrose, and other plasticizers allows the proteins to undergo the glass transition and facilitates deformation and processability without thermal degradation. Target film variables, important in predicting biopackage performance under various conditions, include mechanical, thermal, barrier, and microstructural properties. Comparisons of film properties should be made with care since results depend on parameters such as film-forming materials, film formulation, fabrication method, operating conditions, testing equipment, and testing conditions. Film applications include their use as wraps, pouches, bags, casings, and sachets to protect foods, reduce waste, and improve package recyclability.

  20. GIF Video Sentiment Detection Using Semantic Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhen Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social media, an increasing number of people use short videos in social media applications to express their opinions and sentiments. However, sentiment detection of short videos is a very challenging task because of the semantic gap problem and sequence based sentiment understanding problem. In this context, we propose a SentiPair Sequence based GIF video sentiment detection approach with two contributions. First, we propose a Synset Forest method to extract sentiment related semantic concepts from WordNet to build a robust SentiPair label set. This approach considers the semantic gap between label words and selects a robust label subset which is related to sentiment. Secondly, we propose a SentiPair Sequence based GIF video sentiment detection approach that learns the semantic sequence to understand the sentiment from GIF videos. Our experiment results on GSO-2016 (GIF Sentiment Ontology data show that our approach not only outperforms four state-of-the-art classification methods but also shows better performance than the state-of-the-art middle level sentiment ontology features, Adjective Noun Pairs (ANPs.

  1. Laser-tissue soldering with biodegradable polymer films in vitro: film surface morphology and hydration effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, B S; Welch, A J

    2001-01-01

    Previous research introduced the concept of using biodegradable polymer film reinforcement of a liquid albumin solder for improvement of the tensile strength of repaired incisions in vitro. In this study, the effect of creating small pores in the PLGA films on the weld breaking strength is studied. Additionally, the effect of hydration on the strength of the reinforced welds is investigated. A 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder with 0.5 mg/mL Indocyanine Green dye was used to repair an incision in bovine aorta. The solder was coagulated with an 806-nm CW diode laser. A poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) film was used to reinforce the solder (the controls had solder but no reinforcement). Breaking strengths were measured acutely and after hydration in saline for 1 and 2 days. The data were analyzed by ANOVA (P < 0.05) and multiple comparisons of means were performed using the Newman-Keuls test. The creation of pores in the PLGA films qualitatively improved the film flexibility without having an apparent adverse effect on the breaking strength, while the actual technique of applying the film and solder had more of an effect. The acute maximum average breaking strengths of some of the film reinforced specimens (114.7 g-134.4 g) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the acute maximum average breaking strength of the unreinforced control specimens (68.3 g). Film reinforced specimens were shown to have a statistically significantly higher breaking strength than unreinforced controls after 1- and 2-day hydration. Reinforcement of liquid albumin solders in laser-assisted incision repair appears to have advantages over conventional methods that do not reinforce the cohesive strength of the solder in terms of acute breaking strength and after immersion in moist environments for short periods of time. Using a film with the solder applied to one surface only may be advantageous over other techniques.

  2. Short-term memory stores organized by information domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyce, Abigail L; Cestero, Nishmar; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Somers, David C

    2016-04-01

    Vision and audition have complementary affinities, with vision excelling in spatial resolution and audition excelling in temporal resolution. Here, we investigated the relationships among the visual and auditory modalities and spatial and temporal short-term memory (STM) using change detection tasks. We created short sequences of visual or auditory items, such that each item within a sequence arose at a unique spatial location at a unique time. On each trial, two successive sequences were presented; subjects attended to either space (the sequence of locations) or time (the sequence of inter item intervals) and reported whether the patterns of locations or intervals were identical. Each subject completed blocks of unimodal trials (both sequences presented in the same modality) and crossmodal trials (Sequence 1 visual, Sequence 2 auditory, or vice versa) for both spatial and temporal tasks. We found a strong interaction between modality and task: Spatial performance was best on unimodal visual trials, whereas temporal performance was best on unimodal auditory trials. The order of modalities on crossmodal trials also mattered, suggesting that perceptual fidelity at encoding is critical to STM. Critically, no cost was attributable to crossmodal comparison: In both tasks, performance on crossmodal trials was as good as or better than on the weaker unimodal trials. STM representations of space and time can guide change detection in either the visual or the auditory modality, suggesting that the temporal or spatial organization of STM may supersede sensory-specific organization.

  3. Short-term memory stores organized by information domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyce, Abigail L.; Cestero, Nishmar; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.; Somers, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Vision and audition have complementary affinities, with vision excelling in spatial resolution and audition excelling in temporal resolution. Here, we investigate the relationships among visual and auditory modalities and spatial and temporal short-term memory (STM) using change detection tasks. We created short sequences of visual or auditory items, such that each item within a sequence arose at a unique spatial location at a unique time. On each trial, two successive sequences were presented; subjects attended to either space (the sequence of locations), or time (the sequence of inter-item intervals), and reported whether the patterns of locations or intervals were identical. Each subject completed blocks of unimodal trials (both sequences presented in the same modality) and crossmodal trials (sequence 1 visual and sequence 2 auditory, or vice versa) for both spatial and temporal tasks. We found a strong interaction between modality and task: spatial performance was best on unimodal visual trials, while temporal performance was best on unimodal auditory trials. The order of modalities on crossmodal trials also mattered, suggesting that perceptual fidelity at encoding is critical to STM. Critically, there was no cost attributable to crossmodal comparison: in both tasks, performance on crossmodal trials was as good or better than on the weaker unimodal trials. STM representations of space and time can guide change detection in either the visual or the auditory modality, suggesting that temporal or spatial organization of STM may supersede sensory-specific organization. PMID:26791231

  4. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Antzelevitch

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Long QT intervals in the ECG have long been associated with sudden cardiac death. The congenital long QT syndrome was first described in individuals with structurally normal hearts in 1957.1 Little was known about the significance of a short QT interval. In 1993, after analyzing 6693 consecutive Holter recordings Algra et al concluded that an increased risk of sudden death was present not only in patients with long QT interval, but also in patients with short QT interval (<400 ms.2 Because this was a retrospective analysis, further evaluation of the data was not possible. It was not until 2000 that a short-QT syndrome (SQTS was proposed as a new inherited clinical syndrome by Gussak et al.3 The initial report was of two siblings and their mother all of whom displayed persistently short QT interval. The youngest was a 17 year old female presenting with several episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation requiring electrical cardioversion.3 Her QT interval measured 280 msec at a heart rate of 69. Her 21 year old brother displayed a QT interval of 272 msec at a heart rate of 58, whereas the 51 year old mother showed a QT of 260 msec at a heart rate of 74. The authors also noted similar ECG findings in another unrelated 37 year old patient associated with sudden cardiac death.

  5. SHORT COMMUNICATION POTENTIOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. POTENTIOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF K+ IONS USING A K+-SELECTIVE. ELECTRODE WITH MACROCYCLIC LIQUID MEMBRANE. Cezar Spinu*, Marian Isvoranu, Maria Pleniceanu and Cristian Tigae. Faculty of Chemistry, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza 13, Craiova, Romania. (Received ...

  6. Biorefineries: A Short Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemann, Kurt; Tippkötter, Nils

    2018-04-13

    The terms bioeconomy and biorefineries are used for a variety of processes and developments. This short introduction is intended to provide a delimitation and clarification of the terminology as well as a classification of current biorefinery concepts. The basic process diagrams of the most important biorefinery types are shown.

  7. The Colliding Beams Sequencer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.E.; Johnson, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    The Colliding Beam Sequencer (CBS) is a computer program used to operate the pbar-p Collider by synchronizing the applications programs and simulating the activities of the accelerator operators during filling and storage. The Sequencer acts as a meta-program, running otherwise stand alone applications programs, to do the set-up, beam transfers, acceleration, low beta turn on, and diagnostics for the transfers and storage. The Sequencer and its operational performance will be described along with its special features which include a periodic scheduler and command logger. 14 refs., 3 figs

  8. Phylogenetic Trees From Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvkin, Paul; Wang, Li-San

    In this chapter, we review important concepts and approaches for phylogeny reconstruction from sequence data.We first cover some basic definitions and properties of phylogenetics, and briefly explain how scientists model sequence evolution and measure sequence divergence. We then discuss three major approaches for phylogenetic reconstruction: distance-based phylogenetic reconstruction, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood. In the third part of the chapter, we review how multiple phylogenies are compared by consensus methods and how to assess confidence using bootstrapping. At the end of the chapter are two sections that list popular software packages and additional reading.

  9. Effects of annealing on evaporated SnS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakrani, Samsudi; Ismail, Bakar [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    The effects of annealing of evaporated tin sulphide thin films (SnS) are described. The films were initially deposited onto glass substrate, followed by annealing in an encapsulated carbon block under the running argon gas at 310 degree Celsius. Short time annealing of the films results in a slight change of the compositions to a mix SnS/SnS sub 2 compound, and the tendency of increasing SnS sub 2 formation was observed on the films annealed for longer periods up to 20 hours. X-ray results showed the transformation of SnS peaks (040) and (080) to predominantly SnS sub 2 peaks - (001), (100), (101), and (110). The associated absorption coefficients measured on the films were found to be greater than 10 sup 5 cm sup -1, with indication of higher photon energy leading to the formation of SnS sub 2 compound.

  10. Effects of annealing on evaporated SnS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsudi Sakrani; Bakar Ismail

    1994-01-01

    The effects of annealing of evaporated tin sulphide thin films (SnS) are described. The films were initially deposited onto glass substrate, followed by annealing in an encapsulated carbon block under the running argon gas at 310 degree Celsius. Short time annealing of the films results in a slight change of the compositions to a mix SnS/SnS sub 2 compound, and the tendency of increasing SnS sub 2 formation was observed on the films annealed for longer periods up to 20 hours. X-ray results showed the transformation of SnS peaks (040) and (080) to predominantly SnS sub 2 peaks - (001), (100), (101), and (110). The associated absorption coefficients measured on the films were found to be greater than 10 sup 5 cm sup -1, with indication of higher photon energy leading to the formation of SnS sub 2 compound

  11. Effect of solution concentration on MEH-PPV thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affendi, I. H. H.; Sarah, M. S. P.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    MEH-PPV thin films were prepared with a mixture of THF (tetrahydrofuran) solution deposited by spin coating method. The surface topology of MEH-PPV thin film were characterize by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical properties of absorption spectra were characterized by using Ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-Vis-NIR). The MEH-PPV concentration variation affects the surface and optical properties of the thin film where 0.5 mg/ml MEH-PPV concentration have a good surface topology provided the same film also gives the highest absorption coefficient were then deposited to a TiO2 thin film forming composite layer. The composite layer then shows low current flow of short circuit current of Isc = -5.313E-7 A.

  12. Long-read sequencing and de novo assembly of a Chinese genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-read sequencing has enabled the de novo assembly of several individual human genomes, but with inherent limitations in characterizing repeat elements. Here we sequence a Chinese individual HX1 by single-molecule real-time (SMRT) long-read sequencing, construct a physical map by NanoChannel arr...

  13. Applications and Case Studies of the Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies in Food, Nutrition and Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next-generation sequencing technologies are able to produce high-throughput short sequence reads in a cost-effective fashion. The emergence of these technologies has not only facilitated genome sequencing but also changed the landscape of life sciences. Here I survey their major applications ranging...

  14. Binocular video ophthalmoscope for simultaneous recording of sequences of the human retina to compare dynamic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, Ralf P.; Milczarek, Aleksandra; Odstrcilik, Jan; Kolar, Radim

    2017-07-01

    A parallel video ophthalmoscope was developed to acquire short video sequences (25 fps, 250 frames) of both eyes simultaneously with exact synchronization. Video sequences were registered off-line to compensate for eye movements. From registered video sequences dynamic parameters like cardiac cycle induced reflection changes and eye movements can be calculated and compared between eyes.

  15. Unified Deep Learning Architecture for Modeling Biology Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongjie; Cao, Chengyuan; Xia, Xiaoyan; Lu, Qiang

    2017-10-09

    Prediction of the spatial structure or function of biological macromolecules based on their sequence remains an important challenge in bioinformatics. When modeling biological sequences using traditional sequencing models, characteristics, such as long-range interactions between basic units, the complicated and variable output of labeled structures, and the variable length of biological sequences, usually lead to different solutions on a case-by-case basis. This study proposed the use of bidirectional recurrent neural networks based on long short-term memory or a gated recurrent unit to capture long-range interactions by designing the optional reshape operator to adapt to the diversity of the output labels and implementing a training algorithm to support the training of sequence models capable of processing variable-length sequences. Additionally, the merge and pooling operators enhanced the ability to capture short-range interactions between basic units of biological sequences. The proposed deep-learning model and its training algorithm might be capable of solving currently known biological sequence-modeling problems through the use of a unified framework. We validated our model on one of the most difficult biological sequence-modeling problems currently known, with our results indicating the ability of the model to obtain predictions of protein residue interactions that exceeded the accuracy of current popular approaches by 10% based on multiple benchmarks.

  16. Patterned magnetite films prepared via soft lithography and thermal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Lijuan; Li, Zhaoqiang; Li Wei; Nie Yaru; Chen Zhimin; Wang Yanping; Yang Bai

    2006-01-01

    A method for the fabrication of patterned magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) films is presented. We first prepared an ordered 2D array of Fe(acac) 3 through a selective deposition technique on patterned self-assembled monolayers. Using thermal decomposition at elevated temperature (300 o C), we transformed the patterned Fe(acac) 3 into patterned Fe 3 O 4 films in a short reaction time. These patterned films have been confirmed by using optical photographs, field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy

  17. Accelerated aging in ultrathin films of a molecular glass former.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, A; Leon-Gutierrez, E; Gonzalez-Silveira, M; Rodríguez-Tinoco, C; Clavaguera-Mora, M T; Rodríguez-Viejo, J

    2011-07-08

    We report the thermodynamic measurement of the enthalpy released during the aging of supported films of a molecular glass former, toluene, at temperatures well below the glass transition temperature. By using microfabricated devices with very short equilibration times (below 1 s), we evidence a remarkable variation of the relaxation rate on decreasing film thickness from 100 nm down to a 7 nm thick film. Our results demonstrate that surface atoms are more efficient than bulk atoms in attaining low energy configurations within the potential energy landscape.

  18. Aspects of coverage in medical DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Richard K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA sequencing is now emerging as an important component in biomedical studies of diseases like cancer. Short-read, highly parallel sequencing instruments are expected to be used heavily for such projects, but many design specifications have yet to be conclusively established. Perhaps the most fundamental of these is the redundancy required to detect sequence variations, which bears directly upon genomic coverage and the consequent resolving power for discerning somatic mutations. Results We address the medical sequencing coverage problem via an extension of the standard mathematical theory of haploid coverage. The expected diploid multi-fold coverage, as well as its generalization for aneuploidy are derived and these expressions can be readily evaluated for any project. The resulting theory is used as a scaling law to calibrate performance to that of standard BAC sequencing at 8× to 10× redundancy, i.e. for expected coverages that exceed 99% of the unique sequence. A differential strategy is formalized for tumor/normal studies wherein tumor samples are sequenced more deeply than normal ones. In particular, both tumor alleles should be detected at least twice, while both normal alleles are detected at least once. Our theory predicts these requirements can be met for tumor and normal redundancies of approximately 26× and 21×, respectively. We explain why these values do not differ by a factor of 2, as might intuitively be expected. Future technology developments should prompt even deeper sequencing of tumors, but the 21× value for normal samples is essentially a constant. Conclusion Given the assumptions of standard coverage theory, our model gives pragmatic estimates for required redundancy. The differential strategy should be an efficient means of identifying potential somatic mutations for further study.

  19. Gomphid DNA sequence data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — DNA sequence data for several genetic loci. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: It's already publicly available on GenBank. It can be accessed through...

  20. Film boiling heat transfer and vapour film collapse for various geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouhara, H.I.; Axcell, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Film boiling heat transfer has application to the safe operation of water-cooled nuclear reactors under fault conditions and it has been studied using nickel-plated copper specimens in transient and steady state experiments. In the transient tests the specimens were held in a water flow; in the steady state investigation a specimen was mounted in an essentially quiescent pool of water. The transient investigation was conducted on two spheres with different diameters, two cylindrical specimens of different lengths in parallel flow, a short cylinder in cross flow and two flat plates with different lengths. The heat transfer coefficient, vapour film thickness (which was estimated from the heat transfer coefficient) and heat flux followed a similar behaviour with changing experimental conditions for all specimens studied. The heat transfer coefficient increased and the vapour film thickness and heat flux decreased as the specimen temperature decreased. As the water subcooling increased the heat transfer coefficient and the heat flux increased while the vapour film thickness decreased. The water velocity was found to have little influence on the film boiling heat transfer results except for the short cylinder in cross flow. The sphere diameter was found to affect the heat transfer results; the heat transfer coefficient and the heat flux were larger, for the larger sphere. No significant effect of the cylinder length on the heat transfer data was observed. However, the heat transfer coefficient was higher (and the average vapour film thinner) for the longer plate than for the shorter plate. Three vapour/liquid interface types were observed namely: 'smooth', 'rippled' and 'turbulent' depending largely on specimen and water temperatures. For all specimens, the maximum heat transfer coefficient, minimum heat flux and minimum film boiling temperature, occurring just before vapour film collapse, were found to increase as the water subcooling

  1. Proteins at fluid interfaces: adsorption layers and thin liquid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampolskaya, Galina; Platikanov, Dimo

    2006-12-21

    A review in which many original published results of the authors as well as many other papers are discussed. The structure and some properties of the globular proteins are shortly presented, special accent being put on the alpha-chymotrypsin (alpha-ChT), lysozyme (LZ), human serum albumin (HSA), and bovine serum albumin (BSA) which have been used in the experiments with thin liquid films. The behaviour of protein adsorption layers (PAL) is extensively discussed. The dynamics of PAL formation, including the kinetics of adsorption as well as the time evolution of the surface tension of protein aqueous solutions, are considered. A considerable place is devoted to the surface tension and adsorption isotherms of the globular protein solutions, the simulation of PAL by interacting hard spheres, the experimental surface tension isotherms of the above mentioned proteins, and the interfacial tension isotherms for the protein aqueous solution/oil interface. The rheological properties of PAL at fluid interfaces are shortly reviewed. After a brief information about the experimental methods for investigation of protein thin liquid (foam or emulsion) films, the properties of the protein black foam films are extensively discussed: the conditions for their formation, the influence of the electrolytes and pH on the film type and stability, the thermodynamic properties of the black foam films, the contact angles film/bulk and their dynamic hysteresis. The next center of attention concerns some properties of the protein emulsion films: the conditions for formation of emulsion black films, the formation and development of a dimpling in microscopic, circular films. The protein-phospholipid mixed foam films are also briefly considered.

  2. Dynamic Sequence Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    D-136 548 DYNAMIIC SEQUENCE ASSIGNMENT(U) ADVANCED INFORMATION AND 1/2 DECISION SYSTEMS MOUNTAIN YIELW CA C A 0 REILLY ET AL. UNCLSSIIED DEC 83 AI/DS...I ADVANCED INFORMATION & DECISION SYSTEMS Mountain View. CA 94040 84 u ,53 V,..’. Unclassified _____ SCURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE REPORT...reviews some important heuristic algorithms developed for fas- ter solution of the sequence assignment problem. 3.1. DINAMIC MOGRAMUNIG FORMULATION FOR

  3. HIV Sequence Compendium 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiken, Carla [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Foley, Brian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leitner, Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Apetrei, Christian [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hahn, Beatrice [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Mizrachi, Ilene [National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mullins, James [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rambaut, Andrew [Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Wolinsky, Steven [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2010-12-31

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. In these compendia we try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2010. Hence, though it is called the 2010 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2009 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing exponentially. In total, at the time of printing, there were 339,306 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 45% since last year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 2576 by end of 2009, reflecting a smaller increase than in previous years. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a small fraction of these. Included in the alignments are a small number of sequences representing each of the subtypes and the more prevalent circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) such as 01 and 02, as well as a few outgroup sequences (group O and N and SIV-CPZ). Of the rarer CRFs we included one representative each. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html. Reprints are available from our website in the form of both HTML and PDF files. As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  4. General LTE Sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Billal, Masum

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,we have characterized sequences which maintain the same property described in Lifting the Exponent Lemma. Lifting the Exponent Lemma is a very powerful tool in olympiad number theory and recently it has become very popular. We generalize it to all sequences that maintain a property like it i.e. if p^{\\alpha}||a_k and p^\\b{eta}||n, then p^{{\\alpha}+\\b{eta}}||a_{nk}.

  5. Comparison of next generation sequencing technologies for transcriptome characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltis Douglas E

    2009-08-01

    over capillary-based sequencing, but NG sequencing also presents significant challenges in assembly and sequence accuracy due to short read lengths, method-specific sequencing errors, and the absence of physical clones. These problems may be overcome by hybrid sequencing strategies using a mixture of sequencing methodologies, by new assemblers, and by sequencing more deeply. Sequencing and microarray outcomes from multiple experiments suggest that our simulator will be useful for guiding NG transcriptome sequencing projects in a wide range of organisms.

  6. Un-laminated Gafchromic EBT3 film for ultraviolet radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, David; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Brenner, David J.; Spotnitz, Henry M.

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of ultraviolet (UV) radiation is important for human health, especially with the expanded usage of short wavelength UV for sterilization purposes. This work examines un-laminated Gafchromic EBT3 film for UV radiation monitoring. The authors exposed the film to select wavelengths in the UV spectrum, ranging from 207 to 328 nm, and measured the change in optical density. The response of the film is wavelength dependent, and of the wavelengths tested, the film was most sensitive to 254 nm light, with measurable values as low as 10 μJ/cm 2 . The film shows a dose-dependent response that extends over more than four orders of magnitude. The response of the film to short wavelength UV is comparable to the daily safe exposure limits for humans, thus making it valuable as a tool for passive UV radiation monitoring. (authors)

  7. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprint that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.

  8. GeTe sequences in superlattice phase change memories and their electrical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohyanagi, T., E-mail: ohyanagi@leap.or.jp; Kitamura, M.; Takaura, N. [Low-Power Electronics Association and Projects (LEAP), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Araidai, M. [Department of Computational Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kato, S. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Shiraishi, K. [Department of Computational Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan)

    2014-06-23

    We studied GeTe structures in superlattice phase change memories (superlattice PCMs) with a [GeTe/Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}] stacked structure by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We examined the electrical characteristics of superlattice PCMs with films deposited at different temperatures. It was found that XRD spectra differed between the films deposited at 200 °C and 240 °C; the differences corresponded to the differences in the GeTe sequences in the films. We applied first-principles calculations to calculate the total energy of three different GeTe sequences. The results showed the Ge-Te-Ge-Te sequence had the lowest total energy of the three and it was found that with this sequence the superlattice PCMs did not run.

  9. Measurements of short-range ordering in Ni3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, J.K.; Ahn, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on extended electron energy-loss fine structure (EXELFS) that has been used to measure short-range ordering in Ni 3 Al. Films of fcc Ni 3 Al with suppressed short-range order synthesized by vacuum evaporation of Ni 3 Al onto room temperature substrates. EXELFS data were taken from both Al K and Ni L 23 edges. The development of short-range order was observed after the samples were annealed for various times at temperatures below 350 degrees C. Upon comparison with ab initio planewave EXELFS calculations, it was found that the Warren-Cowley short-range order parameter a(1nn) changed by about -0.1 after 210 minutes of annealing at 150 degrees C

  10. Film: Genres and Genre Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Genre is a concept used in film studies and film theory to describe similarities between groups of films based on aesthetic or broader social, institutional, cultural, and psychological aspects. Film genre shares similarities in form and style, theme, and communicative function. A film genre...

  11. Film Music. Factfile No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsas, Diana, Ed.; And Others

    Organizations listed here with descriptive information include film music clubs and music guilds and associations. These are followed by a representative list of schools offering film music and/or film sound courses. Sources are listed for soundtrack recordings, sound effects/production music, films on film music, and oral history programs. The…

  12. Zseq: An Approach for Preprocessing Next-Generation Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Abedalrhman; Rueda, Luis

    2017-08-01

    Next-generation sequencing technology generates a huge number of reads (short sequences), which contain a vast amount of genomic data. The sequencing process, however, comes with artifacts. Preprocessing of sequences is mandatory for further downstream analysis. We present Zseq, a linear method that identifies the most informative genomic sequences and reduces the number of biased sequences, sequence duplications, and ambiguous nucleotides. Zseq finds the complexity of the sequences by counting the number of unique k-mers in each sequence as its corresponding score and also takes into the account other factors such as ambiguous nucleotides or high GC-content percentage in k-mers. Based on a z-score threshold, Zseq sweeps through the sequences again and filters those with a z-score less than the user-defined threshold. Zseq algorithm is able to provide a better mapping rate; it reduces the number of ambiguous bases significantly in comparison with other methods. Evaluation of the filtered reads has been conducted by aligning the reads and assembling the transcripts using the reference genome as well as de novo assembly. The assembled transcripts show a better discriminative ability to separate cancer and normal samples in comparison with another state-of-the-art method. Moreover, de novo assembled transcripts from the reads filtered by Zseq have longer genomic sequences than other tested methods. Estimating the threshold of the cutoff point is introduced using labeling rules with optimistic results.

  13. Perceptions of randomness in binary sequences: Normative, heuristic, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Stian; Donkin, Chris; Le Pelley, Mike E

    2018-03-01

    When people consider a series of random binary events, such as tossing an unbiased coin and recording the sequence of heads (H) and tails (T), they tend to erroneously rate sequences with less internal structure or order (such as HTTHT) as more probable than sequences containing more structure or order (such as HHHHH). This is traditionally explained as a local representativeness effect: Participants assume that the properties of long sequences of random outcomes-such as an equal proportion of heads and tails, and little internal structure-should also apply to short sequences. However, recent theoretical work has noted that the probability of a particular sequence of say, heads and tails of length n, occurring within a larger (>n) sequence of coin flips actually differs by sequence, so P(HHHHH) rational norms based on limited experience. We test these accounts. Participants in Experiment 1 rated the likelihood of occurrence for all possible strings of 4, 5, and 6 observations in a sequence of coin flips. Judgments were better explained by representativeness in alternation rate, relative proportion of heads and tails, and sequence complexity, than by objective probabilities. Experiments 2 and 3 gave similar results using incentivized binary choice procedures. Overall the evidence suggests that participants are not sensitive to variation in objective probabilities of a sub-sequence occurring; they appear to use heuristics based on several distinct forms of representativeness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Demagnetization in photomagnetic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajerowski, Daniel M., E-mail: daniel@pajerowski.com [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Hallock, Scott J. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Winston Churchill High School, Potomac, Maryland 20854 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    We present a model for demagnetization in photomagnetic films, and investigate different regimes for the magnetizing process using finite element analysis. It is found that the demagnetizing factor may depend strongly upon the high-spin fraction of the film, and the specifics of the dependence are dictated by the microscopic morphology of the photomagnetic domains. This picture allows for facile interpretation of existing data on photomagnetic films, and can even explain an observed photoinduced decrease in low-field magnetization concurrent with increase in high-spin fraction. As a whole, these results reiterate the need to consider demagnetizing effects in photomagnetic films. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finite element methods are used to examine demagnetization in photomagnetic films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Under the right conditions, photomagnetic films may show a photoinduced decrease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demagnetization in photomagnets will be important to consider in possible devices.

  15. Superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebard, A.F.; Vandenberg, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to granular metal and metal oxide superconducting films formed by ion beam sputter deposition. Illustratively, the films comprise irregularly shaped, randomly oriented, small lead grains interspersed in an insulating lead oxide matrix. The films are hillock-resistant when subjected to thermal cycling and exhibit unusual josephson-type switching characteristics. Depending on the oxygen content, a film may behave in a manner similar to that of a plurality of series connected josephson junctions, or the film may have a voltage difference in a direction parallel to a major surface of the film that is capable of being switched from zero voltage difference to a finite voltage difference in response to a current larger than the critical current

  16. Underwater 3D filming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rinaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  17. Short pulse neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2016-08-02

    Short pulse neutron generators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the short pulse neutron generator includes a Blumlein structure. The Blumlein structure includes a first conductive plate, a second conductive plate, a third conductive plate, at least one of an inductor or a resistor, a switch, and a dielectric material. The first conductive plate is positioned relative to the second conductive plate such that a gap separates these plates. A vacuum chamber is positioned in the gap, and an ion source is positioned to emit ions in the vacuum chamber. The third conductive plate is electrically grounded, and the switch is operable to electrically connect and disconnect the second conductive plate and the third conductive plate. The at least one of the resistor or the inductor is coupled to the first conductive plate and the second conductive plate.

  18. The diploid genome sequence of an Asian individual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Wei; Li, Ruiqiang

    2008-01-01

    Here we present the first diploid genome sequence of an Asian individual. The genome was sequenced to 36-fold average coverage using massively parallel sequencing technology. We aligned the short reads onto the NCBI human reference genome to 99.97% coverage, and guided by the reference genome, we...... used uniquely mapped reads to assemble a high-quality consensus sequence for 92% of the Asian individual's genome. We identified approximately 3 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) inside this region, of which 13.6% were not in the dbSNP database. Genotyping analysis showed that SNP...... identification had high accuracy and consistency, indicating the high sequence quality of this assembly. We also carried out heterozygote phasing and haplotype prediction against HapMap CHB and JPT haplotypes (Chinese and Japanese, respectively), sequence comparison with the two available individual genomes (J...

  19. Short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulouse, G.

    This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.

  20. Den danske independent film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2014-01-01

    at producere film, og derved er filmproduktion potentielt gjort tilgængelig for en større gruppe personer som både afsender og modtager. For det fjerde implicerer diskussionen af de to film også genre- og stilmæssige spørgsmål om dansk filmkultur, fordi indiefilmen både i film og uden for filmene italesætter...

  1. Religion og film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvithamar, Annika; Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen søger at stipulere en ramme for analyse af religion og film. Dels ved at række ud over den blotte konstatering af tilstedeværelse af religiøse elementer i film, dels ved at anslå en række temaer, der kan anvendes til analyse af sådanne film (individualisering, (de-)sekularisering, banal...

  2. Horror films and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Forcen, Fernando Espi; Shand, John Preston

    2014-10-01

    Horror films have been popular for generations. The purpose of this article is to illustrate psychiatric conditions, themes and practice seen in horror films. Horror films often either include psychiatrists as characters or depict (Hollywood's dangerous version of) serious mental illness. Demonic possession, zombies, and 'slasher' killers are described, as well as the horror genre's characterizations of psychiatrists. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  3. Renaissance of the Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellone, Julius, Ed.

    The post-World War II period was one of the liveliest in the history of the cinema. This is a collection of 33 critical articles on some of the best films of the perd. Most of the essays explicate the themes and symbols of the films. The essays deal with these films: "The Apu Trilogy,""L'Avventura,""Balthazar,""Blow-Up,""Bonnie and Clyde," Citizen…

  4. ASAP: Amplification, sequencing & annotation of plastomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folta Kevin M

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Availability of DNA sequence information is vital for pursuing structural, functional and comparative genomics studies in plastids. Traditionally, the first step in mining the valuable information within a chloroplast genome requires sequencing a chloroplast plasmid library or BAC clones. These activities involve complicated preparatory procedures like chloroplast DNA isolation or identification of the appropriate BAC clones to be sequenced. Rolling circle amplification (RCA is being used currently to amplify the chloroplast genome from purified chloroplast DNA and the resulting products are sheared and cloned prior to sequencing. Herein we present a universal high-throughput, rapid PCR-based technique to amplify, sequence and assemble plastid genome sequence from diverse species in a short time and at reasonable cost from total plant DNA, using the large inverted repeat region from strawberry and peach as proof of concept. The method exploits the highly conserved coding regions or intergenic regions of plastid genes. Using an informatics approach, chloroplast DNA sequence information from 5 available eudicot plastomes was aligned to identify the most conserved regions. Cognate primer pairs were then designed to generate ~1 – 1.2 kb overlapping amplicons from the inverted repeat region in 14 diverse genera. Results 100% coverage of the inverted repeat region was obtained from Arabidopsis, tobacco, orange, strawberry, peach, lettuce, tomato and Amaranthus. Over 80% coverage was obtained from distant species, including Ginkgo, loblolly pine and Equisetum. Sequence from the inverted repeat region of strawberry and peach plastome was obtained, annotated and analyzed. Additionally, a polymorphic region identified from gel electrophoresis was sequenced from tomato and Amaranthus. Sequence analysis revealed large deletions in these species relative to tobacco plastome thus exhibiting the utility of this method for structural and

  5. Film in concert

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    From the very beginning of cinema, music always played an important role in the history of filmmaking. Nonetheless, film music is judged by critics as a kind of low-grade art form. However, the majority of film score composers enjoyed a classical education and composed as well for the silver screen as for the concert hall. Film music also has its roots in the musical era of romanticism. Therefore, symphonic film scores can be regarded as program music in a broader sense. These scores were inf...

  6. Film, Neuroaesthetics, and Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh; Kramer, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the link between film viewing and human 'ultra-sociality' (Boyd and Richardson 1998), describing how empathy is supported by mirror resonances but also modified by appraisal mechanisms and how emotions are communicated, It further discusses how 'attainment' to film builds...... on mother-child communication and also how film genres of attachment use such attainment, especially by means of close-ups of human faces and shot-reverse shots. Finally it deals with how films boost development of cognitive and emotional intelligence...

  7. Antimalarial Activity of Ultra-Short Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Yolanda Rios

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-short peptides 1-9 were designed and synthesized with phenylalanine, ornithine and proline amino acid residues and their effect on antimalarial activity was analyzed. On the basis of the IC50 data for these compounds, the effects of nature, polarity, and amino acid sequence on Plasmodium berghei schizont cultures were analyzed too. Tetrapeptides Phe-Orn-Phe-Orn (4 and Lys-Phe-Phe-Orn (5 showed a very important activity with IC50 values of 3.31 and 2.57 μM, respectively. These two tetrapeptides are candidates for subsequent in vivo assays and SARS investigations.

  8. YBa2Cu3O7 films prepared by aerosol MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, F.; Froehlich, K.; Haase, R.; Labeau, M.; Selbmann, D.; Senateur, J.P.; Thomas, O.

    1993-01-01

    In the present study we report on properties of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 films prepared by aerosol MOCVD. We give a short description of the process and we focus on the superconducting and related properties of the films deposited on SrTiO 3 , LaAlO 3 and NdGaO 3 single crystalline substrates. (orig.)

  9. Corporate Philanthropy, College Students, and The LUNAFEST[R] Film Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, Clif Bar & Company, makers of LUNA: The Whole Nutrition Bar for Women, debuted LUNAFEST[R], an international touring film festival that showcases short narrative and documentary work of female filmmakers and raises money for the Breast Cancer Fund and other nonprofit women's organizations. A pre-packaged film festival with clear and easy…

  10. Doctor-Patient Relationship and the Medical Student: The Use of Trigger Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, Gideon; Ber, Rosalie

    1982-01-01

    Trigger films (short situational films followed by discussion) are seen as a suitable medium for teaching the intricacies of the interpersonal relationship, legitimate behavior patterns following doctor-patient interaction, and the sensitivity and ability to detect nonverbal and accessory communication. Guidelines for the production and use of…

  11. Properties of pulsed laser deposited NiO/MWCNT thin films

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yalisi, B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a thin-film deposition technique, which uses short and intensive laser pulses to evaporate target material. The technique has been used in this work to produce selective solar absorber (SSA) thin film composites...

  12. Continuous Online Sequence Learning with an Unsupervised Neural Network Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yuwei; Ahmad, Subutar; Hawkins, Jeff

    2016-09-14

    The ability to recognize and predict temporal sequences of sensory inputs is vital for survival in natural environments. Based on many known properties of cortical neurons, hierarchical temporal memory (HTM) sequence memory recently has been proposed as a theoretical framework for sequence learning in the cortex. In this letter, we analyze properties of HTM sequence memory and apply it to sequence learning and prediction problems with streaming data. We show the model is able to continuously learn a large number of variableorder temporal sequences using an unsupervised Hebbian-like learning rule. The sparse temporal codes formed by the model can robustly handle branching temporal sequences by maintaining multiple predictions until there is sufficient disambiguating evidence. We compare the HTM sequence memory with other sequence learning algorithms, including statistical methods: autoregressive integrated moving average; feedforward neural networks-time delay neural network and online sequential extreme learning machine; and recurrent neural networks-long short-term memory and echo-state networks on sequence prediction problems with both artificial and real-world data. The HTM model achieves comparable accuracy to other state-of-the-art algorithms. The model also exhibits properties that are critical for sequence learning, including continuous online learning, the ability to handle multiple predictions and branching sequences with high-order statistics, robustness to sensor noise and fault tolerance, and good performance without task-specific hyperparameter tuning. Therefore, the HTM sequence memory not only advances our understanding of how the brain may solve the sequence learning problem but is also applicable to real-world sequence learning problems from continuous data streams.

  13. Design of Long Period Pseudo-Random Sequences from the Addition of m -Sequences over 𝔽 p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Jian

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudo-random sequence with good correlation property and large linear span is widely used in code division multiple access (CDMA communication systems and cryptology for reliable and secure information transmission. In this paper, sequences with long period, large complexity, balance statistics, and low cross-correlation property are constructed from the addition of m -sequences with pairwise-prime linear spans (AMPLS. Using m -sequences as building blocks, the proposed method proved to be an efficient and flexible approach to construct long period pseudo-random sequences with desirable properties from short period sequences. Applying the proposed method to 𝔽 2 , a signal set ( ( 2 n − 1 ( 2 m − 1 , ( 2 n + 1 ( 2 m + 1 , ( 2 ( n + 1 / 2 + 1 ( 2 ( m + 1 / 2 + 1 is constructed.

  14. Adaptive Processing for Sequence Alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Bonny, Talal; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments for adaptive processing for sequence alignment. In one embodiment, among others, a method includes obtaining a query sequence and a plurality of database sequences. A first portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a central processing unit (CPU) and a second portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a graphical processing unit (GPU) based upon a predetermined splitting ratio associated with the plurality of database sequences, where the database sequences of the first portion are shorter than the database sequences of the second portion. A first alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the CPU based upon the first portion of the plurality of database sequences and a second alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the GPU based upon the second portion of the plurality of database sequences.

  15. Adaptive Processing for Sequence Alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-01-26

    Disclosed are various embodiments for adaptive processing for sequence alignment. In one embodiment, among others, a method includes obtaining a query sequence and a plurality of database sequences. A first portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a central processing unit (CPU) and a second portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a graphical processing unit (GPU) based upon a predetermined splitting ratio associated with the plurality of database sequences, where the database sequences of the first portion are shorter than the database sequences of the second portion. A first alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the CPU based upon the first portion of the plurality of database sequences and a second alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the GPU based upon the second portion of the plurality of database sequences.

  16. Topological phases of topological-insulator thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Mahmoud M.; Sheehy, Daniel E.; Vekhter, Ilya

    2018-02-01

    We study the properties of a thin film of topological insulator material. We treat the coupling between helical states at opposite surfaces of the film in the properly-adapted tunneling approximation, and show that the tunneling matrix element oscillates as a function of both the film thickness and the momentum in the plane of the film for Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 . As a result, while the magnitude of the matrix element at the center of the surface Brillouin zone gives the gap in the energy spectrum, the sign of the matrix element uniquely determines the topological properties of the film, as demonstrated by explicitly computing the pseudospin textures and the Chern number. We find a sequence of transitions between topological and nontopological phases, separated by semimetallic states, as the film thickness varies. In the topological phase, the edge states of the film always exist but only carry a spin current if the edge potentials break particle-hole symmetry. The edge states decay very slowly away from the boundary in Bi2Se3 , making Bi2Te3 , where this scale is shorter, a more promising candidate for the observation of these states. Our results hold for free-standing films as well as heterostructures with large-gap insulators.

  17. Falling film flow, heat transfer and breakdown on horizontal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.

    1980-11-01

    Knowledge of falling film flow and heat transfer characteristics on horizontal tubes is required in the assessment of certain CANDU reactor accident sequences for those CANDU reactors which use moderator dump as one of the shut-down mechanisms. In these reactors, subsequent cooling of the calandria tubes is provided by falling films produced by sprays. This report describes studies of falling film flow and heat transfer characteristics on horizontal tubes. Analyses using integral methods are given for laminar and turbulent flow, ignoring and accounting for momentum effects in the film. Preliminary experiments on film flow stability on horizontal tubes are described and various mechanisms of film breakdown are examined. The work described in this report shows that in LOCA with indefinitely delayed ECI in the NPD or Douglas Point (at 70 percent power) reactors, the falling films on the calandria tubes will not be disrupted by any of the mechanisms considered, provided that the pressure tubes do not sag onto the calandria tubes. However, should the pressure tubes sag onto the calandria tubes, film disruption will probably occur

  18. The Possibility of Film Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poague, Leland; Cadbury, William

    1989-01-01

    Examines the role of critical language in film criticism. Compares and contrasts Monroe Beardsley's philosophy on film aesthetics with the New Criticism. Outlines some of the contributions Beardsley has made to the study of film criticism. (KM)

  19. Wave Tank Studies of Phase Velocities of Short Wind Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, S.; Sergievskaya, I.; Shchegolkov, Yu.

    Wave tank studies of phase velocities of short wind waves have been carried out using Ka-band radar and an Optical Spectrum Analyser. The phase velocities were retrieved from measured radar and optical Doppler shifts, taking into account measurements of surface drift velocities. The dispersion relationship was studied in centimetre (cm)- and millimetre(mm)-scale wavelength ranges at different fetches and wind speeds, both for a clean water surface and for water covered with surfactant films. It is ob- tained that the phase velocities do not follow the dispersion relation of linear capillary- gravity waves, increasing with fetch and, therefore, depending on phase velocities of dominant decimetre (dm)-centimetre-scale wind waves. One thus can conclude that nonlinear cm-mm-scale harmonics bound to the dominant wind waves and propagat- ing with the phase velocities of the decimetric waves are present in the wind wave spectrum. The resulting phase velocities of short wind waves are determined by re- lation between free and bound waves. The relative intensity of the bound waves in the spectrum of short wind waves is estimated. It is shown that this relation depends strongly on the surfactant concentration, because the damping effect due to films is different for free and bound waves; this results to changes of phase velocities of wind waves in the presence of surfactant films. This work was supported by MOD, UK via DERA Winfrith (Project ISTC 1774P) and by RFBR (Project 02-05-65102).

  20. Main sequence mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

    1987-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the δ Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub θ/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub θ/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs