WorldWideScience

Sample records for short decay time

  1. Modular High Voltage Pulse Converter for Short Rise and Decay Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, S.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis explores a modular HV pulse converter technology with short rise and decay times. A systematic methodology to derive and classify HV architectures based on a modularization level of power building blocks of the HV pulse converter is developed to summarize existing architectures and

  2. The loss of short-term visual representations over time: decay or temporal distinctiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Tom

    2014-12-01

    There has been much recent interest in the loss of visual short-term memories over the passage of time. According to decay theory, visual representations are gradually forgotten as time passes, reflecting a slow and steady distortion of the memory trace. However, this is controversial and decay effects can be explained in other ways. The present experiment aimed to reexamine the maintenance and loss of visual information over the short term. Decay and temporal distinctiveness models were tested using a delayed discrimination task, in which participants compared complex and novel objects over unfilled retention intervals of variable length. Experiment 1 found no significant change in the accuracy of visual memory from 2 to 6 s, but the gap separating trials reliably influenced task performance. Experiment 2 found evidence for information loss at a 10-s retention interval, but temporally separating trials restored the fidelity of visual memory, possibly because temporally isolated representations are distinct from older memory traces. In conclusion, visual representations lose accuracy at some point after 6 s, but only within temporally crowded contexts. These findings highlight the importance of temporal distinctiveness within visual short-term memory. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Corrections for the combined effects of decay and dead time in live-timed counting of short-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies and calibrations of short-lived radionuclides, for example "1"5O, are of particular interest in nuclear medicine. Yet counting experiments on such species are vulnerable to an error due to the combined effect of decay and dead time. Separate decay corrections and dead-time corrections do not account for this issue. Usually counting data are decay-corrected to the start time of the count period, or else instead of correcting the count rate, the mid-time of the measurement is used as the reference time. Correction factors are derived for both those methods, considering both extending and non-extending dead time. Series approximations are derived here and the accuracy of those approximations are discussed. - Highlights: • Derived combined effects of decay and dead time. • Derived for counting systems with extending or non-extending dead times. • Derived series expansions for both midpoint and decay-to-start-time methods. • Useful for counting experiments with short-lived radionuclides. • Examples given for "1"5O, used in PET scanning.

  4. Optimization of irradiation decay and counting times in nuclear activation analysis using short-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.

    This work describes a method and outlines a procedure for optim- ization of an activation analysis with respect to the experimental times, irradiation time, t(subi), decay time and counting time. The method is based on the 'minimum relative standard deviation criterion', and specially designed for the use on short-lived nuclides. A computer program, COMB1, is written in the BASIC language in order to make the calculations easier and faster. It is intended to be understandable, and easily applicable on a computer of modest size. Time and cost are important factors, especially for routine analysis on a service basis. In such cases one can often allow a controlled reduction in the analysis quality (through a higher relative standard deviation). The procedure outlined can therefore help find acceptable conditions by calculation of the 'best practical' (or reasonable) experimental time values, and the minimum number of accumulation cycles necessary to fulfil the requirements given. (Auth.)

  5. Photoluminescence decay dynamics in γ-Ga2O3 nanocrystals: The role of exclusion distance at short time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Brian; Hegde, Manu; Stanish, Paul C.; Mišković, Zoran L.; Radovanovic, Pavle V.

    2017-09-01

    We developed a comprehensive theoretical model describing the photoluminescence decay dynamics at short and long time scales based on the donor-acceptor defect interactions in γ-Ga2O3 nanocrystals, and quantitatively determined the importance of exclusion distance and spatial distribution of defects. We allowed for donors and acceptors to be adjacent to each other or separated by different exclusion distances. The optimal exclusion distance was found to be comparable to the donor Bohr radius and have a strong effect on the photoluminescence decay curve at short times. The importance of the exclusion distance at short time scales was confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations.

  6. Development of a New Class of Scintillating Fibres with Very Short Decay Time and High Light Yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borshchev, O.; Ponomarenko, S.; Surin, N.; Cavalcante, A.B.R.; Gavardi, L.; Gruber, L.; Joram, C.; Shinji, O.

    2017-01-01

    We present first studies of a new class of scintillating fibres which are characterised by very short decay times and high light yield. The fibres are based on a novel type of luminophores admixed to a polystyrene core matrix. These so-called Nanostructured Organosilicon Luminophores (NOL) have high photoluminescense quantum yield and decay times just above 1 ns. A blue and a green emitting prototype fibre with 250 μm diameter were produced and characterised in terms of attenuation length, ionisation light yield, decay time and tolerance to x-ray irradiation. The well-established Kuraray SCSF-78 and SCSF-3HF fibres were taken as references. Even though the two prototype fibres mark just an intermediate step in an ongoing development, their performance is already on a competitive level. In particular, their decay time constants are about a factor of two shorter than the fastest known fibres, which makes them promising candidates for time critical applications.

  7. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  8. Time-Based Loss in Visual Short-Term Memory Is from Trace Decay, Not Temporal Distinctiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Timothy J.; Spiegel, Lauren R.; Cowan, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus as to why forgetting occurs in short-term memory tasks. In past work, we have shown that forgetting occurs with the passage of time, but there are 2 classes of theories that can explain this effect. In the present work, we investigate the reason for time-based forgetting by contrasting the predictions of temporal…

  9. 'Stutter timing' for charge decay time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, John; Harbour, John; Pavey, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the approach of 'stutter timing' that has been developed to improve the accuracy of measuring charge decay times in the presence of noise in compact and portable charge decay test instrumentation. The approach involves starting and stopping the timing clock as the noisy signal rises above and falls below the target threshold voltage level.

  10. Decay uncovered in nonverbal short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Tom; McKeown, Denis

    2014-02-01

    Decay theory posits that memory traces gradually fade away over the passage of time unless they are actively rehearsed. Much recent work exploring verbal short-term memory has challenged this theory, but there does appear to be evidence for trace decay in nonverbal auditory short-term memory. Numerous discrimination studies have reported a performance decline as the interval separating two tones is increased, consistent with a decay process. However, most of this tone comparison research can be explained in other ways, without reference to decay, and these alternative accounts were tested in the present study. In Experiment 1, signals were employed toward the end of extended retention intervals to ensure that listeners were alert to the presence and frequency content of the memoranda. In Experiment 2, a mask stimulus was employed in an attempt to distinguish between a highly detailed sensory trace and a longer-lasting short-term memory, and the distinctiveness of the stimuli was varied. Despite these precautions, slow-acting trace decay was observed. It therefore appears that the mere passage of time can lead to forgetting in some forms of short-term memory.

  11. Response probability and response time: a straight line, the Tagging/Retagging interpretation of short term memory, an operational definition of meaningfulness and short term memory time decay and search time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2008-12-01

    The functional relationship between correct response probability and response time is investigated in data sets from Rubin, Hinton and Wenzel, J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 25:1161-1176, 1999 and Anderson, J Exp Psychol [Hum Learn] 7:326-343, 1981. The two measures are linearly related through stimulus presentation lags from 0 to 594 s in the former experiment and for repeated learning of words in the latter. The Tagging/Retagging interpretation of short term memory is introduced to explain this linear relationship. At stimulus presentation the words are tagged. This tagging level drops slowly with time. When a probe word is reintroduced the tagging level has to increase for the word to be properly identified leading to a delay in response time. The tagging time is related to the meaningfulness of the words used-the more meaningful the word the longer the tagging time. After stimulus presentation the tagging level drops in a logarithmic fashion to 50% after 10 s and to 20% after 240 s. The incorrect recall and recognition times saturate in the Rubin et al. data set (they are not linear for large time lags), suggesting a limited time to search the short term memory structure: the search time for recall of unusual words is 1.7 s. For recognition of nonsense words the corresponding time is about 0.4 s, similar to the 0.243 s found in Cavanagh (1972).

  12. Contribution of short-lived nuclides to decay heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katakura, Jun-ichi

    1987-01-01

    Comments are made on the calculation of decay heat, centering on evaluation of average decay energy. It is difficult to obtain sufficiently useful decay diagrams of short lived nucleides. High-energy levels are often missing in inferior decay diagrams, leading to an overestimation of the intensity of beta-rays at low-energy levels. Such an overestimation or underestimation due to the inferiority of a decay diagram is referred to as pandemonium effect. The pandemonium effect can be assessed by means of the ratio of the measured energy of the highest level of the daughter nuclide to the Q β -value of the beta-decay. When a satisfactory decay diagram cannot be obtained, the average decay energy has to be estimated by theoretical calculation. The gross theory for beta-decay proposed by Yamada and Takahashi is employed for the calculation. To carry out the calculation according to this theory, it is required to determine the value for the parameter Q 00 , the lowest energy of the daughter nuclide that meets the selection rule for beta-decay. Currently, Q 00 to be used for this purpose is estimated from data on the energy of the lowest level found in a decay diagram, even if it is inferior. Some examples of calculation of decay heat using the average beta- or gamma-ray energy are shown and compared with measurements. (author)

  13. Time scales of tunneling decay of a localized state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Yue; Muga, J. G.; Sherman, E. Ya.; Buettiker, M.

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by recent time-domain experiments on ultrafast atom ionization, we analyze the transients and time scales that characterize, aside from the relatively long lifetime, the decay of a localized state by tunneling. While the tunneling starts immediately, some time is required for the outgoing flux to develop. This short-term behavior depends strongly on the initial state. For the initial state, tightly localized so that the initial transients are dominated by over-the-barrier motion, the time scale for flux propagation through the barrier is close to the Buettiker-Landauer traversal time. Then a quasistationary, slow-decay process follows, which sets ideal conditions for observing diffraction in time at longer times and distances. To define operationally a tunneling time at the barrier edge, we extrapolate backward the propagation of the wave packet that escaped from the potential. This extrapolated time is considerably longer than the time scale of the flux and density buildup at the barrier edge.

  14. Decay time of type III solar bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, H.; Haddock, F.T.

    1972-01-01

    Sixty-four Type III bursts that drifted to frequencies below 600 kHz between March 1968 and February 1970 were analyzed. Decay times were measured and combined with published data ranging up to about 200 MHz. By fitting power functions to the computed and observed decay times, and using the local plasma hypothesis, it was found that the ratio rho of computed to observed values varies with radiocentric radial distance according to a power function rho = 3r 0 . 7 . (U.S.)

  15. Time correlation in two-photon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrasko, P.

    1979-11-01

    The relative time distribution of the photons emitted in a second order non-cascade process b→a+2γ is investigated under the assumption that only those photon pairs are detected which were emitted a sufficiently long time after the preparation of the decaying state. An anticorrelation between the photons is found and attributed to the propagation of one of the photons backward in time. (author)

  16. Decay times in one-dimensional chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Broeck, C.; Bouten, M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors calculate the average residence time tau for a particle performing a random walk over a chain of N neighboring sites i = 1,..., N, with decay rates λ/sub i/ depending on the location of the particle in the chain. Exact results are given for some particular cases, while bounds on tau are given for specific initial conditions. In the continuum limit, various results from the literature are recovered or improved upon

  17. Short term memory bowing effect is consistent with presentation rate dependent decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2010-12-01

    I reanalyze the free recall data of Murdock, J Exp Psychol 64(5):482-488 (1962) and Murdock and Okada, J Verbal Learn and Verbal Behav 86:263-267 (1970) which show the famous bowing effect in which initial and recent items are recalled better than intermediate items (primacy and recency effects). Recent item recall probabilities follow a logarithmic decay with time of recall consistent with the tagging/retagging theory. The slope of the decay increases with increasing presentation rate. The initial items, with an effectively low presentation rate, decay with the slowest logarithmic slope, explaining the primacy effect. The finding that presentation rate limits the duration of short term memory suggests a basis for memory loss in busy adults, for the importance of slow music practice, for long term memory deficiencies for people with attention deficits who may be artificially increasing the presentation rates of their surroundings. A well-defined, quantitative measure of the primacy effect is introduced.

  18. Short recovery time NMR probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramia, M.E.; Martin, C.A.; Jeandrevin, S.

    2011-01-01

    A NMR probe for low frequency and short recovery time is presented in this work. The probe contains the tuning circuit, diode expanders and quarter wavelength networks to protect the receiver from both the amplifier noise and the coil ringing following the transmitter power pulse. It also possesses a coil damper which is activated by of non active components. The probe performance shows a recovery time of about of 15μs a sensitive Q factor reduction and an increase of the signal to noise ratio of about 68% during the reception at a work frequency of 2 MHz. (author)

  19. New three-count technique for short-lived radon decay products in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Deyuan; Lu Zhizhao

    1998-01-01

    Up to the present, radon and its short-lived decay products in air are usually monitored by means of a detection. But radon progeny, including RaB ( 214 Pb) and RaC ( 214 Bi) which are β and γ emitters, contribute about 90% to the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EECRn). Therefore, this paper introduces a new three-count technique by a β detector in the light of radioactive decay law and its boundary conditions during sampling and counting times to solve the Bateman equation. β (even low level β) instruments have been fairly popularized domestically and internationally. It can be used not only as an instrument for radon and its daughters in air, but also as a monitor for β airborne activity in the environment. This new method taps further the latent power of the present instrument and realizes various uses for a unit. (author)

  20. Short term memory decays and high presentation rates hurry this decay: The Murdock free recall experiments interpreted in the Tagging/Retagging model

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Dr. Eugen

    2009-01-01

    I show that the curious free recall data of Murdock (1962) can be explained by the Tagging/Retagging model of short term memory (Tarnow, 2009 and 2008) in which a short term memory item is a tagged long term memory item. The tagging (linear in time) corresponds to the synaptic process of exocytosis and the loss of tagging (logarithmic in time) corresponds to synaptic endocytosis. The Murdock recent item recall probabilities follow a logarithmic decay with time of recall. The slope of the d...

  1. Order effects and vowel decay in short-term memory: the neutralization hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Karypidis, Charalampos

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Information stored in short-term memory decays extremely fast compared to the content of long-termmemory. The nature of this memory loss being littleknown (random or systematic), this paper examinesthe presentation order effect in the light of the neutralization hypothesis, according to which the firstvowel in a pair decays, while retained in short-termmemory, toward [er]. Twelve French listeners participated in three AX roving discrimination sessions.For each of the 1...

  2. Method for determining thermal neutron decay times of earth formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    A method is disclosed for measuring the thermal neutron decay time of earth formations in the vicinity of a well borehole. A harmonically intensity modulated source of fast neutrons is used to irradiate the earth formations with fast neutrons at three different intensity modulation frequencies. The tangents of the relative phase angles of the fast neutrons and the resulting thermal neutrons at each of the three frequencies of modulation are measured. First and second approximations to the earth formation thermal neutron decay time are derived from the three tangent measurements. These approximations are then combined to derive a value for the true earth formation thermal neutron decay time

  3. Analysis of subnanosecond fluorescence decay curves with a 5GHz real time detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunin, B.; Heisel, F.; Knispel, G.; Miehe, J.A.; Sipp, B.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed description and a review on the characteristics of a fast vacuum photoelectric cell associated with a high speed cathode ray tube. In addition, this system is used to measure short-lived fluorescence decay times [fr

  4. Measurements of beta-decay half-lives of short-lived nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, T.; Tsurita, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawade, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Iida, T.; Takahashi, A.; Kasugai, Y.; Ikeda, Y.

    1997-03-01

    The {beta}-decay half-lives of short-lived nuclei produced by 14 MeV neutron bombardments were measured with Ge detectors, a High-rate spectroscopy amplifier (EG and G ORTEC model 973) and a Spectrum multi-scaler (Laboratory equipment corporation SMS-48) in the multi-scaling mode. The adequate corrections for pile-up and dead-time losses were made by applying source and pulser methods. The half-lives of {sup 53}V, {sup 53g}Fe, {sup 89m}Y and {sup 162}Tb were determined with uncertainties of 0.13-0.65%. It has been shown that previous values shorter than 10 min were systematically longer than the present ones. (author)

  5. Radioactivity of radon and its short-lived decay products in room air, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michikuni; Katoh, Takao

    1983-01-01

    In the reactor room of the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, the measurements of radon (Rn) and its short-lived decay products (Rn-Dts) were carried out under ventilated and non-ventilated conditions. The indoor activities were equal to outdoor ones under ventilated condition and those activities increased till about 10 times of outdoors under non-ventilated condition. We attempted to explain these results on a basis of a simple model. The calculations were performed taking into account: (1) supply of Rn and Rn-Dts from outdoor, (2) the emanation rate of Rn from the wall materials of building, (3) the removal rate of Rn-Dts by ventilation and wall deposition, and (4) the attachment rate of unattached atom to aerosols. In addition, natural ventilation were considered during periods without artificial ventilation. (author)

  6. The case of escape probability as linear in short time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, A.; Schuss, Z.

    2018-02-01

    We derive rigorously the short-time escape probability of a quantum particle from its compactly supported initial state, which has a discontinuous derivative at the boundary of the support. We show that this probability is linear in time, which seems to be a new result. The novelty of our calculation is the inclusion of the boundary layer of the propagated wave function formed outside the initial support. This result has applications to the decay law of the particle, to the Zeno behaviour, quantum absorption, time of arrival, quantum measurements, and more.

  7. Time reversal violation in radiative beta decay: experimental plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, J. A.; McNeil, J.; Anholm, M.; Gorelov, A.; Melconian, D.; Ashery, D.

    2017-01-01

    Some explanations for the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe involve sources of time reversal violation (TRV) in addition to the one known in the standard model of particle physics. We plan to search for TRV in a correlation between the momenta of the beta, neutrino, and the radiative gamma sometimes emitted in nuclear beta decay. Correlations involving three (out of four) momenta are sensitive at lowest order to different TRV physics than observables involving spin, such as electric dipole moments and spin-polarized beta decay correlations. Such experiments have been done in radiative kaon decay, but not in systems involving the lightest generation of quarks. An explicit low-energy physics model being tested produces TRV effects in the Fermi beta decay of the neutron, tritium, or some positron-decaying isotopes. We will present plans to measure the TRV asymmetry in radiative beta decay of laser-trapped 38mK at better than 0.01 sensitivity, including suppression of background from positron annihilation. Supported by NSERC, D.O.E., Israel Science Foundation. TRIUMF receives federal funding via a contribution agreement with the National Research Council of Canada.

  8. Decay properties of short-lived mass-separated fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, E.

    1977-01-01

    The present work describes determinations of total β-decay energies and studies of delayed neutron emission including the identification and half-life determinations of delayed neutron precursors and the measurement of neutron spectra. It also includes a short review of the OSIRIS on-line isotope separator facility. (Auth.)

  9. 'Stutter timing' for charge decay time measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubb, John [Infostatic, 2 Monica Drive, Pittville, Cheltenham, GL50 4NQ (United Kingdom); Harbour, John [Hawthorne Technical Design, The Hawthornes, Startley, Chippenham, SN15 5HG,UK (United Kingdom); Pavey, Ian, E-mail: jchubb@infostatic.co.uk [Chilworth Technology Ltd, Beta House, Southampton Science Park, Southampton, SO16 7NS (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    The paper describes the approach of 'stutter timing' that has been developed to improve the accuracy of measuring charge decay times in the presence of noise in compact and portable charge decay test instrumentation. The approach involves starting and stopping the timing clock as the noisy signal rises above and falls below the target threshold voltage level.

  10. New Limit on Time-Reversal Violation in Beta Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumm, H. P.; Chupp, T. E.; Cooper, R. L.; Coulter, K. P.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Garcia, A.; Jones, G. L.; Nico, J. S.; Thompson, A. K.; Trull, C. A.; Wietfeldt, F. E.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of an improved determination of the triple correlation DP·(p e xp v ) that can be used to limit possible time-reversal invariance in the beta decay of polarized neutrons and constrain extensions to the standard model. Our result is D=[-0.96±1.89(stat)±1.01(sys)]x10 -4 . The corresponding phase between g A and g V is φ AV =180.013 deg. ±0.028 deg. (68% confidence level). This result represents the most sensitive measurement of D in nuclear β decay.

  11. On the Time-Dependent Analysis of Gamow Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durr, Detlef; Grummt, Robert; Kolb, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Gamow's explanation of the exponential decay law uses complex "eigenvalues" and exponentially growing "eigenfunctions". This raises the question, how Gamow's description fits into the quantum mechanical description of nature, which is based on real eigenvalues and square integrable wavefunctions. Observing that the time evolution of any…

  12. Space-time description of the two-photon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrasko, P.

    1981-09-01

    The time correlation of photons in a two-photon decay is shown to depend on the instantaneous nature of the wave-function collapse in an essential way so the latter hypothesis can be verified by the experimental study of these correlations. (author)

  13. MeV-scale sterile neutrino decays at the Fermilab Short-Baseline Neutrino program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballett, Peter; Pascoli, Silvia; Ross-Lonergan, Mark [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Department of Physics, Durham University,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-19

    Nearly-sterile neutrinos with masses in the MeV range and below would be produced in the beam of the Short-Baseline Neutrino (SBN) program at Fermilab. In this article, we study the potential for SBN to discover these particles through their subsequent decays in its detectors. We discuss the decays which will be visible at SBN in a minimal and non-minimal extension of the Standard Model, and perform simulations to compute the parameter space constraints which could be placed in the absence of a signal. We demonstrate that the SBN programme can extend existing bounds on well constrained channels such as N→νl{sup +}l{sup −} and N→l{sup ±}π{sup ∓} while, thanks to the strong particle identification capabilities of liquid-Argon technology, also place bounds on often neglected channels such as N→νγ and N→νπ{sup 0}. Furthermore, we consider the phenomenological impact of improved event timing information at the three detectors. As well as considering its role in background reduction, we note that if the light-detection systems in SBND and ICARUS can achieve nanosecond timing resolution, the effect of finite sterile neutrino mass could be directly observable, providing a smoking-gun signature for this class of models. We stress throughout that the search for heavy nearly-sterile neutrinos is a complementary new physics analysis to the search for eV-scale oscillations, and would extend the BSM programme of SBN while requiring no beam or detector modifications.

  14. Late time properties of a decaying false vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanowski, K.

    2014-01-01

    The false vacuum states are unstable and they decay by tunneling. Some of them may survive up to times when their survival probability has a non-exponential form. At times much latter than the transition time, when contributions to the survival probability of its exponential and non-exponential parts are comparable, the survival probability as a function of time t has an inverse power-like form. We show that at this time region the instantaneous energy of the false vacuum states tends to the energy of the true vacuum state as 1/t 2 for t → ∞. (author)

  15. Transient nanobubbles in short-time electrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svetovoy, Vitaly; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2013-01-01

    Water electrolysis in a microsystem is observed and analyzed on a short-time scale of ∼10 μs. The very unusual properties of the process are stressed. An extremely high current density is observed because the process is not limited by the diffusion of electroactive species. The high current is

  16. Simulation of radon short lived decay daughters' inhalation using the lung compartmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomulescu, Vlad C.

    2002-01-01

    Radon and its short-lived decay daughters are the main source of radiation on natural ways for population. The radon gas, released from soil, water or construction materials is producing by radioactive decay the following solid daughters: Po-218, Bi-214, Pb-214, and Po-214, which can attach to aerosols, and consequently penetrate the organism by inhalation. The human respiratory tract can be approximated by aid of a compartment model that takes into account the different anatomical structures exposed to contamination and irradiation, as well as the respective physiological processes. This model is associated to a mathematical equation system that describes the behavior of the radioactive material inside the body. The results represent the dose equivalent on different organs and tissues, as a function of subject and the activity performed in contaminating environment. (author)

  17. Development of long-wavelength-emitting scintillators with improved decay time characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, L.A.; Lutz, S.; Lyons, P.B.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported from efforts to develop radiation-to-light converters suitable for use with optical fibers as they are applied to the diagnostics of transient nuclear phenomena. Liquid and plastic fluors have been prepared which emit in the 550- to 600-nm region. Ternary liquid systems with decay times as short as 1.3 ns at 560 nm and plastic fluors with decay times less than 3 ns at 560 nm are reported. Other liquid and plastic fluors are reported with improved emission characteristics in the region of 600 nm. Conversion efficiences, on a pulse amplitude basis, are generally lower than that of a commercially available 570 nm-16 ns plastic fluor

  18. Time-dependent asymmetries in Bs decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Blouw, Johan

    2007-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will search for New Physics in Bs mixing. The Bs mixing phase will be extracted from the measurement of the time-dependent CP asymmetry in exclusive Bs decays governed by the $b \\to c\\bar{c}s$ quark level transition. Large New Physics effects can be discovered or excluded with the data collected during the very first physics run of LHC. Based on Monte Carlo simulations of the LHCb detector, the expected sensitivity with 2 fb$^{-1}$ on the CP-violation parameter $\\phi_s$, is $\\sigma(\\phi_s)$ = 0.022.

  19. Variations in the electrical short-circuit current decay for recombination lifetime and velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Tae-Won; Lindholm, Fredrik A.; Neugroschel, Arnost

    1987-01-01

    An improved measurement system for electrical short-circuit current decay is presented that extends applicability of the method to silicon solar cells having an effective lifetime as low as 1 microsec. The system uses metal/oxide/semiconductor transistors as voltage-controlled switches. Advances in theory developed here increase precision and sensitivity in the determination of the minority-carrier recombination lifetime and recombination velocity. A variation of the method, which exploits measurements made on related back-surface field and back-ohmic contact devices, further improves precision and sensitivity. The improvements are illustrated by application to 15 different silicon solar cells.

  20. Time reversal invariance - a test in free neutron decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lising, Laura Jean [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Time reversal invariance violation plays only a small role in the Standard Model, and the existence of a T-violating effect above the predicted level would be an indication of new physics. A sensitive probe of this symmetry in the weak interaction is the measurement of the T-violating ''D''-correlation in the decay of free neutrons. The triple-correlation Dσn∙pe x pv involves three kinematic variables, the neutron spin, electron momentu, and neutrino (or proton) momentum, and changes sign under time reversal. This experiment detects the decay products of a polarized cold neutron beam with an octagonal array of scintillation and solid-state detectors. Data from first run at NIST's Cold Neutron Research Facility give a D-coefficient of -0.1 ± 1.3(stat.) ± 0.7(syst) x 10-3 This measurement has the greatest bearing on extensions to the Standard model that incorporate leptoquarks, although exotic fermion and lift-right symmetric models also allow a D as large as the present limit.

  1. Thermal algebraic-decay charge liquid driven by competing short-range Coulomb repulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Ryui; Nonomura, Yoshihiko; Kohno, Masanori

    2018-05-01

    We explore the possibility of a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless-like critical phase for the charge degrees of freedom in the intermediate-temperature regime between the charge-ordered and disordered phases in two-dimensional systems with competing short-range Coulomb repulsion. As the simplest example, we investigate the extended Hubbard model with on-site and nearest-neighbor Coulomb interactions on a triangular lattice at half filling in the atomic limit by using a classical Monte Carlo method, and find a critical phase, characterized by algebraic decay of the charge correlation function, belonging to the universality class of the two-dimensional XY model with a Z6 anisotropy. Based on the results, we discuss possible conditions for the critical phase in materials.

  2. Short time ahead wind power production forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapronova, Alla; Meissner, Catherine; Mana, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    An accurate prediction of wind power output is crucial for efficient coordination of cooperative energy production from different sources. Long-time ahead prediction (from 6 to 24 hours) of wind power for onshore parks can be achieved by using a coupled model that would bridge the mesoscale weather prediction data and computational fluid dynamics. When a forecast for shorter time horizon (less than one hour ahead) is anticipated, an accuracy of a predictive model that utilizes hourly weather data is decreasing. That is because the higher frequency fluctuations of the wind speed are lost when data is averaged over an hour. Since the wind speed can vary up to 50% in magnitude over a period of 5 minutes, the higher frequency variations of wind speed and direction have to be taken into account for an accurate short-term ahead energy production forecast. In this work a new model for wind power production forecast 5- to 30-minutes ahead is presented. The model is based on machine learning techniques and categorization approach and using the historical park production time series and hourly numerical weather forecast. (paper)

  3. Short time ahead wind power production forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapronova, Alla; Meissner, Catherine; Mana, Matteo

    2016-09-01

    An accurate prediction of wind power output is crucial for efficient coordination of cooperative energy production from different sources. Long-time ahead prediction (from 6 to 24 hours) of wind power for onshore parks can be achieved by using a coupled model that would bridge the mesoscale weather prediction data and computational fluid dynamics. When a forecast for shorter time horizon (less than one hour ahead) is anticipated, an accuracy of a predictive model that utilizes hourly weather data is decreasing. That is because the higher frequency fluctuations of the wind speed are lost when data is averaged over an hour. Since the wind speed can vary up to 50% in magnitude over a period of 5 minutes, the higher frequency variations of wind speed and direction have to be taken into account for an accurate short-term ahead energy production forecast. In this work a new model for wind power production forecast 5- to 30-minutes ahead is presented. The model is based on machine learning techniques and categorization approach and using the historical park production time series and hourly numerical weather forecast.

  4. Measurement of the phase difference between short- and long-distance amplitudes in the [Formula: see text] decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baszczyk, M; Batozskaya, V; Batsukh, B; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bitadze, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Bordyuzhin, I; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Chamont, D; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dungs, K; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Déléage, N; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Funk, W; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hatch, M; He, J; Head, T; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, H; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hutchcroft, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kozachuk, A; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, T; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marinangeli, M; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurice, E; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Morgunova, O; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Mussini, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nogay, A; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Placinta, V; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schubert, K; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Soares Lavra, L; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stevens, H; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Toriello, F; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viana Barbosa, J V; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yao, Y; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the phase difference between the short- and long-distance contributions to the [Formula: see text] decay is performed by analysing the dimuon mass distribution. The analysis is based on pp collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3[Formula: see text] collected by the LHCb experiment in 2011 and 2012. The long-distance contribution to the [Formula: see text] decay is modelled as a sum of relativistic Breit-Wigner amplitudes representing different vector meson resonances decaying to muon pairs, each with their own magnitude and phase. The measured phases of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] resonances are such that the interference with the short-distance component in dimuon mass regions far from their pole masses is small. In addition, constraints are placed on the Wilson coefficients, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and the branching fraction of the short-distance component is measured.

  5. Are anomalously short tunnelling times measurable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, V.; Muga, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Low and Mende have analyzed the conditions that would make possible an actual measurement of an anomalously short traversal time through a potential barrier concluding that such a measurement cannot be made because it is not possible to describe the tunnelling of a wave packet initially close to the barrier by the open-quote open-quote usual wave packet space time analysis close-quote close-quote. We complement this work in several ways: It is argued that the described failure of the usual formalism occurs under a set of too restrictive conditions, some of them not physically motivated, so it does not necessarily imply the impossibility of such a measurement. However, by retaining only conditions well motivated on physical grounds we have performed a systematic numerical check which shows that the conclusion by Low and Mende is indeed generally valid. It is shown that, as speculated by Low and Mende, the process is dominated by over the barrier transmission. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  6. Search for time reversal violation in neutron decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorel, P.

    2006-06-01

    The topic of this thesis is the implementation of an experimental setup designed to measure the R- and N-parameters in polarized neutron decay, together with the data analysis. Four observables are necessary for this measurement: the neutron polarization, the electron momentum and both transverse components of the electron polarization. These last two are measured using a Mott polarimeter. The other observables are determined using the same detectors. The precision to be reached on the R-parameter is 0.5%. A non zero value would sign a time reversal invariance violation and therefore would be a hint of physics beyond the Standard Model. This document presents the work done to prepare and optimize the experimental setup before the data acquisition run performed in 2004. Particular care was taken on the scintillator walls, used to trigger the acquisition and measure the electron energy. The second part concerns the implementation of methods to extract R and N from the data, and the study of the background recorded simultaneously. (author)

  7. New definition of the decay law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokov, M.I.

    1977-01-01

    Time evolution of unstable states is considered. The usual definition of the decay law is shown to be of a limited application. A more general definition is proposed. The decay law behaviour at long and short times is discussed

  8. Study of N-13 decay on time using continuous kinetic function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dai Nghiep; Vu Hoang Lam; Nguyen Ngoc Son; Nguyen Duc Thanh

    1993-01-01

    The decay function from radioisotope 13 N formed in the reaction 14 N(γ,n) 13 N was registered by high resolution gamma spectrometer in multiscanning mode with gamma energy 511 keV. The experimental data was processed by common and kinetic function method. The continuous comparison of the decay function on time permits to determinate possible deviation from purely exponential decay curve. The results were described by several decay theories. The degrees of corresponding between theories and experiment were evaluated by goodness factor. A complex type of decay was considered. (author). 9 refs, 2 tabs, 6 figs

  9. A characterization of persistence at short times in the WFC3/IR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, M.; Bajaj, V.; Long, K.

    2018-05-01

    Persistence in the WFC3/IR detector appears to decay as a power law as a function of time elapsed since the end of a stimulus. In this report we study departures from the power law at times shorter than a few hundreds seconds after the stimulus. In order to have better short-time cadence, we use the Multiaccum (.ima) files, which trace the accumulated charge in the pixels as function of time, rather than the final pipeline products (.flt files), which instead report the electron rate estimated via a linear fit to the accumulated charge vs. time relation. We note that at short times after the stimulus, the absolute change in persistence is the strongest, thus a linear fit to the accumulated signal (the .flt values) can be a poor representation of the strongly varying persistence signal. The already observed power-law decay of the persistence signal, still holds at shorter times, with typical values of the power law index, gamma in [-0.8,-1] for stimuli that saturate the WFC3 pixels. To a good degree of approximation, a single power law is a good fit to the persistence signal decay from 100 to 5000 seconds. We also detect a tapering-off in the power-law decay at increasingly shorter times. This change in behavior is of the order of Delta Gamma 0.02 - 0.05 when comparing power-law fits performed to the persistence signal from 0 up to 250 seconds and from 0 up to 4000 seconds after the stimulus, indicating that persistence decays slightly more rapidly as time progresses. Our results may suggest that for even shorter times, not probed by our study, the WFC3 persistence signal might deviate from a single power-law model.

  10. The impact of water loading on postglacial decay times in Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Holly Kyeore; Gomez, Natalya

    2018-05-01

    Ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) due to surface loading (ice and water) variations during the last glacial cycle has been contributing to sea-level changes globally throughout the Holocene, especially in regions like Canada that were heavily glaciated during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The spatial and temporal distribution of GIA, as manifested in relative sea-level (RSL) change, are sensitive to the ice history and the rheological structure of the solid Earth, both of which are uncertain. It has been shown that RSL curves near the center of previously glaciated regions with no ongoing surface loading follow an exponential-like form, with the postglacial decay times associated with that form having a weak sensitivity to the details of the ice loading history. Postglacial decay time estimates thus provide a powerful datum for constraining the Earth's viscous structure and improving GIA predictions. We explore spatial patterns of postglacial decay time predictions in Hudson Bay by decomposing numerically modeled RSL changes into contributions from water and ice loading effects, and computing their relative impact on the decay times. We demonstrate that ice loading can contribute a strong geographic trend on the decay time estimates if the time window used to compute decay times includes periods that are temporally close to (i.e. contemporaneous with, or soon after) periods of active loading. This variability can be avoided by choosing a suitable starting point for the decay time window. However, more surprisingly, we show that across any adopted time window, water loading effects associated with inundation into, and postglacial flux out of, Hudson Bay and James Bay will impart significant geographic variability onto decay time estimates. We emphasize this issue by considering both maps of predicted decay times across the region and site-specific estimates, and we conclude that variability in observed decay times (whether based on existing or future data

  11. Influence of the partial temporal coherence of short FEL pulses on two-colour photoionization and photoinduced Auger decay of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansky, A K; Sazhina, I P; Kabachnik, N M

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the partial temporal coherence of free electron laser (FEL) radiation on the sidebands arising in the electron spectra of laser-assisted photoionization and photoinduced Auger decay of atoms is theoretically analysed. A simple model is developed which describes the inner-shell photoionization by a short (femtosecond) FEL pulse and the following Auger decay in a strong field of an infrared laser. The model is based on the time-dependent approach and uses the strong field approximation for both photo- and Auger electrons. Particular calculations have been carried out for Ne 1s photoionization and KLL Auger emission. We demonstrate that the temporal coherence of FEL pulses influences the line widths in the photoelectron spectrum. For a small coherence time the sidebands in this spectrum cannot be resolved. On the other hand, our calculations show that in the Auger electron spectrum the sidebands are practically independent of the coherence time of the ionizing pulse.

  12. Time-based forgetting in visual working memory reflects temporal distinctiveness, not decay

    OpenAIRE

    Souza Alessandra S.; Oberauer Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Is forgetting from working memory (WM) better explained by decay or interference? The answer to this question is the topic of an ongoing debate. Recently a number of studies showed that performance in tests of visual WM declines with an increasing unfilled retention interval. This finding was interpreted as revealing decay. Alternatively it can be explained by interference theories as an effect of temporal distinctiveness. According to decay theories forgetting depends on the absolute time el...

  13. A generalized voter model with time-decaying memory on a multilayer network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Li-Xin; Xu, Wen-Juan; Chen, Rong-Da; Zhong, Chen-Yang; Qiu, Tian; Shi, Yong-Dong; Wang, Li-Liang

    2016-09-01

    By incorporating a multilayer network and time-decaying memory into the original voter model, we investigate the coupled effects of spatial and temporal accumulation of peer pressure on the consensus. Heterogeneity in peer pressure and the time-decaying mechanism are both shown to be detrimental to the consensus. We find the transition points below which a consensus can always be reached and above which two opposed opinions are more likely to coexist. Our mean-field analysis indicates that the phase transitions in the present model are governed by the cumulative influence of peer pressure and the updating threshold. We find a functional relation between the consensus threshold and the decay rate of the influence of peer is found. As to the pressure. The time required to reach a consensus is governed by the coupling of the memory length and the decay rate. An intermediate decay rate may greatly reduce the time required to reach a consensus.

  14. Detecting the (quasi-) two-body decays of /τ leptons in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asratyan, A.; Balatz, M.; Boehnlein, D.; Childres, S.; Davidenko, G.; Dolgolenko, A.; Dzyubenko, G.; Kaftanov, V.; Kubantsev, M.; Reay, N. W.; Musser, J.; Rosenfeld, C.; Stanton, N. R.; Thun, R.; Tzanakos, G. S.; Verebryusov, V.; Vishnyakov, V.

    1999-05-01

    Novel detector schemes are proposed for the short-baseline neutrino experiments of next generation, aimed at exploring the large- Δm 2 domain of ν μ→ν τ oscillations in the appearance mode. These schemes emphasize good spectrometry for charged particles and for electromagnetic showers and efficient reconstruction of π0→ γγ decays. The basic elements are a sequence of relatively thin emulsion targets, immersed in magnetic field and interspersed with electronic trackers, and a fine-grained electromagnetic calorimeter built of lead glass. These elements act as an integral whole in reconstructing the electromagnetic showers. This conceptual scheme shows good performance in identifying the τ (quasi-) two-body decays by their characteristic kinematics and in selecting the electronic decays of the τ.

  15. Detecting the (quasi-) two-body decays of τ leptons in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asratyan, A.; Balatz, M.; Boehnlein, D.; Childres, S.; Davidenko, G.; Dolgolenko, A.; Dzyubenko, G.; Kaftanov, V.; Kubantsev, M.; Reay, N.W.; Musser, J.; Rosenfeld, C.; Stanton, N.R.; Thun, R.; Tzanakos, G.S.; Verebryusov, V.; Vishnyakov, V.

    1999-01-01

    Novel detector schemes are proposed for the short-baseline neutrino experiments of next generation, aimed at exploring the large-Δm 2 domain of ν μ →ν τ oscillations in the appearance mode. These schemes emphasize good spectrometry for charged particles and for electromagnetic showers and efficient reconstruction of π 0 →γγ decays. The basic elements are a sequence of relatively thin emulsion targets, immersed in magnetic field and interspersed with electronic trackers, and a fine-grained electromagnetic calorimeter built of lead glass. These elements act as an integral whole in reconstructing the electromagnetic showers. This conceptual scheme shows good performance in identifying the τ (quasi-) two-body decays by their characteristic kinematics and in selecting the electronic decays of the τ

  16. Gross theory of beta-decay and half-lives of short-lived nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masami; Kondo, Norikatsu.

    1976-01-01

    The gross theory of beta-decay has been developed, and this theory offers the means of calculating directly the function of beta-decay intensity, then half-lives, complex beta spectra and so on are estimated from it. This paper presents the more refined theory by introducing the shell effect. The shell effect is considered in the intensity function. The half-lives in the electron decay of In with spin of 9/2 + , the positron decay of Bi, Po, At and Rn, and the decay of odd-odd nuclei were estimated. The introduction of the shell effect shows better agreement between the theory and the experimental data. The inequality relations of intensity functions and half-lives of two adjacent nuclei were obtained. When the spins and parities of two nuclei are same, the inequality relations hold especially good. (Kato, T.)

  17. Radioactive decay of the late-time light curves of GRB-SNe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Kuntal; Fruchte, Andrew Steven

    2018-04-01

    We present the late-time Hubble Space Telescope observations of two GRB associated supernovae, GRB 030329/SN 2003dh and XRF 060218/SN 2006aj. Using the multi-color data upto ˜ 320 days after the burst, we constrain the late-time decay nature of these supernovae. The decay rates of SN 2003dh are steeper than SN 2006aj. A comparison with two other GRB supernovae, GRB 980425/SN 1998bw and the supernova associated with XRF 020903, shows that the decay rates of SN 2003dh are similar to XRF 020903 and those of SN 2006aj are similar to SN 1998bw. The late-time decay rates are steeper than the 56Co?56Fe radioactive decay rate (0.0098 mag day-1) indicating that there is some leakage of gamma-rays.

  18. A note on the time decay of solutions for the linearized Wigner-Poisson system

    KAUST Repository

    Gamba, Irene

    2009-01-01

    We consider the one-dimensional Wigner-Poisson system of plasma physics, linearized around a (spatially homogeneous) Lorentzian distribution and prove that the solution of the corresponding linearized problem decays to zero in time. We also give an explicit algebraic decay rate.

  19. Determine the need to research the time-related stability decay of bord and pillar systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholzer, JW

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available in decisions regarding research work that could be conducted to investigate the time related decay of bord and pillar workings. As the working consist of pillars of varying shapes and sizes the study concentrated mainly on the aspects of pillar decay...

  20. The short distance contribution to the Bs → γγ decay in the SM and MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devidze, G.G.

    2000-06-01

    The complete calculation of the short distance contributions to the B s → γγ decay in the SM and MSSM are presented. The branching ratio and relative part of CP-even state of final photons are calculated. The branching ratio and relative part of CP-even state of final photons in the MSSM maybe significantly larger than the standard model estimate. (author)

  1. Short-term visual memory for location in depth: A U-shaped function of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Adam; Lei, Quan

    2017-10-01

    Short-term visual memory was studied by displaying arrays of four or five numerals, each numeral in its own depth plane, followed after various delays by an arrow cue shown in one of the depth planes. Subjects reported the numeral at the depth cued by the arrow. Accuracy fell with increasing cue delay for the first 500 ms or so, and then recovered almost fully. This dipping pattern contrasts with the usual iconic decay observed for memory traces. The dip occurred with or without a verbal or color-shape retention load on working memory. In contrast, accuracy did not change with delay when a tonal cue replaced the arrow cue. We hypothesized that information concerning the depths of the numerals decays over time in sensory memory, but that cued recall is aided later on by transfer to a visual memory specialized for depth. This transfer is sufficiently rapid with a tonal cue to compensate for the sensory decay, but it is slowed by the need to tag the arrow cue's depth relative to the depths of the numerals, exposing a dip when sensation has decayed and transfer is not yet complete. A model with a fixed rate of sensory decay and varied transfer rates across individuals captures the dip as well as the cue modality effect.

  2. Systematic measurement of beta-decay half-lives of short-lived isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawade, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Iida, T.; Takahashi, A.; Kasugai, Y.; Ikeda, Y.

    1997-03-01

    We have measured the half-lives of short-lived isotopes for past decade and deduced the half-lives of 6 isotopes further. These results demonstrated that most of the literature values shorter than 10 min systematically deviated from our measurement ones. The cause seems to be that a large number of the previous half-life studies were performed with scintillation counters before 1970 and they had a difficulty in distinguishing the interest {gamma}-ray from the contamination and correcting for pile-up and dead-time losses. Moreover, the deviated data found to be quoted for evaluation. (author)

  3. Design spectra development considering short time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, E.O.

    1983-01-01

    Two separate programs, MODQKE and MDOF, were written to provide a capability of obtaining equipment spectra from design spectra. MODQKE generates or modifies acceleration histories to conform with design spectra pertaining to, say, a foundation. MDOF is a simple linear modal superposition program that solves for equipment support histories using the design spectra conforming histories as input. Equipment spectra, then, are obtained from the support histories using MODQKE. MODQKE was written to modify or provide new histories with special attention paid to short seismic records. A technique from the open literature was borrowed to generate an initial history that approximates a given response spectrum. Further refinement is done with smoothing cycles in which several correction signals are added to the history in a way that produces a least squares fit between actual and prescribed spectra. Provision is made for history shaping, a baseline correction, and final scaling. MODQKE performance has been demonstrated with seven examples having zero to ten percent damping ratios, and 2.5 seconds to 20 seconds durations and a variety of target spectra. The examples show the program is inexpensive to use. MDOF is a simple modal superposition program. It has no eigensolver, and the user supplies mode shapes, frequencies, and participation factors as input. Floor spectra can be generated from design spectra by using a history from MODQKE that conforms to the design spectrum as input to MDOF. Floor motions from MDOF can be fed back to MODQKE without modification to obtain the floor spectra. A simple example is given to show how equipment mass effects can be incorporated into the MDOF solution. Any transient solution capability can be used to replace MDOF. For example, a direct transient approach may be desirable if both the equipment and floor structures are to be included in the model with different damping fractions. (orig./HP)

  4. Kālacakra: Shortlies Considerations on Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Muñoz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper calls for a comparative reading of both the Buddhist conception of time and a branch of Western phenomenology. With special emphasis on the Madhyamaka Buddhist school, it discusses the way in which fugacity and impermanence are similarly discussed by French philosopher Gaston Bachelard in his L’intuition de l’instant. In both cases, the stress lies on the fact that duration is but a mental construct lacking true, absolute reality, while at the same time the human being is subjected to hopes of transcendence which, in turn, engender disillusion and delusion.

  5. Inferring interdependencies from short time series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Complex networks provide an invaluable framework for the study of interlinked dynamical systems. In many cases, such networks are constructed from observed time series by first estimating the ...... does not quantify causal relations (unlike IOTA, or .... Africa_map_regions.svg, which is under public domain.

  6. Phonemes as short time cognitive components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    are the smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of a language. Generalizable components were found deriving from phonemes based on homomorphic filtering features with basic time scale (20 msec). We sparsified the features based on energy as a preprocessing means to eliminate the intrinsic noise. Independent...

  7. A note on the time decay of solutions for the linearized Wigner-Poisson system

    KAUST Repository

    Gamba, Irene; Gualdani, Maria; Sparber, Christof

    2009-01-01

    We consider the one-dimensional Wigner-Poisson system of plasma physics, linearized around a (spatially homogeneous) Lorentzian distribution and prove that the solution of the corresponding linearized problem decays to zero in time. We also give

  8. Methodology of measurement of thermal neutron time decay constant in Canberra 35+ MCA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Gabanska, B.; Igielski, A.; Krynicka, E.; Woznicka, U. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    A method of the thermal neutron time decay constant measurement in small bounded media is presented. A 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator is the neutron source. The system of recording of a die-away curve of thermal neutrons consists of a {sup 3}He detector and of a multichannel time analyzer based on analyzer Canberra 35+ with multi scaler module MCS 7880 (microsecond range). Optimum parameters for the measuring system are considered. Experimental verification of a dead time of the instrumentation system is made and a count-loss correction is incorporated into the data treatment. An attention is paid to evaluate with a high accuracy the fundamental mode decay constant of the registered decaying curve. A new procedure of the determination of the decay constant by a multiple recording of the die-away curve is presented and results of test measurements are shown. (author). 11 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs.

  9. Methodology of measurement of thermal neutron time decay constant in Canberra 35+ MCA system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Gabanska, B.; Igielski, A.; Krynicka, E.; Woznicka, U.

    1993-01-01

    A method of the thermal neutron time decay constant measurement in small bounded media is presented. A 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator is the neutron source. The system of recording of a die-away curve of thermal neutrons consists of a 3 He detector and of a multichannel time analyzer based on analyzer Canberra 35+ with multi scaler module MCS 7880 (microsecond range). Optimum parameters for the measuring system are considered. Experimental verification of a dead time of the instrumentation system is made and a count-loss correction is incorporated into the data treatment. An attention is paid to evaluate with a high accuracy the fundamental mode decay constant of the registered decaying curve. A new procedure of the determination of the decay constant by a multiple recording of the die-away curve is presented and results of test measurements are shown. (author). 11 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  10. Methodology of measurement of thermal neutron time decay constant in Canberra 35+ MCA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdowicz, K; Gabanska, B; Igielski, A; Krynicka, E; Woznicka, U [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    A method of the thermal neutron time decay constant measurement in small bounded media is presented. A 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator is the neutron source. The system of recording of a die-away curve of thermal neutrons consists of a {sup 3}He detector and of a multichannel time analyzer based on analyzer Canberra 35+ with multi scaler module MCS 7880 (microsecond range). Optimum parameters for the measuring system are considered. Experimental verification of a dead time of the instrumentation system is made and a count-loss correction is incorporated into the data treatment. An attention is paid to evaluate with a high accuracy the fundamental mode decay constant of the registered decaying curve. A new procedure of the determination of the decay constant by a multiple recording of the die-away curve is presented and results of test measurements are shown. (author). 11 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs.

  11. Potential barrier classification by short-time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granot, Er'el; Marchewka, Avi

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the short-time dynamics of a delta-function potential barrier on an initially confined wave packet. There are mainly two conclusions: (A) At short times the probability density of the first particles that passed through the barrier is unaffected by it. (B) When the barrier is absorptive (i.e., its potential is imaginary) it affects the transmitted wave function at shorter times than a real potential barrier. Therefore, it is possible to distinguish between an imaginary and a real potential barrier by measuring its effect at short times only on the transmitting wave function

  12. Potential barrier classification by short-time measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Er'El; Marchewka, Avi

    2006-03-01

    We investigate the short-time dynamics of a delta-function potential barrier on an initially confined wave packet. There are mainly two conclusions: (A) At short times the probability density of the first particles that passed through the barrier is unaffected by it. (B) When the barrier is absorptive (i.e., its potential is imaginary) it affects the transmitted wave function at shorter times than a real potential barrier. Therefore, it is possible to distinguish between an imaginary and a real potential barrier by measuring its effect at short times only on the transmitting wave function.

  13. Radioluminescence Decay Time Measurements in Silver-Doped Cadmium-Sulphide Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, R.

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-induced radioluminescence decay times of CdS(Ag) crystals have been measured at temperatures ranging from 80 K to 300 K by using single-photon counting technique. These measurements indicate a complex and non-exponential type of decay time profiles, which are in general composed of two decay components, the fast one having about 3 ns and the slow one having about 6 ns. The decay times were found to be almost temperature independent. It was experimentally proved that the fast one is originating from the 594 nm emission line, whereas the slow one is originating from the 576 nm emission line. The whole wavelength-dependences of decay times (t 1 /e and t 1 /e 2 ) were also presented. The observation of fast and non-exponential decay times shows that the recombination mechanisms in CdS(Ag) crystals are not simple, responsible centers are not isolated, and there might be more than one radioluminescence center. This suggests the existence of

  14. Time-dependent $CP$ violation measurements with $B$ decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Perazzini, S

    2016-01-01

    LHCb is one of the four major experiments operating at the Large Hadron Collider, and is specifically dedicated to the measurement of CP violation and rare decays in the beauty and charm quark sectors. In this report we present some of the latest and most relevant measurements of time-dependent CP violation in B hadron decays, performed by LHCb using the data sample collected during 2011 and 2012.

  15. Energy decay of a variable-coefficient wave equation with nonlinear time-dependent localized damping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiong Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy decay for the Cauchy problem of the wave equation with nonlinear time-dependent and space-dependent damping. The damping is localized in a bounded domain and near infinity, and the principal part of the wave equation has a variable-coefficient. We apply the multiplier method for variable-coefficient equations, and obtain an energy decay that depends on the property of the coefficient of the damping term.

  16. Improving Music Genre Classification by Short-Time Feature Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Anders; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Many different short-time features, using time windows in the size of 10-30 ms, have been proposed for music segmentation, retrieval and genre classification. However, often the available time frame of the music to make the actual decision or comparison (the decision time horizon) is in the range...... of seconds instead of milliseconds. The problem of making new features on the larger time scale from the short-time features (feature integration) has only received little attention. This paper investigates different methods for feature integration and late information fusion for music genre classification...

  17. Simultaneous determination of radionuclides separable into natural decay series by use of time-interval analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Sanada, Yukihisa; Uezu, Yasuhiro

    2004-01-01

    A delayed coincidence method, time-interval analysis (TIA), has been applied to successive α-α decay events on the millisecond time-scale. Such decay events are part of the 220 Rn→ 216 Po (T 1/2 145 ms) (Th-series) and 219 Rn→ 215 Po (T 1/2 1.78 ms) (Ac-series). By using TIA in addition to measurement of 226 Ra (U-series) from α-spectrometry by liquid scintillation counting (LSC), two natural decay series could be identified and separated. The TIA detection efficiency was improved by using the pulse-shape discrimination technique (PSD) to reject β-pulses, by solvent extraction of Ra combined with simple chemical separation, and by purging the scintillation solution with dry N 2 gas. The U- and Th-series together with the Ac-series were determined, respectively, from alpha spectra and TIA carried out immediately after Ra-extraction. Using the 221 Fr→ 217 At (T 1/2 32.3 ms) decay process as a tracer, overall yields were estimated from application of TIA to the 225 Ra (Np-decay series) at the time of maximum growth. The present method has proven useful for simultaneous determination of three radioactive decay series in environmental samples. (orig.)

  18. The effect of decaying atomic states on integral and time differential Moessbauer spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankeleit, E.

    1975-01-01

    Moessbauer spectra for time dependent monopole interaction have been calculated for the case that the nuclear transition feeding the Moessbauer state excites an electric state of the atom. This is assumed to decay in a time comparable with the lifetime of the Moessbauer state. Spectra have been calculated for both time differential and integral experiments. (orig.) [de

  19. A short-time fading study of Al2O3:C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, L.F.; Vanhavere, F.; Silva, E.H.; Deene, Y. De

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the short-time fading from Al 2 O 3 :C by measuring optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals (Total OSL: T OSL , and Peak OSL: P OSL ) from droplets and Luxel™ pellets. The influence of various bleaching regimes (blue, green and white) and light power is compared. The fading effect is the decay of the OSL signal in the dark at room temperature. Al 2 O 3 :C detectors were submitted to various bleaching regimes, irradiated with a reference dose and read out after different time spans. Investigations were carried out using 2 mm size droplet detectors, made of thin Al 2 O 3 :C powder mixed with a photocured polymer. Tests were compared to Luxel™-type detectors (Landauer Inc.). Short-time post-irradiation fading is present in OSL results (T OSL and P OSL ) droplets for time spans up to 200 s. The effect of short-time fading can be lowered/removed when treating the detectors with high-power and/or long time bleaching regimes; this result was observed in both T OSL and P OSL from droplets and Luxel™. - Highlights: • Droplet composed of thin powder of Al 2 O 3 :C was prepared using a photo-curable polymer. • Powder grain sizes ranged from 5 μm to 35 μm. • Short-time fading was measured for irradiated samples. • Various bleaching regimes and light power was tested. • Droplets were compared to a commercially dosimeter, Luxel™

  20. Short-time quantum propagator and Bohmian trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gosson, Maurice; Hiley, Basil

    2013-12-01

    We begin by giving correct expressions for the short-time action following the work Makri-Miller. We use these estimates to derive an accurate expression modulo Δt2 for the quantum propagator and we show that the quantum potential is negligible modulo Δt2 for a point source, thus justifying an unfortunately largely ignored observation of Holland made twenty years ago. We finally prove that this implies that the quantum motion is classical for very short times.

  1. Short-time quantum propagator and Bohmian trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosson, Maurice de; Hiley, Basil

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving correct expressions for the short-time action following the work Makri–Miller. We use these estimates to derive an accurate expression modulo Δt 2 for the quantum propagator and we show that the quantum potential is negligible modulo Δt 2 for a point source, thus justifying an unfortunately largely ignored observation of Holland made twenty years ago. We finally prove that this implies that the quantum motion is classical for very short times.

  2. Time-dependent CP violation in $B^0_{(s)} \\to h^+h^-$ decays

    CERN Multimedia

    Fazzini, Davide

    2018-01-01

    The direct and mixing-induced CP-violating asymmetries in $B^0 \\to \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ and $B_s \\to K^+ K^-$ decays have been measured using a sample of pp collisions collected by the LHCb experiment during the Run1 of the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb$^{-1}$.The time-integrated CP asymmetries in $B^0 \\to K^+ \\pi^-$ and $B_s \\to \\pi^+ K^-$ decays have also been measured, using the same data sample.The measurements of the CP-violating asymmetries of the $B^0 \\to \\pi^+ \\pi^-$, $B_s \\to K^+\\pi^-$ and $B_s \\to \\pi^+K^-$ decays are the most precise from a single experiment. The measurements of the CP-violating asymmetries of the Bs->KK decays are compatible with the previous results from LHCb.

  3. Systematics of alpha Q-values. Potential dependence of the alpha decay life time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    It has been considered that the life time of α decay can be explained by calculating the probability of α getting out through the composite field of nuclear force and Coulomb force, that alpha and remaining nuclei make, by tunnel effect. However, when the detailed theoretical calculation was performed, the large difference from the experimental values was found. The researches which, have been carried out before are introduced. In this report, it is shown that when the treatment of Arima and Yoshida's way is carried out by using the realistic field of nuclear force and Coulomb force, the half life of α decay in considerably wide range can be calculated by considering the results of Tonozuka and Arima. The systematics of α Q-values is explained. The method of determining the life time of α decay is examined. The comparison of the calculated values and the experimental values of the α decay of 20 Ne and 212 Po is shown. This method of calculating the half life of α decay can reproduce the experimental values well. The application is considered to the estimation of the life of unstable nuclei, the new approach to heavy particle decay and others. (K.I.)

  4. Decay of surface nanostructures via long-time-scale dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voter, A.F.; Stanciu, N.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors have developed a new approach for extending the time scale of molecular dynamics simulations. For infrequent-event systems, the category that includes most diffusive events in the solid phase, this hyperdynamics method can extend the simulation time by a few orders of magnitude compared to direct molecular dynamics. The trajectory is run on a potential surface that has been biased to raise the energy in the potential basins without affecting the transition state region. The method is described and applied to surface and bulk diffusion processes, achieving microsecond and millisecond simulation times. The authors have also developed a new parallel computing method that is efficient for small system sizes. The combination of the hyperdynamics with this parallel replica dynamics looks promising as a general materials simulation tool

  5. Time reversal in polarized neutron decay: the emiT experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G L; Anaya, J M; Bowles, T J; Chupp, T E; Coulter, K P; Dewey, M S; Freedman, S J; Fujikawa, B K; García, A; Greene, G L; Hwang, S R; Lising, L J; Mumm, H P; Nico, J S; Robertson, R G H; Steiger, T D; Teasdale, W A; Thompson, A K; Wasserman, E G; Wietfeldt, F E; Wilkerson, J F

    2000-01-01

    The standard electro-weak model predicts negligible violation of time-reversal invariance in light quark processes. We report on an experimental test of time-reversal invariance in the beta decay of polarized neutrons as a search for physics beyond the standard model. The emiT collaboration has measured the time-reversal-violating triple-correlation in neutron beta decay between the neutron spin, electron momentum, and neutrino momentum often referred to as the D coefficient. The first run of the experiment produced 14 million events which are currently being analyzed. However, a second run with improved detectors should provide greater statistical precision and reduced systematic uncertainties.

  6. Decay-time measurements on 'pure' CsI scintillators prepared by different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keszthelyi-Landori, S.; Foeldvari, I.; Voszka, R.; Fodor, Z.; Seres, Z.

    1990-05-01

    The discovery of the fast decay time of the pure CsI and the various results of the measured samples led to the investigation of decay time of CsI crystals prepared by different methods. Carefully grown or prepared pure CsI behaves as fast scintillators with well or totally suppressed slow decay component. The estimated fast/slow or fast/total ratio is related to the preparation method and to the remaining built-in contamination of the samples. The fast decay of pure CsI consists of two components with decay times of ≅1 and ≅10 ns - with an intensity ratio of 0.3 and 0.65 for gamma and for alpha radiation, respectively. This new ≅1 ns component and the ≅0.8 fast/total ratio may achieve an important role in many applications where fast timing properties are needed, substituting BaF 2 . (author) 18 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  7. Simultaneous thermal neutron decay time and porosity logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    A method for simultaneously determining the porosity and thermal neutron capture cross-section of earth formations in the vicinity of a well borehole is claimed. It comprises the following steps: passing a well tool into a cased well borehole. The tool has a pulsed source of fast neutrons, a combination fast neutron and gamma ray detector and an epithermal neutron detector; repetitively irradiating the earth formations in the vicinity of the borehole with bursts of fast neutrons; detecting the fast neutron and epithermal neutron populations in the borehole (during the neutron bursts) and generating first and second measurement signals; detecting for second and third time intervals during the time between the neutron bursts, the gamma radiation present in the borehole due to the capture of thermalized neutrons by the nuclei of elements comprising the earth formations and generating third and fourth measurement signals; and combining the first and second measurement signals according to a predetermined relationship to derive an indication of the porosity of the earth formations and combining the third and fourth measurement signals to derive an indication of the thermal neutron capture cross-section of the earth formations

  8. Statistical analysis of time-resolved emission from ensembles of semiconductor quantum dots: Interpretation of exponential decay models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Driel, A.F.; Nikolaev, I.S.; Vergeer, P.

    2007-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of time-resolved spontaneous emission decay curves from ensembles of emitters, such as semiconductor quantum dots, with the aim of interpreting ubiquitous non-single-exponential decay. Contrary to what is widely assumed, the density of excited emitters...... and the intensity in an emission decay curve are not proportional, but the density is a time integral of the intensity. The integral relation is crucial to correctly interpret non-single-exponential decay. We derive the proper normalization for both a discrete and a continuous distribution of rates, where every...... decay component is multiplied by its radiative decay rate. A central result of our paper is the derivation of the emission decay curve when both radiative and nonradiative decays are independently distributed. In this case, the well-known emission quantum efficiency can no longer be expressed...

  9. Measurement of time-dependent $\\mathcal{CP}$ violation in charmless B decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258083

    2013-01-01

    In the following we present the measurements of time-dependent $\\mathcal{CP}$ violation in charmless B meson decays performed by LHCb analyzing the $p-p$ collision data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV during the 2010 and 2011 LHC runs. In particular we will focus on the analysis of charmless two-body B decays where the direct and mixing-induced CP asymmetry terms of the $B^{0}\\to\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ and $B_{s}^{0}\\to K^{+}K^{-}$ decays have been measured using 0.69 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected during 2011. The measurement of the branching ratio of the $B_{s}^{0}\\to K^{*0}\\bar{K}^{*0}$ decay, using 35 pb$^{-1}$ collected during 2010, is also reported. In the end we show the relative branching ratios of all the decay modes of $B_{(s)}^{0}\\to K_S h^{+}h^{\\prime -}$ decays (where $h^{(\\prime)}=\\pi,K$), measured analyzing 1 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected during 20 11.

  10. Simultaneous thermal neutron decay time and porosity logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D. Jr.; Smith, M.P.; Schultz, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    A simultaneous pulsed neutron porosity and thermal neutron capture cross section logging system is provided for radiological well logging of subsurface earth formations. A logging tool provided with a 14 MeV pulsed neutron source, an epithermal neutron detector, and a combination gamma ray and fast neutron detector is moved through a borehole. Repetitive bursts of neutrons irradiate the earth formations; and, during the bursts, the fast neutron and epithermal neutron populations are sampled. During the interval between bursts the thermal neutron capture gamma ray population is sampled in two or more time intervals. The fast and epithermal neutron population measurements are combined to provide a measurement of formation porosity phi. The capture gamma ray measurements are combined to provide a simultaneous determination of the thermal neutron capture cross section Σ

  11. Radon and its short-lived decay nuclides in the living environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Siro

    1988-01-01

    The problem about radon and its shortlived decay nuclides in the living environment has been frequently closed-up. The problem is focused on the exposure of human being due to radon and its progeny. This paper reports the reason to the occurrence of the problem. Radon source as well as its pathway into our rooms are outlined here. The behavior of radon and its progeny indoors is also shown in this paper in comparison with outdoor situation and from the persons' activity's point of view. (author)

  12. Short-time quantum dynamics of sharp boundaries potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granot, Er' el, E-mail: erel@ariel.ac.il; Marchewka, Avi

    2015-02-15

    Despite the high prevalence of singular potential in general, and rectangular potentials in particular, in applied scattering models, to date little is known about their short time effects. The reason is that singular potentials cause a mixture of complicated local as well as non-local effects. The object of this work is to derive a generic method to calculate analytically the short-time impact of any singular potential. In this paper it is shown that the scattering of a smooth wavefunction on a singular potential is totally equivalent, in the short-time regime, to the free propagation of a singular wavefunction. However, the latter problem was totally addressed analytically in Ref. [7]. Therefore, this equivalency can be utilized in solving analytically the short time dynamics of any smooth wavefunction at the presence of a singular potentials. In particular, with this method the short-time dynamics of any problem where a sharp boundaries potential (e.g., a rectangular barrier) is turned on instantaneously can easily be solved analytically.

  13. Short-time quantum dynamics of sharp boundaries potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Er'el; Marchewka, Avi

    2015-02-01

    Despite the high prevalence of singular potential in general, and rectangular potentials in particular, in applied scattering models, to date little is known about their short time effects. The reason is that singular potentials cause a mixture of complicated local as well as non-local effects. The object of this work is to derive a generic method to calculate analytically the short-time impact of any singular potential. In this paper it is shown that the scattering of a smooth wavefunction on a singular potential is totally equivalent, in the short-time regime, to the free propagation of a singular wavefunction. However, the latter problem was totally addressed analytically in Ref. [7]. Therefore, this equivalency can be utilized in solving analytically the short time dynamics of any smooth wavefunction at the presence of a singular potentials. In particular, with this method the short-time dynamics of any problem where a sharp boundaries potential (e.g., a rectangular barrier) is turned on instantaneously can easily be solved analytically.

  14. Short-time quantum dynamics of sharp boundaries potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granot, Er'el; Marchewka, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of singular potential in general, and rectangular potentials in particular, in applied scattering models, to date little is known about their short time effects. The reason is that singular potentials cause a mixture of complicated local as well as non-local effects. The object of this work is to derive a generic method to calculate analytically the short-time impact of any singular potential. In this paper it is shown that the scattering of a smooth wavefunction on a singular potential is totally equivalent, in the short-time regime, to the free propagation of a singular wavefunction. However, the latter problem was totally addressed analytically in Ref. [7]. Therefore, this equivalency can be utilized in solving analytically the short time dynamics of any smooth wavefunction at the presence of a singular potentials. In particular, with this method the short-time dynamics of any problem where a sharp boundaries potential (e.g., a rectangular barrier) is turned on instantaneously can easily be solved analytically

  15. Decay of hollow states in time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, Varun; Bauer, Dieter [Institut fuer Physik, Wismarsche Str. 43-45, Universitaet Rostock, Rostock-18051 (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Hollow or multiply excited states are inaccessible in time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) using adiabatic Kohn-Sham potentials. We determine the exact Kohn Sham (KS) potential for doubly excited states in an exactly solvable model Helium atom. The exact single-particle density corresponds to the energetically lowest quasi-stationary state in the exact KS potential. We describe how this exact potential controls the decay by a barrier whose origin is traced back to phase of the exact KS orbital. The potential controls the barrier height and width in order for the density to tunnel out and decay with the same rate as the doubly excited state in the ab initio time-dependent Schroedinger calculation. Instead, adiabatic KS potentials only show direct photoionization but no autoionization. A frequency-dependent linear response kernel would be necessary in order to capture the decay of autoionizing states.

  16. Quality of Standard Reference Materials for Short Time Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, S.S.; Oberleitner, W.

    2003-01-01

    Some environmental reference materials (CFA-1633 b, IAEA-SL-1, SARM-1,BCR-176, Coal-1635, IAEA-SL-3, BCR-146, and SRAM-5) were analysed by short-time activation analysis. The results show that these materials can be classified in three groups, according to their activities after irradiation. The obtained results were compared in order to create a quality index for determination of short-lived nuclides at high count rates. It was found that Cfta is not a suitable standard for determining very short-lived nuclides (half-lives<1 min) because the activity it produces is 15-fold higher than that SL-3. Biological reference materials, such as SRM-1571, SRM-1573, SRM-1575, SRM-1577, IAEA-392, and IAEA-393, were also investigated by a higher counting efficiency system. The quality of this system and its well-type detector for investigating short-lived nuclides was discussed

  17. Short-time quantum propagator and Bohmian trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosson, Maurice de, E-mail: maurice.degosson@gmail.com [Universität Wien, Fakultät für Mathematik, NuHAG, Wien 1090 (Austria); Hiley, Basil [University of London, Birkbeck College, Theoretical Physics Unit, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-06

    We begin by giving correct expressions for the short-time action following the work Makri–Miller. We use these estimates to derive an accurate expression modulo Δt{sup 2} for the quantum propagator and we show that the quantum potential is negligible modulo Δt{sup 2} for a point source, thus justifying an unfortunately largely ignored observation of Holland made twenty years ago. We finally prove that this implies that the quantum motion is classical for very short times.

  18. A short history of fractal-Cantorian space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek-Crnjac, L.

    2009-01-01

    The article attempts to give a short historical overview of the discovery of fractal-Cantorian space-time starting from the 17th century up to the present. In the last 25 years a great number of scientists worked on fractal space-time notably Garnet Ord in Canada, Laurent Nottale in France and Mohamed El Naschie in England who gave an exact mathematical procedure for the derivation of the dimensionality and curvature of fractal space-time fuzzy manifold.

  19. Time evolution of the fission-decay width under the influence of dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, B.; Schmidt, K.H.; Benlliure, J.

    2002-12-01

    Different analytical approximations to the time-dependent fission-decay width used to extract the influence of dissipation on the fission process are critically examined. Calculations with a new, highly realistic analytical approximation to the exact solution of the Fokker-Planck equation sheds doubts on previous conclusions on the dissipation strength made on the basis of less realistic approximations. (orig.)

  20. Mesospheric temperature estimation from meteor decay times of weak and strong meteor trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Han; Kim, Yong Ha; Jee, Geonhwa; Lee, Changsup

    2012-11-01

    Neutral temperatures near the mesopause region were estimated from the decay times of the meteor echoes observed by a VHF meteor radar during a period covering 2007 to 2009 at King Sejong Station (62.22°S, 58.78°W), Antarctica. While some previous studies have used all meteor echoes to determine the slope from a height profile of log inverse decay times for temperature estimation, we have divided meteor echoes into weak and strong groups of underdense meteor trails, depending on the strength of estimated relative electron line densities within meteor trails. We found that the slopes from the strong group are inappropriate for temperature estimation because the decay times of strong meteors are considerably scattered, whereas the slopes from the weak group clearly define the variation of decay times with height. We thus utilize the slopes only from the weak group in the altitude region between 86 km and 96 km to estimate mesospheric temperatures. The meteor estimated temperatures show a typical seasonal variation near the mesopause region and the monthly mean temperatures are in good agreement with SABER temperatures within a mean difference of 4.8 K throughout the year. The meteor temperatures, representing typically the region around the altitude of 91 km, are lower on average by 2.1 K than simultaneously measured SATI OH(6-2) rotational temperatures during winter (March-October).

  1. Computations of concentration of radon and its decay products against time. Computer program; Obliczanie koncentracji radonu i jego produktow rozpadu w funkcji czasu. Program komputerowy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaj, B. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    This research is aimed to develop a device for continuous monitoring of radon in the air, by measuring alpha activity of radon and its short lived decay products. The influence of alpha activity variation of radon and its daughters on the measured results is of importance and requires a knowledge of this variation with time. Employing the measurement of alpha radiation of radon and of its short lived decay products, require knowledge of radon concentration variation and its decay products against the time. A computer program in Turbo Pascal language was therefore developed performing the computations employing the known relations involved, the program being adapted for IBM PC computers. The presented program enables computation of activity of {sup 222}Rn and its daughter products: {sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Po every 1 min within the period of 0-255 min for any state of radiation equilibrium between the radon and its daughter products. The program permits also to compute alpha activity of {sup 222}Rn + {sup 218}Po + {sup 214}Po against time and the total alpha activity at selected interval of time. The results of computations are stored on the computer hard disk in ASCII format and are used a graphic program e.g. by DrawPerfect program to make diagrams. Equations employed for computation of the alpha activity of radon and its decay products as well as the description of program functions are given. (author). 2 refs, 4 figs.

  2. Short-term memory loss over time without retroactive stimulus interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson; AuBuchon, Angela M

    2008-02-01

    A key question in cognitive psychology is whether information in short-term memory is lost as a function of time. Lewandowsky, Duncan, and Brown (2004) argued against that memory loss because forgetting in serial recall occurred to the same extent across serial positions regardless of the rate of recall. However, we believe Lewandowsky et al. (2004) only prevented one of two types of rehearsal; they did not prevent nonarticulatory rehearsal via attention. To prevent articulatory and nonarticulatory rehearsal without introducing interference, we presented unevenly timed stimuli for serial recall and, on some trials, required that the timing of stimuli be reproduced in the response. In those trials only, evidence of memory loss over time emerged. Further research is needed to identify whether this memory loss is decay or lost distinctiveness.

  3. Decay Time Measurement for Different Energy Depositions of Plastic Scintillator Fabricated by High Temperature Polymerization Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol Ho; Son, Jaebum; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Yong-Kyun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Plastic scintillators are based on organic fluorite. They have many advantages such as fast rise and decay time, high optical transmission, ease of manufacturing, low cost, and large available size. For these reasons they are widely used for particle identification. Also, protection of people against a variety of threats (such as nuclear, radiological, and explosive) represents a true challenge along with the continuing development of science and technology. The plastic scintillator is widely used in various devise, which serves for nuclear, photonics, quantum, and high-energy physics. The plastic scintillator is probably the most widely used organic detector, and polystyrene is one of the most widely used materials in the making of the plastic scintillator detector. Thus, a styrene monomer as a solvent was used to fabricate the plastic scintillator by using high temperature polymerization reaction, and then the emission wavelength and the decay times for different energy depositions were measured by using the fabricated plastic scintillator. A plastic scintillator was fabricated to measure decay time for different energy depositions using the high temperature polymerization. Emission wavelength was measured of 426.05 nm to confirm a scintillator property using the spectrophotometer. Four gamma-ray sources (Cs-137, Co-60, Na-22, and Ba-133) were used to evaluate effect for decay time of different energy depositions. The average decay time of the fabricated plastic scintillator was measured to approximately 4.72 ns slightly higher more than commercial plastic scintillator. In future, light output and linearity will be measured to evaluate other property compared with the commercial scintillator.

  4. Decay Time Measurement for Different Energy Depositions of Plastic Scintillator Fabricated by High Temperature Polymerization Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol Ho; Son, Jaebum; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Yong-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Plastic scintillators are based on organic fluorite. They have many advantages such as fast rise and decay time, high optical transmission, ease of manufacturing, low cost, and large available size. For these reasons they are widely used for particle identification. Also, protection of people against a variety of threats (such as nuclear, radiological, and explosive) represents a true challenge along with the continuing development of science and technology. The plastic scintillator is widely used in various devise, which serves for nuclear, photonics, quantum, and high-energy physics. The plastic scintillator is probably the most widely used organic detector, and polystyrene is one of the most widely used materials in the making of the plastic scintillator detector. Thus, a styrene monomer as a solvent was used to fabricate the plastic scintillator by using high temperature polymerization reaction, and then the emission wavelength and the decay times for different energy depositions were measured by using the fabricated plastic scintillator. A plastic scintillator was fabricated to measure decay time for different energy depositions using the high temperature polymerization. Emission wavelength was measured of 426.05 nm to confirm a scintillator property using the spectrophotometer. Four gamma-ray sources (Cs-137, Co-60, Na-22, and Ba-133) were used to evaluate effect for decay time of different energy depositions. The average decay time of the fabricated plastic scintillator was measured to approximately 4.72 ns slightly higher more than commercial plastic scintillator. In future, light output and linearity will be measured to evaluate other property compared with the commercial scintillator

  5. Optimum short-time polynomial regression for signal analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Sreenivasa Murthy

    the Proceedings of European Signal Processing Conference. (EUSIPCO) 2008. ... In a seminal paper, Savitzky and Golay [4] showed that short-time polynomial modeling is ...... We next consider a linearly frequency-modulated chirp with an exponentially .... 1 http://www.physionet.org/physiotools/matlab/ECGwaveGen/.

  6. X-ray testing for short-time dynamic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurfiss, Malte; Moser, Stefan; Popko, Gregor; Nau, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    For nondestructive testing purposes new challenges are short-time dynamic processes. The application of x-ray flash tubes and modern high-speed cameras allows the observation of the opening of air-bags or the energy absorption of compressed tubes as occurring during a vehicle crash. Special algorithms designed for computerized tomography analyses allow the 3D reconstruction at individual time points of the dynamic process. Possibilities and limitations of the actual techniques are discussed.

  7. Method for simultaneous measurement of borehole and formation neutron decay-times employing iterative fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described of making in situ measurements of the thermal neutron decay time of earth formations in the vicinity of a wellbore. The borehole and earth formations in its vicinity are repetitively irradiated with pulsed fast neutrons and, during the intervals between pulses, capture gamma radiation is measured in at least four, non-overlapping, contiguous time intervals. A background radiation measurement is made between successive pulses and used to correct count-rates representative of thermal neutron populations in the borehole and the formations, the count-rates being generated during each of the time intervals. The background-corrected count-rate measurements are iteratively fitted to exponential curves using a least squares technique to simultaneously derive signals representing borehole component and formation component of the thermal neutron decay time. The signals are recorded as a function of borehole depth. (author)

  8. Simulation of decay processes and radiation transport times in radioactivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Toraño, E., E-mail: e.garciatorano@ciemat.es [Laboratorio de Metrología de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Peyres, V. [Laboratorio de Metrología de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bé, M.-M.; Dulieu, C.; Lépy, M.-C. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), Bldg 602, PC111, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Salvat, F. [Facultat de Física (FQA and ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-04-01

    The Fortran subroutine package PENNUC, which simulates random decay pathways of radioactive nuclides, is described. The decay scheme of the active nuclide is obtained from the NUCLEIDE database, whose web application has been complemented with the option of exporting nuclear decay data (possible nuclear transitions, branching ratios, type and energy of emitted particles) in a format that is readable by the simulation subroutines. In the case of beta emitters, the initial energy of the electron or positron is sampled from the theoretical Fermi spectrum. De-excitation of the atomic electron cloud following electron capture and internal conversion is described using transition probabilities from the LLNL Evaluated Atomic Data Library and empirical or calculated energies of released X rays and Auger electrons. The time evolution of radiation showers is determined by considering the lifetimes of nuclear and atomic levels, as well as radiation propagation times. Although PENNUC is designed to operate independently, here it is used in conjunction with the electron-photon transport code PENELOPE, and both together allow the simulation of experiments with radioactive sources in complex material structures consisting of homogeneous bodies limited by quadric surfaces. The reliability of these simulation tools is demonstrated through comparisons of simulated and measured energy spectra from radionuclides with complex multi-gamma spectra, nuclides with metastable levels in their decay pathways, nuclides with two daughters, and beta plus emitters.

  9. Offline estimation of decay time for an optical cavity with a low pass filter cavity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallapur, Abhijit G; Boyson, Toby K; Petersen, Ian R; Harb, Charles C

    2012-08-01

    This Letter presents offline estimation results for the decay-time constant for an experimental Fabry-Perot optical cavity for cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). The cavity dynamics are modeled in terms of a low pass filter (LPF) with unity DC gain. This model is used by an extended Kalman filter (EKF) along with the recorded light intensity at the output of the cavity in order to estimate the decay-time constant. The estimation results using the LPF cavity model are compared to those obtained using the quadrature model for the cavity presented in previous work by Kallapur et al. The estimation process derived using the LPF model comprises two states as opposed to three states in the quadrature model. When considering the EKF, this means propagating two states and a (2×2) covariance matrix using the LPF model, as opposed to propagating three states and a (3×3) covariance matrix using the quadrature model. This gives the former model a computational advantage over the latter and leads to faster execution times for the corresponding EKF. It is shown in this Letter that the LPF model for the cavity with two filter states is computationally more efficient, converges faster, and is hence a more suitable method than the three-state quadrature model presented in previous work for real-time estimation of the decay-time constant for the cavity.

  10. Short Sleep Times Predict Obesity in Internal Medicine Clinic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Dolores; Kumar, Ashwani; Nugent, Rebecca; Nugent, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between short sleep times and obesity as defined by body mass index (BMI). We wanted to determine whether this association occurs in patients with chronic medical diagnoses since the number of confounding factors is likely higher in patients than the general population. Methods: Two hundred patients attending internal medicine clinics completed a survey regarding sleep habits, lifestyle characteristics, and medical diagnoses. An independent surveyor collected the information on the questionnaires and reviewed the medical records. Height and weight were measured by clinic personnel. Data were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression. Results: Subjects with short sleep times (< 7 hours) had an increased likelihood of obesity as defined by a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 when compared to the reference group of (8, 9] hours (odds ratio 2.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–8.09). There was a U-shaped relationship between obesity and sleep time in women but not in men. Young age (18 to 49 years), not smoking, drinking alcohol, hypertension, diabetes, and sleep apnea were also associated with obesity in the overall model. Conclusions: This study demonstrates an association between short sleep times and obesity in undifferentiated patients attending an internal medicine clinic using models adjusting for age, lifestyle characteristics, and some medical diagnoses. The U-shaped relationship in women suggests that sleep patterns may have gender specific associations. These observations provide the background for therapeutic trials in weight loss in patients with established medical problems. Citation: Buscemi D; Kumar A; Nugent R; Nugent K. Short sleep times predict obesity in internal medicine clinic patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(7):681–688. PMID:18198800

  11. Short echo time, fast gradient-echo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haacke, E.M.; Lenz, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    Present fast-gradient-echoes schemes can acquire volume data rapidly and are flexible in T1 or T1/T2 contrast behavior. However, sequences used to date employ echo time (TE) values of about 15 ms +- 5 and, because of in vivo field inhomogeneities (short T2), they suffer badly from signal loss near sinuses and tissue boundaries. The authors implemented sequences with TE = 4-6 ms and found significant improvement in image quality, especially at high fields. Examples with long TEs vs. short TEs are given in the knee, spine, head, and orbits. Further advantages include (1) faster repetition times (15 ms), (2) higher-quality spin-density or T1-weighted images, and (3) reduction of blood motion artifacts

  12. Temperature dependence of fluorescence decay time and emission spectrum of bismuth germanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melcher, C.L.; Liberman, A.; Schweitzer, J.S.; Simonetti, J.

    1985-01-01

    Bismuth germanate has become an increasingly popular replacement for NaI(Tl) scintillators in recent years, mainly due to its higher detection efficiency. However, its scintillation efficiency and fluorescence decay time are strongly temperature dependent. Optimum performance of detector systems which employ BGO crystals depends on knowledge of the BGO pulse shape and intensity and its emission spectrum at the operating temperature of the detector. Measurements of these quantities are presented over the temperature range -47 0 C to +111 0 C. Although the emission spectrum shifts only slightly over this temperature range, the scintillation efficiency and fluorescence decay time are strongly temperature dependent. In addition to the usefulness of these data for optimizing detector design, the results imply that luminescence quenching in BGO cannot be characterized by a single thermal activation to a radiationless transition but that a more complex model is required to characterize the light output from BGO crystals

  13. Time decay and photoluminescence measurement of PbWO4 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylac, M.

    1997-09-01

    This report presented the experimental characterization of the PbWO 4 crystals that we will be used for the photon detector of the Compton polarimeter at the Jefferson laboratory. We could draw 3 main features from this study. The transmission rate of the crystals is about 60 % in the scintillation wavelength region. From the decay time analysis, we deduced 3 decay components of the PbWO 4 , predicted by other measurements: τ 1 ∼5 ns, τ 2 ∼20 ns, τ 3 ∼100 ns, taking respectively 26 %, 30 % and 4 % of the total light amplitude emitted by the crystals. Moreover, we showed the existence of a fourth decay constant (τ 4 ∼1μs) taking 40 % of the total quantity of light which is responsible for the bad precision on the third constant determination. We could not characterize this component accurately because of the limited time range of the recordings. To improve the determination of the super-slow component, we need to perform the measurements again on a longer time scale, on the order of a few microseconds. We eventually measured the light yield of the PbWO 4 crystals. With a first analysis, we found about 3.5 photoelectrons per MeV whereas the constructors note gave about 10. We then reduced the light loss in the experimental set up by wrapping the last open end of the crystal. The results were slightly improved. Eventually, we increased the recording time, to take account the super-low decay, and found that the crystals yield about 6 photoelectrons per MeV which is still less than predicted. (author)

  14. The population and decay evolution of a qubit under the time-convolutionless master equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jiang; Fang Mao-Fa; Liu Xiang

    2012-01-01

    We consider the population and decay of a qubit under the electromagnetic environment. Employing the time-convolutionless master equation, we investigate the Markovian and non-Markovian behaviour of the corresponding perturbation expansion. The Jaynes-Cummings model on resonance is investigated. Some figures clearly show the different evolution behaviours. The reasons are interpreted in the paper. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  15. Kinetic study on non-thermal volumetric plasma decay in the early afterglow of air discharge generated by a short pulse microwave or laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wei, E-mail: yangwei861212@126.com; Zhou, Qianhong; Dong, Zhiwei [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2016-08-28

    This paper reports a kinetic study on non-thermal plasma decay in the early afterglow of air discharge generated by short pulse microwave or laser. A global self-consistent model is based on the particle balance of complex plasma chemistry, electron energy equation, and gas thermal balance equation. Electron-ion Coulomb collision is included in the steady state Boltzmann equation solver to accurately describe the electron mobility and other transport coefficients. The model is used to simulate the afterglow of microsecond to nanosecond pulse microwave discharge in N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and air, as well as femtosecond laser filament discharge in dry and humid air. The simulated results for electron density decay are in quantitative agreement with the available measured ones. The evolution of plasma decay under an external electric field is also investigated, and the effect of gas heating is considered. The underlying mechanism of plasma density decay is unveiled through the above kinetic modeling.

  16. Analytical studies by activation. Part A and B: Counting of short half-life radio-nuclides. Part C: Analytical programs for decay curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junod, E.

    1966-03-01

    Part A and B: Since a radio-nuclide of short half-life is characterized essentially by the decrease in its activity even while it is being measured, the report begins by recalling the basic relationships linking the half-life the counting time, the counting rate and the number of particles recorded. The second part is devoted to the problem of corrections for counting losses due to the idle period of multichannel analyzers. Exact correction formulae have been drawn up for the case where the short half-life radionuclide is pure or contains only a long half-life radio-nuclide. By comparison, charts have been drawn up showing the approximations given by the so-called 'active time' counting and by the counting involving the real time associated with a measurement of the overall idle period, this latter method proving to be more valid than the former. A method is given for reducing the case of a complex mixture to that of a two-component mixture. Part C: The problems connected with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the decay curves of a mixture of radioactive sources of which one at least has a short half-life are presented. A mathematical description is given of six basic processes for which some elements of Fortran programs are proposed. Two supplementary programs are drawn up for giving an overall treatment of problems of dosage in activation analysis: one on the basis of a simultaneous irradiation of the sample and of one or several known samples, the other with separate irradiation of the unknown and known samples, a dosimeter (activation, or external) being used for normalizing the irradiation flux conditions. (author) [fr

  17. Properties of three-body decay functions derived with time-like jet calculus beyond leading order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Tetsuya

    2002-01-01

    Three-body decay functions in time-like parton branching are calculated using the jet calculus to the next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) order in perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The phase space contributions from each of the ladder diagrams and interference diagrams are presented. We correct part of the results for the three-body decay functions calculated previously by two groups. Employing our new results, the properties of the three-body decay functions in the regions of soft partons are examined numerically. Furthermore, we examine the contribution of the three-body decay functions modified by the restriction resulting from the kinematical boundary of the phase space for two-body decay in the parton shower model. This restriction leads to some problems for the parton shower model. For this reason, we propose a new restriction introduced by the kinematical boundary of the phase space for two-body decay. (author)

  18. The short time Fourier transform and local signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Shuhei

    In this thesis, I examine the theoretical properties of the short time discrete Fourier transform (STFT). The STFT is obtained by applying the Fourier transform by a fixed-sized, moving window to input series. We move the window by one time point at a time, so we have overlapping windows. I present several theoretical properties of the STFT, applied to various types of complex-valued, univariate time series inputs, and their outputs in closed forms. In particular, just like the discrete Fourier transform, the STFT's modulus time series takes large positive values when the input is a periodic signal. One main point is that a white noise time series input results in the STFT output being a complex-valued stationary time series and we can derive the time and time-frequency dependency structure such as the cross-covariance functions. Our primary focus is the detection of local periodic signals. I present a method to detect local signals by computing the probability that the squared modulus STFT time series has consecutive large values exceeding some threshold after one exceeding observation following one observation less than the threshold. We discuss a method to reduce the computation of such probabilities by the Box-Cox transformation and the delta method, and show that it works well in comparison to the Monte Carlo simulation method.

  19. Calibration of environmental monitors operating on time integrating principles for radon/thoron decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Grenier, M.

    1982-03-01

    An environmental radiation monitor for radon decay products has been tested under laboratory controlled conditions. The instrument is of a quasi-time-integrating type and was tested in conjunction with a radon 'box' calibration facility. It has been found that the instrument appreciably underestimates the radon daughter Working Level (WL). This is attributed to plate-out of decay products in the monitor sampling head. The difference between monitor reading and the WL by grab-sampling was higher for low aerosol concentrations. Plate-out on the instrument detector and sampling head, and contamination effects have been observed for the thoron case. There is partial agreement between experimental results and theoretical expectation. The monitor is slow to react to sudden changes in radiation level. The instrument should prove quite useful in the routine monitoring of surface and underground environments provided some suggested changes in the instrument are introduced

  20. Evidence for CP violation in time-integrated $D^0 \\rightarrow h^-h^+$ decay rates

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Constantin, F; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalorav Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; 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Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    A search for time-integrated $CP$ violation in $D^0 \\rightarrow h^-h^+$ ($h=K$, $\\pi$) decays is presented using 0.62~fb$^{-1}$ of data collected by LHCb in 2011. The flavor of the charm meson is determined by the charge of the slow pion in the $D^{*+} \\rightarrow D^0 \\pi^+$ and $D^{*-} \\rightarrow \\overline{D}^0 \\pi^-$ decay chains. The difference in $CP$ asymmetry between $D^0 \\rightarrow K^- K^+$ and $D^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^- \\pi^+$, $\\Delta A_{CP} \\equiv A_{CP}(K^-K^+) \\, - \\, A_{CP}(\\pi^-\\pi^+)$, is measured to be $\\left[ -0.82 \\pm 0.21 (\\mathrm{stat.}) \\pm 0.11 (\\mathrm{syst.}) \\right]\\%$. This differs from the hypothesis of $CP$ conservation by $3.5$ standard deviations.

  1. Charm photoproduction. Decays and time of life of the strange-charm meson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magneville, C.

    1988-07-01

    In this thesis, decays and lifetimes of the charmed D +- and F mesons have been studied, using the datas of the NA14-2 experiment at CERN. We have filtered events with two kaons of opposite signs. We have used a silicon vertex detector, which consists of an active target and microstrips planes, in order to reconstruct and separate the interaction vertex from the decay vertex. Cuts on distance of flight have been made. This has allowed a good rejection of combinatorial background and the extraction of clean D +- , F (in KKπ) and Λ c (in pKπ) signals. We measure their times of flight and compare to the theoretical predictions [fr

  2. Evaluation of scaling invariance embedded in short time series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Pan

    Full Text Available Scaling invariance of time series has been making great contributions in diverse research fields. But how to evaluate scaling exponent from a real-world series is still an open problem. Finite length of time series may induce unacceptable fluctuation and bias to statistical quantities and consequent invalidation of currently used standard methods. In this paper a new concept called correlation-dependent balanced estimation of diffusion entropy is developed to evaluate scale-invariance in very short time series with length ~10(2. Calculations with specified Hurst exponent values of 0.2,0.3,...,0.9 show that by using the standard central moving average de-trending procedure this method can evaluate the scaling exponents for short time series with ignorable bias (≤0.03 and sharp confidential interval (standard deviation ≤0.05. Considering the stride series from ten volunteers along an approximate oval path of a specified length, we observe that though the averages and deviations of scaling exponents are close, their evolutionary behaviors display rich patterns. It has potential use in analyzing physiological signals, detecting early warning signals, and so on. As an emphasis, the our core contribution is that by means of the proposed method one can estimate precisely shannon entropy from limited records.

  3. Evaluation of scaling invariance embedded in short time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie; Zhu, Chenping

    2014-01-01

    Scaling invariance of time series has been making great contributions in diverse research fields. But how to evaluate scaling exponent from a real-world series is still an open problem. Finite length of time series may induce unacceptable fluctuation and bias to statistical quantities and consequent invalidation of currently used standard methods. In this paper a new concept called correlation-dependent balanced estimation of diffusion entropy is developed to evaluate scale-invariance in very short time series with length ~10(2). Calculations with specified Hurst exponent values of 0.2,0.3,...,0.9 show that by using the standard central moving average de-trending procedure this method can evaluate the scaling exponents for short time series with ignorable bias (≤0.03) and sharp confidential interval (standard deviation ≤0.05). Considering the stride series from ten volunteers along an approximate oval path of a specified length, we observe that though the averages and deviations of scaling exponents are close, their evolutionary behaviors display rich patterns. It has potential use in analyzing physiological signals, detecting early warning signals, and so on. As an emphasis, the our core contribution is that by means of the proposed method one can estimate precisely shannon entropy from limited records.

  4. Statistical analysis of time-resolved emission from ensembles of semiconductor quantum dots: interpretations of exponantial decay models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, A.F.; Nikolaev, I.; Vergeer, P.; Lodahl, P.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.; Vos, Willem L.

    2007-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of time-resolved spontaneous emission decay curves from ensembles of emitters, such as semiconductor quantum dots, with the aim of interpreting ubiquitous non-single-exponential decay. Contrary to what is widely assumed, the density of excited emitters and the

  5. Application of short-time activation analysis in the sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.

    1991-01-01

    Short-time activation analysis has proved to be a valuable tool in nearly all fields of science. To take full advantage of this technique, it is favorable to use a fast transfer system and a high resolution high rate gamma-spectroscopy system for short lived gamma-emitters and a Cherenkov detector for the determination of hard beta-emitters. It is then possible to utilize sub-minute nuclides Li-8 (740 ms), B-12 (20 ms), F-20 (11.1 s), Y-89m (16 s), and Pb-207m (800 ms) for the determination of these elements. Besides these sub-minute nuclides which constitute the only possibility for neutron activation analysis of these elements there are a number of other elements which form longer lived nuclides on short irradiation. The analysis of the halogenides F, Cl, Br, I in waste water of a sewage incineration plant can be achieved with a single 20 s irradiation and two consecutive measurement of 20 and 600 s using Cl-38m, F-20, Br-79m as well as the longer lived Cl-38, Br-80, I-128

  6. Fluorescence decay time imaging using an imaging photon detector with a radio frequency photon correlation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Christopher G.; Mitchell, A. C.; Murray, J. G.

    1990-05-01

    An imaging photon detector has been modified to incorporate fast timing electronics coupled to a custom built photon correlator interfaced to a RISC computer. Using excitation with intensity- muodulated light, fluorescence images can be readily obtained where contrast is determined by the decay time of emission, rather than by intensity. This technology is readily extended to multifrequency phase/demodulation fluorescence imaging or to differential polarised phase fluorometry. The potential use of the correlator for confocal imaging with a laser scanner is also briefly discussed.

  7. Correction of dynamic time-activity curves for gamma-camera dead time, radiotracer delivery, and radioactive decay: special considerations with ultrashort-lived radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, A.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Treves, S.

    1985-01-01

    Time-vs.-activity curves obtained by using ultrashort-lived radioisotopes often need to be corrected for the effects of gamma-camera dead time and physical decay. Count loss due to gamma-camera dead time can be monitored by using an electronic oscillator incorporated into the gamma camera. Two algorithms that use this information to correct time-activity curves are discussed. It is also shown that the effect of physical decay on a time-activity curve is dependent on the time course of delivery of the radioisotope to the organ of interest. A mathematical technique that corrects physical decay is described

  8. Short-time perturbation theory and nonrelativistic duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitenton, J.B.; Durand, B.; Durand, L.

    1983-01-01

    We give a simple proof of the nonrelativistic duality relation 2 sigma/sub bound/>roughly-equal 2 sigma/sub free/> for appropriate energy averages of the cross sections for e + e - →(qq-bar bound states) and e + e - →(free qq-bar pair), and calculate the corrections to the relation by relating W 2 sigma to the Fourier transform of the Feynman propagation function and developing a short-time perturbation series for that function. We illustrate our results in detail for simple power-law potentials and potentials which involve combinations of powers

  9. Directional short-time Fourier transform of distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Hadzi-Velkova Saneva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we consider the directional short-time Fourier transform (DSTFT that was introduced and investigated in (Giv in J. Math. Anal. Appl. 399:100-107, 2013. We analyze the DSTFT and its transpose on test function spaces S ( R n $\\mathcal {S}(\\mathbb {R}^{n}$ and S ( Y 2 n $\\mathcal {S}(\\mathbb {Y}^{2n}$ , respectively, and prove the continuity theorems on these spaces. Then the obtained results are used to extend the DSTFT to spaces of distributions.

  10. Time manages interference in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amy V; McKeown, Denis; Bunce, David

    2017-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that age-related declines in memory may reflect a failure in pattern separation, a process that is believed to reduce the encoding overlap between similar stimulus representations during memory encoding. Indeed, behavioural pattern separation may be indexed by a visual continuous recognition task in which items are presented in sequence and observers report for each whether it is novel, previously viewed (old), or whether it shares features with a previously viewed item (similar). In comparison to young adults, older adults show a decreased pattern separation when the number of items between "old" and "similar" items is increased. Yet the mechanisms of forgetting underpinning this type of recognition task are yet to be explored in a cognitively homogenous group, with careful control over the parameters of the task, including elapsing time (a critical variable in models of forgetting). By extending the inter-item intervals, number of intervening items and overall decay interval, we observed in a young adult sample (N = 35, M age  = 19.56 years) that the critical factor governing performance was inter-item interval. We argue that tasks using behavioural continuous recognition to index pattern separation in immediate memory will benefit from generous inter-item spacing, offering protection from inter-item interference.

  11. Inclusive decays of the B meson and possible life-time difference between Bd0 and B± mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    1992-01-01

    We study branching ratios of the inclusive semileptonic decay and the inclusive anti ccanti s decay of the B meson in the spectator model, focusing on the life-time difference between B d 0 and B + mesons. In the case of τsub(B ± )/τsub(B d 0 )=1, it is impossible to get the branching ratio below 12% for B→eνX without going over 20% for B→anti ccanti s, which is unfavored by the inclusive K - decay of the B meson. It is found that the sizable life-time difference leads to the reasonable inclusive semileptonic decay rate and the inclusive anti ccanti s decay rate. (orig.)

  12. Decay of autoionizing states in time-dependent density functional and reduced density matrix functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, Varun; Brics, Martins; Bauer, Dieter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Autoionizing states are inaccessible to time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) using known, adiabatic Kohn-Sham (KS) potentials. We determine the exact KS potential for a numerically exactly solvable model Helium atom interacting with a laser field that is populating an autoionizing state. The exact single-particle density of the population in the autoionizing state corresponds to that of the energetically lowest quasi-stationary state in the exact KS potential. We describe how this exact potential controls the decay by a barrier whose height and width allows for the density to tunnel out and decay with the same rate as in the ab initio time-dependent Schroedinger calculation. However, devising a useful exchange-correlation potential that is capable of governing such a scenario in general and in more complex systems is hopeless. As an improvement over TDDFT, time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory has been proposed. We are able to obtain for the above described autoionization process the exact time-dependent natural orbitals (i.e., the eigenfunctions of the exact, time-dependent one-body reduced density matrix) and study the potentials that appear in the equations of motion for the natural orbitals and the structure of the two-body density matrix expanded in them.

  13. EVOLVING TO TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE WITH SHORT DELAY TIMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Chen Xuefei; Han Zhanwen; Meng Xiangcun

    2009-01-01

    The single-degenerate model is currently a favorable progenitor model for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Recent investigations on the white dwarf (WD) + He star channel of the single-degenerate model imply that this channel is noteworthy for producing SNe Ia. In this paper, we studied SN Ia birthrates and delay times of this channel via a detailed binary population synthesis approach. We found that the Galactic SN Ia birthrate from the WD + He star channel is ∼0.3 x 10 -3 yr -1 according to our standard model, and that this channel can explain SNe Ia with short delay times (∼4.5 x 10 7 -1.4 x 10 8 yr). Meanwhile, these WD + He star systems may be related to the young supersoft X-ray sources prior to SN Ia explosions.

  14. Determination and identification of naturally occurring decay series using milli-second order pulse time interval analysis (TIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Sanada, Y.; Uezu, Y.

    2003-01-01

    A delayed coincidence method, called a time interval analysis (TIA) method, has been successfully applied to selective determination of the correlated α-α decay events in millisecond order life-time. A main decay process applicable to TIA-treatment is 220 Rn → 216 Po(T 1/2 :145ms) → {Th-series}. The TIA is fundamentally based on the difference of time interval distribution between non-correlated decay events and other events such as background or random events when they were compiled the time interval data within a fixed time (for example, a tenth of concerned half lives). The sensitivity of the TIA-analysis due to correlated α-α decay events could be subsequently improved in respect of background elimination using the pulse shape discrimination technique (PSD with PERALS counter) to reject β/γ-pulses, purging of nitrogen gas into extra scintillator, and applying solvent extraction of Ra. (author)

  15. CP violation in rare K decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.

    1990-01-01

    The investigation of rare K decays calls for a unified treatment of short- and long-distance aspects as provided by chiral perturbation theory. For the standard model with three generations, the theoretical predictions for signals of CP violation in those decays are reviewed. With direct CP violation as the main target, special emphasis is given to the charge asymmetries in charged K decays and to the especially rare decays K L → π 0 ll-bar. Time dependent rate asymmetries in K 0 decays and the longitudinal muon polarization in K L → μ + μ - are also discussed. 50 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  16. Decision time horizon for music genre classification using short time features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Peter; Meng, Anders; Larsen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper music genre classification has been explored with special emphasis on the decision time horizon and ranking of tapped-delay-line short-time features. Late information fusion as e.g. majority voting is compared with techniques of early information fusion such as dynamic PCA (DPCA......). The most frequently suggested features in the literature were employed including mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), linear prediction coefficients (LPC), zero-crossing rate (ZCR), and MPEG-7 features. To rank the importance of the short time features consensus sensitivity analysis is applied...

  17. Search for Time Reversal Violation in Neutron Decay: A Measurement of the Transverse Polarization of Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, K.; Kaczmarek, A.; Kistryn, St.; Kuzniak, M.; Zejma, J.; Pulut, J.; Kirch, K.; Bialek, A.; Kozela, A.; Ban, G.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Gorel, P.; Beck, M.; Lindroth, A.; Severijns, N.; Stephan, E.; Czarnecki, A.

    2006-01-01

    A non-zero value of the R-correlation coefficient due to the e - polarization component, perpendicular to the plane spanned by the spin of the decaying neutron and the electron momentum, would signal a violation of time reversal symmetry and thus physics beyond the Standard Model. The value of the N-correlation coefficient, given by the transverse e - polarization component within that plane, is expected to be finite. The measurement of N serves as an important systematic check of the apparatus for the R-measurement. The first phase of data taking has been completed. Preliminary results from a limited data sample show no deviations from the Standard Model predictions

  18. Time-dependent CP asymmetries $B_s$ decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Blouw, J

    2008-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will search for New Physics in $b_s$ mixing. The $b_s$ mixing phase will be extracted from the measurement of the time-dependent CP asymmetry in exclusive $\\mathrm{B}_s$ decays governed by the $b \\rightarrow c\\bar{c} s$ quark-level transition. Large New Physics effects can be discovered or excluded with the data collected during the very first physics run of LHC. Based on Monte Carlo simulations of the LHCb detector, the expected sensitivity with $2~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ on the CP-violation parameter $\\phi_s$, is $\\sigma(\\phi_s) = 0.022$.

  19. Time evolution and decay of an excited atom in a weak electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    A Mathematica notebook for describing the time evolution and decay of the hydrogen n=2 states in the presence of a weak external electric field is presented. The work involves (1) solving a set of differential equations coupled by the Hamiltonian of the external electric field and (2) deriving a set of formulas for a complete description of the polarization state of the emitted photons. It is demonstrated how problems with such complexity can be treated with ease and in an error-free manner by using symbolic software such as Mathematica. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. Field study of charitable giving reveals that reciprocity decays over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, Amanda; Kessler, Judd B.

    2018-01-01

    We examine how reciprocity changes over time by studying a large quasiexperiment in the field. Specifically, we analyze administrative data from a university hospital system. The data include information about over 18,000 donation requests made by the hospital system via mail to a set of its former patients in the 4 months after their first hospital visit. We exploit quasiexperimental variation in the timing of solicitation mailings relative to patient hospital visits and find that an extra 30-day delay between the provision of medical care and a donation solicitation decreases the likelihood of a donation by 30%. Our findings have important implications for models of economic behavior, which currently fail to incorporate reciprocity’s sensitivity to time. The fact that reciprocal behavior decays rapidly as time passes also suggests the importance of capitalizing quickly on opportunities to benefit from a quid pro quo. PMID:29437955

  1. Observation of relaxation on time scale of core hole decay by coincidence photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masahide

    2007-01-01

    It is shown by a many-body theory that when the relaxation time of a metastable core hole state(s) to the most stable one is comparable to or shorter than core hole decay time of the former state(s), a comparison between the singles (noncoincidence) photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) spectrum and the coincidence one provides a direct evidence of the relaxation. In principle the variation with photoelectron kinetic energy of relaxation (or charge transfer (CT)) time can be determined. By singles measurement the correlation of a photoelectron generated by creation of the metastable states not only with an Auger electron generated by annihilation of the same core hole state but also with an Auger electron generated by annihilation of the stable state via relaxation of the metastable state, is completely lost, unless only the metastable state is observed by PES, whereas the correlation often manifests directly in the coincidence spectra. Thus, compared to the coincidence spectroscopy the singles one is often much less capable of elucidating the competition between relaxation and core hole decay of a metastable state. Such examples are discussed

  2. Short-time action electric generators to power physical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glebov, I.A.; Kasharskij, Eh.G.; Rutberg, F.G.; Khutoretskij, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by power-supply sources of the native electrophysical facilities have been analyzed and trends in designing foreign electric machine units of short-time action have been considered. Specifications of a generator, manufactured in the form of synchronous bipolar turbogenerator with an all-forged rotor with indirect air cooling of the rotor and stator windings are presented. Front parts of the stator winding are additionally fixed using glass-textolite rings, brackets and gaskets. A flywheel, manufactured in the form of all-forged steel cylinder is joined directly with the generator rotor by means of a half-coupling. An acceleration asynchronous engine with a phase rotor of 4 MW nominal capacity is located on the opposite side of the flywheel. The generator peak power is 242 MVxA; power factor = 0.9; energy transferred to the load 5per 1 pulse =00 MJ; the flywheel weight 81 t

  3. Method for simultaneous measurement of borehole and formation neutron decay-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D.; Arnold, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described of making in situ measurements of the thermal neutron decay time of earth formations in the vicinity of a wellbore. The borehole and earth formations are irradiated, with pulsed fast neutrons and, during the interval between neutron pulses, capture gamma radiation is measured in at least four, non-overlapping, contiguous time intervals. Count-rates representative of thermal neutron populations in the borehole and the formations are made during each of the time intervals. A background radiation measurement for correcting the count-rates is preferably also periodically made. The count-rates are combined to derive simultaneously the formation and borehole neutron lifetime components which are recorded as a function of borehole depth. (author)

  4. Decay of Complex-Time Determinantal and Pfaffian Correlation Functionals in Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aza, N. J. B.; Bru, J.-B.; de Siqueira Pedra, W.

    2018-06-01

    We supplement the determinantal and Pfaffian bounds of Sims and Warzel (Commun Math Phys 347:903-931, 2016) for many-body localization of quasi-free fermions, by considering the high dimensional case and complex-time correlations. Our proof uses the analyticity of correlation functions via the Hadamard three-line theorem. We show that the dynamical localization for the one-particle system yields the dynamical localization for the many-point fermionic correlation functions, with respect to the Hausdorff distance in the determinantal case. In Sims and Warzel (2016), a stronger notion of decay for many-particle configurations was used but only at dimension one and for real times. Considering determinantal and Pfaffian correlation functionals for complex times is important in the study of weakly interacting fermions.

  5. Decay of Complex-Time Determinantal and Pfaffian Correlation Functionals in Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aza, N. J. B.; Bru, J.-B.; de Siqueira Pedra, W.

    2018-04-01

    We supplement the determinantal and Pfaffian bounds of Sims and Warzel (Commun Math Phys 347:903-931, 2016) for many-body localization of quasi-free fermions, by considering the high dimensional case and complex-time correlations. Our proof uses the analyticity of correlation functions via the Hadamard three-line theorem. We show that the dynamical localization for the one-particle system yields the dynamical localization for the many-point fermionic correlation functions, with respect to the Hausdorff distance in the determinantal case. In Sims and Warzel (2016), a stronger notion of decay for many-particle configurations was used but only at dimension one and for real times. Considering determinantal and Pfaffian correlation functionals for complex times is important in the study of weakly interacting fermions.

  6. Survey of some natural decay-series isotopes in the Wairakei geothermal area and possible residence-time applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.; Burnett, W.C.; Whitehead, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of selected isotopes in the uranium decay series were determined for samples collected from the Wairakei, Broadlands/Ohaaki and Waiotapu areas. /sup 226/Ra concentrations were found to be low (0.05-0.22 dpm/l), similar to values reported in neutral hot springs at Tatun geothermal area, Taiwan, but lower than other geothermal systems (Yellowstone, USA, and Latera, Central Italy) (up to 25 dpm/l). The potential of /sup 226/Ra//sup 228/Ra ratios for indicating water residence times could not be explored because /sup 228/Ra data was not available. /sup 222/Rn concentrations are higher and related to steam fractions and CO/sub 2/ concentrations. The short half-life (3.8 days) makes /sup 222/Rn suitable for estimating residence times of radon in steam, and therefore the distance of travel of steam from its source (e.g., wells WK9 and 52). /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po concentrations were very low and less than detection limits in many of the Wairakei waters; no residence time applications are apparent for these isotopes. (author). 11 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  7. Localization in nonuniform media: Exponential decay of the late-time Ginzburg-Landau impulse response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1998-01-01

    Instanton methods have been used, in the context of a classical Ginzburg-Landau field theory, to compute the averaged density of states and probability Green close-quote s function for electrons scattered by statistically uniform site energy perturbations. At tree level, all states below some critical energy appear localized, and all states above extended. The same methods are applied here to macroscopically nonuniform systems, for which it is shown that localized and extended states can be coupled through a tunneling barrier created by the instanton background. Both electronic and acoustic systems are considered. An incoherent exponential decay is predicted for the late-time impulse response in both cases, valid for long-wavelength nonuniformity, and scaling relations are derived for the decay time constant as a function of energy or frequency and spatial dimension. The acoustic results are found to lie within a range of scaling relations obtained empirically from measurements of seismic coda, suggesting a connection between the universal properties of localization and the robustness of the observed scaling. The relation of instantons to the acoustic coherent-potential approximation is demonstrated in the recovery of the uniform limit. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  8. Studies on the separation of rare earth elements and the nuclear decay properties of short lived rare-earth nuclides in U-235 fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyoshi, Akira; Ohyoshi, Emiko.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of a complex-forming agent, with which rare earths consecutively form the complexes, on the separation of a pair of adjacent rare earths by electromigration has been investigated. The relation between the separation factor for two complexes and the ligand-ion concentration was examined in the separation of La-Ce and Ce-Pr pairs with nitrilotriacetic acid. Rare earths were able to be isolated rapidly at the optimum ligand-ion concentration in lower one, and this method was applied to study the nuclear decay properties of the short lived isotopes of La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Yt formed in the fission of U-235. This method permits the direct measurement of the decay of La-144 without the interference from the radiation of other fission products. The gamma-ray spectrum of La-144 was measured with a high resolution Ge(Li) detector, and the gamma-transition was observed. From the decay plots of two strong photopeaks, the half-life of La-144 was determined. In the case of Ce fraction, the photopeaks assigned to respective isotopes were observed. In the studies on the decay properties of Pr-148 and Pr-149, the decay plot of the strong photopeak showed good linearity, and the accurate half-life of Pr-148 was determined. Similarly, the half-life of Pr-149 was longer than the previously reported value. (Kako, I.)

  9. Forecast model of landslides in a short time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Lopez, Reinaldo

    2006-01-01

    The IDEAM in development of their functions as member of the national technical committee for the prevention and disasters attention (SNPAD) accomplishes the follow-up, monitoring and forecast in real time of the environmental dynamics that in extreme situations constitute threats and natural risks. One of the frequent dynamics and of greater impact is related to landslides, those that affect persistently the life of the persons, the infrastructure, the socioeconomic activities and the balance of the environment. The landslide in Colombia and in the world are caused mainly by effects of the rain, due to that, IDEAM has come developing forecast model, as an instrument for risk management in a short time. This article presents aspects related to their structure, operation, temporary space resolution, products, results, achievements and projections of the model. Conceptually, the model is support by the principle of the dynamic temporary - space, of the processes that consolidate natural hazards, particularly in areas where the man has come building the risk. Structurally, the model is composed by two sub-models; the general susceptibility of the earthly model and the critical rain model as a denotative factor, that consolidate the hazard process. In real time, the model, works as a GIS, permitting the automatic zoning of the landslides hazard for issue public advisory warming to help makers decisions on the risk that cause frequently these events, in the country

  10. Nonequilibrium Physics at Short Time Scales: Formation of Correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peliti, L

    2005-01-01

    It is a happy situation when similar concepts and theoretical techniques can be applied to widely different physical systems because of a deep similarity in the situations being studied. The book illustrates this well; it focuses on the description of correlations in quantum systems out of equilibrium at very short time scales, prompted by experiments with short laser pulses in semiconductors, and in complex reactions in heavy nuclei. In both cases the experiments are characterized by nonlinear dynamics and by strong correlations out of equilibrium. In some systems there are also important finite-size effects. The book comprises several independent contributions of moderate length, and I sometimes felt that a more intensive effort in cross-coordination of the different contributions could have been of help. It is divided almost equally between theory and experiment. In the theoretical part, there is a thorough discussion both of the kinematic aspects (description of correlations) and the dynamical ones (evaluation of correlations). The experimental part is naturally divided according to the nature of the system: the interaction of pulsed lasers with matter on the one hand, and the correlations in finite-size systems (nanoparticles and nuclei) on the other. There is also a discussion on the dynamics of superconductors, a subject currently of great interest. Although an effort has been made to keep each contribution self-contained, I must admit that reading level is uneven. However, there are a number of thorough and stimulating contributions that make this book a useful introduction to the topic at the level of graduate students or researchers acquainted with quantum statistical mechanics. (book review)

  11. The effect of short-time active listening training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Asami; Sumiyoshi, Kenichi; Kawaguchi, Hitomi; Sano, Yukiko

    2010-01-01

    We conducted mental health training incorporating active listening for managers at a site of a general chemical company with 1,400 employees. Our purpose was to clarify the effect of active listening training of 2.5h. All subjects were managers. The mental health training was given to 229 managers, 21 times from May 2007 until March 2008. Surveys were conducted from May 2007 to September 2008. The training sessions were conducted in a company meeting room, starting at 2:00 p.m. The importance and significance of listening as a mental health measure and methods of active listening were explained in the training. Afterward, role-playing and follow-up discussions were done twice each. In summaries, participants wrote down what they noticed about listening and gave group presentations. The instructor commented on the presentations, and ended the session by passing out and explaining a paper summarizing what is important in listening. The training was evaluated with a questionnaire distributed at the completion of training, and questionnaires on implementation of what was learned were distributed 1, 3, and 6 mo later. The Active Listening Attitude Scale (ALAS; composed of two scales for method of listening and listening attitude) developed by Mishima et al. was also used before and 1, 3, and 6 mo after the training. In questionnaires distributed on the same day after training, 60% of the 212 respondents said the training time was just right, and 30.1% felt it was too short. The difficulty level of the training was considered appropriate by 77.8%, and 79.7% intended to implement what they had learned. Overall satisfaction was high at 85.9%. In the questionnaire 6 mo after training, 81.4% of the 145 respondents remembered the content of the training and 49.7% said they were practicing what they had learned. They responded that their conversations with subordinates about non-work topics had increased, and communication and support at work had become smoother. ALAS was

  12. Design and development of a computer-based continuous monitor for the determination of the short-lived decay products of radon and thoron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigu, J [Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Elliot Lake, Ontario (Canada). Elliot Lake Lab.; Raz, R; Golden, K; Dominguez, P [Alpha-NUCLEAR, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1984-08-15

    A portable, rugged, monitor has been designed and built for measuring the short-lived decay products of radon and thoron. The monitor is computer-based and employs a continuous filter strip which can be advanced at programmable time intervals to allow unattended continuous operation with automatic sampling, analysis and recording of radiation levels. Radionuclide analysis is carried out by two silicon diffused-junction alpha-detectors and electronic circuitry with multichannel spectral analysis capabilities. Standard gross ..cap alpha..-count methods and ..cap alpha..-spectroscopy methods can easily be implemented. The built-in computer performs a variety of operations via a specially designed interface module, including control and data recording functions, and computations, program storage and display functions. Programs and data are stored in the built-in casette tape drive and the computer integrated CRT display and keyboard allow simple, prompted menu-type operation of standard software. Graphical presentation of ..cap alpha..-spectra can be shown on the computer CRT and printed when required on the computer built-in thermal printer. In addition, to implementing the specially developed radionuclide analysis software, the operator can interact and modify existing software, and program new ones, through BASIC language programming, or employ the computer in a totally unrelated, general purpose model. Although the monitor is ideally suited for environmental radon (thoron) daughter monitoring, it could also be used in the determination of other airborne radionuclides provided adequate analytical procedures are developed or included in the already existing computer software.

  13. Design and development of a computer-based continuous monitor for the determination of the short-lived decay products of radon and thoron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1984-01-01

    A portable, rugged, monitor has been designed and built for measuring the short-lived decay products of radon and thoron. The monitor is computer-based and employs a continuous filter strip which can be advanced at programmable time intervals to allow unattended continuous operatin with automatic sampling, analysis and recording of radiation levels. Radionuclide analysis is carried out by two silicon diffused-junction alpha-detectors and electronic circuitry with multichannel spectral analysis capabilities. Standard gross α-count methods and α-spectroscopy methods can easily be implemented. The built-in computer performs a variety of operations via a specially designed interface module, including control and data recording functions, and computations, program storage and display functions. Programs and data are stored in the built-in casette tape drive and the computer integrated CRT display and keyboard allow simple, prompted menu-type operation of standard software. Graphical presentation of α-spectra can be shown on the computer CRT and printed when required on the computer built-in thermal printer. In addition, to implementing the specially developed radionuclide analysis software, the operator can interact and modify existing software, and program new ones, through BASIC language programming, or employ the computer in a totally unrelated, general purpose model. Although the monitor is ideally suited for environmental radon (thoron) daughter monitoring, it could also be used in the determination of other airborne radionuclides provided adequate analytical procedures are developed or included in the already existing computer software. (orig.)

  14. Commissioning of the IDS Neutron Detector and $\\beta$-decay fast-timing studies at IDS

    CERN Document Server

    Piersa, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The following report describes my scientific activities performed during the Summer Student Programme at ISOLDE. The main part of my project was focused on commissioning the neutron detector dedicated to nuclear decay studies at ISOLDE Decay Station (IDS). I have participated in all the steps needed to make it operational for the IS609 experiment. In the testing phase, we obtained expected detector response and calibrations confirmed its successful commissioning. The detector was mounted in the desired geometry at IDS and used in measurements of the beta-delayed neutron emission of $^8$He. After completing aforementioned part of my project, I became familiar with the fast-timing method. This technique was applied at IDS in the IS610 experiment performed in June 2016 to explore the structure of neutron-rich $^{130-134}$Sn nuclei. Since the main part of my PhD studies will be the analysis of data collected in this experiment, the second part of my project was dedicated to acquiring knowledge about technical de...

  15. Studies of time-dependent $CP$ violation in charm decays of $B_s^0$ mesons

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081466; Gligorov, Vladimir

    The thesis describes the world-first, time-dependent measurement of charge-parity ($CP$) violation in $B_s^0 \\to D_s^\\mp K^\\pm$ decays. The study is performed at the LHCb experiment using data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} =7$ TeV, recorded in 2011. The $CP$ violating observables are found to be: $C = 0.52 \\pm 0.25 \\pm 0.04$, $D_{f} = 0.29 \\pm 0.42 \\pm 0.17$, $D_{\\overline{f}} = 0.14 \\pm 0.41 \\pm 0.18$, $S_{f} = -0.90 \\pm 0.31 \\pm 0.06$, $S_{\\overline{f}} = -0.36 \\pm 0.34 \\pm 0.06$, where the first (second) uncertainty is statistical (systematic). These observables are used to perform the first measurement of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa angle $\\gamma$ in $B_s^0 \\to D_s^\\mp K^\\pm$ decays, finding $\\gamma = (113_{-44}^{+30})^\\circ$~modulo $180^\\circ$ at 68% CL, where the error contains both statistical and systematic uncertainties.

  16. Unattached fraction of short-lived Rn decay products in indoor and outdoor environments: An improved single-screen method and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reineking, A.; Porstendoerfer, J.

    1990-01-01

    The unattached fraction fp of potential alpha energy of short-lived Rn decay products was measured under realistic, natural conditions in different dwellings and in the open atmosphere by a single-screen technique. An improved data evaluation method was developed where the measured activities of 218 Po (RaA) and 214 Pb (RaB) were corrected by the screen-attached activities of 214 Bi ( 214 Po) [RaC (RaC')]. This method is based on the experimental observation that the 214 Bi ( 214 Po) unattached activities are negligible under realistic living conditions and that the size distributions of the aerosol-attached activities of all short-lived Rn daughters are identical. In closed rooms without additional aerosol sources, a mean unattached fraction fp of the potential alpha energy of 0.096 was obtained at a mean aerosol particle concentration of 6100 cm-3 and at a mean equilibrium factor F of 0.30. This mean fp value is about three times higher than the value used in the literature for the radiation exposure calculation of the human public. In closed rooms with additional aerosol sources (cigarette smoke, heating systems, aerosols from a burning candle), the aerosol particle concentrations ranged up to 10(6) cm-3 and the attachment rates, X, increased up to 1000 h-1. The fp values sometimes decreased below the detection limit of 0.005, and the F values increased to as high as 0.77. In the ambient atmosphere in the vicinity of Goettingen, a mean unattached fraction fp of 0.02 and a mean aerosol particle concentration of 3.4 x 10(4) cm-3 were measured at 1 m above the ground. The mean equilibrium factor F was determined to be 0.7.A

  17. Innovation: study of 'ultra-short' time reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    This short article presents the new Elyse facility of Orsay-Paris 11 university for the study of ultra-short chemical and biochemical phenomena. Elyse uses the 'pump-probe' technique which consists in two perfectly synchronized electron and photon pulses. It comprises a 3 to 9 MeV electron accelerator with a HF gun photo-triggered with a laser. Elyse can initiate reactions using ultra-short electron pulses (radiolysis) or ultra-short photon pulses (photolysis). (J.S.)

  18. GluA2-dependent AMPA receptor endocytosis and the decay of early and late long-term potentiation: possible mechanisms for forgetting of short- and long-term memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Oliver; Nader, Karim; Wang, Yu-Tian

    2014-01-05

    The molecular processes involved in establishing long-term potentiation (LTP) have been characterized well, but the decay of early and late LTP (E-LTP and L-LTP) is poorly understood. We review recent advances in describing the mechanisms involved in maintaining LTP and homeostatic plasticity. We discuss how these phenomena could relate to processes that might underpin the loss of synaptic potentiation over time, and how they might contribute to the forgetting of short-term and long-term memories. We propose that homeostatic downscaling mediates the loss of E-LTP, and that metaplastic parameters determine the decay rate of L-LTP, while both processes require the activity-dependent removal of postsynaptic GluA2-containing AMPA receptors.

  19. Daily and seasonal variation of short-lived radon decay product concentrations in ground-level air at Munich-Neuherberg - a long-term study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.

    2001-09-01

    Daily and seasonal variation of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EEC Rn-222 ) and of the concentration of the short-lived radon decay product 214 Pb in ground-level air was investigated at Munich-Neuherberg from 1982 to 2000, and from 1989 to 2000, respectively. For this, the EEC was measured continuously with an alpha/beta aerosol monitor at 2.5 m above ground, and 214 Pb was determined by online gamma spectrometry at about 12 m above ground. The resulting time series were analysed statistically. For the respective periods, the measurements yielded a long-term average concentration of 7.8 Bq m -3 (geometric mean: 6.1 Bq m -3 ) for the EEC, and 6.0 Bq m -3 (geom. mean: 5.0 Bq m -3 ) for 214 Pb. In these periods, daily averages ranged from 0.6 to 49 Bq m -3 (EEC), and from 0.6 to 43 Bq m -3 ( 214 Pb). Monthly mean concentrations varied between 3.0 Bq m -3 in March 1988 and 20 Bq m -3 in October 1985 (EEC), and from 3.4 Bq m -3 in April 1992 to 11 Bq m -3 in October 1995 ( 214 Pb), respectively. The annual average concentrations were from 5.9 Bq m -3 in 1999 to 10.6 Bq m -3 in 1985 (EEC), and from 5.3 Bq m -3 in 1999 to 6.8 Bq m -3 in 1991 ( 214 Pb). From the long-term average equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EEC), an average annual effective dose of 0.13 mSv due to the short-lived radon progeny outdoors was estimated. The time series showed distinct daily and seasonal variations. The variations from day to day are mainly caused by the actual weather conditions (wind, rain, etc.), i.e. the short-term turbulent conditions. The seasonal pattern is characterised by an autumn to winter maximum and an early summer minimum, and reflects the prevailing turbulent conditions at the respective seasons. As known, at Munich-Neuherberg during autumn and winter months (October/November to February) inversion weather conditions frequently occur, while the other months are characterised by more turbulent conditions. (orig.)

  20. Job quality of short-time workers and perception and support from their managers

    OpenAIRE

    坂爪, 洋美

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the characteristics of job quality that short-time workers occupied and the managers’ perception and support whose member has used short-time working hour system. A total of 559 first-line managers who has a member using short-time working hour system completed a web-based survey assessing job quality of short-time workers , the risk of using short-timeworking hour system, career perspective of short-time workers, and the suppo...

  1. Mechanistic models for cancer development after short time radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottbauer, M. M.

    1997-12-01

    In this work two biological based models were developed. First the single-hit model for solid tumors (SHM-S) and second the single-hit model for leukemia (SHM-L). These models are a further development of the Armitage-Doll model for the special case of a short time radiation exposure. The basis of the models is the multistage process of carcinogeneses. The single-hit models provide simultaneously the age-dependent cancer-rate of spontaneous and radiation induced tumors as well as the dose-effect relationships at any age after exposure. The SHM-S leads to a biological based dose-effect relationship, which is similar to the relative risk model suggested by the ICRP 60. The SHM-S describes the increased mortality rate of the bomb survivors more accurate than the relative risk model. The SHM-L results in an additive dose-effect relationship. It is shown that only small differences in the derivation of the two models lead to the two dose-effect relationships. Beside the radiation exposure the new models consider the decrease of the cancer mortality rate at higher ages (age>75) which can be traced back mainly to three causes: competitive causes of death, reduction of cell proliferation and reduction of risk groups. The single-hit models also consider children cancer, the different rates of incidence and mortality, influence of the immune system and the cell-killing effect. (author)

  2. Short-time home coming project in evacuation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuzaki, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) forced neighboring residents to evacuate, and evacuation zone (20 km radius from NPPs) was defined as highly contaminated and designated as no-entry zones. Residents had been obliged to live a refugee life for a longer period than expected. Short-time home coming project was initiated according to their requests. They came to the meeting place called transfer place (20 - 30 km radius from NPPs), wore protective clothing and personal dosimeter with having drinking water and came home in evacuation zone with staffs by bus. Their healthcare management professionals were fully prepared for emergency. After collecting necessary articles at home within two hours, they returned to the meeting place by bus for screening and dressing, and went back to refuge house. If screening data were greater than 13 kcpm using GM counters, partial body decontamination had been conducted by wiping and if greater than 100 kcpm, whole body decontamination was requested but not conducted. Dose rate of residents and staffs was controlled less than 1 mSv, which was alarm level of personal dosimeter. Stable iodine was prepared but actually not used. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Probabilistic eruption forecasting at short and long time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocchi, Warner; Bebbington, Mark S.

    2012-10-01

    Any effective volcanic risk mitigation strategy requires a scientific assessment of the future evolution of a volcanic system and its eruptive behavior. Some consider the onus should be on volcanologists to provide simple but emphatic deterministic forecasts. This traditional way of thinking, however, does not deal with the implications of inherent uncertainties, both aleatoric and epistemic, that are inevitably present in observations, monitoring data, and interpretation of any natural system. In contrast to deterministic predictions, probabilistic eruption forecasting attempts to quantify these inherent uncertainties utilizing all available information to the extent that it can be relied upon and is informative. As with many other natural hazards, probabilistic eruption forecasting is becoming established as the primary scientific basis for planning rational risk mitigation actions: at short-term (hours to weeks or months), it allows decision-makers to prioritize actions in a crisis; and at long-term (years to decades), it is the basic component for land use and emergency planning. Probabilistic eruption forecasting consists of estimating the probability of an eruption event and where it sits in a complex multidimensional time-space-magnitude framework. In this review, we discuss the key developments and features of models that have been used to address the problem.

  4. Time dependent auto-correlation, autospectrum and decay ratio estimation of transient signals in JET soft X-ray records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Por, G.

    1999-08-01

    A program package was developed to estimate the time dependent auto-correlation function (ACF) from the time signals of soft X-ray records taken along the various lines-of-sights in JET-SHOTS, and also to estimate the time dependent Decay Ratio (DR) from that. On the basis of ACF the time dependent auto-power spectral density (APSD) was also calculated. The steps and objectives of this work were: eliminating the white detection noise, trends and slow variation from the time signals, since ordinary methods can give good estimate of the time dependent ACF and DR only for 'nearly' stationary signals, developing an automatic algorithm for finding the maxima and minima of ACF, since they are the basis for DR estimation, evaluating and testing different DR estimators for JET-SHOT, with the aim of finding parts of the signals, where the oscillating character is strong, estimating time dependent ACF and APSD that can follow the relatively fast variation in the time signal. The methods that we have developed for data processing of transient signals are: White detection noise removal and preparation for trend removal - weak components, white detection noise and high frequency components are filtered from the signal using the so-called soft-threshold wavelet filter. Removal of trends and slow variation - Three-point differentiation of the pre-filtered signal is used to remove trends and slow variation. Here we made use of the DERIV function of IDL program language. This leads to a filtered signal that has zero mean value in each time step. Calculation of the time dependent ACF - The signal treated by the two previous steps is used as the input. Calculated ACF value is added in each new time step, but the previously accumulated ACF value is multiplied by a weighting factor. Thus the new sample has 100% contribution, while the contributions from the previous samples are forgotten quickly. DR calculation - DR is a measure of the decay of oscillating ACF. This parameter was shown

  5. Time Reversibility, Correlation Decay and the Steady State Fluctuation Relation for Dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis J. Evans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Steady state fluctuation relations for nonequilibrium systems are under intense investigation because of their important practical implications in nanotechnology and biology. However the precise conditions under which they hold need clarification. Using the dissipation function, which is related to the entropy production of linear irreversible thermodynamics, we show time reversibility, ergodic consistency and a recently introduced form of correlation decay, called T-mixing, are sufficient conditions for steady state fluctuation relations to hold. Our results are not restricted to a particular model and show that the steady state fluctuation relation for the dissipation function holds near or far from equilibrium subject to these conditions. The dissipation function thus plays a comparable role in nonequilibrium systems to thermodynamic potentials in equilibrium systems.

  6. Architecture of polyglutamine-containing fibrils from time-resolved fluorescence decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlein, Christoph; Miettinen, Markus S; Borwankar, Tejas; Bürger, Jörg; Mielke, Thorsten; Kumke, Michael U; Ignatova, Zoya

    2014-09-26

    The disease risk and age of onset of Huntington disease (HD) and nine other repeat disorders strongly depend on the expansion of CAG repeats encoding consecutive polyglutamines (polyQ) in the corresponding disease protein. PolyQ length-dependent misfolding and aggregation are the hallmarks of CAG pathologies. Despite intense effort, the overall structure of these aggregates remains poorly understood. Here, we used sensitive time-dependent fluorescent decay measurements to assess the architecture of mature fibrils of huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 implicated in HD pathology. Varying the position of the fluorescent labels in the Htt monomer with expanded 51Q (Htt51Q) and using structural models of putative fibril structures, we generated distance distributions between donors and acceptors covering all possible distances between the monomers or monomer dimensions within the polyQ amyloid fibril. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we systematically scanned all possible monomer conformations that fit the experimentally measured decay times. Monomers with four-stranded 51Q stretches organized into five-layered β-sheets with alternating N termini of the monomers perpendicular to the fibril axis gave the best fit to our data. Alternatively, the core structure of the polyQ fibrils might also be a zipper layer with antiparallel four-stranded stretches as this structure showed the next best fit. All other remaining arrangements are clearly excluded by the data. Furthermore, the assessed dimensions of the polyQ stretch of each monomer provide structural evidence for the observed polyQ length threshold in HD pathology. Our approach can be used to validate the effect of pharmacological substances that inhibit or alter amyloid growth and structure. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. The real-time fitting of radioactive decay curves. Pt. 3. Counting during sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of a least-squares method for the real-time fitting of the theoretical total count function to the actual total count from radioactive decays has been given previously for the case where counting takes place after a sample is taken. The counting may be done in a number of different counting systems which distinguish between different types or energies of radiation emitted from the sample. The method would allow real-time determination of the numbers of atoms and hence activities of the individual isotopes present and has been designated the Time Evolved Least-Squares method (TELS). If the radioactivity which is to be measured exists as an aerosol or in a form where a sample is taken at a constant rate it may be possible to count during sampling and by so doing reduce the total time required to determine the activity of the individual isotopes present. The TELS method is extended here to the case where counting and the evaluation of the activity takes place concurrently with the sampling. The functions which need to be evaluated are derived and the calculations required to implement the method are discussed. As with the TELS method of counting after sampling the technique of counting during sampling and the simultaneous evaluation of activity could be achieved in real-time. Results of testing the method by computer simulation for two counting schemes for the descendants of radon are presented. ((orig.))

  8. Upcoversion performance improvement of NaYF4:Yb, Er by Sn codoping: Enhanced emission intensity and reduced decay time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Han; Cao, Wenbing; Huang, Qingming; Ma, En; Zhang, Xinqi; Yu, Jianchang

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript we report a phenomenon that upconversion emission intensity of Er 3+ was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased obviously by Sn codoping with Yb/Er into hexagonal NaYF 4 synchronously. X-ray powder diffiraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron spin-resonance spectroscopy and upconversion emission spectra were employed to explore the relation of crystal structure and properties. From these characterizations we found that symmetry of the rare earth ion local crystal field could be tuned by different Sn codoping concentration. For the variable valence property of Sn the local crystal field asymmetry and emission intensity of NaYF 4 :Yb, Er arrived to the maximum when 3 mol% Sn was codoped, while decay time was reduced. The study of this changing tends of upconversion emission intensity and decay time constant may be helpful for design and fabrication of high performance upconversion materials. - Graphical abstract: Variable-valenced Sn is introduced with Yb/Er into NaFY 4 to tune structure and local crystal field. Upconversion emission intensity of Er 3+ was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased. Display Omitted - Highlights: • NaYF 4 : Yb, Er was codoped with different concentration Sn. • Upconversion emission intensity was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased. • Introduction of variable-valenced Sn is effective to tune structure and crystal field of NaFY 4

  9. Procedure for short-lived particle detection in the OPERA experiment and its application to charm decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agafonova, N.; Malgin, A.; Matveev, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Shakiryanova, I. [INR-Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Aleksandrov, A.; Buontempo, S.; Consiglio, L.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Shchedrina, T.; Tioukov, V. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Anokhina, A.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Podgrudkov, D.; Roganova, T.; Shoziyoev, G. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, SINP MSU-Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Aoki, S.; Hara, T.; Ozaki, K.; Takahashi, S. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan); Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Ereditato, A.; Kawada, J.; Kreslo, I.; Pistillo, C.; Strauss, T.; Tufanli, S.; Vuilleumier, J.L. [University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), Bern (Switzerland); Bender, D.; Guler, M.; Kamiscioglu, C.; Kamiscioglu, M. [METU-Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Bertolin, A.; Dusini, S.; Kose, U.; Stanco, L. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Bozza, C.; Grella, G.; Stellacci, S.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Salerno and ' ' Gruppo Collegato' ' INFN, Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Roda, M.; Sirignano, C. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy); Buonaura, A.; De Lellis, G.; Galati, G.; Hosseini, B.; Lauria, A.; Montesi, M.C.; Strolin, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita Federico II di Napoli, Naples (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Buettner, B.; Ebert, J.; Goellnitz, C.; Hagner, C.; Hollnagel, A.; Lenkeit, J.; Wonsak, B. [Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Chernyavsky, M.; Okateva, N.; Polukhina, N.; Starkov, N.; Vladimirov, M. [LPI-Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chukanov, A.; Dmitrievski, S.; Gornushkin, Y.; Olshevsky, A.; Sheshukov, A.; Zemskova, S. [JINR-Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); D' Ambrosio, N.; Di Marco, N.; Pupilli, F.; Schembri, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy); De Serio, M.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Simone, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Bari, Bari (Italy); INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Amo Sanchez, P. del; Duchesneau, D.; Pessard, H.; Zghiche, A. [LAPP, Universite de Savoie, CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Di Ferdinando, D.; Mandrioli, G.; Patrizii, L.; Sirri, G.; Tenti, M. [INFN Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dracos, M.; Jollet, C.; Meregaglia, A. [IPHC, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, Strasbourg (France); Fini, R.A.; Pastore, A. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Fukuda, T.; Ishida, H.; Matsuo, T.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Giacomelli, G. [INFN Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Goldberg, J. [Technion, Department of Physics, Haifa (Israel); Gustavino, C.; Monacelli, P. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Ishiguro, K.; Kitagawa, N.; Komatsu, M.; Morishima, K.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Niwa, K.; Omura, T.; Rokujo, H.; Sato, O.; Shiraishi, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Jakovcic, K.; Klicek, B.; Ljubicic, A.; Malenica, M.; Stipcevic, M. [IRB-Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Kim, J.H.; Park, I.G.; Yoon, C.S. [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.H. [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kodama, K. [Aichi University of Education, Kariya, Aichi-Ken (Japan); Longhin, A.; Paoloni, A.; Spinetti, M.; Votano, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Loverre, P.; Rosa, G. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); Mauri, N.; Pasqualini, L.; Pozzato, M.; Sioli, M. [INFN Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Mikado, S. [Nihon University, Narashino, Chiba (Japan); Park, B.D. [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Changwon Hospital, SKKU, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Terranova, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G. [IIHE, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-08-15

    TheOPERAexperiment, designed to perform the first observation of ν{sub μ} → ν{sub τ} oscillations in appearance mode through the detection of the τ leptons produced in ν{sub τ} charged current interactions, has collected data from 2008 to 2012. In the present paper, the procedure developed to detect τ particle decays, occurring over distances of the order of 1mm from the neutrino interaction point, is described in detail and applied to the search for charmed hadrons, showing similar decay topologies as the τ lepton. In the analysed sample, 50 charm decay candidate events are observed while 54 ± 4 are expected, proving that the detector performance and the analysis chain applied to neutrino events are well reproduced by the OPERA simulation and thus validating the methods for ν{sub τ} appearance detection. (orig.)

  10. The photoluminescence decay time of self-assembled InAs quantum dots covered by InGaAs layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, G W; Wang, C K; Wang, J S; Shen, J L; Hsiao, R S; Chou, W C; Chen, J F; Lin, T Y; Ko, C H; Lai, C M

    2006-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) with InGaAs covering layers was investigated. The PL decay time increases with temperature from 50 to 170 K, and then decreases as the temperature increases further above 170 K. A model based on the phonon-assisted transition between the QD ground state and the continuum state is used to explain the temperature dependence of the PL decay time. This result suggests that the continuum states are important in the carrier capture in self-assembled InAs QDs

  11. Semileptonic decays of pseudoscalar particles (M→M'+l+ν(l)) and short-distance behaviour of quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrely, C.; Machet, B.; Rafael, E. de.

    1980-12-01

    The form factors which govern the semileptonic decays of pseudoscalar particles (M→M'+l+ν(l)) are constrained by the knowledge of the two-point function PIsup(μv)(q) in the deep euclidean region. We derive the precise constrains from a QCD calculation of PIsup(μv) which includes perturbative contributions to two-loops as well as leading non-perturbative contributions. Applications to PIl 3 , Kl 3 and D + →antiK 0 e + νe decays are discussed

  12. Multivariate regression analysis for determining short-term values of radon and its decay products from filter measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraut, W.; Schwarz, W.; Wilhelm, A.

    1994-01-01

    A multivariate regression analysis is applied to decay measurements of α-resp. β-filter activcity. Activity concentrations for Po-218, Pb-214 and Bi-214, resp. for the Rn-222 equilibrium equivalent concentration are obtained explicitly. The regression analysis takes into account properly the variances of the measured count rates and their influence on the resulting activity concentrations. (orig.) [de

  13. Decay tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Seiichi; Tagishi, Akinori; Sakata, Yuji; Kontani, Koji; Sudo, Yukio; Kaminaga, Masanori; Kameyama, Iwao; Ando, Koei; Ishiki, Masahiko.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns an decay tank for decaying a radioactivity concentration of a fluid containing radioactive material. The inside of an decay tank body is partitioned by partitioning plates to form a flow channel. A porous plate is attached at the portion above the end of the partitioning plate, that is, a portion where the flow is just turned. A part of the porous plate has a slit-like opening on the side close to the partitioning plate, that is, the inner side of the flow at the turning portion thereof. Accordingly, the primary coolants passed through the pool type nuclear reactor and flown into the decay tank are flow caused to uniformly over the entire part of the tank without causing swirling. Since a distribution in a staying time is thus decreased, the effect of decaying 16 N as radioactive nuclides in the primary coolants is increased even in a limited volume of the tank. (I.N.)

  14. A Study of Neutral B Meson Time Evolution Using Exclusively Reconstructed Semileptonic Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, T

    2003-11-05

    The Standard Model of particle physics describes the fundamental building blocks of the Universe and their basic interactions. The model naturally describes the time evolution of the basic particles, of which lifetime and mixing are two examples. The neutral B meson, consisting of a bottom quark and an oppositely charged down quark, enjoys a lifetime of about 1.5 ps and the special property of mixing with its antiparticle partner, the {bar B}{sup 0}. That is, due to second order weak interactions, the B{sup 0} meson can change into a {bar B}{sup 0} meson and back again as it evolves through time. The details of this behavior offer an opportunity to closely examine the Standard Model. In this dissertation, I report on a measurement of the lifetime and mixing frequency of the neutral B meson. Using the semileptonic decay channel B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup -}{ell}{sup +}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}, we select more than 68,000 signal and background candidates from about 23 million B{bar B} pairs collected in 1999-2000 with the BABAR detector located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The other B in the event is reconstructed inclusively. By constructing a master probability density function that describes the distribution of decay time differences in the sample, we use a maximum likelihood technique to simultaneously extract the B{sup 0} lifetime and mixing parameters with precision comparable to the year 2000 world average. The results are {tau}{sub B{sup 0}} = (1.523{sub -0.023}{sup +0.024} {+-} 0.022) ps and {Delta}m{sub d} = (0.492 {+-} 0.018 {+-} 0.013) ps{sup -1}. The statistical correlation coefficient between {tau}{sub B{sup 0}} and {Delta}m{sub d} is -0.22. I describe in detail several cutting-edge strategies this analysis uses to study these phenomena, laying important groundwork for the future. I also discuss several extensions of this work to include possible measurements of higher order parameters such as {Delta}{Lambda}{sub d}.

  15. Precise discussion of time-reversal asymmetries in B-meson decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozumi, Takuya; Okane, Hideaki; Umeeda, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    BaBar collaboration announced that they observed time reversal (T) asymmetry through B meson system. In the experiment, time dependencies of two distinctive processes, B_−→ (B"0)-bar and (B"0)-bar →B_− (− expresses CP value) are compared with each other. In our study, we examine event number difference of these two processes. In contrast to the BaBar asymmetry, the asymmetry of events number includes the overall normalization difference for rates. Time dependence of the asymmetry is more general and it includes terms absent in one used by BaBar collaboration. Both of the BaBar asymmetry and ours are naively thought to be T-odd since two processes compared are related with flipping time direction. We investigate the time reversal transformation property of our asymmetry. Using our notation, one can see that the asymmetry is not precisely a T-odd quantity, taking into account indirect CP and CPT violation of K meson systems. The effect of ϵ_K is extracted and gives rise to O(10"−"3) contribution. The introduced parameters are invariant under rephasing of quarks so that the coefficients of our asymmetry are expressed as phase convention independent quantities. Some combinations of the asymmetry enable us to extract parameters for wrong sign decays of B_d meson, CPT violation, etc. We also study the reason why the T-even terms are allowed to contribute to the asymmetry, and find that several conditions are needed for the asymmetry to be a T-odd quantity.

  16. Sizing protein-templated gold nanoclusters by time resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleilhac, Antonin; Bertorelle, Franck; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2018-03-01

    Protein-templated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) are very attractive due to their unique fluorescence properties. A major problem however may arise due to protein structure changes upon the nucleation of an AuNC within the protein for any future use as in vivo probes, for instance. In this work, we propose a simple and reliable fluorescence based technique measuring the hydrodynamic size of protein-templated gold nanoclusters. This technique uses the relation between the time resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay and the hydrodynamic volume, through the rotational correlation time. We determine the molecular size of protein-directed AuNCs, with protein templates of increasing sizes, e.g. insulin, lysozyme, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The comparison of sizes obtained by other techniques (e.g. dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering) between bare and gold clusters containing proteins allows us to address the volume changes induced either by conformational changes (for BSA) or the formation of protein dimers (for insulin and lysozyme) during cluster formation and incorporation.

  17. Sizing protein-templated gold nanoclusters by time resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleilhac, Antonin; Bertorelle, Franck; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2018-03-15

    Protein-templated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) are very attractive due to their unique fluorescence properties. A major problem however may arise due to protein structure changes upon the nucleation of an AuNC within the protein for any future use as in vivo probes, for instance. In this work, we propose a simple and reliable fluorescence based technique measuring the hydrodynamic size of protein-templated gold nanoclusters. This technique uses the relation between the time resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay and the hydrodynamic volume, through the rotational correlation time. We determine the molecular size of protein-directed AuNCs, with protein templates of increasing sizes, e.g. insulin, lysozyme, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The comparison of sizes obtained by other techniques (e.g. dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering) between bare and gold clusters containing proteins allows us to address the volume changes induced either by conformational changes (for BSA) or the formation of protein dimers (for insulin and lysozyme) during cluster formation and incorporation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. On the Option Effects of Short-Time Work Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Kuno; Thijssen, J.J.J.

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the short term work (STW) regulations that several OECD countries introduced after the 2007 financial crisis. We view these measures as a collection of real options and study the dynamic effect of STW on the endogenous liquidation decision of the firm. While STW delays a firm’s

  19. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  20. A time-to-amplitude converter with constant fraction timing discriminators for short time interval measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostamovaara, J.; Myllylae, R.

    1985-01-01

    The construction and the performance of a time-to-amplitude converter equipped with constant fraction discriminators is described. The TAC consists of digital and analog parts which are constructed on two printed circuit boards, both of which are located in a single width NIM module. The dead time of the TAC for a start pulse which is not followed by a stop pulse within the time range of the device (proportional100 ns) is only proportional100 ns, which enables one to avoid counting rate saturation even with a high random input signal rate. The differential and integral nonlinearities of the TAC are better than +-1.5% and 0.05%, respectively. The resolution for input timing pulses of constant shape is 20 ps (fwhm), and less than 10 ps (fwhm) with a modification in the digital part. The walk error of the constant fraction timing discriminators is presented and various parameters affecting it are discussed. The effect of the various disturbances in linearity caused by the fast ECL logic and their minimization are also discussed. The time-to-amplitude converter has been used in positron lifetime studies and for laser range finding. (orig.)

  1. Search for time modulations in the decay constant of 40K and 226Ra at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, E.; Broggini, C.; Di Carlo, G.; Laubenstein, M.; Menegazzo, R.

    2018-05-01

    Time modulations at per mil level have been reported to take place in the decay constant of several nuclei with period of one year (most cases) but also of about one month or one day. On the other hand, experiments with similar or better sensitivity have been unable to detect any modulation. In this letter we give the results of the activity study of two different sources: 40K and 226Ra. The two gamma spectrometry experiments have been performed underground at the Gran Sasso Laboratory, this way suppressing the time dependent cosmic ray background. Briefly, our measurements reached the sensitivity of 3.4 and 3.5 parts over 106 for 40K and 226Ra, respectively (1 sigma) and they do not show any statistically significant evidence of time dependence in the decay constant. We also give the results of the activity measurement at the time of the two strong X-class solar flares which took place in September 2017. Our data do not show any unexpected time dependence in the decay rate of 40K in correspondence with the two flares. To the best of our knowledge, these are the most precise and accurate results on the stability of the decay constant as function of time.

  2. Accurate mass measurements of very short-lived nuclei. Prerequisites for high-accuracy investigations of superallowed β-decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herfurth, F.; Kellerbauer, A.; Sauvan, E.; Ames, F.; Engels, O.; Audi, G.; Lunney, D.; Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Kluge, H.J.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sikler, G.; Weber, C.; Bollen, G.; Schwarz, S.; Moore, R.B.; Oinonen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Mass measurements of 34 Ar, 73-78 Kr, and 74,76 Rb were performed with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. Very accurate Q EC -values are needed for the investigations of the Ft-value of 0 + → 0 + nuclear β-decays used to test the standard model predictions for weak interactions. The necessary accuracy on the Q EC -value requires the mass of mother and daughter nuclei to be measured with δm/m ≤ 3 . 10 -8 . For most of the measured nuclides presented here this has been reached. The 34 Ar mass has been measured with a relative accuracy of 1.1 .10 -8 . The Q EC -value of the 34 Ar 0 + → 0 + decay can now be determined with an uncertainty of about 0.01%. Furthermore, 74 Rb is the shortest-lived nuclide ever investigated in a Penning trap. (orig.)

  3. Excitation of short-scale fluctuations by parametric decay of helicon waves into ion-sound and Trivelpiece-Gould waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, B; Kraemer, M; Selenin, V L; Aliev, Yu M

    2005-01-01

    The helicon wave field and the excitation of short-scale electrostatic fluctuations in a helicon-produced plasma are closely related as both the helicon wave damping and the fluctuation level are shown to increase with the launched rf power. Correlation methods using electrostatic probes as well as microwave back-scattering at the upper-hybrid resonance are applied to obtain the dispersion relations of the fluctuations in the low-frequency and high-frequency ranges. The frequency and wavenumber spectra measured for all components of the wave vector allow us to identify the fluctuations as ion-sound and Trivelpiece-Gould waves that originate from parametric decay of the helicon pump wave. The growth rates and thresholds inferred from the evolution of the fluctuations in a wide range of helicon plasma parameters are in good agreement with predictions for the parametric decay instability that takes into account realistic damping rates for the decay waves as well as non-vanishing parallel wavenumber of the helicon pump

  4. Measurement of time-dependent $CP$ violation in charmless two-body $B$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    The LHCb Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Using an integrated luminosity of 0.69~fb$^{-1}$ collected by LHCb in 2011, we report measurements of direct and mixing-induced $C\\!P$ violation in $B^0\\to\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $B^0_s\\to K^+K^-$ decays. We obtain \\begin{equation*} \\begin{split} A^{\\rm dir}_{\\pi\\pi} = 0.11 \\pm 0.21 \\pm 0.03,\\\\ A^{\\rm mix}_{\\pi\\pi} = -0.56 \\pm 0.17 \\pm 0.03,\\\\ A^{\\rm dir}_{KK} = 0.02 \\pm 0.18 \\pm 0.04,\\\\ A^{\\rm mix}_{KK} = 0.17 \\pm 0.18 \\pm 0.05, \\end{split} \\end{equation*} where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second systematic. The correlations are found to be $\\rho (A^{\\rm dir}_{\\pi\\pi},\\,A^{\\rm mix}_{\\pi\\pi})=-0.34$ and $\\rho(A^{\\rm dir}_{KK},\\,A^{\\rm mix}_{KK})=-0.10$. The measurements of $A^{\\rm dir}_{\\pi\\pi}$ and $A^{\\rm mix}_{\\pi\\pi}$ are compatible with those from the $B$ factories and yield 3.2$\\sigma$ evidence of mixing-induced $C\\!P$ violation, whereas $A^{\\rm dir}_{KK}$ and $A^{\\rm mix}_{KK}$ are measured for the first time ever.

  5. Time dependent rise and decay of photocurrent in zinc oxide nanoparticles in ambient and vacuum medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Rajkumar; Srivastava, Rajneesh K.

    2018-05-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle has been synthesized by cost effective Co-precipitation method and studied its photo-response activity. The synthesized ZnO nanomaterial was characterized by using various analytical techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the XRD results, it is confirmed that synthesized ZnO nanomaterial possess hexagonal wurtzite phase structure with an average crystallite size of ∼16–17 nm. The UV-Visible absorption spectrum shows that it has blue shift compared to their bulk counterparts. Photoluminescence spectra of ZnO nanoparticles have a strong violet band at 423 nm and three weak bands at 485 nm (blue), 506 nm (green), and 529 nm (green). The presence of hydroxyl group was confirmed by FTIR. The photo-response analysis was studied by the time-dependent rise and decay photocurrent of ZnO nanoparticle was tested in the air as well as vacuum medium.

  6. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Time measurement device with four femtosecond stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Petr; Prochazka, Ivan; Kodet, Jan

    2010-10-01

    We present the experimental results of extremely precise timing in the sense of time-of-arrival measurements in a local time scale. The timing device designed and constructed in our laboratory is based on a new concept using a surface acoustic wave filter as a time interpolator. Construction of the device is briefly described. The experiments described were focused on evaluating the timing precision and stability. Low-jitter test pulses with a repetition frequency of 763 Hz were generated synchronously to the local time base and their times of arrival were measured. The resulting precision of a single measurement was typically 900 fs RMS, and a timing stability TDEV of 4 fs was achieved for time intervals in the range from 300 s to 2 h. To our knowledge this is the best value reported to date for the stability of a timing device. The experimental results are discussed and possible improvements are proposed.

  7. Assessment of decay in standing timber using stress wave timing nondestructive evaluation tools : a guide for use and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Ferenc Divos; Crystal Pilon; Brian K. Brashaw; Robert J. Ross; Roy F. Pellerin

    2004-01-01

    This guide was prepared to assist field foresters in the use of stress wave timing instruments to locate and define areas of decay in standing timber. The first three sections provide background information, the principles of stress wave nondestructive testing, and measurement techniques for stress wave nondestructive testing. The last section is a detailed description...

  8. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogens, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure-Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manure-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green...

  9. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogen, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria, and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manre-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green fluore...

  10. Real-time energy resources scheduling considering short-term and very short-term wind forecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marco; Sousa, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Vale, Zita [Polytechnic of Porto (Portugal). GECAD - Knowledge Engineering and Decision Support Research Center

    2012-07-01

    This paper proposes an energy resources management methodology based on three distinct time horizons: day-ahead scheduling, hour-ahead scheduling, and real-time scheduling. In each scheduling process the update of generation and consumption operation and of the storage and electric vehicles storage status are used. Besides the new operation conditions, the most accurate forecast values of wind generation and of consumption using results of short-term and very short-term methods are used. A case study considering a distribution network with intensive use of distributed generation and electric vehicles is presented. (orig.)

  11. The use of diffusion theory to compute invasion effects for the pulsed neutron thermal decay time log

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittle, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Diffusion theory has been successfully used to model the effect of fluid invasion into the formation for neutron porosity logs and for the gamma-gamma density log. The purpose of this paper is to present results of computations using a five-group time-dependent diffusion code on invasion effects for the pulsed neutron thermal decay time log. Previous invasion studies by the author involved the use of a three-dimensional three-group steady-state diffusion theory to model the dual-detector thermal neutron porosity log and the gamma-gamma density log. The five-group time-dependent code MGNDE (Multi-Group Neutron Diffusion Equation) used in this work was written by Ferguson. It has been successfully used to compute the intrinsic formation life-time correction for pulsed neutron thermal decay time logs. This application involves the effect of fluid invasion into the formation

  12. Experimental investigation of statistical density function of decaying radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salma, I.; Zemplen-Papp, E.

    1991-01-01

    The validity of the Poisson and the λ P(k) modified Poisson statistical density functions of observing k events in a short time interval is investigated experimentally in radioactive decay detection for various measuring times. The experiments to measure radioactive decay were performed with 89m Y, using a multichannel analyzer. According to the results, Poisson statistics adequately describes the counting experiment for short measuring times. (author) 13 refs.; 4 figs

  13. Core-power and decay-time limits for disabled automatic-actuation of LOFT ECCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    The Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) for the LOFT reactor may need to be disabled for modifications or repairs of hardware or instrumentation or for component testing during periods when the reactor system is hot and pressurized, or it may be desirable to enable the ECCS to be disabled without the necessity of cooling down and depressurizing the reactor. A policy involves disabling the automatic-actuation of the LOFT ECCS, but still retaining the manual actuation capability. Disabling of the automatic actuation can be safely utilized, without subjecting the fuel cladding to unacceptable temperatures, when the LOFT power decays to 33 kW; this power level permits a maximum delay of 20 minutes following a LOCA for the manual actuation of ECCS. For the operating power of the L2-2 Experiment, the required decay-periods (with operating periods of 40 and 2000 hours) are about 21 and 389 hours, respectively. With operating periods of 40 and 2000 hours at Core-I full power, the required decay-periods are about 42 and 973 hours, respectively. After these decay periods the automatic actuation of the LOFT ECCS can be disabled assuming a maximum delay of 20 minutes following a LOCA for the manual actuation of ECCS. The automatic and manual lineup of the ECCS may be waived if decay power is less than 11 kW

  14. Measurement of short transverse relaxation times by pseudo-echo nutation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Maude; Moyne, Christian; Canet, Daniel

    2018-07-01

    Very short NMR transverse relaxation times may be difficult to measure by conventional methods. Nutation experiments constitute an alternative approach. Nutation is, in the rotating frame, the equivalent of precession in the laboratory frame. It consists in monitoring the rotation of magnetization around the radio-frequency (rf) field when on-resonance conditions are fulfilled. Depending on the amplitude of the rf field, nutation may be sensitive to the two relaxation rates R1 and R2. A full theoretical development has been worked out for demonstrating how these two relaxation rates could be deduced from a simple nutation experiment, noticing however that inhomogeneity of the rf field may lead to erroneous results. This has led us to devise new experiments which are the equivalent of echo techniques in the rotating frame (pseudo spin-echo nutation experiment and pseudo gradient-echo experiment). Full equations of motion have been derived. Although complicated, they indicate that the sum of the two relaxation rates can be obtained very accurately and not altered by rf field inhomogeneity. This implies however an appropriate data processing accounting for the oscillations which are superposed to the echo decays and, anyway, theoretically predicted. A series of experiments has been carried out for different values of the rf field amplitude on samples of water doped with a paramagnetic compound at different concentrations. Pragmatically, as R1 can be easily measured by conventional methods, its value is entered in the data processing algorithm which then returns exclusively the value of the transverse relaxation time. Very consistent results are obtained that way.

  15. JENDL FP decay data file 2000 and the beta-decay theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Katakura, Jun Ichi; Tachibana, Takahiro

    2002-01-01

    JENDL FP Decay Data File 2000 has been developed as one of the special purpose files of the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL), which constitutes a versatile nuclear data basis for science and technology. In the format of ENDF-6 this file includes the decay data for 1087 unstable fission product (FP) nuclides and 142 stable nuclides as their daughters. The primary purpose of this file is to use in the summation calculation of FP decay heat, which plays a critical role in nuclear safety analysis; the loss-of-coolant accident analysis of reactors, for example. The data for a given nuclide are its decay modes, the Q value, the branching ratios, the average energies released in the form of beta- and gamma-rays per decay, and their spectral data. The primary source of the decay data adopted here is the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File). The data in ENSDF, however, cover only the measured values. The data of the short-lived nuclides, which are essential for the decay heat calculations at short cooling times, are often fully lacking or incomplete even if they exist. This is mainly because of their short half-life nature. For such nuclides a theoretical model calculation is applied in order to fill the gaps between the true and the experimentally known decay schemes. In practice we have to predict the average decay energies and the spectral data for a lot of short-lived FPs by use of beta-decay theories. Thus the beta-decay theory plays a very important role in generating the FP decay data file

  16. The history of time a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Holford-Strevens, Leofranc

    2005-01-01

    Leofranc Holford-Strevens explores time measurement and the organisation of time into hours, days, months and years using a range of fascinating examples from Ancient Rome and Julius Caesar's Leap Year, to the 1920s' project for a fixed Easter. - ;Why do we measure time in the way that we do? Why is a week seven days long? At what point did minutes and seconds come into being? Why are some calendars lunar and some solar? The organisation of time into hours, days, months and years seems immutable and universal, but is actually far more artificial than most people realise. The French Revolution

  17. Measurement of decay time of K→π0π0 and tagging the KL and KS in the NA48 experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crepe, Sabine

    1998-05-01

    The NA48 experiment aims to measure, in the neutral kaon system and with a precision of 0.0002, the real part of the ratio between the amplitudes of the direct and indirect breaking of the CP symmetry. To reach the requested precision NA48 has to minimize systematic uncertainties and thus has chosen to detect simultaneously and in the same fiducial region the long and short-lived (K L and K S ) decays into two charged or neutral pions. Consequently, kaon tagging is necessary. It is done using the time coincidences between these decays and the protons at the origin of the K S beam. As mis-tagging leads to large bias for the NA48 measurement, it has to be carefully evaluated and understood. It could be due either to detectors inefficiencies or to random coincidences between K L and protons. The detector used for the tagging of the neutral modes is the liquid krypton calorimeter. Its time performances, studied with 1996 and 1997 data, appear to be very good: for two neutral pion decays its resolution is 250 ps and its inefficiency smaller than 0.0001. Moreover, the amount of random coincidences between protons and K L is directly related to the instantaneous rate of the proton beam. The time structures of this beam have been studied, Several frequencies have been found and the effective spill length has been measured to be only 75 per cent of the total one. Finally, the uncertainties on the real part of the ratio between direct and indirect CP breaking due to mis-tagging have been evaluated for the 1997 data. They are smaller than the statistical one. (author)

  18. A Mott polarimeter for the search of time reversal violation in the decay of free neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, G.; Beck, M.; Bialek, A.; Bodek, K.; Gorel, P.; Kirch, K.; Kistryn, St.; Kozela, A.; Kuzniak, M.; Lindroth, A.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Pulut, J.; Severijns, N.; Stephan, E.; Zejma, J.

    2006-01-01

    A new polarimeter for low-energy electrons has been built and tested. The device was developed for the measurement of the transverse polarization of beta particles emitted in the decay of polarized cold neutrons. The decay electrons are identified by multi-wire proportional chambers made of low-Z materials and are detected with plastic scintillator hodoscopes. The transverse polarization is analyzed by means of large angle Mott scattering on a thin Pb foil. We describe here the elements of the apparatus and present the results of test measurements which illustrate its performance

  19. A Mott polarimeter for the search of time reversal violation in the decay of free neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen (France); Beck, M. [Catholic University, Leuven (Belgium); Bialek, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland); Bodek, K. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: ufbodek@if.uj.edu.pl; Gorel, P. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen (France); Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Kirch, K. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Kistryn, St. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Kozela, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland); Kuzniak, M. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Lindroth, A. [Catholic University, Leuven (Belgium); Naviliat-Cuncic, O. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen (France); Pulut, J. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Catholic University, Leuven (Belgium); Severijns, N. [Catholic University, Leuven (Belgium); Stephan, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Zejma, J. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland)

    2006-09-15

    A new polarimeter for low-energy electrons has been built and tested. The device was developed for the measurement of the transverse polarization of beta particles emitted in the decay of polarized cold neutrons. The decay electrons are identified by multi-wire proportional chambers made of low-Z materials and are detected with plastic scintillator hodoscopes. The transverse polarization is analyzed by means of large angle Mott scattering on a thin Pb foil. We describe here the elements of the apparatus and present the results of test measurements which illustrate its performance.

  20. Short Vigilance Tasks are Hard Work Even If Time Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    maintaining the data needed , and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other...actual time. Upon completion of the task, participants filled out questionnaires related to the hedonic and temporal evaluation of the task. Participants...time. Upon completion of the task, participants filled out questionnaires related to the hedonic and temporal evaluation of the task. Participants

  1. Finite upper bound for the Hawking decay time of an arbitrarily large black hole in anti-de Sitter spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Don N.

    2018-01-01

    In an asymptotically flat spacetime of dimension d >3 and with the Newtonian gravitational constant G , a spherical black hole of initial horizon radius rh and mass M ˜rhd -3/G has a total decay time to Hawking emission of td˜rhd -1/G ˜G2 /(d -3 )M(d -1 )/(d -3 ) which grows without bound as the radius rh and mass M are taken to infinity. However, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime with a length scale ℓ and with absorbing boundary conditions at infinity, the total Hawking decay time does not diverge as the mass and radius go to infinity but instead remains bounded by a time of the order of ℓd-1/G .

  2. Accuracy, reliability, and timing of visual evaluations of decay in fresh-cut lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visual assessments are used for evaluating the quality of food products, such as fresh-cut lettuce packaged in bags with modified atmosphere. We have compared the accuracy and the reliability of visual evaluations of decay on fresh-cut lettuce performed with experienced and inexperienced raters. In ...

  3. Perception of short time scale intervals in a hypnotic virtuoso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M.; Arstila, Valtteri; Wearden, John H.; Kallio, Sakari

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that hypnotized individuals underestimate temporal intervals in the range of several seconds to tens of minutes. However, no previous work has investigated whether duration perception is equally disorderly when shorter time intervals are probed. In this study, duration

  4. Dollars and Deadlines: Rule Reforms in Short Time Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: In "At Last! Aye, and there's the Rub" (i.e., the target article for this commentary), Capron describes challenges related to the timing for development, adoption, and revision of the Common Rule. Specifically, what the National Commission thought would be a...

  5. Tests for nonlinearity in short stationary time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.; Sauer, T.; Schiff, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    To compare direct tests for detecting determinism in chaotic time series, data from Henon, Lorenz, and Mackey--Glass equations were contaminated with various levels of additive colored noise. These data were analyzed with a variety of recently developed tests for determinism, and the results compared

  6. Time-dependent CP violation measurements in neutral B meson to double-charm decays at the Japanese Belle experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehrken, Markus

    2012-07-13

    The Belle and BaBar Collaborations experimentally established the existence of CP violating phenomena in the B meson system. In this PhD thesis, the measurements of the branching fraction and the time-dependent CP violation in B{sup 0}→D{sup +}D{sup -} decays based on the final data set of the Belle experiment are presented. Furthermore, the thesis comprises the corresponding measurements in B{sup 0}→D{sup *±}D{sup -+} decays to provide a direct comparison to a related decay. The final Belle data set contains 772 x 10{sup 6} B anti B pairs recorded on the Υ(4S)-resonance at the asymmetric-energy KEKB e{sup +}e{sup -}-collider. The measurement of the time evolution allows the experimental determination of time-dependent CP violating asymmetries. The results of the measurements of branching fractions are B(B{sup 0}→D{sup +}D{sup -})=(2.12±0.16(stat.)±0.18(syst.)) x 10{sup -4}; B(B{sup 0}→D{sup *±}D{sup -+})=(6.14±0.29(stat.)±0.50(syst.)) x 10{sup -4}. The results of the measurement of time-dependent CP violation in B{sup 0}→D{sup +}D{sup -} decays are S{sub D{sup +}D{sup -}}=-1.06{sup +0.21}{sub -0.14}(stat.)±0.08(syst.); C{sub D{sup +}D{sup -}}=-0.43±0.16(stat.)±0.05(syst.). This measurement excludes the conservation of CP symmetry in B{sup 0}→D{sup +}D{sup -} decays, equivalent to S{sub D{sup +}D{sup -}}=C{sub D{sup +}D{sup -}}=0, at a confidence level of 1-2.7 x 10{sup -5} corresponding to a significance of 4.2σ. The results of the measurement of time-dependent CP violation in B{sup 0}→D{sup *±}D{sup -+} decays are A{sub D{sup *}D}=+0.06±0.05(stat.)±0.02(syst.); S{sub D{sup *}D}=-0.78±0.15(stat.)±0.05(syst.); C{sub D{sup *}D}=-0.01±0.11(stat.)±0.04(syst.); ΔS{sub D{sup *}D}=-0.13±0.15(stat.)±0.04(syst.); ΔC{sub D{sup *}D}=+0.12±0.11(stat.)±0.03(syst.). This measurement excludes the conservation of CP symmetry in B{sup 0}→D{sup *±}D{sup -+} decays, equivalent to A{sub D{sup *}D}=S{sub D{sup *}D}=C{sub D{sup *}D}=0, at a

  7. PASTEURISASI HIGH TEMPERATURE SHORT TIME (HTST) SUSU TERHADAP Listeria monocytogenes PADA PENYIMPANAN REFRIGERATOR

    OpenAIRE

    SABIL, SYAHRIANA

    2015-01-01

    2015 SYAHRIANA SABIL (I 111 11 273). Pasteurisasi High Temperature Short Time (HTST) Susu terhadap Listeria monocytogenes pada Penyimpanan Refrigerator. Dibimbing oleh RATMAWATI MALAKA dan FARIDA NUR YULIATI. Pasteurisasi High Temperature Short Time (HTST) merupakan proses pemanasan susu di bawah titik didih yang diharapkan dapat membunuh Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) karena bersifat patogen dan mengakibatkan listeriosis yang merupakan penyakit zoonosis. Tu...

  8. Nuclide transport of decay chain in the fractured rock medium: a model using continuous time Markov process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younmyoung Lee; Kunjai Lee

    1995-01-01

    A model using continuous time Markov process for nuclide transport of decay chain of arbitrary length in the fractured rock medium has been developed. Considering the fracture in the rock matrix as a finite number of compartments, the transition probability for nuclide from the transition intensity between and out of the compartments is represented utilizing Chapman-Kolmogorov equation, with which the expectation and the variance of nuclide distribution for the fractured rock medium could be obtained. A comparison between continuous time Markov process model and available analytical solutions for the nuclide transport of three decay chains without rock matrix diffusion has been made showing comparatively good agreement. Fittings with experimental breakthrough curves obtained with nonsorbing materials such as NaLS and uranine in the artificial fractured rock are also made. (author)

  9. Short-term effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues: Laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Denton, John; Fletcher, Jonathan N; Janaway, Robert C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2014-05-01

    Contradictions and misconceptions regarding the effect of lime on the decay of human remains have demonstrated the need for more research into the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition. This study follows previous research by the authors who have investigated the effect of lime on the decomposition of human remains in burial environments. A further three pig carcasses (Sus scrofa), used as human body analogues, were observed and monitored for 78 days without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and with quicklime (CaO) in the taphonomy laboratory at the University of Bradford. The results showed that in the early stages of decay, the unlimed and hydrated lime cadavers follow a similar pattern of changes. In contrast, the application of quicklime instigated an initial acceleration of decay. Microbial investigation demonstrated that the presence of lime does not eliminate all aerobic bacteria. The experiment also suggested that lime functions as a sink, buffering the carbon dioxide evolution. This study complements the field observations. It has implications for the investigation of time since death of limed remains. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes is of interest to forensic pathologists, archaeologists, humanitarian organisations and those concerned with disposal of animal carcasses or human remains in mass disasters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. IN-SITU RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT NEAR THE NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT AT PENA BLANCA, MEXICO: CONSTRAINTS FROM SHORT-LIVED DECAY-SERIES RADIONUCLIDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, S.; Ku, T.L.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M.; Pineda, J. Alfredo Rodriguez; Dinsmoor, J.; Mitchell, A.

    2005-01-01

    For nuclear waste management, an important mechanism by which radioactive waste components are isolated from returning to the human environment, the biosphere, is by the geological barrier in which the effectiveness of the barrier is characterized by in-situ retardation factor, i.e., the transport rate of a radionuclide relative to that of groundwater. As part of natural analog studies of the Yucca Mountain Project of the U. S. Department of Energy, we propose such characterization by using naturally-occurring decay-series radioisotopes as an analog. We collected large-volume (>1000 liters) groundwater samples from three wells (PB, Pozos, and PB4, respectively) near the Nopal I Uranium Ore site at Pena Blanca, Mexico, by using an in-situ Mn-cartridge filtration technique for analysis of short-lived decay-series radionuclides. Results show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes ( 228 Ra, 224 Ra and 223 Ra) and activity ratios of 224 Ra/ 228 Ra and 224 Ra/ 223 Ra are higher at PB and Pozos than at PB4. In contrast, the 210 Po activity is much lower at PB and Pozos than at PB4. The high Ra activities and activities ratios at PB and Pozos are attributable to the high alpha-recoil input from the aquifer rocks, while the high 210 Po activity at PB4 is due to the enhanced colloidal transport. Based on a uranium-series transport model, we estimate that the in-situ retardation factor of Ra is (0.43 ± 0.02) x 10 3 at PB, (1.68 ± 0.08) x 10 3 at Pozos, and (1.19 ± 0.08) x 10 3 at PB4 and that the mean fracture width in the aquifer rocks is about 0.23 (micro)m at PB, 0.37 (micro)m at Posos, and 4.0 (micro)m at PB4, respectively. The large fracture width at PB4 as derived from the model provides an additional evidence to the inference from the Po measurements that particle-reactive radionuclides are transported mainly as colloidal forms through the large fractures in rocks. Our model also suggests that in addition to alpha recoil, decay of 226 Ra from the adsorbed

  11. IN-SITU RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT NEAR THE NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT AT PENA BLANCA, MEXICO: CONSTRAINTS FROM SHORT-LIVED DECAY-SERIES RADIONUCLIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Luo; T.L. Ku; V. Todd; M. Murrell; J. Alfredo Rodriguez Pineda; J. Dinsmoor; A. Mitchell

    2005-07-11

    For nuclear waste management, an important mechanism by which radioactive waste components are isolated from returning to the human environment, the biosphere, is by the geological barrier in which the effectiveness of the barrier is characterized by in-situ retardation factor, i.e., the transport rate of a radionuclide relative to that of groundwater. As part of natural analog studies of the Yucca Mountain Project of the U. S. Department of Energy, we propose such characterization by using naturally-occurring decay-series radioisotopes as an analog. We collected large-volume (>1000 liters) groundwater samples from three wells (PB, Pozos, and PB4, respectively) near the Nopal I Uranium Ore site at Pena Blanca, Mexico, by using an in-situ Mn-cartridge filtration technique for analysis of short-lived decay-series radionuclides. Results show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes ({sup 228}Ra, {sup 224}Ra and {sup 223}Ra) and activity ratios of {sup 224}Ra/{sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra/{sup 223}Ra are higher at PB and Pozos than at PB4. In contrast, the {sup 210}Po activity is much lower at PB and Pozos than at PB4. The high Ra activities and activities ratios at PB and Pozos are attributable to the high alpha-recoil input from the aquifer rocks, while the high {sup 210}Po activity at PB4 is due to the enhanced colloidal transport. Based on a uranium-series transport model, we estimate that the in-situ retardation factor of Ra is (0.43 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup 3} at PB, (1.68 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at Pozos, and (1.19 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at PB4 and that the mean fracture width in the aquifer rocks is about 0.23 {micro}m at PB, 0.37 {micro}m at Posos, and 4.0 {micro}m at PB4, respectively. The large fracture width at PB4 as derived from the model provides an additional evidence to the inference from the Po measurements that particle-reactive radionuclides are transported mainly as colloidal forms through the large fractures in rocks. Our model also suggests that

  12. First measurement of time-dependent $C\\!P$ violation in $B^0_s \\to K^+K^-$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Cowie, E; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; 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    2013-01-01

    Direct and mixing-induced $C\\!P$-violating asymmetries in $B^0_s \\to K^+K^-$ decays are measured for the first time using a data sample of $pp$ collisions, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $1.0~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$, collected with the LHCb detector at a centre-of-mass energy of $7~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The results are $C_{KK} = 0.14 \\pm 0.11 \\pm 0.03$ and $S_{KK} = 0.30 \\pm 0.12 \\pm 0.04$, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second systematic. The corresponding quantities are also determined for $B^0 \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays to be $C_{\\pi\\pi} = -0.38 \\pm 0.15 \\pm 0.02$ and $S_{\\pi\\pi} = -0.71 \\pm 0.13 \\pm 0.02$, in good agreement with existing measurements.

  13. Development of windows based software to analyze fluorescence decay with time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, M.B.; Ravindranath, S.V.G.; Das, N.C.

    2002-07-01

    A VUV spectroscopic facility for studies in photophysics and photochemistry is being set up at INDUS-I synchrotron source, CAT, Indore. For this purpose, a data acquisition system based on time-correlated single photon counting method is being developed for fluorescence lifetime measurement. To estimate fluorescence lifetime from the data collected with this sytem, a Windows based program has been developed using Visual Basic 5.0. It uses instrument response function (IRF) and observed decay curve and estimates parameters of single exponential decay by least square analysis and Marquardt method as convergence mechanism. Estimation of parameters was performed using data collected with a commercial setup. Goodness of fit was judged by evaluating χR 2 , weighted residuals and autocorrelation function. Performance is compared with two commercial software packages and found to be satisfactory. (author)

  14. Measurement of the time-integrated $CP$ asymmetry in $D^0 \\to K^0_S K^0_S$ decays

    CERN Document Server

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Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2015-10-08

    The time-integrated $CP$ asymmetry in the decay $D^0 \\to K^0_S K^0_S$ is measured using $3 fb^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data collected by the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The flavour of the $D^0$ meson is determined by use of the decay $D^{*+} \\to D^0 \\pi^+$ and its charge conjugate mode. The result is \\[ {\\cal A}_{CP} = -0.029 \\pm 0.052 \\pm 0.022, \\] where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The result is consistent with Standard Model expectations and improves the uncertainty with respect to the only previous measurement of this quantity by more than a factor of three.

  15. Three-factor models versus time series models: quantifying time-dependencies of interactions between stimuli in cell biology and psychobiology for short longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Till D; Kiyatkin, Anatoly; Cheong, Alex; Kholodenko, Boris N

    2017-06-01

    Signal integration determines cell fate on the cellular level, affects cognitive processes and affective responses on the behavioural level, and is likely to be involved in psychoneurobiological processes underlying mood disorders. Interactions between stimuli may subjected to time effects. Time-dependencies of interactions between stimuli typically lead to complex cell responses and complex responses on the behavioural level. We show that both three-factor models and time series models can be used to uncover such time-dependencies. However, we argue that for short longitudinal data the three factor modelling approach is more suitable. In order to illustrate both approaches, we re-analysed previously published short longitudinal data sets. We found that in human embryonic kidney 293 cells cells the interaction effect in the regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 signalling activation by insulin and epidermal growth factor is subjected to a time effect and dramatically decays at peak values of ERK activation. In contrast, we found that the interaction effect induced by hypoxia and tumour necrosis factor-alpha for the transcriptional activity of the human cyclo-oxygenase-2 promoter in HEK293 cells is time invariant at least in the first 12-h time window after stimulation. Furthermore, we applied the three-factor model to previously reported animal studies. In these studies, memory storage was found to be subjected to an interaction effect of the beta-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol and certain antagonists acting on the alpha-1-adrenoceptor / glucocorticoid-receptor system. Our model-based analysis suggests that only if the antagonist drug is administer in a critical time window, then the interaction effect is relevant. © The authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  16. Short-term adaptations as a response to travel time: results of a stated adaptation experimentincreases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psarra, I.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on short-term dynamics of activity-travel behavior as a response to travel time increases. It is assumed that short-term changes are triggered by stress, which is defined as the deviation between an individual’s aspirations and his or her daily experiences. When stress exceeds a

  17. Time-dependent CP-violation measurements in $B^0 \\to D^+D^–$ decays at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Bel, Lennaert

    2016-01-01

    Overconstraining the unitarity triangle is a key goal of LHCb. The excellent time resolution of the detector lends itself to high precision time dependent CP violation measurements. CP observables in $B^0 \\to D^{+}D^{‐}$ decays are of great interest as they have the potential to be sensitive to new physics contributions. There is a long¬‐existing tension between results from BaBar and Belle on $B^0 \\to D^{+}D^{‐}$. We present results on these CP observables with the full Run 1 dataset.

  18. Measurement of the time-integrated $CP$ asymmetry in $D^0 \\rightarrow K^0_S K^0_S$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; LHCb Collaboration; Adinolfi, Marco; Aidala, Christine Angela; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albicocco, Pietro; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Alfonso Albero, Alejandro; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Arzymatov, Kenenbek; Aslanides, Elie; Atzeni, Michele; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Baranov, Alexander; Barlow, Roger; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Beiter, Andrew; Bel, Lennaert; Beliy, Nikita; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Beranek, Sarah; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Berninghoff, Daniel; Bertholet, Emilie; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bian, Lingzhu; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørn, Mikkel; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blusk, Steven; Bobulska, Dana; Bocci, Valerio; Boente Garcia, Oscar; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brodski, Michael; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brundu, Davide; Buchanan, Emma; Buonaura, Annarita; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Byczynski, Wiktor; Cadeddu, Sandro; Cai, Hao; Calabrese, Roberto; Calladine, Ryan; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Chapman, Matthew George; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chekalina, Viktoriia; Chen, Chen; Chen, Shanzhen; Chitic, Stefan-Gabriel; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Chubykin, Alexsei; Ciambrone, Paolo; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Colombo, Tommaso; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Da Silva, Cesar Luiz; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; Danilina, Anna; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Del Buono, Luigi; Delaney, Blaise; Dembinski, Hans Peter; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Didenko, Sergey; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Douglas, Lauren; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Durante, Paolo; Durham, John Matthew; Dutta, Deepanwita; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziewiecki, Michal; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Ene, Alexandru; Escher, Stephan; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fazzini, Davide; Federici, Luca; Fernandez, Gerard; Fernandez Declara, Placido; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Lopes, Lino; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Färber, Christian; Féo Pereira Rivello Carvalho, Mauricio; Gabriel, Emmy; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; Garcia Plana, Beatriz; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Govorkova, Ekaterina; Grabowski, Jascha Peter; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greim, Roman; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruber, Lukas; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gu, Chenxi; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hancock, Thomas Henry; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Hasse, Christoph; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Hecker, Malte; Heinicke, Kevin; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hilton, Martha; Hopchev, Plamen Hristov; Hu, Wenhua; Huang, Wenqian; Huard, Zachary; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Ibis, Philipp; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Ivshin, Kuzma; Jacobsson, Richard; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kazeev, Nikita; Kecke, Matthieu; Keizer, Floris; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kim, Kyung Eun; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Kopecna, Renata; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kotriakhova, Sofia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreps, Michal; Kress, Felix Johannes; Krokovny, Pavel; Krupa, Wojciech; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lancierini, Davide; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Pei-Rong; Li, Tenglin; Li, Zhuoming; Liang, Xixin; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Lionetto, Federica; Lisovskyi, Vitalii; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Loi, Angelo; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Macko, Vladimir; Mackowiak, Patrick; Maddrell-Mander, Samuel; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Maisuzenko, Dmitrii; Majewski, Maciej Witold; Malde, Sneha; Malecki, Bartosz; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Marangotto, Daniele; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Mead, James Vincent; Meadows, Brian; Meaux, Cedric; Meier, Frank; Meinert, Nis; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Millard, Edward James; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Minzoni, Luca; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Mombächer, Titus; Monroy, Igancio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morello, Gianfranco; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nanut, Tara; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nogay, Alla; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Ossowska, Anna; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palutan, Matteo; Panshin, Gennady; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Pereima, Dmitrii; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pietrzyk, Guillaume; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pinzino, Jacopo; Pisani, Flavio; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plews, Jonathan; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poli Lener, Marco; Poluektov, Anton; Polukhina, Natalia; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Ponce, Sebastien; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Pullen, Hannah Louise; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Qin, Jia-Jia; Quagliani, Renato; Quintana, Boris; Rachwal, Bartlomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Ravonel Salzgeber, Melody; Reboud, Meril; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Reiss, Florian; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Ren, Zan; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rinnert, Kurt; Robbe, Patrick; Robert, Arnaud; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Vidal, Joan; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Gras, Cristina; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarpis, Gediminas; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saur, Miroslav; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schreiner, HF; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepulveda, Eduardo Enrique; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shmanin, Evgenii; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Mark; Soares, Marcelo; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stepanova, Margarita; Stevens, Holger; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Strokov, Sergey; Sun, Jiayin; Sun, Liang; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szumlak, Tomasz; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tang, Zhipeng; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Tou, Da Yu; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, Rafael; Tournefier, Edwige; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tuci, Giulia; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Usachov, Andrii; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagner, Alexander; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Verlage, Tobias Anton; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitkovskiy, Arseniy; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Wang, Mengzhen; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Zhenzi; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Weisser, Constantin; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Winn, Michael Andreas; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xiao, Dong; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Ao; Xu, Menglin; Xu, Qingnian; Xu, Zehua; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yang, Zishuo; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zonneveld, Jennifer Brigitta; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    A measurement of the time-integrated $CP$ asymmetry in $D^0\\rightarrow K^0_S K^0_S$ decays is reported. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of about $2$ fb$^{-1}$ collected in 2015--2016 by the LHCb collaboration in $pp$ collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $13$ TeV. The $D^0$ candidate is required to originate from a $D^{\\ast +} \\rightarrow D^0 \\pi^+$ decay, allowing the determination of the flavour of the $D^0$ meson using the pion charge. The $D^0 \\rightarrow K^{+}K^{-}$ decay, which has a well measured $CP$ asymmetry, is used as a calibration channel. The $CP$ asymmetry for $D^0\\rightarrow K^0_S K^0_S$ is measured to be \\begin{equation*} \\mathcal{A}^{CP}(D^0\\rightarrow K^0_S K^0_S) = (4.2\\pm 3.4\\pm 1.0)\\%, \\end{equation*} where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. This result is combined with the previous LHCb measurement at lower centre-of-mass energies to obtain \\begin{equation*} \\mathcal{A}^{CP}(D^0\\rightarrow K^0_S K^0_S) = (2.0\\pm 2.9\\pm 1.0)\\%. \\end{equa...

  19. The long-term stability of self-esteem: its time-dependent decay and nonzero asymptote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Farah; Orth, Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    How stable are individual differences in self-esteem? We examined the time-dependent decay of rank-order stability of self-esteem and tested whether stability asymptotically approaches zero or a nonzero value across long test-retest intervals. Analyses were based on 6 assessments across a 29-year period of a sample of 3,180 individuals aged 14 to 102 years. The results indicated that, as test-retest intervals increased, stability exponentially decayed and asymptotically approached a nonzero value (estimated as .43). The exponential decay function explained a large proportion of variance in observed stability coefficients, provided a better fit than alternative functions, and held across gender and for all age groups from adolescence to old age. Moreover, structural equation modeling of the individual-level data suggested that a perfectly stable trait component underlies stability of self-esteem. The findings suggest that the stability of self-esteem is relatively large, even across very long periods, and that self-esteem is a trait-like characteristic.

  20. Determination of rail wear and short-time wear measurements of rails applying radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohmann, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    An energetic model has been developed for calculating rail wear. Short-time wear tests on rails after surface activation and following activity measurements showed a good agreement with the calculated values

  1. Determination of Permissible Short-Time Emergency Overloading of Turbo-Generators and Synchronous Compensators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that failure to take into account variable ratio of short-time emergency overloading of turbo-generators (synchronous compensators that can lead to underestimation of overloading capacity or impermissible insulation over-heating.A method has been developed for determination of permissible duration of short-time emergency over-loading that takes into account changes of over-loading ratio in case of a failure.

  2. Time-dependent Bragg diffraction and short-pulse reflection by one-dimensional photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    André, Jean-Michel; Jonnard, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The time-dependence of the Bragg diffraction by one-dimensional photonic crystals and its influence on the short pulse reflection are studied in the framework of the coupled-wave theory. The indicial response of the photonic crystal is calculated and it appears that it presents a time-delay effect with a transient time conditioned by the extinction length. A numerical simulation is presented for a Bragg mirror in the x-ray domain and a pulse envelope modelled by a sine-squared shape. The potential consequences of the time-delay effect in time-dependent optics of short-pulses are emphasized. (paper)

  3. MULTIFLUID MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENT DECAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, T. P.; O'Sullivan, S.

    2011-01-01

    It is generally believed that turbulence has a significant impact on the dynamics and evolution of molecular clouds and the star formation that occurs within them. Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects are known to influence the nature of this turbulence. We present the results of a suite of 512 3 resolution simulations of the decay of initially super-Alfvenic and supersonic fully multifluid MHD turbulence. We find that ambipolar diffusion increases the rate of decay of the turbulence while the Hall effect has virtually no impact. The decay of the kinetic energy can be fitted as a power law in time and the exponent is found to be -1.34 for fully multifluid MHD turbulence. The power spectra of density, velocity, and magnetic field are all steepened significantly by the inclusion of non-ideal terms. The dominant reason for this steepening is ambipolar diffusion with the Hall effect again playing a minimal role except at short length scales where it creates extra structure in the magnetic field. Interestingly we find that, at least at these resolutions, the majority of the physics of multifluid turbulence can be captured by simply introducing fixed (in time and space) resistive terms into the induction equation without the need for a full multifluid MHD treatment. The velocity dispersion is also examined and, in common with previously published results, it is found not to be power law in nature.

  4. Core-power and decay-time limits for disabled automatic-actuation of LOFT ECCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    The Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) for the LOFT reactor may need to be disabled for modifications or repairs of hardware or instrumentation or for component testing during periods when the reactor system is hot and pressurized, or it may be desirable to enable the ECCS to be disabled without the necessity of cooling down and depressurizing the reactor. LTR 113-47 has shown that the LOFT ECCS can be safely bypassed or disabled when the total core power does not exceed 25 kW. A modified policy involves disabling the automatic actuation of the LOFT ECCS, but still retaining the manual activation capability. Disabling of the automatic actuation can be safely utilized, without subjecting the fuel cladding to unacceptable temperatures, when the LOFT power decays to 70 kW; this power level permits a maximum delay of 20 minutes following a LOCA for the manual actuation of ECCS

  5. Time integrated ratio of wrong-sign to right-sign $D^0 \\rightarrow K\\pi$ decays in 2010 data at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    The LHCb Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    First results of the measurement on wrong-sign $D^0 \\rightarrow K^{+} \\pi^{-}$ decays based on the 2010 dataset taken with the LHCb detector are presented. The ratio of wrong-sign to right-sign ($D^0 \\rightarrow K^{-} \\pi^{+}$) $D^0$ decays corrected for the decay time acceptance is determined to be $R_{{\\rm corr}}=(0.409 \\pm 0.031 ({\\rm stat.}) \\pm 0.039 ({\\rm sys.})) \\% $. This analysis is the first step towards a measurement of the time-dependent wrong-sign to right-sign ratio from which the $D^0$ mixing parameters can be extracted.

  6. Seasonal variation of meteor decay times observed at King Sejong Station (62.22°S, 58.78°W), Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Han; Kim, Yong Ha; Lee, Chang-Sup; Jee, Geonhwa

    2010-07-01

    We analyzed meteor decay times measured by a VHF radar at King Sejong Station by classifying strong and weak meteors according to their estimated electron line densities. The height profiles of monthly averaged decay times show a peak whose altitude varies with season at altitudes of 80-85 km. The higher peak during summer is consistent with colder temperatures that cause faster chemical reactions of electron removal. By adopting temperature dependent empirical recombination rates from rocket experiments and meteor electron densities of 2×105-2×106 cm-3 in a decay time model, we are able to account for decreasing decay times below the peak for all seasons without invoking meteor electron removal by hypothetical icy particles.

  7. Short-time relaxation of the critical current in oriented grained YBa2Cu3Ox and granular (Bi,Pb)2 Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuepfer, H.; Keller, C.; Meier-Hirmer, R.; Wiech, U.; Salama, K.; Selvamanickam, V.; Green, S.M.; Luo, H.L.; Politis, C.

    1990-01-01

    The time-dependent behavior of the critical current density j c is investigated by ac inductive measurements. The variation of db/dt of the ac field between 0.1 and 3 T/s reveals a short-time relaxation in the millisecond regime before j c exhibits the familiar logarithmic decay. At fields above the irreversibility line only this short-time relaxation is observed. Our experimental time scale allows us to obtain the unrelaxed critical current density j c0 at certain fields and temperatures

  8. Extracting rephase-invariant CP and CPT violating parameters from asymmetries of time-ordered integrated rates of correlated decays of entangled mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhijie; Shi, Yu.

    2012-01-01

    We present a general model-independent formalism of measuring CP and CPT violating parameters through time-ordered integrated rates of correlated decays of C=±1 entangled states of neutral pseudoscalar mesons. We give the general formulae of CP and CPT violating parameters in terms of four measurable asymmetries defined for the time-ordered integrated rates, applicable to all kinds of decay product. Two special cases which are often realized in experiments are discussed specifically. (orig.)

  9. Temporal Prediction Errors Affect Short-Term Memory Scanning Response Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, Roberto; Silva, Angélica M

    2016-11-01

    The Sternberg short-term memory scanning task has been used to unveil cognitive operations involved in time perception. Participants produce time intervals during the task, and the researcher explores how task performance affects interval production - where time estimation error is the dependent variable of interest. The perspective of predictive behavior regards time estimation error as a temporal prediction error (PE), an independent variable that controls cognition, behavior, and learning. Based on this perspective, we investigated whether temporal PEs affect short-term memory scanning. Participants performed temporal predictions while they maintained information in memory. Model inference revealed that PEs affected memory scanning response time independently of the memory-set size effect. We discuss the results within the context of formal and mechanistic models of short-term memory scanning and predictive coding, a Bayes-based theory of brain function. We state the hypothesis that our finding could be associated with weak frontostriatal connections and weak striatal activity.

  10. Psychometric properties of the Hebrew short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkibi, Hod

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a short Hebrew version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory that can be easily administered by health professionals in research, therapy, and counseling. First, the empirical links of time perspective (TP) to subjective well-being and health protective and health risk behaviors are reviewed. Then, a brief account of the instrument's previous modifications is provided. Results of confirmatory factor analysis (N = 572) verified the five-factor structure of the short version and yielded acceptable internal consistency reliability for each factor. The correlation coefficients between the five subscales of the short (20 items) and the original (56 items) instruments were all above .79, indicating the suitability of the short version for assessing the five TP factors. Support for the discriminant and concurrent validity was also achieved, largely in agreement with previous findings. Finally, limitations and future directions are addressed, and potential applications in therapy and counseling are offered. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Real-time mobile customer short message system design and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qirui; Sun, Fang

    To expand the current mobile phone short message service, and to make the contact between schools, teachers, parents and feedback of the modern school office system more timely and conveniently, designed and developed the Short Message System based on the Linux platform. The state-of-the-art principles and designed proposals in the Short Message System based on the Linux platform are introduced. Finally we propose an optimized secure access authentication method. At present, many schools,vbusinesses and research institutions ratify the promotion and application the messaging system gradually, which has shown benign market prospects.

  12. Active mode-locking of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with short gain recovery time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongrui; Belyanin, Alexey

    2015-02-23

    We investigate the dynamics of actively modulated mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) using space- and time-domain simulations of coupled density matrix and Maxwell equations with resonant tunneling current taken into account. We show that it is possible to achieve active mode locking and stable generation of picosecond pulses in high performance QCLs with a vertical laser transition and a short gain recovery time by bias modulation of a short section of a monolithic Fabry-Perot cavity. In fact, active mode locking in QCLs with a short gain recovery time turns out to be more robust to the variation of parameters as compared to previously studied lasers with a long gain recovery time. We investigate the effects of spatial hole burning and phase locking on the laser output.

  13. Using NMR decay-time measurements to monitor and characterize DNAPL and moisture in subsurface porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy A. White; Russel C. Hertzog; Christian Straley

    2007-01-01

    Knowing how environmental properties affect dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) solvent flow in the subsurface is essential for developing models of flow and transport in the vadose zone necessary for designing remediation and long-term stewardship strategies. For example, one must know if solvents are flowing in water-wetted or solvent-wetted environments, the pore-size distribution of the region containing DNAPLs, and the impact of contaminated plumes and their transport mechanisms in porous media. Our research investigates the capability and limitations of low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation decay-rate measurements for determining environmental properties affecting DNAPL solvent flow in the subsurface. The measurements that can be performed with the laboratory low-field system can also be performed in situ in the field with the current generation of commercial borehole logging tools. The oil and gas industry uses NMR measurements in deep subsurface, consolidated formations to determine porosity and hydrocarbon content and to estimate formation permeability. These determinations rely on the ability of NMR to distinguish between water and hydrocarbons in the pore space and to obtain the distribution of pore sizes from relaxation decay-rate distributions. In this paper we will show how NMR measurement techniques can be used to characterize, monitor, and evaluate the dynamics of mixed-fluids (water-DNAPL) in unconsolidated near-surface porous environments and describe the use of proton NMR T2 (spin-spin relaxation time) measurements in unconsolidated sandy-soil samples to identify and characterize the presence of DNAPLs in these environments. The potential of NMR decay-rate distributions for characterizing DNAPL fluids in the subsurface and understanding their flow mechanisms has not previously been exploited; however, near-surface unsaturated vadose zone environments do provide unique challenges for using NMR measurements. These

  14. Quantum decay model with exact explicit analytical solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Avi; Granot, Er'El

    2009-01-01

    A simple decay model is introduced. The model comprises a point potential well, which experiences an abrupt change. Due to the temporal variation, the initial quantum state can either escape from the well or stay localized as a new bound state. The model allows for an exact analytical solution while having the necessary features of a decay process. The results show that the decay is never exponential, as classical dynamics predicts. Moreover, at short times the decay has a fractional power law, which differs from perturbation quantum method predictions. At long times the decay includes oscillations with an envelope that decays algebraically. This is a model where the final state can be either continuous or localized, and that has an exact analytical solution.

  15. Finite-size effects in the short-time height distribution of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Naftali R.; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel

    2018-02-01

    We use the optimal fluctuation method to evaluate the short-time probability distribution P(H, L, t) of height at a single point, H=h(x=0, t) , of the evolving Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) interface h(x, t) on a ring of length 2L. The process starts from a flat interface. At short times typical (small) height fluctuations are unaffected by the KPZ nonlinearity and belong to the Edwards-Wilkinson universality class. The nonlinearity, however, strongly affects the (asymmetric) tails of P(H) . At large L/\\sqrt{t} the faster-decaying tail has a double structure: it is L-independent, -\\lnP˜≤ft\\vert H\\right\\vert 5/2/t1/2 , at intermediately large \\vert H\\vert , and L-dependent, -\\lnP˜ ≤ft\\vert H\\right\\vert 2L/t , at very large \\vert H\\vert . The transition between these two regimes is sharp and, in the large L/\\sqrt{t} limit, behaves as a fractional-order phase transition. The transition point H=Hc+ depends on L/\\sqrt{t} . At small L/\\sqrt{t} , the double structure of the faster tail disappears, and only the very large-H tail, -\\lnP˜ ≤ft\\vert H\\right\\vert 2L/t , is observed. The slower-decaying tail does not show any L-dependence at large L/\\sqrt{t} , where it coincides with the slower tail of the GOE Tracy-Widom distribution. At small L/\\sqrt{t} this tail also has a double structure. The transition between the two regimes occurs at a value of height H=Hc- which depends on L/\\sqrt{t} . At L/\\sqrt{t} \\to 0 the transition behaves as a mean-field-like second-order phase transition. At \\vert H\\vert c-\\vert the slower tail behaves as -\\lnP˜ ≤ft\\vert H\\right\\vert 2L/t , whereas at \\vert H\\vert >\\vert H_c-\\vert it coincides with the slower tail of the GOE Tracy-Widom distribution.

  16. Global Regularity and Time Decay for the 2D Magnetohydrodynamic Equations with Fractional Dissipation and Partial Magnetic Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo-Qing; Jia, Yan; Li, Jingna; Wu, Jiahong

    2018-05-01

    This paper focuses on a system of the 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations with the kinematic dissipation given by the fractional operator (-Δ )^α and the magnetic diffusion by partial Laplacian. We are able to show that this system with any α >0 always possesses a unique global smooth solution when the initial data is sufficiently smooth. In addition, we make a detailed study on the large-time behavior of these smooth solutions and obtain optimal large-time decay rates. Since the magnetic diffusion is only partial here, some classical tools such as the maximal regularity property for the 2D heat operator can no longer be applied. A key observation on the structure of the MHD equations allows us to get around the difficulties due to the lack of full Laplacian magnetic diffusion. The results presented here are the sharpest on the global regularity problem for the 2D MHD equations with only partial magnetic diffusion.

  17. Seasonal Variation in Meteor Decay Time Profiles Measured by a Meteor Radar at King Sejong Station (62°S, 58°W), Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Kim, J.; Lee, C.; Jee, G.

    2008-12-01

    A VHF meteor radar at King Sejong Station (62°S, 58°W), Antarctica has been detecting echoes from more than 20,000 meteors per day since March 2007. Meteor echoes are decayed typically within seconds as meteor trail plasma spread away or are neutralized. Assuming that diffusion is the only process for decay of meteor echo signals, the atmospheric temperatures and pressures have been inferred from the measured meteor decay times at the peak meteor altitudes around 90 km. In this study, we analyze altitude profiles of meteor decay times in each month, which clearly show a maximum at 80 ~ 85 km. The maximum appears at higher altitude during austral summer than winter. The fast decay of meteor signals below the maximum cannot be explained by atmospheric diffusion which decreases with increasing atmospheric densities. We find that the measured meteor decay time profiles can be fitted with a loss rate profile, in addition to diffusion, with a peak altitude of 55 ~ 73 km and a peak rate of 4 ~ 15 sec- 1. The additional loss of meteor plasma may be due to electron absorption by icy particles in the mesosphere, but the estimated peak altitudes are much lower than the layers of NLC or PME. The estimated peak loss rates seem to be too large to be accounted by absorption by icy or dust particles. We will discuss other processes to explain the fast meteor times and their variation over season.

  18. Short-time dynamics of phenylene-rings in bisphenol based engineering thermoplastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrese-Igor, S.; Arbe, A.; Alegria, A.; Colmenero, J.; Frick, B.

    2003-01-01

    We have recently performed one of the first approaches by means of quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) to the problem of identifying the molecular motions giving rise to the secondary relaxations of engineering thermoplastics. Preliminary results point to phenylene ring π-flips as the main motion causing the observed quasielastic broadening in the ∼10 -10 -10 -9 s time scale below the glass transition temperature T g . Continuing our study of sub-T g dynamics in these systems by QENS, measurements on polycarbonate (PC) and polysulfone (PSF) with deuterated methyl groups (d6) in the ∼10 -13 -10 -11 s time scale have been performed. The intermediate scattering function shows a smooth second decay in addition to that of vibrations and 'fast dynamics' at T > or approx. 200 K. The extrapolation of phenylene π-flip motion to faster times does not explain the decay observed. However, a non-negligible contribution of π-flips at T≥350 K in PCd6 is noticeable, whereas for PSFd6 some effect can be inferred above ∼450 K. In the temperature region where the π-flips do not contribute to the spectra we have characterised the signal by assuming a temperature dependent distribution of small angle oscillations of phenylene rings leading to an activation energy of 0.18 eV

  19. Ultra-short time sciences. From the atto-second to the peta-watts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This book presents the recent advances in the scientific and technical domains linked with ultra-short time physics. It deals first with the conceptual and technological aspects of ultra-intense and ultra-brief lasers. Then, it describes the different domains of research (atoms, molecules and aggregates; gaseous phase dynamics using the pump-probe technique; femto-chemistry in dense phase; condensed matter; plasma physics; consistent control; aerosols; functional femto-biology) and the different domains of application (medical diagnosis; ophthalmology; telecommunications; technological and industrial developments). A last part is devoted to the teaching of ultra-short time sciences. (J.S.)

  20. Short-time, high-dosage penicillin infusion therapy of syphilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Hans; Poulsen, Asmus; Brandrup, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    The optimal dosage and duration of penicillin treatment for the various stages of syphilis are not known. We present data on 20 patients with syphilis (primary, secondary or latent) treated with high-dose, short-time penicillin infusion therapy. Patients were given 10 MIU of penicillin G intraven......The optimal dosage and duration of penicillin treatment for the various stages of syphilis are not known. We present data on 20 patients with syphilis (primary, secondary or latent) treated with high-dose, short-time penicillin infusion therapy. Patients were given 10 MIU of penicillin G...

  1. Has Ebbinghaus Decayed with Time? The Growth of Recall (Hypermnesia) over Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdelyi, Matthew Hugh; Kleinbard, Jeff

    1978-01-01

    Recent laboratory work on the recall of pictures has produced a pattern suggesting that memory for certain classes of stimuli may be hypermnesiac rather than amnesiac (Ebbinghaus, 1885/1964), increasing over time and recall attempts. This research tries to determine the magnitude of memory growth over significant time intervals, e.g., a week…

  2. Investigation of chlorine decay of water resource in khanbebein city, Golestan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Rahmani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The factors that affected short-time chlorine decay constant (k 2 were nitrite, ammonia and iron and The factors that affected on long-time chlorine decay constant (k 2 were Nitrite, ammonia and iron. The material removal techniques for them were the use of natural resins, zeolite, ion exchange, membrane and aeration methods, oxidation and sedimentation, and filtration.

  3. Towards an integrative model of visual short-term memory maintenance: Evidence from the effects of attentional control, load, decay, and their interactions in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimi, Andria; Scerif, Gaia

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decades there has been a surge of research aiming to shed light on the nature of capacity limits to visual short-term memory (VSTM). However, an integrative account of this evidence is currently missing. We argue that investigating parameters constraining VSTM in childhood suggests a novel integrative model of VSTM maintenance, and that this in turn informs mechanisms of VSTM maintenance in adulthood. Over 3 experiments with 7-year-olds and young adults (total N=206), we provide evidence for multiple cognitive processes interacting to constrain VSTM performance. While age-related increases in storage capacity are undisputable, we replicate the finding that attentional processes control what information will be encoded and maintained in VSTM in the face of increased competition. Therefore, a central process to the current model is attentional refreshment, a mechanism that it is thought to reactivate and strengthen the signal of the visual representations. Critically, here we also show that attentional influences on VSTM are further constrained by additional factors, traditionally studied to the exclusion of each other, such as memory load and temporal decay. We propose that these processes work synergistically in an elegant manner to capture the adult-end state, whereas their less refined efficiency and modulations in childhood account for the smaller VSTM capacity that 7-year-olds demonstrate compared to older individuals. We conclude that going beyond the investigation of single cognitive mechanisms, to their interactions, holds the promise to understand both developing and fully developed maintenance in VSTM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, M.; Cherubini, P.; Fravolini, G.; Ascher, J.; Schärer, M.; Synal, H.-A.; Bertoldi, D.; Camin, F.; Larcher, R.; Egli, M.

    2015-09-01

    Due to the large size and highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of deadwood, the time scales involved in the coarse woody debris (CWD) decay of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Larix decidua Mill. in Alpine forests have been poorly investigated and are largely unknown. We investigated the CWD decay dynamics in an Alpine valley in Italy using the five-decay class system commonly employed for forest surveys, based on a macromorphological and visual assessment. For the decay classes 1 to 3, most of the dendrochronological samples were cross-dated to assess the time that had elapsed since tree death, but for decay classes 4 and 5 (poorly preserved tree rings) and some others not having enough tree rings, radiocarbon dating was used. In addition, density, cellulose and lignin data were measured for the dated CWD. The decay rate constants for spruce and larch were estimated on the basis of the density loss using a single negative exponential model. In the decay classes 1 to 3, the ages of the CWD were similar varying between 1 and 54 years for spruce and 3 and 40 years for larch with no significant differences between the classes; classes 1-3 are therefore not indicative for deadwood age. We found, however, distinct tree species-specific differences in decay classes 4 and 5, with larch CWD reaching an average age of 210 years in class 5 and spruce only 77 years. The mean CWD rate constants were 0.012 to 0.018 yr-1 for spruce and 0.005 to 0.012 yr-1 for larch. Cellulose and lignin time trends half-lives (using a multiple-exponential model) could be derived on the basis of the ages of the CWD. The half-lives for cellulose were 21 yr for spruce and 50 yr for larch. The half-life of lignin is considerably higher and may be more than 100 years in larch CWD.

  5. Decay times for second-chance fission of 239U studied by crystal blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.U.; Chechenin, N.G.; Jensen, A.S.; Joergensen, K.; Laegsgaard, E.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron-induced fission of 238 U has been studied by the crystal-blocking technique for neutron energies just below and above the threshold for second-chance fission. In agreement with earlier measurements, in this energy range the lifetime for first-chance fission is found to be too short to have an observable effect on the blocking dips. Above the threshold, however, an appreciable filling-in of the dips is observed. The results are analyzed in the terms of a two-component lifetime distribution and then indicate an average lifetime of a few fsec for second-chance fission at a neutron energy of Esub(n)approximately7.2 MeV, in agreement with results from a simple calculation. It is shown that in this analysis it is important to take into account the anisotropy of the fission-fragment distribution and, in particular, the difference between the angular distributions for first- and second-chance fission. (Auth.)

  6. The role of short-time intensity and envelope power for speech intelligibility and psychoacoustic masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberger, Thomas; Ewert, Stephan D

    2017-08-01

    The generalized power spectrum model [GPSM; Biberger and Ewert (2016). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 140, 1023-1038], combining the "classical" concept of the power-spectrum model (PSM) and the envelope power spectrum-model (EPSM), was demonstrated to account for several psychoacoustic and speech intelligibility (SI) experiments. The PSM path of the model uses long-time power signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), while the EPSM path uses short-time envelope power SNRs. A systematic comparison of existing SI models for several spectro-temporal manipulations of speech maskers and gender combinations of target and masker speakers [Schubotz et al. (2016). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 140, 524-540] showed the importance of short-time power features. Conversely, Jørgensen et al. [(2013). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 436-446] demonstrated a higher predictive power of short-time envelope power SNRs than power SNRs using reverberation and spectral subtraction. Here the GPSM was extended to utilize short-time power SNRs and was shown to account for all psychoacoustic and SI data of the three mentioned studies. The best processing strategy was to exclusively use either power or envelope-power SNRs, depending on the experimental task. By analyzing both domains, the suggested model might provide a useful tool for clarifying the contribution of amplitude modulation masking and energetic masking.

  7. A Study of Electron Decay in Nitrogen Time After-glow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veis, P.; Coitout, H.; Magne, L.; Cernogora, G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with electron density measurements in nitrogen time after-glow using hyper frequency resonant cavity. The studied pressures are from the range 9-530 Pa and discharge currents from 20 mA up to 500 mA. Electrons decreases up to the time of 1,4 ms in after-glow depending on pressure, pulse current and pulse duration (Authors)

  8. Computation of the Short-Time Linear Canonical Transform with Dual Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The short-time linear canonical transform (STLCT, which maps the time domain signal into the joint time and frequency domain, has recently attracted some attention in the area of signal processing. However, its applications are still limited due to the fact that selection of coefficients of the short-time linear canonical series (STLCS is not unique, because time and frequency elementary functions (together known as basis function of STLCS do not constitute an orthogonal basis. To solve this problem, this paper investigates a dual window solution. First, the nonorthogonal problem that suffered from original window is fulfilled by orthogonal condition with dual window. Then based on the obtained condition, a dual window computation approach of the GT is extended to the STLCS. In addition, simulations verify the validity of the proposed condition and solutions. Furthermore, some possible applied directions are discussed.

  9. Viruses as groundwater tracers: using ecohydrology to characterize short travel times in aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Bradbury, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are attractive tracers of short (population over time; therefore, the virus snapshot shed in the fecal wastes of an infected population at a specific point in time can serve as a marker for tracking virus and groundwater movement. The virus tracing approach and an example application are described to illustrate their ability to characterize travel times in high-groundwater velocity settings, and provide insight unavailable from standard hydrogeologic approaches. Although characterization of preferential flowpaths does not usually characterize the majority of other travel times occurring in the groundwater system (e.g., center of plume mass; tail of the breakthrough curve), virus approaches can trace very short times of transport, and thus can fill an important gap in our current hydrogeology toolbox.

  10. Time-dependent Dalitz-Plot Analysis of the Charmless Decay B^0 -> K^0S Pi Pi- at BABAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilic, J

    2009-10-17

    A time-dependent amplitude analysis of B{sup 0} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays is performed in order to extract the CP violation parameters of f{sub 0}(980)K{sub S}{sup 0} and {rho}{sup 0}(770)K{sub S}{sup 0} and direct CP asymmetries of K*{sup +}(892){pi}{sup -}. The results are obtained from the final BABAR data sample of (465 {+-} 5)10{sup 6} B{bar B} decays, collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at SLAC. The time dependent CP asymmetry for f{sub 0}(980)K{sub S}{sup 0} and {rho}{sup 0}(770)K{sub S}{sup 0} are measured to be S(f{sub 0}(980)K{sub S}{sup 0}) = -0.97 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.01 {+-} 0.01, and S({rho}{sup 0}(770)K{sub S}{sup 0}) = 0.67 {+-} 0.20 {+-} 0.06 {+-} 0.04, respectively. In decays to K*{sup +}(892){pi}{sup -} the direct CP asymmetry is found to be A{sub CP}(K*{sup {+-}}(892){pi}{sup {-+}}) = -0.18 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.04 {+-} 0.00. The relative phases between B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup +}(892){pi}{sup -} and {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup -}(892){pi}{sup +}, relevant for the extraction of the unitarity triangle angle {gamma}, is measured to be {Delta}{phi}(K*(892){pi}) = (34.9 {+-} 23.1 {+-} 7.5 {+-} 4.7){sup o}, where uncertainties are statistical, systematic and model-dependent, respectively. Fit fractions, direct CP asymmetries and the relative phases of different other resonant modes have also been measured. A new method for extracting longitudinal shower development information from longitudinally unsegmented calorimeters is also presented. This method has been implemented as a part of the BABAR final particle identification algorithm. A significant improvement in low momenta muon identification at BABAR is obtained.

  11. NMR transmit-receive system with short recovery time and effective isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurga, K.; Reynhardt, E. C.; Jurga, S.

    A transmit-receive system with a short recovery time and excellent isolation has been developed. The system operates in conjunction with an ENI Model 3200L broadband amplifier and a spin-lock NMR pulse spectrometer. The system has been tested in the frequency range 5.5 to 52 MHz and seems not to generate any background noise.

  12. A Unified Framework for Estimating Minimum Detectable Effects for Comparative Short Interrupted Time Series Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Cristofer; Unlu, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    The Comparative Short Interrupted Time Series (C-SITS) design is a frequently employed quasi-experimental method, in which the pre- and post-intervention changes observed in the outcome levels of a treatment group is compared with those of a comparison group where the difference between the former and the latter is attributed to the treatment. The…

  13. Eulerian short-time statistics of turbulent flow at large Reynolds number

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.J.H.

    2004-01-01

    An asymptotic analysis is presented of the short-time behavior of second-order temporal velocity structure functions and Eulerian acceleration correlations in a frame that moves with the local mean velocity of the turbulent flow field. Expressions in closed-form are derived which cover the viscous

  14. Upcoversion performance improvement of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb, Er by Sn codoping: Enhanced emission intensity and reduced decay time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Han, E-mail: fjfzyh@fzu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China); Cao, Wenbing [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China); Huang, Qingming [Instrumentation Analysis and Research Center, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Ma, En [Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Zhang, Xinqi [Instrumentation Analysis and Research Center, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Yu, Jianchang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China)

    2013-11-15

    In this manuscript we report a phenomenon that upconversion emission intensity of Er{sup 3+} was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased obviously by Sn codoping with Yb/Er into hexagonal NaYF{sub 4} synchronously. X-ray powder diffiraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron spin-resonance spectroscopy and upconversion emission spectra were employed to explore the relation of crystal structure and properties. From these characterizations we found that symmetry of the rare earth ion local crystal field could be tuned by different Sn codoping concentration. For the variable valence property of Sn the local crystal field asymmetry and emission intensity of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb, Er arrived to the maximum when 3 mol% Sn was codoped, while decay time was reduced. The study of this changing tends of upconversion emission intensity and decay time constant may be helpful for design and fabrication of high performance upconversion materials. - Graphical abstract: Variable-valenced Sn is introduced with Yb/Er into NaFY{sub 4} to tune structure and local crystal field. Upconversion emission intensity of Er{sup 3+} was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased. Display Omitted - Highlights: • NaYF{sub 4}: Yb, Er was codoped with different concentration Sn. • Upconversion emission intensity was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased. • Introduction of variable-valenced Sn is effective to tune structure and crystal field of NaFY{sub 4}.

  15. On time-periodic Navier-Stokes flows with fast spatial decay in the whole space

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nakatsuka, Tomoyuki

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2018), s. 51-67 ISSN 2296-9020 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes equation * time-periodic solution * asymptotic property Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics https://link.springer.com/article/10. 1007 %2Fs41808-018-0011-8

  16. On time-periodic Navier-Stokes flows with fast spatial decay in the whole space

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nakatsuka, Tomoyuki

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2018), s. 51-67 ISSN 2296-9020 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes equation * time-periodic solution * asymptotic property Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs41808-018-0011-8

  17. Extracting biologically significant patterns from short time series gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinnis Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time series gene expression data analysis is used widely to study the dynamics of various cell processes. Most of the time series data available today consist of few time points only, thus making the application of standard clustering techniques difficult. Results We developed two new algorithms that are capable of extracting biological patterns from short time point series gene expression data. The two algorithms, ASTRO and MiMeSR, are inspired by the rank order preserving framework and the minimum mean squared residue approach, respectively. However, ASTRO and MiMeSR differ from previous approaches in that they take advantage of the relatively few number of time points in order to reduce the problem from NP-hard to linear. Tested on well-defined short time expression data, we found that our approaches are robust to noise, as well as to random patterns, and that they can correctly detect the temporal expression profile of relevant functional categories. Evaluation of our methods was performed using Gene Ontology (GO annotations and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-chip data. Conclusion Our approaches generally outperform both standard clustering algorithms and algorithms designed specifically for clustering of short time series gene expression data. Both algorithms are available at http://www.benoslab.pitt.edu/astro/.

  18. Radionuclide inventories for short run-time space nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coats, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Space Nuclear Reactor Systems, especially those used for propulsion, often have expected operation run times much shorter than those for land-based nuclear power plants. This produces substantially different radionuclide inventories to be considered in the safety analyses of space nuclear systems. This presentation describes an analysis utilizing ORIGEN2 and DKPOWER to provide comparisons among representative land-based and space systems. These comparisons enable early, conceptual considerations of safety issues and features in the preliminary design phases of operational systems, test facilities, and operations by identifying differences between the requirements for space systems and the established practice for land-based power systems. Early indications are that separation distance is much more effective as a safety measure for space nuclear systems than for power reactors because greater decay of the radionuclide activity occurs during the time to transport the inventory a given distance. In addition, the inventories of long-lived actinides are very low for space reactor systems

  19. The potential use of synthetic profiles of thermal neutrons decay time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinoco, Franciso Lopes.

    1994-01-01

    The Time Lapse Technique used for monitoring the water and gas movement in a reservoir needs a PNC - Pulsed Neutron Capture Log - base log to be matched. However, few wells have this base log run in unchanged water saturation conditions. This paper presents two alternatives to be used a a base log: a synthetic PNC log and the initial gamma ray log. Some examples are presented to illustrate these techniques. (author). 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. X-ray testing for short-time dynamic applications; Roentgenuntersuchungen fuer kurzzeitdynamische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurfiss, Malte; Moser, Stefan; Popko, Gregor; Nau, Siegfried [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Kurzzeitdynamik, Efringen-Kirchen (Germany). Ernst-Mach-Inst. (EMI)

    2017-08-01

    For nondestructive testing purposes new challenges are short-time dynamic processes. The application of x-ray flash tubes and modern high-speed cameras allows the observation of the opening of air-bags or the energy absorption of compressed tubes as occurring during a vehicle crash. Special algorithms designed for computerized tomography analyses allow the 3D reconstruction at individual time points of the dynamic process. Possibilities and limitations of the actual techniques are discussed.

  1. Rotor-System Log-Decrement Identification Using Short-Time Fourier-Transform Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qihang; Wang, Weimin; Chen, Lifang; Sun, Dan

    2015-01-01

    With the increase of the centrifugal compressor capability, such as large scale LNG and CO2 reinjection, the stability margin evaluation is crucial to assure the compressor work in the designed operating conditions in field. Improving the precision of parameter identification of stability is essential and necessary as well. Based on the time-varying characteristics of response vibration during the sine-swept process, a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) filter was introduced to increase the ...

  2. Spectrogram analysis of selected tremor signals using short-time Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartosch, T. [Erlanger-Nuernberg Univ., Erlanger (Germany). Lehrstul fuer Nachrichtentechnik I; Seidl, D. [Seismologisches Zentralobservatorium Graefenberg, Erlanegen (Greece). Bundesanstalt fuer Geiwissenschaften und Rohstoffe

    1999-06-01

    Among a variety of spectrogram methods short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) were selected to analyse transients in non-stationary signals. Depending on the properties of the tremor signals from the volcanos Mt. Stromboli, Mt. Semeru and Mt. Pinatubo were analyzed using both methods. The CWT can also be used to extend the definition of coherency into a time-varying coherency spectrogram. An example is given using array data from the volcano Mt. Stromboli (Italy).

  3. A search for transit timing variations and orbital decay in WASP-46b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, R.; Jofré, E.; Ferrero, L. V.; Cúneo, V.; Saker, L.; Lovos, F.; Gómez, M.; Mauas, P.

    2018-02-01

    We present 12 new transit observations of the exoplanet WASP-46b obtained with the 1.54-m telescope at Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre (EABA, Argentina) and the 0.40-m Horacio Ghielmetti and 2.15-m Jorge Sahade telescopes at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina). We analyse them together with 37 light curves from the literature to re-determine the physical parameters and search for additional planets via transit timing variations (TTVs). We consider the 31 transits with uncertainties in their mid-transit times (e_T0) activity could be affecting the measured mid-transit times. This value of dispersion allows us to rule out the presence of additional bodies with masses larger than 2.3, 4.6, 7 and 9.3 M_{\\oplus} at the first-order mean-motion resonances 2:1, 3:2, 4:3 and 5:4 with the transiting planet, respectively. Despite the 6 yr baseline and a typical light-curve precision of 2 × 10-3, we find that we cannot significantly demonstrate a slow decrease of the orbital period of WASP-46b. We place a lower limit of Q⋆ > 7 × 103 on the tidal quality factor and determine that an additional 6 yr baseline is required to rule out Q⋆ < 105.

  4. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Marta; Cherubini, Paolo; Fravolini, Giulia; Marchetti, Marco; Ascher-Jenull, Judith; Schärer, Michael; Synal, Hans-Arno; Bertoldi, Daniela; Camin, Federica; Larcher, Roberto; Egli, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Due to the large size (e.g. sections of tree trunks) and highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of deadwood, the timescales involved in the coarse woody debris (CWD) decay of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Larix decidua Mill. in Alpine forests are largely unknown. We investigated the CWD decay dynamics in an Alpine valley in Italy using the chronosequence approach and the five-decay class system that is based on a macromorphological assessment. For the decay classes 1-3, most of the dendrochronological samples were cross-dated to assess the time that had elapsed since tree death, but for decay classes 4 and 5 (poorly preserved tree rings) radiocarbon dating was used. In addition, density, cellulose, and lignin data were measured for the dated CWD. The decay rate constants for spruce and larch were estimated on the basis of the density loss using a single negative exponential model, a regression approach, and the stage-based matrix model. In the decay classes 1-3, the ages of the CWD were similar and varied between 1 and 54 years for spruce and 3 and 40 years for larch, with no significant differences between the classes; classes 1-3 are therefore not indicative of deadwood age. This seems to be due to a time lag between the death of a standing tree and its contact with the soil. We found distinct tree-species-specific differences in decay classes 4 and 5, with larch CWD reaching an average age of 210 years in class 5 and spruce only 77 years. The mean CWD rate constants were estimated to be in the range 0.018 to 0.022 y-1 for spruce and to about 0.012 y-1 for larch. Snapshot sampling (chronosequences) may overestimate the age and mean residence time of CWD. No sampling bias was, however, detectable using the stage-based matrix model. Cellulose and lignin time trends could be derived on the basis of the ages of the CWD. The half-lives for cellulose were 21 years for spruce and 50 years for larch. The half-life of lignin is considerably higher and may be more than

  5. The effect of long and short time oil shocks on economic growth in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sayyed Abdolmajid Jalae; Sanaz Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Oil is one of the strategic good so that price fluctuations and shocks of it have major effects on economic growth and recession in depended countries to revenues of it. In this study, it is tried that the effect of oil price shocks investigated in two types (short and long time) on Economic growth in Iran. Its Period is from 1974 to 2006. According it, oil price uncertainty is quantized by GARCH model and is determined the effects of oil price shocks on economic growth in Iran during a short...

  6. Measurements of branching fractions and time-dependent CP violating asymmetries in B0 → D*±D#-+# decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    We report measurements of branching fractions and time-dependent CP asymmetries in B 0 → D + D - and B 0 → D* ± D # -+# decays using a data sample that contains (772 ± 11) x 10 6 BB - pairs collected at the Υ(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e + e - collider. We determine the branching fractions to be Β(B 0 → D + D - ) = (2.12 ± 0.16 ± 0.18) x 10 -4 and Β(B 0 → D* ± D # -+#) = (6.14 ± 0.29 ± 0.50) x 10 -4 . We measure CP asymmetry parameters S D# sup +# D# sup -# = -1.06 -0.14 +0.21 ± 0.08 and C D# sup +# D# sup -# = -0.43 ± 0.16 ± 0.05 in B 0 → D + D - and A D*D = +0.06 ± 0.05 ± 0.02, S D*D = -0.78 ± 0.15 ± 0.05, C D*D = -0.01 ± 0.11 ± 0.04, ΔS D*D = -0.13 ± 0.15 ± 0.04 and ΔC D*D = +0.12 ± 0.11 ± 0.03 in B 0 → D* ± D # -+#, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. We exclude the conservation of CP symmetry in both decays at equal to or greater than 4σ significance.

  7. Calibration of the DELPHI Time Projection chamber (TPC) and measurement of the Z0 parameters through its hadronic decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, M.H.

    1990-05-01

    The work presented in this thesis has been performed on the DELPHI experiment, at the CERN large electron-positron collider: LEP. At first, a review of the apparatus, the data taking and the trigger used in 1989 is done, and their performances are shown. Then a detailed presentation of the main charged detector, the Time Projection Chamber is done. Its reliability lies on a precise monitoring of the electric field and on a very good knowledge of the electron drift velocity in the gas (80% argon-20% methan). These two goals are achieved using ultraviolet nitrogen lasers which simulate the crossing of particles through the detector. The complete sequence of operations is described, from the data taking up to the computation of the drift velocity (66.67 mm per microsecond). The second part of this work deals with the determination of the Z 0 resonance parameters. At first are described the theoretical expectations of the Standard Model and the radiative corrections which have to be taken into account in the hadronic Z 0 decays. Then the methods used for the computation of the luminosity and the selection of the hadronic Z 0 decays are presented. By combining these two informations the experimental hadronic cross section is derived. A fit of the theoretical line shape allows us to determine the mass, the width and the Born cross section of the Z 0 resonance. Using constants given by the Standard Model one can exclude at fourth neutrino lighter than 37 GeV/c 2 at the 95% confidence level [fr

  8. Measurement of beta decay energies of short-lived neutron rich atomic nuclei in the mass range 101 ≤ A ≤ 106 and A=109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weikard, H.

    1986-01-01

    At the mass separator LOHENGRIN of the Laue-Langevin institute in Grenoble for 18 nuclei (Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, and Rh nuclides) with masses 101 ≤ A ≤ 106 and A=109 Q β values were determined from measurement of beta decay energies. From the study of the isomerism in 102 Nb resulted that the energetic distance of the two isomers is certainly smaller than 200 keV, that it is probably even smaller than 100 keV. The decay scheme for 102 Nb could be extended by one level which is depopulated by two gamma lines. For the decay of the 109 Ru the approach of a decay scheme is given: Five new levels are proposed. The diagrams of the two-particle separation energies which could be extended in this thesis confirm the continuation of the deformation in the considered region. A deformed subshell at N=62 however cannot yet be clearly detected. (orig./HSI) [de

  9. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tueysuez, Beyhan [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Gazioglu, Nurperi [Istanbul University, Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Uenguer, Savas [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Aji, Dolly Yafet [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatrics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Tuerkmen, Seval [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Universitatsklinikum Berlin, Charite Virchow-Klinik, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. (orig.)

  10. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tueysuez, Beyhan; Gazioglu, Nurperi; Uenguer, Savas; Aji, Dolly Yafet; Tuerkmen, Seval

    2009-01-01

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. (orig.)

  11. The Effect of Time on Word Learning: An Examination of Decay of the Memory Trace and Vocal Rehearsal in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Spaulding, Tammie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of time to response in a fast-mapping word learning task for children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with typically developing language skills (TD). Manipulating time to response allows us to examine decay of the memory trace, the use of vocal rehearsal, and their…

  12. Short time propagation of a singular wave function: Some surprising results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, A.; Granot, E.; Schuss, Z.

    2007-08-01

    The Schrödinger evolution of an initially singular wave function was investigated. First it was shown that a wide range of physical problems can be described by initially singular wave function. Then it was demonstrated that outside the support of the initial wave function the time evolution is governed to leading order by the values of the wave function and its derivatives at the singular points. Short-time universality appears where it depends only on a single parameter—the value at the singular point (not even on its derivatives). It was also demonstrated that the short-time evolution in the presence of an absorptive potential is different than in the presence of a nonabsorptive one. Therefore, this dynamics can be harnessed to the determination whether a potential is absorptive or not simply by measuring only the transmitted particles density.

  13. Experimental setup and commissioning baseline study in search of time-variations in beta-decay half-lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, Braden, E-mail: goddard.braden@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Hitt, George W. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Department of Applied Mathematics and Science, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Solodov, Alexander A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Bridi, Dorian; Isakovic, A.F. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Science, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); El-Khazali, Reyad [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Abulail, Ayman, E-mail: aabulail@pi.ac.ae [Department of Applied Mathematics and Science, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-03-11

    Recently there have been a number of investigations into whether the decay constant of a radioactive isotope can be influenced by external factors, such as the Earth–Sun distance or Solar flare activity. Positive claims suggest that annual oscillations of ~0.1% and accelerations of ~0.4% in the relative activity of beta-emitters coincide with the Earth–Sun distance and solar flare activity, respectively. Results from replication experiments have so far been conflicting. The main criticism of the measurements used to trace and quantify these effects is that the data is of poor quality or limited in scope. Data have often been collected as part of short duration weekly calibration measurements, measured with a single type of low precision detector, only using one isotope, and having no environmental conditions information (temperature, pressure, humidity) accompanying the radiation measurements. This paper describes the setup of a series of counting experiments commissioned for addressing these criticisms. Six dedicated detector systems (four different types) measuring six different isotopes ({sup 14}C, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 204}Tl, and {sup 226}Ra) have been continuously collecting source activity synchronously with environmental data for a period of one month (April 2014). The results of this baseline commissioning study show that there are correlations between activity and environmental conditions for some detector types which are then quantified. The results also show that the one sigma counting uncertainties in all the detectors are less than 0.024% for a given 24 h period. After accounting for propagated uncertainties from corrections against correlations with environmental data, the ability to resolve 0.1% activity changes varies, from 8 min to 1.6 days, depending on the specific detector. All six experiments therefore, will have sufficient precision over the upcoming year to scrutinize claims of both annual activity oscillations and

  14. Flow characteristics of a pilot-scale high temperature, short time pasteurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasula, P M; Kozempel, M F

    2004-09-01

    In this study, we present a method for determining the fastest moving particle (FMP) and residence time distribution (RTD) in a pilot-scale high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurizer to ensure that laboratory or pilot-scale HTST apparatus meets the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance standards for pasteurization of milk and can be used for obtaining thermal inactivation data. The overall dimensions of the plate in the pasteurizer were 75 x 115 mm, with a thickness of 0.5 mm and effective diameter of 3.0 mm. The pasteurizer was equipped with nominal 21.5- and 52.2-s hold tubes, and flow capacity was variable from 0 to 20 L/h. Tracer studies were used to determine FMP times and RTD data to establish flow characteristics. Using brine milk as tracer, the FMP time for the short holding section was 18.6 s and for the long holding section was 36 s at 72 degrees C, compared with the nominal times of 21.5 and 52.2 s, respectively. The RTD study indicates that the short hold section was 45% back mixed and 55% plug flow for whole milk at 72 degrees C. The long hold section was 91% plug and 9% back mixed for whole milk at 72 degrees C. This study demonstrates that continuous laboratory and pilot-scale pasteurizers may be used to study inactivation of microorganisms only if the flow conditions in the holding tube are established for comparison with commercial HTST systems.

  15. Difference-based clustering of short time-course microarray data with replicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jihoon

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are some limitations associated with conventional clustering methods for short time-course gene expression data. The current algorithms require prior domain knowledge and do not incorporate information from replicates. Moreover, the results are not always easy to interpret biologically. Results We propose a novel algorithm for identifying a subset of genes sharing a significant temporal expression pattern when replicates are used. Our algorithm requires no prior knowledge, instead relying on an observed statistic which is based on the first and second order differences between adjacent time-points. Here, a pattern is predefined as the sequence of symbols indicating direction and the rate of change between time-points, and each gene is assigned to a cluster whose members share a similar pattern. We evaluated the performance of our algorithm to those of K-means, Self-Organizing Map and the Short Time-series Expression Miner methods. Conclusions Assessments using simulated and real data show that our method outperformed aforementioned algorithms. Our approach is an appropriate solution for clustering short time-course microarray data with replicates.

  16. Dimension reduction of frequency-based direct Granger causality measures on short time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siggiridou, Elsa; Kimiskidis, Vasilios K; Kugiumtzis, Dimitris

    2017-09-01

    The mainstream in the estimation of effective brain connectivity relies on Granger causality measures in the frequency domain. If the measure is meant to capture direct causal effects accounting for the presence of other observed variables, as in multi-channel electroencephalograms (EEG), typically the fit of a vector autoregressive (VAR) model on the multivariate time series is required. For short time series of many variables, the estimation of VAR may not be stable requiring dimension reduction resulting in restricted or sparse VAR models. The restricted VAR obtained by the modified backward-in-time selection method (mBTS) is adapted to the generalized partial directed coherence (GPDC), termed restricted GPDC (RGPDC). Dimension reduction on other frequency based measures, such the direct directed transfer function (dDTF), is straightforward. First, a simulation study using linear stochastic multivariate systems is conducted and RGPDC is favorably compared to GPDC on short time series in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Then the two measures are tested for their ability to detect changes in brain connectivity during an epileptiform discharge (ED) from multi-channel scalp EEG. It is shown that RGPDC identifies better than GPDC the connectivity structure of the simulated systems, as well as changes in the brain connectivity, and is less dependent on the free parameter of VAR order. The proposed dimension reduction in frequency measures based on VAR constitutes an appropriate strategy to estimate reliably brain networks within short-time windows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of k-cubic Dresselhaus spin—orbit coupling on the decay time of persistent spin helix states in semiconductor two-dimensional electron gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Zheng; Hu Mao-Jin; Wang Rui-Qiang; Hu Liang-Bin

    2014-01-01

    We study the theoretical effect of k-cubic (i.e. cubic-in-momentum) Dresselhaus spin—orbit coupling on the decay time of persistent spin helix states in semiconductor two-dimensional electron gases. We show that the decay time of persistent spin helix states may be suppressed substantially by k-cubic Dresselhaus spin—orbit coupling, and after taking the effect of k-cubic Dresselhaus spin—orbit interaction into account, the theoretical results obtained accord both qualitatively and quantitatively with other recent experimental results. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. Short irradiation time characteristics of the inverter type X-ray generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Shigeru; Hara, Takamitu; Matutani, Kazuo; Saito, Kazuhiko.

    1994-01-01

    The linearity of the X-ray output is an important factor in radiography. It is a composite of the linearities of the X-ray tube voltage, the X-ray tube current, and the exposure time. This paper focuses on the linearity of exposure time. Non-linearity of the X-ray output for short-time exposure became a problem when the three-phase X-ray generator was introduced. This paper describes the inverter-type X-ray generator, which is expected to become predominant in the future. Previously, we investigated X-ray output linearity during short-time exposure using the technique of dynamic study. In this paper, we describe the application of a digital memory and a personal computer to further investigation. The non-linearity of the X-ray output was caused by irregular waveforms of the X-ray tube voltage found at the rise time and the fall time. When the rise time was about 0.6 ms, the non-linearity was about 2%, which is negligibly small. The non-linearity due to the fall time of the X-ray tube varied greatly according to the X-ray tube current. For the minimum irradiation time of 1 ms, 4% to 27% of the non-linearity was attributable to the fall time. The main cause was the stray capacitance of the X-ray high-voltage cables. When the X-ray tube current exceeded 400 mA, the rise time was almost equal to the fall time, and the problem did not occur. Consequently, the ideal generator should have a fall time which is equal to the rise time of the X-ray tube voltage. Strictly speaking, such a generator should have rectangular waveforms. (author)

  19. Short-time existence of solutions for mean-field games with congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2015-11-20

    We consider time-dependent mean-field games with congestion that are given by a Hamilton–Jacobi equation coupled with a Fokker–Planck equation. These models are motivated by crowd dynamics in which agents have difficulty moving in high-density areas. The congestion effects make the Hamilton–Jacobi equation singular. The uniqueness of solutions for this problem is well understood; however, the existence of classical solutions was only known in very special cases, stationary problems with quadratic Hamiltonians and some time-dependent explicit examples. Here, we demonstrate the short-time existence of C∞ solutions for sub-quadratic Hamiltonians.

  20. Spectral phase encoding of ultra-short optical pulse in time domain for OCDMA application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Wada, Naoya

    2007-06-11

    We propose a novel reconfigurable time domain spectral phase encoding (SPE) scheme for coherent optical code-division-multiple-access application. In the proposed scheme, the ultra-short optical pulse is stretched by dispersive device and the SPE is done in time domain using high speed phase modulator. The time domain SPE scheme is robust to wavelength drift of the light source and is very flexible and compatible with the fiber optical system. Proof-of-principle experiments of encoding with 16-chip, 20 GHz/chip binary-phase-shift-keying codes and 1.25 Gbps data transmission have been successfully demonstrated together with an arrayed-wave-guide decoder.

  1. Measurement of the Time-Dependent CP Asymmetry of Partially Reconstructed B0 to D*+D*- Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lees, J. P.

    2012-08-13

    We present a new measurement of the time-dependent CP asymmetry of B{sup 0} {yields}D*{sup +}D*{sup -} decays using (471 {+-} 5) million B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B Factory at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Using the technique of partial reconstruction, we measure the time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters S = -0.34 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.05 and C = +0:15 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.04. Using the value for the CP-odd fraction R{perpendicular} = 0.158 {+-} 0.028 {+-} 0.006, previously measured by BABAR with fully reconstructed B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup *+}D{sup *-} events, we extract the CP-even components S{sub +} = -0.49 {+-} 0.18 {+-} 0.07 {+-} 0.04 and C{sub +} = +0.15 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.04. In each case, the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic; the third uncertainty on S{sub +} is the contribution from the uncertainty on R{perpendicular}. The measured value of the CP-even component S{sub +} is consistent with the value of sin 2{beta} measured in b {yields} (c{bar c})s transitions, and with the Standard Model expectation of small penguin contributions.

  2. Radioactive Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  3. Measurement of the time-integrated CP asymmetry in $D^0 \\to K_S^0 K_S^0$ decays with LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Tuci, Giulia

    2018-01-01

    CP violation in charm has not yet been observed, although measurements of time-integrated CP asymmetries in $D^0 \\to K^+K^-$ and $D^0 \\to \\pi^+\\pi^- decays$ have reached a remarkable precision, O(0.1%). The $D^0 \\to K_S^0 K_S^0$ decay is a promising discovery channel for CP violation in charm. A prediction based on Standard Model gives an upper limit for the CP asymmetry of 1.1% (C.L. 95%). Further enhancements could result from contributions from physics beyond the Standard Model. We present a measurement of the time-integrated CP asymmetry in prompt $D^0 \\to K_S^0 K_S^0$ decays, performed using data collected with LHCb experiment in 2015 and 2016 at a 13 TeV pp center-of-mass energy (Run-2). This result improves the sensitivity obtained by LHCb in Run-1.

  4. Decay time shortening of fluorescence from donor-acceptor pair proteins using ultrafast time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Motoyoshi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Ganeev, Rashid A.; Kuroda, Hiroto; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Hamakubo, Takao; Masuda, Kazuyuki; Hayashi, Masahiro; Sakihama, Toshiko; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Kozasa, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    We improved an ultrafast time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy system and measured directly the decrease in the fluorescence decay time of the FRET signal, without any entanglement of components in the picosecond time scale from the donor-acceptor protein pairs (such as cameleon protein for calcium ion indicator, and ligand-activated GRIN-Go proteins pair). The drastic decrease in lifetime of the donor protein fluorescence under the FRET condition (e.g. a 47.8% decrease for a GRIN-Go protein pair) proves the deformation dynamics between donor and acceptor fluorescent proteins in an activated state of a mixed donor-acceptor protein pair. This study is the first clear evidence of physical contact of the GRIN-Go proteins pair using time-resolved FRET system. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most important protein family for the recognition of many chemical substances at the cell surface. They are the targets of many drugs. Simultaneously, we were able to observe the time-resolved spectra of luminous proteins at the initial stage under the FRET condition, within 10 ns from excitation. This new FRET system allows us to trace the dynamics of the interaction between proteins at the ligand-induced activated state, molecular structure change and combination or dissociation. It will be a key technology for the development of protein chip technology

  5. Gaseous time projection chambers for rare event detection: results from the T-REX project. I. Double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irastorza, I.G.; Aznar, F.; Castel, J., E-mail: igor.irastorza@cern.ch, E-mail: faznar@unizar.es, E-mail: jfcastel@unizar.es [Grupo de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, C/ P. Cerbuna 12, Zaragoza, 50009 (Spain); and others

    2016-01-01

    As part of the T-REX project, a number of R and D and prototyping activities have been carried out during the last years to explore the applicability of gaseous Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) with Micromesh Gas Structures (Micromegas) in rare event searches like double beta decay, axion research and low-mass WIMP searches. In both this and its companion paper, we compile the main results of the project and give an outlook of application prospects for this detection technique. While in the companion paper we focus on axions and WIMPs, in this paper we focus on the results regarding the measurement of the double beta decay (DBD) of {sup 136}Xe in a high pressure Xe (HPXe) TPC. Micromegas of the microbulk type have been extensively studied in high pressure Xe and Xe mixtures. Particularly relevant are the results obtained in Xe + trimethylamine (TMA) mixtures, showing very promising results in terms of gain, stability of operation, and energy resolution at high pressures up to 10 bar. The addition of TMA at levels of ∼ 1% reduces electron diffusion by up to a factor of 10 with respect to pure Xe, improving the quality of the topological pattern, with a positive impact on the discrimination capability. Operation with a medium size prototype of 30 cm diameter and 38 cm of drift (holding about 1 kg of Xe at 10 bar in the fiducial volume, enough to contain high energy electron tracks in the detector volume) has allowed to test the detection concept in realistic experimental conditions. Microbulk Micromegas are able to image the DBD ionization signature with high quality while, at the same time, measuring its energy deposition with a resolution of at least a ∼ 3% FWHM @ Q{sub ββ}. This value was experimentally demonstrated for high-energy extended tracks at 10 bar, and is probably improvable down to the ∼ 1% FWHM levels as extrapolated from low energy events. In addition, first results on the topological signature information (one straggling track ending in two

  6. Amplitude Analysis and Measurement of the Time-dependent CP Asymmetry of B0 to KsKsKs Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lees, J.P.

    2012-04-11

    We present the first results on the Dalitz-plot structure and improved measurements of the time-dependent CP-violation parameters of the process B{sup 0} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0} obtained using 468 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at SLAC. The Dalitz-plot structure is probed by a time-integrated amplitude analysis that does not distinguish between B{sup 0} and {bar B}{sup 0} decays. We measure the total inclusive branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}) = (6.19 {+-} 0.48 {+-} 0.15 {+-} 0.12) x 10{sup -6}, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third represents the Dalitz-plot signal model dependence. We also observe evidence for the intermediate resonant states f{sub 0}(980), f{sub 0}(1710), and f{sub 2}(2010). Their respective product branching fractions are measured to be (2.70{sub -1.19}{sup +1.25} {+-} 0.36 {+-} 1.17) x 10{sup -6}, (0.50{sub -0.24}{sup +0.46} {+-} 0.04 {+-} 0.10) x 10{sup -6}, and (0.54{sub -0.20}{sup +0.21} {+-} 0.03 {+-} 0.52) x 10{sup -6}. Additionally, we determine the mixing-induced CP-violation parameters to be S = -0.94{sub -0.21}{sup +0.24} {+-} 0.06 and C = -0.17 {+-} 0.18 {+-} 0.04, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. These values are in agreement with the standard model expectation.

  7. Short-time maximum entropy method analysis of molecular dynamics simulation: Unimolecular decomposition of formic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Osamu; Nomura, Tetsuo; Tabayashi, Kiyohiko; Yamasaki, Katsuyoshi

    2008-07-01

    We performed spectral analysis by using the maximum entropy method instead of the traditional Fourier transform technique to investigate the short-time behavior in molecular systems, such as the energy transfer between vibrational modes and chemical reactions. This procedure was applied to direct ab initio molecular dynamics calculations for the decomposition of formic acid. More reactive trajectories of dehydrolation than those of decarboxylation were obtained for Z-formic acid, which was consistent with the prediction of previous theoretical and experimental studies. Short-time maximum entropy method analyses were performed for typical reactive and non-reactive trajectories. Spectrograms of a reactive trajectory were obtained; these clearly showed the reactant, transient, and product regions, especially for the dehydrolation path.

  8. New serial time codes for seismic short period and long period data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.; Rao, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses a new time code for time indexing multichannel short period (1 to 25 hz) seismic event data recorded on a single track of magnetic tape in digital format and discusses its usefulness in contrast to Vela time code used in continuous analog multichannel data recording system on multitrack instrumentation tape deck. This paper also discusses another time code, used for time indexing of seismic long period (DC to 2.5 seconds) multichannel data recorded on a single track of magnetic tape in digital format. The time code decoding and display system developed to provide quick access to any desired portion of the tape in both data recording and repro duce system is also discussed. (author). 7 figs

  9. Short-Term Memory Loss Over Time Without Retroactive Stimulus Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Nelson; AuBuchon, Angela M.

    2008-01-01

    A key question in cognitive psychology is whether information in short-term memory is lost as a function of time. Lewandowsky, Duncan, and Brown (2004) argued against that memory loss because forgetting in serial recall occurred to the same extent across serial positions regardless of the rate of recall. However, we believe Lewandowsky et al. only prevented one of two types of rehearsal; they did not prevent non-articulatory rehearsal via attention. To prevent articulatory and non-articulator...

  10. Thermonuclear Bursts with Short Recurrence Times from Neutron Stars Explained by Opacity-driven Convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keek, L. [X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Heger, A., E-mail: laurens.keek@nasa.gov [Monash Center for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Victoria, 3800 (Australia)

    2017-06-20

    Thermonuclear flashes of hydrogen and helium accreted onto neutron stars produce the frequently observed Type I X-ray bursts. It is the current paradigm that almost all material burns in a burst, after which it takes hours to accumulate fresh fuel for the next burst. In rare cases, however, bursts are observed with recurrence times as short as minutes. We present the first one-dimensional multi-zone simulations that reproduce this phenomenon. Bursts that ignite in a relatively hot neutron star envelope leave a substantial fraction of the fuel unburned at shallow depths. In the wake of the burst, convective mixing events driven by opacity bring this fuel down to the ignition depth on the observed timescale of minutes. There, unburned hydrogen mixes with the metal-rich ashes, igniting to produce a subsequent burst. We find burst pairs and triplets, similar to the observed instances. Our simulations reproduce the observed fraction of bursts with short waiting times of ∼30%, and demonstrate that short recurrence time bursts are typically less bright and of shorter duration.

  11. Quantifying complexity of financial short-term time series by composite multiscale entropy measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun

    2015-05-01

    It is significant to study the complexity of financial time series since the financial market is a complex evolved dynamic system. Multiscale entropy is a prevailing method used to quantify the complexity of a time series. Due to its less reliability of entropy estimation for short-term time series at large time scales, a modification method, the composite multiscale entropy, is applied to the financial market. To qualify its effectiveness, its applications in the synthetic white noise and 1 / f noise with different data lengths are reproduced first in the present paper. Then it is introduced for the first time to make a reliability test with two Chinese stock indices. After conducting on short-time return series, the CMSE method shows the advantages in reducing deviations of entropy estimation and demonstrates more stable and reliable results when compared with the conventional MSE algorithm. Finally, the composite multiscale entropy of six important stock indices from the world financial markets is investigated, and some useful and interesting empirical results are obtained.

  12. Weak decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1978-11-01

    Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references

  13. PandaX-III: Searching for neutrinoless double beta decay with high pressure 136Xe gas time projection chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xun; Fu, ChangBo; Galan, Javier; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Gu, LingHui; Han, Ke; Ji, XiangDong; Lin, Heng; Liu, JiangLai; Ni, KaiXiang; Kusano, Hiroki; Ren, XiangXiang; Wang, ShaoBo; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Sun, XiangMing; Hu, ShouYang; Jian, SiYu; Li, XingLong; Li, XiaoMei; Liang, Hao; Zhang, HuanQiao; Zhao, MingRui; Zhou, Jing; Mao, YaJun; Qiao, Hao; Wang, SiGuang; Yuan, Ying; Wang, Meng; Khan, Amir N.; Raper, Neill; Tang, Jian; Wang, Wei; Dong, JiaNing; Feng, ChangQing; Li, Cheng; Liu, JianBei; Liu, ShuBin; Wang, XiaoLian; Zhu, DanYang; Castel, Juan F.; Cebrián, Susana; Dafni, Theopisti; Garza, Javier G.; Irastorza, Igor G.; Iguaz, Francisco J.; Luzón, Gloria; Mirallas, Hector; Aune, Stephan; Berthoumieux, Eric; Bedfer, Yann; Calvet, Denis; d'Hose, Nicole; Delbart, Alain; Diakaki, Maria; Ferrer-Ribas, Esther; Ferrero, Andrea; Kunne, Fabienne; Neyret, Damien; Papaevangelou, Thomas; Sabatié, Franck; Vanderbroucke, Maxence; Tan, AnDi; Haxton, Wick; Mei, Yuan; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Yan, Yu-Peng

    2017-06-01

    Searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay (NLDBD) is now regarded as the topmost promising technique to explore the nature of neutrinos after the discovery of neutrino masses in oscillation experiments. PandaX-III (particle and astrophysical xenon experiment III) will search for the NLDBD of 136Xe at the China Jin Ping Underground Laboratory (CJPL). In the first phase of the experiment, a high pressure gas Time Projection Chamber (TPC) will contain 200 kg, 90% 136Xe enriched gas operated at 10 bar. Fine pitch micro-pattern gas detector (Microbulk Micromegas) will be used at both ends of the TPC for the charge readout with a cathode in the middle. Charge signals can be used to reconstruct the electron tracks of the NLDBD events and provide good energy and spatial resolution. The detector will be immersed in a large water tank to ensure 5 m of water shielding in all directions. The second phase, a ton-scale experiment, will consist of five TPCs in the same water tank, with improved energy resolution and better control over backgrounds.

  14. Time-frequency analysis of fusion plasma signals beyond the short-time Fourier transform paradigm: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizarro, Joao P.S.; Figueiredo, Antonio C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Performing a time-frequency (t-f) analysis on actual magnetic pick-up coil data from the JET tokamak, a comparison is presented between the spectrogram and the Wigner and Choi-Williams distributions. Whereas the former, which stems from the short-time Fourier transform and has been the work-horse for t-f signal processing, implies an unavoidable trade-off between time and frequency resolutions, the latter two belong to a later generation of distributions that yield better, if not optimal joint t-f localization. Topics addressed include signal representation in the t-f plane, frequency identification and evolution, instantaneous-frequency estimation, and amplitude tracking

  15. Short-Term Change Detection in Wetlands Using Sentinel-1 Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muro, Javier; Canty, Morton; Conradsen, Knut

    2016-01-01

    Automated monitoring systems that can capture wetlands’ high spatial and temporal variability are essential for their management. SAR-based change detection approaches offer a great opportunity to enhance our understanding of complex and dynamic ecosystems. We test a recently-developed time serie...... certain landscape changes are detected only by either the Landsat-based or the S1-omnibus method. The S1-omnibus method shows a great potential for an automated monitoring of short time changes and accurate delineation of areas of high variability and of slow and gradual changes....

  16. Identification of the structure parameters using short-time non-stationary stochastic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarczewska, Kamila; Koszela, Piotr; Śniady, PaweŁ; Korzec, Aleksandra

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to the flexural stiffness or eigenvalue frequency identification of a linear structure using a non-stationary stochastic excitation process. The idea of the proposed approach lies within time domain input-output methods. The proposed method is based on transforming the dynamical problem into a static one by integrating the input and the output signals. The output signal is the structure reaction, i.e. structure displacements due to the short-time, irregular load of random type. The systems with single and multiple degrees of freedom, as well as continuous systems are considered.

  17. Performance evaluation of the short-time objective intelligibility measure with different band importance functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann Andersen, Asger; de Haan, Jan Mark; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    performance measures: root-mean-squared-error, Pearson correlation, and Kendall rank correlation. The results show substantially improved performance when fitting and evaluating on the same dataset. However, this advantage does not necessarily subsist when fitting and evaluating on different datasets. When...... with a filter bank, 2) envelopes are extracted from each band, 3) the temporal correlation between clean and degraded envelopes is computed in short time segments, and 4) the correlation is averaged across time and frequency bands to obtain the final output. An unusual choice in the design of the STOI measure...

  18. Spectrogram analysis of selected tremor signals using short-time Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Seidl

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Among a variety of spectrogram methods Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT were selected to analyse transients in non-stationary tremor signals. Depending on the properties of the tremor signal a more suitable representation of the signal is gained by CWT. Three selected broadband tremor signals from the volcanos Mt. Stromboli, Mt. Semeru and Mt. Pinatubo were analyzed using both methods. The CWT can also be used to extend the definition of coherency into a time-varying coherency spectrogram. An example is given using array data from the volcano Mt. Stromboli.

  19. Automated Detection of Short Optical Transients of Astrophysical Origin in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Sokołowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of short optical transients of astrophysical origin in real time is an important task for existing robotic telescopes. The faster a new optical transient is detected, the earlier follow-up observations can be started. The sooner the object is identified, the more data can be collected before the source fades away, particularly in the most interesting early period of the transient. In this the real-time pipeline designed for identification of optical flashes with the “Pi of the Sky” project will be presented in detail together with solutions used by other experiments.

  20. Two dimensional numerical simulations of carrier dynamics during time-resolved photoluminescence decays in two-photon microscopy measurements in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanevce, Ana; Kuciauskas, Darius; Levi, Dean H.; Johnston, Steven W.; Allende Motz, Alyssa M.

    2015-01-01

    We use two-dimensional numerical simulations to analyze high spatial resolution time-resolved spectroscopy data. This analysis is applied to two-photon excitation time-resolved photoluminescence (2PE-TRPL) but is broadly applicable to all microscopic time-resolved techniques. By solving time-dependent drift-diffusion equations, we gain insight into carrier dynamics and transport characteristics. Accurate understanding of measurement results establishes the limits and potential of the measurement and enhances its value as a characterization method. Diffusion of carriers outside of the collection volume can have a significant impact on the measured decay but can also provide an estimate of carrier mobility as well as lifetime. In addition to material parameters, the experimental conditions, such as spot size and injection level, can impact the measurement results. Although small spot size provides better resolution, it also increases the impact of diffusion on the decay; if the spot size is much smaller than the diffusion length, it impacts the entire decay. By reproducing experimental 2PE-TRPL decays, the simulations determine the bulk carrier lifetime from the data. The analysis is applied to single-crystal and heteroepitaxial CdTe, material important for solar cells, but it is also applicable to other semiconductors where carrier diffusion from the excitation volume could affect experimental measurements

  1. Intraband relaxation and temperature dependence of the fluorescence decay time of one-dimensional Frenkel excitons : The Pauli master equation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bednarz, M.; Malyshev, V.A.; Knoester, J.

    2002-01-01

    In molecular J-aggregates one often observes an increase of the fluorescence decay time when increasing the temperature from 0 K. This phenomenon is usually attributed to the thermal population of the dark Frenkel exciton states that lie above the superradiant bottom state of the exciton band. In

  2. Fluorescence from gaseous UF/sub 6/ excited by a near-UV dye laser. [Decay time,quenching rate,room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benetti, P [Pavia Univ. (Italy); Cubeddu, R; Sacchi, C A; Svelto, O; Zaraga, F [Politecnico di Milano (Italy)

    1976-06-01

    Preliminary data are reported on the visible fluorescence of gaseous UF/sub 6/ excited by a dye laser at 374 nm. A decay time of 500 ns at p = 0 and a quenching rate of 5.7 x 10/sup -12/cm/sup 3/molec/sup -1/s/sup -1/ have been measured at room temperature.

  3. Adaptive synchrosqueezing based on a quilted short-time Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrian, Alexander; Saito, Naoki

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, the synchrosqueezing transform (SST) has gained popularity as a method for the analysis of signals that can be broken down into multiple components determined by instantaneous amplitudes and phases. One such version of SST, based on the short-time Fourier transform (STFT), enables the sharpening of instantaneous frequency (IF) information derived from the STFT, as well as the separation of amplitude-phase components corresponding to distinct IF curves. However, this SST is limited by the time-frequency resolution of the underlying window function, and may not resolve signals exhibiting diverse time-frequency behaviors with sufficient accuracy. In this work, we develop a framework for an SST based on a "quilted" short-time Fourier transform (SST-QSTFT), which allows adaptation to signal behavior in separate time-frequency regions through the use of multiple windows. This motivates us to introduce a discrete reassignment frequency formula based on a finite difference of the phase spectrum, ensuring computational accuracy for a wider variety of windows. We develop a theoretical framework for the SST-QSTFT in both the continuous and the discrete settings, and describe an algorithm for the automatic selection of optimal windows depending on the region of interest. Using synthetic data, we demonstrate the superior numerical performance of SST-QSTFT relative to other SST methods in a noisy context. Finally, we apply SST-QSTFT to audio recordings of animal calls to demonstrate the potential of our method for the analysis of real bioacoustic signals.

  4. [Clinical characteristics of short tear film breakup time (BUT) -type dry eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuji; Yokoi, Norihiko; Higashihara, Hisayo; Inagaki, Kayoko; Sonomura, Yukiko; Komuro, Aoi; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical characteristics and management of short tear film breakup time (BUT) -type dry eye. Clinical background and post-treatment changes of symptoms in 77 patients with short BUT -type dry eye were investigated. Treatment consisted of artificial-tear eye-drop instillation and, if necessary, the addition of a low-density-level steroid, hyaluronic acid, a low-density-level cyclopentolate prepared by ourselves and punctal plugs inserted into the upper and lower lacrimal puncta. There were three times more women than men among the patients, and the peak age of occurrence was in the twenties in the men and in the sixties in the women. Our findings show that visual display terminal (VDT) work, contact lens (CL) wear, and changes in the sex hormones may initiate subjective symptoms. Some patients had simultaneous conjunctivochalasis, allergic conjunctivitis, and meibomian gland dysfunction. Nineteen patients (24.7%) were effectively treated with eye-drop instillation alone. Thirty-seven patients (48.1%) required punctal-plug insertion, which was completely effective in only 8 of them (21.6%). Mainly young men and menopausal women contract short BUT -type dry eye. Changes in sex hormones, VDT work and CL wear may be causal, and the disease cannot be controlled by eyedrop and punctal-plug treatment alone.

  5. Research on resistance characteristics of YBCO tape under short-time DC large current impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhifeng; Yang, Jiabin; Qiu, Qingquan; Zhang, Guomin; Lin, Liangzhen

    2017-06-01

    Research of the resistance characteristics of YBCO tape under short-time DC large current impact is the foundation of the developing DC superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for voltage source converter-based high voltage direct current system (VSC-HVDC), which is one of the valid approaches to solve the problems of renewable energy integration. SFCL can limit DC short-circuit and enhance the interrupting capabilities of DC circuit breakers. In this paper, under short-time DC large current impacts, the resistance features of naked tape of YBCO tape are studied to find the resistance - temperature change rule and the maximum impact current. The influence of insulation for the resistance - temperature characteristics of YBCO tape is studied by comparison tests with naked tape and insulating tape in 77 K. The influence of operating temperature on the tape is also studied under subcooled liquid nitrogen condition. For the current impact security of YBCO tape, the critical current degradation and top temperature are analyzed and worked as judgment standards. The testing results is helpful for in developing SFCL in VSC-HVDC.

  6. Equivalence between short-time biphasic and incompressible elastic material responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A; Ellis, Benjamin J; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2007-06-01

    Porous-permeable tissues have often been modeled using porous media theories such as the biphasic theory. This study examines the equivalence of the short-time biphasic and incompressible elastic responses for arbitrary deformations and constitutive relations from first principles. This equivalence is illustrated in problems of unconfined compression of a disk, and of articular contact under finite deformation, using two different constitutive relations for the solid matrix of cartilage, one of which accounts for the large disparity observed between the tensile and compressive moduli in this tissue. Demonstrating this equivalence under general conditions provides a rationale for using available finite element codes for incompressible elastic materials as a practical substitute for biphasic analyses, so long as only the short-time biphasic response is sought. In practice, an incompressible elastic analysis is representative of a biphasic analysis over the short-term response deltatelasticity tensor, and K is the hydraulic permeability tensor of the solid matrix. Certain notes of caution are provided with regard to implementation issues, particularly when finite element formulations of incompressible elasticity employ an uncoupled strain energy function consisting of additive deviatoric and volumetric components.

  7. Measurement of the Difference of Time-Integrated CP Asymmetries in D^{0}→K^{-}K^{+} and D^{0}→π^{-}π^{+} Decays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Abellán Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Demmer, M; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dungs, K; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fol, P; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Mapelli, A; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Osorio Rodrigues, B; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Pappenheimer, C; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Todd, J; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wright, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S

    2016-05-13

    A search for CP violation in D^{0}→K^{-}K^{+} and D^{0}→π^{-}π^{+} decays is performed using pp collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3  fb^{-1}, collected using the LHCb detector at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The flavor of the charm meson is inferred from the charge of the pion in D^{*+}→D^{0}π^{+} and D^{*-}→D[over ¯]^{0}π^{-} decays. The difference between the CP asymmetries in D^{0}→K^{-}K^{+} and D^{0}→π^{-}π^{+} decays, ΔA_{CP}≡A_{CP}(K^{-}K^{+})-A_{CP}(π^{-}π^{+}), is measured to be [-0.10±0.08(stat)±0.03(syst)]%. This is the most precise measurement of a time-integrated CP asymmetry in the charm sector from a single experiment.

  8. Measurement of the difference of time-integrated CP asymmetries in $D^0 \\rightarrow K^{-} K^{+} $ and $D^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^{-} \\pi^{+} $ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2016-05-09

    A search for CP violation in $D^0 \\rightarrow K^{-} K^{+} $ and $D^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^{-} \\pi^{+} $ decays is performed using $pp$ collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3~fb^{-1}$, collected using the LHCb detector at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8$~$TeV. The flavour of the charm meson is inferred from the charge of the pion in $D^{*+}\\rightarrow D^0\\pi^+$ and $D^{*-}\\rightarrow \\bar{D^0}\\pi^{-}$ decays. The difference between the CP asymmetries in $D^0 \\rightarrow K^{-} K^{+} $ and $D^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^{-} \\pi^{+} $ decays, $\\Delta A_{CP} \\equiv A_{CP}(K^{-} K^{+}) - A_{CP}(\\pi^{-} \\pi^{+})$, is measured to be $\\left( -0.10 \\pm 0.08(stat) \\pm 0.03(syst) \\right) \\%$. This is the most precise measurement of a time-integrated CP asymmetry in the charm sector from a single experiment.

  9. Evaluation of skeletal muscle during exercise on short repetition time MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Niitsu, Mamoru; Anno, Izumi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Kuno, Shinya; Matsumoto, Kunihiko; Itai, Yuji

    1992-01-01

    There have been many reports on the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle signal intensities based on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. These images were obtained using T 2 -weighted MR images. The purpose of this study was to observe muscles during exercise while shortening the repetition time (TR) on spin echo images. In addition, inactive and active muscles were differentiated in the same manner. T 2 values of the tibialis anterior m. were calculated from TR=400 ms to TR=3000 ms. These values were mostly constant and didn't depend upon TR. Increases in signal intensities of the exercise muscles could be observed on the short TR (600 ms) MR images since the changes of the signal intensities mainly depend upon T 2 values. Thus, the T 2 value is useful as a quantitative index to assess the exercise muscle even on the short TR MR images. (author)

  10. Nonlinear response of vessel walls due to short-time thermomechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kulak, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Maintaining structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during a postulated core melt accident is an important safety consideration in the design of the vessel. This study addresses the failure predictions of the vessel due to thermal and pressure loadings fro the molten core debris depositing on the lower head of the vessel. Different loading combinations were considered based on the dead load, yield stress assumptions, material response and internal pressurization. The analyses considered only short term failure (quasi static) modes, long term failure modes were not considered. Short term failure modes include plastic instabilities of the structure and failure due to exceeding the failure strain. Long term failure odes would be caused by creep rupture that leads to plastic instability of the structure. Due to the sort time durations analyzed, creep was not considered in the analyses presented

  11. Micro-Doppler Ambiguity Resolution Based on Short-Time Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-bo Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When using a long range radar (LRR to track a target with micromotion, the micro-Doppler embodied in the radar echoes may suffer from ambiguity problem. In this paper, we propose a novel method based on compressed sensing (CS to solve micro-Doppler ambiguity. According to the RIP requirement, a sparse probing pulse train with its transmitting time random is designed. After matched filtering, the slow-time echo signals of the micromotion target can be viewed as randomly sparse sampling of Doppler spectrum. Select several successive pulses to form a short-time window and the CS sensing matrix can be built according to the time stamps of these pulses. Then performing Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP, the unambiguous micro-Doppler spectrum can be obtained. The proposed algorithm is verified using the echo signals generated according to the theoretical model and the signals with micro-Doppler signature produced using the commercial electromagnetic simulation software FEKO.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of (Lu{sub 1−x−y}Y{sub x}Ce{sub y}){sub 2}SiO{sub 5} luminescent powders with fast decay time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aburto-Crespo, M. [Programa de Posgrado en Física de Materiales CICESE-UNAM, Km. 107 Carretera Tij-Ens, Ensenada, B. C. 22860, México (Mexico); Hirata, G.A., E-mail: hirata@cnyn.unam.mx [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, B. C. 22860, México (Mexico); McKittrick, J. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The structural and luminescent properties of blue-emitting (Lu{sub 1−x−y}Y{sub x}Ce{sub y}){sub 2}SiO{sub 5} (0.1≤x≤0.4, y=0.05, 0.005) phosphors prepared by combustion synthesis and post-annealed at 1200 °C for different annealing times are reported. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the formation of a (Lu,Y){sub 2}SiO{sub 5} solid solution as a majority phase with small traces of a residual phase that was identified as Lu{sub 2}SiO{sub 7}. Under long-UV excitation, the powders yield a very bright blue-emission consisting of two bands with maximum emissions located at λ=405 nm and λ=440 nm, both corresponding to the Ce{sup 3+} allowed transitions {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}→{sup 2}F{sub 5/2} and {sup 2}D{sub 5/2}→{sup 2}F{sub 7/2}, respectively. Moreover, luminescence decay times of 38–45 ns were measured, which depend on the composition, making these powders excellent candidates for application as scintillators in medical imaging. -- Highlights: ► A facile technique to fabricate (Lu,Y)-oxyorthosilicate nanophosphors is presented. ► The structural and excellent luminescent properties including excitation, emission and short decay times are reported. ► The Ce-doped oxyorthosilicates nanophosphors present a fast decay time of the order of 38–45 ns.

  13. Analysis of Seasonal Signal in GPS Short-Baseline Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaihua; Jiang, Weiping; Chen, Hua; An, Xiangdong; Zhou, Xiaohui; Yuan, Peng; Chen, Qusen

    2018-04-01

    Proper modeling of seasonal signals and their quantitative analysis are of interest in geoscience applications, which are based on position time series of permanent GPS stations. Seasonal signals in GPS short-baseline (paper, to better understand the seasonal signal in GPS short-baseline time series, we adopted and processed six different short-baselines with data span that varies from 2 to 14 years and baseline length that varies from 6 to 1100 m. To avoid seasonal signals that are overwhelmed by noise, each of the station pairs is chosen with significant differences in their height (> 5 m) or type of the monument. For comparison, we also processed an approximately zero baseline with a distance of pass-filtered (BP) noise is valid for approximately 40% of the baseline components, and another 20% of the components can be best modeled by a combination of the first-order Gauss-Markov (FOGM) process plus white noise (WN). The TEM displacements are then modeled by considering the monument height of the building structure beneath the GPS antenna. The median contributions of TEM to the annual amplitude in the vertical direction are 84% and 46% with and without additional parts of the monument, respectively. Obvious annual signals with amplitude > 0.4 mm in the horizontal direction are observed in five short-baselines, and the amplitudes exceed 1 mm in four of them. These horizontal seasonal signals are likely related to the propagation of daily/sub-daily TEM displacement or other signals related to the site environment. Mismodeling of the tropospheric delay may also introduce spurious seasonal signals with annual amplitudes of 5 and 2 mm, respectively, for two short-baselines with elevation differences greater than 100 m. The results suggest that the monument height of the additional part of a typical GPS station should be considered when estimating the TEM displacement and that the tropospheric delay should be modeled cautiously, especially with station pairs with

  14. Photon and decay data libraries for ORIGEN2 code based on JENDL FP decay data file 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Katakura, J I

    2002-01-01

    Photon and decay data libraries for the ORIGEN2 code have been updated by using JENDL FP Decay Data File 2000 (JENDL/FPD-00). As for the decay data, half-lives, branching ratios and recoverable energy values have been replaced with those of the JENDL/FPD-00 file. The data of the photon library has been also replaced with those of the JENDL/FPD-00 file in which photon data of the nuclides without measured data are calculated with a theoretical method. Using the updated photon library, the calculation of photon spectrum at a short time after fission event is able to be made.

  15. Short-term wind power forecasting: probabilistic and space-time aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastu, Julija

    work deals with the proposal and evaluation of new mathematical models and forecasting methods for short-term wind power forecasting, accounting for space-time dynamics based on geographically distributed information. Different forms of power predictions are considered, starting from traditional point...... into the corresponding models are analysed. As a final step, emphasis is placed on generating space-time trajectories: this calls for the prediction of joint multivariate predictive densities describing wind power generation at a number of distributed locations and for a number of successive lead times. In addition......Optimal integration of wind energy into power systems calls for high quality wind power predictions. State-of-the-art forecasting systems typically provide forecasts for every location individually, without taking into account information coming from the neighbouring territories. It is however...

  16. Short-time beta grain growth kinetics for a conventional titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiatin, S.L.; Sukonnik, I.M.

    1996-01-01

    The kinetics of beta grain growth during short-time, supertransus heat treatment of Ti-5Al-4V were determined using a salt-pot technique. The finite-time, subtransus temperature transient during salt-pot heating was quantified through measurements of the heat transfer coefficient characterizing conduction across the salt-titanium interface and a simple heat conduction analysis which incorporated this heat transfer coefficient. Grain size versus time data adjusted to account for the subtransus temperature transient were successfully fit to the parabolic grain growth law d n - d 0 n = kt exp(-Q/RT) using an exponent n equal to 2.0. Comparison of the present results to rapid, continuous heat treatment data in the literature for a similar titanium alloy revealed a number of semi-quantitative similarities

  17. Short- and long-run time-of-use price elasticities in Swiss residential electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis on the residential demand for electricity by time-of-day. This analysis has been performed using aggregate data at the city level for 22 Swiss cities for the period 2000-2006. For this purpose, we estimated two log-log demand equations for peak and off-peak electricity consumption using static and dynamic partial adjustment approaches. These demand functions were estimated using several econometric approaches for panel data, for example LSDV and RE for static models, and LSDV and corrected LSDV estimators for dynamic models. The attempt of this empirical analysis has been to highlight some of the characteristics of the Swiss residential electricity demand. The estimated short-run own price elasticities are lower than 1, whereas in the long-run these values are higher than 1. The estimated short-run and long-run cross-price elasticities are positive. This result shows that peak and off-peak electricity are substitutes. In this context, time differentiated prices should provide an economic incentive to customers so that they can modify consumption patterns by reducing peak demand and shifting electricity consumption from peak to off-peak periods. - Highlights: → Empirical analysis on the residential demand for electricity by time-of-day. → Estimators for dynamic panel data. → Peak and off-peak residential electricity are substitutes.

  18. Study of surfaces and surface layers on high temperature materials after short-time thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Hoven, H.; Koizlik, K.; Linke, J.; Nickel, H.; Wallura, E.

    1985-11-01

    Being part of the plasma-wall interaction during TOKAMAK operation, erosion- and redeposition processes of First Wall materials substantially influence plasma parameters as well as the properties of the First Wall. An important redeposition process of eroded material is the formation of thin films by atomic condensation. Examinations of First Wall components after TOKAMAK operation lead to the assumption that these thin metallic films tend to agglomerate to small particles under subsequent heat load. In laboratory experiments it is shown that thin metallic films on various substrates can agglomerate under short time high heat fluxes and also under longer lasting lower thermal loads, thus verifying the ''agglomeration hypothesis''. (orig.) [de

  19. A Statistical and Spectral Model for Representing Noisy Sounds with Short-Time Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Desainte-Catherine

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose an original model for noise analysis, transformation, and synthesis: the CNSS model. Noisy sounds are represented with short-time sinusoids whose frequencies and phases are random variables. This spectral and statistical model represents information about the spectral density of frequencies. This perceptually relevant property is modeled by three mathematical parameters that define the distribution of the frequencies. This model also represents the spectral envelope. The mathematical parameters are defined and the analysis algorithms to extract these parameters from sounds are introduced. Then algorithms for generating sounds from the parameters of the model are presented. Applications of this model include tools for composers, psychoacoustic experiments, and pedagogy.

  20. Quantum Dynamics with Short-Time Trajectories and Minimal Adaptive Basis Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saller, Maximilian A C; Habershon, Scott

    2017-07-11

    Methods for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation via basis set expansion of the wave function can generally be categorized as having either static (time-independent) or dynamic (time-dependent) basis functions. We have recently introduced an alternative simulation approach which represents a middle road between these two extremes, employing dynamic (classical-like) trajectories to create a static basis set of Gaussian wavepackets in regions of phase-space relevant to future propagation of the wave function [J. Chem. Theory Comput., 11, 8 (2015)]. Here, we propose and test a modification of our methodology which aims to reduce the size of basis sets generated in our original scheme. In particular, we employ short-time classical trajectories to continuously generate new basis functions for short-time quantum propagation of the wave function; to avoid the continued growth of the basis set describing the time-dependent wave function, we employ Matching Pursuit to periodically minimize the number of basis functions required to accurately describe the wave function. Overall, this approach generates a basis set which is adapted to evolution of the wave function while also being as small as possible. In applications to challenging benchmark problems, namely a 4-dimensional model of photoexcited pyrazine and three different double-well tunnelling problems, we find that our new scheme enables accurate wave function propagation with basis sets which are around an order-of-magnitude smaller than our original trajectory-guided basis set methodology, highlighting the benefits of adaptive strategies for wave function propagation.

  1. Road Short-Term Travel Time Prediction Method Based on Flow Spatial Distribution and the Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many short-term road travel time forecasting studies based on time series, but indeed, road travel time not only relies on the historical travel time series, but also depends on the road and its adjacent sections history flow. However, few studies have considered that. This paper is based on the correlation of flow spatial distribution and the road travel time series, applying nearest neighbor and nonparametric regression method to build a forecasting model. In aspect of spatial nearest neighbor search, three different space distances are defined. In addition, two forecasting functions are introduced: one combines the forecasting value by mean weight and the other uses the reciprocal of nearest neighbors distance as combined weight. Three different distances are applied in nearest neighbor search, which apply to the two forecasting functions. For travel time series, the nearest neighbor and nonparametric regression are applied too. Then minimizing forecast error variance is utilized as an objective to establish the combination model. The empirical results show that the combination model can improve the forecast performance obviously. Besides, the experimental results of the evaluation for the computational complexity show that the proposed method can satisfy the real-time requirement.

  2. Mining biological information from 3D short time-series gene expression data: the OPTricluster algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchagang, Alain B; Phan, Sieu; Famili, Fazel; Shearer, Heather; Fobert, Pierre; Huang, Yi; Zou, Jitao; Huang, Daiqing; Cutler, Adrian; Liu, Ziying; Pan, Youlian

    2012-04-04

    Nowadays, it is possible to collect expression levels of a set of genes from a set of biological samples during a series of time points. Such data have three dimensions: gene-sample-time (GST). Thus they are called 3D microarray gene expression data. To take advantage of the 3D data collected, and to fully understand the biological knowledge hidden in the GST data, novel subspace clustering algorithms have to be developed to effectively address the biological problem in the corresponding space. We developed a subspace clustering algorithm called Order Preserving Triclustering (OPTricluster), for 3D short time-series data mining. OPTricluster is able to identify 3D clusters with coherent evolution from a given 3D dataset using a combinatorial approach on the sample dimension, and the order preserving (OP) concept on the time dimension. The fusion of the two methodologies allows one to study similarities and differences between samples in terms of their temporal expression profile. OPTricluster has been successfully applied to four case studies: immune response in mice infected by malaria (Plasmodium chabaudi), systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana, similarities and differences between inner and outer cotyledon in Brassica napus during seed development, and to Brassica napus whole seed development. These studies showed that OPTricluster is robust to noise and is able to detect the similarities and differences between biological samples. Our analysis showed that OPTricluster generally outperforms other well known clustering algorithms such as the TRICLUSTER, gTRICLUSTER and K-means; it is robust to noise and can effectively mine the biological knowledge hidden in the 3D short time-series gene expression data.

  3. Measurement of radon-222 concentration in environment sampled within short time using charcoal detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Sekiyama, Shigenobu; Tokin, Mina; Nakayasu, Yumiko; Watanabe, Tamaki.

    1994-01-01

    The concentration of 222 Rn in air sampled within a very short period of time was measured using activated charcoal as the adsorber. The detector is the plastic canister containing mixture of the activated charcoal and the silica gel. The radon gas was adsorbed in the charcoal in the radon chamber at the temperature of 25degC. A little amount of liquid scintillation cocktail was added into the vial of liquid scintillation counter with the canister. The radon in the charcoal was extracted in the liquid scintillation cocktail. Alpha particles emitted from radon and its daughter nuclei in the cocktail were detected using the liquid scintillation counter. Present method has advantages of not only short sampling time of air but also adsorption of radon in charcoal under a constant temperature. The concentration of radon in air down to 2 Bq/m 3 could be detected. A kinetic model for adsorption of radon in the charcoal is also presented. The ratio of radon concentration in the charcoal to that in air under the equilibrium state of adsorption was estimated to be from 6.1 to 6.8 m 3 /kg at the temperature of 25degC. (author)

  4. Effective description of the short-time dynamics in open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Matteo A. C.; Foti, Caterina; Cuccoli, Alessandro; Trapani, Jacopo; Verrucchi, Paola; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2017-09-01

    We address the dynamics of a bosonic system coupled to either a bosonic or a magnetic environment and derive a set of sufficient conditions that allow one to describe the dynamics in terms of the effective interaction with a classical fluctuating field. We find that for short interaction times the dynamics of the open system is described by a Gaussian noise map for several different interaction models and independently on the temperature of the environment. In order to go beyond a qualitative understanding of the origin and physical meaning of the above short-time constraint, we take a general viewpoint and, based on an algebraic approach, suggest that any quantum environment can be described by classical fields whenever global symmetries lead to the definition of environmental operators that remain well defined when increasing the size, i.e., the number of dynamical variables, of the environment. In the case of the bosonic environment this statement is exactly demonstrated via a constructive procedure that explicitly shows why a large number of environmental dynamical variables and, necessarily, global symmetries, entail the set of conditions derived in the first part of the work.

  5. FREQUENCY COMPONENT EXTRACTION OF HEARTBEAT CUES WITH SHORT TIME FOURIER TRANSFORM (STFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarna Sumarna

    2017-01-01

      Electro-acoustic human heartbeat detector have been made with the main parts : (a stetoscope (piece chest, (b mic condenser, (c transistor amplifier, and (d cues analysis program with MATLAB. The frequency components that contained in heartbeat. cues have also been extracted with Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT from 9 volunteers. The results of the analysis showed that heart rate appeared in every cue frequency spectrum with their harmony. The steps of the research were including detector instrument design, test and instrument repair, cues heartbeat recording with Sound Forge 10 program and stored in wav file ; cues breaking at the start and the end, and extraction/cues analysis using MATLAB. The MATLAB program included filter (bandpass filter with bandwidth between 0.01 – 110 Hz, cues breaking with hamming window and every part was calculated using Fourier Transform (STFT mechanism and the result were shown in frequency spectrum graph.   Keywords: frequency components extraction, heartbeat cues, Short Time Fourier Transform

  6. Fast-timing studies of nuclei below $^{68}$Ni populated in the $\\beta$-decay of Mn isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Jokinen, A; Simpson, G S; Garcia borge, M J; Koester, U H; Georgiev, G P; Fraile prieto, L M; Aprahamian, A

    2008-01-01

    We intend to investigate structure of nuclei populated in the $\\beta$-decay of Mn isotopes via the ATD $\\beta\\gamma\\gamma$(t) technique. With this method we will measure dynamic moments in Fe isotopes and their daughters in order to characterize the role of particle-hole excitation across the ${N}$=40 sub-shell closure and the development of collectivity.

  7. New solutions for the short-time analysis of geothermal vertical boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamarche, Louis; Beauchamp, Benoit [Ecole de Technologie Supereure, 1100 Notre-Dame Ouest, Montreal (Canada)

    2007-04-15

    Many models, either numerical or analytical, have been proposed to analyse the thermal response of vertical heat exchangers that are used in ground coupled heat pump systems (GCHP). In both approaches, most of the models are valid after few hours of operation since they neglect the heat capacity of the borehole. This is valid for design purposes, where the time of interest is in the order of months and years. Recently, the short time response of vertical boreholes became a subject of interest. In this paper, we present a new analytical approach to treat this problem. It solves the exact solution for concentric cylinders and is a good approximation for the familiar U-tube configuration. (author)

  8. Spatial filtering velocimetry revisited: exact short-time detecting schemes from arbitrarily small-size reticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, S; Nara, T; Kurihara, T

    2014-01-01

    Spatial filtering velocimetry was proposed in 1963 by Ator as a velocity-sensing technique for aerial camera-control systems. The total intensity of a moving surface is observed through a set of parallel-slit reticles, resulting in a narrow-band temporal signal whose frequency is directly proportional to the image velocity. However, even despite its historical importance and inherent technical advantages, the mathematical formulation of this technique is only valid when infinite-length observation in both space and time is possible, which causes significant errors in most applications where a small receptive window and high resolution in both axes are desired. In this study, we apply a novel mathematical technique, the weighted integral method, to solve this problem, and obtain exact sensing schemes and algorithms for finite (arbitrarily small but non-zero) size reticles and short-time estimation. Practical considerations for utilizing these schemes are also explored both theoretically and experimentally. (paper)

  9. Verification of short lead time forecast models: applied to Kp and Dst forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintoft, Peter; Wik, Magnus

    2016-04-01

    In the ongoing EU/H2020 project PROGRESS models that predicts Kp, Dst, and AE from L1 solar wind data will be used as inputs to radiation belt models. The possible lead times from L1 measurements are shorter (10s of minutes to hours) than the typical duration of the physical phenomena that should be forecast. Under these circumstances several metrics fail to single out trivial cases, such as persistence. In this work we explore metrics and approaches for short lead time forecasts. We apply these to current Kp and Dst forecast models. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637302.

  10. Critical dynamics of the Potts model: short-time Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Roberto da; Drugowich de Felicio, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the new dynamic exponent θ of the 4-state Potts model, using short-time simulations. Our estimates θ1=-0.0471(33) and θ2=-0.0429(11) obtained by following the behavior of the magnetization or measuring the evolution of the time correlation function of the magnetization corroborate the conjecture by Okano et al. [Nucl. Phys. B 485 (1997) 727]. In addition, these values agree with previous estimate of the same dynamic exponent for the two-dimensional Ising model with three-spin interactions in one direction, that is known to belong to the same universality class as the 4-state Potts model. The anomalous dimension of initial magnetization x0=zθ+β/ν is calculated by an alternative way that mixes two different initial conditions. We have also estimated the values of the static exponents β and ν. They are in complete agreement with the pertinent results of the literature

  11. Burn-up measurements of LEU fuel for short cooling times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereda B, C.; Henriquez A, C.; Klein D, J.; Medel R, J.

    2005-01-01

    The measurements presented in this work were made essentially at in-pool gamma-spectrometric facility, installed inside of the secondary pool of the RECH-1 research reactor, where the measured fuel elements are under 2 meters of water. The main reason for using the in-pool facility was because of its capability to measure the burning of fuel elements without having to wait so long, that is with only 5 cooling days, which are the usual times between reactor operations. Regarding these short cooling times, this work confirms again the possibility of using the 95 Zr as a promising burnup monitor, in spite of the rough approximations used to do it. These results are statistically reasonable within the range calculated using codes. The work corroborates previous results, presented in Santiago de Chile, and it suggests future improvements in that way. (author)

  12. Optimal filtering of dynamics in short-time features for music organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in customizable methods for organizing music collections. Relevant music characterization can be obtained from short-time features, but it is not obvious how to combine them to get useful information. In this work, a novel method, denoted as the Positive Constrained...... Orthonormalized Partial Least Squares (POPLS), is proposed. Working on the periodograms of MFCCs time series, this supervised method finds optimal filters which pick up the most discriminative temporal information for any music organization task. Two examples are presented in the paper, the first being a simple...... proof-of-concept, where an altosax with and without vibrato is modelled. A more complex \\$11\\$ music genre classification setup is also investigated to illustrate the robustness and validity of the proposed method on larger datasets. Both experiments showed the good properties of our method, as well...

  13. Measurement and deconvolution of detector response time for short HPM pulses: Part 1, Microwave diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, P.R.

    1987-06-01

    A technique is described for measuring and deconvolving response times of microwave diode detection systems in order to generate corrected input signals typical of an infinite detection rate. The method has been applied to cases of 2.86 GHz ultra-short HPM pulse detection where pulse rise time is comparable to that of the detector; whereas, the duration of a few nanoseconds is significantly longer. Results are specified in terms of the enhancement of equivalent deconvolved input voltages for given observed voltages. The convolution integral imposes the constraint of linear detector response to input power levels. This is physically equivalent to the conservation of integrated pulse energy in the deconvolution process. The applicable dynamic range of a microwave diode is therefore limited to a smaller signal region as determined by its calibration

  14. Increased Concentrations of Short-Lived Decay-Series Radionuclides in Groundwaters Underneath the Nopal I Uranium Deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, S.; Ku, T.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M. T.; Dinsmoor, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal I uranium ore deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, located at > 200 meters above the groundwater table, provides an ideal natural analog for quantifying the effectiveness of geological barrier for isolation of radioactive waste nuclides from reaching the human environments through ground water transport. To fulfill such natural analog studies, three wells (PB1, PB2, and PB3 respectively) were drilled at the site from the land surface down to the saturated groundwater zone and ground waters were collected from each of these wells through large- volume sampling/in-situ Mn-filter filtration for analyses of short-lived uranium/thorium-series radionuclides. Our measurements from PB1 show that the groundwater standing in the hole has much lower 222Rn activity than the freshly pumped groundwater. From this change in 222Rn activity, we estimate the residence time of groundwater in PB1 to be about 20 days. Our measurements also show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes of Th (234Th), Ra (228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra), Rn (222Rn), Pb (210Pb), and Po (210Po) in PB1, PB2, and PB3 are all significantly higher than those from the other wells near the Nopal I site. These high activities provide evidence for the enrichment of long-lived U and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in the associated adsorbed phases on the fractured aquifer rocks underneath the ore deposit. Such enrichment suggests a rapid dissolution of U and Ra isotopes from the uranium ore deposit in the vadose zone and the subsequent migration to the groundwater underneath. A reactive transport model can be established to characterize the in-situ transport of radionuclides at the site. The observed change of 222Rn activity at PB1 also suggests that the measured high radioactivityies in ground waters from the site isare not an artifact of drilling operations. However, further studies are needed to assess if or to what extent the radionuclide migration is affected by the previous mining activities at

  15. Short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI-short) with and without the Future-Negative scale, verified on nationally representative samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košťál, Jaroslav; Klicperová-Baker, Martina; Lukavská, K.; Lukavský, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2016), s. 169-192 ISSN 0961-463X Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : ZTPI * ZTPI-short * time perspective * temporal orientation * representative sample Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.206, year: 2016

  16. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF SHORT-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORMS FOR ANALYZING SKIN CONDUCTANCE AND PUPILLOMETRY IN REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Steffen Werner; Jeffrey C. Joe; Brian Wotring; Tuan Tran

    2008-01-01

    The development of real-time predictors of mental workload is critical for the practical application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems. This paper explores a novel method based on a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) for analyzing galvanic skin conductance (SC) and pupillometry time-series data to extract estimates of mental workload with temporal bandwidth high-enough to be useful for augmented cognition applications. We tested the method in the context of a process control task based on the DURESS simulation developed by Vincente and Pawlak (1994; ported to Java by Cosentino, and Ross, 1999). SC, pupil dilation, blink rate, and visual scanning patterns were measured for four participants actively engaged in controlling the simulation. Fault events were introduced that required participants to diagnose errors and make control adjustments to keep the simulator operating within a target range. We were interested in whether the STFT of these measures would produce visible effects of the increase in mental workload and stress associated with these events. Graphical exploratory data analysis of the STFT showed visible increases in the power spectrum across a range of frequencies directly following fault events. We believe this approach shows potential as a relatively unobtrusive, low-cost, high bandwidth measure of mental workload that could be particularly useful for the application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems

  17. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF SHORT-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORMS FOR ANALYZING SKIN CONDUCTANCE AND PUPILLOMETRY IN REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Steffen Werner; Jeffrey C. Joe; Brian Wotring; Tuan Tran

    2008-09-01

    The development of real-time predictors of mental workload is critical for the practical application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems. This paper explores a novel method based on a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) for analyzing galvanic skin conductance (SC) and pupillometry time-series data to extract estimates of mental workload with temporal bandwidth high-enough to be useful for augmented cognition applications. We tested the method in the context of a process control task based on the DURESS simulation developed by Vincente and Pawlak (1994; ported to Java by Cosentino,& Ross, 1999). SC, pupil dilation, blink rate, and visual scanning patterns were measured for four participants actively engaged in controlling the simulation. Fault events were introduced that required participants to diagnose errors and make control adjustments to keep the simulator operating within a target range. We were interested in whether the STFT of these measures would produce visible effects of the increase in mental workload and stress associated with these events. Graphical exploratory data analysis of the STFT showed visible increases in the power spectrum across a range of frequencies directly following fault events. We believe this approach shows potential as a relatively unobtrusive, low-cost, high bandwidth measure of mental workload that could be particularly useful for the application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems.

  18. Tau decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, A.

    1994-09-01

    The most recent experimental results of τ physics are reviewed. The covered topics include precision measurements of semihadronic τ decay and their impact on tau branching ratio budget, the current status of the tau consistency test, a determination of Michel parameters and τ neutrino helicity, and upper limits on lepton-number violating τ decays. (orig.)

  19. Measurement of Time-Dependent CP-Violating Asymmetriesand Constraints on sin(2 beta+gamma) withPartial Reconstruction of B to D*-+pi+- Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2005-04-19

    We present a measurement of the time-dependent CP-violating asymmetries in decays of neutral B mesons to the final states D*{sup {-+}}{pi}{sup {+-}}, using approximately 232 million B{bar B} events recorded by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring. Events containing these decays are selected with a partial reconstruction technique, in which only the high-momentum {pi}{sup {+-}} from the B decay and the low-momentum {pi}{sup {-+}} from the D*{sup {-+}} decay are used. We measure the parameters related to 2{beta} + {gamma} to be a{sub D*{pi}} = -0.034 {+-} 0.014 {+-} 0.009 and c{sub D*{pi}}{sup {ell}} = -0.019 {+-} 0.022 {+-} 0.013. With some theoretical assumptions, we interpret our results in terms of the lower limits |sin(2{beta} + {gamma})| > 0.62 (0.35) at 68% (90%) confidence level.

  20. Decay Spectroscopy for Nuclear Astrophysics: {beta}-delayed Proton Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trache, L.; Simmons, E.; Spiridon, A.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Tribble, R. E. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Saastamoinen, A.; Jokinen, A.; Aysto, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla (Finland); Davinson, T.; Woods, P. J. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Pollacco, E.; Kebbiri, M. [CEA/IRFU Saclay (France); Pascovici, G. [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany)

    2011-11-30

    Decay spectroscopy is one of the oldest indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics. We have developed at TAMU techniques to measure beta- and beta-delayed proton decay of sd-shell, proton-rich nuclei. The short-lived radioactive species are produced in-flight, separated, then slowed down (from about 40 MeV/u) and implanted in the middle of very thin Si detectors. These allowed us to measure protons with energies as low as 200 keV from nuclei with lifetimes of 100 ms or less. At the same time we measure gamma-rays up to 8 MeV with high resolution HPGe detectors. We have studied the decay of {sup 23}Al, {sup 27}P, {sup 31}Cl, all important for understanding explosive H-burning in novae. The technique has shown a remarkable selectivity to beta-delayed charged-particle emission and works even at radioactive beam rates of a few pps. The states populated are resonances for the radiative proton capture reactions {sup 22}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 23}Mg(crucial for the depletion of {sup 22}Na in novae), {sup 26m}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 27}Si and {sup 30}P(p,{gamma}){sup 31}S(bottleneck in novae and XRB burning), respectively. More recently we have radically improved the technique using a gas based detector we call AstroBox.

  1. Aspects of B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faller, Sven

    2011-01-01

    B-meson decays are a good probe for testing the flavour sector of the standard model of particle physics. The standard model describes at present all experimental data satisfactorily, although some ''tensions'' exist, i.e. two to three sigma deviations from the predictions, in particular in B decays. The arguments against the standard model are thus purely theoretical. These tensions between experimental data and theoretical predictions provide an extension of the standard model by new physics contributions. Within the flavour sector main theoretical uncertainties are related to the hadronic matrix elements. For exclusive semileptonic anti B → D (*) l anti ν decays QCD sum rule techniques, which are suitable for studying hadronic matrix elements, however, with substantial, but estimable hadronic uncertainties, are used. The exploration of new physics effects in B-meson decays is done in an twofold way. In exclusive semileptonic anti B → D (*) l anti ν decays the effect of additional right-handed vector as well as left- and right-handed scalar and tensor hadronic current structures in the decay rates and the form factors are studied at the non-recoil point. As a second approach one studied the non-leptonic B 0 s →J/ψφ and B 0 →J/ψK S,L decays discussing CP violating effects in the time-dependent decay amplitudes by considering new physics phase in the B 0 - anti B 0 mixing phase. (orig.)

  2. Classification of decays involving variable decay chains with convolutional architectures

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Vidyo contribution We present a technique to perform classification of decays that exhibit decay chains involving a variable number of particles, which include a broad class of $B$ meson decays sensitive to new physics. The utility of such decays as a probe of the Standard Model is dependent upon accurate determination of the decay rate, which is challenged by the combinatorial background arising in high-multiplicity decay modes. In our model, each particle in the decay event is represented as a fixed-dimensional vector of feature attributes, forming an $n \\times k$ representation of the event, where $n$ is the number of particles in the event and $k$ is the dimensionality of the feature vector. A convolutional architecture is used to capture dependencies between the embedded particle representations and perform the final classification. The proposed model performs outperforms standard machine learning approaches based on Monte Carlo studies across a range of variable final-state decays with the Belle II det...

  3. Effect of resistivity profile on current decay time of initial phase of current quench in neon-gas-puff inducing disruptions of JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, S.; Ohno, N. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Shibata, Y.; Isayama, A.; Kawano, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Watanabe, K. Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Takizuka, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Okamoto, M. [Ishikawa National College of Technology, Ishikawa 929-0392 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    According to an early work [Y. Shibata et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 025015 (2010)] on the behavior of the plasma current decay in the JT-60U disruptive discharges caused by the radiative collapse with a massive neon-gas-puff, the increase of the internal inductance mainly determined the current decay time of plasma current during the initial phase of current quench. To investigate what determines the increase of the internal inductance, we focus attention on the relationship between the electron temperature (or the resistivity) profile and the time evolution of the current density profile and carry out numerical calculations. As a result, we find the reason of the increase of the internal inductance: The current density profile at the start of the current quench is broader than an expected current density profile in the steady state, which is determined by the temperature (or resistivity) profile. The current density profile evolves into peaked one and the internal inductance is increasing.

  4. Simultaneous measurement of the maximum oscillation amplitude and the transient decay time constant of the QCM reveals stiffness changes of the adlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marxer, C Galli; Coen, M Collaud; Bissig, H; Greber, U F; Schlapbach, L

    2003-10-01

    Interpretation of adsorption kinetics measured with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) can be difficult for adlayers undergoing modification of their mechanical properties. We have studied the behavior of the oscillation amplitude, A(0), and the decay time constant, tau, of quartz during adsorption of proteins and cells, by use of a home-made QCM. We are able to measure simultaneously the frequency, f, the dissipation factor, D, the maximum amplitude, A(0), and the transient decay time constant, tau, every 300 ms in liquid, gaseous, or vacuum environments. This analysis enables adsorption and modification of liquid/mass properties to be distinguished. Moreover the surface coverage and the stiffness of the adlayer can be estimated. These improvements promise to increase the appeal of QCM methodology for any applications measuring intimate contact of a dynamic material with a solid surface.

  5. Investigation of the motion of diesel injection jets using high-speed cinematography and short time holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisfeld, F.

    1987-01-01

    The knowledge about the penetration of diesel injection jets, particularly about the flow within the short behind the nozzle, and the arising of droplets from an injection jet is very limited. Experimental investigations are required to describe the process of penetration and spreading of the jet. The research method requires high speed cinematography and short time holography. Problems in the investigation method are described

  6. Chirped or time modulated excitation compared to short pulses for photoacoustic imaging in acoustic attenuating media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgholzer, P.; Motz, C.; Lang, O.; Berer, T.; Huemer, M.

    2018-02-01

    In photoacoustic imaging, optically generated acoustic waves transport the information about embedded structures to the sample surface. Usually, short laser pulses are used for the acoustic excitation. Acoustic attenuation increases for higher frequencies, which reduces the bandwidth and limits the spatial resolution. One could think of more efficient waveforms than single short pulses, such as pseudo noise codes, chirped, or harmonic excitation, which could enable a higher information-transfer from the samples interior to its surface by acoustic waves. We used a linear state space model to discretize the wave equation, such as the Stoke's equation, but this method could be used for any other linear wave equation. Linear estimators and a non-linear function inversion were applied to the measured surface data, for onedimensional image reconstruction. The proposed estimation method allows optimizing the temporal modulation of the excitation laser such that the accuracy and spatial resolution of the reconstructed image is maximized. We have restricted ourselves to one-dimensional models, as for higher dimensions the one-dimensional reconstruction, which corresponds to the acoustic wave without attenuation, can be used as input for any ultrasound imaging method, such as back-projection or time-reversal method.

  7. Gene expression profiling of canine osteosarcoma reveals genes associated with short and long survival times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Nagesha AS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling of spontaneous tumors in the dog offers a unique translational opportunity to identify prognostic biomarkers and signaling pathways that are common to both canine and human. Osteosarcoma (OS accounts for approximately 80% of all malignant bone tumors in the dog. Canine OS are highly comparable with their human counterpart with respect to histology, high metastatic rate and poor long-term survival. This study investigates the prognostic gene profile among thirty-two primary canine OS using canine specific cDNA microarrays representing 20,313 genes to identify genes and cellular signaling pathways associated with survival. This, the first report of its kind in dogs with OS, also demonstrates the advantages of cross-species comparison with human OS. Results The 32 tumors were classified into two prognostic groups based on survival time (ST. They were defined as short survivors (dogs with poor prognosis: surviving fewer than 6 months and long survivors (dogs with better prognosis: surviving 6 months or longer. Fifty-one transcripts were found to be differentially expressed, with common upregulation of these genes in the short survivors. The overexpressed genes in short survivors are associated with possible roles in proliferation, drug resistance or metastasis. Several deregulated pathways identified in the present study, including Wnt signaling, Integrin signaling and Chemokine/cytokine signaling are comparable to the pathway analysis conducted on human OS gene profiles, emphasizing the value of the dog as an excellent model for humans. Conclusion A molecular-based method for discrimination of outcome for short and long survivors is useful for future prognostic stratification at initial diagnosis, where genes and pathways associated with cell cycle/proliferation, drug resistance and metastasis could be potential targets for diagnosis and therapy. The similarities between human and canine OS makes the

  8. Robust and Adaptive Online Time Series Prediction with Long Short-Term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Online time series prediction is the mainstream method in a wide range of fields, ranging from speech analysis and noise cancelation to stock market analysis. However, the data often contains many outliers with the increasing length of time series in real world. These outliers can mislead the learned model if treated as normal points in the process of prediction. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a robust and adaptive online gradient learning method, RoAdam (Robust Adam, for long short-term memory (LSTM to predict time series with outliers. This method tunes the learning rate of the stochastic gradient algorithm adaptively in the process of prediction, which reduces the adverse effect of outliers. It tracks the relative prediction error of the loss function with a weighted average through modifying Adam, a popular stochastic gradient method algorithm for training deep neural networks. In our algorithm, the large value of the relative prediction error corresponds to a small learning rate, and vice versa. The experiments on both synthetic data and real time series show that our method achieves better performance compared to the existing methods based on LSTM.

  9. Robust and Adaptive Online Time Series Prediction with Long Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haimin; Pan, Zhisong; Tao, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Online time series prediction is the mainstream method in a wide range of fields, ranging from speech analysis and noise cancelation to stock market analysis. However, the data often contains many outliers with the increasing length of time series in real world. These outliers can mislead the learned model if treated as normal points in the process of prediction. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a robust and adaptive online gradient learning method, RoAdam (Robust Adam), for long short-term memory (LSTM) to predict time series with outliers. This method tunes the learning rate of the stochastic gradient algorithm adaptively in the process of prediction, which reduces the adverse effect of outliers. It tracks the relative prediction error of the loss function with a weighted average through modifying Adam, a popular stochastic gradient method algorithm for training deep neural networks. In our algorithm, the large value of the relative prediction error corresponds to a small learning rate, and vice versa. The experiments on both synthetic data and real time series show that our method achieves better performance compared to the existing methods based on LSTM.

  10. A combination of HARMONIE short time direct normal irradiance forecasts and machine learning: The #hashtdim procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastón, Martín; Fernández-Peruchena, Carlos; Körnich, Heiner; Landelius, Tomas

    2017-06-01

    The present work describes the first approach of a new procedure to forecast Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI): the #hashtdim that treats to combine ground information and Numerical Weather Predictions. The system is centered in generate predictions for the very short time. It combines the outputs from the Numerical Weather Prediction Model HARMONIE with an adaptive methodology based on Machine Learning. The DNI predictions are generated with 15-minute and hourly temporal resolutions and presents 3-hourly updates. Each update offers forecasts to the next 12 hours, the first nine hours are generated with 15-minute temporal resolution meanwhile the last three hours present hourly temporal resolution. The system is proved over a Spanish emplacement with BSRN operative station in south of Spain (PSA station). The #hashtdim has been implemented in the framework of the Direct Normal Irradiance Nowcasting methods for optimized operation of concentrating solar technologies (DNICast) project, under the European Union's Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration framework.

  11. Short-range correlations in an extended time-dependent mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madler, P.

    1982-01-01

    A generalization is performed of the time-dependent mean-field theory by an explicit inclusion of strong short-range correlations on a level of microscopic reversibility relating them to realistic nucleon-nucleon forces. Invoking a least action principle for correlated trial wave functions, equations of motion for the correlation functions and the single-particle model wave function are derived in lowest order of the FAHT cluster expansion. Higher order effects as well as long-range correlations are consider only to the extent to which they contribute to the mean field via a readjusted phenomenological effective two-body interaction. The corresponding correlated stationary problem is investigated and appropriate initial conditions to describe a heavy ion reaction are proposed. The singleparticle density matrix is evaluated

  12. The use of Matlab for colour fuzzy representation of multichannel EEG short time spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigan, C; Strungaru, R

    1998-01-01

    During the last years, a lot of EEG research efforts was directed to intelligent methods for automatic analysis of data from multichannel EEG recordings. However, all the applications reported were focused on specific single tasks like detection of one specific "event" in the EEG signal: spikes, sleep spindles, epileptic seizures, K complexes, alpha or other rhythms or even artefacts. The aim of this paper is to present a complex system being able to perform a representation of the dynamic changes in frequency components of each EEG channel. This representation uses colours as a powerful means to show the only one frequency range chosen from the shortest epoch of signal able to be processed with the conventional "Short Time Fast Fourier Transform" (S.T.F.F.T.) method.

  13. Generic short-time propagation of sharp-boundaries wave packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, E.; Marchewka, A.

    2005-11-01

    A general solution to the "shutter" problem is presented. The propagation of an arbitrary initially bounded wave function is investigated, and the general solution for any such function is formulated. It is shown that the exact solution can be written as an expression that depends only on the values of the function (and its derivatives) at the boundaries. In particular, it is shown that at short times (t << 2mx2/hbar, where x is the distance to the boundaries) the wave function propagation depends only on the wave function's values (or its derivatives) at the boundaries of the region. Finally, we generalize these findings to a non-singular wave function (i.e., for wave packets with finite-width boundaries) and suggest an experimental verification.

  14. The Short-Time Behaviour of VIX Implied Volatilities in a Multifactor Stochastic Volatility Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Andrea; Nicolato, Elisa; Pagliarani, Stefano

    error bounds for VIX futures, options and implied volatilities. In particular, we derive exact asymptotic results for VIX implied volatilities, and their sensitivities, in the joint limit of short time-to-maturity and small log-moneyness. The obtained expansions are explicit, based on elementary...... approximations of equity (SPX) options. However, the generalizations needed to cover the case of VIX options are by no means straightforward as the dynamics of the underlying VIX futures are not explicitly known. To illustrate the accuracy of our technique, we provide numerical implementations for a selection...... functions and they neatly uncover how the VIX skew depends on the specific choice of the volatility and the vol-of-vol processes. Our results are based on perturbation techniques applied to the infinitesimal generator of the underlying process. This methodology has been previously adopted to derive...

  15. Weak radiative baryonic decays of B mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, Yoji

    2004-01-01

    Weak radiative baryonic B decays B→B 1 B 2 -barγ are studied under the assumption of the short-distance b→sγ electromagnetic penguin transition dominance. The relations among the decay rates of various decay modes are derived

  16. Short time administration of antirheumatic drugs - Methotrexate as a strong inhibitor of osteoblast's proliferation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annussek Tobias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Due to increasing use of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs as first line therapy in rheumatic diseases, dental and maxillofacial practitioner should be aware of drug related adverse events. Especially effects on bone-metabolism and its cells are discussed controversially. Therefore we investigate the in vitro effect of short time administration of low dose methotrexate (MTX on osteoblasts as essential part of bone remodelling cells. Methods Primary bovine osteoblasts (OBs were incubated with various concentrations of MTX, related to tissue concentrations, over a period of fourteen days by using a previously established standard protocol. The effect on cell proliferation as well as mitochondrial activity was assessed by using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl 2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, imaging and counting of living cells. Additionally, immunostaining of extracellular matrix proteins was used to survey osteogenic differentiation. Results All methods indicate a strong inhibition of osteoblast`s proliferation by short time administration of low dose MTX within therapeutically relevant concentrations of 1 to 1000nM, without affecting cell differentiation of middle-stage differentiated OBs in general. More over a significant decrease of cell numbers and mitochondrial activity was found at these MTX concentrations. The most sensitive method seems to be the MTT-assay. MTX-concentration of 0,01nM and concentrations below had no inhibitory effects anymore. Conclusion Even low dose methotrexate acts as a potent inhibitor of osteoblast’s proliferation and mitochondrial metabolism in vitro, without affecting main differentiation of pre-differentiated osteoblasts. These results suggest possible negative effects of DMARDs concerning bone healing and for example osseointegration of dental implants. Especially the specifics of the jaw bone with its high vascularisation and physiological high tissue metabolism

  17. Tagged time-dependent angular analysis of $B_s^0 \\to J/\\psi\\phi$ decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    The LHCb Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The interference between $B_s^0$ decays to $J/\\psi \\phi$ either directly or via $B_s^0-\\bar{B}_s^0$ oscillation gives rise to a $CP$ violating phase $\\phi_s$. Using a sample of about $21,200$ $B_s^0\\to J/\\psi \\phi$ events extracted from 1$fb^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions collected during the 2011 LHC run at a center of mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV, we fit for nine physics parameters, including the phase $\\phi_s$, the mean decay width difference $\\Delta\\Gamma_s$ and the decay width $\\Gamma_s$. We find the following result: \\begin{align} \\phi_s \\, \\, = \\, \\, -0.001 \\, \\, \\pm \\, \\, 0.101 \\, \\, \\text{(stat)} \\, \\, \\pm \\, \\, 0.027 \\, \\, \\text{(syst)} \\, \\, \\text{rad}, \\\\ \\, \\, \\Gamma_s \\, \\, = \\, \\, 0.6580 \\, \\, \\pm \\, \\, 0.0054 \\, \\, \\text{(stat)} \\, \\, \\pm \\, \\, 0.0066 \\, \\, \\text{(syst)} \\text{ps} ^{-1}, \\\\ \\Delta\\Gamma_s \\, \\, = \\, \\, 0.116 \\, \\, \\pm \\, \\, 0.018 \\, \\, \\text{(stat)} \\, \\, \\pm \\, \\, 0.006 \\text{(syst)} \\, \\, \\text{ps} ^{-1...

  18. Measurement of time dependent CP asymmetries in charged charmless hadronic two-body B decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Pennazzi, S

    2008-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is one of the four experiments that are installed at the protonproton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva. The experiment is at the latest stage of its setting-up. The first collisions at high energy in LHC are planned to mid-2008, with the first results on the experiments soon after. The LHCb detector is a single-arm spectrometer conceived to pursue an extensive study of CP violation in the B meson system, over-constraining the Standard Model predictions and looking for any possible effect beyond this theory, and to look for rare phenomena in the b quark sector with very high precision. The subject of the present work is the study of the non-leptonic B meson decays into charged charmless two-body final states. This class of decays has been extensively studied and it is still matter of great interest at the B-factories and at Tevatron. In fact the current knowledge of this class of decays in the Bd/Bu sector starts to be quite constrained, but the Bs still remains a field where a r...

  19. Retention time generates short-term phytoplankton blooms in a shallow microtidal subtropical estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odebrecht, Clarisse; Abreu, Paulo C.; Carstensen, Jacob

    2015-09-01

    In this study it was hypothesised that increasing water retention time promotes phytoplankton blooms in the shallow microtidal Patos Lagoon estuary (PLE). This hypothesis was tested using salinity variation as a proxy of water retention time and chlorophyll a for phytoplankton biomass. Submersible sensors fixed at 5 m depth near the mouth of PLE continuously measured water temperature, salinity and pigments fluorescence (calibrated to chlorophyll a) between March 2010 and 12th of December 2011, with some gaps. Salinity variations were used to separate alternating patterns of outflow of lagoon water (salinity 24; 35% of the time). The two transition phases represented a rapid change from lagoon water outflow to marine water inflow and a more gradually declining salinity between the dominating inflow and outflow conditions. During the latter of these, a significant chlorophyll a increase relative to that expected from a linear mixing relationship was observed at intermediate salinities (10-20). The increase in chlorophyll a was positively related to the duration of the prior coastal water inflow in the PLE. Moreover, chlorophyll a increase was significantly higher during austral spring-summer than autumn-winter, probably due to higher light and nutrient availability in the former. Moreover, the retention time process operating on time scales of days influences the long-term phytoplankton variability in this ecosystem. Comparing these results with monthly data from a nearby long-term water quality monitoring station (1993-2011) support the hypothesis that chlorophyll a accumulations occur after marine inflow events, whereas phytoplankton does not accumulate during high water outflow, when the water residence time is short. These results suggest that changing hydrological pattern is the most important mechanism underlying phytoplankton blooms in the PLE.

  20. Motor Fault Diagnosis Based on Short-time Fourier Transform and Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Hua; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Wu, Jia-Xin; Xie, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Yong-Hong

    2017-11-01

    With the rapid development of mechanical equipment, the mechanical health monitoring field has entered the era of big data. However, the method of manual feature extraction has the disadvantages of low efficiency and poor accuracy, when handling big data. In this study, the research object was the asynchronous motor in the drivetrain diagnostics simulator system. The vibration signals of different fault motors were collected. The raw signal was pretreated using short time Fourier transform (STFT) to obtain the corresponding time-frequency map. Then, the feature of the time-frequency map was adaptively extracted by using a convolutional neural network (CNN). The effects of the pretreatment method, and the hyper parameters of network diagnostic accuracy, were investigated experimentally. The experimental results showed that the influence of the preprocessing method is small, and that the batch-size is the main factor affecting accuracy and training efficiency. By investigating feature visualization, it was shown that, in the case of big data, the extracted CNN features can represent complex mapping relationships between signal and health status, and can also overcome the prior knowledge and engineering experience requirement for feature extraction, which is used by traditional diagnosis methods. This paper proposes a new method, based on STFT and CNN, which can complete motor fault diagnosis tasks more intelligently and accurately.

  1. Multi-time-scale heat transfer modeling of turbid tissues exposed to short-pulsed irradiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghan; Guo, Zhixiong

    2007-05-01

    A combined hyperbolic radiation and conduction heat transfer model is developed to simulate multi-time-scale heat transfer in turbid tissues exposed to short-pulsed irradiations. An initial temperature response of a tissue to an ultrashort pulse irradiation is analyzed by the volume-average method in combination with the transient discrete ordinates method for modeling the ultrafast radiation heat transfer. This response is found to reach pseudo steady state within 1 ns for the considered tissues. The single pulse result is then utilized to obtain the temperature response to pulse train irradiation at the microsecond/millisecond time scales. After that, the temperature field is predicted by the hyperbolic heat conduction model which is solved by the MacCormack's scheme with error terms correction. Finally, the hyperbolic conduction is compared with the traditional parabolic heat diffusion model. It is found that the maximum local temperatures are larger in the hyperbolic prediction than the parabolic prediction. In the modeled dermis tissue, a 7% non-dimensional temperature increase is found. After about 10 thermal relaxation times, thermal waves fade away and the predictions between the hyperbolic and parabolic models are consistent.

  2. Short locking time and low jitter phase-locked loop based on slope charge pump control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhongjie; Liu Youbao; Wu Longsheng; Wang Xihu; Tang Wei

    2010-01-01

    A novel structure of a phase-locked loop (PLL) characterized by a short locking time and low jitter is presented, which is realized by generating a linear slope charge pump current dependent on monitoring the output of the phase frequency detector (PFD) to implement adaptive bandwidth control. This improved PLL is created by utilizing a fast start-up circuit and a slope current control on a conventional charge pump PLL. First, the fast start-up circuit is enabled to achieve fast pre-charging to the loop filter. Then, when the output pulse of the PFD is larger than a minimum value, the charge pump current is increased linearly by the slope current control to ensure a shorter locking time and a lower jitter. Additionally, temperature variation is attenuated with the temperature compensation in the charge pump current design. The proposed PLL has been fabricated in a kind of DSP chip based on a 0.35 μm CMOS process. Comparing the characteristics with the classical PLL, the proposed PLL shows that it can reduce the locking time by 60% with a low peak-to-peak jitter of 0.3% at a wide operation temperature range. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. SHORT DISSIPATION TIMES OF PROTO-PLANETARY DISKS: AN ARTIFACT OF SELECTION EFFECTS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfalzner, Susanne; Steinhausen, Manuel; Menten, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of disks around young stars, a key parameter for understanding planet formation, is most readily determined in young stellar clusters where many relatively coeval stars are located in close proximity. Observational studies seem to show that the disk frequency decreases rapidly with cluster age with <10% of cluster stars retaining their disks for longer than 2-6 Myr. Given that at least half of all stars in the field seem to harbor one or more planets, this would imply extremely fast disk dispersal and rapid planet growth. Here we question the validity of this constraint by demonstrating that the short disk dissipation times inferred to date might have been heavily underestimated by selection effects. Critically, for ages >3 Myr only stars that originally populated the densest areas of very populous clusters, which are prone to disk erosion, are actually considered. This tiny sample may not be representative of the majority of stars. In fact, the higher disk fractions in co-moving groups indicate that it is likely that over 30% of all field stars retain their disks well beyond 10 Myr, leaving ample time for planet growth. Equally, our solar system, with a likely formation time >10 Myr, need no longer be an exception but in fact typical of planetary systems

  4. Development of High Temperature Short Time Vertebrate-Blood Pasteurization Equipment for Tsetse Fly Diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moravek, I; Lach, J [Department of Manufacturing Systems, Slovak Technical University Namestie Slobody 17 812 31 Bratislava (Slovakia); Takac, P [Institute of Zoology, SAV, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-07-15

    Tsetse flies feed only on vertebrate blood, but the collection and processing of blood is expensive, it must be stored at -20{sup o}C requiring costly storage rooms and reliable electricity, and it must be irradiated to reduce bacterial contamination. This is tolerable for small colonies, but as colony size increases to service large- scale programmes, the supply and processing of blood becomes critical. Blood is normally collected from cattle at slaughter. This process is necessarily not aseptic, and large-scale collection is only possible where the animals are suspended for bleeding. One alternative to blood decontamination is using the High Temperature Short time Pasteurization (HTST) method. The food processing industry uses pasteurization to reduce bacterial load in a wide range of products. Our previous results indicated that for the control of the blood pasteurization process, to reach satisfactory bacteriological purity and at the same time to prevent the blood from coagulating, it is important to study temperature and time and also some other parameters that could predict blood coagulation. Crucial for blood coagulation is to study blood viscosity. Classical heat exchangers are not suitable for blood pasteurization. In such equipment the blood coagulation depends on temperature and time. Besides the relatively low temperatures, blood is coagulating with cumulative time until total shutdown of blood flow. After a series of experiments we found a solution using microwave systems. To verify the microwave heating concept, we built an experimental workstation. First we verified the accuracy of the applicator design from the aspect of output adaptation to the power source. Also we installed measuring equipment. This system complies with the requirements of quick heating with sufficiently high heat accumulation. By utilizing standard components for the base of the microwave generator, it is possible to markedly reduce the final price of the equipment. (author)

  5. Measurements of the Branching Fraction and Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries of B0 to J/Psi pi0 Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, K

    2006-03-10

    We present measurements of the branching fraction and time-dependent CP asymmetries in B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup 0} decays based on (231.8 {+-} 2.6) x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory. We obtain a branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup 0}) = (1.94 {+-} 0.22 (stat) {+-} 0.17 (syst)) x 10{sup -5}. We also measure the CP asymmetry parameters C = -0.21 {+-} 0.26 (stat) {+-} 0.06 (syst) and S = -0.68 {+-} 0.30 (stat) {+-} 0.04 (syst).

  6. Measurement of the time-integrated C P asymmetry in D"0→K_S"0K_S"0 decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.

    2015-01-01

    The time-integrated C P asymmetry in the decay D"0→K_S"0K_S"0 is measured using 3 fb"−"1 of proton-proton collision data collected by the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The flavour of the D"0 meson is determined by use of the decay D"∗"+→D"0π"+ and its charge conjugate mode. The result is A_C _P=−0.029±0.052±0.022, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The result is consistent with Standard Model expectations and improves the uncertainty with respect to the only previous measurement of this quantity by more than a factor of three.

  7. Time domain numerical calculations of the short electron bunch wakefields in resistive structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsakanian, Andranik

    2010-10-15

    The acceleration of electron bunches with very small longitudinal and transverse phase space volume is one of the most actual challenges for the future International Linear Collider and high brightness X-Ray Free Electron Lasers. The exact knowledge on the wake fields generated by the ultra-short electron bunches during its interaction with surrounding structures is a very important issue to prevent the beam quality degradation and to optimize the facility performance. The high accuracy time domain numerical calculations play the decisive role in correct evaluation of the wake fields in advanced accelerators. The thesis is devoted to the development of a new longitudinally dispersion-free 3D hybrid numerical scheme in time domain for wake field calculation of ultra short bunches in structures with walls of finite conductivity. The basic approaches used in the thesis to solve the problem are the following. For materials with high but finite conductivity the model of the plane wave reflection from a conducting half-space is used. It is shown that in the conductive half-space the field components perpendicular to the interface can be neglected. The electric tangential component on the surface contributes to the tangential magnetic field in the lossless area just before the boundary layer. For high conducting media, the task is reduced to 1D electromagnetic problem in metal and the so-called 1D conducting line model can be applied instead of a full 3D space description. Further, a TE/TM (''transverse electric - transverse magnetic'') splitting implicit numerical scheme along with 1D conducting line model is applied to develop a new longitudinally dispersion-free hybrid numerical scheme in the time domain. The stability of the new hybrid numerical scheme in vacuum, conductor and bound cell is studied. The convergence of the new scheme is analyzed by comparison with the well-known analytical solutions. The wakefield calculations for a number of

  8. Short time series analysis of Didymosphenia geminata blooming in the Oreti River, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, T.; Kilroy, C.; Larned, S.; Packman, A. I.; Kumar, P.

    2010-12-01

    The mat-forming diatom Didymosphenia geminata was introduced to New Zealand in 2004, and subsequently spread to many rivers on the south island. D geminata mats are exceptionally dense and thick. Extensive blooms of this introduced organism have substantially modified the benthic environment in many New Zealand rivers, but the factors that contribute to D. geminata blooming are not well understood. We synthesized a sequence of observations of D. geminata areal coverage and thickness to examine physical and chemical controls on the growth and persistence of D germinata. We analyzed the best available time series on the distribution of this organism in New Zealand, observations in the Oreti River every 15 days spanning April 2006 to May 2007. During this period, mean D. geminata coverage of the river bed was ~52% and the mean mat thickness was ~6 mm. Relationships between time-series observations of D. geminata and 13 different physical and chemical variables were analyzed using linear and nonlinear methods. Areal cover and thickness of D geminata mats were found to be influenced by both slow and fast dynamic processes. The spread of the organism, in terms of % cover, was highly correlated with conductivity, ammonium, nitrate, dissolved oxygen, and total nitrogen with short time lags (fast dynamics). Moreover, water clarity, cloud cover, and flow were highly correlated with % cover with long time lags, indicating that these conditions exert long-term control on D. geminata growth. Areal coverage and thickness were found to be highly correlated, but the variables associated with slow and fast dynamics of these two measures were not identical. The variables found to be highly correlated with D. germinata thickness and represented fast dynamics were temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, nitrate, and total nitrogen. Additionally, the variables influencing the slow dynamics of D. germinata thickness were flow, water clarity, turbidity and total phosphorous.

  9. Short Term Prediction of PM10 Concentrations Using Seasonal Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Hazrul Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution modelling is one of an important tool that usually used to make short term and long term prediction. Since air pollution gives a big impact especially to human health, prediction of air pollutants concentration is needed to help the local authorities to give an early warning to people who are in risk of acute and chronic health effects from air pollution. Finding the best time series model would allow prediction to be made accurately. This research was carried out to find the best time series model to predict the PM10 concentrations in Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. By considering two seasons which is wet season (north east monsoon and dry season (south west monsoon, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model were used to find the most suitable model to predict the PM10 concentrations in Nilai, Negeri Sembilan by using three error measures. Based on AIC statistics, results show that ARIMA (1, 1, 1 × (1, 0, 012 is the most suitable model to predict PM10 concentrations in Nilai, Negeri Sembilan.

  10. Short-time regularity assessment of fibrillatory waves from the surface ECG in atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, Raúl; Martínez, Arturo; Hornero, Fernando; Rieta, José J

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes the first non-invasive method for direct and short-time regularity quantification of atrial fibrillatory (f) waves from the surface ECG in atrial fibrillation (AF). Regularity is estimated by computing individual morphological variations among f waves, which are delineated and extracted from the atrial activity (AA) signal, making use of an adaptive signed correlation index. The algorithm was tested on real AF surface recordings in order to discriminate atrial signals with different organization degrees, providing a notably higher global accuracy (90.3%) than the two non-invasive AF organization estimates defined to date: the dominant atrial frequency (70.5%) and sample entropy (76.1%). Furthermore, due to its ability to assess AA regularity wave to wave, the proposed method is also able to pursue AF organization time course more precisely than the aforementioned indices. As a consequence, this work opens a new perspective in the non-invasive analysis of AF, such as the individualized study of each f wave, that could improve the understanding of AF mechanisms and become useful for its clinical treatment. (paper)

  11. Polynomial Phase Estimation Based on Adaptive Short-Time Fourier Transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Fulong; Zhang, Chunjie; Si, Weijian; Wang, Yu; Jiao, Shuhong

    2018-02-13

    Polynomial phase signals (PPSs) have numerous applications in many fields including radar, sonar, geophysics, and radio communication systems. Therefore, estimation of PPS coefficients is very important. In this paper, a novel approach for PPS parameters estimation based on adaptive short-time Fourier transform (ASTFT), called the PPS-ASTFT estimator, is proposed. Using the PPS-ASTFT estimator, both one-dimensional and multi-dimensional searches and error propagation problems, which widely exist in PPSs field, are avoided. In the proposed algorithm, the instantaneous frequency (IF) is estimated by S-transform (ST), which can preserve information on signal phase and provide a variable resolution similar to the wavelet transform (WT). The width of the ASTFT analysis window is equal to the local stationary length, which is measured by the instantaneous frequency gradient (IFG). The IFG is calculated by the principal component analysis (PCA), which is robust to the noise. Moreover, to improve estimation accuracy, a refinement strategy is presented to estimate signal parameters. Since the PPS-ASTFT avoids parameter search, the proposed algorithm can be computed in a reasonable amount of time. The estimation performance, computational cost, and implementation of the PPS-ASTFT are also analyzed. The conducted numerical simulations support our theoretical results and demonstrate an excellent statistical performance of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Multifractals embedded in short time series: An unbiased estimation of probability moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lu; Yang, Tianguang; Yin, Yanhua; Gu, Changgui; Yang, Huijie

    2016-12-01

    An exact estimation of probability moments is the base for several essential concepts, such as the multifractals, the Tsallis entropy, and the transfer entropy. By means of approximation theory we propose a new method called factorial-moment-based estimation of probability moments. Theoretical prediction and computational results show that it can provide us an unbiased estimation of the probability moments of continuous order. Calculations on probability redistribution model verify that it can extract exactly multifractal behaviors from several hundred recordings. Its powerfulness in monitoring evolution of scaling behaviors is exemplified by two empirical cases, i.e., the gait time series for fast, normal, and slow trials of a healthy volunteer, and the closing price series for Shanghai stock market. By using short time series with several hundred lengths, a comparison with the well-established tools displays significant advantages of its performance over the other methods. The factorial-moment-based estimation can evaluate correctly the scaling behaviors in a scale range about three generations wider than the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and the basic estimation. The estimation of partition function given by the wavelet transform modulus maxima has unacceptable fluctuations. Besides the scaling invariance focused in the present paper, the proposed factorial moment of continuous order can find its various uses, such as finding nonextensive behaviors of a complex system and reconstructing the causality relationship network between elements of a complex system.

  13. Two Machine Learning Approaches for Short-Term Wind Speed Time-Series Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ak, Ronay; Fink, Olga; Zio, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    The increasing liberalization of European electricity markets, the growing proportion of intermittent renewable energy being fed into the energy grids, and also new challenges in the patterns of energy consumption (such as electric mobility) require flexible and intelligent power grids capable of providing efficient, reliable, economical, and sustainable energy production and distribution. From the supplier side, particularly, the integration of renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) into the grid imposes an engineering and economic challenge because of the limited ability to control and dispatch these energy sources due to their intermittent characteristics. Time-series prediction of wind speed for wind power production is a particularly important and challenging task, wherein prediction intervals (PIs) are preferable results of the prediction, rather than point estimates, because they provide information on the confidence in the prediction. In this paper, two different machine learning approaches to assess PIs of time-series predictions are considered and compared: 1) multilayer perceptron neural networks trained with a multiobjective genetic algorithm and 2) extreme learning machines combined with the nearest neighbors approach. The proposed approaches are applied for short-term wind speed prediction from a real data set of hourly wind speed measurements for the region of Regina in Saskatchewan, Canada. Both approaches demonstrate good prediction precision and provide complementary advantages with respect to different evaluation criteria.

  14. Long Short-Term Memory Neural Networks for Online Disturbance Detection in Satellite Image Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Long Kong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A satellite image time series (SITS contains a significant amount of temporal information. By analysing this type of data, the pattern of the changes in the object of concern can be explored. The natural change in the Earth’s surface is relatively slow and exhibits a pronounced pattern. Some natural events (for example, fires, floods, plant diseases, and insect pests and human activities (for example, deforestation and urbanisation will disturb this pattern and cause a relatively profound change on the Earth’s surface. These events are usually referred to as disturbances. However, disturbances in ecosystems are not easy to detect from SITS data, because SITS contain combined information on disturbances, phenological variations and noise in remote sensing data. In this paper, a novel framework is proposed for online disturbance detection from SITS. The framework is based on long short-term memory (LSTM networks. First, LSTM networks are trained by historical SITS. The trained LSTM networks are then used to predict new time series data. Last, the predicted data are compared with real data, and the noticeable deviations reveal disturbances. Experimental results using 16-day compositions of the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MOD13Q1 illustrate the effectiveness and stability of the proposed approach for online disturbance detection.

  15. Rotor-System Log-Decrement Identification Using Short-Time Fourier-Transform Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of the centrifugal compressor capability, such as large scale LNG and CO2 reinjection, the stability margin evaluation is crucial to assure the compressor work in the designed operating conditions in field. Improving the precision of parameter identification of stability is essential and necessary as well. Based on the time-varying characteristics of response vibration during the sine-swept process, a short-time Fourier transform (STFT filter was introduced to increase the signal-noise ratio and improve the accuracy of the estimated stability parameters. A finite element model was established to simulate the sine-swept process, and the simulated vibration signals were used to study the filtering effect and demonstrate the feasibility to identify the stability parameters by using Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output system identification method that combines the prediction error method and instrumental variable method. Simulation results show that the identification method with STFT filter improves the estimated accuracy much well and makes the curves of frequency response function clearer. Experiment was carried out on a test rig as well, which indicates the identification method is feasible in stability identification, and the results of experiment indicate that STFT filter works very well.

  16. Timing of introduction of complementary food: short- and long-term health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyrembel, Hildegard

    2012-01-01

    Complementary food is needed when breast milk (or infant formula) alone is no longer sufficient for both nutritional and developmental reasons. The timing of its introduction, therefore, is an individual decision, although 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding can be recommended for most healthy term infants. The new foods are intended to 'complement' ongoing breastfeeding with those dietary items whose intake has become marginal or insufficient. Both breastfeeding and complementary feeding can have direct or later consequences on health. The evaluation of consequences of both early and late introduction of complementary food can neither disregard the effect of breastfeeding compared to formula feeding nor the composition or quality of the complementary food. Possible short-term health effects concern growth velocity and infections, and possible long-term effects may relate to atopic diseases, type 1 and 2 diabetes, obesity and neuromuscular development. On the basis of the currently available evidence, it is impossible to exactly determine the age when risks related to the start of complementary feeding are lowest or highest for most of these effects, with the possible exception of infections and early growth velocity. The present knowledge on undesirable health effects, however, is mainly based on observational studies, and although some mechanisms have been proposed, further prospective studies have to clarify these unsolved issues. Even less evidence on the consequences of the timing of complementary food introduction is available for formula-fed infants. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Influence of Short-time Oxidation on Corrosion Properties of Directionally Solidified Superalloys with Different Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Luo-ning

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the corrosion performance on intersecting and longitudinal surfaces of unoxidized and oxidized directionally solidified superalloys, Ni-base directionally solidified superalloy DZ125 and Co-base directionally solidified superalloy DZ40M were selected. Oxidation behavior on both alloys with different orientations was investigated at 1050℃ at different times, simulating the oxidation process of vanes or blades in service; subsequent electrochemical performance in 3.5%NaCl aqueous solution was studied on two orientations of unoxidized and oxidized alloys, simulating the corrosion process of superalloy during downtime. The results show that grain boundaries and sub-boundaries of directionally solidified superalloys are susceptible to corrosion and thus longitudinal surface with lower area fraction of grain boundaries has higher corrosion resistance. Compared to intersecting surface of alloys, the structure of grain boundaries of longitudinal surface is less conducive to diffusion and thus the oxidation rate on longitudinal surface is lower. Formation of oxide layers on alloys after short-time oxidation provides protective effect and enhances the corrosion resistance.

  18. Incorporating geostrophic wind information for improved space–time short-term wind speed forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin

    2014-09-01

    Accurate short-term wind speed forecasting is needed for the rapid development and efficient operation of wind energy resources. This is, however, a very challenging problem. Although on the large scale, the wind speed is related to atmospheric pressure, temperature, and other meteorological variables, no improvement in forecasting accuracy was found by incorporating air pressure and temperature directly into an advanced space-time statistical forecasting model, the trigonometric direction diurnal (TDD) model. This paper proposes to incorporate the geostrophic wind as a new predictor in the TDD model. The geostrophic wind captures the physical relationship between wind and pressure through the observed approximate balance between the pressure gradient force and the Coriolis acceleration due to the Earth’s rotation. Based on our numerical experiments with data from West Texas, our new method produces more accurate forecasts than does the TDD model using air pressure and temperature for 1to 6-hour-ahead forecasts based on three different evaluation criteria. Furthermore, forecasting errors can be further reduced by using moving average hourly wind speeds to fit the diurnal pattern. For example, our new method obtains between 13.9% and 22.4% overall mean absolute error reduction relative to persistence in 2-hour-ahead forecasts, and between 5.3% and 8.2% reduction relative to the best previous space-time methods in this setting.

  19. LHCb: Tagged time-dependent angular analysis of $B^0_s \\to J/\\psi\\phi$ decays at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Dupertuis, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The determination of the CP-violating phase $\\phi_s$ in $B^0_s \\to J/\\psi\\phi$ decays is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment. Its value is predicted to be very small in the Standard Model but can be significantly enhanced in many models of new physics. We present the world’s best measurement of $\\phi_s$ and the first observation of a non-zero $\\Delta\\Gamma_s$ based upon 1 fb$^{−1}$ of data collected at LHCb during 2011.

  20. Why measure radon decay products?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.; Lettner, H.

    1997-01-01

    Combined development in spectrometry, instrumentation and ventilation modelling with its dependence on short- and long-term weather fluctuations renders possible a new, economical metrology for radon decay products. Short-term measurements can, with few restrictions, be converted to annual exposures of an accuracy superior to that from conventional medium-term Rn gas measurements. (orig.) [de

  1. Modal Identification of a Time-Invariant 6-Storey Model Test RC-Frame from Free Decay Tests using Multi-Variate Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    1997-01-01

    in the comparison. The data investigated are sampled from a laboratory model of a plane 6-storey, 2-bay RC-frame. The laboratory model is excited at the top storey where two different types of excitation where considered. In the first case the structure was excited in the first mode and in the second case......The scope of the paper is to apply multi-variate time-domain models for identification of eginfrequencies and mode shapes of a time- invariant model test Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame from measured decays. The frequencies and mode shapes of interest are the two lowest ones since they are normally...

  2. Modal Identification of a Time-Invariant 6-Storey Model Test RC-Frame from Free Decay Tests using Multi-Variate Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    in the comparison. The data investigated are sampled from a laboratory model of a plane 6-storey, 2-bay RC-frame. The laboratory model is excited at the top storey where two different types of excitation where considered. In the first case the structure was excited in the first mode and in the second case......The scope of the paper is to apply multi-variate time-domain models for identification of eginfrequencies and mode shapes of a time- invariant model test Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame from measured decays. The frequencies and mode shapes of interest are the two lowest ones since they are normally...

  3. Severe symptoms of short tear break-up time dry eye are associated with accommodative microfluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaido M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Minako Kaido,1,2 Motoko Kawashima,1 Reiko Ishida,1,3 Kazuo Tsubota1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Wada Eye Clinic, Chiba, 3Ishida Eye Clinic, Shizuoka, Japan Aim: Validating the hypothesis that accommodative microfluctuations (AMFs may be associated with severe symptoms in short tear break-up time (BUT dry eye (DE. Methods: This study included 12 subjects with short BUT DE (age: 49.6±18.3 years. Diagnoses were performed based on the presence of DE symptoms, BUT ≤5 s, Schirmer score >5 mm, and negative keratoconjunctival epithelial damage. Tear evaluation, AMF, and functional visual acuity (VA examinations were conducted before and after DE treatment. The AMF parameters evaluated were: total high-frequency component (HFC, HFC with low accommodation for the task of staring into the distance (HFC1, HFC with high accommodation for deskwork (HFC2. A subjective questionnaire of DE symptoms was also performed. Results: Mean BUT increased from 1.9±2.0 to 6.4±2.5 s after treatment (P<0.05. The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution functional VA significantly improved (from 0.19±0.19 to 0.12±0.17; P<0.05. Mean power spectrum values for total HFC and HFC1 decreased (from 61.3±5.7 to 53.8±6.6 dB and from 62.9±10.5 to 52.4±6.2 dB, respectively; P<0.05, while the mean HFC2 power spectrum values did not differ before and after treatment (P>0.05. Subjective DE symptoms were reduced in nine patients. Conclusion: Along with the improvement of BUT after treatment, DE symptoms diminished and HFC1 and functional VA improved, suggesting that tear film instability is associated with deterioration of functional VA, AMF, and DE symptoms. Keywords: accommodative microfluctuation, ciliary muscle spasm, dry eye, ocular fatigue, tear break-up time, functional visual acuity 

  4. Time Course Changes in Selected Biochemical Stress Indices in Broilers Exposed to Short-term Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Bedáňová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Time course changes in selected biochemical stress indices (corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, cholesterol following short-term noise exposure at 100 dB for 28 min were studied in broilers aged 42 days. Corticosterone concentrations were found to increase during the first 10 min of noise exposure and to differ significantly from the control (background sound – 50 dB at Time 10 min and 14 min, then decreased continually and at 28 min returned to the initial prestress value. Triglyceride concentrations increased in broilers exposed to 100 dB noise during the first 12 min with a significant difference from the control at 12 min and 14 min. Glucose concentrations were higher due to 100 dB noise exposure for almost the entire period monitored, with significant differences between 100 dB and control broilers at 6 min and from 10 min to 14 min. Similarly as for the corticosterone concentration, a drop in triglycerides and glucose concentrations was seen approximately from Time 14 min and a return to the pre-stress value at 28 min. The cholesterol concentrations showed various temporal patterns with no significant difference between 100 dB and control broilers in this experiment. The pattern of response found in the study indicates that 100 dB noise represents a stress factor in broilers, however, there is the ability of broilers to adapt to an increased level of noise at this intensity after the first 14 min of exposure. The findings obtained in the study may contribute to expanding detailed knowledge of physiological stress responses to this specific noise stimulus in poultry, and could thereby be used to improve the welfare of broilers in intensive housing systems.

  5. Simulation of Rn-222 decay products concentration deposited on a filter. Description of radon1.pas computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.

    1996-01-01

    A computer program allowing simulation of activity distribution of 222 Rn short lived decay products deposited on a filter against time is presented, for any radiation equilibrium degree of the decay products. Deposition of the decay products is simulated by summing discrete samples every 1/10 min in the sampling time from 1 to 10 min. The concentration (activity) of the decay products is computed in one minute intervals in the range 1 - 100 min. The alpha concentration and the total activity of 218 Po + 214 Po produced are computed in the range 1 to 100 min as well. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs

  6. Measurement of the time-integrated $CP$ asymmetry in $D^0 \\rightarrow K^0_S K^0_S$ decays arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Aidala, Christine Angela; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albicocco, Pietro; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Alfonso Albero, Alejandro; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Arzymatov, Kenenbek; Aslanides, Elie; Atzeni, Michele; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Baranov, Alexander; Barlow, Roger; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Beiter, Andrew; Bel, Lennaert; Beliy, Nikita; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Beranek, Sarah; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Berninghoff, Daniel; Bertholet, Emilie; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bian, Lingzhu; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørn, Mikkel; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blusk, Steven; Bobulska, Dana; Bocci, Valerio; Boente Garcia, Oscar; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brodski, Michael; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brundu, Davide; Buchanan, Emma; Buonaura, Annarita; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Byczynski, Wiktor; Cadeddu, Sandro; Cai, Hao; Calabrese, Roberto; Calladine, Ryan; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Chapman, Matthew George; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chekalina, Viktoriia; Chen, Chen; Chen, Shanzhen; Chitic, Stefan-Gabriel; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Chubykin, Alexsei; Ciambrone, Paolo; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Colombo, Tommaso; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Da Silva, Cesar Luiz; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; Danilina, Anna; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Del Buono, Luigi; Delaney, Blaise; Dembinski, Hans Peter; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Didenko, Sergey; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Douglas, Lauren; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Durante, Paolo; Durham, John Matthew; Dutta, Deepanwita; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziewiecki, Michal; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Ene, Alexandru; Escher, Stephan; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fazzini, Davide; Federici, Luca; Fernandez, Gerard; Fernandez Declara, Placido; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Lopes, Lino; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Färber, Christian; Féo Pereira Rivello Carvalho, Mauricio; Gabriel, Emmy; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; Garcia Plana, Beatriz; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Govorkova, Ekaterina; Grabowski, Jascha Peter; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greim, Roman; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruber, Lukas; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gu, Chenxi; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hancock, Thomas Henry; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Hasse, Christoph; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Hecker, Malte; Heinicke, Kevin; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hilton, Martha; Hopchev, Plamen Hristov; Hu, Wenhua; Huang, Wenqian; Huard, Zachary; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Ibis, Philipp; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Ivshin, Kuzma; Jacobsson, Richard; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kazeev, Nikita; Kecke, Matthieu; Keizer, Floris; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kim, Kyung Eun; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Kopecna, Renata; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kotriakhova, Sofia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreps, Michal; Kress, Felix Johannes; Krokovny, Pavel; Krupa, Wojciech; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lancierini, Davide; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Pei-Rong; Li, Tenglin; Li, Zhuoming; Liang, Xixin; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Lionetto, Federica; Lisovskyi, Vitalii; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Loi, Angelo; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Macko, Vladimir; Mackowiak, Patrick; Maddrell-Mander, Samuel; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Maisuzenko, Dmitrii; Majewski, Maciej Witold; Malde, Sneha; Malecki, Bartosz; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Marangotto, Daniele; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; 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Pinzino, Jacopo; Pisani, Flavio; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plews, Jonathan; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poli Lener, Marco; Poluektov, Anton; Polukhina, Natalia; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Ponce, Sebastien; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Pullen, Hannah Louise; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Qin, Jia-Jia; Quagliani, Renato; Quintana, Boris; Rachwal, Bartlomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Ravonel Salzgeber, Melody; Reboud, Meril; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Reiss, Florian; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Ren, Zan; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rinnert, Kurt; Robbe, Patrick; Robert, Arnaud; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Vidal, Joan; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Gras, Cristina; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarpis, Gediminas; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saur, Miroslav; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schreiner, HF; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepulveda, Eduardo Enrique; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shmanin, Evgenii; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Mark; Soares, Marcelo; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stepanova, Margarita; Stevens, Holger; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Strokov, Sergey; Sun, Jiayin; Sun, Liang; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szumlak, Tomasz; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tang, Zhipeng; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Tou, Da Yu; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, Rafael; Tournefier, Edwige; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tuci, Giulia; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Usachov, Andrii; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagner, Alexander; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Verlage, Tobias Anton; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitkovskiy, Arseniy; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Wang, Mengzhen; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Zhenzi; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Weisser, Constantin; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Winn, Michael Andreas; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xiao, Dong; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Ao; Xu, Menglin; Xu, Qingnian; Xu, Zehua; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yang, Zishuo; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zonneveld, Jennifer Brigitta; Zucchelli, Stefano

    A measurement of the time-integrated $CP$ asymmetry in $D^0\\rightarrow K^0_S K^0_S$ decays is reported. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of about $2$ fb$^{-1}$ collected in 2015--2016 by the LHCb collaboration in $pp$ collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $13$ TeV. The $D^0$ candidate is required to originate from a $D^{\\ast +} \\rightarrow D^0 \\pi^+$ decay, allowing the determination of the flavour of the $D^0$ meson using the pion charge. The $D^0 \\rightarrow K^{+}K^{-}$ decay, which has a well measured $CP$ asymmetry, is used as a calibration channel. The $CP$ asymmetry for $D^0\\rightarrow K^0_S K^0_S$ is measured to be \\begin{equation*} \\mathcal{A}^{CP}(D^0\\rightarrow K^0_S K^0_S) = (4.2\\pm 3.4\\pm 1.0)\\%, \\end{equation*} where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. This result is combined with the previous LHCb measurement at lower centre-of-mass energies to obtain \\begin{equation*} \\mathcal{A}^{CP}(D^0\\rightarrow K^0_S K^0_S) = (2.0\\pm 2.9\\pm 1.0)\\%. \\end{equa...

  7. Asymmetry in nonmesonic decay of polarized sup 5 subLAMBDA He hypernucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Ajimura, S; Ejiri, H; Hasegawa, T; Hashimoto, O; Ishikawa, M; Ikeda, K; Kim, Y; Kishimoto, T; Maeda, K; Manabe, K; Nagae, T; Nakano, T; Noumi, H; Okusu, A; Park, H; Sekimoto, M; Shibata, T; Shinkai, N; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, Y; Youn, M

    2000-01-01

    We have measured the asymmetric emission of protons and pions from the non mesonic decay of the polarized sup 5 subLAMBDA He produced by the (pi sup + , K sup +) reaction. The polarization was derived by the observed asymmetry of the mesonic decay pions for the first time. The asymmetry parameter of the non mesonic decay has been evaluated using the obtained polarization and the asymmetry of the decay protons. The positive asymmetry parameter contradicts theoretical prediction based on meson exchange model. The discrepancy can be attributed to insufficient knowledge of the weak LAMBDA N interaction, especially at short range, which may consistently explain the discrepancy seen in the partial decay rates of the non mesonic decay.

  8. Measurements of time-dependent CP violation in B0→ωKS0, f0(980)KS0, KS0π0 and K+K-KS0 decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Y.; Chen, K.-F.; Miyake, H.; Tajima, O.; Trabelsi, K.; Abe, K.; Abe, K.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Anipko, D.; Bakich, A. M.; Barberio, E.; Bitenc, U.; Bizjak, I.; Blyth, S.; Bondar, A.; Bračko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Chang, M.-C.; Chang, P.; Chen, A.; Chen, W. T.; Cheon, B. G.; Chistov, R.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Cole, S.; Dalseno, J.; Danilov, M.; Dash, M.; Dragic, J.; Drutskoy, A.; Eidelman, S.; Fratina, S.; Gabyshev, N.; Golob, B.; Ha, H.; Haba, J.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayashii, H.; Hazumi, M.; Heffernan, D.; Higuchi, T.; Hokuue, T.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Iijima, T.; Ikado, K.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Ishino, H.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kaji, H.; Kang, J. H.; Kapusta, P.; Kawai, H.; Kawasaki, T.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kulasiri, R.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, C. C.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lee, M. J.; Lesiak, T.; Limosani, A.; Lin, S.-W.; Liventsev, D.; Matsumoto, T.; McOnie, S.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizuk, R.; Mohapatra, D.; Moloney, G. R.; Nakahama, Y.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nishida, S.; Nitoh, O.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Olsen, S. L.; Onuki, Y.; Ozaki, H.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, C. W.; Pestotnik, R.; Piilonen, L. E.; Sakai, Y.; Satoyama, N.; Schietinger, T.; Schneider, O.; Schwartz, A. J.; Seidl, R.; Senyo, K.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shibuya, H.; Singh, J. B.; Somov, A.; Soni, N.; Stanič, S.; Starič, M.; Stoeck, H.; Sumisawa, K.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Suzuki, S.; Takasaki, F.; Tamai, K.; Tanaka, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Teramoto, Y.; Tian, X. C.; Tikhomirov, I.; Tsukamoto, T.; Uehara, S.; Ueno, K.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Ushiroda, Y.; Usov, Y.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K. E.; Villa, S.; Vinokurova, A.; Wang, C. H.; Watanabe, Y.; Won, E.; Yabsley, B. D.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yusa, Y.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.

    2007-11-01

    We present measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries in B0→ωKS0, f0(980)KS0, KS0π0 and K+K-KS0 decays based on a sample of 535×106 BB¯ pairs collected at the Υ(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB energy-asymmetric e+e- collider. One neutral B meson is fully reconstructed in one of the specified decay channels, and the flavor of the accompanying B meson is identified from its decay products. CP-violation parameters for each of the decay modes are obtained from the asymmetries in the distributions of the proper-time intervals between the two B decays.

  9. Short communication. Harvest time in hedgerow Arbequina olive orchards in areas with early frosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracia, P.; Sanchez-Gimeno, A. C.; Benito, M.; Oria, R.; Lasa, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    The shortening of harvest time attained in hedgerow olive (Olea europaea L.) orchards represents an advantage for the adoption of this cropping system in areas that are prone to suffer frost during the harvest period. To establish an optimal harvesting window, we carried out a study of the fruit ripening process on a hedgerow orchard of Arbequina olive trees, located in Zaragoza (Spain). From 2007 to 2009, oil accumulation on the fruit (% of dry weight) and oil yield (grams of oil per 100 fruits) were monitored, from early September to late November. Over the three years both variables peaked around November 15th, indicating that Arbequina reached full ripening earlier than has been reported previously for this variety. In two of the three seasons the orchard suffered several frosts during November. Long term climatic data from this area indicated that the risk of early frosts (< -2 degree centigrade) increases as November progresses with a high risk after November 20{sup t}h. In conclusion, the optimal harvesting period for Arbequina in this area should not extend beyond November 20{sup t}h. A rapid harvesting before this date is advisable to avoid the risk of damage caused by early frost in Zaragoza. Hedgerow planting provides an additional advantage in frost-prone areas, because mechanization of operations permits a short harvest period, easier to fit into the optimal harvesting window. (Author) 20 refs.

  10. Thermal sterilization of heat-sensitive products using high-temperature short-time sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, A; Kiefer, M; Leuenberger, H

    2001-03-01

    High-temperature short-time (HTST) sterilization with a continuous-flow sterilizer, developed for this study, was evaluated. The evaluation was performed with respect to (a) the chemical degradation of two heat-sensitive drugs in HTST range (140-160 degrees C) and (b) the microbiological effect of HTST sterilization. Degradation kinetics of two heat-sensitive drugs showed that a high peak temperature sterilization process resulted in less chemical degradation for the same microbiological effect than a low peak temperature process. Both drugs investigated could be sterilized with acceptable degradation at HTST conditions. For the evaluation of the microbiological effect, Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 spores were used as indicator bacteria. Indicator spore kinetics (D(T), z value, k, and E(a)), were determined in the HTST range. A comparison between the Bigelow model (z value concept) and the Arrhenius model, used to describe the temperature coefficient of the microbial inactivation, demonstrated that the Bigelow model is more accurate in prediction of D(T) values in the HTST range. The temperature coefficient decreased with increasing temperature. The influence of Ca(2+) ions and pH value on the heat resistance of the indicator spores, which is known under typical sterilization conditions, did not change under HTST conditions.

  11. Effectiveness of mouse minute virus inactivation by high temperature short time treatment technology: a statistical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Marie; Quesada, Guillermo Miro; Chen, Dayue

    2011-11-01

    Viral contamination of mammalian cell cultures in GMP manufacturing facility represents a serious safety threat to biopharmaceutical industry. Such adverse events usually require facility shutdown for cleaning/decontamination, and thus result in significant loss of production and/or delay of product development. High temperature short time (HTST) treatment of culture media has been considered as an effective method to protect GMP facilities from viral contaminations. Log reduction factor (LRF) has been commonly used to measure the effectiveness of HTST treatment for viral inactivation. However, in order to prevent viral contaminations, HTST treatment must inactivate all infectious viruses (100%) in the medium batch since a single virus is sufficient to cause contamination. Therefore, LRF may not be the most appropriate indicator for measuring the effectiveness of HTST in preventing viral contaminations. We report here the use of the probability to achieve complete (100%) virus inactivation to assess the effectiveness of HTST treatment. By using mouse minute virus (MMV) as a model virus, we have demonstrated that the effectiveness of HTST treatment highly depends upon the level of viral contaminants in addition to treatment temperature and duration. We believe that the statistical method described in this report can provide more accurate information about the power and potential limitation of technologies such as HTST in our shared quest to mitigate the risk of viral contamination in manufacturing facilities. Copyright © 2011 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanical Properties, Short Time Creep, and Fatigue of an Austenitic Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Brnic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The correct choice of a material in the process of structural design is the most important task. This study deals with determining and analyzing the mechanical properties of the material, and the material resistance to short-time creep and fatigue. The material under consideration in this investigation is austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiTi18-10. The results presenting ultimate tensile strength and 0.2 offset yield strength at room and elevated temperatures are displayed in the form of engineering stress-strain diagrams. Besides, the creep behavior of the steel is presented in the form of creep curves. The material is consequently considered to be creep resistant at temperatures of 400 °C and 500 °C when subjected to a stress which is less than 0.9 of the yield strength at the mentioned temperatures. Even when the applied stress at a temperature of 600 °C is less than 0.5 of the yield strength, the steel may be considered as resistant to creep. Cyclic tensile fatigue tests were carried out at stress ratio R = 0.25 using a servo-pulser machine and the results were recorded. The analysis shows that the stress level of 434.33 MPa can be adopted as a fatigue limit. The impact energy was also determined and the fracture toughness assessed.

  13. Cerebral blood flow measurement using stable xenon CT with very short inhalation times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touho, Hajime; Karasawa, Jun; Shishido, Hisashi; Yamada, Keisuke; Shibamoto, Keiji [Osaka Neurological Inst., Toyonaka (Japan)

    1991-02-01

    A noninvasive, simplified method using inhalation of stable xenon (Xe{sup s}) and computed tomographic (CT) scanning to estimate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and regional partition coefficient (r{lambda}) is described. Twenty-four patients with cerebrovascular occlusive disease and six volunteer controls inhaled 30% Xe{sup s} and 70% oxygen for 180 seconds and exhaled for 144 seconds during serial CT scanning without denitrogenation. The end-tidal Xe{sup s} concentration was continuously monitored with a thermoconductivity analyzer to determine the build-up range (A value) and build-up rate constant (K value) for arteries with the curve fitting method. The time-CT number (Hounsfield unit) curve for cerebral tissue during the Xe{sup s} washin and washout phases was used to calculate r{lambda} and rCBF using least squares curve fitting analysis. The resultant r{lambda} and rCBF map demonstrated a reliable distribution between the gray and white matter, and infarcted areas. rCBF was high in gray matter, low in white matter, and much lower in infarcted areas than in white matter. r{lambda} was high in white matter, low in gray matter, and much lower in infarcted areas. Xe{sup s} CT-CBF studies with very short inhalation of 180 seconds is a clinically useful method for evaluation of rCBF in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. (author).

  14. Forecast of electric power market to short-term: a time series approcah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Roberio Neves Pelinca da.

    1994-01-01

    Three different time series approaches are analysed by this dissertation in the Brazilian electricity markert context. The aim is to compare the predictive performance of these approaches from a simulated exercise using the main series of the Brazilian consumption of electricity: Total Consumption, Industrial Consumption, Residencial Consumption and Commercial Consumption. One concludes that these appraches offer an enormous potentiality to the short-term planning system of the Electric Sector. Among the univariate models, the results for the analysed period point out that the forecast produced by Holt-Winter's models are more accurate than those produced by ARIMA and structural models. When explanatory variables are introduced in the last models, one can notice, in general, an improvement in the predictive performance of the models, although there is no sufficient evidence to consider that they are superior to Holt-Winter's models. The models with explanatory variables can be particularly useful, however, when one intends either to build scenarios or to study the effects of some variables on the consumption of electricity. (author). 73 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs

  15. Application of MOSFET detectors for dosimetry in small animal radiography using short exposure times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lin, Ming; Toncheva, Greta; Nguyen, Giao; Kim, Sangroh; Anderson-Evans, Colin; Johnson, G Allan; Yoshizumi, Terry T

    2008-08-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) X-ray imaging for small animals can be used for functional phenotyping given its ability to capture rapid physiological changes at high spatial and temporal resolution. The higher temporal and spatial requirements for small-animal imaging drive the need for short, high-flux X-ray pulses. However, high doses of ionizing radiation can affect the physiology. The purpose of this study was to verify and apply metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) technology to dosimetry for small-animal diagnostic imaging. A tungsten anode X-ray source was used to expose a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom. Dose measurements were made on the phantom surface and interior. The MOSFETs were verified with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the MOSFET results agreed with the TLD results (bias, 0.0625). Using typical small animal DSA scan parameters, the dose ranged from 0.7 to 2.2 cGy. Application of the MOSFETs in the small animal environment provided two main benefits: (1) the availability of results in near real-time instead of the hours needed for TLD processes and (2) the ability to support multiple exposures with different X-ray techniques (various of kVp, mA and ms) using the same MOSFET. This MOSFET technology has proven to be a fast, reliable small animal dosimetry method for DSA imaging and is a good system for dose monitoring for serial and gene expression studies.

  16. Fecal short-chain fatty acids at different time points after ceftriaxone administration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Holota

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs are major products of the microbial fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon. Recent studies suggest that these products of microbial metabolism in the gut act as signaling molecules, influence host energy homeostasis and play major immunological roles. In the present study, defined the long-term effects of ceftriaxone administration on the fecal SCFAs concentration in Wistar rats. Ceftriaxone (300 mg/kg, i.m. was administered daily for 14 days. Rats were euthanized in 1, 15 and 56 days after ceftriaxone withdrawal. Caecal weight and fecal concentration of SCFAs by gas chromatography were measured. Ceftriaxone administration induced time-dependent rats’ caecal enlargement through accumulation of undigestable substances. In 1 day after ceftriaxone withdrawal, the concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric acids and total SCFAs were decreased 2.9-, 13.8-, 8.5-, 4.8-fold (P < 0.05, respectively. Concentration of valeric, isovaleric and caproic acids was below the detectable level. That was accompanied by decreased 4.3-fold anaerobic index and increased the relative amount of acetic acid (P < 0.05. In 56 days, concentration of SCFAs was still below control value but higher than in 1 day (except propionic acid. Anaerobic index was lower 1.3-fold (P < 0.05 vs. control. Conclusion: antibiotic therapy induced long-term disturbance in colonic microbiota metabolic activity.

  17. Improvement of the Original Isolation Procedure for Hormone Studies in Short-Time Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadder Atmaca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies indicated that hormone responsiveness of cells and metabolic activity was lost during various of experimental procedure. In the light of this observation, I aimed to investigate to obtain optimal conditions for short time cultured hepatocytes and also to determine the type of test can be used to evaluate suitablity of hepatocytes for hormones studies. During the isolation period 50 IU/ml and 100 IU/ml collagenase were used. Adrenaline (10-6M was used to measure sensitivity of hepatocytes to hormones and glycogenolsis was measured at the end of 2hr incubation period. Adrenaline significantly increased gylcogenolysis (Control: 0.16±0.01 mg/2hr; Adrenaline: 0.30±0.01 mg/2hr only when the 50 IU/ml collagenase was used and the viability of the cells were over 95%. Viability tests were applied to hepatocytes that obtained by using 50 IU collagenase. Cellular glutathione, methylthiazoltetrazolium reduction, lactatedehdrogenase leakage, ATP level measured to determine viability following the attachment and incubation period. No differences were observed at the end of each period.Altogether, the present study indicated that membrane integrity and metabolic function of the hepatocytes can be improved by modifying slightly the original procedure of Reese and Byard.

  18. Mechanical Properties, Short Time Creep, and Fatigue of an Austenitic Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brnic, Josip; Turkalj, Goran; Canadija, Marko; Lanc, Domagoj; Krscanski, Sanjin; Brcic, Marino; Li, Qiang; Niu, Jitai

    2016-04-20

    The correct choice of a material in the process of structural design is the most important task. This study deals with determining and analyzing the mechanical properties of the material, and the material resistance to short-time creep and fatigue. The material under consideration in this investigation is austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiTi18-10. The results presenting ultimate tensile strength and 0.2 offset yield strength at room and elevated temperatures are displayed in the form of engineering stress-strain diagrams. Besides, the creep behavior of the steel is presented in the form of creep curves. The material is consequently considered to be creep resistant at temperatures of 400 °C and 500 °C when subjected to a stress which is less than 0.9 of the yield strength at the mentioned temperatures. Even when the applied stress at a temperature of 600 °C is less than 0.5 of the yield strength, the steel may be considered as resistant to creep. Cyclic tensile fatigue tests were carried out at stress ratio R = 0.25 using a servo-pulser machine and the results were recorded. The analysis shows that the stress level of 434.33 MPa can be adopted as a fatigue limit. The impact energy was also determined and the fracture toughness assessed.

  19. INFLUENCE OF RAMADAN FASTING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND RECOVERY FOLLOWING SHORT TIME HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umid Karli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and the removal rate of lactate after short time high intensity exercise in power athletes. Ten male elite power athletes (2 wrestlers, 7 sprinters and 1 thrower, aged 20-24 yr, mean age 22.30 ± 1.25 yr participated in this study. The subjects were tested three times [3 days before the beginning of Ramadan (Pre-RF, the last 3 days of Ramadan (End-RF and the last 3 days of the 4th week after the end of Ramadan (After-RF]. Anaerobic power and capacity were measured by using the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT at Pre-RF, End-RF and After- RF. Capillary blood samples for lactate analyses and heart rate recordings were taken at rest, immediately after WAnT and throughout the recovery period. Repeated measures of ANOVA indicated that there were no significant changes in body weight, body mass index, fat free mass, percentage of body fat, daily sleeping time and daily caloric intake associated with Ramadan fasting. No significant changes were found in total body water either, but urinary density measured at End-RF was significantly higher than After-RF. Similarity among peak HR and peak LA values at Pre-RF, End- RF and After-RF demonstrated that cardiovascular and metabolic stress caused by WAnT was not affected by Ramadan fasting. In addition, no influence of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and removal rate of LA from blood following high intensity exercise was observed. The results of this study revealed that if strength-power training is performed regularly and daily food intake, body fluid balance and daily sleeping time are maintained as before Ramadan, Ramadan fasting will not have adverse effects on body composition, anaerobic power and capacity, and LA metabolism during and after high intensity exercise in power athletes

  20. A computer method for simulating the decay of radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    The analytical equations representing the decay of a series of radioactive atoms through a number of daughter products are well known. These equations are for an idealized case in which the expectation value of the number of atoms which decay in a certain time can be represented by a smooth curve. The real curve of the total number of disintegrations from a radioactive species consists of a series of Heaviside step functions, with the steps occurring at the time of the disintegration. The disintegration of radioactive atoms is said to be random but this random behaviour is such that a single species forms an ensemble of which the times of disintegration give a geometric distribution. Numbers which have a geometric distribution can be generated by computer and can be used to simulate the decay of one or more radioactive species. A computer method is described for simulating such decay of radioactive atoms and this method is applied specifically to the decay of the short half life daughters of radon 222 and the emission of alpha particles from polonium 218 and polonium 214. Repeating the simulation of the decay a number of times provides a method for investigating the statistical uncertainty inherent in methods for measurement of exposure to radon daughters. This statistical uncertainty is difficult to investigate analytically since the time of decay of an atom of polonium 218 is not independent of the time of decay of subsequent polonium 214. The method is currently being used to investigate the statistical uncertainties of a number of commonly used methods for the counting of alpha particles from radon daughters and the calculations of exposure

  1. B decays

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Sheldon

    1992-01-01

    The study of b quarks has now reached a stage where it is useful to review what has been learned so far and also to look at the implications of future studies. The most important observations thus far - measurement of the "B" lifetime, B 0 - B 0 mixing, and the observation of b? u transitions, as well as more mundane results on hadronic and semileptonic transitions - are described in detail by experimentalists who have been closely involved with the measurements. Theoretical progress in understanding b quark decays, including the mechanisms of hadronic and semileptonic decays, are described. S

  2. B decays

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Sheldon

    1994-01-01

    This book reviews the study of b quarks and also looks at the implications of future studies. The most important observations thus far - including measurement of the ""B"" lifetime and observations of b -> u transitions - as well as the more mundane results of hadronic and semileptonic transitions are described in detail by experimentalists who have been closely involved with the measurements. Theoretical progress in understanding b quark decays, including the mechanisms of hadronic and semileptonic decays, are described. Synthesizing the experimental and theoretical information, the authors d

  3. Measurement of the time-dependent $CP$ asymmetry in $B^0 \\to J/\\psi K^0_{\\rm S}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Kochebina, O; Komarov, V; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Maino, M; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    This Letter reports a measurement of the $CP$ violation observables $S_{J/\\psi K^0_{\\rm S}}$ and $C_{J/\\psi K^0_{\\rm S}}$ in the decay channel $B^0 \\rightarrow J/\\psi K^0_{\\rm S}$ performed with 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV collected by the LHCb experiment. The fit to the data yields $S_{J/\\psi K^0_{\\rm S}}= 0.73 \\pm 0.07 {\\rm (stat)} \\pm 0.04 {\\rm (syst)}$ and $C_{J/\\psi K^0_{\\rm S}}= 0.03 \\pm 0.09 {\\rm (stat)} \\pm 0.01 {\\rm (syst)}$. Both values are consistent with the current world averages and within expectations from the Standard Model.

  4. Decay heat measurement of 235U in the time region from 10 to 1,000 seconds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumung, K.

    1976-01-01

    In order to provide a good cooling of the fuel samples during irradiation in the thermal column of the FR2 reactor, vehicles for a pneumatic transfer system were developed and constructed which keep the fuel temperature at about 10 K above the temperature of the cooling gas (N 2 at 1 atm and about 300 K). For these 'rabbits' a new transport system has to be designed. Together with the mechanical system inside the vacuum vessel, which contains the calorimeter, the samples can be transfered from the irradiation position into the adiabatic jacket automatically within 2 to 3 seconds. For the measurement of the decay energy escaping the samples as γ-radiation, a MOXON-RAE-type detector was constructed. As its sensitivity increases linearly with the energy of the γ-quanta detected, this counter directly measures the energy flux of an unknown γ-spectrum. (orig./RW) [de

  5. Estimating the mean and variance of measurements from serial radioactive decay schemes with emphasis on 222Rn and its short-lived progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inkret, W.C.; Borak, T.B.; Boes, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    Classically, the mean and variance of radioactivity measurements are estimated from poisson distributions. However, the random distribution of observed events is not poisson when the half-life is short compared with the interval of observation or when more than one event can be associated with a single initial atom. Procedures were developed to estimate the mean and variance of single measurements of serial radioactive processes. Results revealed that observations from the three consecutive alpha emissions beginning with 222 Rn are positively correlated. Since the poisson estimator ignores covariance terms, it underestimates the true variance of the measurement. The reverse is true for mixtures of radon daughters only. (author)

  6. [Possibilities in the differential diagnosis of brain neoplasms using the long and short time sequences of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gajewicz, W.; Goraj, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Currently to perform proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) with single voxel spectroscopy (SVS) technique long and/or short echo time sequences are used in order to provide complementary information. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of STEAM (time echo, TE, 20

  7. LHCb: Time-dependent amplitude analysis of semileptonically-tagged $D^0 \\to K^0_S \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ decays at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Reichert, S

    2013-01-01

    The self-conjugate hadronic decay $D^0 \\to K^0_S \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ provides access to the measurement of the mixing parameters of the neutral $D$-meson system and allows to test for CP violation. A measurement of the mixing parameters $x_D$ and $y_D$ as well as of the parameters $|q/p|$ and $\\phi$, which govern indirect CP violation, will be performed based on a time-dependent amplitude-model analysis of the full LHCb dataset of 2011 and 2012 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3fb$^{-1}$.

  8. LHCb: Time-dependent CP violation in $B^0 \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $B^0_s \\to K^+ K^-$ decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Perazzini, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Using an integrated luminosity of 0.69 fb$^{-1}$ collected by LHCb in 2011, we report measurements of direct and mixing-induced CP violation in $B^0 \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $B_s^0 \\to K^+K^-$ decays. The measurements of the $B^0 \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-$ asymmetries are compatible with those from the B factories and yield 3.2$\\sigma$ evidence of mixing-induced CP violation, whereas the $B^0_s \\to K^+ K^-$ asymmetries are measured for the first time ever.

  9. Flavour-tagged time-dependent angular analysis of the $B_s^0 \\rightarrow J/\\psi(\\mu^+\\mu^-)\\Phi(K^+K^-)$ decay with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jakoubek, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present a flavour tagged time dependent angular analysis of the $B_s \\rightarrow J/\\psi\\phi$ decay, using 4.9 fb$^{−1}$ of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector from 7 TeV proton-proton collisions recorded in 2011. CP violation in this channel is described by a weak phase $\\phi_s$, which is sensitive to new physics contributions. The measured value is $\\phi_s$ = 0.12 $\\pm$ 0.25 (stat.) $\\pm$ 0.05 (syst.) rad, which is in good agreement with Standard Model expectations. Also other measured parameters are consistent with the world average.

  10. Time-dependent amplitude analysis of semileptonically-tagged $D^0 \\to K_S^0 \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00392459

    2013-01-01

    The hadronic decay $D^0 \\to K_S^0 \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ provides access to the measurement of the mixing parameters of the neutral D-meson system and allows to test for CP violation. A measurement of the mixing parameters $x_D$ and $y_D$ as well as of the parameters $|q/p|$ and $\\phi=arg(q,p)$, which govern indirect CP violation, will be performed based on a time-dependent amplitude-model analysis of the full LHCb dataset of 2011 and 2012 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3/fb.

  11. Decays of supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Manfred; Ohlsson, Tommy; Winter, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Supernova neutrinos could be well-suited for probing neutrino decay, since decay may be observed even for very small decay rates or coupling constants. We will introduce an effective operator framework for the combined description of neutrino decay and neutrino oscillations for supernova neutrinos, which can especially take into account two properties: one is the radially symmetric neutrino flux, allowing a decay product to be re-directed towards the observer even if the parent neutrino had a different original direction of propagation. The other is decoherence because of the long baselines for coherently produced neutrinos. We will demonstrate how to use this effective theory to calculate the time-dependent fluxes at the detector. In addition, we will show the implications of a Majoron-like decay model. As a result, we will demonstrate that for certain parameter values one may observe some effects which could also mimic signals similar to the ones expected from supernova models, making it in general harder to separate neutrino and supernova properties

  12. Aspects of B decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, Sven

    2011-03-04

    B-meson decays are a good probe for testing the flavour sector of the standard model of particle physics. The standard model describes at present all experimental data satisfactorily, although some ''tensions'' exist, i.e. two to three sigma deviations from the predictions, in particular in B decays. The arguments against the standard model are thus purely theoretical. These tensions between experimental data and theoretical predictions provide an extension of the standard model by new physics contributions. Within the flavour sector main theoretical uncertainties are related to the hadronic matrix elements. For exclusive semileptonic anti B {yields} D{sup (*)}l anti {nu} decays QCD sum rule techniques, which are suitable for studying hadronic matrix elements, however, with substantial, but estimable hadronic uncertainties, are used. The exploration of new physics effects in B-meson decays is done in an twofold way. In exclusive semileptonic anti B {yields} D{sup (*)}l anti {nu} decays the effect of additional right-handed vector as well as left- and right-handed scalar and tensor hadronic current structures in the decay rates and the form factors are studied at the non-recoil point. As a second approach one studied the non-leptonic B{sup 0}{sub s}{yields}J/{psi}{phi} and B{sup 0}{yields}J/{psi}K{sub S,L} decays discussing CP violating effects in the time-dependent decay amplitudes by considering new physics phase in the B{sup 0}- anti B{sup 0} mixing phase. (orig.)

  13. Short-Time Structural Stability of Compressible Vortex Sheets with Surface Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ben

    2016-11-01

    Assume we start with an initial vortex-sheet configuration which consists of two inviscid fluids with density bounded below flowing smoothly past each other, where a strictly positive fixed coefficient of surface tension produces a surface tension force across the common interface, balanced by the pressure jump. We model the fluids by the compressible Euler equations in three space dimensions with a very general equation of state relating the pressure, entropy and density such that the sound speed is positive. We prove that, for a short time, there exists a unique solution of the equations with the same structure. The mathematical approach consists of introducing a carefully chosen artificial viscosity-type regularisation which allows one to linearise the system so as to obtain a collection of transport equations for the entropy, pressure and curl together with a parabolic-type equation for the velocity which becomes fairly standard after rotating the velocity according to the interface normal. We prove a high order energy estimate for the non-linear equations that is independent of the artificial viscosity parameter which allows us to send it to zero. This approach loosely follows that introduced by Shkoller et al. in the setting of a compressible liquid-vacuum interface. Although already considered by Coutand et al. [10] and Lindblad [17], we also make some brief comments on the case of a compressible liquid-vacuum interface, which is obtained from the vortex sheets problem by replacing one of the fluids by vacuum, where it is possible to obtain a structural stability result even without surface tension.

  14. Classification of brain tumours using short echo time 1H MR spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, A.; Lukas, L.; Suykens, J. A. K.; Vanhamme, L.; Tate, A. R.; Howe, F. A.; Majós, C.; Moreno-Torres, A.; van der Graaf, M.; Arús, C.; Van Huffel, S.

    2004-09-01

    The purpose was to objectively compare the application of several techniques and the use of several input features for brain tumour classification using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS). Short echo time 1H MRS signals from patients with glioblastomas ( n = 87), meningiomas ( n = 57), metastases ( n = 39), and astrocytomas grade II ( n = 22) were provided by six centres in the European Union funded INTERPRET project. Linear discriminant analysis, least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) with a linear kernel and LS-SVM with radial basis function kernel were applied and evaluated over 100 stratified random splittings of the dataset into training and test sets. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to measure the performance of binary classifiers, while the percentage of correct classifications was used to evaluate the multiclass classifiers. The influence of several factors on the classification performance has been tested: L2- vs. water normalization, magnitude vs. real spectra and baseline correction. The effect of input feature reduction was also investigated by using only the selected frequency regions containing the most discriminatory information, and peak integrated values. Using L2-normalized complete spectra the automated binary classifiers reached a mean test AUC of more than 0.95, except for glioblastomas vs. metastases. Similar results were obtained for all classification techniques and input features except for water normalized spectra, where classification performance was lower. This indicates that data acquisition and processing can be simplified for classification purposes, excluding the need for separate water signal acquisition, baseline correction or phasing.

  15. Radial pattern of nuclear decay processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskra, W.; Mueller, M.; Rotter, I.; Technische Univ. Dresden

    1994-05-01

    At high level density of nuclear states, a separation of different time scales is observed (trapping effect). We calculate the radial profile of partial widths in the framework of the continuum shell model for some 1 - resonances with 2p-2h nuclear structure in 16 O as a function of the coupling strength to the continuum. A correlation between the lifetime of a nuclear state and the radial profile of the corresponding decay process is observed. We conclude from our numerical results that the trapping effect creates structures in space and time characterized by a small radial extension and a short lifetime. (orig.)

  16. Adsorption Of Surfactants At the Water-Oil Interface By Short-Time Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Estrada, Aldo; Ibarra-Bracamontes, Laura; Aguilar-Corona, Alicia; Viramontes-Gamboa, Gonzalo

    2017-11-01

    Surface tension is an important parameter for different industrial processes. The addition of surfactants can modify the interfacial tension between two fluids. As the surfactant molecules reach and are adsorbed at a fluid interface, the surface tension or interfacial tension is reduced until the interface is saturated. Dynamic Interfacial tension measurements were carried out using an optical tensiometer by the Pendant Drop technique at a room temperature of 25 °C for a period of 250 sec. A drop of surfactant solution was deposited and allowed to diffuse into a water-oil interface, and then the adsorption rate at the interface was calculated. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) was used as the surfactant, hexane and dodecane were tested as the oil phase. A linear decay in the interfacial tension was observed for the lower initial concentrations of the order of 0.0001 to 0.01 mM, and an exponential decay was observed for initial concentrations of the order of 0.1 to 1 mM. This study was supported by the Mexican Council of Science and Technology (CONACyT) and by the Scientific Research Coordination of the University of Michoacan in Mexico.

  17. Estimating return periods of extreme values from relatively short time series of winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Kristjan; Agustsson, Halfdan; Rognvaldsson, Olafur; Arfeuille, Gilles

    2013-04-01

    An important factor for determining the prospect of individual wind farm sites is the frequency of extreme winds at hub height. Here, extreme winds are defined as the value of the highest 10 minutes averaged wind speed with a 50 year return period, i.e. annual exceeding probability of 2% (Rodrigo, 2010). A frequently applied method to estimate winds in the lowest few hundred meters above ground is to extrapolate observed 10-meter winds logarithmically to higher altitudes. Recent study by Drechsel et al. (2012) showed however that this methodology is not as accurate as interpolating simulated results from the global ECMWF numerical weather prediction (NWP) model to the desired height. Observations of persistent low level jets near Colima in SW-Mexico also show that the logarithmic approach can give highly inaccurate results for some regions (Arfeuille et al., 2012). To address these shortcomings of limited, and/or poorly representative, observations and extrapolations of winds one can use NWP models to dynamically scale down relatively coarse resolution atmospheric analysis. In the case of limited computing resources one has typically to make a compromise between spatial resolution and the duration of the simulated period, both of which can limit the quality of the wind farm siting. A common method to estimate maximum winds is to fit an extreme value distribution (e.g. Gumbel, gev or Pareto) to the maximum values of each year of available data, or the tail of these values. If data are only available for a short period, e.g. 10 or 15 years, then this will give a rather inaccurate estimate. It is possible to deal with this problem by utilizing monthly or weekly maxima, but this introduces new problems: seasonal variation, autocorrelation of neighboring values, and increased discrepancy between data and fitted distribution. We introduce a new method to estimate return periods of extreme values of winds at hub height from relatively short time series of winds, simulated

  18. Velocity and stress autocorrelation decay in isothermal dissipative particle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhri, Anuj; Lukes, Jennifer R.

    2010-02-01

    The velocity and stress autocorrelation decay in a dissipative particle dynamics ideal fluid model is analyzed in this paper. The autocorrelation functions are calculated at three different friction parameters and three different time steps using the well-known Groot/Warren algorithm and newer algorithms including self-consistent leap-frog, self-consistent velocity Verlet and Shardlow first and second order integrators. At low friction values, the velocity autocorrelation function decays exponentially at short times, shows slower-than exponential decay at intermediate times, and approaches zero at long times for all five integrators. As friction value increases, the deviation from exponential behavior occurs earlier and is more pronounced. At small time steps, all the integrators give identical decay profiles. As time step increases, there are qualitative and quantitative differences between the integrators. The stress correlation behavior is markedly different for the algorithms. The self-consistent velocity Verlet and the Shardlow algorithms show very similar stress autocorrelation decay with change in friction parameter, whereas the Groot/Warren and leap-frog schemes show variations at higher friction factors. Diffusion coefficients and shear viscosities are calculated using Green-Kubo integration of the velocity and stress autocorrelation functions. The diffusion coefficients match well-known theoretical results at low friction limits. Although the stress autocorrelation function is different for each integrator, fluctuates rapidly, and gives poor statistics for most of the cases, the calculated shear viscosities still fall within range of theoretical predictions and nonequilibrium studies.

  19. Construction of a flash-photolysis apparatus having a short discharge time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.

    1964-01-01

    Flash photolysis aims at reaching directly the primary mechanisms resulting from the action of light on an absorbent matter. This makes it necessary to produce a flash as short and as bright as possible. Our main effort was directed towards reducing the duration of the flash by decreasing the self-inductance of the discharge circuit. A description of this circuit and study of the characteristics of the apparatus are followed by a short description of the two analytical methods: flash spectrography and absorption spectrophotometry at a given wave-length. (author) [fr

  20. Variational data assimilation for the optimized ozone initial state and the short-time forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-Y. Park

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we apply the four-dimensional variational (4D-Var data assimilation to optimize initial ozone state and to improve the predictability of air quality. The numerical modeling systems used for simulations of atmospheric condition and chemical formation are the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model. The study area covers the capital region of South Korea, where the surface measurement sites are relatively evenly distributed. The 4D-Var code previously developed for the CMAQ model is modified to consider background error in matrix form, and various numerical tests are conducted. The results are evaluated with an idealized covariance function for the appropriateness of the modified codes. The background error is then constructed using the NMC method with long-term modeling results, and the characteristics of the spatial correlation scale related to local circulation are analyzed. The background error is applied in the 4D-Var research, and a surface observational assimilation is conducted to optimize the initial concentration of ozone. The statistical results for the 12 h assimilation periods and the 120 observatory sites show a 49.4 % decrease in the root mean squared error (RMSE, and a 59.9 % increase in the index of agreement (IOA. The temporal variation of spatial distribution of the analysis increments indicates that the optimized initial state of ozone concentration is transported to inland areas by the clockwise-rotating local circulation during the assimilation windows. To investigate the predictability of ozone concentration after the assimilation window, a short-time forecasting is carried out. The ratios of the RMSE (root mean squared error with assimilation versus that without assimilation are 8 and 13 % for the +24 and +12 h, respectively. Such a significant improvement in the forecast accuracy is obtained solely by using the optimized initial state. The potential

  1. Technical Note: Deep learning based MRAC using rapid ultra-short echo time imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyungseok; Liu, Fang; Zhao, Gengyan; Bradshaw, Tyler; McMillan, Alan B

    2018-05-15

    In this study, we explore the feasibility of a novel framework for MR-based attenuation correction for PET/MR imaging based on deep learning via convolutional neural networks, which enables fully automated and robust estimation of a pseudo CT image based on ultrashort echo time (UTE), fat, and water images obtained by a rapid MR acquisition. MR images for MRAC are acquired using dual echo ramped hybrid encoding (dRHE), where both UTE and out-of-phase echo images are obtained within a short single acquisition (35 sec). Tissue labeling of air, soft tissue, and bone in the UTE image is accomplished via a deep learning network that was pre-trained with T1-weighted MR images. UTE images are used as input to the network, which was trained using labels derived from co-registered CT images. The tissue labels estimated by deep learning are refined by a conditional random field based correction. The soft tissue labels are further separated into fat and water components using the two-point Dixon method. The estimated bone, air, fat, and water images are then assigned appropriate Hounsfield units, resulting in a pseudo CT image for PET attenuation correction. To evaluate the proposed MRAC method, PET/MR imaging of the head was performed on 8 human subjects, where Dice similarity coefficients of the estimated tissue labels and relative PET errors were evaluated through comparison to a registered CT image. Dice coefficients for air (within the head), soft tissue, and bone labels were 0.76±0.03, 0.96±0.006, and 0.88±0.01. In PET quantification, the proposed MRAC method produced relative PET errors less than 1% within most brain regions. The proposed MRAC method utilizing deep learning with transfer learning and an efficient dRHE acquisition enables reliable PET quantification with accurate and rapid pseudo CT generation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. On Error Analysis of ORIGEN Decay Data Library Based on ENDF/B-VII.1 via Decay Heat Estimation after a Fission Event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Heon; Gil, Choong-Sup; Lee, Young-Ouk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The method is strongly dependent on the available nuclear structure data, i.e., fission product yield data and decay data. Consequently, the improvements in the nuclear structure data could have guaranteed more reliable decay heat estimation for short cooling times after fission. The SCALE-6.1.3 code package includes the ENDF/B-VII.0-based fission product yield data and ENDF/B-VII.1-based decay data libraries for the ORIGEN-S code. The generation and validation of the new ORIGEN-S yield data libraries based on the recently available fission product yield data such as ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.1, JENDL/FPY-2011, and JENDL-4.0 have been presented in the previous study. According to the study, the yield data library in the SCALE-6.1.3 could be regarded as the latest one because it resulted in almost the same outcomes as the ENDF/B-VII.1. A research project on the production of the nuclear structure data for decay heat estimation of nuclear fuel has been carried out in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The data errors contained in the ORIGEN-S decay data library of SCALE-6.1.3 have been clearly identified by their changing variables. Also, the impacts of the decay data errors have been analyzed by estimating the decay heats for the fission product nuclides and their daughters after {sup 235}U thermal-neutron fission. Although the impacts of decay data errors are quite small, it reminds us the possible importance of decay data when estimating the decay heat for short cooling times after a fission event.

  3. Application of Grey Model GM(1, 1) to Ultra Short-Term Predictions of Universal Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Guo, Min; Zhao, Danning; Cai, Hongbing; Hu, Dandan

    2016-03-01

    A mathematical model known as one-order one-variable grey differential equation model GM(1, 1) has been herein employed successfully for the ultra short-term (advantage is that the developed method is easy to use. All these reveal a great potential of the GM(1, 1) model for UT1-UTC predictions.

  4. Cognitive Abilities Explaining Age-Related Changes in Time Perception of Short and Long Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelanti, Pierre S.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated how the development of cognitive abilities explains the age-related changes in temporal judgment over short and long duration ranges from 0.5 to 30 s. Children (5- and 9-year-olds) as well as adults were given a temporal bisection task with four different duration ranges: a duration range shorter than 1 s, two…

  5. Time Perspective and Identity Formation: Short-Term Longitudinal Dynamics in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Lens, Willy; Smits, Ilse; Goossens, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Planning for the future and developing a personalized identity are conceived of as important developmental tasks that adolescents and emerging adults are confronted with on the pathway to adulthood. The present study set out to examine whether both tasks develop in tandem by using a short-term longitudinal dataset consisting of 371 college…

  6. Development of Speech Fluency over a Short Period of Time: Effects of Pedagogic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Parvaneh; Campbell, Colin; McCormack, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a short-term pedagogic intervention on development of second language (L2) fluency among learners studying English for academic purposes at a UK university. It also examines the interaction between development of fluency and complexity and accuracy. Through a pretest and posttest design, data were collected…

  7. The study of the possibility to use CAMEX chips in collider experiments with short bunch crossing time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulchenko, V.M.; Chilingarov, A.G.; Serbo, V.V.; Titov, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    The study of the possibility to use CAMEX chips in several systems of the detector KEDR at the e + e - collider VEPP-4M was performed. The relatively short bunch crossing time at VEPP-4M 60 ns leads to some problems with the use of CAMEX in the standard mode. The different ways to overcome these difficulties are investigated and compared. (orig.)

  8. 25 CFR 26.30 - Does the Job Training Program provide part-time training or short-term training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does the Job Training Program provide part-time training or short-term training? 26.30 Section 26.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Training Services § 26.30 Does the Job Training...

  9. Short echo time proton spectroscopy of the brain in healthy volunteers using an insert gradient head coil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Danielsen, E R; Schneider, M

    1995-01-01

    An insert gradient head coil with built-in X, Y, and Z gradients was used for localized proton spectroscopy in the brain of healthy volunteers, using short echo time stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) sequences. Volume of interest size was 3.4 ml, repetition time was 6.0 s, and echo times...... were 10 and 20 ms, respectively. Good quality proton spectra with practically no eddy current artefacts were acquired allowing observation of strongly coupled compounds, and compounds with short T2 relaxation times. The gradient head coil thus permits further studies of compounds such as glutamine....../glutamate and myo-inositols. These compounds were more prominent within grey matter than within white matter. Rough estimations of metabolite concentrations using water as an internal standard were in good agreement with previous reports....

  10. Proton decay theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Topics include minimal SU(5) predictions, gauge boson mediated proton decay, uncertainties in tau/sub p/, Higgs scalar effects, proton decay via Higgs scalars, supersymmetric SU(5), dimension 5 operators and proton decay, and Higgs scalars and proton decay

  11. Supersymmetry in Z' decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcella, G.

    2014-01-01

    I study the phenomenology of new heavy neutral gauge bosons Z', predicted by Grand Unification Theories-driven U(1)' gauge groups and by the sequential standard model. BSM (Beyond Standard Model) decays into supersymmetric final states are accounted for, besides the SM (Standard Model) modes usually investigated. I give an estimate of the number of supersymmetric events in Z' decays possibly expected at LHC, as well as of the product of the Z' cross section times the branching fraction into electron and muon pairs. (author)

  12. Short-course versus long-course chemoradiation in rectal cancer--time to change strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Manisha; Willett, Christopher G; Czito, Brian G

    2014-09-01

    There is significant debate regarding the optimal neoadjuvant regimen for resectable rectal cancer patients. Short-course radiotherapy, a standard approach throughout most of northern Europe, is generally defined as 25 Gy in 5 fractions over the course of 1 week without the concurrent administration of chemotherapy. Long-course radiotherapy is typically defined as 45 to 50.4 Gy in 25-28 fractions with the administration of concurrent 5-fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy and is the standard approach in other parts of Europe and the United States. At present, two randomized trials have compared outcomes for short course radiotherapy with long-course chemoradiation showing no difference in respective study endpoints. Late toxicity data are lacking given limited follow-up. Although the ideal neoadjuvant regimen is controversial, our current bias is long-course chemoradiation to treat patients with locally advanced, resectable rectal cancer.

  13. Age and admission times as predictive factors for failure of admissions to discharge-stream short-stay units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Amith L; Shankar Raju, Savitha Banagar; Hermiz, Arsalan; Vaghasiya, Milan; Vukasovic, Matthew

    2015-02-01

    Discharge-stream emergency short-stay units (ESSU) improve ED and hospital efficiency. Age of patients and time of hospital presentations have been shown to correlate with increasing complexity of care. We aim to determine whether an age and time cut-off could be derived to subsequently improve short-stay unit success rates. We conducted a retrospective audit on 6703 (5522 inclusions) patients admitted to our discharge-stream short-stay unit. Patients were classified as appropriate or inappropriate admissions, and deemed successful if discharged out of the unit within 24 h; and failures if they needed inpatient admission into the hospital. We calculated short-stay unit length of stay for patients in each of these groups. A 15% failure rate was deemed as acceptable key performance indicator (KPI) for our unit. There were 197 out of 4621 (4.3%, 95% CI 3.7-4.9%) patients up to the age of 70 who failed admission to ESSU compared with 67 out of 901 (7.4%, 95% CI 5.9-9.3%, P 70 years of age have higher rates of failure after admission to discharge-stream ESSU. Although in appropriately selected discharge-stream patients, no age group or time-band of presentation was associated with increased failure rate beyond the stipulated KPI. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  14. Symmetry violating kaon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, P.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the muon number violating decay modes of the K-mesons is given. Subsequently, some new developments in the field of CP-violation are reviewed and the question of time-reversal invariance and the status of CPT-invariance are briefly considered. 42 references

  15. On the proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonda, L.; Ghirardi, G.C.; Weber, T.

    1983-07-01

    The problem of the proton decay is considered taking into account that in actual experiments there is an interaction of the proton with its environment which could imply an increase of its theoretical lifetime. It is seen that, by application of the time-energy uncertainty relation, no prolongation of the lifetime is obtained in this case. (author)

  16. Particle decay in inflationary cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H.J. de

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the relaxation and decay of a particle during inflation by implementing the dynamical renormalization group. This investigation allows us to give a meaningful definition for the decay rate in an expanding universe. As a prelude to a more general scenario, the method is applied here to study the decay of a particle in de Sitter inflation via a trilinear coupling to massless conformally coupled particles, both for wavelengths much larger and much smaller than the Hubble radius. For superhorizon modes we find that the decay is of the form η Γ 1 with η being conformal time and we give an explicit expression for Γ 1 to leading order in the coupling which has a noteworthy interpretation in terms of the Hawking temperature of de Sitter space-time. We show that if the mass M of the decaying field is << H then the decay rate during inflation is enhanced over the Minkowski space-time result by a factor 2H/πM. For wavelengths much smaller than the Hubble radius we find that the decay law is e with C(η) the scale factor and α determined by the strength of the trilinear coupling. In all cases we find a substantial enhancement in the decay law as compared to Minkowski space-time. These results suggest potential implications for the spectrum of scalar density fluctuations as well as non-Gaussianities

  17. Beta and muon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, A.; Pascual, P.

    1967-01-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  18. Beta and muon decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, A; Pascual, P

    1967-07-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  19. A general dead-time correction method based on live-time stamping. Application to the measurement of short-lived radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvenet, B; Bobin, C; Bouchard, J

    2017-12-01

    Dead-time correction formulae are established in the general case of superimposed non-homogeneous Poisson processes. Based on the same principles as conventional live-timed counting, this method exploits the additional information made available using digital signal processing systems, and especially the possibility to store the time stamps of live-time intervals. No approximation needs to be made to obtain those formulae. Estimates of the variances of corrected rates are also presented. This method is applied to the activity measurement of short-lived radionuclides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of short-time acoustic temporal fine structure cues in sentence recognition for normal-hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Limin; Xu, Li

    2018-02-01

    Short-time processing was employed to manipulate the amplitude, bandwidth, and temporal fine structure (TFS) in sentences. Fifty-two native-English-speaking, normal-hearing listeners participated in four sentence-recognition experiments. Results showed that recovered envelope (E) played an important role in speech recognition when the bandwidth was > 1 equivalent rectangular bandwidth. Removing TFS drastically reduced sentence recognition. Preserving TFS greatly improved sentence recognition when amplitude information was available at a rate ≥ 10 Hz (i.e., time segment ≤ 100 ms). Therefore, the short-time TFS facilitates speech perception together with the recovered E and works with the coarse amplitude cues to provide useful information for speech recognition.

  1. A comparative analysis of short-range travel time prediction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisken, Giovanni; van Berkum, Eric C.

    2003-01-01

    Increasing car mobility has lead to an increasing demand for traffic information. This contribution deals with information about travel times. When car drivers are provided with this type of information, the travel times should ideally be the times that they will encounter. As a result travel times

  2. Family symmetries and proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi; Kaplan, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    The proton decay modes p → K 0 e + and p → K 0 μ + may be visible in certain supersymmetric theories, and if seen would provide evidence for new flavor physics at extremely short distances. These decay modes can arise from the dimension five operator (Q 1 Q 1 Q 2 L 1,2 ), where Q i and L i are i th generation quark and lepton superfields respectively. Such an operator is not generated at observable levels due to gauge or Higgs boson exchange in a minimal GUT. However in theories that explain the fermion mass hierarchy, it may be generated at the Planck scale with a strength such that the decays p → K 0 ell + are both compatible with the proton lifetime and visible at Super-Kamiokande. Observable proton decay can even occur in theories without unification

  3. Time-resolved neuroimaging of visual short term memory consolidation by post-perceptual attention shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Marcus; Thiemann, Ulf; Freitag, Christine M; Bender, Stephan

    2016-01-15

    Post-perceptual cues can enhance visual short term memory encoding even after the offset of the visual stimulus. However, both the mechanisms by which the sensory stimulus characteristics are buffered as well as the mechanisms by which post-perceptual selective attention enhances short term memory encoding remain unclear. We analyzed late post-perceptual event-related potentials (ERPs) in visual change detection tasks (100ms stimulus duration) by high-resolution ERP analysis to elucidate these mechanisms. The effects of early and late auditory post-cues (300ms or 850ms after visual stimulus onset) as well as the effects of a visual interference stimulus were examined in 27 healthy right-handed adults. Focusing attention with post-perceptual cues at both latencies significantly improved memory performance, i.e. sensory stimulus characteristics were available for up to 850ms after stimulus presentation. Passive watching of the visual stimuli without auditory cue presentation evoked a slow negative wave (N700) over occipito-temporal visual areas. N700 was strongly reduced by a visual interference stimulus which impeded memory maintenance. In contrast, contralateral delay activity (CDA) still developed in this condition after the application of auditory post-cues and was thereby dissociated from N700. CDA and N700 seem to represent two different processes involved in short term memory encoding. While N700 could reflect visual post processing by automatic attention attraction, CDA may reflect the top-down process of searching selectively for the required information through post-perceptual attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical observation of one time short-pulse pattern scan laser pan-retinal photocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the clinical efficacy and benefit of short-pulse pattern scan laser(PASCALphotocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR.METHODS:Twenty-eight PDR patients(42 eyesunderwent short-pulse PASCAL pan-retinal photocoagulation(PRPwere analyzed.The best corrected visual acuity was ≥0.1 in 36 eyes, RESULTS: All the cases had no pain during the short-pulse PASCAL treatment.One year after treatments,the final visual acuity was improved in 6 eyes,kept stable in 28 eyes and decreased in 8 eyes; neovascularization were regressed in 18 eyes(43%, stable in 12 eyes(29%, uncontrolled in 12 eyes(29%. Five eyes(12%received vitrectomy due to vitreous hemorrhage.Compared with before operation, retina thickness in central fovea of macula and visual field had no obvious change after one-time PASCAL PRP(P>0.05. CONCLUSION:The one-time short-pulse PASCAL PRP could stabilize the progress of PDR safely, effectively and simply.

  5. Increasing Short-Stay Unplanned Hospital Admissions among Children in England; Time Trends Analysis ’97–‘06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sonia; Bottle, Alex; Gilbert, Ruth; Sharland, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Background Timely care by general practitioners in the community keeps children out of hospital and provides better continuity of care. Yet in the UK, access to primary care has diminished since 2004 when changes in general practitioners' contracts enabled them to ‘opt out’ of providing out-of-hours care and since then unplanned pediatric hospital admission rates have escalated, particularly through emergency departments. We hypothesised that any increase in isolated short stay admissions for childhood illness might reflect failure to manage these cases in the community over a 10 year period spanning these changes. Methods and Findings We conducted a population based time trends study of major causes of hospital admission in children 2 days. By 2006, 67.3% of all unplanned admissions were isolated short stays <2 days. The increases in admission rates were greater for common non-infectious than infectious causes of admissions. Conclusions Short stay unplanned hospital admission rates in young children in England have increased substantially in recent years and are not accounted for by reductions in length of in-hospital stay. The majority are isolated short stay admissions for minor illness episodes that could be better managed by primary care in the community and may be evidence of a failure of primary care services. PMID:19829695

  6. Measurement of the branching fraction and time dependent CP asymmetry in B0→D*-D*+K0s decays at the Belle experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Why do we exist? CP violation is an integral part of this question as its understanding is crucial to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry observed in our universe. Several experiments were designed and carried out to precisely measure CP violation, especially in the B meson system where large asymmetries where predicted and found. With Belle II and LHCb, two new experiments are going to improve the existing measurements. Belle II will be based on the very successful Belle experiment at the KEKB collider, currently holding the world record on luminosity with 2.11 x 10 34 cm -2 s -1 . The B meson system has a very rich decay topology and many of theses decay modes and their CP asymmetry parameters have already been measured at Belle. The most famous decay channel, B 0 →J/ψK 0 s , poses very tight constraints on sin 2φ 1 but leaves a twofold ambiguity on the actual value of the angle φ 1 in the CKM triangle. The decay mode B 0 →D *- D *+ K 0 s , while experimentally much more challenging, offers the unique possibility to also extract cos2φ 1 and thus resolve this ambiguity. In the first chapters of this thesis we present the principle of this measurement and the results for the branching fraction and the time-dependent CP violation parameters of B 0 →D *- D *+ K 0 s decays. These results are obtained from the final data sample of the Belle experiment containing 772 million B anti B pairs collected at the Υ(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e + e - collider. We obtain the branching fraction B(B 0 →D *- D *+ K 0 s )=(5.35 +0.35 -0.34 (stat)±0.57(syst)) x 10 -3 , which is in agreement with the current world average. In a 3 parameter fit sensitive to cos2φ 1 , we extract the currently most precise values for the CP parameters J c /J 0 =0.37±0.10(stat)±0.02(syst), (2J s1 /J 0 ) sin(2φ 1 )=0.30±0.16(stat)±0.03(syst), (2J s2 /J 0 ) cos(2φ 1 )=0.16±0.16(stat)±0.03(syst). This allows us to exclude a negative value

  7. Biological effect of pulsed dose rate brachytherapy with stepping sources if short half-times of repair are present in tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, Jack F.; Limbergen, Erik F.M. van

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the possible increase of radiation effect in tissues irradiated by pulsed brachytherapy (PDR) for local tissue dose rates between those 'averaged over the whole pulse' and the instantaneous high dose rates close to the dwell positions. Increased effect is more likely for tissues with short half-times of repair of the order of a few minutes, similar to pulse durations. Methods and Materials: Calculations were done assuming the linear quadratic formula for radiation damage, in which only the dose-squared term is subject to exponential repair. The situation with two components of T (1(2)) is addressed. A constant overall time of 140 h and a constant total dose of 70 Gy were assumed throughout, the continuous low dose rate of 0.5 Gy/h (CLDR) providing the unitary standard effects for each PDR condition. Effects of dose rates ranging from 4 Gy/h to 120 Gy/h (HDR at 2 Gy/min) were studied, covering the gap in an earlier publication. Four schedules were examined: doses per pulse of 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 Gy given at repetition frequencies of 1, 2, 3, and 4 h, respectively, each with a range of assumed half-times of repair of 4 min to 1.5 h. Results are presented for late-responding tissues, the differences from CLDR being two or three times greater than for early-responding tissues and most tumors. Results: Curves are presented relating the ratio of increased biological effect (proportional to log cell kill) calculated for PDR relative to CLDR. Ratios as high as 1.5 can be found for large doses per pulse (2 Gy) if the half-time of repair in tissues is as short as a few minutes. The major influences on effect are dose per pulse, half-time of repair in tissue, and--when T (1(2)) is short--the instantaneous dose rate. Maximum ratios of PDR/CLDR occur when the dose rate is such that pulse duration is approximately equal to T (1(2)) . As dose rate in the pulse is increased, a plateau of effect is reached, for most T (1(2)) s, above 10 to 20 Gy/h, which is

  8. Time-dependent screening of a positive charge distribution in metals: Excitons on an ultra-short time scale

    OpenAIRE

    Schöne, Wolf-Dieter; Ekardt, Walter

    2000-01-01

    Experiments determining the lifetime of excited electrons in crystalline copper reveal states which cannot be interpreted as Bloch states [S. Ogawa {\\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. B {\\bf 55}, 10869 (1997)]. In this article we propose a model which explains these states as transient excitonic states in metals. The physical background of transient excitons is the finite time a system needs to react to an external perturbation, in other words, the time which is needed to build up a polarization cloud. ...

  9. Efficient Computation of Multiscale Entropy over Short Biomedical Time Series Based on Linear State-Space Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Faes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common approach to assess the dynamical complexity of a time series across multiple temporal scales makes use of the multiscale entropy (MSE and refined MSE (RMSE measures. In spite of their popularity, MSE and RMSE lack an analytical framework allowing their calculation for known dynamic processes and cannot be reliably computed over short time series. To overcome these limitations, we propose a method to assess RMSE for autoregressive (AR stochastic processes. The method makes use of linear state-space (SS models to provide the multiscale parametric representation of an AR process observed at different time scales and exploits the SS parameters to quantify analytically the complexity of the process. The resulting linear MSE (LMSE measure is first tested in simulations, both theoretically to relate the multiscale complexity of AR processes to their dynamical properties and over short process realizations to assess its computational reliability in comparison with RMSE. Then, it is applied to the time series of heart period, arterial pressure, and respiration measured for healthy subjects monitored in resting conditions and during physiological stress. This application to short-term cardiovascular variability documents that LMSE can describe better than RMSE the activity of physiological mechanisms producing biological oscillations at different temporal scales.

  10. Short-time dynamics of lysozyme solutions with competing short-range attraction and long-range repulsion: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riest, Jonas; Nägele, Gerhard; Liu, Yun; Wagner, Norman J.; Godfrin, P. Douglas

    2018-02-01

    Recently, atypical static features of microstructural ordering in low-salinity lysozyme protein solutions have been extensively explored experimentally and explained theoretically based on a short-range attractive plus long-range repulsive (SALR) interaction potential. However, the protein dynamics and the relationship to the atypical SALR structure remain to be demonstrated. Here, the applicability of semi-analytic theoretical methods predicting diffusion properties and viscosity in isotropic particle suspensions to low-salinity lysozyme protein solutions is tested. Using the interaction potential parameters previously obtained from static structure factor measurements, our results of Monte Carlo simulations representing seven experimental lysoyzme samples indicate that they exist either in dispersed fluid or random percolated states. The self-consistent Zerah-Hansen scheme is used to describe the static structure factor, S(q), which is the input to our calculation schemes for the short-time hydrodynamic function, H(q), and the zero-frequency viscosity η. The schemes account for hydrodynamic interactions included on an approximate level. Theoretical predictions for H(q) as a function of the wavenumber q quantitatively agree with experimental results at small protein concentrations obtained using neutron spin echo measurements. At higher concentrations, qualitative agreement is preserved although the calculated hydrodynamic functions are overestimated. We attribute the differences for higher concentrations and lower temperatures to translational-rotational diffusion coupling induced by the shape and interaction anisotropy of particles and clusters, patchiness of the lysozyme particle surfaces, and the intra-cluster dynamics, features not included in our simple globular particle model. The theoretical results for the solution viscosity, η, are in qualitative agreement with our experimental data even at higher concentrations. We demonstrate that semi

  11. Limitations of Poisson statistics in describing radioactive decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Arkadiusz; Celler, Anna M

    2015-12-01

    The assumption that nuclear decays are governed by Poisson statistics is an approximation. This approximation becomes unjustified when data acquisition times longer than or even comparable with the half-lives of the radioisotope in the sample are considered. In this work, the limits of the Poisson-statistics approximation are investigated. The formalism for the statistics of radioactive decay based on binomial distribution is derived. The theoretical factor describing the deviation of variance of the number of decays predicated by the Poisson distribution from the true variance is defined and investigated for several commonly used radiotracers such as (18)F, (15)O, (82)Rb, (13)N, (99m)Tc, (123)I, and (201)Tl. The variance of the number of decays estimated using the Poisson distribution is significantly different than the true variance for a 5-minute observation time of (11)C, (15)O, (13)N, and (82)Rb. Durations of nuclear medicine studies often are relatively long; they may be even a few times longer than the half-lives of some short-lived radiotracers. Our study shows that in such situations the Poisson statistics is unsuitable and should not be applied to describe the statistics of the number of decays in radioactive samples. However, the above statement does not directly apply to counting statistics at the level of event detection. Low sensitivities of detectors which are used in imaging studies make the Poisson approximation near perfect. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of characteristics of time series on short-term forecasting error parameter changes in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevtsov, S. I.

    2018-05-01

    The impact of physical factors, such as temperature and others, leads to a change in the parameters of the technical object. Monitoring the change of parameters is necessary to prevent a dangerous situation. The control is carried out in real time. To predict the change in the parameter, a time series is used in this paper. Forecasting allows one to determine the possibility of a dangerous change in a parameter before the moment when this change occurs. The control system in this case has more time to prevent a dangerous situation. A simple time series was chosen. In this case, the algorithm is simple. The algorithm is executed in the microprocessor module in the background. The efficiency of using the time series is affected by its characteristics, which must be adjusted. In the work, the influence of these characteristics on the error of prediction of the controlled parameter was studied. This takes into account the behavior of the parameter. The values of the forecast lag are determined. The results of the research, in the case of their use, will improve the efficiency of monitoring the technical object during its operation.

  13. Time-resolved measurement of the quantum states of photons using two-photon interference with short-time reference pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Changliang; Hofmann, Holger F.

    2011-01-01

    To fully utilize the energy-time degree of freedom of photons for optical quantum-information processes, it is necessary to control and characterize the temporal quantum states of the photons at extremely short time scales. For measurements of the temporal coherence of the quantum states beyond the time resolution of available detectors, two-photon interference with a photon in a short-time reference pulse may be a viable alternative. In this paper, we derive the temporal measurement operators for the bunching statistics of a single-photon input state with a photon from a weak coherent reference pulse. It is shown that the effects of the pulse shape of the reference pulse can be expressed in terms of a spectral filter selecting the bandwidth within which the measurement can be treated as an ideal projection on eigenstates of time. For full quantum tomography, temporal coherence can be determined by using superpositions of reference pulses at two different times. Moreover, energy-time entanglement can be evaluated based on the two-by-two entanglement observed in the coherences between pairs of detection times.

  14. Characterization of new eye drops with choline salicylate and assessment of their irritancy by in vitro short time exposure tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewska, Katarzyna; Kucinska, Małgorzata; Murias, Marek; Lulek, Janina

    2015-09-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the irritation potential of new eye drops containing 2% choline salicylate (CS) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and various polymers increasing eye drop viscosity (hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone). The standard method for assessing the potential of irritating substances has been the Draize rabbit eye test. However the European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods and the Coordinating Committee for Validation of Alternative Methods recommend, short time exposure (STE) in vitro tests as an alternative method for assessing eye irritation. The eye irritation potential was determined using cytotoxicity test methods for rabbit corneal cell line (SIRC) after 5 min exposure. The viability of cells was determined using two cytotoxicity assays: MTT and Neutral Red Uptake. According to the irritation rankings for the short time exposure test, all tested eye drops are classified as non-irritating (cell viability >70%).

  15. High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization System for Donor Milk in a Human Milk Bank Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Escuder-Vieco; Irene Espinosa-Martos; Juan M. Rodríguez; Nieves Corzo; Antonia Montilla; Pablo Siegfried; Carmen R. Pallás-Alonso; Carmen R. Pallás-Alonso; Leónides Fernández

    2018-01-01

    Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min). Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization has been proposed as an...

  16. Testing of Commercial Milk Production Technology Using A Combination of High Temperature Short Time and Pulsed Electric Field

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi A; Widjanarko SB; Kusnadi J

    2016-01-01

    The development of milk processing technology has grown excessively, and it contains advantage and disadvantage. This study used mixed between PEF (Pulsed Electric Field) and High Temperature Short Time (HTST) to produce milk processed product which is effective and efficient in killing milk microorganism without changing its color, scent, and nutrient content of processed product, therefore producing commercial sterile milk product in accord with milk Indonesian National Standard (SNI). The ...

  17. Experience from the transportation of irradiated WWER-440 fuel assemblies at the Kozloduy NPP site after a short cooling time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanova, I.; Kamenov, A.; Byrzev, L.; Christoskov, I.

    2003-01-01

    Results from the analysis and experimental verification of the radiation and shielding characteristics of non-standard loading patterns of the VSPOT transport cask used for transportation of irradiated fuel assemblies after a short cooling time (120 180 days) on the site of the Kozloduy NPP are presented. An additional safety criterion related to the introduced modifications to the standard procedure of using the transport cask is formulated and discussed (Authors)

  18. On the applicability of short time measurements to the determination of annual average of radon concentration in dwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loskiewicz, J.; Olko, P.; Swakon, J.; Bogacz, J.; Janik, M.; Mazur, D.; Mazur, J.

    1998-01-01

    The variation of radon concentration in some houses in the Krakow region was investigated in order to compare results obtained using various measuring techniques. It is concluded that short-term measurements should last at least 4 days to avoid errors exceeding 30%; that weather parameters and human activity during the measurement should be recorded; that measurements should be repeated several times under various weather conditions; that seasonal variation in the region should be taken into account. (A.K.)

  19. Nuclear beta decay and the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kean, D.C.

    1975-11-01

    Short notes are presented on various aspects of nuclear beta decay and weak interactions including: super-allowed transitions, parity violation, interaction strengths, coupling constants, and the current-current formalism of weak interaction. (R.L.)

  20. Jeff-3 and decay heat calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, T.D.

    2009-07-01

    The decay heat power, i.e. the residual heat generated by irradiated nuclear fuels, is a significant parameter to define the power of a reactor. A good evaluation of this power depends both on the accuracy of the processing algorithm and on the quality of the physical data used. This report describes the steps carried out, ranging from tests of consistency to the validation by calculations - experiments comparisons, allowing to choose the validated nuclear data. We have compared the Jeff-3 evaluation (only the file 8 containing decay data) with the Jeff-2.2 and Endf/B7.O evaluations through the computation of residual power. It appears that the residual powers computed by the DARWIN code from Jeff-3.1.1 data for short times agree more with experimental data. There is a slight discrepancy (∼ 2%) between Jeff-3.1 and Jeff-3.1.1 on the total residual power computed for PWR UO 2 fuel. For long decay times the discrepancy is more significant between Jeff-3.1.1 and Jeff-2 on the computation of detailed residual powers because some prevailing isotopes have more formation channels taken into account in Jeff-3 and Jeff-3.1.1 than in Jeff-2

  1. Use of cadmium sulphide to measure integrated dose in short-time irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimnual, S.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was made to measure the dose from a short burst of X-rays in the order of 1 second or less by means of the cadmium sulphide photoconductive cell. If protected from light, the CdS cell has a very high resistance such that it does not discharge a capacitor appreciably. But during irradiation, the resistance decreases temporarily and an amount of charge will leak from the capacitor through the Ca S cell. The result to this experiment shows that the principle works very well but it is necessary to add another fixed high resistance of about 10 7 ohms into the circuit in order to get results independent of the dose-rate. The equipment used in this experiment can measure a dose as low as 6 m R

  2. High-Temperature-Short-Time Annealing Process for High-Performance Large-Area Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjin; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Oh, Kyoung Suk; Jo, Yimhyun; Yoon, Hyun; Kim, Ka-Hyun; Lee, Heon; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Dong Suk

    2017-06-27

    Organic-inorganic hybrid metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are attracting tremendous research interest due to their high solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency with a high possibility of cost-effective fabrication and certified power conversion efficiency now exceeding 22%. Although many effective methods for their application have been developed over the past decade, their practical transition to large-size devices has been restricted by difficulties in achieving high performance. Here we report on the development of a simple and cost-effective production method with high-temperature and short-time annealing processing to obtain uniform, smooth, and large-size grain domains of perovskite films over large areas. With high-temperature short-time annealing at 400 °C for 4 s, the perovskite film with an average domain size of 1 μm was obtained, which resulted in fast solvent evaporation. Solar cells fabricated using this processing technique had a maximum power conversion efficiency exceeding 20% over a 0.1 cm 2 active area and 18% over a 1 cm 2 active area. We believe our approach will enable the realization of highly efficient large-area PCSs for practical development with a very simple and short-time procedure. This simple method should lead the field toward the fabrication of uniform large-scale perovskite films, which are necessary for the production of high-efficiency solar cells that may also be applicable to several other material systems for more widespread practical deployment.

  3. Nonlinear detection of disordered voice productions from short time series based on a Volterra-Wiener-Korenberg model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yu, E-mail: yuzhang@xmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Underwater Acoustic Communication and Marine Information Technology of the Ministry of Education, Xiamen University, Xiamen Fujian 361005 (China); Sprecher, Alicia J. [Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792-7375 (United States); Zhao Zongxi [Key Laboratory of Underwater Acoustic Communication and Marine Information Technology of the Ministry of Education, Xiamen University, Xiamen Fujian 361005 (China); Jiang, Jack J. [Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792-7375 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The VWK method effectively detects the nonlinearity of a discrete map. > The method describes the chaotic time series of a biomechanical vocal fold model. > Nonlinearity in laryngeal pathology is detected from short and noisy time series. - Abstract: In this paper, we apply the Volterra-Wiener-Korenberg (VWK) model method to detect nonlinearity in disordered voice productions. The VWK method effectively describes the nonlinearity of a third-order nonlinear map. It allows for the analysis of short and noisy data sets. The extracted VWK model parameters show an agreement with the original nonlinear map parameters. Furthermore, the VWK mode method is applied to successfully assess the nonlinearity of a biomechanical voice production model simulating irregular vibratory dynamics of vocal folds with a unilateral vocal polyp. Finally, we show the clinical applicability of this nonlinear detection method to analyze the electroglottographic data generated by 14 patients with vocal nodules or polyps. The VWK model method shows potential in describing the nonlinearity inherent in disordered voice productions from short and noisy time series that are common in the clinical setting.

  4. Nonlinear detection of disordered voice productions from short time series based on a Volterra-Wiener-Korenberg model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yu; Sprecher, Alicia J.; Zhao Zongxi; Jiang, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The VWK method effectively detects the nonlinearity of a discrete map. → The method describes the chaotic time series of a biomechanical vocal fold model. → Nonlinearity in laryngeal pathology is detected from short and noisy time series. - Abstract: In this paper, we apply the Volterra-Wiener-Korenberg (VWK) model method to detect nonlinearity in disordered voice productions. The VWK method effectively describes the nonlinearity of a third-order nonlinear map. It allows for the analysis of short and noisy data sets. The extracted VWK model parameters show an agreement with the original nonlinear map parameters. Furthermore, the VWK mode method is applied to successfully assess the nonlinearity of a biomechanical voice production model simulating irregular vibratory dynamics of vocal folds with a unilateral vocal polyp. Finally, we show the clinical applicability of this nonlinear detection method to analyze the electroglottographic data generated by 14 patients with vocal nodules or polyps. The VWK model method shows potential in describing the nonlinearity inherent in disordered voice productions from short and noisy time series that are common in the clinical setting.

  5. Effects of light guide and magnetic field on the characteristics of the short time measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoshihiro; Ohira, Kyozo

    1977-01-01

    In order to construct the nuclear life-time measurement apparatus with good energy and time resolution, consisting of DuMond type beta-ray spectrometer and plastic scintillator, experimental studies are carried out for the effects of light guide and magnetic field on the time resolution, and for the effects of μ-metal shielding on the energy resolution. It has been found that all these effects could be practically diminished. (auth.)

  6. Short-Term Bus Passenger Demand Prediction Based on Time Series Model and Interactive Multiple Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bus passenger demand prediction has attracted increased attention during recent years, limited research has been conducted in the context of short-term passenger demand forecasting. This paper proposes an interactive multiple model (IMM filter algorithm-based model to predict short-term passenger demand. After aggregated in 15 min interval, passenger demand data collected from a busy bus route over four months were used to generate time series. Considering that passenger demand exhibits various characteristics in different time scales, three time series were developed, named weekly, daily, and 15 min time series. After the correlation, periodicity, and stationarity analyses, time series models were constructed. Particularly, the heteroscedasticity of time series was explored to achieve better prediction performance. Finally, IMM filter algorithm was applied to combine individual forecasting models with dynamically predicted passenger demand for next interval. Different error indices were adopted for the analyses of individual and hybrid models. The performance comparison indicates that hybrid model forecasts are superior to individual ones in accuracy. Findings of this study are of theoretical and practical significance in bus scheduling.

  7. Measurements of Branching Fractions and Time-Dependent CP-Violating Asymmetries in B to eta' K Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2005-02-07

    The authors present measurements of the B {yields} {eta}{prime}K branching fractions; for B{sup +} {yields} {eta}{prime}K{sup +} they measure also the time-integrated charge asymmetry {Alpha}{sub ch}, and for B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}{prime}K{sub s}{sup 0} the time dependent CP-violation parameters S and C. The data sample corresponds to 232 million B{bar B} pairs produced by e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation at the {Upsilon}(4S). The results are {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {eta}{prime}K{sup +}) = (68.9 {+-} 2.0 {+-} 3.2) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}{prime}K{sup 0}) = (67.4 {+-} 3.3 {+-} 3.2) x 10{sup -6}, {Alpha}{sub ch} = 0.033 {+-} 0.028 {+-} 0.005, S = 0.30 {+-} 0.14 {+-} 0.02, and C = -0.21 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.02, where the first error quoted is statistical and the second systematic.

  8. Time does not cause forgetting in short-term serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Duncan, Matthew; Brown, Gordon D A

    2004-10-01

    Time-based theories expect memory performance to decline as the delay between study and recall of an item increases. The assumption of time-based forgetting, central to many models of serial recall, underpins their key behaviors. Here we compare the predictions of time-based and event-based models by simulation and test them in two experiments using a novel manipulation of the delay between study and retrieval. Participants were trained, via corrective feedback, to recall at different speeds, thus varying total recall time from 6 to 10 sec. In the first experiment, participants used the keyboard to enter their responses but had to repeat a word (called the suppressor) aloud during recall to prevent rehearsal. In the second experiment, articulation was again required, but recall was verbal and was paced by the number of repetitions of the suppressor in between retrieval of items. In both experiments, serial position curves for all retrieval speeds overlapped, and output time had little or no effect. Comparative evaluation of a time-based and an event-based model confirmed that these results present a particular challenge to time-based approaches. We conclude that output interference, rather than output time, is critical in serial recall.

  9. Estimation of train dwell time at short stops based on track occupation event data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, D.; Daamen, W.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Train dwell time is one of the most unpredictable components of railway operations mainly due to the varying volumes of alighting and boarding passengers. For reliable estimations of train running times and route conflicts on main lines it is however necessary to obtain accurate estimations of dwell

  10. FALSE DETERMINATIONS OF CHAOS IN SHORT NOISY TIME SERIES. (R828745)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method (NEMG) proposed in 1992 for diagnosing chaos in noisy time series with 50 or fewer observations entails fitting the time series with an empirical function which predicts an observation in the series from previous observations, and then estimating the rate of divergenc...

  11. Mesospheric temperatures estimated from the meteor decay times over King Sejong Station(62.2°S, 58.8°W), Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Jee, G.

    2010-12-01

    A VHF meteor radar has ben operated at King Sejong Station (62.2°S, 58.8°W), Antarctica since March 2007 for the observations of the neutral winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region. In addition, the radar observation allows usto estimate the neutral temperature from the measured meteor decay times of the meteor echoes by utilizing Hocking's method (Hocking, 1999). For this temperature estimation, the meteor echoes observed from March 2007 to July 2009 were divded, for the first time, into weak and strong echoes depending on the strength of estimated relative electron line densities. The estimated temperatures are then compared the temperature measurements from the spectral airglow temperature imager (SATI) which has also been operated at the same location since 2002. The estimated temperatures from strong echoes were significantly lower than the temperatures estimated from weak echoes by on average about 31 K. As was done in most previous studies, we also derived the temperature by using all echoes without dividing into weak and strong, which produces about 10 K lower than the weak echoes. Among these hree estimated temperatures, the one from weak echoes was most similar to the SATI temperature. This result indicates that the strong echoes tend to reduce the estimated temperature and therefore need to be removed in the estimation procedure. We will also present the comparison of the estimated temperature with other measurements, for example, from the TIMED/SABER instrument and the NRLMSISE-00 empirical model results as a further validation.

  12. Dispersion Decay and Scattering Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Komech, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    A simplified, yet rigorous treatment of scattering theory methods and their applications Dispersion Decay and Scattering Theory provides thorough, easy-to-understand guidance on the application of scattering theory methods to modern problems in mathematics, quantum physics, and mathematical physics. Introducing spectral methods with applications to dispersion time-decay and scattering theory, this book presents, for the first time, the Agmon-Jensen-Kato spectral theory for the Schr?dinger equation, extending the theory to the Klein-Gordon equation. The dispersion decay plays a crucial role i

  13. Decay Theory of Immediate Memory: From Brown (1958) to Today (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Timothy J.; Vergauwe, Evie; Cowan, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    This work takes a historical approach to discussing Brown’s (1958) paper, “Some Tests of the Decay Theory of Immediate Memory”. This work was and continues to be extremely influential in the field of forgetting over the short-term. Its primary importance is in establishing a theoretical basis to consider a process of fundamental importance, memory decay. Brown (1958) established that time-based explanations of forgetting can account for both memory capacity and forgetting of information over short periods of time. We discuss this view both in the context of the intellectual climate at the time of the paper’s publication and in the context of the modern intellectual climate. The overarching theme we observe is that decay is as controversial now as it was in the 1950s and 1960s. PMID:24853316

  14. VCSELs in short-pulse operation for time-of-flight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moench, Holger; Gronenborn, Stephan; Gu, Xi; Gudde, Ralph; Herper, Markus; Kolb, Johanna; Miller, Michael; Smeets, Michael; Weigl, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    VCSEL arrays are the ideal light source for 3D imaging applications. The narrow emission spectrum and the ability for short pulses make them superior to LEDs. Combined with fast photodiodes or special camera chips spatial information can be obtained which is needed in diverse applications like camera autofocus, indoor navigation, 3D-object recognition, augmented reality or autonomously driving vehicles. Pulse operation at the ns scale and at low duty cycle can work with significantly higher current than traditionally used for VCSELs in continuous wave operation. With reduced thermal limitations at low average heat dissipation very high currents become feasible and tens of Watts output power have been realized with small VCSEL chips. The optical emission pattern of VCSELs can be tailored to the desired field of view using beam shaping elements. Such optical elements also enable laser safe class 1 products. A detailed analysis of the complete system and the operation mode is required to calculate the maximum permitted power for a safe system. The good VCSEL properties like robustness, stability over temperature and the potential for integrated solutions open a huge potential for VCSELs in new mass applications in the consumer and automotive markets.

  15. Short- and long-term effects of real-time medication monitoring with short message service (SMS) reminders for missed doses on the refill adherence of people with Type 2 diabetes: evidence from a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloet, M.; Dijk, L. van; Bakker, D.H. de; Souverein, P.C.; Santen-Reestman, J.; Vlijmen, B. van; Aarle, M.C.W. van; Hoek, L.S. van der; Bouvy, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To investigate short- and long-term effects of real-time monitoring medication use combined with short message service (SMS) reminders for missed doses on refill adherence to oral anti-diabetic medication. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with two intervention groups and one control

  16. Incorporating geostrophic wind information for improved space–time short-term wind speed forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin; Bowman, Kenneth P.; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    pressure, temperature, and other meteorological variables, no improvement in forecasting accuracy was found by incorporating air pressure and temperature directly into an advanced space-time statistical forecasting model, the trigonometric direction diurnal

  17. The impact of short prehospital times on trauma center performance benchmarking: An ecologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, James P; Mann, N Clay; Hoeft, Christopher J; Buick, Jason; Karanicolas, Paul; Rizoli, Sandro; Hunt, John P; Nathens, Avery B

    2016-04-01

    Emergency medical service (EMS) prehospital times vary between regions, yet the impact of local prehospital times on trauma center (TC) performance is unknown. To inform external benchmarking efforts, we explored the impact of EMS prehospital times on the risk-adjusted rate of emergency department (ED) death and overall hospital mortality at urban TCs across the United States. We used a novel ecologic study design, linking EMS data from the National EMS Information System to TCs participating in the American College of Surgeons' Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) by destination zip code. This approach provided EMS times for populations of injured patients transported to TQIP centers. We defined the exposure of interest as the 90th percentile total prehospital time (PHT) for each TC. TCs were then stratified by PHT quartile. Analyses were limited to adult patients with severe blunt or penetrating trauma, transported directly by land to urban TQIP centers. Random-intercept multilevel modeling was used to evaluate the risk-adjusted relationship between PHT quartile and the outcomes of ED death and overall hospital mortality. During the study period, 119,740 patients met inclusion criteria at 113 TCs. ED death occurred in 1% of patients, and overall mortality was 7.2%. Across all centers, the median PHT was 61 minutes (interquartile range, 53-71 minutes). After risk adjustment, TCs in regions with the shortest quartile of PHTs (<53 minutes) had significantly greater odds of ED death compared with those with the longest PHTs (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-2.78). However, there was no association between PHT and overall TC mortality. At urban TCs, local EMS prehospital times are a significant predictor of ED death. However, no relationship exists between prehospital time and overall TC risk-adjusted mortality. Therefore, there is no evidence for the inclusion of EMS prehospital time in external benchmarking analyses.

  18. Short-Term Wave Forecasting for Real-Time Control of Wave Energy Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, Francesco; Ringwood, John

    2010-01-01

    Real-time control of wave energy converters requires knowledge of future incident wave elevation in order to approach optimal efficiency of wave energy extraction. We present an approach where the wave elevation is treated as a time series and it is predicted only from its past history. A comparison of a range of forecasting methodologies on real wave observations from two different locations shows how the relatively simple linear autoregressive model, which implicitly models the cyclical beh...

  19. RubiShort: Reducing scan time in 82Rb heart scans to minimize movements artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jeppe; Vraa, Kaspar J.; Harms, Hans

    .013x, R2=0.98; %Reversible: y=1.008x, R2=0.95; TPD: y=1.000x, R2=0.99). Conclusion:, Scan time of myocardial perfusion scans using 82Rb can be reduced from 7 min. to 5 min. without loss of quantitative accuracy. Since patient motion is frequent in the last minutes of the scans, scan time reduction...

  20. Dead-time corrections on long-interval measurements of short-lived activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irfan, M.

    1977-01-01

    A method has been proposed to make correction for counting losses due to dead time where the counting interval is comparable to or larger than the half-life of the activity under investigation. Counts due to background and any long-lived activity present in the source have been taken into consideration. The method is, under certain circumstances, capable of providing a valuable check on the accuracy of the dead time of the counting system. (Auth.)

  1. Association between prehospital time interval and short-term outcome in acute heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Kohsaka, Shun; Miyata, Hiroaki; Yoshikawa, Tsutomu; Takagi, Atsutoshi; Harada, Kazumasa; Miyamoto, Takamichi; Sakai, Tetsuo; Nagao, Ken; Sato, Naoki; Takayama, Morimasa

    2011-09-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is one of the most frequently encountered cardiovascular conditions that can seriously affect the patient's prognosis. However, the importance of early triage and treatment initiation in the setting of AHF has not been recognized. The Tokyo Cardiac Care Unit Network Database prospectively collected information of emergency admissions to acute cardiac care facilities in 2005-2007 from 67 participating hospitals in the Tokyo metropolitan area. We analyzed records of 1,218 AHF patients transported to medical centers via emergency medical services (EMS). AHF was defined as rapid onset or change in the signs and symptoms of heart failure, resulting in the need for urgent therapy. Patients with acute coronary syndrome were excluded from this analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality. A majority of the patients were elderly (76.1 ± 11.5 years old) and male (54.1%). The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 6.0%. The median time interval between symptom onset and EMS arrival (response time) was 64 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] 26-205 minutes), and that between EMS arrival and ER arrival (transportation time) was 27 minutes (IQR 9-78 minutes). The risk-adjusted mortality increased with transportation time, but did not correlate with the response time. Those who took >45 minutes to arrive at the medical centers were at a higher risk for in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 2.24, 95% confidence interval 1.17-4.31; P = .015). Transportation time correlated with risk-adjusted mortality, and steps should be taken to reduce the EMS transfer time to improve the outcome in AHF patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Geometric patterns of time-delay plots from different cardiac rhythms and arrhythmias using short-term EKG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borracci, Raúl A; Montoya Pulvet, José D; Ingino, Carlos A; Fitz Maurice, Mario; Hirschon Prado, Alfredo; Dominé, Enrique

    2017-12-27

    To date, no systematic work has been intended to describe spatio-temporal patterns of cardiac rhythms using only short series of RR intervals, to facilitate visual or computerized-aided identification of EKG motifs for use in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to detect and classify eye-catching geometric patterns of Poincaré time-delay plots from different types of cardiac rhythms and arrhythmias using short-term EKG signals. Approximately 150-300 representative, consecutive beats were retrieved from 24-h Holter registers of 100 patients with different heart rhythms. Two-dimensional Poincaré charts were created, and the resulting geometric patterns were transformed into representative familiar eye-catching drawings to interpret different arrhythmias. Poincaré plot representation of RR interval data revealed a wide variety of visual patterns: (i) comet-shaped for sinus rhythm; (ii) torpedo-shaped for sinus bradycardia; (iii) cigarette-shaped for sinus tachycardia; (iv) butterfly-shaped for sinus tachycardia and isolated atrial premature complexes; (v) arrow-shaped for isolated premature complexes and inappropriate sinus tachycardia; (vi) inverted fan-shaped for sinus rhythm with frequent atrial premature complexes; (vii) tornado-shaped for atrial flutter and atrial tachycardia; and (viii) fan-shaped for atrial fibrillation. Modified Poincaré plots with smoothed lines connecting successive points could accurately classify different types of arrhythmias based on short RR interval sequence variability. Characteristic emergent patterns can be visually identified and eventually could be distinguished by an automatic classification system able to discern between arrhythmias. This work provides an alternative method to interpret time-delay plots obtained from short-term EKG signal recordings. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Femtosecond timing-jitter between photo-cathode laser and ultra-short electron bunches by means of hybrid compression

    CERN Document Server

    Pompili, Riccardo; Bellaveglia, M; Biagioni, A; Castorina, G; Chiadroni, E; Cianchi, A; Croia, M; Di Giovenale, D; Ferrario, M; Filippi, F; Gallo, A; Gatti, G; Giorgianni, F; Giribono, A; Li, W; Lupi, S; Mostacci, A; Petrarca, M; Piersanti, L; Di Pirro, G; Romeo, S; Scifo, J; Shpakov, V; Vaccarezza, C; Villa, F

    2017-01-01

    The generation of ultra-short electron bunches with ultra-low timing-jitter relative to the photo-cathode (PC) laser has been experimentally proved for the first time at the SPARC_LAB test-facility (INFN-LNF, Frascati) exploiting a two-stage hybrid compression scheme. The first stage employs RF-based compression (velocity-bunching), which shortens the bunch and imprints an energy chirp on it. The second stage is performed in a non-isochronous dogleg line, where the compression is completed resulting in a final bunch duration below 90 fs (rms). At the same time, the beam arrival timing-jitter with respect to the PC laser has been measured to be lower than 20 fs (rms). The reported results have been validated with numerical simulations.

  4. Femtosecond timing-jitter between photo-cathode laser and ultra-short electron bunches by means of hybrid compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompili, R; Anania, M P; Bellaveglia, M; Biagioni, A; Castorina, G; Chiadroni, E; Croia, M; Giovenale, D Di; Ferrario, M; Gallo, A; Gatti, G; Cianchi, A; Filippi, F; Giorgianni, F; Giribono, A; Lupi, S; Mostacci, A; Petrarca, M; Piersanti, L; Li, W

    2016-01-01

    The generation of ultra-short electron bunches with ultra-low timing-jitter relative to the photo-cathode (PC) laser has been experimentally proved for the first time at the SPARC-LAB test-facility (INFN-LNF, Frascati) exploiting a two-stage hybrid compression scheme. The first stage employs RF-based compression (velocity-bunching), which shortens the bunch and imprints an energy chirp on it. The second stage is performed in a non-isochronous dogleg line, where the compression is completed resulting in a final bunch duration below 90 fs (rms). At the same time, the beam arrival timing-jitter with respect to the PC laser has been measured to be lower than 20 fs (rms). The reported results have been validated with numerical simulations. (paper)

  5. Markov Chain Modelling for Short-Term NDVI Time Series Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepčenko Artūrs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the NDVI time series forecasting model has been developed based on the use of discrete time, continuous state Markov chain of suitable order. The normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI is an indicator that describes the amount of chlorophyll (the green mass and shows the relative density and health of vegetation; therefore, it is an important variable for vegetation forecasting. A Markov chain is a stochastic process that consists of a state space. This stochastic process undergoes transitions from one state to another in the state space with some probabilities. A Markov chain forecast model is flexible in accommodating various forecast assumptions and structures. The present paper discusses the considerations and techniques in building a Markov chain forecast model at each step. Continuous state Markov chain model is analytically described. Finally, the application of the proposed Markov chain model is illustrated with reference to a set of NDVI time series data.

  6. Efficacy and cytotoxicity of a bleaching gel after short application times on dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Diana Gabriela; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Dias; da Silveira Vargas, Fernanda; Hebling, Josimeri; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and correlate the efficacy and cytotoxicity of a 35 % hydrogen peroxide (HP) bleaching gel after different application times on dental enamel. Enamel/dentin disks in artificial pulp chambers were placed in wells containing culture medium. The following groups were formed: G1, control (no bleaching); G2 and G3, three or one 15-min bleaching applications, respectively; and G4 and G5, three or one 5-min bleaching applications, respectively. Extracts (culture medium with bleaching gel components) were applied for 60 min on cultured odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells. Cell metabolism (methyl tetrazolium assay) (Kruskal-Wallis/Mann-Whitney; α = 5 %) and cell morphology (scanning electron microscopy) were analyzed immediately after the bleaching procedures and the trans-enamel and trans-dentinal HP diffusion quantified (one-way analysis of variance/Tukey's test; α = 5 %). The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was evaluated 24 h after the contact time of the extracts with the cells (Kruskal-Wallis/Mann-Whitney; α = 5 %). Tooth color was analyzed before and 24 h after bleaching using a spectrophotometer according to the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*a*b* system (Kruskal-Wallis/Mann-Whitney; α = 0.05). Significant difference (p 0.05). The lowest amount of HP diffusion was observed in G5 (p 0.05). HP diffusion through dental tissues and its cytotoxic effects were proportional to the contact time of the bleaching gel with enamel. However, shorter bleaching times reduced bleaching efficacy. Shortening the in-office tooth bleaching time could be an alternative to minimize the cytotoxic effects of this clinical procedure to pulp tissue. However, the reduced time of bleaching agent application on enamel may not provide adequate esthetic outcome.

  7. An evaluation of the optimum timing for planting short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D.J.; Jefferies, R.; Parfitt, R.

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to determine the optimum timing for planting, evaluate problems due to late planting in the spring, and to study the planting of willows at different times during the autumn. Details are given of the site installation, previous research on the effect of planting date and storage, and assessment of the establishment and biomass productivity and the viability of cuttings in long-term storage. Charts illustrating biomass productivity are presented, and long-term storage of willow cuttings for autumn planting is discussed.

  8. Economic incentives of short out-of-reactor time for fast breeder reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, B.W.; Haffner, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    Economic benefits (primarily reduced uranium ore and enrichment expenditures) can be realized by reducing the LMFBR out-of-reactor fuel cycle time only if process cost penalties and R and D costs can be minimized. The results of the evaluation presented show the potential gross benefits of reducing the out-of-reactor time and the effects of various associated cost penalties on these benefits. The gross benefit results estimate the potential savings in electrical power generation in the next 50 years using constant 1975 dollars and discounting the costs at 7 1 / 2 percent per year

  9. Time-resolved plasma spectroscopy of thin foils heated by a relativistic-intensity short-pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audebert, P.; Gauthier, J.-C.; Shepherd, R.; Fournier, K.B.; Price, D.; Lee, R.W.; Springer, P.; Peyrusse, O.; Klein, L.

    2002-01-01

    Time-resolved K-shell x-ray spectra are recorded from sub-100 nm aluminum foils irradiated by 150-fs laser pulses at relativistic intensities of Iλ 2 =2x10 18 W μm 2 /cm 2 . The thermal penetration depth is greater than the foil thickness in these targets so that uniform heating takes place at constant density before hydrodynamic motion occurs. The high-contrast, high-intensity laser pulse, broad spectral band, and short time resolution utilized in this experiment permit a simplified interpretation of the dynamical evolution of the radiating matter. The observed spectrum displays two distinct phases. At early time, ≤500 fs after detecting target emission, a broad quasicontinuous spectral feature with strong satellite emission from multiply excited levels is seen. At a later time, the He-like resonance line emission is dominant. The time-integrated data is in accord with previous studies with time resolution greater than 1 ps. The early time satellite emission is shown to be a signature of an initial large area, high density, low-temperature plasma created in the foil by fast electrons accelerated by the intense radiation field in the laser spot. We conclude that, because of this early time phenomenon and contrary to previous predictions, a short, high-intensity laser pulse incident on a thin foil does not create a uniform hot and dense plasma. The heating mechanism has been studied as a function of foil thickness, laser pulse length, and intensity. In addition, the spectra are found to be in broad agreement with a hydrodynamic expansion code postprocessed by a collisional-radiative model based on superconfiguration average rates and on the unresolved transition array formalism

  10. Advanced Time-Delayed Coincidence Studies of $^{31,32}$Mg from the $\\beta$-decays of $^{31,32}$Na

    CERN Multimedia

    Marechal, F; Plociennik, W A

    2002-01-01

    It is proposed to study the lifetime of the 2$_{1}^{+}$ 885.4 keV state in $^{32}$Mg by means of Advanced Time-Delayed $\\beta \\gamma \\gamma$(t) method with the precision in the half-life value of about $\\pm$ 1.5 ps. This would be an independent verification of the B(E2; 0$_{1}^{+} \\rightarrow$ 2$_{1}^{+}$) values obtained so far in a few studies using Coulomb excitations at intermediate beam energies. The advantage of time-delayed coincidence measurements is that they are free of corrections used in the Coulex studies, which strongly affect the deduced B(E2) results. In addition, we propose to study the lifetimes or lifetime limits of other states in nuclei populated in the decays of $^{31}$Na and $^{32}$Na, specifically focusing on the intruder negative parity band in $^{31}$Mg. As a side benefit to this investigation we expect high-quality $\\gamma \\gamma$ coincidences to reveal new excited states in both $^{31}$Mg and $^{32}$Mg. Our results from a brief test-measurement yield a lifetime of T$_{1/2}$ = 10.5(...

  11. Highly efficient indoor air purification using adsorption-enhanced-photocatalysis-based microporous TiO2 at short residence time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jinze; Zhu, Lizhong

    2013-01-01

    A short residence time is a key design parameter for the removal of organic pollutants in catalyst-based indoor air purification systems. In this study, we synthesized a series of TiO2 with different micropore volumes and studied their removal efficiency of indoor carbonyl pollutants at a short residence time. Our results indicated that the superior adsorption capability of TiO2 with micropores improved its performance in the photocatalytic degradation of cyclohexanone, while the photocatalytic removal of the pollutant successfully kept porous TiO2 from becoming saturated. When treated with 1 mg m(-3) cyclohexanone at a relatively humidity of 18%, the adsorption amount on microporous TiO2 was 5.4-7.9 times higher than that on P25. Removal efficiency via photocatalysis followed'the same order as the adsorption amount: TiO2-5 > TiO2-20 > TiO2-60 > TiO2-180 > P25. The advantage of microporous TiO2 over P25 became more pronounced when the residence time declined from 0.072 to 0.036 s. Moreover, as the concentration of cyclohexanone deceased from 1000 ppb to 500 ppb, removal efficiency by microporous TiO2 increased more rapidly than P25.

  12. Is the travel time of private roads too short, too long, or just right?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, V.A.C.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2012-01-01

    We consider price and service-quality setting in oligopolistic markets for congestible services, applied to the case of private roads. Previous studies show that parallel competitors set a volume/capacity ratio (and thereby a travel time or service quality) that is socially optimal if they take the

  13. Short time window for transmissibility of African swine fever virus from a contaminated environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, A S; Lohse, L; Boklund, A.

    2018-01-01

    pens after 3, 5 or 7 days did not develop any signs of ASFV infection and no viral DNA was detected in blood samples obtained from these pigs within the following 3 weeks. Thus, it was shown that exposure of pigs to an environment contaminated with ASFV can result in infection. However, the time window...

  14. The Estimation of Short Time Intervals as a Function of Age and Metronome Pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Donald W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The time judgments of the older participants were significantly and systematically determined by a metronome rate. Results are consistent with the notion of increased field-dependence among older persons and suggest that their greater social conformity and their inability to ignore irrelevant stimuli might also be explicable. (Author)

  15. Short-time existence of solutions for mean-field games with congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Voskanyan, Vardan K.

    2015-01-01

    We consider time-dependent mean-field games with congestion that are given by a Hamilton–Jacobi equation coupled with a Fokker–Planck equation. These models are motivated by crowd dynamics in which agents have difficulty moving in high-density areas

  16. Comparison Groups in Short Interrupted Time-Series: An Illustration Evaluating No Child Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Manyee; Cook, Thomas D.; Steiner, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    Interrupted time-series (ITS) are often used to assess the causal effect of a planned or even unplanned shock introduced into an on-going process. The pre-intervention slope is supposed to index the causal counterfactual, and deviations from it in mean, slope or variance are used to indicate an effect. However, a secure causal inference is only…

  17. Short-time effect of heavy metals upon microbial community activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei; Yao Jun; Si Yang; Chen Huilun; Russel, Mohammad; Chen Ke; Qian Yiguang; Zaray, Gyula; Bramanti, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    Microcalorimetry was applied to assess and compare the toxic effect of heavy metals, such as As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, Pb and Zn, on the soil microbial activities and community. About 1.0 g soil spiked 5.0 mg glucose and 5.0 mg ammonium sulfate, the microbial activities were recorded as power-time curves, and their indices, microbial growth rate constant k, total heat evolution Q T , metabolic enthalpy ΔH met and mass specific heat rate J Q/S , were calculated. Comparing these thermodynamic parameters associated with growth yield, a general order of toxicity to the soil was found to be Cr > Pb > As > Co > Zn > Cd > Cu. When soil was exposed to heavy metals, the amount of bacteria and fungi decreased with the incubation time, and the bacterial number diminished sharply. It illustrates that fungi are more tolerant, and bacteria-fungi ratio would be altered under metal stress. To determine the status of the glucose consumed, a glucose biosensor with eggshell membrane was used to measure the remaining glucose in soil sample. Results showed that the time at which glucose was consumed completely was agreed with the microcalorimetric time to a large extent, and depended on the toxicity of heavy metals as well.

  18. Short-time effect of heavy metals upon microbial community activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Yao, Jun; Si, Yang; Chen, Huilun; Russel, Mohammad; Chen, Ke; Qian, Yiguang; Zaray, Gyula; Bramanti, Emilia

    2010-01-15

    Microcalorimetry was applied to assess and compare the toxic effect of heavy metals, such as As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, Pb and Zn, on the soil microbial activities and community. About 1.0 g soil spiked 5.0mg glucose and 5.0mg ammonium sulfate, the microbial activities were recorded as power-time curves, and their indices, microbial growth rate constant k, total heat evolution Q(T), metabolic enthalpy Delta H(met) and mass specific heat rate J(Q/S), were calculated. Comparing these thermodynamic parameters associated with growth yield, a general order of toxicity to the soil was found to be Cr>Pb>As>Co>Zn>Cd>Cu. When soil was exposed to heavy metals, the amount of bacteria and fungi decreased with the incubation time, and the bacterial number diminished sharply. It illustrates that fungi are more tolerant, and bacteria-fungi ratio would be altered under metal stress. To determine the status of the glucose consumed, a glucose biosensor with eggshell membrane was used to measure the remaining glucose in soil sample. Results showed that the time at which glucose was consumed completely was agreed with the microcalorimetric time to a large extent, and depended on the toxicity of heavy metals as well.

  19. Short-time effect of heavy metals upon microbial community activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fei [Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology of Chinese Ministry of Education and Sino-Hungarian Joint Laboratory of Environmental Science and Health and School of Environmental Sciences, China University of Geosciences, 430074 Wuhan (China); Yao Jun, E-mail: yaojun@cug.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology of Chinese Ministry of Education and Sino-Hungarian Joint Laboratory of Environmental Science and Health and School of Environmental Sciences, China University of Geosciences, 430074 Wuhan (China); Si Yang; Chen Huilun; Russel, Mohammad; Chen Ke; Qian Yiguang [Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology of Chinese Ministry of Education and Sino-Hungarian Joint Laboratory of Environmental Science and Health and School of Environmental Sciences, China University of Geosciences, 430074 Wuhan (China); Zaray, Gyula [Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Chemistry, Eoetvoes University, H-1518 Budapest, P.O. Box 32 (Hungary); Bramanti, Emilia [Laboratory of Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, Institute for Chemical and Physical Processes, Area di Ricerca, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    Microcalorimetry was applied to assess and compare the toxic effect of heavy metals, such as As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, Pb and Zn, on the soil microbial activities and community. About 1.0 g soil spiked 5.0 mg glucose and 5.0 mg ammonium sulfate, the microbial activities were recorded as power-time curves, and their indices, microbial growth rate constant k, total heat evolution Q{sub T}, metabolic enthalpy {Delta}H{sub met} and mass specific heat rate J{sub Q/S}, were calculated. Comparing these thermodynamic parameters associated with growth yield, a general order of toxicity to the soil was found to be Cr > Pb > As > Co > Zn > Cd > Cu. When soil was exposed to heavy metals, the amount of bacteria and fungi decreased with the incubation time, and the bacterial number diminished sharply. It illustrates that fungi are more tolerant, and bacteria-fungi ratio would be altered under metal stress. To determine the status of the glucose consumed, a glucose biosensor with eggshell membrane was used to measure the remaining glucose in soil sample. Results showed that the time at which glucose was consumed completely was agreed with the microcalorimetric time to a large extent, and depended on the toxicity of heavy metals as well.

  20. Physiological Correlations with Short, Medium, and Long Cycling Time-Trial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borszcz, Fernando K.; Tramontin, Artur F.; de Souza, Kristopher M.; Carminatti, Lorival J.; Costa, Vitor P.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Several studies have demonstrated that physiological variables predict cycling endurance performance. However, it is still unclear whether the predictors will change over different performance durations. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations between physiological variables and cycling time trials with different durations.…