WorldWideScience

Sample records for short daylight sd

  1. 76 FR 1985 - Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC Model SD3 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC Model SD3 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA..., at an average labor rate of $85 per work hour. Required parts cost about $10 per product. Based on.... The average labor rate is $85 per work-hour. Based on these figures, we estimate the cost of the AD on...

  2. Effect of short-term simulated daylight exposure on optically brightened papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Phil; Honess, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Two optically brightened commercial papers were subjected to 72 hours continuous exposure to graphic arts daylight simulating fluorescent lamps at 1.4 and 4.4 klux. At the higher illuminance level, a CIELAB colour difference of 1.0 was reached in approximately 3 and 50 hours for the two papers. The colour differences produced by the 1.4 klux exposure were greater than that predicted by assuming a linear relationship between intensity and colour change, by a factor of 1.8.

  3. Daylight Science and Daylighting Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kittler, Richard; Darula, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Sunlight profoundly influences the Earth's atmosphere and biosphere. Nature fuels the evolution of all living things, their visual systems, and the manner in which they adapt, accommodate, and habituate. Sun luminance measurements serve as data to calculate typical changes in the daily, monthly, and annual variability characteristics of daylight. Climate-based sky luminance patterns are used as models in predicting daylighting calculation and computer programs applied in architecture and building design. Historically, daylight science and daylighting technology has prioritized photometric methods of measurements, calculation, and graphical tools aimed at predicting or evaluating the daylighting of architectural design alternatives. However, due to a heightened awareness of general health and well-being, sunlight exposure and freedom from visual discomfort while undertaking visual tasks are now equally prioritized. Therefore, in order to assure optimal environmental quality, daylighting technology must be base...

  4. 75 FR 46864 - Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC Model SD3 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ...-0225; Directorate Identifier 2009-NM-203-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC... this proposed AD, contact Short Brothers PLC, Airworthiness, P.O. Box 241, Airport Road, Belfast, BT3... amend this proposed AD based on those comments. We will post all comments we receive, without change, to...

  5. Scan direction induced charging dynamics and the application for detection of gate to S/D shorts in logic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Tian, Qing; Wu, Kevin; Zhao, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Gate to source/drain (S/D) short is the most common and detrimental failure mechanism for advanced process technology development in Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Field-Effect-Transistor (MOSFET) device manufacturing. Especially for sub-1Xnm nodes, MOSFET device is more vulnerable to gate-S/D shorts due to the aggressive scaling. The detection of this kind of electrical short defect is always challenging for in-line electron beam inspection (EBI), especially new shorting mechanisms on atomic scale due to new material/process flow implementation. The second challenge comes from the characterization of the shorts including identification of the exact shorting location. In this paper, we demonstrate unique scan direction induced charging dynamics (SDCD) phenomenon which stems from the transistor level response from EBI scan at post metal contact chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) layers. We found that SDCD effect is exceptionally useful for gate-S/D short induced voltage contrast (VC) defect detection, especially for identification of shorting locations. The unique SDCD effect signatures of gate-S/D shorts can be used as fingerprint for ground true shorting defect detection. Correlation with other characterization methods on the same defective location from EBI scan shows consistent results from various shorting mechanism. A practical work flow to implement the application of SDCD effect for in-line EBI monitor of critical gate-S/D short defects is also proposed, together with examples of successful application use cases which mostly focus on static random-access memory (SRAM) array regions. Although the capability of gate-S/D short detection as well as expected device response is limited to passing transistors and pull-down transistors due to the design restriction from standard 6-cell SRAM structure, SDCD effect is proven to be very effective for gate-S/D short induced VC defect detection as well as yield learning for advanced technology development.

  6. Daylight calculations in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Anne; Roy, Nicolas; Hvass, Mette

    The aim of the project was to obtain a better understanding of what daylight calculations show and also to gain knowledge of how the different daylight simulation programs perform compared with each other. Experience has shown that results for the same room, obtained from two daylight simulation...... programs can give different results. This can be due to restrictions in the program itself and/or be due to the skills of the persons setting up the models. This is crucial as daylight calculations are used to document that the demands and recommendations to daylight levels outlined by building authorities....... The aim of the project was to obtain a better understanding of what daylight calculations show and also to gain knowledge of how the different daylight simulation programs perform compared with each other. Furthermore the aim was to provide knowledge of how to build up the 3D models that were...

  7. Capturing the Daylight Dividend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Boyce; Claudia Hunter; Owen Howlett

    2006-04-30

    Capturing the Daylight Dividend conducted activities to build market demand for daylight as a means of improving indoor environmental quality, overcoming technological barriers to effective daylighting, and informing and assisting state and regional market transformation and resource acquisition program implementation efforts. The program clarified the benefits of daylight by examining whole building systems energy interactions between windows, lighting, heating, and air conditioning in daylit buildings, and daylighting's effect on the human circadian system and productivity. The project undertook work to advance photosensors, dimming systems, and ballasts, and provided technical training in specifying and operating daylighting controls in buildings. Future daylighting work is recommended in metric development, technology development, testing, training, education, and outreach.

  8. Rethinking daylighting and compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mardaljevic

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Daylight in buildings is the natural illumination experienced by the occupants of any man-made construction with openings to the outside. Our attempts to formulate some measure of daylight provision in buildings can be traced back over a century, and the daylight factor as we know it today is over 50 years old. Still the most common measure found in guidelines and recommendations worldwide, the daylight factor is used routinely and, it is fair to say, often rather uncritically. The consideration of daylight in buildings has received a new impetus from the accumulation of evidence on the wider benefits of daylight exposure. But it is continuing to prove difficult to advance beyond daylight factors towards a more realistic quantification of daylighting performance that would allow us to accommodate these new considerations in an evaluative schema. This paper examines the basis of current practice with respect to daylight evaluation, and suggests a few ways in which it can be improved with relatively modest additional effort. The paper also critiques some of the recent attempts to advance daylight evaluation by incremental means using so-called “clear sky options”.

  9. Welcome to the Journal of Daylighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ullah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available I am delighted to welcome you to a newly launched Solarlits electronic journal: the Journal of Daylighting (JD. As the Editor-in-Chief of JD it is a great pleasure to introduce the inaugural issue of this new, open-access, bi-annual journal to readers, researchers, future authors, and colleagues. The decision by SolarLits to launch this new journal is very timely. Because the growth of lighting demand is increasing due to rising average illuminance levels in buildings, more attention has been paid to introduce daylighting in buildings, which will sustainably reduce the overall energy consumption in buildings. JD will serve as a new international platform for researchers to share advances in daylighting. As an international, peer-reviewed research journal it will exclusively cover the vibrant and diverse field of daylighting technologies and applications. JD will serve as an interdisciplinary forum for the scientific and research community active in daylighting and its applications. Topics will include, but not limited to: daylighting and hybrid lighting systems, lighting and daylighting simulation, lighting designs, lighting metrology and light quality, lighting control, building physics - lighting, building energy modeling, energy efficient buildings, zero-energy buildings, indoor environment quality, sustainable solar energy systems, application of solar energy sources in buildings, building-integrated photovoltaics, and solar thermal and concentrator technology. I will work with the Associate Editors, the Editorial Board, and the scientific and engineering research community to make JD a primary journal for the dissemination of breakthrough results, discussion of key challenges, and topics in daylighting. JD will publish full-length research articles, review articles, book reviews, and short communications.

  10. Daylight utilisation in office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Jens

    This Ph.D. thesis presents the qualitative and quantitative consequences of full-scale measurements on two daylighting systems, light shelf and Venetian blinds. The systems were investigated to assess their ability to increase daylight penetration and improve daylight distribution in the interior...... the benefits and difficulties regarding use of daylight in office buildings, but it is hoped that the report will provide daylight conscious building design in forthcoming non-domestic buil dings....

  11. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  12. Designing with daylight; the relationship between daylight and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    and the significance of daylight. This paper describes the views and significance of daylight to people in their everyday lives. Based on a qualitative research project in Denmark about the use of windows, performed from May to August 2012 among 13 families , using in-depth interviews, observations, photos...... and postcards for storytelling, I will show how daylight is perceived, used, coped with, and negotiated by these people in their homes, thus exploring the social character of a natural phenomenon. A metaphor will be used from biomimetics (Benyus 1997), claiming that the Danish people, like plants, need daylight....... With the concept of ‘dwelling’ (Ingold 2000), which implies that people engage in their environment and create possibilities for dwelling at home to feel comfortable and at home in the world, I illustrate people’s day-to-day entanglements with daylight and highlight the social qualities of daylight. The paper...

  13. A randomized, multicentre study of directed daylight exposure times of 11/2 vs. 21/2 h in daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolaevulinate in patients with multiple thin actinic keratoses of the face and scalp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Fabricius, S.; Philipsen, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    , time of day or time of year during which the treatment was performed. Treatment was well tolerated, with a mean ± SD maximal pain score of 1·3 ± 1·5. Conclusions: Daylight-mediated MAL-PDT is an effective, convenient and nearly pain-free treatment for patients with multiple thin AKs. Daylight-mediated......, the inconvenience of clinic attendance and discomfort during therapy are significant drawbacks. Daylight-mediated PDT could potentially reduce these and may serve as an alternative to conventional PDT. Objectives: To compare the efficacy of methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL)-PDT with 11/2 vs. 21/2 h of daylight exposure...

  14. Colour Mixing Based on Daylight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

  15. Advanced fenestration and daylighting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCluney, R. [Florida Solar Energy Centere, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Advanced fenestration systems are new high-performance glazing and reflecting systems for otherwise conventional windows which offer specialized spectral and /or angular selectivity to provide improved illumination quantity and quality under optimal human comfort and energy conservation conditions. Advanced daylighting systems include systems manufactured by the solar lighting industry to introduce daylight into the core spaces of multi-storey buildings, spaces distant from the building envelope, or other locations where more conventional daylighting apertures cannot be placed. Details of operating, energy and illumination performance characteristics of both these systems were provided. It was concluded that solar lighting systems can effectively provide daylight illumination to interior spaces of a building that are not amenable to more conventional systems. Nevertheless, techniques need to be developed to predict the performance of such systems prior to their being built, so as to provide designers better means for justifying their use and economic viability, and to develop codes and performance standards to protect the consumer in the marketplace. 20 refs., 12 figs.

  16. Lightpipe applications for daylighting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, A.; Kaase, H.

    One of the main research activities of the Institute of Lighting at Technical University of Berlin concerns efficient daylight utilisation in buildings. In recent years, several national and international projects have been and are still carried out. One of them, the European research project

  17. Daylight as a building material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thule Kristensen, Peter; Madsen, Merete

    2005-01-01

    The article draws on examples to chronologically trace the use of daylight as building material in architecture of the 20th and early 21st century. The essay covers works of Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Erik Bryggman, Rudolf Schwarz, Alvar Aalto, Aldo Rossi, Jørn Utzon, Daniel Libeskind, Peter...

  18. Daylight photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, Stine; Wulf, H C; Szeimies, R-M

    2011-01-01

    clinic visits and discomfort during therapy. In this article, we critically review daylight-mediated PDT, which is a simpler and more tolerable treatment procedure for PDT. We review the effective light dose, efficacy and safety, the need for prior application of sunscreen, and potential clinical scope...... of daylight-PDT. Three randomized controlled studies have shown that daylight-mediated PDT is an effective treatment of thin AKs. Daylight-mediated PDT is nearly pain-free and more convenient for both the clinics and patients. Daylight-mediated PDT is especially suited for patients with large field......-cancerized areas, which can easily be exposed to daylight. Further investigations are necessary to determine at which time of the year and in which weather conditions daylight-mediated PDT will be possible in different geographical locations....

  19. Colour mixing based on daylight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large region of the colour space can be covered by mixing three primary colours derived from lossless spectral decomposition of daylight. These primaries are specified by hue, saturation and luminosity. Duality of additive and subtractive mixing is formulated quantitatively. Experimental demonstrations of calculated results are suggested. This paper is intended for undergraduate optics courses, and advanced interdisciplinary seminars on arts and physics

  20. Light and energy - daylight measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoffersen, Jens; Logadottir, A.; Traberg-Borup, S.; Barrie-Nielsen, K.

    2009-07-01

    All measurements where conducted in the spring of 2007, except the Interpane panel. The solar cell panels have been evaluated by three performance indicators to assess the daylight quantity within the room and the systems ability to maintain view to the outside. In the study, we used two performance indicators to assess the daylight quantity within the room: 1. the daylight factor (overcast sky) 2. the relative work plane illuminance (clear sky condition) Overcast sky: In general, all panels provided less daylight than the recommended requirement in the Danish Building Regulation of 2% on the work plane. This will most likely result in additional need for electric lighting. However, larger window areas and more parts of the facade with clear unobstructed glass may be one solution. Clear sky: In general, all panels provided less interior light levels than the two reference systems in the back of the room. Almost all systems aloud more or less direct sunlight in the window perimeter through the clear openings and additional needs for some kind of shading device is to be expected. Some systems blocked a large portion of the light in the majority of the room, and additional electric light in this part of the room may be needed. Only one performance indicator where used to describe the quality of the panels. View: In general, all panels, except two, obstruct the view significantly and cause figure/background confusion for a view position close to the window and the discrepancies of colour judgements. Only two systems provided a fairly clear view to the outside without to much distortion of the view. (au)

  1. Daylighting, Space, and Architecture: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Hafiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Daylighting dynamism and constant change can characterize buildings and spaces with a living quality that cannot be achieved with any other design element. However, daylighting can create unwanted lighting conditions in the visual field causing discomfort and glare. This may affect the performance of building occupants such as workers or students. Consequently, designing for daylighting needs a good understanding of daylighting. Designers can rely on information from simulation software to re-imagine the space, especially to examine possible unexpected visual discomfort conditions.This paper aims to represent different visual comfort evaluation methods that can help decision-makers make better informed decisions. Different definitions and structures associated with daylight and glare are examined. It also presents a review of the literature of previous research conducted on daylighting, visual comfort analysis and glare studies.

  2. Daylight metrics and energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-12-31

    The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.

  3. Daylighting Strategies Promote Healthy High Performance Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Steve

    2010-01-01

    There are many reasons to incorporate daylighting into the building or renovation of K-16 learning facilities. Benefits include increased productivity for students and staff, improved health, a better connection to the outdoors, energy savings and better quality of light. Add the role daylighting can play in LEED certification and it's clear that…

  4. Adaptive integration of daylight and artificial lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve

    2016-01-01

    Daylight is dynamic and dependent upon weather conditions; unfolding with both subtle and dramatic variations in qualities of light. Through a building’s apertures, daylight creates a connection between the space inside and the world outside. The aperture or window itself constitutes the frame...... with the world. In contrast to fluctuating daylight, a specific distinctive feature of artificial light has been – until very recently – its constancy in colour and intensity. However, by virtue of the technological convertibility of LEDs in concert with digital control systems, LEDs are capable of dynamically...... producing variations in colour and intensity in ways that correspond to our experiences of the daylight. Daylight and artificial lighting are thus positioned in a new relationship to one another. Metaphorically, one can think of the adaptive software as ‘digital weather’ – as a self-generating and shifting...

  5. Evaluation of Daylight Availability for Energy Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bellia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic daylight simulations are very useful instruments in daylighting design process. They allow an in depth analysis of indoor daylight availability levels and define if they are adequate to perform a particular visual task. Their results can be used to design shading devices or lighting control systems and compare different technical solutions. The use of these simulations is likely to spread in the common design practice since some regulations and green building rating systems suggest their use. This paper presents dynamic daylight simulation results related to an open-plan office, performed with Autodesk 3ds Max Design®, which is a calculation software validated by recent researches. It is not used in academic context but it is very widespread between technicians for photorenderings production purposes. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the functionality of this software also in dynamic daylight simulations field and propose an analysis' methodology to use it.

  6. Assessment of daylight quality in simple rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kjeld; Dubois, Marie-Claude; Sørensen, Karl Grau

    The present report documents the results of a study on daylight conditions in simple rooms of residential buildings. The overall objective of the study was to develop a basis for a method for the assessment of daylight quality in a room with simple geometry and window configurations. As a tool...... in daylighting conditions for a number of lighting parameters. The results gave clear indications of, for instance, which room would be the brightest, under which conditions might glare be a problem and which type of window would yield the greatest luminous variation (or visual interest), etc....

  7. Daylight and absenteeism--evidence from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Simen; Røed, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Based on administrative register data from Norway, we examine the impact of hours of daylight on sick-leave absences among workers. Our preferred estimates imply that an additional hour of daylight increases the daily entry rate to absenteeism by 0.5 percent and the corresponding recovery rate by 0.8 percent, ceteris paribus. The overall relationship between absenteeism and daylight hours is negative. Absenteeism is also sensitive to weather conditions. Heavy snowfall raises the incidence of absence during the winter, while warm weather reduces the probability of returning to work during the summer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Daylight calculations using constant luminance curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betman, E. [CRICYT, Mendoza (Argentina). Laboratorio de Ambiente Humano y Vivienda

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a simple method to manually estimate daylight availability and to make daylight calculations using constant luminance curves calculated with local illuminance and irradiance data and the all-weather model for sky luminance distribution developed in the Atmospheric Science Research Center of the University of New York (ARSC) by Richard Perez et al. Work with constant luminance curves has the advantage that daylight calculations include the problem's directionality and preserve the information of the luminous climate of the place. This permits accurate knowledge of the resource and a strong basis to establish conclusions concerning topics related to the energy efficiency and comfort in buildings. The characteristics of the proposed method are compared with the method that uses the daylight factor. (author)

  9. Modeling daylight from solar irradiation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.Z.; Sayigh, A.A.K.; Surendran, P.N.; Othman, M.Y.

    1999-01-01

    The oil crises in the seventies, the environmental impact by the extensive use of energy in the nineties and the recent economic recession in Asia have led to the rediscovery of the use of daylight in energy-conscious design in buildings, the economic implication of the excessive use of artificial lighting in potential of daylight. No daylight data is currently available in Malaysia and therefore there is a need to model the daylight availability based on other climatic parameters measured at meteorological stations. A study has been carried out to produce daylight data from measured climatic parameters, specifically solar irradiation and could cover. The Model Year Climate (MYC) data for the location of Subang (3 deg. 7', N 101 deg. 33' E), model to estimate daily diffuse irradiation was produced the average values of global (KG) and diffuse (KD) luminous efficacious were calculated and found to be 112 lm/W and 120 lm/W respectively. The value of 104 lm/W for the beam luminous efficacy (KB) was selected. Using cloud data cover data as input parameters, the nebulosity index was calculated to determine the sky condition in Subang, Malaysia, which was then classified as average or intermediate sky type, the hourly illuminance on horizontal and inclined surfaces at locations with similar sky conditions in Malaysia were then produced. (author)

  10. Comparative Study of Daylighting Calculation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandala Ariani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess five daylighting calculation method commonly used in architectural study. The methods used include hand calculation methods (SNI/DPMB method and BRE Daylighting Protractors, scale models studied in an artificial sky simulator and computer programs using Dialux and Velux lighting software. The test room is conditioned by the uniform sky conditions, simple room geometry with variations of the room reflectance (black, grey, and white color. The analyses compared the result (including daylight factor, illumination, and coefficient of uniformity value and examines the similarity and contrast the result different. The color variations trial is used to analyses the internally reflection factor contribution to the result.

  11. THE CASE FOR DAYLIGHTING IN ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Richard

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the reasons for using daylight in the design of architectural form and space. These reasons extend from those of a practical nature, including energy conservation, cost factors, and health and wellbeing, to those of a more intangible, aesthetic nature. Some historical precedents are offered as examples of projects in which designing to maximize daylighting was crucial in the mind of the architect. By contrast there is also discussion relating to the ‘the lost art’ of using natural lighting in architecture. Some of the reasons for this loss of conviction and expertise are considered. The place of national building codes and other statutory requirements is examined, as is the role of the architect and his/her relationship with other professionals involved in daylighting design in architecture.

  12. A review of daylight illuminance determinations and energy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Danny H.W. [Building Energy Research Group, Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2010-07-15

    Daylighting is recognized as an important element in architecture and a useful strategy in energy-efficient building designs. Daylight gives a sense of cheeriness and brightness that can have a significant positive impact on the people. There is a scope for integrating daylight with electric light to reduce building energy use. The amount of daylight entering a building is mainly through window openings, which create in the indoor environment a more attractive and pleasing atmosphere, in addition to maximise visual access to the pleasant views of the outside world. Determinations of the exterior and interior daylight and lighting energy savings are key issues to demonstrate the benefits based on daylighting designs. This paper provides a review of daylight illuminance determinations and the lighting energy reductions due to daylighting schemes. The study includes daylight measurements, prediction of daylight illuminance under various sky conditions and potential electric lighting energy savings from daylight-linked lighting controls. The article aims at providing building professionals, practitioners and researchers more information and a better understanding of daylight for promoting effective daylighting designs and evaluations. (author)

  13. Workplane Illuminance Estimation for Robust Daylight Harvesting Lighting Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Birru, D.

    2012-01-01

    Daylight harvesting lighting controls can provide significant energysavings in daylit spaces. However, their performance is affected bythe changing lighting distribution in the space due to window treatments and the sun. Such impacts reduce the field performance of daylight harvesting dimming

  14. Weather conditions and daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S R; Fabricius, S; Heydenreich, J

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive therapy for nonmelanoma skin cancers and actinic keratoses (AKs). Daylight-mediated methyl aminolaevulinate PDT (daylight-PDT) is a simple and painless treatment procedure for PDT. All daylight-PDT studies have been performed in the Nordic countries...

  15. Daylight prediction techniques in energy design tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, M.; Zurick, J. [California Univ., Los Angeles, Dept. of Architecture, CA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Four different whole-building energy design tool systems that calculate energy savings from daylighting and that display annual performance on an-hour-by-hour basis, have been tested. The nature of design tools, the sources of hourly outdoor illuminance data, the ways of predicting indoor illumination, the assumptions of each tool, and the resulting energy savings of the design tools tested are discussed. The tests were carried out with the essential criteria for evaluating whole-building daylighting and energy design tools in mind. These have been identified as user confidence, accuracy, response time, and the amount of detail. Results of the tests, all four of them run on a single elementary school classroom for the sake of comparability, were provided. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Daylighting simulation: methods, algorithms, and resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, William L.

    1999-12-01

    This document presents work conducted as part of Subtask C, ''Daylighting Design Tools'', Subgroup C2, ''New Daylight Algorithms'', of the IEA SHC Task 21 and the ECBCS Program Annex 29 ''Daylight in Buildings''. The search for and collection of daylighting analysis methods and algorithms led to two important observations. First, there is a wide range of needs for different types of methods to produce a complete analysis tool. These include: Geometry; Light modeling; Characterization of the natural illumination resource; Materials and components properties, representations; and Usability issues (interfaces, interoperability, representation of analysis results, etc). Second, very advantageously, there have been rapid advances in many basic methods in these areas, due to other forces. They are in part driven by: The commercial computer graphics community (commerce, entertainment); The lighting industry; Architectural rendering and visualization for projects; and Academia: Course materials, research. This has led to a very rich set of information resources that have direct applicability to the small daylighting analysis community. Furthermore, much of this information is in fact available online. Because much of the information about methods and algorithms is now online, an innovative reporting strategy was used: the core formats are electronic, and used to produce a printed form only secondarily. The electronic forms include both online WWW pages and a downloadable .PDF file with the same appearance and content. Both electronic forms include live primary and indirect links to actual information sources on the WWW. In most cases, little additional commentary is provided regarding the information links or citations that are provided. This in turn allows the report to be very concise. The links are expected speak for themselves. The report consists of only about 10+ pages, with about 100+ primary links, but

  17. Integration Issues for Using Innovative Daylighting Strategies in Light Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gashinani M. Gholipour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available “Light well” as one of the most common means of daylight tolls in building, experiences severe limitations and deserve special attention. The question is which strategy is the best for increasing the daylight penetration to the depth of buildings. One of the main challenges in deep plan is to guide daylight into the building core and this can be performed through daylighting strategies, but the choice of the proper innovative daylighting system (IDS with several parameters is the problem. This paper aims to find elements for optimal choice and selecting context-compatible tools for light well. The result shows that four macro factors were found at the interaction of building and IDS. Identifying the integration components can play an effective role in decision-making or design a new tolls consistent with the physical conditions of light well and building to overcome the daylight crisis.

  18. Performance of a daylight-redirecting glass-shading system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelfeld, David; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    to the original system. The visual comfort was evaluated by glare analysis and the redirected daylight did not cause an additional discomfort glare. The higher utilization of daylight can save 20% of the lighting energy. The thermal insulation of the fenestration was maintained, with slightly increased solar......This paper evaluates the daylighting performance of a prototype external dynamic shading and daylight-redirecting system, and the main focus is on the performance simulation. The demonstration project was carried out on a building with an open-plan office. Part of the original façade was replaced...... with the prototype façade. This layout allowed the use of the same orientation and surroundings for both façades. The working plane illuminance was measured over several months and the measurements were accompanied with annual daylight simulations. The prototype system improved the daylighting conditions compared...

  19. Analysis of Daylight Control in a Chateau Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Mohelníková

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of daylighting in the residential hall of a historical chateau is presented. The evaluation is based on both the daylight measurement and simulations. Illuminance levels in the interior were controlled in accordance with requirements for light exposition of light sensitive materials. Valuable paintings and claddings as well as wallpapers and furniture upholstery in the hall are extremely light sensitive and they need to be protected from light damage. The daylight measurements and simulations give an overview of daylight conditions in the annual profile for clear sky conditions and for different levels of window shadings.

  20. The New York Times headquarters daylighting mockup: Monitoredperformance of the daylighting control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2006-02-24

    A nine-month monitored field study of the performance of automated roller shades and daylighting controls was conducted in a 401 m{sup 2} unoccupied, furnished daylighting mockup. The mockup mimicked the southwest corner of a new 110 km{sub 2} commercial building in New York, New York, where The New York Times will be the major tenant. This paper focuses on evaluating the performance of two daylighting control systems installed in separate areas of an open plan office with 1.2-m high workstation partitions: (1) Area A had 0-10 V dimmable ballasts with an open-loop proportional control system and an automated shade controlled to reduce window glare and increase daylight, and (2) Area B had digital addressable lighting interface (DALI) ballasts with a closed-loop integral reset control system and an automated shade controlled to block direct sun. Daylighting control system performance and lighting energy use were monitored. The daylighting control systems demonstrated very reliable performance after they were commissioned properly. Work plane illuminance levels were maintained above 90% of the maximum fluorescent illuminance level for 99.9{+-}0.5% and 97.9{+-}6.1% of the day on average over the monitored period, respectively, in Areas A and B. Daily lighting energy use savings were significant in both Areas over the equinox-to-equinox period compared to a non-daylit reference case. At 3.35 m from the window, 30% average savings were achieved with a sidelit west-facing condition in Area A while 50-60% were achieved with a bilateral daylit south-facing condition in Area B. At 4.57-9.14 m from the window, 5-10% and 25-40% savings were achieved in Areas A and B, respectively. Average savings for the 7-m deep dimming zone were 20-23% and 52-59% for Areas A and B, respectively, depending on the lighting schedule. The large savings and good reliability can be attributed to the automatic management of the interior shades. The DALI-based system exhibited faulty behavior that

  1. Does Daylight Savings Time encourage physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Cathleen D

    2014-07-01

    Extending Daylight Savings Time (DST) has been identified as a policy intervention that may encourage physical activity. However, there has been little research on the question of if DST encourages adults to be more physically active. Data from residents of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah ages 18-64 who participated in the 2003-2009 American Time Use Survey are used to assess whether DST is associated with increased time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The analysis capitalizes on the natural experiment created because Arizona does not observe DST. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that shifting 1 hour of daylight from morning to evening does not impact MVPA of Americans living in the southwest. While DST may affect the choices people make about the timing and location of their sports/recreational activities, the potential for DST to serve as a broad-based intervention that encourages greater sports/recreation participation is not supported by this analysis. Whether this null effect would persist in other climate situations is an open question.

  2. Fuzzy-Neural Automatic Daylight Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grif H. Şt.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design and the tuning of a CMAC controller (Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller implemented in an automatic daylight control application. After the tuning process of the controller, the authors studied the behavior of the automatic lighting control system (ALCS in the presence of luminance disturbances. The luminance disturbances were produced by the authors in night conditions and day conditions as well. During the night conditions, the luminance disturbances were produced by turning on and off a halogen desk lamp. During the day conditions the luminance disturbances were produced in two ways: by daylight contributions changes achieved by covering and uncovering a part of the office window and by turning on and off a halogen desk lamp. During the day conditions the luminance disturbances, produced by turning on and off the halogen lamp, have a smaller amplitude than those produced during the night conditions. The luminance disturbance during the night conditions was a helpful tool to select the proper values of the learning rate for CMAC controller. The luminance disturbances during the day conditions were a helpful tool to demonstrate the right setting of the CMAC controller.

  3. Integrated performance appraisal of Daylight-Europe case study buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.; Clarke, J.A.; Hand, J.W.; Johnson, K.; Wittchen, K.; Madsen, C.; Compagnon, R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the approach taken within the EC’s Daylight-Europe project to apply combined thermal/daylight simulations to existing building designs which are representative of European types and climate contexts. The outputs from the performance appraisals are then incorporated within design

  4. Experiences collected with a daylight system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, P.

    1981-01-01

    The Kodak Daylight System is space-saving. It consists of the Kodak-X-Omat cassette, the identification camera and the loading and reloading device (cassette multiloader). All three units of this system are notable for extremely safe operation. Handling is simple and easily appreciated. All brands of film can be used. The data window in the cassette is too large; in some cases, important sections of the image can be covered up by the window. Automatic loading and reloading considerably reduces solling of the cassette, which is otherwise common, and also reduces abrasion of the intensifying screen. Introduction of this system has had a beneficial effect on overall working and has been welcomed by all concerned as a contribution towards facilitating routine work. (orig.) [de

  5. Analysis and prediction of daylighting and energy performance in atrium spaces using daylight-linked lighting controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Stanley K.H.; Li, Danny H.W.; Lee, Eric W.M.; Lam, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Daylight-linked lighting control and energy performance for atrium is studied. ► Field measurement of automatic dimming control shows 93% energy saving. ► Field measurement of manual on–off control shows 95% energy saving. ► Atrium illuminance is correlated with daylight factor for energy saving prediction. - Abstract: In subtropical Hong Kong, a certain amount of electricity is used to create visually comfortable interior spaces through electric lighting, which is the second major electricity-consuming item in commercial buildings, accounting for 20–30% of total electricity use. The burning of fossil fuels for electricity generation has many adverse effects on the environment. Daylighting is an important and useful strategy for enhancing visual comfort and reducing the need for the electricity consumed by light fittings. The rational use of daylight through tools such as photoelectric lighting controls can effectively reduce buildings’ electricity consumption and the related pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions. Daylighting design techniques are often best demonstrated via field measurements that provide reliable operational and energy performance data for establishing design guidelines. An atrium provides an environmentally controlled indoor public space that introduces daylight into the hearts of large buildings. In circulation areas such as corridors, people expect the way ahead to be sufficiently lit and daylight-linked lighting controls can deliver excellent energy savings. This paper presents the daylighting and energy performance of an atrium space using daylight-linked lighting controls. The cost, energy and environmental issues related to various daylight illuminances are estimated and design implications are discussed

  6. Daylight and energy implications for CIE standard skies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Danny H.W.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) has adopted a range of 15 standard skies, which include the existing CIE overcast, very clear and cloudless polluted skies, covering the whole probable spectrum of usual skies found in the world. The traditional daylight factor (DF) approach with the calculations being based on an isotropic overcast sky, however, cannot cater to the dynamic variations in daylight luminance and illuminance as the sun's position changes under non-overcast skies. Currently, we propose a numerical procedure that considers the changes in the luminance of sky elements to predict the interior daylight illuminance under the 15 CIE standard skies. This paper evaluates the method by using a typical room with a large vertical glazing window facing north. The available daylight for the room at mean hourly sun positions in each month in terms of DF and illuminance levels were determined and compared with those based on a computer program, namely, RADIANCE. A modification to the ground reflected component was made when a well defined shadow was cast in front of the window facade. It is shown that the results estimated by the proposed approach are in reasonably good agreement with those produced from RADIANCE. The interior daylight and lighting energy consumption were also determined using the proposed and the traditional DF approaches. The findings reveal that daylighting designs using existing CIE overcast sky only would considerably underestimate the indoor daylight availability and electric lighting energy savings, especially under high design indoor illuminance settings

  7. Effects of daylight savings time changes on stock market volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berument, M Hakan; Dogan, Nukhet; Onar, Bahar

    2010-04-01

    The presence of daylight savings time effects on stock returns and on stock volatility was investigated using an EGARCH specification to model the conditional variance. The evidence gathered from the major United States stock markets for the period between 1967 and 2007 did not support the existence of the daylight savings time effect on stock returns or on volatility. Returns on the first business day following daylight savings time changes were not lower nor was the volatility higher, as would be expected if there were an effect.

  8. Transition into daylight saving time influences the fragmentation of the rest-activity cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulio-Henriksson Annamari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daylight saving time is widely adopted. Little is known about its influence on the daily rest-activity cycles. We decided to explore the effects of transition into daylight saving time on the circadian rhythm of activity. Methods We monitored the rest-activity cycles with the use of wrist-worn accelerometer on a sample of ten healthy adults for ten days around the transition into summer time. Identical protocols were carried out on the same individuals in two consecutive years, yielding data on 200 person-days for analysis in this study. Results There was no significant effect on the rest-activity cycle in the sample as a whole. Fragmentation of the rest-activity cycle was enhanced in a subgroup of persons having sleep for eight hours or less (P = 0.04 but reduced in those who preferred to sleep for more than eight hours per night (P = 0.05. The average level of motor activity was increased in persons having the morning preference for daily activity patterns (P = 0.01. Conclusion Transition into daylight saving time may have a disruptive effect on the rest-activity cycle in those healthy adults who are short-sleepers or more of the evening type.

  9. The shift to and from daylight savings time and motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, M; Cummings, P

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the study was to examine whether the shifts to and from daylight savings time in Sweden have short-term effects on the incidence of traffic crashes. A database maintained by the Swedish National Road Administration was used to examine crashes from 1984 through 1995, that occurred on state roads the Monday preceding, the Monday immediately after (index Monday), and the Monday 1 week after the change to daylight savings time in the spring and for the corresponding three Mondays in the autumn. The Mondays 1 week before and after the time changes were taken as representing the expected incidence of crashes. Crash incidence was calculated per 1000 person-years using population estimates for each year of the study. The association between 1 h of possible sleep loss and crash incidence was estimated by the incidence rate ratio from negative binomial regression. The incidence rate ratio was 1.04 (95% CI, 0.92-1.16) for a Monday on which drivers were expected to have had 1 h less sleep, compared with other Mondays. In the spring, the incidence rate ratio for crashes was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.93-1.31) for Mondays after the time change compared to other spring Mondays. The corresponding rate ratio for the fall was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.84-1.15) It was concluded that the shift to and from daylight savings time did not have measurable important immediate effects on crash incidence in Sweden.

  10. effect of daylight hours on performance of growing grasscutters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    DNA.Many animals use the daily variation in the duration and quantity of melatonin ... such as reproduction, behavior, coat growth and ... behavioral processes in the biological system. The ... spends the daylight hours sleeping or resting. The.

  11. Teaching Science: Beats the Daylight Out of Me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1995-01-01

    Presents activities for observing, measuring, collecting, and graphing data about times of sunrise and sunset to teach an understanding about arrival of Daylight Savings Time in April. Also discusses seasonal affective disorder (SAD). (TM)

  12. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  13. Daylight Savings Time Transitions and the Incidence Rate of Unipolar Depressive Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bertel T; Sønderskov, Kim M; Hageman, Ida; Dinesen, Peter T; Østergaard, Søren D

    2017-05-01

    Daylight savings time transitions affect approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide. Prior studies have documented associations between daylight savings time transitions and adverse health outcomes, but it remains unknown whether they also cause an increase in the incidence rate of depressive episodes. This seems likely because daylight savings time transitions affect circadian rhythms, which are implicated in the etiology of depressive disorder. Therefore, we investigated the effects of daylight savings time transitions on the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes. Using time series intervention analysis of nationwide data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we compared the observed trend in the incidence rate of hospital contacts for unipolar depressive episodes after the transitions to and from summer time to the predicted trend in the incidence rate. The analyses were based on 185,419 hospital contacts for unipolar depression and showed that the transition from summer time to standard time were associated with an 11% increase (95% CI = 7%, 15%) in the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes that dissipated over approximately 10 weeks. The transition from standard time to summer time was not associated with a parallel change in the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes. This study shows that the transition from summer time to standard time was associated with an increase in the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes. Distress associated with the sudden advancement of sunset, marking the coming of a long period of short days, may explain this finding. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B179.

  14. Daylight savings time and myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Amneet; Seth, Milan; Gurm, Hitinder S

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has shown a transient increase in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after daylight savings time (DST) in the spring as well as a decrease in AMI after returning to standard time in the fall. These findings have not been verified in a broader population and if extant, may have significant public health and policy implications. We assessed changes in admissions for AMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium (BMC2) database for the weeks following the four spring and three fall DST changes between March 2010 and September 2013. A negative binomial regression model was used to adjust for trend and seasonal variation. There was no difference in the total weekly number of PCIs performed for AMI for either the fall or spring time changes in the time period analysed. After adjustment for trend and seasonal effects, the Monday following spring time changes was associated with a 24% increase in daily AMI counts (p=0.011), and the Tuesday following fall changes was conversely associated with a 21% reduction (p=0.044). No other weekdays in the weeks following DST changes demonstrated significant associations. In the week following the seasonal time change, DST impacts the timing of presentations for AMI but does not influence the overall incidence of this disease.

  15. Investigation of Educational Buildings in Terms of Daylighting Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlknur ERLALELİTEPE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational buildings have the priority among other building types in daylight performance studies. There are several reasons for this. Classrooms which are used during the whole day should have sufficient and homogeneously distributed daylight. In insufficient daylight conditions, the use of electrical lighting increases energy consumption. Users’ visual comfort should also be assured, and design incorporating natural light requires the analysis of sun protection devices in order to avoid glare and excessive heat. Also, atriums and skylights can be included in the building design with the aim of distributing light equally and in a relatively balanced manner throughout the building. However, lighting schemes are often proposed by architects and professionals who tend to make use of different design tools, and it would be pertinent to investigate whether these tools perform as desired. This study analyses daylight design principles and design elements in educational buildings. It outlines the method which has been used to analyse the daylight performance of buildings. A university building was selected for the field study. Measurements were taken in sample spaces to determine daylight performance. Utilising comparison between standard values and measured values, findings are presented in the form of tables, drawings and figures.

  16. Daylighting Design in Classroom Based on Yearly-Graphic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In China, existing buildings comprise more than 40 billion square meters, most being of high energy consumption. A substantial reduction in electrical energy costs could be obtained through greater use of daylight. Daylight varies widely due to the movement of sun, changing seasons and diverse weather conditions. Custom static daylight assessments, simulations represent only one time of the year or one time of the day, are inadequate to evaluate the dynamics of daylight variability. Using the intuitive graphic tool Temporal Map to display the annual daylight data, this study compared different passive architectural design strategies under the climate conditions of five representative Chinese cities and selected the most suitable design scheme for each city. In this study, the dynamic yearly-graphic tool was utilized for architectural design in China, and we integrated the optimal design with the Chinese academic calendar to achieve improvements within the occupancy time. This modified map connects design work with human activity that makes daylight evaluation more accurate and efficient. The results of this study will provide preliminary recommendations for energy-saving design in China, and reference to other similar studies.

  17. Light and architecture. Daylight - artificial light - energy; Licht und Architektur. Tageslicht - Kunstlicht - Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wambsganss, M. (ed.) [ip5 ingenieurpartnerschaft, Karlsruhe (Germany)]|[Fachhochschule Rosenheim (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The symposium intends to provide scientific and technical fundamentals for room lighting with daylight. Daylight deflection systems and artificial light control systems were analyzed for this purpose, and a catalogue of criteria was established. Planners were given tools for projecting daylight control systems. Builder-owners received the fundamentals for economic assessment of combined daylight and artificial light illumination systems, while industrial producers obtained information for further development to maturity and for marketing of daylight-dependent artificial light control systems. (GL)

  18. Light + architecture. Daylight - artificial light - energy; Licht + Architektur. Tageslicht - Kunstlicht - Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The symposium intends to provide scientific and technical fundamentals for room lighting with daylight. Daylight deflection systems and artificial light control systems were analyzed for this purpose, and a catalogue of criteria was established. Planners were given tools for projecting daylight control systems. Builder-owners received the fundamentals for economic assessment of combined daylight and artificial light illumination systems, while industrial producers obtained information for further development to maturity and for marketing of daylight-dependent artificial light control systems. (GL)

  19. Lighting control and dimensioning in integrated daylight systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halonen, L.; Eloholma, M.; Lehtovaara, J.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this research was to find out the subjective and individual requirements for lighting control in connection with daylight utilization in indoor lighting. There is a great potential to use daylight in indoor lighting. This sets demands for the integrated daylight control systems, so that the indoor lighting can be optimized and demands of the users can be fulfilled. Control strategies should also take into account individual light needs, luminance balance and visual comfort. New lighting control systems and strategies such as vertical/horizontal illuminance ratio were studied. The incoming daylight may radically change the luminance distribution of the visual field and the effects of daylight on luminances of vertical surfaces may become especially noticeable. When daylight is utilized in indoor lighting, special care has to be taken to maintain the quality of the lighting of the visual environment. The windows become a potential source of discomfort glare in offices in uncontrolled daylight conditions. With the present methods it is not possible to evaluate discomfort glare caused by high surface luminances or windows. The results of this research do not support the opinion that low vision people in offices need more light than the normally sighted or that the illumination levels should be raised for low vision people. The rise of lighting levels from the present practice (task illuminance level 500 lux) in office work does not improve the visual performance of low vision people. In planning the visual environment for the low vision people care has to be taken on the direction of light. (7 refs.)

  20. Daylight strategies for architectural studio facilities: the literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Muhammad Anas Bin; Azfahani Ahmad, Nur; Ajis, Azizah Md

    2017-05-01

    The implementation of daylighting strategies in buildings is a common aspect in architecture. However, due to the availability of inexpensive electricity, natural lighting strategies became insignificant, and been overlooked by designers. With the current concern over rapid increment on electricity cost, many designers now try to revitalized daylighting strategies in buildings. This includes educational buildings. In Malaysian cases, it is a norm that universities; especially during lecture and studio sessions, used artificial lighting throughout the day. Definitely, this is not parallel with the “green” aim made by the Government in the Malaysian Plan. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the impact of daylight strategies for educational studios in universities, by maximising the penetration of natural daylight into the space towards creating a more green-conducive studio. The paper review literature about the types, criteria and benefits of daylight strategies. This paper also presented a pilot study that has been performed in one university in Perak, Malaysia, by selecting architectural studios as the main subject.

  1. Autonomous physics-based color learning under daylight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berube Lauziere, Yves; Gingras, Denis J.; Ferrie, Frank P.

    1999-09-01

    An autonomous approach for learning the colors of specific objects assumed to have known body spectral reflectances is developed for daylight illumination conditions. The main issue is to be able to find these objects autonomously in a set of training images captured under a wide variety of daylight illumination conditions, and to extract their colors to determine color space regions that are representative of the objects' colors and their variations. The work begins by modeling color formation under daylight using the color formation equations and the semi-empirical model of Judd, MacAdam and Wyszecki (CIE daylight model) for representing the typical spectral distributions of daylight. This results in color space regions that serve as prior information in the initial phase of learning which consists in detecting small reliable clusters of pixels having the appropriate colors. These clusters are then expanded by a region growing technique using broader color space regions than those predicted by the model. This is to detect objects in a way that is able to account for color variations which the model cannot due to its limitations. Validation on the detected objects is performed to filter out those that are not of interest and to eliminate unreliable pixel color values extracted from the remaining ones. Detection results using the color space regions determined from color values obtained by this procedure are discussed.

  2. Energy Savings by Using Daylight for Basic Urban Shapes : With a Case Study of Three Different Street Types

    OpenAIRE

    Sundborg, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    During winter the sun is in short supply. But research at KTH shows that solar radiation can be facilitated while energy consumption for lighting is reduced. This provided that the buildings are appropriately designed. But, unfortunately, the sunlight is often not taken into account and the results are the opposite. The energy savings depend on good town planning where the daylight is accessible for longer periods of time during the day, both indoors and outdoors. Then, the periods of use for...

  3. New tools for the evaluation of daylighting strategies and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papamichael, K.; Hitchcock, R.; Ehrlich, C.; Carroll, B.

    1998-03-01

    The use of daylight for the illumination of building interiors has the potential to enhance the quality of the environment while providing opportunities to save energy by replacing or supplementing electric lighting. Moreover, it has the potential to reduce heating and cooling loads, which offer additional energy saving opportunities as well as reductions in HVAC equipment sizing and cost. All of these benefits, however, assume proper use of daylighting strategies and technologies, whose performance depends on the context of their application. On the other hand, improper use can have significant negative effects on both comfort and energy requirements, such as increased glare and cooling loads. To ensure proper use, designers need design tools that model the dynamic nature of daylight and accurately predict performance with respect to a multitude of performance criteria, extending beyond comfort and energy to include aesthetics, cost, security, safety, etc.

  4. Daylight levels during the solar eclipse of 11 August 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darula, S.; Kambezidis, H. D.; Kittler, R.

    Solar eclipses are unique phenomena not only for astronomical and space observations but also for terrestrial; they create unique conditions of sunbeam blockage which cause not only the reduction of direct sunlight but also the dimming of skylight from the whole sky vault. Very favorable conditions were met during the recent August 1999 solar eclipse in Athens, Greece and Bratislava, Slovakia. General class daylight stations operate within the International Daylight Measurements Program in the two cities. One-minute data of global/diffuse illuminance and zenith luminance from those stations have been used to provide information about their levels and the daylight reduction rate during the eclipse. An approximate formula for the estimation of sunlight and skylight illuminance levels as well as zenith luminance using relative luminance sky patterns is also presented in this work. To achieve this, recently developed sky standards together with their parameterizations are utilized.

  5. Impact of three window configurations on daylight conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubois, Marie-Claude; Sørensen, Karl Grau; Traberg-Borup, Steen

    The report describes the results of a pilot study on daylight conditions in simple rooms of residential buildings. As a tool for the analyses the Radiance Lighting Simulating System was used to simulate one room with three different window configurations, a vertical window, a dormer window......, and a roof window. The simulations were performed for overcast sky conditions and under one sunny sky, for two different times of the day. The study shows that the window configuration affects the daylight conditions (distribution and intensity) significantly. The roof window results in a higher (average......) daylight factor on a horizontal plane, i.e. more than twice as high compared with the vertical window, and more than triple as high compared with the dormer window....

  6. Cutaneous leishmaniasis responds to daylight-activated photodynamic therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enk, C D; Nasereddin, A; Alper, R

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Israel, with hundreds of new cases reported in recent years. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is highly effective for treatment of CL, but requires equipment available only at specialized centres. Daylight-activated PDT (DA-PDT) abolishes the need...... application of a thick layer of 16% methyl aminolaevulinate and 30-min occlusion, the lesions were exposed to daylight for 2·5 h. Treatment sessions were repeated at weekly intervals until clinical and microbiological cure. Control lesions were either treated with cryotherapy or left untreated. RESULTS...

  7. Design and evaluation of daylighting applications of holographic glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papamichael, K.; Ehrlich, C.; Ward, G.

    1996-12-01

    According to the contractual agreement, BTP would develop a computer model of the POC holographic structures and then simulate the performance of alternative designs using the RADIANCE lighting and rendering computer program [Ward 1990]. The RADIANCE model would then be used to evaluate the daylight performance of alternative designs of holographic glazings in a prototypical office space. The simulation process would be validated against actual photometric measurements of holographic glazing samples developed by POC. The results would be used to evaluate the potential for increased electric lighting savings through increased daylight illuminance levels at distances more than 15 ft--20 ft (4.6 m--6.1 m ) from the window wall.

  8. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol Denat. is the generic term used by the cosmetics industry to describe denatured alcohol. Alcohol Denat. and various specially denatured (SD) alcohols are used as cosmetic ingredients in a wide variety of products. Many denaturants have been previously considered, on an individual basis, as cosmetic ingredients by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, whereas others, including Brucine and Brucine Sulfate, Denatonium Benzoate, and Quassin, have not previously been evaluated. Quassin is a bitter alkaloid obtained from the wood of Quassia amara. Quassin has been used as an insect antifeedant and insecticide and several studies demonstrate its effectiveness. At oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg using rats, Quassin was not toxic in acute and short-term tests, but some reversible piloerection, decrease in motor activity, and a partial loss of righting reflex were found in mice at 500 mg/kg. At 1000 mg/kg given intraperitoneally (i.p.), all mice died within 24 h of receiving treatment. In a cytotoxicity test with brine shrimp, 1 mg/ml of Quassin did not possess any cytotoxic or antiplasmodial activity. Quassin administered to rat Leydig cells in vitro at concentrations of 5-25 ng/ml inhibited both the basal and luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated testosterone secretion in a dose-related fashion. Quassin at doses up to 2.0 g/kg in drinking water using rats produced no significant effect on the body weights, but the mean weights of the testes, seminal vesicles, and epididymides were significantly reduced, and the weights of the anterior pituitary glands were significantly increased. The sperm counts and levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were significantly lower in groups treated with Quassin. Brucine is a derivative of 2-hydroxystrychnine. Swiss-Webster mice given Brucine base, 30 ml/kg, had an acute oral LD(50) of 150 mg/kg, with central nervous system depression followed by convulsions and seizures in some cases. In those

  9. The study on the computer analysis of solar daylighting system in the schoolroom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, W. J.; Makhmudov, I.; Lee, Y. J.; Chun, W. G. [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Daylighting is the efficient use of natural light in order to minimize the need for artificial light in buildings. A well thought out building designed with daylighting can have a number of significant benefits for building owners and occupants. Increasing levels of daylight within rooms can reduce electrical lighting loads by up to 70% in some cases. In this study, the daylighting system using mini dish and optical fiber was analyzed for application to the schoolroom by the simulation of ECOTECT and RADIANCE

  10. Daylight savings time transitions and the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel T; Sønderskov, Kim M; Hageman, Ida

    2017-01-01

    Background: Daylight savings time transitions affect approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide. Prior studies have documented associations between daylight savings time transitions and adverse health outcomes, but it remains unknown whether they also cause an increase in the incidence rate...... of depressive episodes. This seems likely because daylight savings time transitions affect circadian rhythms, which are implicated in the etiology of depressive disorder. Therefore, we investigated the effects of daylight savings time transitions on the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes. Methods...

  11. Predicting daylight illuminance on inclined surfaces using sky luminance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.H.W.; Lau, C.C.S.; Lam, J.C. [City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Building and Construction

    2005-07-01

    Daylight illuminance, particularly on vertical surfaces, plays a major role in determining and evaluating the daylighting performance of a building. In many parts of the world, however, the basic daylight illuminance data for various vertical planes are not always readily available. The usual method to obtain diffuse illuminance on tilted planes would be based on inclined surface models using data from the horizontal measurements. Alternatively, the diffuse illuminance on a sloping plane can be computed by integrating the luminance distribution of the sky 'seen' by the plane. This paper presents an approach to estimate the vertical outdoor illuminance from sky luminance data and solar geometry. Sky luminance data recorded from January 1999 to December 2001 in Hong Kong and generated by two well-known sky luminance models (Kittler and Perez) were used to compute the outdoor illuminance for the four principal vertical planes (N, E, S and W). The performance of this approach was evaluated against data measured in the same period. Statistical analysis indicated that using sky luminance distributions to predict outdoor illuminance can give reasonably good agreement with measured data for all vertical surfaces. The findings provide an accurate alternative to determine the amount of daylight on vertical as well as other inclined surfaces when sky luminance data are available. (author)

  12. Daylighting System Based on Novel Design of Linear Fresnel lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Tuan Pham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a design and optical simulation of a daylighting system using a novel design of linear Fresnel lens, which is constructed based on the conservation of optical path length and edge ray theorem. The linear Fresnel lens can achieve a high uniformity by using a new idea of design in which each groove of the lens distributes sunlight uniformly over the receiver so that the whole lens also uniformly distributes sunlight over the receiver. In this daylighting system, the novel design of linear Fresnel lens significantly improves the uniformity of collector and distributor. Therefore, it can help to improve the performance of the daylighting system. The structure of the linear Fresnel lenses is designed by using Matlab. Then, the structure of lenses is appreciated by ray tracing in LightToolsTM to find out the optimum lens shape. In addition, the simulation is performed by using LightToolsTM to estimate the efficiency of the daylighting system. The results show that the designed collector can achieve the efficiency of ~80% with the tolerance of ~0.60 and the concentration ratio of 340 times, while the designed distributor can reach a high uniformity of >90%.

  13. Solar Shading System Based on Daylight Directing Glass Lamellas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Santos, Inês; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    The overheating problems in office buildings must be solved with efficient solar shadings in order to reduce the energy demand for cooling and ventilation. At the same time the solar shading should not reduce the daylight level in the building on overcast days because it would result in a lower...

  14. Daylight Saving Time Transitions and Road Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Lahti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythm disruptions may have harmful impacts on health. Circadian rhythm disruptions caused by jet lag compromise the quality and amount of sleep and may lead to a variety of symptoms such as fatigue, headache, and loss of attention and alertness. Even a minor change in time schedule may cause considerable stress for the body. Transitions into and out of daylight saving time alter the social and environmental timing twice a year. According to earlier studies, this change in time-schedule leads to sleep disruption and fragmentation of the circadian rhythm. Since sleep deprivation decreases motivation, attention, and alertness, transitions into and out of daylight saving time may increase the amount of accidents during the following days after the transition. We studied the amount of road traffic accidents one week before and one week after transitions into and out of daylight saving time during years from 1981 to 2006. Our results demonstrated that transitions into and out of daylight saving time did not increase the number of traffic road accidents.

  15. Effect of window glazing on colour quality of transmitted daylight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dangol, R.; Kruisselbrink, T.W.; Rosemann, A.L.P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the colour quality of the daylight transmitted through different window glazing types is evaluated. The analysis considered four different types of window glazing: laminated, monolithic, coated and applied film glazing ranging in luminous transmittance from around 0.97 to <0.1. The

  16. The effect of different weather data sets and their resolution on climate-based daylight modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, A; Svendsen, Svend; Nielsen, Toke Rammer

    2013-01-01

    Climate-based daylight modelling is based on the available weather data, which means that the weather data used as input to the daylight simulations are of great importance. In this paper, the effect on the outcome of the daylight simulations of using one weather data file rather than another...

  17. NOUR. Daylighting and thermal effects of windows in desert houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouahrani, Djamel

    1999-07-01

    This study is on a combined effect of window, the daylighting and the thermal effects, in desert houses. It is comprised of two complementary studies. In the introduction a historical review on the development of using daylight has been carried out in order to place the case study in a historical perspective. The first study is comprehensive and contains two main parts. In the first part a study was carried out on the people and history of the town of Ghardaia in Southern Algeria. This was done in order to understand the architectural form of that region. The second part is experimental and consists of two field studies carried out in Ghardaia. Their aim was to investigate the influence of daylight and temperature on the use of residential houses. This investigation included both traditional and 'modern' houses, the modern having relatively large windows similar to those of the northern part of Algeria, the traditional ones having small or no windows. The second study is also experimental consisting of computer parametric studies on window design from two standpoints, namely daylighting level and thermal effects of windows in desert houses. A typical traditional house is described as it was observed. Then the recorded light values are presented and commented upon. In the second part, three types of modern houses observed in the field studies are presented and compared to the traditional archetype. The comparison especially dwells on the relative effectiveness of the two systems of daylighting. In the third part, focusing on various issues of lighting, the results of interviews with the inhabitants are presented. The historical studies indicate that the process of housing development, in several respects, has reached a certain quality (social, technology, and adaptation to climate) appropriate to the local original context, but that development has slowed down. The results of the lighting study indicate that the use of more windows in modern houses

  18. NOUR. Daylighting and thermal effects of windows in desert houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouahrani, Djamel

    1999-07-01

    This study is on a combined effect of window, the daylighting and the thermal effects, in desert houses. It is comprised of two complementary studies. In the introduction a historical review on the development of using daylight has been carried out in order to place the case study in a historical perspective. The first study is comprehensive and contains two main parts. In the first part a study was carried out on the people and history of the town of Ghardaia in Southern Algeria. This was done in order to understand the architectural form of that region. The second part is experimental and consists of two field studies carried out in Ghardaia. Their aim was to investigate the influence of daylight and temperature on the use of residential houses. This investigation included both traditional and 'modern' houses, the modern having relatively large windows similar to those of the northern part of Algeria, the traditional ones having small or no windows. The second study is also experimental consisting of computer parametric studies on window design from two standpoints, namely daylighting level and thermal effects of windows in desert houses. A typical traditional house is described as it was observed. Then the recorded light values are presented and commented upon. In the second part, three types of modern houses observed in the field studies are presented and compared to the traditional archetype. The comparison especially dwells on the relative effectiveness of the two systems of daylighting. In the third part, focusing on various issues of lighting, the results of interviews with the inhabitants are presented. The historical studies indicate that the process of housing development, in several respects, has reached a certain quality (social, technology, and adaptation to climate) appropriate to the local original context, but that development has slowed down. The results of the lighting study indicate that the use of more windows in modern houses constitutes a

  19. RECORD OF THE BINARY DATA ON SD CARD ARDUINO DUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Mikhailov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The short review of microcontrollers of family Arduino, their characteristics and application fields is given. Importance of record of parameters of researched object is marked to produce debugging of control systems on microcontrollers Arduino. Unique possibility of registration of parameters in family Arduino is record on SD a card in an alpha mode with usage of functions print (, write (. The problems connected to record of the binary data on SD a card on microcontroller Arduino Due are considered. The analysis of methods of record of the binary data on SD card Arduino Due, originating problems with neo-cleaning of memory from the previous program leading to possibility of duplication of the data on SD to a card, presence of the erratic point of view about restriction of volumes of data record and necessity of usage become outdated SD cards is carried out. Ways of elimination of the marked lacks are considered. The estimation of high-speed performance of various approaches of a data recording on SD a card is led. On the basis of the led researches the approach of multiplexing of the writeable information at the expense of conversion of the binary data is offered is byte-serial in a character array in code ASCI without magnification of their volume and record by units on 240 byte. It allows to use as much as possible standard function possibilities write ( Arduino and specificity of the organization of memory SD of cards and to increase high-speed performance more than in 1100 times in comparison with record in a character type on one byte.It is marked that usage of decisions of an exception of duplication of the data offered at forums does not provide completeness of their elimination. For Arduino Due for storage cleaning it is necessary usages of the special programmator or setting of the new program of loading.

  20. Natural Light is the Right Light - Daylighting Design and Technology between Architecture, Art and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterhaus, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Within contemporary architecture, the art of daylighting design ? despite its many recognized advantages in comparison with electric lighting ? still encounters skepticism, primarily because it is usually developed and articulated more intuitively, rather than technically. Innovative daylighting ...... daylighting design with an open mind and an appreciation for basic human needs....... applications have added sparkle and interest to buildings. The sun?s rays have been captured to create magnificent plays of forms in light. People perceive daylight as an essential element of life. But architects, lighting designers, and clients alike, often underestimate the importance of daylight for human...

  1. The costs and benefits of using daylight guidance to light office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhoub, M.S.; Carter, D.J. [School of Architecture, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Daylight guidance systems are linear devices that channel daylight into the core of a building. This paper analyses costs and benefits of using the two main classes of daylight guidance to light offices as an alternative to conventional electric lighting. The work demonstrates that daylight guidance is generally not economical using conventionally accepted measures of both cost and benefit. It is shown that if intangible benefits associated with the delivery of daylight to offices are included in an analysis, a more favourable balance of cost and benefit is obtained. The implications of this for practical use of the systems are discussed. (author)

  2. DAYLIGHTING PERFORMANCE OF HORIZONTAL LIGHT PIPE BRANCHING ON OPEN PLAN OFFICE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feny ELSIANA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For daylighting purpose, office buildings should have a shallow plan and increase the ratio of surface to building’s volume. However, intensive use of air-conditioning drives office building’s plan to be deep with a minimum surface to volume ratio. This leads to the presence of areas that have insufficient daylight level at the work plane. Considering limitations of some daylighting methods in distributing daylight to these areas, Horizontal Light Pipe (HLP was selected. The aim of this research was to evaluate and explain the effect of HLP branching on daylight quantity and distribution inside open plan office space. Experimental with simulation as a tool was used as the research method. HLP branching’s uniformity ratio, illuminance and Daylight Factor were compared with unbranching HLP, simultaneously with daylighting standards. Results showed that office space with HLP-L branching had higher daylight level than HLP-T branching, 296 lux and 295 lux, HLP-L and HLP-T, respectively. However, HLP-T branching distributed daylight more evenly than HLP-L branching, with uniformity ratio as 1.49:1 and 1.50:1, HLP-T and HLP-L, respectively. Both of them met the illuminance target value and uniformity at work plane. Light’s deflection and improvement amount of opening distribution decreased average illuminance and Daylight Factor up to 3.59%. Those also decreased uniformity of daylight inside the space.

  3. SD card projects using the PIC microcontroller

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, Dogan

    2010-01-01

    PIC Microcontrollers are a favorite in industry and with hobbyists. These microcontrollers are versatile, simple, and low cost making them perfect for many different applications. The 8-bit PIC is widely used in consumer electronic goods, office automation, and personal projects. Author, Dogan Ibrahim, author of several PIC books has now written a book using the PIC18 family of microcontrollers to create projects with SD cards. This book is ideal for those practicing engineers, advanced students, and PIC enthusiasts that want to incorporate SD Cards into their devices. SD cards are che

  4. Phases of daylight and the stability of color perception in the near peripheral human retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panorgias, Athanasios; Kulikowski, Janus J; Parry, Neil R A; McKeefry, Declan J; Murray, Ian J

    2012-03-01

    Typical daylight extends from blue (morning sky) to orangey red (evening sky) and is represented mathematically as the Daylight Locus in color space. In this study, we investigate the impact of this daylight variation on human color vision. Thirty-eight color normal human observers performed an asymmetric color match in the near peripheral visual field. Unique hues were identified using a naming paradigm. The observers' performance for matching was almost perfectly coincident with the Daylight Locus but declined markedly in other regions. Interobserver variability reached a conspicuous minimum adjacent to the Daylight Locus and was maximal in the red and yellowish-green regions. In the naming task, unique blue and yellow were virtually coincident with the Daylight Locus. The results suggest that the mechanisms of color perception mediated by the phylogenetically older (blue-yellow) color pathway have been strongly influenced by the different phases of daylight.

  5. From dark to bright: novel daylighting applications in solid state lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Helmar G.

    2011-10-01

    The term "daylighting" is used in various ways, on one hand in a more architectural sense, i.e. using existing daylight to illuminate spaces, and on the other, more recently, for using light sources to replicate daylight. The emergence of solid state lighting (SSL) opens up a large number of new avenues for daylighting. SSL allows innovative controllability of intensity and color for artificial light sources that can be advantageously applied to daylighting. With the assistance of these new technologies the combination of natural and artificial lighting could lead to improvements in energy savings and comfort of living beings. Thus it is imperative to revisit or even improve daylighting research so that building networks of the future with their sensor, energy (e.g. HVAC) and lighting requirements can benefit from the emerging capabilities. This paper will briefly review existing daylighting concepts and technology and discuss new ideas. An example of a tunable multi-color SSL system will be shown.

  6. The daylighting dashboard - A simulation-based design analysis for daylit spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhart, Christoph F. [Harvard University, Graduate School of Design, 48 Quincy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wienold, Jan [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents a vision of how state-of-the-art computer-based analysis techniques can be effectively used during the design of daylit spaces. Following a review of recent advances in dynamic daylight computation capabilities, climate-based daylighting metrics, occupant behavior and glare analysis, a fully integrated design analysis method is introduced that simultaneously considers annual daylight availability, visual comfort and energy use: Annual daylight glare probability profiles are combined with an occupant behavior model in order to determine annual shading profiles and visual comfort conditions throughout a space. The shading profiles are then used to calculate daylight autonomy plots, energy loads, operational energy costs and green house gas emissions. The paper then shows how simulation results for a sidelit space can be visually presented to simulation non-experts using the concept of a daylighting dashboard. The paper ends with a discussion of how the daylighting dashboard could be practically implemented using technologies that are available today. (author)

  7. Lives under the Sun; The sensory qualities of daylight in designing the everyday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    People’s sensations of daylight and their practical, daily engagements with the sun and the daylight are described in this article. Based on a qualitative research project in Denmark the article shows how some Danes experience the world through the sun and its daylight and illustrates its...... significance to their bodies and lives as they describe it. By taking a biomimetic approach a metaphor is presented that, like plants, some people crave daylight in order to feel well. By showing people’s engagement with the sun and its daylight the phenomenon of natural light becomes imbued with sociality...... and it is described how people design their everyday in accordance with the sun. The sensation of daylight normally taken for granted and acknowledged as a physiological element in our being-in-the-world is foregrounded and shown as a sense in people that may have a physiological origin when daylight hits the eye...

  8. Investigation of Architectural Strategies in Relation to Daylight and Integrated Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael; Iversen, Anne; Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    his paper investigates the use of daylight in three architecturally successful buildings. The aim is to discuss the challenges and opportunities of architectural daylight strategies in relation to integrated design. All these buildings were designed with the focus on a strategy of using daylight...... to create well-lit, exciting spaces and spatial sequences. The original ideas, thoughts, and decisions behind the designs and daylight strategy are compared with answers in questionnaires from test subjects who have experienced the space and lighting conditions created. The results indicate...... that the architectural daylight strategies formulated by the architects and engineers at the beginning of the design process are actually experienced by the “users” in the existing buildings. The architectural daylight strategy was different in each of the three libraries, and analysis of the results shows that daylight...

  9. Does Daylight Saving Save Energy? A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Havránek, Tomáš; Herman, Dominik; Irsova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    The original rationale for adopting daylight saving time (DST) was energy savings. Modern research studies, however, question the magnitude and even direction of the effect of DST on energy consumption. Representing the first meta-analysis in this literature, we collect 162 estimates from 44 studies and find that the mean reported estimate indicates modest energy savings: 0.34% during the days when DST applies. The literature is not affected by publication bias, but the results vary systemati...

  10. Byron G. Rogers Federal Building Harvests Daylight and Super Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-01

    Case study describes how the Byron G. Rogers Federal Building replaced existing T12 and T8 luminaires with LED dedicated troffers with advanced controls. Together these measures cut lighting energy use by nearly 60% in the 18-story, 791,000-square-foot facility. The new lighting control system provides automated dimming of lights down to 0% output when daylight provides adequate light levels. The project earned GSA an award for exemplary performance from the Interior Lighting Campaign in 2016.

  11. Daylighting in linear atrium buildings at high latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matusiak, Barbara

    1998-12-31

    This thesis proposes new criteria for visual comfort based on knowledge of visual perception and a method for estimating the modelling ability of light by using inter-reflection calculations. Simplified calculations are presented for the daylight factor in linear building structures, using the projected solid angle principle, for uniform sky and for CIE overcast sky conditions. The calculations are compared with experimental results. Simple diagrams are created based on calculations of the mean daylight factor in rooms adjacent to a narrow street. These diagrams and presented formulas and tables can be used as a simple design tool. Daylighting strategies for linear atrium buildings at high latitudes are developed and examined. These strategies are divided into three groups: (1) the atrium space and facades as light conductor/reflector, (2) the glass roof as a light conductor, and (3) light reflectors on the neighbouring roof. The atrium space and facade strategies are subdivided into passive and active. The strategies connected to the glazed roof includes different configurations of glazing: horizontal, single pitched, double pitched, and the use of laser cut panels and prismatic panels in the glazed roof. The shapes of reflectors on the neighbouring roof are a flat reflector, a parabolic reflector and a parabolic concentrator. Strategies from all three groups are examined on a physical model of scale 1:20 in the artificial sky of mirror box type. Simulations with artificial sun have also been done. The results from model studies are compared with computer simulations. All the active daylighting systems designed for use in the atrium space or on the atrium facades have a huge potential for use in atrium buildings. From the strategies connected with the glazed roof the negatively sloped glass is found to be the best alternative for glazed roofs at high latitudes. Among the roof reflectors, the flat one performs best. 82 refs., 122 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. Optimal tree design for daylighting in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongbing, Wang [College of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, 35, East Qinghua Rd., Beijing (China); Shanghai Botanical Garden, 1111, Longwu Rd., Shanghai (China); Jun, Qin; Yonghong, Hu [Shanghai Botanical Garden, 1111, Longwu Rd., Shanghai (China); Li, Dong [College of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, 35, East Qinghua Rd., Beijing (China)

    2010-12-15

    Urban reforestation is advocated as an efficient countermeasure to the intensification of urban heat islands. The greening and beautification of residential quarters is one of the main concerns of residents, while lighting and ventilation are two main energy-consuming building services. Hence, the tree layout in green space between buildings is important, and it is necessary to determine the relationships between trees and buildings. This study takes Shanghai as a case study to optimize tree design between residential buildings and meet good daylighting requirements. Models were made using software such as AutoCAD and SketchUp. The relationships between maximum tree height and building separation were determined. For the same building layout, there were different tree height limits according to crown shape; the order of decreasing height limits was cylindrical, conical, spherical, and inverted conical crowns. Three cases having different green space between building layouts were studied. Their maximum tree heights differed. Overall, our model helps us realize good daylighting of a building environment. The formula allows us to determine which trees to plant between buildings in that we can predict the effects of future tree growth on building daylighting. (author)

  13. Impact of shading on daylight quality. Simulations with radiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, M.C.

    2001-07-01

    The impact of six exterior shading devices on daylight quality and on the potential for daylight utilisation in a standard, south-oriented office room was investigated through computer simulations with Radiance. The daylight quality was evaluated by considering four performance indicators: the absolute work plane illuminance, the illuminance uniformity on the work plane, the absolute luminance in the visual field and the luminance ratios between the work plane, VDT screen and surrounding surfaces. The results indicate that the overhang, white awning and horizontal venetian blind generated work plane illuminance levels that are more suitable for offices where traditional tasks are carried out. However, these devices did not prevent high luminance values at the window. On the other hand, the grey specular screen produced unacceptably low work plane illuminance, poor illuminance uniformity and unacceptably low luminance levels which resulted in unsuitable luminance ratios between the VDT screen, work plane and surroundings. The 45 deg venetian blind, white screen and blue awning provided work plane illuminance levels suitable for offices where a combination of paper and computer work is carried out. They also provided acceptable illuminance uniformity on the work plane, suitable luminance ratios between the work plane, VDT screen and surroundings and they significantly reduced the luminance of the window. However, the blue awning had a poorer performance in December than in June and the white screen resulted in high luminance values at the window, which indicates that the best device among the ones studied was the 45 deg venetian blind.

  14. Impact of daylight saving time on road traffic collision risk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rachel N; Sarma, Kiran M

    2017-07-02

    Bills have been put forward in the UK and Republic of Ireland proposing a move to Central European Time (CET). Proponents argue that such a change will have benefits for road safety, with daylight being shifted from the morning, when collision risk is lower, to the evening, when risk is higher. Studies examining the impact of daylight saving time (DST) on road traffic collision risk can help inform the debate on the potential road safety benefits of a move to CET. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the impact of DST on collision risk. Major electronic databases were searched, with no restrictions as to date of publication (the last search was performed in January 2017). Access to unpublished reports was requested through an international expert group. Studies that provided a quantitative analysis of the effect of DST on road safety-related outcomes were included. The primary outcomes of interest were road traffic collisions, injuries and fatalities. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Seventeen examined the short-term impact of transitions around DST and 12 examined long-term effects. Findings from the short-term studies were inconsistent. The long-term findings suggested a positive effect of DST. However, this cannot be attributed solely to DST, as a range of road collision risk factors vary over time. The evidence from this review cannot support or refute the assertion that a permanent shift in light from morning to evening will have a road safety benefit. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Method for including detailed evaluation of daylight levels in Be06

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Good daylight conditions in office buildings have become an important issue due to new European regulatory demands which include energy consumption for electrical lighting in the building energy frame. Good daylight conditions in offices are thus in increased focus as an energy conserving measure....... In order to evaluate whether a certain design is good daylight design or not building designers must perform detailed evaluation of daylight levels, including the daylight performance of dynamic solar shadings, and include these in the energy performance evaluation. However, the mandatory national...... calculation tool in Denmark (Be06) for evaluating the energy performance of buildings is currently using a simple representation of available daylight in a room and simple assumptions regarding the control of shading devices. In a case example, this is leading to an overestimation of the energy consumption...

  16. Daylighting on the working plane in oriented attic rooms under overcast and clear sky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondáš Kristián

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of daylight conditions in building interiors is based on the Daylight Factor concept after current Slovak standards. Criteria and requirements determined in these standards consider the worst daylight exterior conditions which are described by CIE overcast sky model. The sky luminance distribution of overcast sky is centrical to the zenith, so independence of window orientation to cardinal points is characteristic in daylighting calculations. The sky luminance distribution modelling is one of the main task of the daylight source research more than 50 years. It is evident that also other types of sky conditions exist in nature. An introduction of a new criterion based on photometric variables, which also consider sunlight influence, is expected. This article represents a study of the influence of the interior orientation on distribution of daylighting in attic spaces under an overcast and clear sky

  17. Could Daylight Glare Be Defined Mathematically?Results of Testing the DGIN Method in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzal, Ali; Oki, Masato

    Discomfort glare from daylight is a common problem without valid prediction methods so far. A new mathematical DGIN (New Daylight Glare Index) method tries to respond the challenge. This paper reports on experiments carried out in daylit office environment in Japan to test applicability of the method. Slight positive correlation was found between the DGIN and the subjective evaluation. Additionally, a high Ladaptation value together with the small ratio of Lwindow to Ladaptation was obviously experienced sufficient to neutralize the effect of glare discomfort. However, subjective assessments are poor glare indicators and not reliable in testing glare prediction methods. DGIN is a good indicator of daylight glare, and when the DGIN value is analyzed together with the measured illuminance ratios, discomfort glare from daylight can be analyzed in a quantitative manner. The DGIN method could serve architects and lighting designers in testing daylighting systems, and also guide the action of daylight responsive lighting controls.

  18. Hybrid daylight/light-emitting diode illumination system for indoor lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Aiming; Qiu, Peng; Cai, Jinlin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Junwei

    2014-03-20

    A hybrid illumination method using both daylight and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for indoor lighting is presented in this study. The daylight can be introduced into the indoor space by a panel-integration system. The daylight part and LEDs are combined within a specific luminaire that can provide uniform illumination. The LEDs can be turned on and dimmed through closed-loop control when the daylight illuminance is inadequate. We simulated the illumination and calculated the indoor lighting efficiency of our hybrid daylight and LED lighting system, and compared this with that of LED and fluorescent lighting systems. Simulation results show that the efficiency of the hybrid daylight/LED illumination method is better than that of LED and traditional lighting systems, under the same lighting conditions and lighting time; the method has hybrid lighting average energy savings of T5 66.28%, and that of the LEDs is 41.62%.

  19. Impact of windows and daylight exposure on overall health and sleep quality of office workers: a case-control pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubekri, Mohamed; Cheung, Ivy N; Reid, Kathryn J; Wang, Chia-Hui; Zee, Phyllis C

    2014-06-15

    This research examined the impact of daylight exposure on the health of office workers from the perspective of subjective well-being and sleep quality as well as actigraphy measures of light exposure, activity, and sleep-wake patterns. Participants (N = 49) included 27 workers working in windowless environments and 22 comparable workers in workplaces with significantly more daylight. Windowless environment is defined as one without any windows or one where workstations were far away from windows and without any exposure to daylight. Well-being of the office workers was measured by Short Form-36 (SF-36), while sleep quality was measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). In addition, a subset of participants (N = 21; 10 workers in windowless environments and 11 workers in workplaces with windows) had actigraphy recordings to measure light exposure, activity, and sleep-wake patterns. Workers in windowless environments reported poorer scores than their counterparts on two SF-36 dimensions--role limitation due to physical problems and vitality--as well as poorer overall sleep quality from the global PSQI score and the sleep disturbances component of the PSQI. Compared to the group without windows, workers with windows at the workplace had more light exposure during the workweek, a trend toward more physical activity, and longer sleep duration as measured by actigraphy. We suggest that architectural design of office environments should place more emphasis on sufficient daylight exposure of the workers in order to promote office workers' health and well-being.

  20. Using the whole-building design approach to incorporate daylighting into a retail space: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayter, S.; Torcellini, P.; Eastment, M.; Judkoff, R.

    2000-06-21

    This paper focuses on implementation of daylighting into the Bighorn Center, a collection of home improvement retail spaces in Silverthorne, Colorado, which were constructed in three phases. Daylighting was an integral part of the design of the Phase 3 building. Energy consultants optimized the daylighting design through detailed modeling using an hourly building energy simulation tool. Energy consultants also used this tool to address the building owner's concerns related to customer comfort and increased product sales.

  1. Daylighting as the Driving Force of the Design Process: from the Results of a Survey to the Implementation into an Advanced Daylighting Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio R.M. Lo Verso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study for the transformation of an industrial area in Turin, Italy. The area hosts two buildings (one of which appointed as listed to be transformed into dwellings. A synergic approach was adopted which combined expertise from architecture, social-economics, psychology and building physics sciences. Building physics sciences lead the research team. A user-centered design was pursued, using a bottom-up approach. A specifically developed questionnaire was submitted on-line to potential users. The survey showed that ‘amount of daylight’, ‘size of rooms’, ‘tranquility of the area’ and ‘presence of a private garden’ were perceived by users to be the most positive aspects of both their present and future, ideal home. These results were then implemented into the project. The exploitation of daylight became the driving force of the transformation project. Especially for the listed building, skylights and light wells were designed to bring daylight into the cores of the buildings, which host common spaces such as libraries or study rooms. The amount of daylight was assessed through the legislative index of the average daylight factor and through a climate-based modeling approach, calculating dynamic metrics such as the spatial daylight autonomy and the Useful Daylight Illuminance. The paper critically compares and discusses these two approaches. Finally, the energy demand for lighting was also calculated to analyze how the increased exploitation of daylight may imply a reduced need for electricity for lighting.

  2. Impact of Furniture Layout on Indoor Daylighting Performance in Existing Residential Buildings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Mousavi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, home-based computing workspaces have developed substantially all over the world, especially in Malaysia. This growing trend attracts computer workers to run a business from their residential units. Hence, visual comfort needs to be considered in addition to thermal comfort for home workers in their residential working rooms. While such rooms are always occupied with furniture, the layout of the furniture may influence the indoor daylighting distribution. Several various furniture layouts can be arranged in a residential working room. However, to have better generalisation, this study focused on the impacts of mostly-used-furniture-layouts (MUFLs on indoor daylighting performance in residential working rooms. The field measurement was conducted in a typically furnished room under a tropical sky to validate the results of the simulation software under different sky conditions. Then, daylight ratio (DR, as a quantitative daylighting variable, and the illuminance uniformity ratio (IUR, CIE glare index (CGI, and Guth visual comfort probability (GVCP, as qualitative daylighting variables, were analysed through simulation experiments. In conclusion, by changing the furniture layout, daylight uniformity recorded the highest fluctuations in the case room among all variables. While various furniture layouts, in a residential working room in the tropics, may even slightly reduce the extreme indoor daylight quantity, they can worsen the indoor daylight quality compared to an unfurnished space. The paper shows that furniture as an interior design parameter cannot help to improve tropical daylighting performance in a building.

  3. Evaluation of Daylight Intensity for Sustainbility in Residential Buildings in Cantonment Cottages Multan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUMRA YOUSUF

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Day lighting is a useful and effective source of energy savings and visual comforts in buildings. Occupants expect good daylight in their living spaces for better living environment. The quality and quantity of natural light entering in to a building depend on both internal and external factors. Daylight strategies basically depend on the accessibility of natural light that is determined by the latitude of the building site and the conditions surrounding the building. Daylight provides lighting energy and energy demand reduction during peak utility hours. Bringing daylight into a building that displaces electric lighting and provides sufficient illumination is the greenest way to light a building presently. This research, aims at analyzing the daylight intensity in residential buildings in Cantonment Cottages Multan which is one of the hottest and progresse city of Pakistan. The intensity of daylight can be expressed in the terms of luminance and daylight factor. In this research, the 5 and 7 marla houses in Cantt Cottages in Multan were selected. The device lux meter was used for measuring intensity with which the brightness appears to the human eye. The readings were taken by placing Lux Meter at the center and near windows in each building component at 2-4 pm. Inorderto evaluate the daylight intensity, the measured luminance in each component of building is compared with the standard illuminance as per recommendation of CIBSE (Chartered Institute of Building Service Engineers. After investigation, it has been found that daylight factor is much higher than the standard values

  4. Practicality and Performance of Daylight Trough in The Tropics: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene-Harn Lim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of office daylighting is vital for both energy efficiency practice and occupants’ visual comfort. With the emergence of green building in Malaysia, building designers are exploring avenues for energy efficiency design; one common strategy is daylighting. The majority literature reviews on daylighting are skewed towards temperate or developed countries, where sky luminous condition is different from that of the Tropics. Conventional daylighting system designs redirect daylight from the envelope or atrium openings, such as light shelves. Presumed to be the pioneer daylight trough in the Tropics, this paper presents the simulated and in-situ lighting level measurements prior to occupancy. This case study presents an as-built daylight trough design which is able to daylight the office space as deep as 6 meters sufficiently. It achieves a lighting power density 1.90W/m2 and saves 39.2% of lighting energy over conventional office lighting energy. Discussed further is the practicality of working with such a system, including cost implication, return on investment and contractual challenges in reaching a consensus on the design. The results reinforce that the effectiveness of daylighting design is very dependable on the sun path and obstacles surrounding the office tower. The RADIANCE simulation correlates well to field measurement results. Further investigation into the light trough, its lighting energy savings, users’ interaction, visual comfort, and glare is still ongoing.

  5. Glazing for intelligent daylight utilisation; Verglasungen fuer die intelligente Tageslichtnutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubbert, F. [VEGLA Vereinigte Glaswerke GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    Daylight, a part of the solar energy incident on the Earth`s surface, is available to us for free and usually in sufficient quantity. Nevertheless, in office and administration buildings artificial lighting is used for an average 60% of total occupancy time. This figure refers not only those times of the year and day when daylight intensity is naturally weak but also includes periods when sunlight is available in excess. To minimise buildings` absorption of solar energy (and so reduce the cooling load) and shield workplaces against direct sunlight, frequent use is made of mechanical shading systems which necessitate the use of artificial lighting, this in turn adding to the cooling load. Several daylight systems have been developed and are now increasingly being used to resolve this paradoxical situation. [Deutsch] Tageslicht, als Bestandteil der Sonnenenergie, steht uns taeglich kostenlos und meistens in ausreichender Menge zur Verfuegung. Dennoch wird in Buero- und Verwaltungsgebaeuden die kuenstliche Beleuchtung im Durchschnitt waehrend etwa 60% der Nutzungszeit eingeschaltet. Dies jedoch nicht nur waehrend der tages- und jahreszeitlich bedingten Phasen mit einer geringen natuerlichen aeusseren Beleuchtungsstaerke, sondern gerade auch zu den Zeiten in denen Sonnenlicht im Uebermass zur Verfuegung steht. Denn zur Minimierung der in die Gebaeude eingebrachten solaren Energie (Reduzierung der Kuehllasten) und zur Erzielung eines Blendschutzes an den betroffenen Arbeitsplaetzen werden sehr haeufig mechanische Verschattungssysteme benutzt, die ein Zuschalten der kuenstlichen Beleuchtung erforderlich machen und somit wieder zu einer Erhoehung der Kuehllasten fuehren. Um dieser Parodoxie aufzuloesen, wurden einige Tageslichtsysteme entwickelt, die im zunehmenden Masse auch praktisch angewandt werden. (orig.)

  6. Analysis of daylight calculated using the EnergyPlus programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Greici; Ghisi, Enedir [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Laboratorio de Eficiencia Energetica em Edificacoes, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis - SC 88040-900 (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    In order to properly evaluate the thermal energy performance of buildings it is also necessary to analyse the use of daylight, since this influences the thermal load of a building. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the calculation of internal illuminances carried out using the EnergyPlus simulation programme. The analysis was carried out through a comparison of the Useful Daylight Illuminances (UDI) and the daylight factor (DF) estimated using the EnergyPlus programme with the results from another two programmes: Daysim/Radiance and TropLux. Also, the external horizontal illuminance estimated using EnergyPlus was compared with that measured in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, between 2003 and 2005. The simulations were carried out for three different rooms: one square (5 m x 5 m x 3 m), one shallow rectangular (10 m x 5 m x 3 m) and one deep rectangular (5 m x 10 m x 3 m). From this analysis it was verified that the EnergyPlus programme has a problem related to both the DF and the external illuminance values. A comparison between the DF values calculated using the three programmes shows that there is a problem in EnergyPlus related to solving the internal reflection, such that the greater the importance of the portion of light reflected, the greater the difference found between the programmes. A comparison between the calculated and measured external horizontal illuminances shows differences greater than 100% both for the diffuse and direct illuminances indicating that the EnergyPlus programme overestimates these values. (author)

  7. Understanding Nuclei in the upper sd - shell

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, M. Saha; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta; Kshetri, Ritesh; Sarkar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclei in the upper-$sd$ shell usually exhibit characteristics of spherical single particle excitations. In the recent years, employment of sophisticated techniques of gamma spectroscopy has led to observation of high spin states of several nuclei near A$\\simeq$ 40. In a few of them multiparticle, multihole rotational states coexist with states of single particle nature. We have studied a few nuclei in this mass region experimentally, using various campaigns of the Indian National Gamma Array...

  8. Application of automated blind for daylighting in tropical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiwiwatworakul, Pipat; Chirarattananon, Surapong; Rakkwamsuk, Pattana

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental and simulation study on application of automated Venetian blind for daylighting in tropical climate. A horizontal blind system operating automatically under programmed control was constructed and integrated onto the glazed windows to form a window system with an automated blind in a room of a laboratory building. A dimming controller was also integrated to the lighting system of the room. Different operation schemes of the window system were devised and tested in the attempt to maximize energy savings while maintaining the quality of the visual environment in the room. Intensive measurement of illuminance of the interior space was undertaken during the experiments. A methodology for calculation of interior daylight illuminance and associated glare corresponding to the configurations of the experiments was adopted. The method was coded into a computer program. Results of calculation from the program agree well with those from experiments for all the schemes of operation conducted. The program was used to simulate the situation when each scheme of operation was implemented for a whole year. It was found that such window system with automated blind enabled energy savings of 80%, but a more sophisticated scheme also helped maintain the interior visual quality at high level.

  9. A spatially augmented reality sketching interface for architectural daylighting design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yu; Yapo, Theodore C; Young, Christopher; Cutler, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    We present an application of interactive global illumination and spatially augmented reality to architectural daylight modeling that allows designers to explore alternative designs and new technologies for improving the sustainability of their buildings. Images of a model in the real world, captured by a camera above the scene, are processed to construct a virtual 3D model. To achieve interactive rendering rates, we use a hybrid rendering technique, leveraging radiosity to simulate the interreflectance between diffuse patches and shadow volumes to generate per-pixel direct illumination. The rendered images are then projected on the real model by four calibrated projectors to help users study the daylighting illumination. The virtual heliodon is a physical design environment in which multiple designers, a designer and a client, or a teacher and students can gather to experience animated visualizations of the natural illumination within a proposed design by controlling the time of day, season, and climate. Furthermore, participants may interactively redesign the geometry and materials of the space by manipulating physical design elements and see the updated lighting simulation. © 2011 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society

  10. Multiobjective generalized extremal optimization algorithm for simulation of daylight illuminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Srividya Ravindra; Kurian, Ciji Pearl; Gomes-Borges, Marcos Eduardo

    2017-10-01

    Daylight illuminants are widely used as references for color quality testing and optical vision testing applications. Presently used daylight simulators make use of fluorescent bulbs that are not tunable and occupy more space inside the quality testing chambers. By designing a spectrally tunable LED light source with an optimal number of LEDs, cost, space, and energy can be saved. This paper describes an application of the generalized extremal optimization (GEO) algorithm for selection of the appropriate quantity and quality of LEDs that compose the light source. The multiobjective approach of this algorithm tries to get the best spectral simulation with minimum fitness error toward the target spectrum, correlated color temperature (CCT) the same as the target spectrum, high color rendering index (CRI), and luminous flux as required for testing applications. GEO is a global search algorithm based on phenomena of natural evolution and is especially designed to be used in complex optimization problems. Several simulations have been conducted to validate the performance of the algorithm. The methodology applied to model the LEDs, together with the theoretical basis for CCT and CRI calculation, is presented in this paper. A comparative result analysis of M-GEO evolutionary algorithm with the Levenberg-Marquardt conventional deterministic algorithm is also presented.

  11. Effect of Window Glazing on Colour Quality of Transmitted Daylight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Dangol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the colour quality of the daylight transmitted through different window glazing types is evaluated. The analysis considered four different types of window glazing: laminated, monolithic, coated and applied film glazing ranging in luminous transmittance from around 0.97 to <0.1. The spectral transmittance data of different window glazing types are taken from the International Glazing Data Base (IGDB, which is maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories (LBNL. The study showed that the CIE CRI does not always seem to be the suitable method to predict the colour quality of daylight in building for particular situations. However, in the context of this study, the prediction of colour rendering properties of window glazing by other metrics such as Colour Quality Scale (version 9, Memory CRI, Ra,D65 (adjusted CRI metric with D65 as the reference illuminant performed better. For most of the daylit situations inside the building, the chromaticity difference criterion was not met. Judging the colour quality of such situations requires different method.

  12. Daylighting practices of the architectural industry (baseline results of a national survey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattrup, M.P.

    1990-05-01

    A national survey of over 300 commercial design architects was conducted to develop baseline information on their knowledge, perceptions, and use of daylighting in commercial building designs. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted the survey for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Building and Community Systems (BCS). In the survey daylighting was defined as the intentional use of natural light as a partial substitute for artificially generated light. The results suggested that architects need to be educated about the true benefits of daylighting and the impacts it can have on a building's energy performance. Educational programs that will increase the architects' understanding and awareness of modern daylighting technologies and practices should be developed by utilities, stage agencies, and the federal government. If more architects can be made aware of the true effectiveness and positive attributes of daylighting systems and technologies, daylighting may be used in more commercial buildings. The results of the survey show that the more familiar architects feel they are with daylighting, the more they use daylighting. 3 refs., 19 tabs.

  13. Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy of moderate to thick actinic keratoses of the face and scalp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Fabricius, S.; Philipsen, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    response rate and light dose in patients who received an effective light dose of > 3·5 J cm . Conclusions: Daylight-mediated PDT of moderate to thick AKs was less effective than daylight-mediated PDT of thin AKs especially in some centres. However, nearly all thicker lesions (grades II and III) were...

  14. Daylight and health: A review of the evidence and consequences for the built environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.J. Aarts; Joost van Hoof; M.B.C. Aries

    2015-01-01

    Daylight has been associated with multiple health advantages. Some of these claims are associations, hypotheses or beliefs. This review presents an overview of a scientific literature search on the proven effects of daylight exposure on human health. Studies were identified with a search strategy

  15. Study of effect of daylight on Building User's Performance Based on Electroencephalograph Signal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangkuto, R.A.; Soelami, F.X.N.; Suprijanto, S.

    2009-01-01

    The use of daylighting in building nowadays has become one alternative to save electric energy consumption, particularly during daytime. Daylight is not only useful for reducing cost from electric light sources, but also give benefits both physiologically and psychologically for building users.

  16. Daylighting Concepts for University Libraries and Their Influences on Users' Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Didem Kan; Hasirci, Deniz

    2011-01-01

    Daylighting, a controlled architectural tool that influences users' perception and behavior, in university libraries and their influences on users' preference and satisfaction was examined in this study. The effects of daylighting in coordination with visual comfort, on university library users were measured in relation to four environmental…

  17. An Exploration into Integrating Daylight and Artificial Light via an Observational Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    An Exploration into Integrating Daylight and Artificial Light via an Observational Instrument Daylight is dynamic and dependent upon weather conditions; unfolding with both subtle and dramatic variations in qualities of light. Through a building’s apertures, daylight creates a connection between...... abstract and blurred phenomena, these diffused luminous reflections rouse us into interactions with the world. In this book we are interested in identifying the qualitative parameters involved in the integration of dynamic artificial lighting and daylight; the latter being already highly dynamic by nature...... that examine how the dynamic artificial lighting in the observational instrument unfolds during the changing of the daylight situations that are generated by the weather outside. This research employs the concept of coupling between interior and exterior, in order to identify a spectrum of design parameters...

  18. Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy of basal cell carcinomas - an explorative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S R; Skødt, V; Wulf, H C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that daylight-photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment of actinic keratoses, nearly pain free and more convenient for both the clinics and patients. Treatment of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) is another main indication for PDT. OBJECTIVES: The aim...... of this open, uncontrolled, prospective explorative study was to evaluate the efficacy of daylight-PDT for BCCs. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with a total of 32 BCCs located in the face, scalp, chest, back and lower leg received one cycle of daylight-methyl aminolevulinate (MAL)-PDT, consisting of two...... treatments 1 week apart. After sunscreen application and lesion preparation, MAL was applied and patients exposed themselves to daylight for 2½ h. Daylight exposure was monitored with a wrist-borne dosimeter. RESULTS: At 3-month follow-up, complete response was seen in 30 lesions (94%) and in 19 patients (90...

  19. Detailed simulations of lighting conditions in office rooms lit by daylight and artificial light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Anne

    In this thesis the effect on the annual artificial lighting demand is investigated by employing detailed simulations of lighting conditions in office rooms lit by daylight and artificial. The simulations of the artificial lighting demand is accomplished through daylight simulations in Radiance....... The detailed simulations includes studies of the resolution of different weather data sets in climate-based daylight modeling. Furthermore, influence of the electrical lighting demand by simulating with dynamic occupancy patterns is studied. Finally the thesis explores the influence of obstructions in an urban...... canyon on the daylight availability within the buildings, and hence on the energy consumption for artificial lights. The results from the thesis demonstrates that the effect on the outcome of the daylight simulations when simulating with typical weather data files for the location of Copenhagen...

  20. STRATEGI DAYLIGHTING PADA BANGUNAN MULTI-LANTAI DI ATAS DAN DI BAWAH PERMUKAAN TANAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Santoso Mintorogo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the common factor for Energy Saving on buildings has dealed a lot with the lightings on building, especially for multi level floors above and below grade. In order for saving energy on lightings, many daylighting strategies on multi floors building are being used and under-developed by many architects. This paper discusses the strategies of the daylighting techniques on multi floors building both above and below grade Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Strategi hemat energi sangat erat hubungan dengan faktor penerangan dalam bangunan, lebih-lebih pada bangunan berlantai banyak diatas atau dibawah permukaan tanah. Untuk menghemat pemakaian energi listrik dari penerangan ini, maka strategi-strategi penerangan alami "Daylighting" terus dikembangkan. Tulisan ini bertujuan memaparkan berbagai strategi daylighting pada bangunan yang berlantai banyak yang dibangun diatas maupun dibawah permukaan tanah. Kata kunci : daylighting, energi

  1. Are sdAs helium core stars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelisoli Ingrid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Evolved stars with a helium core can be formed by non-conservative mass exchange interaction with a companion or by strong mass loss. Their masses are smaller than 0.5 M⊙. In the database of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, there are several thousand stars which were classified by the pipeline as dwarf O, B and A stars. Considering the lifetimes of these classes on the main sequence, and their distance modulus at the SDSS bright saturation, if these were common main sequence stars, there would be a considerable population of young stars very far from the galactic disk. Their spectra are dominated by Balmer lines which suggest effective temperatures around 8 000-10 000 K. Several thousand have significant proper motions, indicative of distances smaller than 1 kpc. Many show surface gravity in intermediate values between main sequence and white dwarf, 4.75 < log g < 6.5, hence they have been called sdA stars. Their physical nature and evolutionary history remains a puzzle. We propose they are not H-core main sequence stars, but helium core stars and the outcomes of binary evolution. We report the discovery of two new extremely-low mass white dwarfs among the sdAs to support this statement.

  2. Understanding nuclei in the upper sd - shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, M. Saha; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta [Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Kshetri, Ritesh [Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064, India and Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University, Purulia - 723101 (India); Sarkar, S. [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah - 711103 (India)

    2014-08-14

    Nuclei in the upper-sd shell usually exhibit characteristics of spherical single particle excitations. In the recent years, employment of sophisticated techniques of gamma spectroscopy has led to observation of high spin states of several nuclei near A ≃ 40. In a few of them multiparticle, multihole rotational states coexist with states of single particle nature. We have studied a few nuclei in this mass region experimentally, using various campaigns of the Indian National Gamma Array setup. We have compared and combined our empirical observations with the large-scale shell model results to interpret the structure of these nuclei. Indication of population of states of large deformation has been found in our data. This gives us an opportunity to investigate the interplay of single particle and collective degrees of freedom in this mass region.

  3. Seasonality in trauma admissions - Are daylight and weather variables better predictors than general cyclic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røislien, Jo; Søvik, Signe; Eken, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    Trauma is a leading global cause of death, and predicting the burden of trauma admissions is vital for good planning of trauma care. Seasonality in trauma admissions has been found in several studies. Seasonal fluctuations in daylight hours, temperature and weather affect social and cultural practices but also individual neuroendocrine rhythms that may ultimately modify behaviour and potentially predispose to trauma. The aim of the present study was to explore to what extent the observed seasonality in daily trauma admissions could be explained by changes in daylight and weather variables throughout the year. Retrospective registry study on trauma admissions in the 10-year period 2001-2010 at Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway, where the amount of daylight varies from less than 6 hours to almost 19 hours per day throughout the year. Daily number of admissions was analysed by fitting non-linear Poisson time series regression models, simultaneously adjusting for several layers of temporal patterns, including a non-linear long-term trend and both seasonal and weekly cyclic effects. Five daylight and weather variables were explored, including hours of daylight and amount of precipitation. Models were compared using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC). A regression model including daylight and weather variables significantly outperformed a traditional seasonality model in terms of AIC. A cyclic week effect was significant in all models. Daylight and weather variables are better predictors of seasonality in daily trauma admissions than mere information on day-of-year.

  4. Seasonality in trauma admissions – Are daylight and weather variables better predictors than general cyclic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søvik, Signe; Eken, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    Background Trauma is a leading global cause of death, and predicting the burden of trauma admissions is vital for good planning of trauma care. Seasonality in trauma admissions has been found in several studies. Seasonal fluctuations in daylight hours, temperature and weather affect social and cultural practices but also individual neuroendocrine rhythms that may ultimately modify behaviour and potentially predispose to trauma. The aim of the present study was to explore to what extent the observed seasonality in daily trauma admissions could be explained by changes in daylight and weather variables throughout the year. Methods Retrospective registry study on trauma admissions in the 10-year period 2001–2010 at Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway, where the amount of daylight varies from less than 6 hours to almost 19 hours per day throughout the year. Daily number of admissions was analysed by fitting non-linear Poisson time series regression models, simultaneously adjusting for several layers of temporal patterns, including a non-linear long-term trend and both seasonal and weekly cyclic effects. Five daylight and weather variables were explored, including hours of daylight and amount of precipitation. Models were compared using Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC). Results A regression model including daylight and weather variables significantly outperformed a traditional seasonality model in terms of AIC. A cyclic week effect was significant in all models. Conclusion Daylight and weather variables are better predictors of seasonality in daily trauma admissions than mere information on day-of-year. PMID:29425210

  5. Alternatives to Outdoor Daylight Illumination for Photodynamic Therapy—Use of Greenhouses and Artificial Light Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina M. Lerche

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (daylight PDT is a simple and pain free treatment of actinic keratoses. Weather conditions may not always allow daylight PDT outdoors. We compared the spectrum of five different lamp candidates for indoor “daylight PDT” and investigated their ability to photobleach protoporphyrin IX (PpIX. Furthermore, we measured the amount of PpIX activating daylight available in a glass greenhouse, which can be an alternative when it is uncomfortable for patients to be outdoors. The lamps investigated were: halogen lamps (overhead and slide projector, white light-emitting diode (LED lamp, red LED panel and lamps used for conventional PDT. Four of the five light sources were able to photobleach PpIX completely. For halogen light and the red LED lamp, 5000 lux could photobleach PpIX whereas 12,000 lux were needed for the white LED lamp. Furthermore, the greenhouse was suitable for daylight PDT since the effect of solar light is lowered only by 25%. In conclusion, we found four of the five light sources and the greenhouse usable for indoor daylight PDT. The greenhouse is beneficial when the weather outside is rainy or windy. Only insignificant ultraviolet B radiation (UVB radiation passes through the greenhouse glass, so sun protection is not needed.

  6. Evaluation of daylight intensity for sustainbility in residential buildings in cantonment cottages multan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousuf, S.; Maqsood, S.

    2017-01-01

    Day lighting is a useful and effective source of energy savings and visual comforts in buildings. Occupants expect good daylight in their living spaces for better living environment. The quality and quantity of natural light entering in to a building depend on both internal and external factors. Daylight strategies basically depend on the accessibility of natural light that is determined by the latitude of the building site and the conditions surrounding the building. Daylight provides lighting energy and energy demand reduction during peak utility hours. Bringing daylight into a building that displaces electric lighting and provides sufficient illumination is the greenest way to light a building presently. This research, aims at analyzing the daylight intensity in residential buildings in Cantonment Cottages Multan which is one of the hottest and progresse city of Pakistan. The intensity of daylight can be expressed in the terms of luminance and daylight factor. In this research, the 5 and 7 marla houses in Cantt Cottages in Multan were selected. The device lux meter was used for measuring intensity with which the brightness appears to the human eye. The readings were taken by placing Lux Meter at the center and near windows in each building component at 2-4 pm. In order to evaluate the daylight intensity, the measured luminance in each component of building is compared with the standard illuminance as per recommendation of CIBSE (Chartered Institute of Building Service Engineers). After investigation, it has been found that daylight factor is much higher than the standard values as per recommended by CIBSE. The design parameters including building orientation, glazing area, room size to window opening ratio etc. is not appropriate with respect to sustainable design. (author)

  7. Alternatives to Outdoor Daylight Illumination for Photodynamic Therapy—Use of Greenhouses and Artificial Light Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Catharina; Heerfordt, Ida M; Heydenreich, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    to photobleach protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Furthermore, we measured the amount of PpIX activating daylight available in a glass greenhouse, which can be an alternative when it is uncomfortable for patients to be outdoors. The lamps investigated were: halogen lamps (overhead and slide projector), white light...... was suitable for daylight PDT since the effect of solar light is lowered only by 25%. In conclusion, we found four of the five light sources and the greenhouse usable for indoor daylight PDT. The greenhouse is beneficial when the weather outside is rainy or windy. Only insignificant ultraviolet B radiation...

  8. Performance of a daylight redirecting glass shading system demonstration in an office building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelfeld, David; Svendsen, Svend; Traberg-Borup, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the daylighting performance of a prototype external dynamic integrated shading and light redirecting system. The demonstration project was carried out on a building with an open-plan office. The prototype and original façades were placed on the same floor with the same...... orientation and similar surroundings. The existing façade was used as the reference for measurements and simulations. The focus of this research project was to employ available simulation tools for the system performance evaluation. This was accompanied by measurements of the daylight conditions...... in the investigated space. The prototype system improved daylighting conditions compared to the existing shading system....

  9. Fatal alcohol-related traffic crashes increase subsequent to changes to and from daylight savings time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, G J; Davis, J W; Hicks, R A

    1998-06-01

    On the hypothesis that sleepiness and alcohol interact to increase the risk of alcohol-related traffic fatalities, the percentages of alcohol-related fatal traffic crashes were assessed for the entire state of New Mexico for the years 1989-1992, for each of the seven days that preceded the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time and for each of the 14 days which followed the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time. Consistent with our hypothesis the percentage of alcohol-related fatal crashes increased significantly during the first seven days after these changes in Daylight Savings Time.

  10. Theoretical and experimental analysis of daylight performance for various shading systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsangrassoulis, A [Group Building Enviromental Studies, Lab. of Meteorology, Dept. of Applied Physics, Univ. of Athens (Greece); Santamouris, M [Group Building Enviromental Studies, Lab. of Meteorology, Dept. of Applied Physics, Univ. of Athens (Greece); Asimakopoulos, D [Group Building Enviromental Studies, Lab. of Meteorology, Dept. of Applied Physics, Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    1997-12-31

    The daylight coefficient approach is used for the theoretical analysis of various shading systems. Once a set of these coefficients has been calculated, it is very easy to calculate illuminance in the interior of a room under various sky luminance distributions. The present paper examines a method based on daylight coefficients to evaluate daylight in the interior of a room. The method is compared with existing radiosity and ray-tracing methods. The examined method is experimentaly validated using measurements obtained in a PASSYS test-cell equipped with shading devices. (orig.)

  11. IEA Task 31. Daylighting Buildings in the 21{sup st} Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scartezzini, J.-L.; Morel, N.; Andersen, M.; Lindelhoef, D.

    2006-02-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at work being carried out within the framework of the International Energy Agency's Solar Heating and Cooling Programme, Task 31 concerning the daylighting of buildings. Research activities in the task's four subtasks, user perspectives and requirements, integration and optimisation of daylighting systems, daylighting design tools and performance tracking network and design support groups are reported on. Objectives, projects and outcomes of each subtask are presented. Swiss contributions to the work done in these subtasks are reviewed and main achievements due to Swiss contributions are listed. Practical examples are quoted.

  12. Isospin symmetry breaking in sd shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Y.W.

    2011-12-01

    In the thesis, we develop a microscopic approach to describe the isospin-symmetry breaking effects in sd-shell nuclei. The work is performed within the nuclear shell model. A realistic isospin-conserving Hamiltonian is perfected by a charge-dependent part consisting of the Coulomb interaction and Yukawa-type meson exchange potentials to model charge-dependent forces of nuclear origin. The extended database of the experimental isobaric mass multiplet equation coefficients was compiled during the thesis work and has been used in a fit of the Hamiltonian parameters. The constructed Hamiltonian provides an accurate theoretical description of the isospin mixing nuclear states. A specific behaviour of the IMME (Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation) coefficients have been revealed. We present two important applications: (i) calculations of isospin-forbidden proton emission amplitudes, which is often of interest for nuclear astrophysics, and (ii) calculation on corrections to nuclear Fermi beta decay, which is crucial for the tests of fundamental symmetries of the weak interaction. (author)

  13. A simple tool to evaluate the effect of the urban canyon on daylight level and energy demand in the early stages of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Momme, Amalie Jin; Hviid, Christian Anker

    2014-01-01

    Daylight is a restricted resource in urban contexts. Rooms situated in an urban context often have a significant proportion of the sky and the sun blocked out by the urban building mass. The reduced direct daylight potential makes daylight reflected from outdoor surfaces an important daylight sou...... the impact of urban canyon parameters on indoor environment and energy performance....

  14. Exposure to Non-Extreme Solar UV Daylight: Spectral Characterization, Effects on Skin and Photoprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Marionnet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between chronic sun exposure of human skin and harmful clinical consequences such as photo-aging and skin cancers is now indisputable. These effects are mostly due to ultraviolet (UV rays (UVA, 320–400 nm and UVB, 280–320 nm. The UVA/UVB ratio can vary with latitude, season, hour, meteorology and ozone layer, leading to different exposure conditions. Zenithal sun exposure (for example on a beach around noon under a clear sky can rapidly induce visible and well-characterized clinical consequences such as sunburn, predominantly induced by UVB. However, a limited part of the global population is exposed daily to such intense irradiance and until recently little attention has been paid to solar exposure that does not induce any short term clinical impact. This paper will review different studies on non-extreme daily UV exposures with: (1 the characterization and the definition of the standard UV daylight and its simulation in the laboratory; (2 description of the biological and clinical effects of such UV exposure in an in vitro reconstructed human skin model and in human skin in vivo, emphasizing the contribution of UVA rays and (3 analysis of photoprotection approaches dedicated to prevent the harmful impact of such UV exposure.

  15. Exposure to non-extreme solar UV daylight: spectral characterization, effects on skin and photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marionnet, Claire; Tricaud, Caroline; Bernerd, Françoise

    2014-12-23

    The link between chronic sun exposure of human skin and harmful clinical consequences such as photo-aging and skin cancers is now indisputable. These effects are mostly due to ultraviolet (UV) rays (UVA, 320-400 nm and UVB, 280-320 nm). The UVA/UVB ratio can vary with latitude, season, hour, meteorology and ozone layer, leading to different exposure conditions. Zenithal sun exposure (for example on a beach around noon under a clear sky) can rapidly induce visible and well-characterized clinical consequences such as sunburn, predominantly induced by UVB. However, a limited part of the global population is exposed daily to such intense irradiance and until recently little attention has been paid to solar exposure that does not induce any short term clinical impact. This paper will review different studies on non-extreme daily UV exposures with: (1) the characterization and the definition of the standard UV daylight and its simulation in the laboratory; (2) description of the biological and clinical effects of such UV exposure in an in vitro reconstructed human skin model and in human skin in vivo, emphasizing the contribution of UVA rays and (3) analysis of photoprotection approaches dedicated to prevent the harmful impact of such UV exposure.

  16. Spinor exchange in AdSd+1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Teruhiko; Okuyama, Kazumi

    2000-01-01

    We explicitly calculate a Witten diagram with general spinor field exchange on (d+1)-dimensional Euclidean Anti-de Sitter space, which is necessary to evaluate four-point correlation functions with spinor fields when we make use of the AdS/CFT correspondence, especially in supersymmetric cases. We also show that the amplitude can be reduced to a scalar exchange amplitude. We discuss the operator product expansion of the dual conformal field theory by interpreting the short distance expansion of the amplitude according to the AdS/CFT correspondence

  17. Workshop report and proposal for a new IEA Task: Daylight in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, P E; Johnsen, K

    1994-04-01

    The IEA workshop on Daylight in Buildings was held in Copenhagen on March 14-16, 1994. At the workshop, presentations were given on key topics as a basis for discussions by the experts participating in the meeting. The presentations and discussions covered a range of technical, architectural and amenity aspects of daylighting in buildings. A great interest in research collaboration on daylight was expressed, and it was agreed that plenty of work still needs to be done, and that the appropriate form of work would be an IEA Task. It was agreed that daylighting systems and control strategies should be evaluated and tested in test rooms, as well as in existing buildings as case studies. Furthermore, the workshop expressed that one of the best ways to realize and present the Task results to practice would be through a few demonstration buildings, build in different countries and under different climatic conditions. (EG)

  18. External perforated Solar Screens for daylighting in residential desert buildings: Identification of minimum perforation percentages

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed; Sabry, Hanan; Rakha, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    and Saudi Arabia, result in the admittance of direct solar radiation, which leads to thermal discomfort and the incidence of undesired glare. One type of shading systems that is used to permit daylight while controlling solar penetration is " Solar Screens

  19. Estimation of luminous efficacy of daylight and illuminance for composite climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Jamil M.; Tiwari, G.N. [Center for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-16 (India)

    2010-07-01

    This Daylighting is one of the basic components of passive solar building design and its estimation is essential. In India there are a few available data of measured illuminance as in many regions of the world. The Indian climate is generally clear with overcast conditions prevailing through the months of July to September, which provides good potential to daylighting in buildings. Therefore, an analytical model that would encompass the weather conditions of New Delhi was selected. Hourly exterior horizontal and slope daylight availability has been estimated for New Delhi using daylight modeling techniques based on solar radiation data. A model to estimate interior illuminance was investigated and validated using experimental hourly inside illuminance data of an existing skylight integrated vault roof mud house in composite climate of New Delhi. The interior illuminance model was found in good agreement with experimental value of interior illuminance.

  20. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption Report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D. B.; Hadley, S. W.; Chin, S-M.

    2008-10-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. L. No. 109-58; EPAct 2005) amended the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (Pub. L. No. 89-387) to increase the portion of the year that is subject to Daylight Saving Time. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 extended the duration of Daylight Saving Time in the spring by changing its start date from the first Sunday in April to the second Sunday in March, and in the fall by changing its end date from the last Sunday in October to the first Sunday in November. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 also called for the Department of Energy to evaluate the impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy consumption in the United States and to submit a report to Congress. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) This report presents the results of impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on the national energy consumption in the United States. The key findings are: (1) The total electricity savings of Extended Daylight Saving Time were about 1.3 Tera Watt-hour (TWh). This corresponds to 0.5 percent per each day of Extended Daylight Saving Time, or 0.03 percent of electricity consumption over the year. In reference, the total 2007 electricity consumption in the United States was 3,900 TWh. (2) In terms of national primary energy consumption, the electricity savings translate to a reduction of 17 Trillion Btu (TBtu) over the spring and fall Extended Daylight Saving Time periods, or roughly 0.02 percent of total U.S. energy consumption during 2007 of 101,000 TBtu. (3) During Extended Daylight Saving Time, electricity savings generally occurred over a three- to five-hour period in the evening with small increases in usage during the early-morning hours. On a daily percentage basis, electricity savings were slightly greater during the March (spring) extension of Extended Daylight Saving Time than the November (fall) extension. On a regional basis, some southern portions of the United States exhibited slightly smaller impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy savings

  1. Daylighting and energy performance of a building for composite climate: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu Sudan; G.N. Tiwari

    2016-01-01

    The present study includes overall energy saving through thermal as well as daylighting for composite climate for the building known as SODHA BERS COMPLEX (SBC) situated at Varanasi, India. The building has been designed including all the passive concepts for thermal comfort as well daylighting to maximize the use of natural lighting for the occupants in day to day activities. This approach can be useful for multi-story building for rural and urban areas for both residential and commercial bu...

  2. Refractive integrated nonimaging solar collectors design and analysis of a novel solar-daylighting-technology

    OpenAIRE

    Pelegrini, Alexandre Vieira

    2009-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. A novel and original category of low-cost static solar-daylighting-collectors named Keywo solar energy, solar collectors, daylighting systems, nonimaging optics, Refractive Integrated Nonimaging Solar Collectors (RINSC) has been designed and thoroughly tested. The RINSC category is based on nonimaging optics and integrates several optical elements, such as prismatic arrays and light guides, i...

  3. Delight2 Daylighting Analysis in Energy Plus: Integration and Preliminary User Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, William L.; Hitchcock, Robert J.

    2005-04-26

    DElight is a simulation engine for daylight and electric lighting system analysis in buildings. DElight calculates interior illuminance levels from daylight, and the subsequent contribution required from electric lighting to meet a desired interior illuminance. DElight has been specifically designed to integrate with building thermal simulation tools. This paper updates the DElight capability set, the status of integration into the simulation tool EnergyPlus, and describes a sample analysis of a simple model from the user perspective.

  4. Impact of daylight saving time on the Chilean residential consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo, Humberto; Becker, Cristhian; Echiburu, Diego; Escudero, William; Fucks, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    Since 1970 Chile has had a Daylight Saving Time (DST) policy in order to reduce residential electricity consumption in the country. The time change was set for the first time by executive decree in 1970, and since that date it was applied every year without great changes until 2010. Since then, and to date, decrees have been set in order to increase the duration of the DST, arguing that there are reasons associated with energy savings that justify the extension of the measure that has been adopted by the authority in recent years. In the present study the impact of the application of DST in terms of decreased household electricity consumption is analyzed using two complementary methods, one based on a heuristic approach and the other using an econometric model. The results indicate that there is indeed a marginally small reduction in residential electricity consumption, although these results are not homogeneous throughout the country. - Highlights: • The impact of the application of DST is analyzed in Chilean distribution networks. • The results indicate that there is indeed a marginally small reduction in residential electricity consumption. • A total energy reduction is estimated based on the proposed methodology.

  5. The impact on energy consumption of daylight saving clock changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, S.I.; Desobry, F. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Garnsey, E.W. [Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Chong, Y.-F. [IPA Energy and Water Consulting (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    The focus of this work is an investigation of the effect of prevailing time regime on energy consumption. In particular we perform analysis demonstrating potential energy savings which could be obtained were Great Britain to maintain daylight savings time (DST) over winter, instead of reverting to Greenwich mean time (GMT). We review the literature on the effect of DST on energy consumption and show that this indicates a justification for considering the issue. Our headline result is in agreement with many related studies in that advancing the clock by an hour in winter would lead to energy savings of at least 0.3% of daily demand in Great Britain. In deriving this result we have adopted methodologies currently used in load prediction, in particular Support Vector Regression, to estimate energy demand on a half-hourly basis. Corresponding cost savings are found to be higher (due to the nonlinear increase of costs) and we find them to be on the order of 0.6% over the months considered. In terms of environmental impact we find the saving to be approximately equivalent to 450,000 ton of CO{sub 2}. In deriving these results we adopt a conservative approach such that we consider them lower bounds on any true savings. (author)

  6. Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy in Spain: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, L; García-Gavín, J; Gilaberte, Y

    2014-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an option for the treatment of actinic keratosis, Bowen disease, and certain types of basal cell carcinoma. It is also used to treat various other types of skin condition, including inflammatory and infectious disorders. The main disadvantages of PDT are the time it takes to administer (both for the patient and for health professionals) and the pain associated with treatment. Daylight-mediated PDT has recently been reported to be an alternative to the conventional approach. Several studies have shown it to be similar in efficacy to and better tolerated than classic PDT for the treatment of mild to moderate actinic keratosis. Nevertheless, most of these studies are from northern Europe, and no data have been reported from southern Europe. The present article reviews the main studies published to date, presents the treatment protocol, and summarizes our experience with a group of treated patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact on energy consumption of daylight saving clock changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.I.; Desobry, F.; Garnsey, E.W.; Chong, Y.-F.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this work is an investigation of the effect of prevailing time regime on energy consumption. In particular we perform analysis demonstrating potential energy savings which could be obtained were Great Britain to maintain daylight savings time (DST) over winter, instead of reverting to Greenwich mean time (GMT). We review the literature on the effect of DST on energy consumption and show that this indicates a justification for considering the issue. Our headline result is in agreement with many related studies in that advancing the clock by an hour in winter would lead to energy savings of at least 0.3% of daily demand in Great Britain. In deriving this result we have adopted methodologies currently used in load prediction, in particular Support Vector Regression, to estimate energy demand on a half-hourly basis. Corresponding cost savings are found to be higher (due to the nonlinear increase of costs) and we find them to be on the order of 0.6% over the months considered. In terms of environmental impact we find the saving to be approximately equivalent to 450,000 ton of CO 2 . In deriving these results we adopt a conservative approach such that we consider them lower bounds on any true savings.

  8. MASALAH MOTIVASI BELAJAR SISWA SD PADA IPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlisnawati Erlisnawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Masalah Motivasi Siswa SD pada ilmu pengetahuan Sosial. Motivasi adalah hal yang sangat penting yang mempengaruhi kegiatan / pekerjaan yang dilakukan oleh individu, termasuk yang mempengaruhi siswa dalam kegiatan belajar. Motivasi adalah salah satu elemen yang paling penting dalam pengajaran yang efektif. Pembelajaran diikuti oleh siswa yang termotivasi untuk menjadi benar-benar menyenangkan, terutama untuk guru. Siswa termotivasi untuk belajar sesuatu akan menggunakan proses kognitif yang lebih tinggi belajar dan menyerap dan mengingat lebih dari itu. Motivasi sebagai proses internal yang memungkinkan, membimbing dan mempertahankan perilaku dari waktu ke waktu. Ada beberapa teori motivasi yaitu: teori perilaku, teori kebutuhan, teori atribusi, teori belajar mandiri dan teori harapan. Motivasi dipengaruhi oleh faktor intrinsik dan faktor ekstinsik. Guru harus mengetahui kondisi ketika siswa termotivasi dan ketika kondisi siswa tidak termotivasi. Untuk itu seorang guru harus memiliki kemampuan untuk memotivasi siswa. Adapun cara yang bisa dilakukan untuk memotivasi guru untuk meningkatkan siswa adalah untuk membangkitkan minat, menjaga rasa ingin tahu, menggunakan berbagai cara yang menarik menyajikan, membantu siswa menentukan target mereka sendiri. Pembelajaran yang dilakukan oleh siswa dengan mitivasi tinggi akan menciptakan proses pembelajaran yang efektif.Kata kunci: masalah, motivasi, ilmu pengetahuan sosial, sekolah dasarMotivation is a very important thing that affects the activities / work performed by the individual, including that affect students in learning activities. Motivation is one of the most important elements in effective teaching. Learning followed by students who are motivated to be really fun, especially for teachers. Students are motivated to learn something will use higher cognitive processes learn and absorb and remember more of it. Motivation as internal processes that enable, guide and sustain behavior over time. There

  9. Combining annual daylight simulation with photobiology data to assess the relative circadian efficacy of interior spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechacek, C.S.; Andersen, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Architecture, Building Technology; Lockley, S.W. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Div. of Sleep Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital

    2008-07-01

    This paper addressed the issue of hospital design and the role of daylight in patient health care. It presented a new approach for integrating empirical data and findings in photobiology into the performance assessment of a space, thus combining both visual and health-related criteria. Previous studies have reported significant health care outcomes in daylit environments, although the mechanism and photoreceptor systems controlling these effects remain unknown. This study focused on furthering the previous studies beyond windows to describing the characteristics of daylight that may promote human health by providing daylighting for the appropriate synchronization of circadian rhythms, and then make specific daylighting recommendations, grounded in biological findings. In particular, this study investigated the use of daylight autonomy (DA) to simulate the probabilistic and temporal potential of daylight for human health needs. Results of photobiology research were used to define threshold values for lighting, which were then used as goals for simulations. These goals included spectrum, intensity and timing of light at the human eye. The study investigated the variability of key architectural decisions in hospital room design to determine their influence on achieving the goals. The simulations showed how choices in building orientation, window size, user-window position and interior finishes affect the circadian efficacy of a space. Design decisions can improve or degrade the health potential for the space considered. While the findings in this research were specific to hospitals, the results can be applied to other building types such as office buildings and residences. 33 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Impacts of orientation on daylighting in high-rise office buildings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdolHamid Mahdavi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation is one of the important factors in building design to use daylight and ‎conserve energy. Well-orientated buildings maximise daylight reception through ‎building facades and reduce the need for artificial lighting. Reasonable daylighting usage in office buildings is an important part of an architect’s designing process, which leads to lesser electricity consumption as well as providing a visual and thermal comfort for the occupants. Orientation is an important factor in passive design strategies. This paper focuses on the orientation effect on daylighting into office rooms. The research method of this study was simulation which is performed on a hypothetical model on a 25 storey high-rise office building in Malaysia. All simulations were carried out in the IES-VE software that uses RADIANCE program for illuminance calculations. To evaluate the daylight in various conditions, a new index SAZ was introduced which assesses daylight factor (DF and absolute Lux. Results showed similar SAZ in CIE overcast sky in various orientations; whereas, in sunny sky due to sun path in Malaysia, different results showed northern and southern rooms have the best illuminance distribution. However, the similar window form and size in four orientations lead to more energy consumption for artificial lighting and cooling loads.

  11. Performance of Anidolic Daylighting Systems in tropical climates - Parametric studies for identification of main influencing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhart, Friedrich; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis [Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory (LESO-PB), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Wittkopf, Stephen K. [School of Design and Environment, Department of Architecture, National University of Singapore, 4 Architecture Drive, Singapore 117566 (Singapore)

    2010-07-15

    Making daylight more available in buildings is highly desirable, not only for reasons of energy-efficiency, but also for improvement of occupants' health and well-being. Core-daylighting, that is daylight provision in areas situated at considerable distances from facades and windows, is currently one of the main challenges in sustainable building design. Anidolic Daylighting Systems (ADSs) are one very promising technology in the field of core-daylighting, but commercial solutions that are not only well-performing but also financially competitive are not yet widely available. This article presents results of parametric studies on Anidolic Integrated Ceilings (AICs), a special type of ADS, for identification of main influencing factors. The article describes a reliable method for simulating ADS and AIC performance under given sky conditions. Various simulation results for the example location Singapore are discussed in detail, it is concluded that the main influencing factors are coating material, system dimensions and external obstruction, and those influencing factors' potential impacts are quantified. It is shown that AIC overall efficiencies can reach up to almost 50% in Singapore. The essentially new results presented in this article can be of great help to architects, engineers and scientists in the future, when it comes to precisely dimensioning ADS for various buildings and daylight conditions. (author)

  12. Flat Optical Fiber Daylighting System with Lateral Displacement Sun-Tracking Mechanism for Indoor Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Hai Vu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An essential impact which can improve the indoor environment and save on power consumption for artificial lighting is utilization of daylight. Optical fiber daylighting technology offers a way to use direct daylight for remote spaces in a building. However, the existing paradigm based on the precise orientation of sunlight concentrator toward the Sun is very costly and difficult to install on the roof of buildings. Here, we explore an alternative approach using mirror-coated lens array and planar waveguide to develop a flat optical fiber daylighting system (optical fiber daylighting panel with lateral displacement Sun-tracking mechanism. Sunlight collected and reflected by each mirror-coated lens in a rectangular lens array is coupled into a planar waveguide using cone prisms placed at each lens focus. This geometry yields a thin, flat profile for Sunlight concentrator. Our proposed concentrating panel can be achieved with 35 mm thickness while the concentrator’s width and length are 500 mm × 500 mm. The commercial optical simulation tool (LightToolsTM was used to develop the simulation models and analyze the system performance. Simulation results based on the designed system demonstrated an optical efficiency of 51.4% at a concentration ratio of 125. The system can support utilizing a lateral displacement Sun-tracking system, which allows for replacing bulky and robust conventional rotational Sun-tracking systems. This study shows a feasibility of a compact and inexpensive optical fiber daylighting system to be installed on the roof of buildings.

  13. Close-In Substellar Companions and the Formation of sdB-Type Close Binary Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The sdB-type close binaries are believed to have experienced a common-envelope phase and may evolve into cataclysmic binaries (CVs. About 10% of all known sdB binaries are eclipsing binaries consisting of very hot subdwarf primaries and low-mass companions with short orbital periods. The eclipse profiles of these systems are very narrow and deep, which benefits the determination of high precise eclipsing times and makes the detection of small and close-in tertiary bodies possible. Since 2006 we have monitored some sdB-type eclipsing binaries to search for the close-in substellar companions by analyzing the light travel time effect. Here some progresses of the program are reviewed and the formation of sdB-type binary is discussed.

  14. Application and Computer Analysis of Solar Systems for the Indoor Daylighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhmudov, Is Kandar

    2010-02-01

    A steady increase of energy costs and ever growing environmental concerns in recent years have forced scientists to look for new methods of energy utilization. To resolve these dire problems, the application of renewable energy sources has been considered in various human activities in every sector of society. One of them is the development of solar daylighting systems for residential and commercial buildings, which can improve building energy efficiency and create comfortable indoor environment. Electric lighting represents up to 30 % of building electricity consumption. Therefore, using sunlight in indoor daylighting can significantly reduce electricity consumption in residential and commercial buildings. Moreover, daylight is an important factor in visual environment and improving human well-being. In last decades, different approaches to the design of solar daylighting systems have resulted in various innovative solutions to efficiently introduce natural light in buildings. But their efficiency and cost are still one of primary obstacles in the wider development and distribution of solar daylighting systems. In this study, we investigated the performance of a new solar concentrator system for indoor illumination. The solar concentrator system consists of 30 cm dish concentrators, high precision solar trackers, optical fibers and diffusers for a light distribution. In order to assess the daylighting system's efficiency, there were carried out several experimental measurement series. One of them was an application of our solar daylighting system to two standard classrooms with south- and north-oriented windows in Jeju city, Korea. At the same time classrooms were modeled by using ECOTECT and exported to RADIANCE for daylighting simulations. Results from the measurements and simulations were analyzed comprehensively to establish the reliability of the modeling process. Following this, we modeled both classrooms with the above mentioned daylighting systems

  15. Simulation of Daylighting Conditions in a Virtual Underground City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Merli Alcini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From the Piranesi fantastic architectures to the animation movies and video games of the last thirty years, a new design approach has been introduced and developed: the design of the virtual space. Designing the "virtual" means experiencing a multidisciplinary approach where architecture, engineering, and urban planning meet the new horizons of information and communication technology. This study is focused on virtual space, which is an underground city. Mankind have always made and used underground environments: the possibilities of unlimited spaces to potential development, the reduced needs for raw materials for the construction and the protection from outdoor weather are some of the reasons that prompted humans to the realization of underground spaces in the past. These reasons and the availability of innovative technologies could encourage a breakthrough in the realization of new underground environments. A recent example is represented by the Underground City of Montreal (RÉSO. We present the architectural design of a virtual underground city, which is called Arch[ane], and its evaluation. The underground city is modular and the studied module is composed of eight floors with a total depth of 400 m and dimensions of 800 m × 800 m. The study comprises the evaluation of the effect of sunlight on each eight floors of the city. Daylighting simulations were performed considering different cities at different latitudes, days, and hours. The results have shown that the particular design of the underground city with skylights gives significant values of illuminance at a certain depth. Furthermore, the simulation results show how huge can be the potentialities of software to simulate extremely big environments.

  16. Glazing façade modules : daylighting performance simulation for Bragança, Coimbra, Évora and Faro

    OpenAIRE

    Sacht, Helenice Maria; Bragança, L.; Almeida, Manuela Guedes de; Caram, Rosana

    2012-01-01

    The daylighting performance improvement is one better strategy to reduce the artificial lighting consumption in buildings and obviously requires solar radiation from the exterior. Daylighting comes not only from direct sunlight but also from illumination provided by the sky on overcast days. Particular attention must be given to daylighting while designing a building when the aim is to maximize visual comfort or to reduce energy consumption. Visual comfort of glazing façades is a fundamental ...

  17. Architecture, energy and daylight. Study of seven buildings; Arkitektur, energi og dagslys. Undersoegelse af syv bygninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoffersen, J.; Petersen, E.; Svensson, O.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this research project was to enhance the designer's knowledge for designing buildings, rooms and window openings which utilise daylight in such a way that aesthetic and functional requirements can be met and energy consumption for electric lighting can be reduced at the same time. It was not the purpose of the project to develop guidelines but only to demonstrate how good daylight conditions and energy conservation can be achieved. The daylight conditions in the seven selected buildings were registered and assessed by the panel on two field trips in the spring of 1999. During these visits, the research team registered the location of rooms, their orientation, windows, artificial lighting etc. After the field trips, the buildings were photographed and the research group performed measurements and analyses of the lighting conditions in the rooms. However, the quality of daylight cannot be determined based only on measurements. The four professionals therefore supplemented the measurements with a subjective evaluation. The study of these seven buildings led to a number of results that must be assumed to be generally valid. A main result is that good daylight conditions in no way prevents or impedes the creation of good architecture. On the contrary, quality of daylight creates both functional as well as aesthetically satisfactory architecture. In all the investigated buildings, the ratio of glass areas to floor area is highter than 10%. In Denmark, this ratio would ensure reasonable daylight access and a view out. However, when size of glass area and daylight measurements are compared, the relationship between them is not straight-forward. The quantity and quality of daylight in buildings depend on other factors too, such as the depth of window openings, solar shading devices, opposite buildings, outdoor vegetation etc. The study points out that there are no standard solutions of how to design facades and window openings which satisfy all

  18. The effect of short exposure to coloured light on thermal perception: a study using Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Chinazzo, Giorgia; Chamilothori, Kynthia; Wienold, Jan; Andersen, Marilyne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of short exposure to coloured light on thermal perception. To give the impression of natural daylight passing through coloured filters, but avoiding the drawbacks of conducting an experiment with daylight, continuously changing due to daily and seasonal variations, and to weather conditions, we investigate the use of Virtual Reality as a means to control the visual conditions, creating a hybrid environment with thermal and visual stimuli from the real and vi...

  19. The impact of windows and daylight on acute-care nurses' physiological, psychological, and behavioral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Rana Sagha; Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey; Williams, Gary; Chung, Susan Sung Eun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the physiological and psychological effects of windows and daylight on registered nurses. To date, evidence has indicated that appropriate environmental lighting with characteristics similar to natural light can improve mood, alertness, and performance. The restorative effects of windows also have been documented. Hospital workspaces generally lack windows and daylight, and the impact of the lack of windows and daylight on healthcare employees' well being has not been thoroughly investigated. Data were collected using multiple methods with a quasi-experimental approach (i.e., biological measurements, behavioral mapping, and analysis of archival data) in an acute-care nursing unit with two wards that have similar environmental and organizational conditions, and similar patient populations and acuity, but different availability of windows in the nursing stations. Findings indicated that blood pressure (p windows and daylight. A possible micro-restorative effect of windows and daylight may result in lowered blood pressure and increased oxygen saturation and a positive effect on circadian rhythms (as suggested by body temperature) and morning sleepiness. Critical care/intensive care, lighting, nursing, quality care, work environment.

  20. Daylighting performance evaluation of a bottom-up motorized roller shade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapsis, K.; Athienitis, A.K.; Zmeureanu, R.G. [Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Tzempelikos, A. [School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents an experimental and simulation study for quantifying the daylighting performance of bottom-up roller shades installed in office spaces. The bottom-up shade is a motorized roller shade that opens from top to bottom operating in the opposite direction of a conventional roller shade, so as to cover the bottom part of the window, while allowing daylight to enter from the top part of the window, reaching deeper into the room. A daylighting simulation model, validated with full-scale experiments, was developed in order to establish correlations between the shade position, outdoor illuminance and work plane illuminance for different outdoor conditions. Then, a shading control algorithm was developed for application in any location and orientation. The validated model was employed for a sensitivity analysis of the impact of shade optical properties and control on the potential energy savings due to the use of daylighting. The results showed that Daylight Autonomy for the bottom-up shade is 8-58% higher compared to a conventional roller shade, with a difference of 46% further away from the facade, where the use of electric lighting is needed most of the time. The potential reduction in energy consumption for lighting is 21-41%. (author)

  1. Effectiveness of daylighting design and occupant visual satisfaction in a LEED gold laboratory building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Ying; Oswald, Anne [Department of Design and Environmental Analysis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Yang, Xiaodi [School of Architecture, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Using daylight as primary light source has been widely recognized as an important strategy to reduce building energy demand and enhance indoor environment quality. However, to design and operate a building to make full use of daylight, which is a dynamic light source, to meet diverse occupant needs remains a challenge. This paper reports a post-occupancy study of the visual environment in a laboratory building on a university campus, and puts a spotlight on the building occupants as it examines the effectiveness of the daylighting design and systems integration in creating a visual environment to support occupant comfort and satisfaction while reducing artificial lighting demand. Results show generally high satisfaction with daylit work environment and positive effect of the horizontal shading strategy. Issues about the integration between daylighting and electric lighting systems and level of occupant control are identified and discussed for improving the effectiveness of daylighting and enhancing the quality of the visual environment in the building of study. A multiple-tool methodology is developed and tested, which included occupant surveys, interviews, illuminance measurements, continuous data loggers, fisheye-lens camera and glare-identifying software, and documentation of spatial settings, systems features, and user behavior. (author)

  2. Performance of integrated systems of automated roller shade systems and daylight responsive dimming systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung-Chul; Choi, An-Seop; Jeong, Jae-Weon [Department of Architectural Engineering, Sejong University, Kunja-Dong, Kwangjin-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eleanor S. [Building Technologies Department, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Daylight responsive dimming systems have been used in few buildings to date because they require improvements to improve reliability. The key underlying factor contributing to poor performance is the variability of the ratio of the photosensor signal to daylight workplane illuminance in accordance with sun position, sky condition, and fenestration condition. Therefore, this paper describes the integrated systems between automated roller shade systems and daylight responsive dimming systems with an improved closed-loop proportional control algorithm, and the relative performance of the integrated systems and single systems. The concept of the improved closed-loop proportional control algorithm for the integrated systems is to predict the varying correlation of photosensor signal to daylight workplane illuminance according to roller shade height and sky conditions for improvement of the system accuracy. In this study, the performance of the integrated systems with two improved closed-loop proportional control algorithms was compared with that of the current (modified) closed-loop proportional control algorithm. In the results, the average maintenance percentage and the average discrepancies of the target illuminance, as well as the average time under 90% of target illuminance for the integrated systems significantly improved in comparison with the current closed-loop proportional control algorithm for daylight responsive dimming systems as a single system. (author)

  3. Daylight saving time transitions and hospital treatments due to accidents or manic episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lönnqvist Jouko

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daylight saving time affects millions of people annually but its impacts are still widely unknown. Sleep deprivation and the change of circadian rhythm can trigger mental illness and cause higher accident rates. Transitions into and out of daylight saving time changes the circadian rhythm and may cause sleep deprivation. Thus it seems plausible that the prevalence of accidents and/or manic episodes may be higher after transition into and out of daylight saving time. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of transitions into and out of daylight saving time on the incidence of accidents and manic episodes in the Finnish population during the years of 1987 to 2003. Methods The nationwide data were derived from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. From the register we obtained the information about the hospital-treated accidents and manic episodes during two weeks before and two weeks after the transitions in 1987–2003. Results The results were negative, as the transitions into or out of daylight saving time had no significant effect on the incidence of accidents or manic episodes. Conclusion One-hour transitions do not increase the incidence of manic episodes or accidents which require hospital treatment.

  4. Daylight saving time transitions and hospital treatments due to accidents or manic episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Tuuli A; Haukka, Jari; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Partonen, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Background Daylight saving time affects millions of people annually but its impacts are still widely unknown. Sleep deprivation and the change of circadian rhythm can trigger mental illness and cause higher accident rates. Transitions into and out of daylight saving time changes the circadian rhythm and may cause sleep deprivation. Thus it seems plausible that the prevalence of accidents and/or manic episodes may be higher after transition into and out of daylight saving time. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of transitions into and out of daylight saving time on the incidence of accidents and manic episodes in the Finnish population during the years of 1987 to 2003. Methods The nationwide data were derived from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. From the register we obtained the information about the hospital-treated accidents and manic episodes during two weeks before and two weeks after the transitions in 1987–2003. Results The results were negative, as the transitions into or out of daylight saving time had no significant effect on the incidence of accidents or manic episodes. Conclusion One-hour transitions do not increase the incidence of manic episodes or accidents which require hospital treatment. PMID:18302734

  5. Incidence of myocardial infarction with shifts to and from daylight savings time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiddou, Monica R; Pica, Mark; Boura, Judy; Qu, Lihua; Franklin, Barry A

    2013-03-01

    Modulators of normal bodily functions such as the duration and quality of sleep might transiently influence cardiovascular risk. The transition to daylight savings time (DST) has been associated with a short-term increased incidence ratio (IR) of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The present retrospective study examined the IR of AMIs that presented to our hospitals the week after DST and after the autumn switch to standard time, October 2006 to April 2012, with specific reference to the AMI type. Our study population (n = 935 patients; 59% men, 41% women) was obtained from the electronic medical records of the Royal Oak and Troy campuses of the Beaumont Hospitals in Michigan. Overall, the frequency of AMI was similar in the spring and autumn, 463 (49.5%) and 472 (50.5%), respectively. The IR for the first week after the spring shift was 1.17 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.36). After the transition from DST in the autumn, the IR for the same period was lower, but not significantly different, 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.16). Nevertheless, the greatest increase in AMI occurred on the first day (Sunday) after the spring shift to DST (1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.09 to 2.02; p <0.05). Also, a significantly greater incidence was found of non-ST-segment myocardial infarction after the transition to DST in the study group compared with that in the control group (p = 0.022). In conclusion, these data suggest that shifts to and from DST might transiently affect the incidence and type of acute cardiac events, albeit modestly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. SD-PAMs: What, Where, When and How?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This paper examines what ''sustainable development policies and measures'' (SD-PAMs) could be, and how they could be implemented and could fit into a post-2012 climate regime. This paper assumes that the option to implement SD-PAMs instead of quantified GHG emission commitments post-2012 is an option that would be likely to be only open to non-Annex I countries. There are several key, but unanswered, questions related to SD-PAMs. These include policy-related issues such as which countries could take on commitments to implement SD-PAMs (rather than quantified emission commitments)? Why would particular countries decide to take on such commitments? They also include questions related to how SD-PAMs could be implemented. For many other options for possible post-2012 GHG mitigation actions, including by non-Annex I countries, have also been proposed. However, this paper focuses solely on SD-PAMs.

  7. How Changes in Anti-SD Sequences Would Affect SD Sequences in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolbaghaei, Akram; Silke, Jordan R; Xia, Xuhua

    2017-05-05

    The 3' end of the small ribosomal RNAs (ssu rRNA) in bacteria is directly involved in the selection and binding of mRNA transcripts during translation initiation via well-documented interactions between a Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence located upstream of the initiation codon and an anti-SD (aSD) sequence at the 3' end of the ssu rRNA. Consequently, the 3' end of ssu rRNA (3'TAIL) is strongly conserved among bacterial species because a change in the region may impact the translation of many protein-coding genes. Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis differ in their 3' ends of ssu rRNA, being GAUC ACCUCCUUA 3' in E. coli and GAUC ACCUCCUU UCU3' or GAUC ACCUCCUU UCUA3' in B. subtilis Such differences in 3'TAIL lead to species-specific SDs (designated SD Ec for E. coli and SD Bs for B. subtilis ) that can form strong and well-positioned SD/aSD pairing in one species but not in the other. Selection mediated by the species-specific 3'TAIL is expected to favor SD Bs against SD Ec in B. subtilis , but favor SD Ec against SD Bs in E. coli Among well-positioned SDs, SD Ec is used more in E. coli than in B. subtilis , and SD Bs more in B. subtilis than in E. coli Highly expressed genes and genes of high translation efficiency tend to have longer SDs than lowly expressed genes and genes with low translation efficiency in both species, but more so in B. subtilis than in E. coli Both species overuse SDs matching the bolded part of the 3'TAIL shown above. The 3'TAIL difference contributes to the host specificity of phages. Copyright © 2017 Abolbaghaei et al.

  8. Energy savings due to daylight and artificial lighting integration in office buildings in hot climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ashwal, Nagib T. [Sana' a University, Sana' a (Yemen); Budaiwi, Ismail M. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-07-01

    Reducing energy consumption while maintaining acceptable environmental quality in buildings has been a challenging task for building professionals. In office buildings, artificial lighting systems are a major consumer of energy and can significantly contribute to building cooling load. Furthermore, although reliable, artificial lighting does not necessarily provide the required quality of lighting. Significant improvement in lighting quality and energy consumption can be achieved by proper integration of daylight and artificial lighting. The objective of this study is to investigate the energy performance of office buildings resulting from daylight and artificial lighting integration in hot climates. A parametric analysis is conducted to find the impact of different window design parameters, including window area, height and glazing type, on building energy performance. Results have shown that as much as 35% reduction in lighting energy consumption and 13% reduction in total energy consumption can be obtained when proper daylighting and artificial lighting integration is achieved.

  9. Daylight Adaptive Shading Using Parametric Camshaft Mechanism for SOHO in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjarifudin Firza Utama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes SOHO (Small Office Home Office which can adjust to the need of visual comfort for the users through natural daylighting and also can be adapted to standard requirements of 14 creative industry workspace in Jakartas. The method of the research is by simulating the SOHO unit with variation of shading opening angles in order to adapt to each unit. Analysis done to every shading opening angle to get the appropriate daylight intensity level which support the work activities in every unit for the whole day. In order for the shading to be able to adapt to the changing daylight condition, previously developed parametric camshaft mechanism was used. The study found that the visual comfort for SOHO with creative industries workers in Jakarta can be achieve by varying the shading opening angles between 15-75°.

  10. A Study on the Optimal Duration of Daylight Saving Time (DST in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Hee Mihn

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Daylight saving time aims at spending effective daylight in summer season. Korea had enforced daylight saving time twelve times from 1948 to 1988. Since 1988, it is not executed, but it is recently discussed the resumption of DST. In this paper, we investigate the trend of DST in other countries, review the history of DST in Korea, and suggest the optimal DST duration in terms of astronomical aspects (times of sunrise and sunset. We find that the starting day of DST in Korea is apt for the second Sunday in Mayor the second Sunday in April according to the time of sunrise or to the difference between Korean standard meridian and observer`s, respectively. We also discuss time friction that might be caused by time difference between DST and Korea Standard Time (KST.

  11. Determining daylight and view preferences from the use of blinds in apartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines

    2015-01-01

    preferences have significant influence on the daylight level and view as well as possible impact on the building’s energy consumption. Therefore, it is important to conduct further studies in the area in order to be able to design solutions that supports the user preferences better and through that improves...... for the inhabitants’ health and well-being, as well as the energy consumption. Present research is an important contribution, because of the increased knowledge about daylights impact on health and well-being as well as daylights impact on the energy consumption in our buildings. However, it is often seen...... that curtains or blinds, often close off new apartment buildings with large glass areas in dense urban context. Such observations indicate that there can be a discrepancy between the intentions of the design team or architect and the perception of the user. The paper presents the results of observations...

  12. Solar shading for low energy use and daylight quality in offices: Simulations, measurements and design tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, M.C.

    2001-11-01

    This thesis investigates the impact of solar shading devices on energy use and daylight quality in office rooms. The impact on energy use is analysed through computer simulations with the dynamic energy simulation program Derob-LTH while the impact on daylight quality is investigated through measurements in full-scale experimental office rooms and simulations with the program Radiance. This thesis also includes a literature review of research on solar shading as well as design tools to incorporate shading devices at an early stage in the design of buildings. This thesis indicates that, in cold countries, shading devices may provide more annual energy savings than any solar-protective (reflective, tinted) glazing and that the optimum glazing transmittance is orientation- and climate-dependent. For example, high annual energy savings are obtained on the south facade with higher transmittance glazings (compared with the east and west facade) because the potential for passive solar gain utilisation in the winter is high in comparison with the annual cooling demand. Exterior shading devices like awnings and overhangs may reduce the cooling demand dramatically but they are not suitable as daylight (glare) control devices. Devices like screens and venetian blinds are preferable because they cover the entire window area, which prevents sunlight patches in the room and the direct view of the bright sky. Screens and venetian blinds also reduce daylight in the room to levels that are suitable for computer work. However, it is essential that the screen is of a diffusing type since screens with a strong (specular) transmittance component result in poor daylight quality. The study on daylight quality also indicated that a screen transmittance of around 15 % may be optimum for a standard (3.5 by 6.0 m{sup 2}) south-oriented office room with a window covering around 25 % of the facade area (12 % of the floor area)

  13. Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's daylight monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grobe, Lars; Wittkopf, Stephen; Pandey, Anupama Rana; Xiaoming, Yang; Seng, Ang Kian; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2010-02-28

    A setup to monitor the daylighting performance of different glazing types in Singapore is presented. The glazing is installed in the facade of four dedicated testing chambers in BCAA's Zero Energy Building in Singapore. These test rooms are equipped with sensors that both record illuminances on the work plane, and luminances as seen by occupants. The physical and logical design of the monitoring system is presented. Criteria to assess the daylighting performance are introduced, and initial results of the work in progress are presented.

  14. Estimation Methodology for the Electricity Consumption with the Daylight- and Occupancy-Controlled Artificial Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Strømberg, Ida Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Artificial lighting represents 15-30% of the total electricity consumption in buildings in Scandinavia. It is possible to avoid a large share of electricity use for lighting by application of daylight control systems for artificial lighting. Existing methodology for estimation of electricity...... consumption with application of such control systems in Norway is based on Norwegian standard NS 3031:2014 and can only provide results from a rough estimate. This paper aims to introduce a new estimation methodology for the electricity usage with the daylight- and occupancy-controlled artificial lighting...

  15. The effect of daylight saving time options on electricity consumption of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasu, Servet [Rize University, Rize Vocational School, 53100, Rize (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    Most of the developed countries in the world use Daylight Saving Time (DST) as an energy conservation method. This study focuses on the effects of DST on electrical lighting in the buildings in Turkey. Turkey might adjust its daylight saving time to decrease energy consumption. For this purpose, five scenarios are considered and compared to status quo. The scenario with a 30-minute forward shift to single DST from April to October, stands out as the best solution to conserve electricity across the entire country. The results of the study show that maximum saving is obtained in this scenario by at least 0.7% on the consumption of lighting electricity. (author)

  16. Economic feasibility of maximising daylighting of a standard office building with efficient electric lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontoynont, Marc; Ramananarivo, Karine; Soreze, Thierry Silvio Claude

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the cost of developing various daylighting strategies for a standard office building in relation to their ability to reduce electric lighting consumption. The reference building design for this study corresponds to a typical configuration that minimises the construction...... costs and is typical of the French market. We have compared scenarios that entail moving service spaces to the periphery, increasing ceiling height and adding light wells of various shapes. These special features increased the proportion of the indoor area with sufficient daylight by up to 40...

  17. Application of a spectral sky in Radiance for daylighting calculations including non-image-forming light effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khademagha, P.; Aries, M.B.C.; Rosemann, A.L.P.; van Loenen, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Daylight is dynamic and rich in the blue part of the spectrum. To date, the spectral composition of daylight is ignored in sky models used in Radiance. Spectral sky composition is particularly important when non-image-forming (NIF) light effects are concerned, since the action spectrum for these

  18. Penerapan Model Beyond Centers and Circle Tme SD Kelas Satu

    OpenAIRE

    FITRIA, EVY

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian bertujuan mengkaji pelaksanaan penerapan model pembelajaran Sentra Model pembelajaran sentra (Beyond Centers and Circle Time) dilaksanakan pada siswa kelas satu SD Islam Jayawinata Kota Tangerang 2013. Penelitian menggunakan metode kualitatitf dengan analisis model Miles and Huberman. Hasil penelitian mengungkapkan bahwa kegiatan SD kelas satu menggunakan model pembelajaran sentra atau BCCT pada tahun ajaran baru sehingga guru memiliki panduan ketika membuat rencana pembelajaran; p...

  19. Positional dependence of the SNPP VIIRS SD BRDF degradation factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ning; Chen, Xuexia; Chang, Tiejun; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2017-09-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite is a passive scanning radiometer and an imager. The VIIRS regularly performs on-orbit radiometric calibration of its reflective solar bands (RSBs) through observing an onboard sunlit solar diffuser (SD). The reflectance of the SD changes over time and the change is denoted as the SD bidirectional reflectance distribution function degradation factor. The degradation factor, measured by an onboard solar diffuser stability monitor, has been shown to be both incident sunlight and outgoing direction dependent. In this Proceeding, we investigate the factor's dependence on SD position. We develop a model to relate the SD degradation factor with the amount of solar exposure. We use Earth measurements to evaluate the effectiveness of the model.

  20. Balancing energy and daylighting performances for envelope design: A new index and proposition of a case study in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Jing Chao; Xue, Peng; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Liu, Jia Ping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Daylighting and energy performances were studied simultaneously. •Energy demands of lighting and air-conditioning systems were both included. •Luminous comfort was quantified by Ave. DA 300 with the range from 29.6% to 57.8%. •Energy Daylight Rate was proposed as a simple multi-objective optimization approach. •Optimal scenarios for all directions were tested and chosen by EDR method. -- Abstract: Being healthy and energy saving have become two important principles of building development. Daylight is an influential factor with the characteristics of both photometry and radiometry. Irradiance brings solar heat gains that transfer to building cooling load, while illuminance provides a luminous environment and affects artificial lighting system at the same time. To balance the energy and daylighting performances, it is reasonable to minimize the environmental load under moderate comfort conditions. This study first quantified luminous comfort with a dynamic daylighting metric, average daylight autonomy (Ave. DA 300 ), from a questionnaire survey and simulation work. The benchmark of this metric should range from 29.6% to 57.8% for high-rise residential buildings. With this guideline, the Hong Kong public housing units is found that part of units lack of daylight due to the high building floor and density, while some units have potential to save energy by compromising daylighting performance. Therefore, a new index, energy daylight rate (EDR), is proposed to help decide the best scenario of envelope design for both daylighting and shading purposes. The results show that opening a secondary window is an efficient way to bring more light in and lengthening overhang is an efficient way to block excessive sunlight. This method and the new index are proved to have the ability to help defining proper building envelope design at the early stage.

  1. EKSISTENSI SD GMIT DI ROTE NDAO (Studi Deskriptif Penempatan Guru PNS pada SD GMIT Rote Ndao-NTT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melki Manafe

    2013-12-01

    berasal dari Negara. Hasil-hasil inimenempatkan SD GMIT di Rote Ndao pada status quasistate school dimana SD GMIT adalah milik GMIT akan tetapi semua operasional (subsidi pendidikan dan sumber daya manusia/guru selalu bergantung pada Negara.

  2. SdAb heterodimer formation using leucine zippers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ellen R.; Anderson, George P.; Brozozog-Lee, P. Audrey; Zabetakis, Dan

    2013-05-01

    Single domain antibodies (sdAb) are variable domains cloned from camel, llama, or shark heavy chain only antibodies, and are among the smallest known naturally derived antigen binding fragments. SdAb derived from immunized llamas are able to bind antigens with high affinity, and most are capable of refolding after heat or chemical denaturation to bind antigen again. We hypothesized that the ability to produce heterodimeric sdAb would enable reagents with the robust characteristics of component sdAb, but with dramatically improved overall affinity through increased avidity. Previously we had constructed multimeric sdAb by genetically linking sdAb that bind non-overlapping epitopes on the toxin, ricin. In this work we explored a more flexible approach; the construction of multivalent binding reagents using multimerization domains. We expressed anti-ricin sdAb that recognize different epitopes on the toxin as fusions with differently charged leucine zippers. When the initially produced homodimers are mixed the leucine zipper domains will pair to produce heterodimers. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to confirm heterodimer formation. Surface plasmon resonance, circular dichroism, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, and fluid array assays were used to characterize the multimer constructs, and evaluate their utility in toxin detection.

  3. Hardware-in-the-Loop Modeling and Simulation Methods for Daylight Systems in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Alex Robert

    This dissertation introduces hardware-in-the-loop modeling and simulation techniques to the daylighting community, with specific application to complex fenestration systems. No such application of this class of techniques, optimally combining mathematical-modeling and physical-modeling experimentation, is known to the author previously in the literature. Daylighting systems in buildings have a large impact on both the energy usage of a building as well as the occupant experience within a space. As such, a renewed interest has been placed on designing and constructing buildings with an emphasis on daylighting in recent times as part of the "green movement.''. Within daylighting systems, a specific subclass of building envelope is receiving much attention: complex fenestration systems (CFSs). CFSs are unique as compared to regular fenestration systems (e.g. glazing) in the regard that they allow for non-specular transmission of daylight into a space. This non-specular nature can be leveraged by designers to "optimize'' the times of the day and the days of the year that daylight enters a space. Examples of CFSs include: Venetian blinds, woven fabric shades, and prismatic window coatings. In order to leverage the non-specular transmission properties of CFSs, however, engineering analysis techniques capable of faithfully representing the physics of these systems are needed. Traditionally, the analysis techniques available to the daylighting community fall broadly into three classes: simplified techniques, mathematical-modeling and simulation, and physical-modeling and experimentation. Simplified techniques use "rules-of-thumb'' heuristics to provide insights for simple daylighting systems. Mathematical-modeling and simulation use complex numerical models to provide more detailed insights into system performance. Finally, physical-models can be instrumented and excited using artificial and natural light sources to provide performance insight into a daylighting system

  4. Window design : visual and thermal consequences : analysis of the thermal and daylighting performance of windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergem-Jansen, P.M. van; Soeleman, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Selected results of an analysis for the thermal and lighting requirements associated with windows in utility buildings are presented. This analysis concerns the effects of r¡indow size and shape, orientation and of different ways of supplementing the daylight by artifieial light for a typical office

  5. The Dynamics of Daylighting at a Residential College Building with the Internal Courtyard Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Ainurzaman Jamaludin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dayasari residential college building was designed with the internal courtyard that allows for numerous implementations of bioclimatic design strategies, especially on daylighting. The field measurement was conducted at eight unoccupied student rooms, selected as samples to represent ten scenarios and orientations that concerned with the level of radiation and penetration of sunlight. This study reveals the contribution of the internal courtyard in the residential college which allows the daylight penetration at the corridor areas and interior of the rooms through the transom over the entrance door, up to ten hours daily. Different amounts of daylight were measured in specific room scenarios to suggest on the most comfortable indoor living space. The recorded mean value for indoor varied from 37 to 286 lux, while in the corridor area 192 to 3,848 lux. However, the use of the large overhangs over the windows, wall openings in the room and trees with large canopy in the landscape setting should critically justify when the adequacy of daylight was drastically reduced in certain rooms.

  6. The characterisation of the daylighting properties of special glazings and solar shading devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, H.A.L. van; Bakker, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    Within the EU DGXII R&D Programme JOULE a project, called REVIS. started in 1998 and will be completed within 2.5 years, with the objective to develop detailed daylight product information of novel products of glazings and solar shading devices. This involves a test procedure, definition of product

  7. Estimation of exterior vertical daylight for the humid tropic of Kota Kinabalu city in East Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djamila, Harimi; Ming, Chu Chi; Kumaresan, Sivakumar [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Locked Bag No. 2073, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    In tropical regions natural daylight has been a fundamental factor in building design. It is the most efficient way of lighting a building in the daytime and has a great potential for energy conservation in buildings. In Malaysia there are a limited available data of measured illuminance which is the case of several regions in the tropics. Using established models it is possible to predict the luminous efficacy and then estimate the monthly mean hourly exterior illuminance. In this study two different models were chosen. The Perez and Du Mortier-Perraudeau-Page-Littlefair models were selected for the prediction of hourly exterior horizontal illuminance for the city of Kota Kinabalu in East Malaysia. Comparison between the two models were made. The vertical hourly illuminance was predicted also using Perez approach. The potentiality of daylight in four orientations was discussed. This study highlights the importance of Sunpath diagram on daylight illuminance during the conceptual design stage. The results in this study is hoped to contribute further insight into the potentiality of daylighting of tropical sky. (author)

  8. PULSE: Integrated Parametric Modeling for a Shading System : From Daylight Optimization to Additive Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeling, M.V.M.T.; Turrin, M.; de Ruiter, P.; Turrin, Michela; Peters, Brady; O'Brien, William; Stouffs, Rudi; Dogan, Timur

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a parametric approach to an integrated and performance-oriented design, from the conceptual design phase towards materialization. The novelty occurs in the use of parametric models as a way of integrating multidisciplinary design constraints, from daylight optimization to the

  9. OPTIMIZATION STUDY OF VISUAL COMFORT AND DAYLIGHT AVAILABILITY AT CADL ITB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIREGAR Mhd. Akbar Anthony

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One way to reduce energy consumption in buildings is to use daylighting. However, daylight can cause visual discomfort in the form of glare. Center of Art, Design, and Language (CADL Institut Teknologi Bandung is a building that has windows on west and east facades, so the probability of glare occurrence is high. In this research, CADL was optimized so that the percentage of time that Daylight Glare Probability below 0.21 (%DGP<0.21 is more than 50% and spatial daylight autonomy with illuminance 150 lux and 50% (sDA150lux,50% is more than 30%. In the optimization, vertical blinds, horizontal blinds, and curtains were added. Vertical blinds and horizontal blinds were varied by changing the blade’s opening angle and area covering the windows, while curtains were varied only by changing the area covering the windows. The results show that %DGP<0.21 can be increased beyond 50%, but in some rooms, sDA150,50% also decrease below 30%. The most frequent optimum solutions are vertical blinds 75%-60o.

  10. Practical approach to the use of daylight photodynamic therapy with topical methyl aminolevulinate for actinic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, C A; Wulf, H C; Szeimies, R M

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy has been shown to be an effective therapy for actinic keratoses (AKs) and a simple and tolerable treatment procedure in three randomized Scandinavian studies and two recent Phase III randomized controlled studies in Australia and Europe...

  11. A review of methods for the evaluation of the energy contribution of daylight in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attenborough, M; Goodwin, A

    1996-07-01

    A review has been undertaken of energy prediction methods and daylight calculation methods currently in use in the UK. This was based on a literature review and discussions with large engineering practices and academics involved in the areas of daylighting and energy simulation research. The aim of this review was to identify manual methods or computer programs that are capable of determining energy use in non-domestic buildings and of taking into account the energy savings resulting from daylighting. One potential application for these methods is in supporting anticipated energy targets for non-domestic buildings within Building Regulations and other energy labelling schemes. The review has identified a range of methods which are capable of predicting overall energy use while accounting for daylight. These vary in complexity from empirical methods such as ESICHECK and the CIBSE Energy Code through to dynamic energy simulation models such as DOE 2 and ESP. For each of the methods identified a brief assessment has been made of their technical capabilities ease of use and availability. These assessments have been based on discussions with users and program developers. Descriptions of the various methods are given. (Author)

  12. Effect of daylight saving time on lighting energy use: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aries, M.B.C.; Newsham, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    The principal reason for introducing (and extending) daylight saving time (DST) was, and still is, projected energy savings, particularly for electric lighting. This paper presents a literature review concerning the effects of DST on energy use. Simple estimates suggest a reduction in national

  13. Change in the Classroom Deportment of Children Following Change From Daylight Saving Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Robert A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The deportment of each student in a third-grade classroom was rated by the teacher before and after the fall change from daylight savings time, to see if this disruption in circadian rhythms alters behavior. The deportment of boys improved significantly while the deportment of girls was significantly disrupted. (Author/SJL)

  14. Simple tool to evaluate the impact of daylight on building energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a simple building simulation tool for integrated daylight and thermal analysis. The tool is capable of importing the thermal and visual properties for different glazings and shading positions from the Window Information System (WIS) program. A coupled ray-tracing and radiosity...

  15. Simple tool to evaluate the impact of daylight on building energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a simple building simulation tool for integrated daylight and thermal analysis. The tool is capable of importing the thermal and visual properties for different glazings and shading positions from the Window Information System (WIS) program. Radiosity methodology is used...

  16. 75 FR 36089 - Payment System Risk Policy; Daylight Overdraft Posting Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM [OP-1385] Payment System Risk Policy; Daylight Overdraft Posting Rules... Payment System Risk Policy, the Board is announcing posting rules for a new same-day automated clearing... Kirkpatrick, Senior Financial Services Analyst, Payment System Risk (202-452-2796), or Jennifer Davidson...

  17. 77 FR 22666 - Payment System Risk Policy; Daylight Overdraft Posting Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 204 [Docket No. OP-1440] Payment System Risk Policy; Daylight.... SUMMARY: The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board) has revised its Policy on Payment...), Division of Reserve Bank Operations and Payment Systems. For users of Telecommunications Device for the...

  18. 78 FR 70046 - Payment System Risk Policy; Daylight Overdraft Posting Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM [Docket No. OP--1471] Payment System Risk Policy; Daylight Overdraft... Reserve Policy on Payment System Risk (PSR policy) to eliminate certain posting rules to conform with... Services Analyst (202- 452-2404), Division of Reserve Bank Operations and Payment Systems. For users of...

  19. Chromatic illumination discrimination ability reveals that human colour constancy is optimised for blue daylight illuminations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Pearce

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of colour constancy in human visual perception keeps surface colours constant, despite changes in their reflected light due to changing illumination. Although colour constancy has evolved under a constrained subset of illuminations, it is unknown whether its underlying mechanisms, thought to involve multiple components from retina to cortex, are optimised for particular environmental variations. Here we demonstrate a new method for investigating colour constancy using illumination matching in real scenes which, unlike previous methods using surface matching and simulated scenes, allows testing of multiple, real illuminations. We use real scenes consisting of solid familiar or unfamiliar objects against uniform or variegated backgrounds and compare discrimination performance for typical illuminations from the daylight chromaticity locus (approximately blue-yellow and atypical spectra from an orthogonal locus (approximately red-green, at correlated colour temperature 6700 K, all produced in real time by a 10-channel LED illuminator. We find that discrimination of illumination changes is poorer along the daylight locus than the atypical locus, and is poorest particularly for bluer illumination changes, demonstrating conversely that surface colour constancy is best for blue daylight illuminations. Illumination discrimination is also enhanced, and therefore colour constancy diminished, for uniform backgrounds, irrespective of the object type. These results are not explained by statistical properties of the scene signal changes at the retinal level. We conclude that high-level mechanisms of colour constancy are biased for the blue daylight illuminations and variegated backgrounds to which the human visual system has typically been exposed.

  20. Study of sdO models. Pulsation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-López, C.; Moya, A.; Garrido, R.; MacDonald, J.; Oreiro, R.; Ulla, A.

    2009-01-01

    We have explored the possibility of driving pulsation modes in models of sdO stars in which the effects of element diffusion, gravitational settling and radiative levitation have been neglected so that the distribution of iron-peak elements remains uniform throughout the evolution. The stability of these models was determined using a non-adiabatic oscillations code. We analysed 27 sdO models from 16 different evolutionary sequences and discovered the first ever sdO models capable of driving h...

  1. Application and Computer Analysis of Solar Systems for the Indoor Daylighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhmudov, Is Kandar

    2010-02-15

    A steady increase of energy costs and ever growing environmental concerns in recent years have forced scientists to look for new methods of energy utilization. To resolve these dire problems, the application of renewable energy sources has been considered in various human activities in every sector of society. One of them is the development of solar daylighting systems for residential and commercial buildings, which can improve building energy efficiency and create comfortable indoor environment. Electric lighting represents up to 30 % of building electricity consumption. Therefore, using sunlight in indoor daylighting can significantly reduce electricity consumption in residential and commercial buildings. Moreover, daylight is an important factor in visual environment and improving human well-being. In last decades, different approaches to the design of solar daylighting systems have resulted in various innovative solutions to efficiently introduce natural light in buildings. But their efficiency and cost are still one of primary obstacles in the wider development and distribution of solar daylighting systems. In this study, we investigated the performance of a new solar concentrator system for indoor illumination. The solar concentrator system consists of 30 cm dish concentrators, high precision solar trackers, optical fibers and diffusers for a light distribution. In order to assess the daylighting system's efficiency, there were carried out several experimental measurement series. One of them was an application of our solar daylighting system to two standard classrooms with south- and north-oriented windows in Jeju city, Korea. At the same time classrooms were modeled by using ECOTECT and exported to RADIANCE for daylighting simulations. Results from the measurements and simulations were analyzed comprehensively to establish the reliability of the modeling process. Following this, we modeled both classrooms with the above mentioned daylighting systems

  2. Daylighting simulation : comparison of softwares for architect's utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christakou, D.E.; Amorim, C.N.D. [Brazil Univ., Brasilia (Brazil). Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism

    2005-07-01

    This study analyzed and compared 4 daylighting software packages to determine the primary benefits and limits of each one, while considering the priorities for the use of the software by architects. The complex task of daylight simulation is an important step in designing buildings, particularly when the main objective is comfort and energy conservation. Simulation is not yet commonly practiced by professional architects because of the complexities of various software packages, the lack of user friendly interfaces and difficulty in interpreting results. The 4 software packages that were evaluated in this study were: (1) Desktop Radiance, (2) Rayfront, (3) Relux 2004 Vision, and (4) Lightscape. Criteria such as interfaces, flexibility, and help manuals were also analyzed in an effort to establish a frame of the main points to be considered when choosing daylighting software for architectural use, both in educational and office environments. Simulations of a test room were performed in which some parameters were modified to verify the performance of the following main criteria: flexibility in adapting to the architect's workflow; the use of state of the art algorithms; numerical precision; and, access possibility by Brazilian architects. The results demonstrate the potential of software's improvement, particular in terms of user interfaces and help manuals. The study showed that Relux 2004 Vision is the most adequate for architect's use. Rayfront and Desktop Radiance presented more difficulties in the design process, but Desktop Radiance had the advantage of being enclosed in AUTOCAD, a well known interface. Lightscape had a user friendly interface but was not as intuitive as Relux. It was concluded that the ideal daylighting simulation software does not yet exist. The ideal software should integrate diverse factors and combine edition and modeling tools beyond luminous evaluation and thermal consequences of daylight use. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  3. UTVÄRDERING AV UTVALDA SD-WAN PRODUKTER

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerblom, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Denna jämförelsestudie ämnar att undersöka marknadens leverantörer av nätverksutrustning de- finierade som Software Defined Wide Area Networks(SD-WAN). SD-WAN är en innovativ teknik som applicerar virtualisering och Software defined networking koncept i Wide Area Networks (WAN) för att skapa kostnadseffektiva nätverk. Studien har utförts på företaget Curitiba som idag arbetar med konsulttjänster inom utvalda WAN-optimering och SD-WAN-produkter. Arbetets syfte är att utvärdera SD-WAN-lösningar...

  4. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Mud Lake, MN/SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Mud Lake, MN/SD Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Mud Lake, located on the Minnesota...

  5. Sierra/SD User's Notes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munday, Lynn Brendon; Day, David M.; Bunting, Gregory; Miller, Scott T; Crane, Nathan K

    2018-03-01

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a users guide to the input for Sierra/SD. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

  6. Photometric Survey to Search for Field sdO Pulsators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.; Green, E.; Wallace, S.; O'Malley, C.; Amaya, H.; Biddle, L.; Fontaine, G.

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of a campaign to search for subdwarf O (sdO) star pulsators among bright field stars. The motivation for this project is the recent discovery by Randall et al. (2011) of four rapidly pulsating sdO stars in the globular cluster ω Cen, with Teff near 50,000 K, 5.4 -0.1 and similar temperatures and gravities. To date, we have found no detectable pulsations at amplitudes above 0.08% (4 times the mean noise level) in any of the 36 field sdO stars that we observed. The presence of pulsations in ω Cen sdO stars and their apparent absence in seemingly comparable field sdO stars is perplexing. While very suggestive, the significance of this result is difficult to assess more completely right now due to remaining uncertainties about the temperature width and purity of the ω Cen instability strip and the existence of any sdO pulsators with weaker amplitudes than the current detection limit in globular clusters.

  7. Tuning the diurnal natural daylight with phosphor converted white LED – Advent of new phosphor blend composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Hwa; Arunkumar, Paulraj; Park, Seung Hyok; Yoon, Ho Shin; Im, Won Bin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Designed phosphor blend that mimics diurnal daylight for health benefits. • Developed new phosphor blend composition that mimics natural sunlight under near UV. • The phosphor blend also exhibits high CRI (≥90) under blue LED excitation. • Fabricated WLED exhibited ∼91% spectral resemblance with daylight at 4500 K. • While ∼39.2% spectral resemblance were observed for YAG:Ce 3+ at 4500 K. - Abstract: We demonstrate the feasibility of developing phosphor converted white LED (pc-WLED) that mimics diurnal natural daylight with the newly designed phosphor blend in the color temperature (CCT) 2700–6000 K for health benefits. Natural daylight (sunlight) spectrum possesses broad emission in the visible region and closely approximates black body radiator, with color rendition index (CRI) of 100 under wide CCT (2500–6500 K). Current white light LEDs although are efficient and durable, they are not broad enough compared to daylight. We report new phosphor blend based on Sr 3 MgSi 2 O 8 :Eu 2+ blue phosphor with broad emission and high CRI ≥ 96 under both near UV and blue excitation. The fabricated WLED has exhibited ∼91% spectral resemblance with natural daylight compared to 39.2% for YAG:Ce 3+ white LED at 4500 K. The developed phosphor blend tunes the spectrum in wider CCT and would be a prospective candidate for full spectrum daylight WLED

  8. Tuning the diurnal natural daylight with phosphor converted white LED – Advent of new phosphor blend composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Hwa [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300, Yongbong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute, Force4 Corp., Daechon-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-470 (Korea, Republic of); Arunkumar, Paulraj [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300, Yongbong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Hyok; Yoon, Ho Shin [Research Institute, Force4 Corp., Daechon-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-470 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Won Bin, E-mail: imwonbin@jnu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300, Yongbong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Designed phosphor blend that mimics diurnal daylight for health benefits. • Developed new phosphor blend composition that mimics natural sunlight under near UV. • The phosphor blend also exhibits high CRI (≥90) under blue LED excitation. • Fabricated WLED exhibited ∼91% spectral resemblance with daylight at 4500 K. • While ∼39.2% spectral resemblance were observed for YAG:Ce{sup 3+} at 4500 K. - Abstract: We demonstrate the feasibility of developing phosphor converted white LED (pc-WLED) that mimics diurnal natural daylight with the newly designed phosphor blend in the color temperature (CCT) 2700–6000 K for health benefits. Natural daylight (sunlight) spectrum possesses broad emission in the visible region and closely approximates black body radiator, with color rendition index (CRI) of 100 under wide CCT (2500–6500 K). Current white light LEDs although are efficient and durable, they are not broad enough compared to daylight. We report new phosphor blend based on Sr{sub 3}MgSi{sub 2}O{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+} blue phosphor with broad emission and high CRI ≥ 96 under both near UV and blue excitation. The fabricated WLED has exhibited ∼91% spectral resemblance with natural daylight compared to 39.2% for YAG:Ce{sup 3+} white LED at 4500 K. The developed phosphor blend tunes the spectrum in wider CCT and would be a prospective candidate for full spectrum daylight WLED.

  9. MAL Daylight Photodynamic Therapy for Actinic Keratosis: Clinical and Imaging Evaluation by 3D Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantisani, Carmen; Paolino, Giovanni; Pellacani, Giovanni; Didona, Dario; Scarno, Marco; Faina, Valentina; Gobello, Tommaso; Calvieri, Stefano

    2016-07-11

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common skin cancer with an incidence that varies widely worldwide. Among them, actinic keratosis (AK), considered by some authors as in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), are the most common and reflect an abnormal multistep skin cell development due to the chronic ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. No ideal treatment exists, but the potential risk of their development in a more invasive form requires prompt treatment. As patients usually present with multiple AK on fields of actinic damage, there is a need for effective, safe, simple and short treatments which allow the treatment of large areas. To achieve this, daylight photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT) is an innovative treatment for multiple mild actinic keratosis, well tolerated by patients. Patients allocated to the PDT unit, affected by multiple mild-moderate and severe actinic keratosis on sun-exposed areas treated with DL-PDT, were clinically evaluated at baseline and every three months with an Antera 3D, Miravex(©) camera. Clinical and 3D images were performed at each clinical check almost every three months. In this retrospective study, 331 patients (56.7% male, 43.3% female) were treated with DL-PDT. We observed a full clearance in more than two-thirds of patients with one or two treatments. Different responses depend on the number of lesions and on their severity; for patients with 1-3 lesions and with grade I or II AK, a full clearance was reached in 85% of cases with a maximum of two treatments. DL-PDT in general improved skin tone and erased sun damage. Evaluating each Antera 3D images, hemoglobin concentration and pigmentation, a skin color and tone improvement in 310 patients was observed. DL-PDT appears as a promising, effective, simple, tolerable and practical treatment for actinic damage associated with AK, and even treatment of large areas can be with little or no pain. The 3D imaging allowed for quantifying in real time the aesthetic benefits of DL

  10. MAL Daylight Photodynamic Therapy for Actinic Keratosis: Clinical and Imaging Evaluation by 3D Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cantisani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common skin cancer with an incidence that varies widely worldwide. Among them, actinic keratosis (AK, considered by some authors as in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, are the most common and reflect an abnormal multistep skin cell development due to the chronic ultraviolet (UV light exposure. No ideal treatment exists, but the potential risk of their development in a more invasive form requires prompt treatment. As patients usually present with multiple AK on fields of actinic damage, there is a need for effective, safe, simple and short treatments which allow the treatment of large areas. To achieve this, daylight photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT is an innovative treatment for multiple mild actinic keratosis, well tolerated by patients. Patients allocated to the PDT unit, affected by multiple mild−moderate and severe actinic keratosis on sun-exposed areas treated with DL-PDT, were clinically evaluated at baseline and every three months with an Antera 3D, Miravex© camera. Clinical and 3D images were performed at each clinical check almost every three months. In this retrospective study, 331 patients (56.7% male, 43.3% female were treated with DL-PDT. We observed a full clearance in more than two-thirds of patients with one or two treatments. Different responses depend on the number of lesions and on their severity; for patients with 1–3 lesions and with grade I or II AK, a full clearance was reached in 85% of cases with a maximum of two treatments. DL-PDT in general improved skin tone and erased sun damage. Evaluating each Antera 3D images, hemoglobin concentration and pigmentation, a skin color and tone improvement in 310 patients was observed. DL-PDT appears as a promising, effective, simple, tolerable and practical treatment for actinic damage associated with AK, and even treatment of large areas can be with little or no pain. The 3D imaging allowed for quantifying in real time the aesthetic benefits

  11. External perforated Solar Screens for daylighting in residential desert buildings: Identification of minimum perforation percentages

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    The desert climate is endowed by clear sky conditions, providing an excellent opportunity for optimum utilization of natural light in daylighting building indoor spaces. However, the sunny conditions of the desert skies, in countries like Egypt and Saudi Arabia, result in the admittance of direct solar radiation, which leads to thermal discomfort and the incidence of undesired glare. One type of shading systems that is used to permit daylight while controlling solar penetration is " Solar Screens" Very little research work addressed different design aspects of external Solar Screens and their influence on daylighting performance, especially in desert conditions, although these screens proved their effectiveness in controlling solar radiation in traditional buildings throughout history.This paper reports on the outcomes of an investigation that studied the influence of perforation percentage of Solar Screens on daylighting performance in a typical residential living room of a building in a desert location. The objective was to identify minimum perforation percentage of screen openings that provides adequate illuminance levels in design-specific cases and all-year-round.Research work was divided into three stages. Stage one focused on the analysis of daylighting illuminance levels in specific dates and times, while the second stage was built on the results of the first stage, and addressed year round performance using Dynamic Daylight Performance Metrics (DDPMs). The third stage addressed the possibility of incidence of glare in specific cases where illuminance levels where found very high in some specific points during the analysis of first stage. The research examined the daylighting performance in an indoor space with a number of assumed fixed experimentation parameters that were chosen to represent the principal features of a typical residential living room located in a desert environment setting.Stage one experiments demonstrated that the screens fulfilled the

  12. Combined daylight and intelligent LED lighting - getting the daylight into the buildings; Kombineret dagslys og intelligent LED belysning - fae dagslys ind i bygningerne. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Hansen, C.; Corell, D.D.; Thorseth, A.; Behrensdorff Poulsen, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, DTU Fotonik, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Markvart, J.; Iversen, A.; Logadottir, A. [Aalborg Univ., Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (SBi), Koebenhavn (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    The main result of the project is the construction of the new intelligent and dynamic LED lighting system for demonstration and research purposes, and a number of extensive user testing is completed. The LED lighting system is a total system for office lighting with ceiling fixtures and desk lamps, which has made it possible to create a general and workplace lighting in two offices each with two work places. The system is installed in a day light laboratory for such two office spaces. All lamps can be controlled via a developed computer interface, and the desk lamps are further manually controllable by a user via two buttons for color temperature and brightness, respectively. The new intelligent and dynamic lighting system is based on color mixing LED technology and makes it possible to control the color composition, color coordinates and thus the color temperature of the light. Control-wise, the system is pre-programmed to produce white light with a correlated color temperature from 2700 K to 7000 K. The color composition is optimized from the desire for a very good color given at a general CRI value of 92-97 over the area. The system can be dimmed 20-100 %, with no significant change in the light's color properties. A mini-spectrometer is calibrated and built-in in the system and provides the current estimate of daylight brightness and color temperature through measurement of daylight color scheme in the visible range. The system uses daylight properties to control the light from the LED lighting system. The results of user tests show, that the developed possibility to automatically control of light in the office depending on the daylight color temperature is considered to be equally preferred and results in equally satisfied users as a traditional lighting system with even lighting in the room. On the other hand, user results showed that there were both energy savings and more satisfied users to be gained by providing users the opportunity to self-adjust either

  13. Purification, Characterization, and Optimum Conditions of Fermencin SD11, a Bacteriocin Produced by Human Orally Lactobacillus fermentum SD11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannun, Phirawat; Piwat, Supatcharin; Teanpaisan, Rawee

    2016-06-01

    Fermencin SD11, a bacteriocin produced by human orally Lactobacillus fermentum SD11, was purified, characterized, and optimized in conditions for bacterial growth and bacteriocin production. Fermencin SD11 was purified using three steps of ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weight was found to be 33,000 Da using SDS-PAGE and confirmed as 33,593.4 Da by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fermencin SD11 exhibited activity against a wide range of oral pathogens including cariogenic and periodontogenic pathogens and Candida. The active activity was stable between 60 - 80 °C in a pH range of 3.0 to 7.0. It was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes (proteinase K and trypsin), but it was not affected by α-amylase, catalase, lysozyme, and saliva. The optimum conditions for growth and bacteriocin production of L. fermentum SD11 were cultured at acidic with pH of 5.0-6.0 at 37 or 40 °C under aerobic or anaerobic conditions for 12 h. It is promising that L. fermentum SD11 and its bacteriocin may be an alternative approach for promoting oral health or prevention of oral diseases, e.g., dental caries and periodontitis, which would require further clinical trials.

  14. Energy-efficient window systems. Effects on energy use and daylight in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow-Huebe, H.

    2001-11-01

    This thesis deals with energy-efficient windows in Swedish buildings. Parametric studies were performed in the dynamic energy simulation tool Derob-LTH in order to study the effects of window choices on energy use and indoor climate for both residential and office buildings. A steady-state program was used to evaluate two years of measurements of energy use and indoor temperatures of an energy-efficient row-house. Two behavioural studies regarding (1) daylight transmittance, view and room perception using super-insulated windows and (2) the satisfaction with the daylight environment and the use of shading devices in response to daylight/sunlight were conducted in full-scale laboratory environments exposed to the natural climate. Results show that as the energy-efficiency of buildings increase, window U-values must decrease in order not to increase the annual heating demand, since the heating season is shortened, and useful solar gains become smaller. For single-family houses with a window-to-floor area ratio of 15 % and insulated according the current Swedish building code, the U-values should thus on average be lower than 1.0 W/m{sup 2}K. For houses insulated according to 1960s standard, the U-value may on average be 1.6 W/m{sup 2}K. For colder climates (northern Sweden), the U-values should be somewhat lower, while slightly higher U-values can be tolerated in milder climates of south Sweden. Thermal comfort during winter is improved for energy-efficient windows. However, overheating problems exist for both super-insulated houses and highly glazed office buildings showing a need for very low U-values in combination with low g-values. Daylight experiments indicate that the use of two low-emittance coatings tints the transmitted daylight enough to be appreciated, and colours may be perceived as more drab and rooms more enclosed. A compromise between energy-efficiency and daylighting may be needed, and it is suggested that only one coating be used except when very

  15. Effects of daylight-saving time changes on stock market volatility: a comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Mark J; Kramer, Lisa A; Levi, Maurice D

    2010-12-01

    In a recent article in this journal, Berument, Dogan, and Onar (2010) challenged the existence of the previously documented daylight-saving effect. Kamstra, Kramer, and Levi's original finding (2000) was that average stock market returns on Mondays following time changes are economically and statistically significantly lower than typical Monday returns. Kamstra, et al. hypothesized that the effect may arise due to heightened anxiety or risk aversion on the part of market participants after they experience a 1-hr. disruption in their sleep habits, in accordance with prior findings in the psychology literature linking sleep desynchronosis with anxiety. Berument, et al. replicated the original findings using ordinary least squares estimation, but when they modeled the mean of returns using a method prone to producing biased estimates, they obtained puzzling results. The analysis here, based on standard, unbiased modeling techniques, shows that the daylight-saving effect remains intact in the U.S.

  16. Mathematical model quantifies multiple daylight exposure and burial events for rock surfaces using luminescence dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Trine Holm; Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of rock surfaces has increased significantly over the last few years, as the potential of the method has been explored. It has been realized that luminescence-depth profiles show qualitative evidence for multiple daylight exposure...... and burial events. To quantify both burial and exposure events a new mathematical model is developed by expanding the existing models of evolution of luminescenceedepth profiles, to include repeated sequential events of burial and exposure to daylight. This new model is applied to an infrared stimulated...... events. This study confirms the suggestion that rock surfaces contain a record of exposure and burial history, and that these events can be quantified. The burial age of rock surfaces can thus be dated with confidence, based on a knowledge of their pre-burial light exposure; it may also be possible...

  17. Computer Modeling of Daylight-Integrated Photocontrol of Electric Lighting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mistrick

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a variety of different approaches to both model and assess the performance of daylight-integrated electric lighting control systems. In these systems, the output of a controlled lighting zone is based on a light sensor reading and a calibrated control algorithm. Computer simulations can consider the simulated illuminance data generated from both the electric lighting system and a daylight delivery system whose performance is addressed using typical meteorological year (TMY weather data. Photosensor signals and the operation of a control system’s dimming algorithms are also included. Methods and metrics for evaluating simulated performance for the purpose of making informed design decisions that lead to the best possible installed system performance are presented.

  18. The impact of changing solar screen rotation angle and its opening aspect ratios on Daylight Availability in residential desert buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed H.; Sabry, Hanan M.; Gadelhak, Mahmoud I.

    2012-01-01

    usually used to diffuse and prevent direct solar penetration into spaces. This paper investigates the impact of changing solar screen axial rotation angle and screen opening aspect ratio on daylighting performance in a typical residential living room space

  19. Daylight Management in Mediterranean Cities: When Shortage Is Not the Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Judit Lopez-Besora; Glòria Serra-Coch; Helena Coch; Antonio Isalgue

    2016-01-01

    Natural resources such as daylight and sunlight are highly appreciated in countries with prevailing overcast skies. Taking advantage of this scarce resource contributes to saving energy on artificial lighting. In contrast to northern, southern European cities are distinguished by a large number of days with direct sunlight caused by a propitious climate condition. While it is a positive issue in terms of energy availability, the abundance of it can be counterproductive if management measures ...

  20. Mathematical model quantifies multiple daylight exposure and burial events for rock surfaces using luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiesleben, Trine; Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew; Jain, Mayank; Al Khasawneh, Sahar; Hvidt, Søren; Jakobsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of rock surfaces has increased significantly over the last few years, as the potential of the method has been explored. It has been realized that luminescence-depth profiles show qualitative evidence for multiple daylight exposure and burial events. To quantify both burial and exposure events a new mathematical model is developed by expanding the existing models of evolution of luminescence–depth profiles, to include repeated sequential events of burial and exposure to daylight. This new model is applied to an infrared stimulated luminescence-depth profile from a feldspar-rich granite cobble from an archaeological site near Aarhus, Denmark. This profile shows qualitative evidence for multiple daylight exposure and burial events; these are quantified using the model developed here. By determining the burial ages from the surface layer of the cobble and by fitting the new model to the luminescence profile, it is concluded that the cobble was well bleached before burial. This indicates that the OSL burial age is likely to be reliable. In addition, a recent known exposure event provides an approximate calibration for older daylight exposure events. This study confirms the suggestion that rock surfaces contain a record of exposure and burial history, and that these events can be quantified. The burial age of rock surfaces can thus be dated with confidence, based on a knowledge of their pre-burial light exposure; it may also be possible to determine the length of a fossil exposure, using a known natural light exposure as calibration. - Highlights: • Evidence for multiple exposure and burial events in the history of a single cobble. • OSL rock surface dating model improved to include multiple burial/exposure cycles. • Application of the new model quantifies burial and exposure events.

  1. How daylight influences high-order chromatic descriptors in natural images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Juan; Nieves, Juan Luis; Romero, Javier

    2017-07-01

    Despite the global and local daylight changes naturally occurring in natural scenes, the human visual system usually adapts quite well to those changes, developing a stable color perception. Nevertheless, the influence of daylight in modeling natural image statistics is not fully understood and has received little attention. The aim of this work was to analyze the influence of daylight changes in different high-order chromatic descriptors (i.e., color volume, color gamut, and number of discernible colors) derived from 350 color images, which were rendered under 108 natural illuminants with Correlated Color Temperatures (CCT) from 2735 to 25,889 K. Results suggest that chromatic and luminance information is almost constant and does not depend on the CCT of the illuminant for values above 14,000 K. Nevertheless, differences between the red-green and blue-yellow image components were found below that CCT, with most of the statistical descriptors analyzed showing local extremes in the range 2950 K-6300 K. Uniform regions and areas of the images attracting observers' attention were also considered in this analysis and were characterized by their patchiness index and their saliency maps. Meanwhile, the results of the patchiness index do not show a clear dependence on CCT, and it is remarkable that a significant reduction in the number of discernible colors (58% on average) was found when the images were masked with their corresponding saliency maps. Our results suggest that chromatic diversity, as defined in terms of the discernible colors, can be strongly reduced when an observer scans a natural scene. These findings support the idea that a reduction in the number of discernible colors will guide visual saliency and attention. Whatever the modeling is mediating the neural representation of natural images, natural image statistics, it is clear that natural image statistics should take into account those local maxima and minima depending on the daylight illumination and

  2. Technology Assessments of High Performance Envelope with Optimized Lighting, Solar Control, and Daylighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Touzani, Samir; Dutton, Spencer; Shackelford, Jordan; Dickerhoff, Darryl; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this monitored field study was to identify near-term innovative façade technologies for solar control and daylighting with a goal of 20-40% energy use savings below Title 24 2013 in the 30-ft deep perimeter zone near vertical windows within cost and comfort constraints. The targeted market was new or existing commercial office buildings or buildings with similar patterns of use.

  3. Using the Life Satisfaction Approach to Value Daylight Savings Time Transitions: Evidence from Britain and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Kuehnle; Christoph Wunder

    2015-01-01

    Daylight savings time (DST) represents a public good with costs and benefits. We provide the first comprehensive examination of the welfare effects of the spring and autumn transitions for the UK and Germany. Using individual-level data and a regression discontinuity design, we estimate the effect of the transitions on life satisfaction. Our results show that individuals in both the UK and Germany experience deteriorations in life satisfaction in the first week after the spring transition. We...

  4. Apolux : an innovative computer code for daylight design and analysis in architecture and urbanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claro, A.; Pereira, F.O.R.; Ledo, R.Z. [Santa Catarina Federal Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The main capabilities of a new computer program for calculating and analyzing daylighting in architectural space were discussed. Apolux 1.0 was designed to use three-dimensional files generated in graphic editors in the data exchange file (DXF) format and was developed to integrate an architect's design characteristics. An example of its use in a design context development was presented. The program offers fast and flexible manipulation of video card models in different visualization conditions. The algorithm for working with the physics of light is based on the radiosity method representing the surfaces through finite elements divided in small triangular units of area which are fully confronted to each other. The form factors of each triangle are determined in relation to all others in the primary calculation. Visible directions of the sky are also included according to the modular units of a subdivided globe. Following these primary calculations, the different and successive daylighting solutions can be determined under different sky conditions. The program can also change the properties of the materials to quickly recalculate the solutions. The program has been applied in an office building in Florianopolis, Brazil. The four stages of design include initial discussion with the architects about the conceptual possibilities; development of a comparative study based on 2 architectural designs with different conceptual elements regarding daylighting exploitation in order to compare internal daylighting levels and distribution of the 2 options exposed to the same external conditions; study the solar shading devices for specific facades; and, simulations to test the performance of different designs. The program has proven to be very flexible with reliable results. It has the possibility of incorporating situations of the real sky through the input of the Spherical model of real sky luminance values. 3 refs., 14 figs.

  5. Effects of daylight-saving time changes on stock market returns and stock market volatility: rebuttal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Mark J; Kramer, Lisa A; Levi, Maurice D

    2013-02-01

    In a 2011 reply to our 2010 comment in this journal, Berument and Dogen maintained their challenge to the existence of the negative daylight-saving effect in stock returns reported by Kamstra, Kramer, and Levi in 2000. Unfortunately, in their reply, Berument and Dogen ignored all of the points raised in the comment, failing even to cite the Kamstra, et al. comment. Berument and Dogen continued to use inappropriate estimation techniques, over-parameterized models, and low-power tests and perhaps most surprisingly even failed to replicate results they themselves reported in their previous paper, written by Berument, Dogen, and Onar in 2010. The findings reported by Berument and Dogen, as well as by Berument, Dogen, and Onar, are neither well-supported nor well-reasoned. We maintain our original objections to their analysis, highlight new serious empirical and theoretical problems, and emphasize that there remains statistically significant evidence of an economically large negative daylight-saving effect in U.S. stock returns. The issues raised in this rebuttal extend beyond the daylight-saving effect itself, touching on methodological points that arise more generally when deciding how to model financial returns data.

  6. Daylight Design of Office Buildings: Optimisation of External Solar Shadings by Using Combined Simulation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier González

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Integrating daylight and energy performance with optimization into the design process has always been a challenge for designers. Most of the building environmental performance simulation tools require a considerable amount of time and iterations for achieving accurate results. Moreover the combination of daylight and energy performances has always been an issue, as different software packages are needed to perform detailed calculations. A simplified method to overcome both issues using recent advances in software integration is explored here. As a case study; the optimization of external shadings in a typical office space in Australia is presented. Results are compared against common solutions adopted as industry standard practices. Visual comfort and energy efficiency are analysed in an integrated approach. The DIVA (Design, Iterate, Validate and Adapt plug-in for Rhinoceros/Grasshopper software is used as the main tool, given its ability to effectively calculate daylight metrics (using the Radiance/Daysim engine and energy consumption (using the EnergyPlus engine. The optimization process is carried out parametrically controlling the shadings’ geometries. Genetic Algorithms (GA embedded in the evolutionary solver Galapagos are adopted in order to achieve close to optimum results by controlling iteration parameters. The optimized result, in comparison with conventional design techniques, reveals significant enhancement of comfort levels and energy efficiency. Benefits and drawbacks of the proposed strategy are then discussed.

  7. Making daylighting work. Learning from failures to improve the design and implementation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, Prasad; McDougall, Tom; Steinbock, Jason; Douglas, James; Eijadi, David [The Weidt Group, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Daylighting, hailed as a cornerstone of sustainable building design, is the primary passive solar design strategy in commercial buildings. It has the potential to significantly reduce lighting energy, which can be 40% or more of the energy cost of a commercial building. We have found that projects with daylighting often do not provide the expected energy savings. In a risk-averse construction industry, even limited failures can dramatically slow the advance of valid technologies. There are numerous reasons for failure: natural light sources are complex and vary through the day and year; implementation requires coordination between different building design and construction trades; the documentation and specification of the controls equipment is often inadequate; and calibration after installation is rarely done well and can be confusing and time consuming. In this paper, we provide four case studies as representative examples where daylighting did not deliver the expected energy savings. We identify the primary modes of failure and provide a template for each mode for easier problem resolution in the future. Through a detailed analysis of the case studies, we identify problem areas in the design and implementation process; we propose a more generalized solution set for design steps, documentation requirements and implementation checks that increase the chances of success.

  8. Daylighting and energy performance of a building for composite climate: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Sudan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study includes overall energy saving through thermal as well as daylighting for composite climate for the building known as SODHA BERS COMPLEX (SBC situated at Varanasi, India. The building has been designed including all the passive concepts for thermal comfort as well daylighting to maximize the use of natural lighting for the occupants in day to day activities. This approach can be useful for multi-story building for rural and urban areas for both residential and commercial buildings. The energy saving potential and corresponding CO2 mitigation have been determined for different lifetimes of the building. The energy matrices namely energy payback time (EPBT, energy production factor (EPF and life cycle conversion efficiency (LCCE of the building have also been estimated by considering overall energy saving. An annual energy saving has been obtained as 3675.61 kW h due to daylight concept by considering different Zones in each floors of the building. Further, the EPBT has been determined as 49.25 years and 34.73 years for average 4 °C and 6 °C temperature difference between ambient and room, respectively. It has been found that when thermal heat gain increases in the building LCCE and EPF increase.

  9. Somatoform abdominal pain in surgery: is SD worthy of surgical attention? Case reports and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abd Elwahab, Sami Medani

    2012-08-01

    Somatoform disorders (SD) or medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are a group of disorders that represent a group of symptoms that cannot be explained by an organic or physical pathology. These disorders are widely prevalent, and, if unrecognised, SD may lead medical professionals to embark on tests or procedures which may inflict unnecessary iatrogenic complications. Despite the high prevalence, they are only poorly included in medical training curricula, at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. In this article, we review the literature and present two cases. The first one presented with a recurrent acute abdomen had an unnecessary CT abdomen. The second case had laparoscopy for acute right-sided abdominal pain which turned out to be normal, and was readmitted again after a short period with acute urine retention which resolved spontaneously following discussion with the patient and family. Both cases were referred for psychiatric assessment and their family doctors were informed.

  10. The role of fenestration in promoting daylight performance. The mosques of Alexandria since the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingy I. El-Darwish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosques have always been sacred places with distinctive sustainable environments. Fenestration in the prayers’ zone whether clerestories, screened windows, dome lighting and other light features have managed to produce significant spiritual human comfort areas. This paper focuses on fenestration of divine mosques and relates them to promoting daylight performance. The research process emphasizes the importance of daylight performance by promoting simulation tools on historical mosques of Alexandria since the 19th century that has witnessed change over time. The paper is a step toward sustainable lighting schemes in prayers’ zones that help to achieve human comfort as well as minimize use of energy. This study aimed at investigating the daylight performance by the use of climate based daylighting metrics which is “Daylight Autonomy” (DA. Daylight Autonomy is evaluated in the year round for the day lighted prayer periods to evaluate the behavior of fenestration of the different selected sample of mosques since the 19th century in Alexandria on a simulation tool in order to check whether it complies with the required illuminate and glare levels. The research findings are an attempt to lead to performative design guidelines introducing a contemporary interpretation for use in enhancing new designs of these holistic buildings.

  11. The sdA problem - I. Physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelisoli, Ingrid; Kepler, S. O.; Koester, D.

    2018-04-01

    The so-called sdA stars are defined by having H-rich spectra and surface gravities similar to hot subdwarf stars, but effective temperature below the zero-age horizontal branch. Their evolutionary history is an enigma: their surface gravity is too high for main-sequence stars, but too low for single evolution white dwarfs. They are most likely byproducts of binary evolution, including blue-stragglers, extremely-low mass white dwarf stars (ELMs) and their precursors (pre-ELMs). A small number of ELMs with similar properties to sdAs is known. Other possibilities include metal-poor A/F dwarfs, second generation stars, or even stars accreted from dwarf galaxies. In this work, we analyse colours, proper motions, and spacial velocities of a sample of sdAs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to assess their nature and evolutionary origin. We define a probability of belonging to the main sequence and a probability of being a (pre-)ELM based on these properties. We find that 7 per cent of the sdAs are more likely to be (pre-)ELMs than main-sequence stars. However, the spacial velocity distribution suggests that over 35 per cent of them cannot be explained as single metal-poor A/F stars.

  12. Intruder level and deformation in SD-pair shell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yan'an; Ning Pingzhi; Pan Feng

    2004-01-01

    The influence of intruder level on nuclear deformation is studied within the framework of the nucleon-pair shell model truncated to an SD-pair subspace. The results suggest that the intruder level has a tendency to reduce the deformation and plays an important role in determining the onset of rotational behavior. (authors)

  13. SD-CAS: Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Xenia; Filip, Claudiu

    2010-11-01

    A computer algebra tool for describing the Liouville-space quantum evolution of nuclear 1/2-spins is introduced and implemented within a computational framework named Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System (SD-CAS). A distinctive feature compared with numerical and previous computer algebra approaches to solving spin dynamics problems results from the fact that no matrix representation for spin operators is used in SD-CAS, which determines a full symbolic character to the performed computations. Spin correlations are stored in SD-CAS as four-entry nested lists of which size increases linearly with the number of spins into the system and are easily mapped into analytical expressions in terms of spin operator products. For the so defined SD-CAS spin correlations a set of specialized functions and procedures is introduced that are essential for implementing basic spin algebra operations, such as the spin operator products, commutators, and scalar products. They provide results in an abstract algebraic form: specific procedures to quantitatively evaluate such symbolic expressions with respect to the involved spin interaction parameters and experimental conditions are also discussed. Although the main focus in the present work is on laying the foundation for spin dynamics symbolic computation in NMR based on a non-matrix formalism, practical aspects are also considered throughout the theoretical development process. In particular, specific SD-CAS routines have been implemented using the YACAS computer algebra package (http://yacas.sourceforge.net), and their functionality was demonstrated on a few illustrative examples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of Daylight and Aesthetic Image of Glass Facades in Contemporary Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roginska-Niesluchowska, Malgorzata

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the architecture of contemporary buildings in respect to their aesthetic image created by the use of natural light. Sustainability is regarded as a governing principle of contemporary architecture, where daylighting is an important factor as it affects energy consumption and environmental quality of the space inside a building. Environmental awareness of architecture, however, involves a much wider and more holistic view of design. The quality of sustainable architecture can be considered in its aesthetic and cultural context with regard to landscape, local tradition, and connection to the surrounding world. This approach is associated with the social mission of architecture, i.e. providing appropriate space for living, facilitating social relations and having positive impact on people. The purpose of the research is to study the use of daylight in creating an aesthetic image of contemporary buildings. The author focuses mainly on public buildings largely dedicated to art and culture which satisfy high functional and aesthetic requirements. The paper examines the genesis and current trends in the aesthetic image of modern buildings which use daylight as the main design strategy, focusing on the issues of glass facades. The main attention is given to the shaping of representative public areas which feature the glass facades. The research has been based on a case study, critical review of literature review, observation and synthesis. The study identifies and classifies different approaches to using daylight in these areas and highlights changes in the aesthetics of architecture made of glass, which uses daylight as the main design strategy. These changes are primarily caused by the development and spreading of new glazing materials and the use of digital method of design. The influence of light and its mode depends on glass materials but also on the local conditions of the site, and has a significant impact on the relationship between

  15. Effect of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus SD11 on oral microbiota of healthy volunteers: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungsri, P; Akkarachaneeyakorn, N; Wongsuwanlert, M; Piwat, S; Nantarakchaikul, P; Teanpaisan, R

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate whether short-term consumption of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus SD11 affected levels of oral microbiota in vivo and whether L. rhamnosus SD11 could colonize in the human mouth. We also monitored for potential side effects of the probiotic. The applicability of using L. rhamnosus SD11 compared with Lactobacillus bulgaricus as a starter culture for fermented milk was evaluated. After informed consent, 43 healthy young adults were recruited and randomly assigned to either the probiotic or control group and received fermented milk containing L. rhamnosus SD11 or L. bulgaricus, respectively, once daily for 4 wk. The numbers of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and total bacteria in saliva were counted at baseline and then after 4 and 8 wk. An oral examination was performed at baseline and after 8 wk. The persistence of L. rhamnosus SD11 was investigated by DNA fingerprinting using arbitrary primer-PCR. Results demonstrated that statistically significant reductions in mutans streptococci and total bacteria were observed in the probiotic group compared with the control group, and the number of lactobacilli was significantly increased in both groups after receiving fermented milks. Lactobacillus rhamnosus SD11 could be detected (in >80% of subjects) up to 4 wk following cessation of dosing among subjects in the probiotic group. No side effects were reported. Thus, L. rhamnosus SD11 could be used as a starter culture for fermented milk. Daily consumption of L. rhamnosus SD11-containing fermented milk for 4 wk may have beneficial effects on oral health by reducing salivary levels of mutans streptococci. The probiotic was apparently able to colonize the oral cavity for a longer time than previously reported. However, the potential benefits of probiotic L. rhamnosus SD11 on oral health require further evaluation with a larger group of volunteers in a longer-term study. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science

  16. Resonances in collisions between S-D shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental evidence relating to the existence of resonances in collisions between s-d shell nuclei will be reviewed. The determination of the spins and spectroscopic properties of some of these resonances will be discussed. The behaviour of both the resonance and background cross-sections will be compared with model expectations. Some future directions in this area of study will be indicated and the relationship of this work to other results briefly discussed. (author)

  17. Quasi-molecular states in sd-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubono, S.; Ikeda, N.; Nomura, T.

    1988-08-01

    Quasi-molecular states near and below the threshold of the molecular configuration in sd-shell nuclei are discussed using recent experimental data with particle-gamma coincidence method and particle-particle coincidence method. Possible quasi-molecular states have been identified in 24 Mg as well as in 28 Si and 32 S. The important role of quasi-molecular states are discussed, specifically for the shape evolution of nuclei as a function of excitation energy and angular momentum. (author)

  18. Sex differences in the stress response in SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wu, Xue-Yan; Zhu, Qiong-Bin; Li, Jia; Shi, Li-Gen; Wu, Juan-Li; Zhang, Qi-Jun; Huang, Man-Li; Bao, Ai-Min

    2015-05-01

    Sex differences play an important role in depression, the basis of which is an excessive stress response. We aimed at revealing the neurobiological sex differences in the same study in acute- and chronically-stressed rats. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), acute foot shock (FS) and controls, animals in all 3 groups were sacrificed in proestrus or diestrus. Male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: CUMS, FS and controls. Comparisons were made of behavioral changes in CUMS and control rats, plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), and of the hypothalamic mRNA-expression of stress-related molecules, i.e. estrogen receptor α and β, androgen receptor, aromatase, mineralocorticoid receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin. CUMS resulted in disordered estrus cycles, more behavioral and hypothalamic stress-related molecules changes and a stronger CORT response in female rats compared with male rats. Female rats also showed decreased E2 and T levels after FS and CUMS, while male FS rats showed increased E2 and male CUMS rats showed decreased T levels. Stress affects the behavioral, endocrine and the molecular response of the stress systems in the hypothalamus of SD rats in a clear sexual dimorphic way, which has parallels in human data on stress and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Elucidating the 16S rRNA 3' boundaries and defining optimal SD/aSD pairing in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis using RNA-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yulong; Silke, Jordan R; Xia, Xuhua

    2017-12-15

    Bacterial translation initiation is influenced by base pairing between the Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence in the 5' UTR of mRNA and the anti-SD (aSD) sequence at the free 3' end of the 16S rRNA (3' TAIL) due to: 1) the SD/aSD sequence binding location and 2) SD/aSD binding affinity. In order to understand what makes an SD/aSD interaction optimal, we must define: 1) terminus of the 3' TAIL and 2) extent of the core aSD sequence within the 3' TAIL. Our approach to characterize these components in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis involves 1) mapping the 3' boundary of the mature 16S rRNA using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), and 2) identifying the segment within the 3' TAIL that is strongly preferred in SD/aSD pairing. Using RNA-Seq data, we resolve previous discrepancies in the reported 3' TAIL in B. subtilis and recovered the established 3' TAIL in E. coli. Furthermore, we extend previous studies to suggest that both highly and lowly expressed genes favor SD sequences with intermediate binding affinity, but this trend is exclusive to SD sequences that complement the core aSD sequences defined herein.

  20. Optimal sun-shading design for enhanced daylight illumination of subtropical classrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Ming-Chin [Architecture and Building Research Institute, MOI (China); Chiang, Che-Ming [Department of Architecture, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701 (China); Chou, Po-Cheng [Department of Interior Design, Shu-Te University, No. 59 Hun-Shan Road, Yenchau 82445, Kaohsiung County (China); Chang, Kuei-Feng [Department of Real Estate Management, National Pingtung Institute of Commerce (China); Lee, Chia-Yen [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 515 (China)

    2008-07-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of fitting windows with sun-shadings in order to minimize the lighting power costs in daylight-illuminated classrooms lit from a single side in subtropical regions. An IES-CPC model is created of a representative classroom in Taiwan, and a series of simulations is performed to determine the average illuminance value and the uniformity of the illuminance distribution in the classroom under various lighting conditions with no sun-shadings fitted to the window. The numerical results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental measurements obtained using an array of nine-channel photometers. Having confirmed the validity of the simulation scheme, the illumination properties of four different sun-shading designs are considered. The results show that a double-layered sun-shading represents the optimal sun-shading design in terms of achieving a uniform illumination distribution within the classroom. Given appropriate physical dimensions, this daylight access device achieves the minimum illuminance requirement of 500 lx and improves the lighting uniformity ratio from 0.25-0.35 to 0.40-0.42. Furthermore, using this sun-shading device, the required illuminance ratio of 0.5 can be obtained simply by switching on one of the three rows of lights in the classroom. Accordingly, the daylight access device not only improves the illuminance conditions within the classroom, but also reduces the lighting power cost by 71.5% compared to the case where all of the lights are turned on. (author)

  1. Daylight Utilization with Light Pipe in Farm Animal Production: A Simulation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pacheco Diéguez’

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Light pipes offer a passive way to bring daylight inside deep buildings, such as agricultural buildings. However, the lack of reliable performance predictability methods for light pipes represents a major obstacle preventing their widespread use. This paper evaluates a simulation approach for performance prediction and identifies key light pipe design parameters affecting their daylight transmission performance. The study was carried out through continuous monitoring of daylight in two full-scale, identical pig stables fitted with two light pipe systems, Solatube® and Velux®. The experiment included three continuously measuring sensors in each stable and an outdoor sensor during 2013 and 2014. A forward raytracing tool, TracePro®, was used for illuminance prediction and parametric simulations. The simulation results for overcast skies indicated discrepancies between the simulated and average measurement results below 30% in all cases. The discrepancies for clear skies were somewhat higher, i.e., below 30% for 67% of the cases. The higher discrepancies with clear skies were due to the overestimation of absolute sunlight levels and absence of an advanced and detailed optical characterization of the dome collector’s surface. The parametric results have shown that light pipes’ performance is better during summer time, in sunny climates, at low to mid-latitudes, which provides higher solar altitudes than during winter and cloudy climates at high latitudes. Methods to improve the luminous transmittance for low solar altitudes occurring in Scandinavia include: bending or tilting the pipe, increasing the aspect ratio, improving the pipe specular reflectance, tilting the collector to the south, and using optical redirecting system in the collector.

  2. The influence of the lateral distances between buildings on the availability of indoor daylighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Coelho Laranja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses aspects related to daylighting in the indoor environment, more specifically the influence of lateral distances between obstructing buildings on the availability of indoor daylighting, taking the height of the buildings and width of the roads into account. In accordance with the adopted methodology, comparisons were made of the percentage of illuminance values of the internal environment by using UDI (Useful Daylight Illuminance ranges on a selected point within an interior environment with an opening oriented to the North. The percentages of illuminance values were generated by simulation using the TropLux program in a rectangular geometry environment inserted in an urban setting in the city of Vitória, Espírito Santo (Latitude 20°19'S. The simulations were carried out for three types of sky patterns recognized by the CIE (Commission Internationale L'aclairage. One of the main results of this study was that, in locations with sky types 3 (overcast, 7 (partly cloudy, and 12 (clear, there were greater variations in the average annual internal illuminance when there were changes in the lateral distances between the obstructing buildings that were not directly in front of the building that was being analyzed. It was also found that in area with sky types 3 (overcast, 7 (partly cloudy, and 12 (clear, changes in the lateral distances between the three obstructing buildings had little effect on percentage changes in the 100≤UDI≤500 lux range and 500≤UDI ≤2000 lux range.

  3. Impact of solar shading on daylight quality. Measurements in experimental office rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, M.C.

    2001-07-01

    The impact of ten solar shading screens and one venetian blind on daylight quality was studied through measurements in two south-oriented experimental office rooms. The daylight quality was assessed by considering five performance indicators: the daylight factor, the work plane illuminance, the illuminance uniformity on the work plane, the absolute luminance in the field of view and the luminance ratios between the paper task, the walls and the VDT screen. The measurements were carried out under perfect sunny conditions and overcast conditions. The results show that the shading devices can be divided into three distinct groups. Group 1 consists of all dark-coloured screens; Group 2 includes the closed venetian blind while Group 3 includes the white screens and the horizontal venetian blind. The devices of Group 1 produced unacceptably low work plane illuminance and vertical luminance values which resulted in unsuitable luminance ratios between the task, the walls and VDT screen. However, these devices reduced the luminance of the window (sky) to acceptable levels. The devices of Group 3 did not prevent high window luminance but yielded higher levels of work plane illuminance and inner wall luminance, which makes them suitable for traditional paper tasks. They also generated high wall luminance values which resulted in a number of unacceptable luminance ratios between the task, walls and VDT screen. The closed venetian blind (Group 2) was the only device which scored well on all performance indicators considered. It provided ideal illuminance levels for paper and VDT tasks and resulted in favourable wall luminance values for computer work.

  4. Critical analysis of the daylight saving time; Analisis critico al horario del verano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes Rubio, Hernando [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Ciudad-Ixtapalapa, Mexico, D.F., (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The critical analysis is presented as a synthesis of the problem untied since the implementation of the daylight saving time. The often related history is retaken to introduce the reader into the context of the causes of a such program. The geometric aspect of the solar trajectories is discussed and the length of the day as a function of the latitude and the time of the year to have technical elements for the time displacement in a certain region. The technical implementation of the daylight saving time based on three elements is justified: time of dawn and the decline (length of the day), national economic motivation and tourism industry. Stands out that although the daylight saving time schedule has a set of social and economic benefits it is not centered in the individual but in the society as a whole. The errors in handling the information and the misinformation are pointed out as the main causes of the controversy, the discord and the political manipulation of competing groups. [Spanish] El analisis critico se presenta como una sintesis del problema desatado desde la implementacion del horario de verano. La historia muchas veces contada se retoma para introducir al lector en el contexto de las causas de un tal programa. Se discute el aspecto geometrico de las trayectorias solares y la longitud del dia como una funcion de la latitud y de la epoca del ano para tener elementos tecnicos para el desplazamiento horario en una region determinada. Se justifica la implementacion tecnica del horario de verano en funcion de tres elementos: hora de alba y del ocaso (longitud del dia), motivacion economica nacional e industria turistica. Se destaca que si bien el horario de verano tiene un conjunto de beneficios sociales y economicos no se centra en el individuo sino en la sociedad en su conjunto. Se senalan los errores de manejo de la informacion y la desinformacion como los principales causantes de la polemica, el desacuerdo y la manipulacion politica de grupos

  5. Overheating and Daylighting; Assessment Tool in Early Design of London’s High-Rise Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachir Nebia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available High-rise residential buildings in dense cities, such as London, are a common response to housing shortage. The apartments in these buildings may experience different levels of thermal and visual comfort, depending on their orientation and floor level. This paper aims to develop simplified tools to predict internal temperatures and daylighting levels, and propose a tool to quickly assess overheating risk and daylight performance in London’s high-rise residential buildings. Single- and double-sided apartments in a high-rise building were compared, and the impact of their floor level, glazing ratio, thermal mass, ventilation strategy and orientation was investigated. Using Integrated Environmental Solutions Virtual Environment (IES VE, temperature and daylight factor results of each design variable were used to develop early design tools to predict and assess overheating risks and daylighting levels. The results indicate that apartments that are more exposed to solar radiations, through either orientation or floor level, are more susceptible to overheat in the summer while exceeding the daylighting recommendations. Different design strategies at different levels and orientations are subsequently discussed.

  6. Analysing the impact of reflectance distributions and well geometries on vertical surface daylight levels in atria for overcast skies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jiangtao; Sharples, Steve [School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, Crookesmoor Building, Conduit Road, Sheffield S10 1FL (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    This study investigated the impacts of different diffuse reflectance distributions and well geometries on vertical daylight factors and vertical internally reflected components in atria. Two forms of reflectance distribution patterns of wall surface were examined: horizontal and vertical reflectance band variation. The square atrium models studied have a broader WI range of 0.25-2.0, which represent shallow, medium and high atria. Radiance, a powerful package based on backward ray tracing technique, was used for the simulations of vertical daylight levels. The results show that different reflectance distributions of square atrium walls do have an impact on the vertical daylight factors and vertical internally reflected components under overcast sky condition. The impact relates to the orientation of the band with different reflectance distributions on the wall. Compared with the vertical band surface, the horizontal band surface has a much more complicated effect. The horizontal distributions of the reflectances significantly affects the vertical daylight levels at the locations more than 30% atrium height on the wall. For an atrium with a height more than 1/2 the width, the effect tends to increase with the increasing well index. The vertical distributions of the reflectance, nevertheless, do not substantially take effect on the vertical daylight levels in atria except for some special reflectance distribution patterns. (author)

  7. Daylight Influence on Colour Design : Empirical Study on Perceived Colour and Colour Experience Indoors

    OpenAIRE

    Hårleman, Maud

    2007-01-01

    It is known that one and the same interior colouring will appear different in rooms with windows facing north or facing south, but it is not known how natural daylight from these two compass points affects perceived colour and the ways in which colour is experienced. The objective is to describe the perceived colours to be expected in rooms with sunlight and diffused light, and thus develop a tool for colour design. Two empirical investigations provide the basis for six attached papers. The m...

  8. Effects of Daylight Saving Time changes on stock market volatility: a reply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berument, Hakan; Dogan, Nukhet

    2011-12-01

    There is a rich array of evidence that suggests that changes in sleeping patterns affect an individual's decision-making processes. A nationwide sleeping-pattern change happens twice a year when the Daylight Saving Time (DST) change occurs. Kamstra, Kramer, and Levi argued in 2000 that a DST change lowers stock market returns. This study presents evidence that DST changes affect the relationship between stock market return and volatility. Empirical evidence suggests that the positive relationship between return and volatility becomes negative on the Mondays following DST changes.

  9. Development of a new model to predict indoor daylighting: Integration in CODYRUN software and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakra, A.H., E-mail: fakra@univ-reunion.f [Physics and Mathematical Engineering Laboratory for Energy and Environment (PIMENT), University of La Reunion, 117 rue du General Ailleret, 97430 Le Tampon (French Overseas Dpt.), Reunion (France); Miranville, F.; Boyer, H.; Guichard, S. [Physics and Mathematical Engineering Laboratory for Energy and Environment (PIMENT), University of La Reunion, 117 rue du General Ailleret, 97430 Le Tampon (French Overseas Dpt.), Reunion (France)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: {yields} This study presents a new model capable to simulate indoor daylighting. {yields} The model was introduced in research software called CODYRUN. {yields} The validation of the code was realized from a lot of tests cases. -- Abstract: Many models exist in the scientific literature for determining indoor daylighting values. They are classified in three categories: numerical, simplified and empirical models. Nevertheless, each of these categories of models are not convenient for every application. Indeed, the numerical model requires high calculation time; conditions of use of the simplified models are limited, and experimental models need not only important financial resources but also a perfect control of experimental devices (e.g. scale model), as well as climatic characteristics of the location (e.g. in situ experiment). In this article, a new model based on a combination of multiple simplified models is established. The objective is to improve this category of model. The originality of our paper relies on the coupling of several simplified models of indoor daylighting calculations. The accuracy of the simulation code, introduced into CODYRUN software to simulate correctly indoor illuminance, is then verified. Besides, the software consists of a numerical building simulation code, developed in the Physics and Mathematical Engineering Laboratory for Energy and Environment (PIMENT) at the University of Reunion. Initially dedicated to the thermal, airflow and hydrous phenomena in the buildings, the software has been completed for the calculation of indoor daylighting. New models and algorithms - which rely on a semi-detailed approach - will be presented in this paper. In order to validate the accuracy of the integrated models, many test cases have been considered as analytical, inter-software comparisons and experimental comparisons. In order to prove the accuracy of the new model - which can properly simulate the illuminance - a

  10. Daylight illumination-color-contrast tables for full-form objects naturally illuminated objects

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, M

    1978-01-01

    Daylight Illumination-Color-Contrast Tables for Full-form Objects is the result of a major computational project concerning the illumination, color, and contrast conditions in naturally illuminated objects. The project from which this two-chapter book is derived is originally conceived in support of the various remote sensing and image processing activities of the Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen, West Germany DFVLR, in particular, those depending on the quantitative photometric and colorimetric evaluation of photographs and other environmental

  11. Integrated control of sun shades, daylight and artificial light; Integreret regulering af solafskaermning, dagslys og kunstlys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, K.; Christoffersen, J.; Soerensen, Henrik; Jessen, G.

    2011-07-01

    The project established a basis of calculation and a practical basis for optimum choice of solar shading and integrated control strategies for both new buildings and for office, commercial and institutional buildings to be renovated with new calculation models for controlling solar shading integrated in the BSim program. A complete and applicable model for optimum, integrated solar shading control was established, focusing on thermal and visual comfort criteria towards energy consumption for heating, cooling and lighting. A prototype was tested in the daylight laboratory at Danish Building Research Institute-Aalborg University and at University of Southern Denmark. (LN)

  12. Yellowing of coated papers under the action of heat, daylight radiation, and nitrogen oxide gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailly, V.; Le Nest, J.F.; Tosio, J.M.S.; Silvy, J.

    1997-01-01

    In the area of coated papers, a high degree of whiteness is often required to carry a quality image. Coated papers however are sensitive to the environment where they are stored and have tendency to yellow. The aim of this work was to study the influence of(i) daylight radiation and (ii) nitrogen oxide gas (NO2 ) on the yellowing of coated papers. In a previous study (l), we had established the presence of NO2 in the environment of some coating machines because of the transformation of ammonium hydroxide (NH4 OH, a component of some coating colors) into nitrogen oxide through the burners of hot air supplier-systems

  13. Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Gregory; Mistrick, Ph.D., Richard; Lee, Eleanor; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Ph.D., Jacob

    2011-01-21

    We describe two methods which rely on bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) to model the daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (CFS), enabling greater flexibility and accuracy in evaluating arbitrary assemblies of glazing, shading, and other optically-complex coplanar window systems. Two tools within Radiance enable a) efficient annual performance evaluations of CFS, and b) accurate renderings of CFS despite the loss of spatial resolution associated with low-resolution BSDF datasets for inhomogeneous systems. Validation, accuracy, and limitations of the methods are discussed.

  14. Daylight saving time can decrease the frequency of wildlife–vehicle collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, William A.; FitzGibbon, Sean I.; Barth, Benjamin J.; Niehaus, Amanda C.; David, Gwendolyn K.; Taylor, Brendan D.; Matsushige, Helena; Melzer, Alistair; Bercovitch, Fred B.; Carrick, Frank; Jones, Darryl N.; Dexter, Cathryn; Gillett, Amber; Predavec, Martin; Lunney, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Daylight saving time (DST) could reduce collisions with wildlife by changing the timing of commuter traffic relative to the behaviour of nocturnal animals. To test this idea, we tracked wild koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in southeast Queensland, where koalas have declined by 80% in the last 20 years, and compared their movements with traffic patterns along roads where they are often killed. Using a simple model, we found that DST could decrease collisions with koalas by 8% on weekdays and 11% at weekends, simply by shifting the timing of traffic relative to darkness. Wildlife conservation and road safety should become part of the debate on DST. PMID:27881767

  15. Does extending daylight saving time save energy? Evidence from an Australian experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, R. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics; Wolff, H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics]|[Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit (IZA), Bonn (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Several countries are considering extending Daylight Saving Time (DST) in order to conserve energy, and the U.S. will extend DST by one month beginning in 2007. However, projections that these extensions will reduce electricity consumption rely on extrapolations and simulations rather than empirical evidence. This paper, in contrast, examines a quasiexperiment in which parts of Australia extended DST in 2000 to facilitate the Sydney Olympics. Using detailed panel data and a triple differences specification, we show that the extension did not conserve electricity, and that a prominent simulation model overstates electricity savings when it is applied to Australia. (orig.)

  16. ANALISIS REKRUITMEN TENAGA PENDIDIK PADA SD KALAM KUDUS PEKANBARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murnawati Murnawati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui sistem rekrutmen tenaga pendidik pada SD kalam kudus kota Pekanbaru. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah tenaga pendidik di SD Kalam Kudus Kota Pekanbaru, kebutuhan guru sebanyak 65 sedangkan guru tetap sebanyak 40 guru dan sisanya guru honor sebanyak 25 guru. Dalam penelitian ini penulis mengambil sampel seluruh populasi. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara sensus. Data yang digunakan adalah data primer yang diperoleh dari wawancara langsung dan penyebaran kuesioner. Analisis data dalam penelitian ini adalah menggunakan metode deskriptif. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa persyaratan administrasi dalam rekruitmen guru diperoleh rata – rata skor sebesar 3,49. Artinya persyaratan administrasi dalam rekruitmen guru pada SD Kalam Kudus Pekanbaru dinilai baik. Abstract: This research aimed to determine the system of teachers’s recruitment in Kalam Kudus elementary school of Pekanbaru. The population in this study were educators in in Kalam Kudus elementary school of Pekanbaru, the teacher needs as much as 65 while the teacher remains as much as 40 teachers and teacher salaries remaining 25 teachers. In this study the authors took samples of the entire population. Sampling was done by census. The data used is primary data obtained from interviews and questionnaires. Data analyzed by descriptive method. Based on the results of this study concluded that the administrative requirements for the recruitment of teachers obtained average - average score of 3.49. This means that the administrative requirements for the recruitment of teachers in elementary Holy Kalam Pekanbaru considered good. Kata Kunci : Rekruitmen, Tenaga Pendidik

  17. A weak magnetic field inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis in SD rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Tian, L.; Cai, Y.; Pan, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Geomagnetic field is an important barrier that protects life forms on Earth from solar wind and radiation. Paleomagnetic data have well demonstrated that the strength of ancient geomagnetic field was dramatically weakened during a polarity transition. Accumulating evidence has shown that weak magnetic field exposures has serious adverse effects on the metabolism and behaviors in organisms. Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs throughout life in mammals' brains which plays a key role in brain function, and can be influenced by animals' age as well as environmental factors, but few studies have examined the response of hippocampal neurogenesis to it. In the present study, we have investigated the weak magnetic field effects on hippocampal neurogenesis of adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Two types of magnetic fields were used, a weak magnetic field (≤1.3 μT) and the geomagnetic fields (51 μT).The latter is treated as a control condition. SD rats were exposure to the weak magnetic field up to 6 weeks. We measured the changes of newborn nerve cells' proliferation and survival, immature neurons, neurons and apoptosis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus in SD rats. Results showed that, the weak magnetic field (≤1.3 μT) inhibited their neural stem cells proliferation and significantly reduced the survival of newborn nerve cells, immature neurons and neurons after 2 or 4 weeks continuous treatment (i.e. exposure to weak magnetic field). Moreover, apoptosis tests indicated the weak magnetic field can promote apoptosis of nerve cells in the hippocampus after 4 weeks treatment. Together, our new data indicate that weak magnetic field decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis through inhibiting neural stem cells proliferation and promoting apoptosis, which provides useful experimental constraints on better understanding the mechanism of linkage between life and geomagnetic field.

  18. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of traumatic brain in SD rats model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ke; Li Yangbin; Li Zhiming; Huang Yong; Li Bin; Lu Guangming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value and prospect of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in early diagnosis of traumatic brain with traumatic brain model in SD rats. Methods: Traumatic brain modal was established in 40 male SD rats utilizing a weigh-drop device, and MRS was performed before trauma and 4,8,24 and 48 hours after trauma. The ratio of N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Ct) and choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) were calculated and compared with pathological findings respectively. Results: Axonal changes were confirmed in microscopic study 4 hours after injury. The ratio of NAA/Ct decreased distinctly at 4 hours after trauma, followed by a steadily recover at 8 hours, and no significant change from 24h to 48h. There was no significant change in the ratio of Cho/Cr before and after trauma. Conclusion: MRS can be used to monitor the metabolic changes of brain non-invasively. MRS could play a positive role in early diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of traumatic brain. (authors)

  19. Development of new types of sun shielding systems based on daylight conducting sun shielding glass slats; Udvikling af nye typer solafskaermningssystemer baseret paa dagslysdirigerende solafskaermende glaslameller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, A.; Svendsen, Svend (Danmarks Tekniske Univ., DTU Byg, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Laustsen, J.B. (NIRAS A/S (Denmark)); Traberg-Borup, S.; Johnsen, Kjeld (Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut, Aalborg Univ. (Denmark))

    2009-11-15

    The project has developed a new solar shading system consisting of reflective reflective glass slats, which both must act as general sun shading and also be able to improve daylight conditions inside the building when it's needed, by reflecting light further into the room. Simulations with the program IESve / Radiance are performed of daylight conditions in an office room using the developed solar shading concept. The calculation model is used to optimize the glass slat system's shape and dimensions (slat angle, width and distance). The calculations have shown that a slat angle of 30 degrees gives the best daylight conducting effect in overcast weather. At this position, compared with the same facade without sun shading, a slight reduction of daylight factor close to the windows is obtained while the back of the room is largely unchanged. Compared with traditional slat systems the reflective glass slats provide higher daylight factors in the building. Daylight measurements are performed in a daylight laboratory. Measurements show that the daylight factor in cloudy weather is reduced by approx. 20% 1.2 m from the facade where there are usually plenty of light while it is unchanged or slightly higher at the back of the room where there often are problems with too little daylight. On a clear day with direct sunlight and the reflective slats in shading position the result is a reduction of illumination through the whole room. The developed sun shading system reduces sun irradiance in reflective position without diminishing daylight conditions in the building under overcast conditions when the slats are angled in daylight conducting position. The glass slat system's effect on the thermal indoor environment and energy consumption are analyzed using calculations in the program BSim and by measurements of the sun shading system mounted in the Passys test cell at the Technical University of Denmark. (ln)

  20. Modified optical fiber daylighting system with sunlight transportation in free space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Ngoc-Hai; Pham, Thanh-Tuan; Shin, Seoyong

    2016-12-26

    We present the design, optical simulation, and experiment of a modified optical fiber daylighting system (M-OFDS) for indoor lighting. The M-OFDS is comprised of three sub-systems: concentration, collimation, and distribution. The concentration part is formed by coupling a Fresnel lens with a large-core plastic optical fiber. The sunlight collected by the concentration sub-system is propagated in a plastic optical fiber and then collimated by the collimator, which is a combination of a parabolic mirror and a convex lens. The collimated beam of sunlight travels in free space and is guided to the interior by directing flat mirrors, where it is diffused uniformly by a distributor. All parameters of the system are calculated theoretically. Based on the designed system, our simulation results demonstrated a maximum optical efficiency of 71%. The simulation results also showed that sunlight could be delivered to the illumination destination at distance of 30 m. A prototype of the M-OFDS was fabricated, and preliminary experiments were performed outdoors. The simulation results and experimental results confirmed that the M-OFDS was designed effectively. A large-scale system constructed by several M-OFDSs is also proposed. The results showed that the presented optical fiber daylighting system is a strong candidate for an inexpensive and highly efficient application of solar energy in buildings.

  1. Cloud and radiance measurements with the VIS/NIR Daylight Whole Sky Imager at Lindenberg (Germany)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feister, U. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Meteorologisches Observatorium Lindenberg (Germany); Shields, J. [Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, Univ. of California, San Diego (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Ground-based cloud data acquired with the whole sky imager (WSI) are analyzed in relation to measurements of solar radiation performed at the Lindenberg Meteorological Observatory. Cloud fractions derived by the cloud detection algorithm from WSI images acquired during daylight hours between 2002 and 2004 are compared with conventional cloud observations for the two sites Potsdam and Lindenberg, and also with ceilometer data of cloud-base heights at Lindenberg. The comparison statistics are discussed in the context of different principles of measurement. A few case studies illustrate the strong scattering effect of clouds on solar radiance and irradiance measured at the ground in different spectral regions. Particularly clouds close to the apparent position of the sun lead to strong enhancements of solar diffuse irradiance incident on horizontal planes and hemispheres that substantially exceed corresponding clear-sky values. Irradiances derived from WSI sky radiance fields are shown in comparison to pyranometer data of diffuse irradiance and radiative transfer model calculations performed for clear sky conditions. Examples of spectral sky radiances with moving contrails illustrate the significant enhancement the contrails have compared to clear sky, even though they may have a relatively small direct effect on global irradiance values. As contrails are observed at Lindenberg for about 18 to 19% of daylight hours, and part of them become clouds, the indirect impact of these changes on solar irradiance received at the ground may not be negligible. (orig.)

  2. Development of Optical Fiber-Based Daylighting System and Its Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ullah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-optic daylighting systems have been shown to be a promising and effective way to transmit sunlight in the interior space whilst reducing electric lighting energy consumption. To increase efficiency in terms of providing uniform illumination in the interior, the current need is to illuminate optical fiber-bundle with uniform light flux. To this end, we propose a method for achieving collimated light, which illuminates the fiber-bundle uniformly. Light is collected through a parabolic concentrator and focused toward a collimating lens, which distributes the light over each optical fiber. An optics diffusing structure is utilized at the end side of the fiber bundle to spread light in the interior. The results clearly reveal that the efficiency in terms of uniform illumination, which also reduces the heat problem for optical fibers, is improved. Furthermore, a comparison study is conducted between current and previous approaches. As a result, the proposed daylighting system turns out convenient in terms of energy saving and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Light-scattering properties of a Venetian blind slat used for daylighting applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Annica M. [Department of Engineering Sciences, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University (Sweden); Jonsson, Jacob C. [Environmental Energy Technology Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The low cost, simplicity, and aesthetic appearance of external and internal shading devices, make them commonly used for daylighting and glare-control applications. Shading devices, such as Venetian blinds, screens, and roller shades, generally exhibit light scattering and/or light redirecting properties. This requires the bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) of the material to be known in order to accurately predict the daylight distribution and energy flow through the fenestration system. Acquiring the complete BSDF is not a straightforward task, and to complete the process it is often required that a model is used to complement the measured data. In this project, a Venetian blind slat with a white top surface and a brushed aluminum bottom surface was optically characterized. A goniophotometer and an integrating sphere spectrophotometer were used to determine the angle resolved and hemispherical reflectance of the sample, respectively. The acquired data were fitted to a scattering model providing one Lambertian and one angle dependent description of the surface properties. These were used in combination with raytracing to obtain the complete BSDFs of the Venetian blind system. (author)

  4. Comparative Study of Two Daylighting Analysis Methods with Regard to Window Orientation and Interior Wall Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo Beom Yoon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy and speed of the daylighting analysis developed for use in EnergyPlus is better than its predecessors. In EnergyPlus, the detailed method uses the Split-flux algorithm whereas the DElight method uses the Radiosity algorithm. Many existing studies have addressed the two methods, either individually or compared with other daylight analysis methods like Ray tracing but still there is lack of detailed comparative study of these two methods. Our previous studies show that the Split-flux method overestimates the illuminance, especially for the areas away from the window. The Radiosity method has the advantage of accurately predicting this illuminance because of how it deals with the diffuse light. For this study, the EnergyPlus model, which has been calibrated using data measured in a real building in previous studies, has also been used. The calibrated model has a south oriented window only. This model is then used to analyze the interior illuminance inside the room for north, west and east orientation of the window by rotating the model and by changing the wall reflectance of the model with south oriented window. Direct and diffuse component of the illuminance as well as the algorithms have been compared for a detailed analysis.

  5. STUDI SIMULASI MODEL PENERANGAN ALAMI (DAYLIGHTING RUANG PADA BANGUNAN FASILITAS PENDIDIKAN TINGGI DENGAN SUPERLITE 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanni Elitasari Mahaputri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Daylight was the only efficient source of light available for building. Therefore, architecture was dominated by the goal of creating openings large enough to distribute daylight to building interiors. It is important to understand the amount of natural light penetration when outdoor obstruction are displaced in order to propose optimum external shading strategies as design solutions. This paper presents a study of the daylight factor and daylight contourt approaches and also investigates the effect of outdoor obstruction displacement on natural-light penetration of a specific room in higher-education building facility. The interior daylight illuminance data were simulated and analyzed using Superlite 2.0. The result shows that several effects of the external obstruction displacement as shading provider, depending on transmitted natural-light penetration, which determine the better consideration option in designing landscape surround building, especially in hot humid climates. Sinar matahari merupakan sumber penerangan yang efisien bagi bangunan. Tujuan utama dalam arsitektur adalah merancang bukaan pencahayaan yang cukup besar bagi bangunan untuk mendistribusikan cahaya ke bagian dalam bangunan. Sangat penting untuk mengetahui besar penetrasi penerangan alami yang masuk ke dalam ruang bila di luar bangunan diletakkan suatu halangan sebagai salah satu solusi disain dengan mengoptimalkan strategi perancangan pem­bayangan lingkungan. Makalah ini membahas tentang kajian pendekatan faktor penerangan alami (daylight factor dan koefisien penerangan alami, serta mengamati pengaruh perletakan halangan lingkungan terhadap penetrasi penerangan alami suatu ruang fasilitas pendidikan tinggi. Data illuminasi penerangan interior disimulasikan dan dianalisa menggunakan software Superlite 2.0. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan beberapa pengaruh perletakan halangan lingkungan sebagai elemen pembayangan lingkungan berkaitan dengan penetrasi cahaya alami, yang

  6. Low levels of vitamin D poorly responsive to daylight exposure in patients with therapy-resistant schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogers, Jan P.A.M.; Bostoen, Tijmen; Broekman, Theo G.

    2016-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels are associated with schizophrenia, but the possible association between vitamin D levels and illness severity or duration of exposure to daylight has barely been investigated. To compare vitamin D levels in therapy-refractory severely ill schizophrenia patients and members of staff. To investigate the influence of daylight exposure on vitamin D levels in patients. Vitamin D was measured in patients with therapy-resistant schizophrenia in April, after the winter, and in patients and staff members in June, after an exceptionally sunny spring. Vitamin D levels in April and June were compared in patients, and levels in June were compared in patients and staff. The influence of daylight was taken into account by comparing the time patients spent outdoors during the day with the recommended minimum time for adequate vitamin D synthesis, and by comparing time spent outdoors in patients and staff. Patients had high rates of vitamin D deficiency (79-90%) and lower levels of vitamin D than staff members (p vitamin D levels did not normalize, despite the considerably longer than recommended exposure of the skin to daylight (p vitamin D deficiency of therapy-resistant schizophrenia patients is pronounced and cannot be explained by differences in skin pigmentation or by an inactive, indoor lifestyle on the ward. Even theoretically sufficient exposure of the patients to daylight did not ameliorate the low vitamin D levels. While vitamin D deficiency probably plays a role in somatic health problems, it may also play a role in schizophrenia. Interestingly, exposure to daylight during an unusually sunny spring was not sufficient to correct the vitamin D deficiency seen in the patients. This emphasizes the need to measure and correct vitamin D levels in these patients.

  7. Annual dynamics of daylight variability and contrast a simulation-based approach to quantifying visual effects in architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Rockcastle, Siobhan

    2013-01-01

    Daylight is a dynamic source of illumination in architectural space, creating diverse and ephemeral configurations of light and shadow within the built environment. Perceptual qualities of daylight, such as contrast and temporal variability, are essential to our understanding of both material and visual effects in architecture. Although spatial contrast and light variability are fundamental to the visual experience of architecture, architects still rely primarily on intuition to evaluate their designs because there are few metrics that address these factors. Through an analysis of contemporary

  8. Design methodology and criteria for daylight and thermal comfort in nearly-zero energy office buildings in Nordic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth

    The objective of this PhD thesis was to arrange for an integrated building design with respect to thermal comfort, daylighting and energy use, applicable for office buildings in Nordic climate. In order to achieve this, it is suggested that modelling of mean radiant temperature (MRT) should...... into the simulation tool IDA ICE. Furthermore, the control of solar shading is given attention, since it is a crucial link between the thermal and daylighting performance. The thesis presents results of an occupant survey with 46 subjects, which was carried out to investigate occupants’ preferences towards...

  9. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew

    2013-08-31

    Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing windows as a retrofit measure or installed as a replacement insulating glass unit in the clerestory portion of the window wall. A clear film patterned with linear, 50-250 micrometer high, four-sided asymmetrical prisms was fabricated and installed in the south-facing, clerestory low-e, clear glazed windows of a full-scale testbed facility. Views through the film were distorted. The film was evaluated in a sunny climate over a two-year period to gauge daylighting and visual comfort performance. The daylighting aperture was small (window-towall ratio of 0.18) and the lower windows were blocked off to isolate the evaluation to the window film. Workplane illuminance measurements were made in the 4.6 m (15 ft) deep room furnished as a private office. Analysis of discomfort glare was conducted using high dynamic range imaging coupled with the evalglare software tool, which computes the daylight glare probability and other metrics used to evaluate visual discomfort. The window film was found to result in perceptible levels of discomfort glare on clear sunny days from the most conservative view point in the rear of the room looking toward the window. Daylight illuminance levels at the rear of the room were significantly increased above the reference window condition, which was defined as the same glazed clerestory window but with an interior Venetian blind (slat angle set to the cut-off angle), for the equinox to winter solstice period on clear sunny days. For partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions, daylight levels were improved slightly. To reduce glare, the daylighting film was coupled with a diffusing film in an insulating glazing unit. The diffusing film retained the directionality of the

  10. The impact of changing solar screen rotation angle and its opening aspect ratios on Daylight Availability in residential desert buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed H.

    2012-11-01

    In desert sunny clear-sky regions solar penetration can become excessive. This can cause non-uniform daylight distribution, glare and high solar heat gain, affecting both visual and thermal comfort. Shading devices, such as solar screens, were usually used to diffuse and prevent direct solar penetration into spaces. This paper investigates the impact of changing solar screen axial rotation angle and screen opening aspect ratio on daylighting performance in a typical residential living room space under the desert sunny clear-sky. The larger aim is to arrive at efficient solar screen designs that suit the different orientations.The study was divided into three consecutive phases. In phase one, the effect of the two parameters on Daylight Availability was tested. The solar screen was axially rotated by three different angles at 10° increments. Also, the aspect ratio of the screen opening in both horizontal and vertical directions was changed systematically. Simulation was conducted using the annual Daylight Dynamic Performance Metrics (DDPMs). In phase two, the Annual Daylight Glare Probability (DGP) metric was evaluated for the cases that were found adequate in phase one. In the third phase, the annual solar energy transmittance through the screen was calculated for the cases that achieved acceptable performance in the two previous phases in order to identify the more energy efficient screens.Solar screens with openings having horizontal aspect ratios were found to be the most effective, while those with vertical aspect ratios were achieved the lowest performance. In the North orientation, since almost all the cases that were tested in this research provided acceptable daylighting performance, the designer now have a variety of options to choose from. Preference should be given to screen openings of horizontal aspect ratios, especially the 12:1 and 18:1 (H:V) screens that achieved the best performance where 92% of the space was " daylit" in comparison with only 53

  11. READING, PREPROCESSING OF ACCELERATIONS AND CORNERS INCLINATION WITH MPU-6050 I RECORD THEM ON SD-CARD THE ARDUINO DUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Mikhailov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The short review of microcontrollers of family Arduino, their characteristics and application fields is given. Importance of record of parameters of researched object is marked to produce debugging of control systems on microcontrollers Arduino. Unique possibility of registration of parameters in family Arduino is record on SD a card in an alpha mode with usage of functions print (, write (. The problems connected to record of the binary data on SD a card on microcontroller Arduino Due are considered. The analysis of methods of record of the binary data on SD-card Arduino Due, originating problems with neocleaning of memory from the previous program leading to possibility of duplication of the data on SD to a card, presence of the erratic point of view about restriction of volumes of data record and necessity of usage become outdated SD-cards is carried out. Ways of elimination of the marked lacks are considered. The estimation of high-speed performance of various approaches of a data recording on SD a card is led. On the basis of the led researches the approach of multiplexing of the writeable information at the expense of conversion of the binary data is offered is byte-serial in a character array in code ASCI without magnification of their volume and record by units on 240 byte. It allows to use as much as possible standard function possibilities write ( Arduino and specificity of the organization of memory SD of cards and to increase high-speed performance more than in 1100 times in comparison with record in a character type on one byte.It is marked that usage of decisions of an exception of duplication of the data offered at forums does not provide completeness of their elimination. For Arduino Due for storage cleaning it is necessary usages of the special programmator or setting of the new program of loading.

  12. Clustering aspects of sd shell nuclei studied by AMD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Masaaki [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Taniguchi, Yasutaka [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); En' yo, Yoshiko [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Horiuchi, Hisashi [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2006-10-10

    The new clustering aspects of sd-shell nuclei found by the recent application of the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics are reported. In this paper we present two topics, 'superdeformed band of {sup 32}S and {sup 16}O + {sup 16}O clustering' and 'molecular-orbital and di-nuclei states in {sup 22}Ne'. In the first topic, it will be shown that the superdeformed band of 32S has a considerable amount of {sup 16}O + {sup 16}O cluster component, and can be regarded as to belong to a family of the {sup 16}O + {sup 16}O molecular bands. In the second topic, the presence of the molecularorbital band which has an {alpha} + {sup 16}O cluster core surrounded by two covalently neutrons is suggested together with an {alpha} + {sup 18}O di-nuclei band.

  13. Clustering aspects of sd shell nuclei studied by AMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masaaki; Taniguchi, Yasutaka; En'yo, Yoshiko; Horiuchi, Hisashi

    2006-01-01

    The new clustering aspects of sd-shell nuclei found by the recent application of the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics are reported. In this paper we present two topics, 'superdeformed band of 32 S and 16 O + 16 O clustering' and 'molecular-orbital and di-nuclei states in 22 Ne'. In the first topic, it will be shown that the superdeformed band of 32S has a considerable amount of 16 O + 16 O cluster component, and can be regarded as to belong to a family of the 16 O + 16 O molecular bands. In the second topic, the presence of the molecularorbital band which has an α + 16 O cluster core surrounded by two covalently neutrons is suggested together with an α + 18 O di-nuclei band

  14. Clustering correlations and triaxiality in the sd-shell region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yasutaka; Kimura, Masaaki; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko; Horiuchi, Hisashi

    2011-01-01

    Effects of cluster correlations on triaxiality have been studied using the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. Low-lying states in 28 Si and 40 Ca are obtained by the generator coordinate method (GCM), and the GCM basis are calculated by energy variations with constraints on quadrupole deformation parameter β and inter-cluster distance. The GCM obtain prolate superdeformed (SD) states in 28 Si and triaxial normal-deformed (ND) states in 40 Ca, which contain prolate α- 24 Mg and triaxial α- 36 Ar cluster structure components, respectively. Different shapes of prolate 24 Mg and oblate 36 Ar clusters cause difference of triaxiality of total systems. Cluster correlations which have oblate cluster enhance triaxiality in excited states. (author)

  15. SATUS GIZI TIDAK SIGNIFIKAN MENENTUKAN PRESTASI SISWA SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Vista

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : The low Human Development Index (HDI ranking in Indonesia compared withneighboring countries affected by the low nutritional status and health problems of Indonesia’a populationfactor.One of the factor’s facing the health problem’s of Indonesian society is the problem of nutrition,undertrition and obessitas. They both have a negative impact on the quality of health. Government’sefforts to improve nutrition in school children by providing the Food Supplement Program School Children(PMT-AS. Good nutritional status is necessary for physical growth, brain development, employability andoptimal health. Abnormalities that occur in the brain due to malnutritional have one impact is the declinein brain function that affects the ability to learn, resulting in lower children’s learning outcome.Objective :To determine the relationship of nutritional status and student achievement in elementaryschool Bangunjiwo Kasihan Bantul Yogyakarta.Methods :This study used non-experimental research methods with cross sectional approach. Thepopulation in this study were student in grade 6 in SD Negeri Bangunjiwo Kasihan Bantul. The samplesused were 43 students. Engineering samples of the total samplingobtained a total sample of 43 studentsand analize using Spearman.Results :Nutritional status in elementary school Bangunjiwo Kasihan Bantul there are 36 students(83,7% in the normal category of 43 respondents. A grade students achievement 6 in SD NegeriBangunjiwo Kasihan Bantul most in categories as many 28 students (65,1% of the 43 respondent.Conclusion :There was no significant association between nutritional status of student performance,with a value of (p>0,05.

  16. Anisotropic SD2 brane: accelerating cosmology and Kasner-like space-time from compactification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayek, Kuntal; Roy, Shibaji [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India)

    2017-07-15

    Starting from an anisotropic (in all directions including the time direction of the brane) non-SUSY D2 brane solution of type IIA string theory we construct an anisotropic space-like D2 brane (or SD2 brane, for short) solution by the standard trick of a double Wick rotation. This solution is characterized by five independent parameters. We show that compactification on six-dimensional hyperbolic space (H{sub 6}) of a time-dependent volume of this SD2 brane solution leads to accelerating cosmologies (for some time t ∝ t{sub 0}, with t{sub 0} some characteristic time) where both the expansions and the accelerations are different in three spatial directions of the resultant four-dimensional universe. On the other hand at early times (t << t{sub 0}) this four-dimensional space, in certain situations, leads to four-dimensional Kasner-like cosmology, with two additional scalars, namely, the dilaton and a volume scalar of H{sub 6}. Unlike in the standard four-dimensional Kasner cosmology here all three Kasner exponents could be positive definite, leading to expansions in all three directions. (orig.)

  17. Anisotropic SD2 brane: accelerating cosmology and Kasner-like space-time from compactification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayek, Kuntal; Roy, Shibaji

    2017-01-01

    Starting from an anisotropic (in all directions including the time direction of the brane) non-SUSY D2 brane solution of type IIA string theory we construct an anisotropic space-like D2 brane (or SD2 brane, for short) solution by the standard trick of a double Wick rotation. This solution is characterized by five independent parameters. We show that compactification on six-dimensional hyperbolic space (H_6) of a time-dependent volume of this SD2 brane solution leads to accelerating cosmologies (for some time t ∝ t_0, with t_0 some characteristic time) where both the expansions and the accelerations are different in three spatial directions of the resultant four-dimensional universe. On the other hand at early times (t << t_0) this four-dimensional space, in certain situations, leads to four-dimensional Kasner-like cosmology, with two additional scalars, namely, the dilaton and a volume scalar of H_6. Unlike in the standard four-dimensional Kasner cosmology here all three Kasner exponents could be positive definite, leading to expansions in all three directions. (orig.)

  18. Daylight for energy-saving lamps. Recognizing with lighting sources free of charge; Tageslicht vor Energiesparlampen. Kostenlos verfuegbare Lichtquellen einplanen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Holger

    2010-07-01

    With saving energy in the lighting, politics, economics and private households set on compact fluorescent lamps, so called energy-saving lamps. A more economical and pollution free alternative is the increased use of daylight, which is free of charge and felt more pleasant by humans.

  19. Switching From Conventional Photodynamic Therapy to Daylight Photodynamic Therapy For Actinic Keratoses: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Velázquez, A; Redondo, P

    2017-05-01

    Actinic keratosis is a precursor lesion to the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer. Conventional photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been shown to be effective, but the procedure is time-consuming, can be very painful, and requires infrastructure. These shortcomings led to the emergence of daylight PDT. To obtain a global estimate of efficacy, we undertook a systematic literature review and performed a meta-analysis of the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of daylight PDT as compared to conventional PDT in the treatment of actinic keratosis and/or field cancerization. The conclusion is that the difference in efficacy is clinically negligible (global estimate of the mean response rate difference, -3.69%; 95% CI, -6.54% to -0.84%). The adverse effects of daylight PDT are mild and localized (79% of patients report no discomfort), and patients report less pain (P<.001). Daylight PDT gives good to excellent cosmetic results in more than 90% of patients, and patient satisfaction is greater (P<.001). Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Photoageing of Baltic amber-influence of daylight radiation behind window glass on surface colour and chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence about the interaction between Baltic amber and daylight behind window glass, essential to understanding the mechanisms by which the material degrades in museum environments and to propose techniques for preventive conservation based on the control...

  1. Students' Perception of Daylight Illumination in the School Workshop as a Determinant for Effective Students' Task Performance in Workshop Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amasuomo, Japo Oweikeye Morto; Alio, Abigail Ngozi

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated daylight illumination in the school workshop as a determinant for effective students' task performance in workshop practice. 183 NCE Technical students in 300 Level which comprised of 73 and 112 students from Federal Colleges of Education (Technical), Asaba and Omoku, Nigeria respectively during the 2008/2009 academic…

  2. Lost sleep and cyberloafing: Evidence from the laboratory and a daylight saving time quasi-experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David T; Barnes, Christopher M; Lim, Vivien K G; Ferris, D Lance

    2012-09-01

    The Internet is a powerful tool that has changed the way people work. However, the ubiquity of the Internet has led to a new workplace threat to productivity-cyberloafing. Building on the ego depletion model of self-regulation, we examine how lost and low-quality sleep influence employee cyberloafing behaviors and how individual differences in conscientiousness moderate these effects. We also demonstrate that the shift to Daylight Saving Time (DST) results in a dramatic increase in cyberloafing behavior at the national level. We first tested the DST-cyberloafing relation through a national quasi-experiment, then directly tested the relation between sleep and cyberloafing in a closely controlled laboratory setting. We discuss the implications of our findings for theory, practice, and future research.

  3. Dynamic window daylighting systems: electropolymeric technology for solar responsive building envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krietemeyer, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Shane I.; Dyson, Anna H.

    2011-04-01

    Human health and energy problems associated with the lack of control of sunlight in contemporary buildings have necessitated research into dynamic windows for energy efficient buildings. Existing window technologies have made moderate progress towards greater energy performance for facades but remain limited in their response to dynamic solar conditions, building energy requirements, and variable user preferences for visual comfort. Recent developments in electropolymeric display technology provide opportunities to transfer electroactive polymers to windows that can achieve high levels of geometric and spectral selectivity through the building envelope in order to meet the lighting, thermal and user requirements of occupied spaces. Experimental simulations that investigate daylight quality, energy performance, and architectural effects of electropolymeric glazing technology are presented.

  4. Discomfort glare with complex fenestration systems and the impact on energy use when using daylighting control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Sabine; McNeil, Andrew; Lee, Eleanor S.; Kalyanam, Raghuram

    2015-11-03

    Glare is a frequent issue in highly glazed buildings. A modelling approach is presented that uses discomfort glare probability and discomfort glare index as metrics to determine occupants’ behaviour. A glare control algorithm that actuated an interior shade for glare protection based on the predicted perception was implemented in a building simulation program. A reference case with a state-of-the-art base glazing was compared to the same glazing but with five different complex fenestration systems, i.e., exterior shades. The windows with exterior shades showed significant variations in glare frequencies. Energy use intensity in a prototypical office building with daylighting controls was greatly influenced for the systems with frequent glare occurrence. While the base glazing could benefit from glare control, some of the exterior shades showed significantly greater energy use when discomfort glare-based operation of interior shades was considered.

  5. Impact of daylight savings time on spontaneous pregnancy loss in in vitro fertilization patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Constance; Politch, Joseph A; Cullerton, Evan; Go, Kathryn; Pang, Samuel; Kuohung, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Transition into daylight savings time (DST) has studied negative impacts on health, but little is known regarding impact on fertility. This retrospective cohort study evaluates DST impact on pregnancy and pregnancy loss rates in 1,654 autologous in vitro fertilization cycles (2009 to 2012). Study groups were identified based on the relationship of DST to embryo transfer. Pregnancy rates were similar in Spring and Fall (41.4%, 42.2%). Pregnancy loss rates were also comparable between Spring and Fall (15.5%, 17.1%), but rates of loss were significantly higher in Spring when DST occurred after embryo transfer (24.3%). Loss was marked in patients with a history of prior spontaneous pregnancy loss (60.5%).

  6. Window Material Daylighting Performance Assessment Algorithm: Comparing Radiosity and Split-Flux Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo Beom Yoon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Windows are the primary aperture to introduce solar radiation to the interior space of a building. This experiment explores the use of EnergyPlus software for analyzing the illuminance level on the floor of a room with reference to its distance from the window. For this experiment, a double clear glass window has been used. The preliminary modelling in EnergyPlus showed a consistent result with the experimentally monitored data in real time. EnergyPlus has two mainly used daylighting algorithms: DElight method employing radiosity technique and Detailed method employing split-flux technique. Further analysis for illuminance using DElight and Detailed methods showed significant difference in the results. Finally, we compared the algorithms of the two analysis methods in EnergyPlus.

  7. Effect of daylight and gamma-radiation on the colour of fabricated textile polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, L.A.; Saad, M.M.; Talaat, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiation (0-60 mrad) and natural daylight (0-6 months) on the color and other properties of undyed textile polymers (cotton, nylon-6, polyester/cotton blend and wool/polyester blend) were investigated using optical spectroscopy. The change in color was estimated by yellowness index (Y1) and color difference (Delta E) between the irradiated and unirradiated samples. The analysis used for dosimeter is mainly spectrophotometer in the UV and visible spectrum. Systems having a reproducible response are selected. In the case of cotton fabric the change in color and reflection are showing a promise for dosimeter of gamma-radiation. It was concluded that the whiteness (W) of synthetic and blend fabrics decreased much more than that of cotton fabrics

  8. Daylighting and Cooling of Atrium Buildings in Warm Climates: Impact of the Top-Fenestration and Wall Mass Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Morad Rachid

    1992-01-01

    Sun-lighting and daylighting contribute greatly to the aesthetic value of an atrium. However, today's atria are often found either over-lit with extensive cooling loads, or under-lit requiring increased artificial lighting loads. The increase of the top-glazing area increases the cooling loads and decreases the lighting loads. The increase of the mass in the atrium walls decreases the maximum atrium temperature and the cooling loads. Furthermore, the mass distribution and its reflectance affect the lighting levels at the atrium floor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the simultaneous impact of the top-fenestration and the mass and reflectance of atrium walls on the cooling and daylighting performance of atria in warm climates. It attempts to determine the optimum top-fenestration for efficient daylighting and low cooling loads. The daylighting performance was evaluated through illumination measurements in physical models in a sky simulator. The cooling performance was evaluated using the software TRNSYS 13.1. Two types of top-fenestration were tested: horizontal and vertical south-facing, each with three alternate areas. The variations of the atrium walls included materials (standard frame and heavyweight concrete) and percentage and reflectance of the solid area. Two and four-story atria were considered, each with square and linear configuration. The performance was evaluated for three warm climates. The optimum top-fenestration for efficient daylighting was determined. The daylighting prediction algorithm was extended to include the effective reflectance of the atrium walls. The increase of mass in the atrium walls significantly decreased the atrium temperature range, the maximum atrium temperature, and the cooling loads. This impact decreased from horizontal to vertical south-facing top-glazing. The vertical south-facing top-glazing and, to a lesser degree, the reduction of the glazed atrium cover by 50% had more cooling benefits than increasing the

  9. PEMBELAJARAN TEMATIK YANG IDEAL DI SD/MI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Haji

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anak usia sekolah / 6-12 tahun disebut masa sekolah, karena anak sudah menamatkan taman kanak-kanak sebagai lembaga persiapan bersekolah yang sebenarnya. Disebut masa matang untuk belajar, Karena anak sudah berusaha untuk mencapai sesuatu, tetapi, perkembangan aktivitas bermain yang hanya bertujuan untuk mendapatkan kesenangan pada waktu melakukan aktivitas itu sendiri. Disebut masa matang untuk sekolah, karena anak sudah menginginkan kecakapan-kecakapan baru, yang dapat diberikan oleh sekolah (Nasution Noehi, 1993: 44. Menurut Banett, dkk., karakteristik anak usia SD, antara lain sebagai berikut. (1 Mereka secara alamiah memiliki rasa ingin tahu yang kuat dan tertarik akan dunia sekitar yang mengelilingi diri mereka sendiri. (2 Senang bermain dan lebih suka bergembira. (3 Suka mengatur dirinya untuk menangani berbagai hal, mengeksplorasi suatu situasi dan mencoba usaha-usaha baru. (4 biasanya tergetar perasaannya dan terdorong untuk berprestasi sebagaimana mereka tidak suka mengalami ketidakpuasan dan menolak kegagalan-kegagalan. (5 Belajar secara efektif ketika merasa puas dengan situasi yang terjadi. (6 Belajar dengan cara bekerja, mengobservasi, berinisiatif dan mengajar anak-anak lainnya ( Mulyani Sumantri & Nana Syaodih, 2000: 12.

  10. Chemical fingerprints of He-sdO stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schindewolf Markus

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of helium-rich hot subluminous O stars plays an important role to understand and model their formation history. We present a spectroscopic analysis of four He-sdO stars,CD-31° 4800, [CW83] 0904- 02, LSS 1274 and LS IV +10° 9. The analysis is based on archival optical and UV high-resolution spectra. We used Tlusty200/Synspec48 to compute line blanketed non-LTE model atmospheres and their corresponding synthetic spectra and derive the atmospheric parameters as well as the abundances of the most prominent elements. All stars have helium-dominated atmospheres with hardly any hydrogen and temperatures between 42000 K and 47000 K while their surface gravity spans between log g = 5.4 and 5.7. CD-31° 4800 shows an enrichment of nitrogen and the characteristic pattern of hydrogen burning via the CNO-cycle, while the rest of the elements have about the solar abundance. This points to the slow merger of two helium white dwarfs as the most likely origin for this system. The other three stars are enriched in carbon, nitrogen and neon while their intermediate mass element’s abundance scatters around the solar value. They were possibly formed in the deep mixing late hot flasher scenario.

  11. Chemical fingerprints of He-sdO stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindewolf, Markus; Németh, Peter; Heber, Ulrich; Battich, Tiara; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; Latour, Marilyn

    2018-02-01

    The chemical composition of helium-rich hot subluminous O stars plays an important role to understand and model their formation history. We present a spectroscopic analysis of four He-sdO stars,CD-31° 4800, [CW83] 0904- 02, LSS 1274 and LS IV +10° 9. The analysis is based on archival optical and UV high-resolution spectra. We used Tlusty200/Synspec48 to compute line blanketed non-LTE model atmospheres and their corresponding synthetic spectra and derive the atmospheric parameters as well as the abundances of the most prominent elements. All stars have helium-dominated atmospheres with hardly any hydrogen and temperatures between 42000 K and 47000 K while their surface gravity spans between log g = 5.4 and 5.7. CD-31° 4800 shows an enrichment of nitrogen and the characteristic pattern of hydrogen burning via the CNO-cycle, while the rest of the elements have about the solar abundance. This points to the slow merger of two helium white dwarfs as the most likely origin for this system. The other three stars are enriched in carbon, nitrogen and neon while their intermediate mass element's abundance scatters around the solar value. They were possibly formed in the deep mixing late hot flasher scenario.

  12. Economic analysis of the daylight-linked lighting control system in office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, In-Ho; Nam, Eun-Ji [Department of Architectural Engineering, College of Engineering, Dongguk University, 26-3, Pil-dong, Chung-gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    The objective of this study is to perform an economic analysis of the daylight-linked automatic on/off lighting control system installed for the purpose of energy savings in office buildings. For this, a building was chosen as a typical example, and the energy cost was calculated by using the daylight and building energy analysis simulation. When the lighting control was utilized, an economic analysis was performed using a payback period that was calculated by comparing the initial cost of installing the lighting control system with the annual energy cost which was reduced thanks to the application of the lighting control. The results showed that the lighting energy consumption, when the lighting control was applied, was reduced by an average of 30.5% compared with the case that there was not lighting control applied. Also, the result for total energy consumption showed that, when lighting control was applied, this was reduced by 8.5% when the glazing ratio was 100%, 8.2% for 80%, and 7.6% for 60% when compared to non-application. The payback period was analyzed in terms of the number of floors in a building; 10 floors, 20 floors, 30 floors, and 40 floors. Hence, the building with 40 floors and glazing ratio 100% resulted in the shortest payback period of 8.8 years, the building with 10 floors and glazing ratio 60% resulted in the longest period of 12.7 years. In other words, the larger the glazing ratio and the number of building floors are, the shorter the payback period is. (author)

  13. Analysis of impact of daylight time savings on energy use of buildings in Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krarti, Moncef, E-mail: moncef.krarti@colorado.ed [CEAE Department, CB 428, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Hajiah, Ali [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

    2011-05-15

    In this paper, a detailed simulation-based analysis is conducted to assess the impact of adopting Daylight Saving Time (DST) on the electrical energy use and peak demand in Kuwait. The analysis focused on the impact of DST in the building sector since it represents 90% of electrical energy usage of Kuwait. The simulation results indicate that the adoption of DST has mixed impacts for Kuwait. While the commercial and the governmental sectors may benefit from the DST, the private residences and apartment buildings can see both their annual energy use and peak demand increase slightly by adopting DST. The overall impact of the DST implementation is rather minimal with a slight increase energy use of about 0.07% and a slight reduction in peak demand of 0.14% or about 12 MW based on 2005 electrical peak demand for Kuwait. - Research highlights: {yields} A detailed simulation-based analysis is conducted to assess the impact of adopting Daylight Saving Time (DST) on the electrical energy use and peak demand in Kuwait. {yields} The analysis focused on the impact of DST in the building sector since it represents 90% of electrical energy usage of Kuwait. {yields} It is found that while the commercial and the governmental building sectors may benefit from DST, the private residences and apartment buildings can see both their annual energy use and peak demand increase slightly by adopting DST. {yields} Since the residential sector represents the majority of the electrical load in Kuwait, DST adoption was found to cause slight increase in annual electrical energy use by about 0.07% and a slight reduction in electrical peak electrical demand by about 0.14%.

  14. Analysis of impact of daylight time savings on energy use of buildings in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krarti, Moncef; Hajiah, Ali

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a detailed simulation-based analysis is conducted to assess the impact of adopting Daylight Saving Time (DST) on the electrical energy use and peak demand in Kuwait. The analysis focused on the impact of DST in the building sector since it represents 90% of electrical energy usage of Kuwait. The simulation results indicate that the adoption of DST has mixed impacts for Kuwait. While the commercial and the governmental sectors may benefit from the DST, the private residences and apartment buildings can see both their annual energy use and peak demand increase slightly by adopting DST. The overall impact of the DST implementation is rather minimal with a slight increase energy use of about 0.07% and a slight reduction in peak demand of 0.14% or about 12 MW based on 2005 electrical peak demand for Kuwait. - Research highlights: → A detailed simulation-based analysis is conducted to assess the impact of adopting Daylight Saving Time (DST) on the electrical energy use and peak demand in Kuwait. → The analysis focused on the impact of DST in the building sector since it represents 90% of electrical energy usage of Kuwait. → It is found that while the commercial and the governmental building sectors may benefit from DST, the private residences and apartment buildings can see both their annual energy use and peak demand increase slightly by adopting DST. → Since the residential sector represents the majority of the electrical load in Kuwait, DST adoption was found to cause slight increase in annual electrical energy use by about 0.07% and a slight reduction in electrical peak electrical demand by about 0.14%.

  15. KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KREATIF SISWA SD DALAM PEMBELAJARAN IPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Jamaluddin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Elementary School Studens' Creative Thinking Skills in Science Learning. This study aims (1 to investigate the differences of creative thinking skills among elementary school students who applied various learning methods (questioning, Think-Pair-Share, and Numbered-Head together and those who applied conventional learning methods; (2 to find out the differences in creative thinking skills between students of high and low academic ability; (3 to investigate the differences of creative thinking skills as influ­enced by learning methods and academic ability. Using a quasi -experimental design, this study found out that there are differences in creative thinking skills among students applying different learning methods and among students of different academic abilities and that these differences in creative thinking are skills as influenced by learning methods and academic abilities. Abstrak: Kemampuan Berpikir Kreatif Siswa SD dalam Pembelajaran IPA. Artikel ini didasarkan pada laporan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui (1 perbedaan keterampilan berpikir kreatif, antara siswa yang belajar dengan strategi pembelajaran PBMP, PBMPTPS, PBMPNHT, dan strategi pembelajaran konvensional; (2 perbedaan keterampilan berpikir kreatif siswa berkemampuan akademik tinggi dan rendah; (3 perbedaan keterampilan berpikir kreatif akibat dari interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dengan kemampuan akademik siswa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan (1 ada perbedaan keterampilan berpikir kreatif antara siswa yang belajar dengan strategi PBMP, PBMPTPS, PBMPNHT, dan strategi Konven­sional; (2 ada perbedaan keterampilan berpikir kreatif, antara siswa berkemampuan akademik tinggi dengan siswa berkemampuan akademik rendah; (3 interaksi strategi pembelajaran PBMP, PBMP.TPS, PBMP.NHT, dan konvensional dengan kemampuan akademik siswa tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap keterampilan berpikir kreatif.

  16. Investigating the Influence of Light Shelf Geometry Parameters on Daylight Performance and Visual Comfort, a Case Study of Educational Space in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Moazzeni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Daylight can be considered as one of the most important principles of sustainable architecture. It is unfortunate that this is neglected by designers in Tehran, a city that benefits from a significant amount of daylight and many clear sunny days during the year. Using a daylight controller system increases space natural light quality and decreases building lighting consumption by 60%. It also affects building thermal behavior, because most of them operate as shading. The light shelf is one of the passive systems for controlling daylight, mostly used with shading and installed in the upper half of the windows above eye level. The influence of light shelf parameters, such as its dimensions, shelf rotation angle and orientation on daylight efficiency and visual comfort in educational spaces is investigated in this article. Daylight simulation software and annual analysis based on climate information during space occupation hours were used. The results show that light shelf dimensions, as well as different orientations, especially in southern part, are influential in the distribution of natural light and visual comfort. At the southern orientation, increased light shelf dimensions result in an increase of the area of the work plane with suitable daylight levels by 2%–40% and a significant decrease in disturbing and intolerable glare hours.

  17. Product of the SNPP VIIRS SD Screen Transmittance and the SD BRDF (RSB) From Both Yaw Maneuver and Regular On-Orbit Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ning; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    To assure data quality, the Earth-observing Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) regularly performs on-orbit radiometric calibrations of its 22 spectral bands. The primary calibration radiance source for the reflective solar bands (RSBs) is a sunlit solar diffuser (SD). During the calibration process, sunlight goes through a perforated plate (the SD screen) and then strikes the SD. The SD scattered sunlight is used for the calibration, with the spectral radiance proportional to the product of the SD screen transmittance and the SD bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The BRDF is decomposed to the product of its value at launch and a numerical factor quantifying its change since launch. Therefore, the RSB calibration requires accurate knowledge of the product of the SD screen transmittance and the BRDF (RSB; launch time). Previously, we calculated the product with yaw maneuver data and found that the product had improved accuracy over the prelaunch one. With both yaw maneuver and regular on orbit data, we were able to improve the accuracy of the SDSM screen transmittance and the product for the solar diffuser stability monitor SD view. In this study, we use both yaw maneuver and a small portion of regular on-orbit data to determine the product for the RSB SD view.

  18. Penerapan Metoda Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI pada Rancang Bangun Data Logger berbasis SD card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATNA SUSANA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI adalah protokol komunikasi yang dapat digunakan sebagai interface komunikasi antara mikrokontroler dengan SD Card. Dengan menerapkan metoda SPI pada data logger berbasis SD Card, maka dapat diketahui karakteristik protokol komunikasi SPI antara mikrokontroler dengan SD Card. SD Card diformat dengan tipe FAT 16, dan data di dalam SD Card berupa sekumpulan paket data sensor yang diambil secara periodik dan disimpan dalam bentuk file dengan format.csv. Berdasarkan format paket data sensor yang dibuat, dapat dihitungwaktu perekaman data yang diperlukan agar kapasitas SD Card terisi penuh oleh data sensor. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan,bahwa metoda SPI yang diterapkan pada penelitian ini memiliki sifat akan melakukan pemeriksaan berulang pada pin MISO terhadap command yang dikirimkan oleh mikrokontroler melalui pin MOSI. Proses read/write data pada SD Card data logger memiliki keberhasilan 100%, karena SD Card telah terinisialisasi dalam mode SPI melalui perintah reset dan init SD Card. Komunikasi ini dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan crystal 4 Mhz – 20 Mhz. Untuk pengujian konfigurasi SPI, hanya Independent Slave Configuration yang dapat digunakan pada komunikasi SPI dengan 2 SD card sebagai slave. Kata kunci: Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI, Data Logger, SD card, FAT16 ABSTRACT Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI is a communication protocol that can be applied as a communication interface between microcontroller to SD Card. By implementing the SPI method to a data logger based on SD Card, it can be known the characteristics of the SPI communications protocol between microcontroller to SD Card. SD Card formatted in FAT 16 type, and data on the SD Card is the form of sensor data packets collection which be captured periodically and saved in .csv format file. Based on the sensor data packet format is created, it can be calculated recording time data required so that the SD Card capacity completely filled by the

  19. A randomized, multicentre study of directed daylight exposure times of 1½ vs. 2½ h in daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolaevulinate in patients with multiple thin actinic keratoses of the face and scalp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, Stine; Fabricius, S; Stender, I M

    2011-01-01

    Actinic keratoses (AKs) are common dysplastic skin lesions that may differentiate into invasive squamous cell carcinomas. Although a superior cosmetic outcome of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is advantageous compared with equally effective treatments such as cryotherapy and curettage, the inconvenie......, the inconvenience of clinic attendance and discomfort during therapy are significant drawbacks. Daylight-mediated PDT could potentially reduce these and may serve as an alternative to conventional PDT....

  20. Influence of daylight on the fate of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles in natural aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odzak, Niksa; Kistler, David; Sigg, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles, such as silver (Ag-NP) and zinc oxide (ZnO-NP), are increasingly used in many consumer products. These nanoparticles (NPs) will likely be exposed to the aquatic environment (rain, river, lake water) and to light (visible and UV) in the products where they are applied, or after those products are discharged. Dissolution of Ag-NP and ZnO-NP is an important process because the dissolved Ag + and Zn 2+ are readily available and toxic for aquatic organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of daylight (UV and visible) for the fate of engineered Ag-NP and ZnO-NPs in different types of natural waters. Ag-NP and ZnO-NP were exposed to rainwater, river Rhine, and lake waters (Greifen, Lucerne, Cristallina, Gruère) under different light conditions (no light, UV 300–400 nm and visible light 400–700 nm) for up to 8 days. Stronger agglomeration of Ag-NP was observed in the waters with higher ionic strength in comparison to those with lower ionic strength. Visible light tended to increase the dissolution of Ag-NP under most natural water conditions in comparison to dark conditions, whereas UV-light led to decreased dissolved Ag + after longer exposure time. These effects illustrate the dynamic interactions of Ag-NP with light, which may lead both to increased oxidation and to increased reduction of Ag + by organic compounds under UV-light. In the case of ZnO-NP, agglomeration occurred at higher ionic strength, but the effects of pH were predominant for dissolution, which occurred up to concentrations close to the solubility limit of ZnO(s) at pH around 8.2 and to nearly complete dissolution of ZnO-NP at lower pH (pH 4.8–6.5), with both visible and UV-light facilitating dissolution. This study thus shows that light conditions play an important role in the dissolution processes of nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Effects of visible and UV-light on dissolution of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were examined. • Natural waters

  1. Daylighting analysis of rooflights through model measurements in the artificial sky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filetoht, Levente I. [University of Technnology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary (Hungary)

    2000-07-01

    In investigating the daylighting of rooflights, it can be assumed that they are behaving as luminaires-having a major role in the lighting features of the interior space. Until now there is not enough precise information on these daylighting systems, and because of this, it is difficult to predict precisely the quality and quantity of illuminance and the light distribution in the interior. The exact behavior of the rooflights are complex and sophisticated. Their features are based on their geometry, reflectance and transmittance of their non-transparent, transparent and translucent surfaces. The effect of these features can not be predicted of calculated using the traditional mathematical methods. I am investigating roof-lighting systems taking into account the complex effects of their parts, using a completely new method based on a series of model measurements under artificial sky. Investigating the roof-light as a complex system which consist of relatively large surfaces and the effects of surfaces on other surfaces. Considering the different illuminance fields of the different types of roof-lighting systems. I will be able to determine the light distribution and efficiency of the system as well. The results of this research will lead to the development of a new computer software which is beyond the scope of this paper. [Spanish] Al investigar la iluminacion de luz de dia de luces de techo puede suponerse que se estan comportando como luminarias teniendo un papel principal en las caracteristicas de iluminacion del espacio interior. Hasta ahora no existe ninguna informacion precisa de estos sistemas de iluminacion de dia y a causa de ello es dificil predecir con precision la calidad y cantidad de iluminancia y la distribucion de la luz en el interior. El comportamiento exacto de las luces de techo es complejo y sofisticado. Sus caracteristicas estan basadas en su geometria, reflectancia y trasmitancia de sus superficies no transparentes, transparentes y

  2. Impact of façade window design on energy, daylighting and thermal comfort in nearly zero-energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Hviid, Christian Anker

    2015-01-01

    a solution space defined by targets for daylighting and thermal comfort. In contrast with existing guidelines, the results show an upper limit for energy savings and utilisation of solar gains in south-oriented rooms. Instead, low U-values are needed in both north- and south oriented rooms before large......Appropriate window solutions are decisive for the design of 'nearly zero-energy' buildings with healthy and comfortable indoor environment. This paper focuses on the relationship between size, orientation and glazing properties of façade windows for different side-lit room geometries in Danish...... 'nearly zero-energy' houses. The effect of these parameters on space heating demand, daylighting and thermal environment is evaluated by means of EnergyPlus and DAYSIM and presented in charts illustrating how combinations of design parameters with minimum space heating demand can be selected within...

  3. A geostatistical analysis of IBTS data for age 2 North Sea haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus ) considering daylight effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Rivoirard, J.

    2001-01-01

    to ordinary kriging being most pronounced for years characterized by a high portion of night hauls and a low mean catch rate at night. This demonstrates that external drift kriging with a day/night indicator but preferably with time of day is capable of compensating successfully for daylight effects...... are included in the estimation without any correction for possible daylight effects. In the present study, ordinary kriging was used to correct for sampling irregularities and external drift kriging with a day/night indicator or a cosine function of time of day was applied to account additionally for diurnal...... differences in the catch rates. Only minor differences between the standard indices and the abundance estimates obtained by ordinary kriging were found. In contrast, the external drift kriging, particularly with time of day, yielded higher estimates of mean abundance for all years with the differences...

  4. Light-scattering properties of a woven shade-screen material used for daylighting and solar heat-gain control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Jacob; Jonsson, Jacob C.; Lee, Eleanor S.; Rubin, Mike

    2008-08-01

    Shade-screens are widely used in commercial buildings as a way to limit the amount of direct sunlight that can disturb people in the building. The shade screens also reduce the solar heat-gain through glazing the system. Modern energy and daylighting analysis software such as EnergyPlus and Radiance require complete scattering properties of the scattering materials in the system. In this paper a shade screen used in the LBNL daylighting testbed is characterized using a photogoniometer and a normal angle of incidence integrating sphere. The data is used to create a complete bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) that can be used in simulation programs. The resulting BSDF is compared to a model BADFs, both directly and by calculating the solar heat-gain coefficient for a dual pane system using Window 6.

  5. Modeling Performance of an Airborne Infrared Sensor Used by a Man-in-the-Loop in Tactical Aircraft during Daylight Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harder, James

    1998-01-01

    .... The best monochromatic tactical aircraft displays are contrast limited during daylight operations and are able to reproduce only a fraction of the available dynamic range of current generation IR imaging sensors...

  6. Balancing the daylighting and energy performance of solar screens in residential desert buildings: Examination of screen axial rotation and opening aspect ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Sabry, Hanan; Sherif, Ahmed; Gadelhak, Mahmoud; Aly, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Solar screens are typically used to control solar access into building spaces. They proved their usefulness in improving the daylighting and energy performance of buildings in the hot arid desert environments which are endowed with abundance

  7. Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange Dye under the Daylight Irradiation over CN-TiO₂ Modified with OMS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed Elfatih; Chen, Jing; Liu, Guanglong; Zhu, Duanwei; Cai, Jianbo

    2014-12-12

    In this study, CN-TiO₂ was modified with cryptomelane octahedral molecular sieves (OMS-2) by the sol-gel method based on the self-assembly technique to enhance its photocatalytic activity under the daylight irradiation. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and porosimeter analysis. The results showed that the addition of OMS-2 in the sol lead to higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, pore volume, porosity of particle after heat treatment and the specific surface area, porosity, crystallite size and pore size distribution could be controlled by adjusting the calcination temperature. Compared to the CN-TiO₂-400 sample, CN-TiO₂/OMS-2-400 exhibited greater red shift in absorption edge of samples in visible region due to the OMS-2 coated. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of CN-TiO₂/OMS-2 composite photocatalyst was subsequently evaluated for the degradation of the methyl orange dye under the daylight irradiation in water. The results showed that the methyl orange dye degradation rate reach to 37.8% for the CN-TiO₂/OMS-2-400 sample under the daylight irradiation for 5 h, which was higher than that of reference sample. The enhancement in daylight photocatalytic activities of the CN-TiO₂/OMS samples could be attributed to the synergistic effects of OMS-2 coated, larger surface area and red shift in adsorption edge of the prepared sample.

  8. Establishment and verification of solar radiation calculation model of glass daylighting roof in hot summer and warm winter zone in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Caidan; Wu, Peihao; Costanzo, Vincenzo; Wang, Yuchen; Yang, Xiaokun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, solar heat gain through glass daylighting roof is deeply studied by theoretical calculation method, taking Guangzhou in the Hot Summer and Warm Winter (HSWW) zone as an example. The direct solar radiation is calculated by Bouguer formula whereas the diffuse solar radiation is calculated by Berlage formula, representing the basis for the calculation method of the solar radiation intensity through the glass daylighting roof. Through the establishment of solar radiation calculatio...

  9. Evening daylight may cause adolescents to sleep less in spring than in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiro, Mariana G.; Rea, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep restriction commonly experienced by adolescents can stem from greater sleep pressure by the homeostatic processes and from phase delays of the circadian system. With regard to the latter potential cause, we hypothesized that because there is more natural evening light during the spring than winter, a sample of adolescent students would be more phase delayed in spring than in winter, would have later sleep onset times and, because of fixed school schedules, would have shorter sleep durations. Sixteen eighth-grade subjects were recruited for the study. We collected sleep logs and saliva samples to determine their dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), a well-established circadian marker. Actual circadian light exposures experienced by a subset of twelve subjects over the course of seven days in winter and in spring using a personal, head-worn, circadian light measurement device are also reported here. Results showed that this sample of adolescents was exposed to significantly more circadian light in spring than in winter, especially in the evening hours when light exposure would likely delay circadian phase. Consistent with the light data, DLMO and sleep onset times were significantly more delayed, and sleep durations were significantly shorter in spring than in winter. The present ecological study of light, circadian phase, and self-reported sleep suggests that greater access to evening daylight in the spring may lead to sleep restriction in adolescents while attending school. Therefore, lighting schemes that reduce evening light in the spring may encourage longer sleep times in adolescents. PMID:20653452

  10. Daylight Management in Mediterranean Cities: When Shortage Is Not the Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Lopez-Besora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources such as daylight and sunlight are highly appreciated in countries with prevailing overcast skies. Taking advantage of this scarce resource contributes to saving energy on artificial lighting. In contrast to northern, southern European cities are distinguished by a large number of days with direct sunlight caused by a propitious climate condition. While it is a positive issue in terms of energy availability, the abundance of it can be counterproductive if management measures are not taken. Apart from the thermal consequences, lighting penetration into buildings causes a great contrast between inside and outside. This is especially critical when the visual system does not have enough time to adapt, as happens at entrance areas. The aim of this study is to analyze the light contrast between these areas and the urban outside in sunny conditions. To attain this objective, light data from five entrance spaces and their contiguous streets were analyzed and measured. The results were divided into three zones in the visual scene, showing an increasing contrast from top to bottom of the visual field. It may be concluded that interventions applied to urban areas and building pavements can improve visual adaptation in the transition zone.

  11. The impact of the daylight saving time on electricity consumption-A case study from Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad Momani, Mohammad; Yatim, Baharudin; Ali, Mohd Alauddin Mohd

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of daylight saving time (DST) on electricity consumption in Jordan. Two types of analysis were done: the first analysis examines the impact of DST on the lighting loads based on a survey study made for residential and commercial sectors. The second examines the impact of DST on the over all electricity generation through analyzing the daily load curves (DLCs) before and after the DST onset and removal in 2000 and 2007. The results show that the application of DST during the year 2000 saves the electricity used for illumination by -0.73% but it increases the overall generation at the onset and removal of DST by 0.5% and 1.4% due to increase in the heating and cooling loads. The analysis of DLCs during the year 2007 shows similar effects as in the year 2000 except during the early morning period at the DST onset where DST decreases the demand during this time. The analysis shows that DST decreases the electricity demand at DST onset by 0.2% and increases it at DST removal by 0.3%. A possible decrease in the electricity consumption may take place if the DST is implemented from April to end of August.

  12. Effect of daylight saving time on lighting energy use: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aries, Myriam B.C.; Newsham, Guy R.

    2008-01-01

    The principal reason for introducing (and extending) daylight saving time (DST) was, and still is, projected energy savings, particularly for electric lighting. This paper presents a literature review concerning the effects of DST on energy use. Simple estimates suggest a reduction in national electricity use of around 0.5%, as a result of residential lighting reduction. Several studies have demonstrated effects of this size based on more complex simulations or on measured data. However, there are just as many studies that suggest no effect, and some studies suggest overall energy penalties, particularly if gasoline consumption is accounted for. There is general consensus that DST does contribute to an evening reduction in peak demand for electricity, though this may be offset by an increase in the morning. Nevertheless, the basic patterns of energy use, and the energy efficiency of buildings and equipment have changed since many of these studies were conducted. Therefore, we recommend that future energy policy decisions regarding changes to DST be preceded by high-quality research based on detailed analysis of prevailing energy use, and behaviours and systems that affect energy use. This would be timely, given the extension to DST underway in North America in 2007

  13. Robustness of circadian clocks to daylight fluctuations: hints from the picoeucaryote Ostreococcus tauri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Thommen

    Full Text Available The development of systemic approaches in biology has put emphasis on identifying genetic modules whose behavior can be modeled accurately so as to gain insight into their structure and function. However, most gene circuits in a cell are under control of external signals and thus, quantitative agreement between experimental data and a mathematical model is difficult. Circadian biology has been one notable exception: quantitative models of the internal clock that orchestrates biological processes over the 24-hour diurnal cycle have been constructed for a few organisms, from cyanobacteria to plants and mammals. In most cases, a complex architecture with interlocked feedback loops has been evidenced. Here we present the first modeling results for the circadian clock of the green unicellular alga Ostreococcus tauri. Two plant-like clock genes have been shown to play a central role in the Ostreococcus clock. We find that their expression time profiles can be accurately reproduced by a minimal model of a two-gene transcriptional feedback loop. Remarkably, best adjustment of data recorded under light/dark alternation is obtained when assuming that the oscillator is not coupled to the diurnal cycle. This suggests that coupling to light is confined to specific time intervals and has no dynamical effect when the oscillator is entrained by the diurnal cycle. This intriguing property may reflect a strategy to minimize the impact of fluctuations in daylight intensity on the core circadian oscillator, a type of perturbation that has been rarely considered when assessing the robustness of circadian clocks.

  14. Low cost data acquisition module for evaluating the quantitative performance of daylight systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciampini, F.; Scarazzato, P.S. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo, P.O. Box 6021, CEP 13083-852 Campinas (Brazil); Neves, A.A.R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Departamento de Eletronica Quantica, P.O. Box 6165, 13083-970 Campinas (Brazil); Pereira, D.C.L.; Yamanaka, M.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo, Departamento de Tecnologia da Arquitetura, Rua do Lago, 878 CEP 05508-080, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-09-15

    The search for efficient, auto-sustainable constructions that allows the user a contact with the outer environment has stimulated the development of advanced strategies, in various devices, for the exploitation of the daylight. A low cost data acquisition system was developed in this study, to observe the distribution of the natural light inside a prototype and to evaluate the quantitative performance for redirecting systems. The luminous sensor is a light dependent resistor, that responds to the illuminance with a reduction in the resistance when illuminated, through a log-log dependence. Calibration curves are set up to relate the change of resistance to absolute illuminance. It therefore provides a continuous investigation of the illuminance for various sampled points in the interior test space with a 0.03% digital error due to the 12-bit resolution. The final measured error of 5% is mainly due to the system calibration and resistance memory history. The circuit connects to a standard parallel port of any Personal Computer and supplies 64 analog inputs, one for each luminous sensor. The circuit can be easily modified to attend different quantities of analog inputs or communication ports. (author)

  15. Thermal and Daylighting Performance of Energy-Efficient Windows in Highly Glazed Residential Buildings: Case Study in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Heon Cheong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooling load in highly glazed residential building can be excessively large due to uncontrolled solar energy entering the indoor space. This study focuses on the cooling load reduction and changes in the daylighting properties via the application of a double window system (DWS with shading with various surface reflectivities in highly glazed residential buildings. Evaluation of thermal and daylighting performances is carried out using simulation tools. The reductions in cooling load and energy cost through the use of DWS are evaluated through a comparative simulation considering conventional windows: a single window and a double window. Three variables of window types, natural ventilation, and shading reflectivity are reflected in the study. According to our results, implementation of DWS reduced cooling load by 43%–61%. Electricity cost during the cooling period was reduced by a maximum of 24%. However, a shading device setting that prioritizes effective cooling load reduction can greatly decrease the daylighting factor and luminance level of indoor space. A DWS implementing shading device with highly reflective at all surfaces is appropriate option for the more comfortable thermal and visual environment, while a shading device with low reflectivity at rear of the surface can contribute an additional 4% cooling load reduction.

  16. On the development of new SPMN diurnal video systems for daylight fireball monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiedo, J. M.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    2008-09-01

    Daylight fireball video monitoring High-sensitivity video devices are commonly used for the study of the activity of meteor streams during the night. These provide useful data for the determination, for instance, of radiant, orbital and photometric parameters ([1] to [7]). With this aim, during 2006 three automated video stations supported by Universidad de Huelva were set up in Andalusia within the framework of the SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN). These are endowed with 8-9 high sensitivity wide-field video cameras that achieve a meteor limiting magnitude of about +3. These stations have increased the coverage performed by the low-scan allsky CCD systems operated by the SPMN and, besides, achieve a time accuracy of about 0.01s for determining the appearance of meteor and fireball events. Despite of these nocturnal monitoring efforts, we realised the need of setting up stations for daylight fireball detection. Such effort was also motivated by the appearance of the two recent meteorite-dropping events of Villalbeto de la Peña [8,9] and Puerto Lápice [10]. Although the Villalbeto de la Peña event was casually videotaped, and photographed, no direct pictures or videos were obtained for the Puerto Lápice event. Consequently, in order to perform a continuous recording of daylight fireball events, we setup new automated systems based on CCD video cameras. However, the development of these video stations implies several issues with respect to nocturnal systems that must be properly solved in order to get an optimal operation. The first of these video stations, also supported by University of Huelva, has been setup in Sevilla (Andalusia) during May 2007. But, of course, fireball association is unequivocal only in those cases when two or more stations recorded the fireball, and when consequently the geocentric radiant is accurately determined. With this aim, a second diurnal video station is being setup in Andalusia in the facilities of Centro Internacional de Estudios y

  17. Daylighting for energy conservation in an existing building under tropical climate conditions: a case study of Lai Sue Thai building Ramkhamhaeng University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerdlekha Tanachaikhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Daylighting using skylight has been shown to have a high potential in reducing electrical lighting energy, and could provide a more pleasant atmosphere of a daylit space. However, in hot climates, the main constraint of daylighting is the solar heat gain that contributes to major heat load for an air-conditioning system. If the balance between the beneficial light gain used to offset lighting energy requirement and heat gain from daylight is well considered, significant energy savings can be obtained. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the potential of daylighting for energy conservation in the tropics through theoretical analysis (simulation study and experimental observation. Lai Sue Thai Building (an existing and educational building located at Ramkhamkaeng University was selected as a case study. From analysis, use of daylight could reduce electrical energy in this building by up to 76% compared to the initial condition where fully lighting was supplied. Window orientation would also play an important role. Moreover, heat gain through windows due to daylighting can be controlled by overhangs and the appropriate Window-to-Wall ratio that would be about 30% for this building. An experimental study was also carried out to validate the results in a selected room. About 49% and 37% of Relative Root Mean Square Error (RRMSE were observed in light and heat measurements, respectively

  18. Essence of Daylight in the Cistercian Monastic Church of S. Bento de Cástris, Évora, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana M. T.; Carlos, Jorge S.

    2017-10-01

    Natural light in the Cistercian churches is closely linked not only with the liturgical requirements at the “officium” but also with the canonical hours based on the "ora et labora" dictated by the Rule of St. Benedict. The Cistercian architecture, in its beginnings (12th century forward) is characterized by austerity, simplicity and the play of light and shadow that gives value to the monastic architectural space itself, making it perfect for a contemplative experience. In the Cistercian Monastery the church is the central piece of the monastic building. Nave, transept and apse are the main architectural components to which is added the choir. This paper contextualizes the importance and close connections of natural light, within the Cistercian Monasteries architecture. Thus the essence of daylight is analysed within the Church of the Monastery of S. Bento de Cástris, in Évora, Portugal. This former Monastery (13th - 19th centuries) includes the church, at the south-eastern corner which has not only a high choir, but also a low lateral choir (within the presbytery). Its unchanged exterior walls are made of solid masonry. Although the function of the walls is primarily structural, the windows allow the daylight to penetrate the space of the church. The church has two external façades facing northeast and southeast. The combined orientation effect of the church’s main axis and the sun trajectory determines how the sunlight reaches the interior of this architectural structure. This study presents the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the luminous environment in the church of S. Bento de Cástris, being the first based on the authors’ perception of the effect of the daylight within the different areas of the enclosed space. The appreciation of the spatial experiences was supported by quantitative daylight simulations that were conducted in selected areas within the space. With this paper is intended to contribute to the debate about the specificity

  19. The impact of daylight saving time on electricity consumption: Evidence from southern Norway and Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Faisal Mehmood, E-mail: faisal.mirza@umb.no [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway); Bergland, Olvar, E-mail: olvar.bergland@umb.no [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway)

    2011-06-15

    This paper examines the impact of daylight saving time (DST) on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. As DST was implemented in both the countries in 1980, we do not have a clear counterfactual in the form of a control period to identify the impact of DST directly with before and after or with and without analysis. This problem in the study is resolved by using 'equivalent day normalization technique' to identify the impact of DST. The difference-in-difference (DID) average treatment effects model suggests an annual reduction of at least 1.0 percent in electricity consumption for both Norway and Sweden due to DST. The average annual electricity consumption reduction corresponding to DST effects equals 519 and 882 GWh for southern Norway and Sweden, resulting in an annual financial saving of 16.1 million Euros and 30.1 million Euros, respectively. The distribution of treatment effects across different hours of the day indicates a small but significant reduction in electricity consumption during the morning and a steep decline during the evening hours in both countries. - Highlights: > We assess the impact of DST on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. > DST reduces electricity consumption by 1.3 percent in both countries. > The impact is smaller during the morning hours but larger during evening hours. > Respective annual financial savings equal Euro 16.1 and 30.1 million for Norway and Sweden. > Average annual electricity savings equal 519 and 882 GWh for two countries, respectively.

  20. The impact of daylight saving time on electricity consumption: Evidence from southern Norway and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Faisal Mehmood; Bergland, Olvar

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of daylight saving time (DST) on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. As DST was implemented in both the countries in 1980, we do not have a clear counterfactual in the form of a control period to identify the impact of DST directly with before and after or with and without analysis. This problem in the study is resolved by using 'equivalent day normalization technique' to identify the impact of DST. The difference-in-difference (DID) average treatment effects model suggests an annual reduction of at least 1.0 percent in electricity consumption for both Norway and Sweden due to DST. The average annual electricity consumption reduction corresponding to DST effects equals 519 and 882 GWh for southern Norway and Sweden, resulting in an annual financial saving of 16.1 million Euros and 30.1 million Euros, respectively. The distribution of treatment effects across different hours of the day indicates a small but significant reduction in electricity consumption during the morning and a steep decline during the evening hours in both countries. - Highlights: → We assess the impact of DST on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. → DST reduces electricity consumption by 1.3 percent in both countries. → The impact is smaller during the morning hours but larger during evening hours. → Respective annual financial savings equal Euro 16.1 and 30.1 million for Norway and Sweden. → Average annual electricity savings equal 519 and 882 GWh for two countries, respectively.

  1. Short QT syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenzo Gaita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The short QT syndrome (SQTS is a recently described genetic arrhythmogenic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT intervals on surface electrocardiogram (ECG and a high incidence of sudden death (SD during life, including the first months of life. The inheritance of SQTS is autosomal dominant, with genetic heterogeneity. Gain-of-function mutations in 3 genes encoding potassium channels have been associated to the disease: KCNH2 encoding IKr (SQT1, KCNQ1 encoding IKs (SQT2, and KCNJ2 encoding IK1 (SQT3. Loss-of-function mutations in 3 genes encoding the cardiac L-type calcium channel, CACNA1C, CACNB2b and CACNA2D1 may underlie a mixed phenotype of Brugada pattern ECG (or non-specific repolarization changes in case of CACNA2D1 and shorter than normal QT intervals. Clinical presentation is often severe, as cardiac arrest represents the first clinical presentation in most subjects. Moreover, often a noticeable family history of cardiac SD is present. Atrial fibrillation may be observed, also in young individuals. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, and atrial and ventricular fibrillation are easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. The outcome of patients with SQTS becomes relatively safe when they are identified and treated. Currently, the suggested therapeutic strategy is an implantable cardioverter- defibrillator (ICD in patients with personal history of aborted SD or syncope. In asymptomatic adult patients from highly symptomatic families and in newborn children pharmacological treatment with hydroquinidine, which has been shown to prolong the QT interval and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, may be proposed.

  2. Linkage relationship between semi-dwarfing gene sd-1 and gene for grain shattering in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oba, S.; Kikuchi, F.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Most semidwarf rice cultivars carry the same gene sd-1. We observed an association between semi-dwarfness and grain shattering in isogenic lines carrying sd-1 from different sources in the background of the Japanese tall cultivar 'Norin 28'. The shattering was found to be caused by a single recessive gene, sh-2, linked to the sd-1 locus. The shattering gene seems to have been transmitted to many semi-dwarf cultivars together with sd-1, not only from 'Dee-geo-woo-gen' but also from the indica-cultivar 'Ai-jio-nan-te' and the japonica cultivar 'Shiranui'. (author)

  3. STUDI KOMPARASI BUDAYA SEKOLAH SDSN DAN SD EKS RSBI DI DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Muhtarom

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1 mengetahui perbedaan budaya sekolah di SDSN dan SD Eks RSBI DIY, (2 memaparkan perbedaan masing-masing aspek budaya sekolah antara SDSN dengan SD Eks RSBI. Jenis penelitian ini adalah komparasi. Populasi penelitian ini adalah semua kepala sekolah, guru, dan staf SDSN dan SD RSBI di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta yang berjumlah 797 orang untuk SDSN dan 155 orang untuk SD Eks RSBI. Sampel dari SDSN berjumlah 256 orang dan sampel dari SD Eks RSBI sebanyak 116 orang ditentukan menggunakan teknik proportional sampling. Pengumpulan data dilakukan menggunakan kuesioner. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis univariat, bivariat, dan uji-t. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa: (1 tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara budaya sekolah SDSN dengan SD Eks RSBI di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta; (2 ditemukan perbedaan skor dari masing-masing aspek budaya sekolah di SDSN dan SD Eks RSBI DIY. Aspek budaya sekolah yang lebih baik di SDSN adalah kolaborasi profesional, hubungan kolegial, self determination, visi-misi, konsensus, dan disiplin. Sedangkan aspek budaya sekolah yang lebih unggul pada SD Eks RSBI adalah aspek komitmen, hormat, empati, bebas bullying dan artefak fisik. Kata kunci: budaya sekolah, SDSN, SD Eks RSBI

  4. Short-term sleep deprivation stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis in rats following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumei Cheng

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation (SD plays a complex role in central nervous system (CNS diseases. Recent studies indicate that short-term SD can affect the extent of ischemic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term SD could stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCIR.One hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, GCIR and short-term SD groups based on different durations of SD; the short-term SD group was randomly divided into three subgroups: the GCIR+6hSD*3d-treated, GCIR+12hSD-treated and GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated groups. The GCIR rat model was induced via the bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hemorrhagic hypotension. The rats were sleep-deprived starting at 48 h following GCIR. A Morris water maze test was used to assess learning and memory ability; cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed via 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and neuron-specific enolase (NSE, respectively, at 14 and 28 d; the expression of hippocampal BDNF was measured after 7 d.The different durations of short-term SD designed in our experiment exhibited improvement in cognitive function as well as increased hippocampal BDNF expression. Additionally, the short-term SD groups also showed an increased number of BrdU- and BrdU/NSE-positive cells compared with the GCIR group. Of the three short-term SD groups, the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated group experienced the most substantial beneficial effects.Short-term SD, especially the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated method, stimulates neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG of rats that undergo GCIR, and BDNF may be an underlying mechanism in this process.

  5. Quantifying the potential of automated dynamic solar shading in office buildings through integrated simulations of energy and daylight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Vraa; Svendsen, Svend; Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    The façade design is and should be considered a central issue in the design of energy-efficient buildings. That is why dynamic façade components are increasingly used to adapt to both internal and external impacts, and to cope with a reduction in energy consumption and an increase in occupant...... them with various window heights and orientations. Their performance was evaluated on the basis of the building’s total energy demand, its energy demand for heating, cooling and lighting, and also its daylight factors. Simulation results comparing the three façade alternatives show potential...

  6. Evaluation of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test against double ELISA with SD H. pylori Ag ELISA and EZ-STEP H. pylori Ag ELISA tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negash, Markos; Kassu, Afework; Amare, Bemnet; Yismaw, Gizachew; Moges, Beyene

    2018-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori antibody titters fall very slowly even after successful treatment. Therefore, tests detecting H. pylori antibody lack specificity and sensitivity. On the other hand, H. pylori stool antigen tests are reported as an alternative assay because of their reliability and simplicity. However, the comparative performance of H. pylori stool antigen tests for detecting the presence of the bacterium in clinical specimens in the study area is not assessed. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the performance of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test with reference to the commercially available EZ- STEP ELISA and SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag ELISA tests. Stool samples were collected to analyse the diagnostic performance of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test kit using SD H. pylori Ag ELISA kit and EZ- STEP ELISA tests as a gold standard. Serum samples were also collected from each patient to test for the presence of H. pylori antibodies using dBest H. pylori Test Disk. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and kappa value are assessed. P values H. pylori Ag rapid test were: 95.6% (95% CI, 88.8-98.8), 92.5% (95%CI, 89-94.1%), 86.7% (95% CI, 80.5-89.6), and 97.6% (95% CI, 993.9-99.3) respectively. The performance of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test was better than the currently available antibody test in study area. Therefore, the SD BIOLINE Ag rapid stool test could replace and be used to diagnose active H. pylori infection before the commencement of therapy among dyspeptic patients.

  7. Penelitian Serologis Polio pada Anak SD Pasca Bias-polio di Kabupaten Bogor

    OpenAIRE

    Gendrowahyuhono, Gendrowahyuhono; Yulitasari, Yulitasari; Purnamawati, Sinta; Klino, Klino

    2003-01-01

    Program BIAS-Polio sudah dilaksanakan pada bulan Nopember 1999 di seluruh SD di Indonesia dari kelas III sampai dengan kelas VI. Tujuan BIAS-Polio adalah untuk meningkatkan status imunitas anak terhadap infeksi virus polio sebingga dapat menghambat sirkulasi virus polio liar di masyarakat. Bias polio diberikan pada anak SD sebanyak 1 kali dosis.

  8. Automated Segmentability Index for Layer Segmentation of Macular SD-OCT Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, K.; Buitendijk, G.H.; Bogunovic, H.; Springelkamp, H.; Hofman, A.; Wahle, A.; Sonka, M.; Vingerling, J.R.; Klaver, C.C.W.; Abramoff, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To automatically identify which spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans will provide reliable automated layer segmentations for more accurate layer thickness analyses in population studies. METHODS: Six hundred ninety macular SD-OCT image volumes (6.0 x 6.0 x 2.3 mm3)

  9. Proxy support for service discovery using mDNS/DNS-SD in low power networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolikj, M.; Verhoeven, R.; Cuijpers, P.J.L.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a solution for service discovery of resource constrained devices based on mDNS/DNS-SD. We extend the mDNS/DNS-SD service discovery protocol with support for proxy servers. Proxy servers temporarily store information about services offered on resource constrained devices and respond on

  10. Influence of daylight on the fate of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles in natural aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odzak, Niksa; Kistler, David; Sigg, Laura

    2017-07-01

    Nanoparticles, such as silver (Ag-NP) and zinc oxide (ZnO-NP), are increasingly used in many consumer products. These nanoparticles (NPs) will likely be exposed to the aquatic environment (rain, river, lake water) and to light (visible and UV) in the products where they are applied, or after those products are discharged. Dissolution of Ag-NP and ZnO-NP is an important process because the dissolved Ag + and Zn 2+ are readily available and toxic for aquatic organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of daylight (UV and visible) for the fate of engineered Ag-NP and ZnO-NPs in different types of natural waters. Ag-NP and ZnO-NP were exposed to rainwater, river Rhine, and lake waters (Greifen, Lucerne, Cristallina, Gruère) under different light conditions (no light, UV 300-400 nm and visible light 400-700 nm) for up to 8 days. Stronger agglomeration of Ag-NP was observed in the waters with higher ionic strength in comparison to those with lower ionic strength. Visible light tended to increase the dissolution of Ag-NP under most natural water conditions in comparison to dark conditions, whereas UV-light led to decreased dissolved Ag + after longer exposure time. These effects illustrate the dynamic interactions of Ag-NP with light, which may lead both to increased oxidation and to increased reduction of Ag + by organic compounds under UV-light. In the case of ZnO-NP, agglomeration occurred at higher ionic strength, but the effects of pH were predominant for dissolution, which occurred up to concentrations close to the solubility limit of ZnO(s) at pH around 8.2 and to nearly complete dissolution of ZnO-NP at lower pH (pH 4.8-6.5), with both visible and UV-light facilitating dissolution. This study thus shows that light conditions play an important role in the dissolution processes of nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fatal accidents following changes in daylight savings time: the American experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese; Allen

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study examines specific hypotheses that both sleep loss and behavioral changes occurring with the time shifts for Daylight Savings Time (DST) significantly effect the number of fatal traffic accidents in the United States of America.Background: It has been reported that there is a significant increase in the number of automobile accidents in the spring shift to DST due to the loss of 1 h of sleep. But the extra hour gained at night with the shift from DST in the fall has been variably reported to be associated with increases and decreases in the number of automobile accidents which may reflect either behavioral anticipation with an extended late night prior to the change or the benefit of extra sleep after the change.Methods: Data from 21 years of United States' fatal automobile accidents were gathered. The mean number of accidents on the days at the time of the shifts (Saturday, Sunday and Monday) was compared to the average of the corresponding mean number of accidents on the matching day of the weeks preceding and following the shift. This was repeated for each DST shift. The number of accidents for a particular shift was also correlated with the year of the accidents.Results: There was a significant increase in accidents for the Monday immediately following the spring shift to DST (t=1.92, P=0.034). There was also a significant increase in number of accidents on the Sunday of the fall shift from DST (P<0.002). No significant changes were observed for the other days. A significant negative correlation with the year was found between the number of accidents on the Saturdays and Sundays but not Mondays.Conclusions: The sleep deprivation on the Monday following shift to DST in the spring results in a small increase in fatal accidents. The behavioral adaptation anticipating the longer day on Sunday of the shift from DST in the fall leads to an increased number of accidents suggesting an increase in late night (early Sunday morning) driving when

  12. HOW TO MAKE A SINGLETON sdB STAR VIA ACCELERATED STELLAR EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, Drew; Wade, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Many hot subdwarf B stars (sdBs) are in close binaries, and the favored formation channels for subdwarfs rely on mass transfer in a binary system to strip a core He-burning star of its envelope. However, these channels cannot account for sdBs that have been observed in long-period binaries nor the narrow mass distribution of isolated (or 'singleton') sdBs. We propose a new formation channel involving the merger of a helium white dwarf and a low-mass, hydrogen-burning star, which addresses these issues. Hierarchical triples whose inner binaries merge and form sdBs by this process could explain the observed long-period subdwarf+main-sequence binaries. This process would also naturally explain the observed slow rotational speeds of singleton sdBs. We also briefly discuss the implications of this formation channel for extreme horizontal branch morphology in globular clusters and the UV upturn in elliptical galaxies.

  13. Short philtrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm Short philtrum To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A short philtrum is a shorter than normal distance between ...

  14. Proposal of the Tubular Daylight System Using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS Metalized with Aluminum for Reflective Tube Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Diogo Spacek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the search for alternatives to reduce the consumption of electric energy, the possibility of using natural light for lighting through TDD (tubular daylight devices or TDGS (tubular daylight guidance systems appears. These natural luminaires are used in rooms where you want to save electricity and enjoy the benefits of natural light. The present work proposes the construction of a tubular system for the conduction of natural light that replaces aluminum with silver (currently marketed by several companies by polymer metallized with aluminum, offering a low cost. The polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS, coated with aluminum by physical vapor deposition (ionization, was evaluated for some tests to verify characteristics of the structure and the metallized surface. After the tests, the construction of the reflective tube was performed and validated in a real scale of application. The results proved the technical viability of the proposed tube construction for the realization of direct sunlight for illumination using polymeric material. Although it has produced 35% less than the reference tube, it can be marketed at an estimated cost of 50% less.

  15. The daylight saving time in Mexico; El cambio de horario durante la epoca del verano en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covarrubias Ramos, Rogelio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The daylight saving time in Mexico for energy saving is analyzed; such a change is made forwarding the clocks one hour in all Mexico the first Sunday of April and backing them an hour the last Sunday of October. Mention is made the reasons why Mexico adopted this measure, the social-economic impact that brings along and the benefits of this daylight saving time. The case of countries that also apply this measure is analyzed. It is expected that this measure attains benefits for the society either collectively or individually through the ecology and the economy. [Espanol] Se analiza el cambio de horario en la epoca de verano en Mexico para ahorrar energia; dicho cambio se realiza al adelantar una hora al reloj en todo el territorio de Mexico el primer domingo de abril y retrazarlo una hora el ultimo domingo de octubre. Se mencionan las razones por las cuales Mexico adopto esta medida, el impacto socio-economico que traera consigo y los beneficios del cambio de horario. Se aborda la situacion de los paises que tambien aplican esta medida. Se espera que esta medida logre beneficios para la sociedad, ya sea en modo colectivo o individual, para la ecologia y para la economia.

  16. Continuous daylight in the high-Arctic summer supports high plankton respiration rates compared to those supported in the dark

    KAUST Repository

    Mesa, Elena

    2017-04-21

    Plankton respiration rate is a major component of global CO2 production and is forecasted to increase rapidly in the Arctic with warming. Yet, existing assessments in the Arctic evaluated plankton respiration in the dark. Evidence that plankton respiration may be stimulated in the light is particularly relevant for the high Arctic where plankton communities experience continuous daylight in spring and summer. Here we demonstrate that plankton community respiration evaluated under the continuous daylight conditions present in situ, tends to be higher than that evaluated in the dark. The ratio between community respiration measured in the light (Rlight) and in the dark (Rdark) increased as the 2/3 power of Rlight so that the Rlight:Rdark ratio increased from an average value of 1.37 at the median Rlight measured here (3.62 µmol O2 L-1 d-1) to an average value of 17.56 at the highest Rlight measured here (15.8 µmol O2 L-1 d-1). The role of respiratory processes as a source of CO2 in the Arctic has, therefore, been underestimated and is far more important than previously believed, particularly in the late spring, with 24 h photoperiods, when community respiration rates are highest.

  17. The daylight saving time in Mexico; El cambio de horario durante la epoca del verano en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covarrubias Ramos, Rogelio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The daylight saving time in Mexico for energy saving is analyzed; such a change is made forwarding the clocks one hour in all Mexico the first Sunday of April and backing them an hour the last Sunday of October. Mention is made the reasons why Mexico adopted this measure, the social-economic impact that brings along and the benefits of this daylight saving time. The case of countries that also apply this measure is analyzed. It is expected that this measure attains benefits for the society either collectively or individually through the ecology and the economy. [Espanol] Se analiza el cambio de horario en la epoca de verano en Mexico para ahorrar energia; dicho cambio se realiza al adelantar una hora al reloj en todo el territorio de Mexico el primer domingo de abril y retrazarlo una hora el ultimo domingo de octubre. Se mencionan las razones por las cuales Mexico adopto esta medida, el impacto socio-economico que traera consigo y los beneficios del cambio de horario. Se aborda la situacion de los paises que tambien aplican esta medida. Se espera que esta medida logre beneficios para la sociedad, ya sea en modo colectivo o individual, para la ecologia y para la economia.

  18. Spanish-Portuguese consensus statement on use of daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate in the treatment of actinic keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilaberte, Y; Aguilar, M; Almagro, M; Correia, O; Guillén, C; Harto, A; Pérez-García, B; Pérez-Pérez, L; Redondo, P; Sánchez-Carpintero, I; Serra-Guillén, C; Valladares, L M

    2015-10-01

    Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new type of PDT that is as effective as conventional PDT in grade 1 and 2 actinic keratosis but with fewer adverse effects, resulting in greater efficiency. The climatic conditions in the Iberian Peninsula require an appropriately adapted consensus protocol. We describe a protocol for the treatment of grade 1 and 2 actinic keratosis with daylight-mediated PDT and methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) adapted to the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Spanish and Portuguese patients and the climatic conditions of both countries. Twelve dermatologists from different parts of Spain and Portugal with experience in the treatment of actinic keratosis with PDT convened to draft a consensus statement for daylight-mediated PDT with MAL in these countries. Based on a literature review and their own clinical experience, the group developed a recommended protocol. According to the recommendations adopted, patients with multiple grade 1 and 2 lesions, particularly those at risk of developing cancer, are candidates for this type of therapy. Daylight-mediated PDT can be administered throughout the year, although it is not indicated at temperatures below 10°C or at excessively high temperatures. Likewise, therapy should not be administered when it is raining, snowing, or foggy. The procedure is simple, requiring application of a sunscreen with a protection factor of at least 30 based exclusively on organic filters, appropriate preparation of the lesions, application of MAL without occlusion, and activation in daylight for 2hours. This consensus statement represents a practical and detailed guideline to achieve maximum effectiveness of daylight-mediated PDT with MAL in Spain and Portugal with minimal adverse effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  19. Delay-controlled primary and stochastic resonances of the SD oscillator with stiffness nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Cao, Qingjie

    2018-03-01

    This work presents analytical studies of the stiffness nonlinearities SD (smooth and discontinuous) oscillator under displacement and velocity feedback control with a time delay. The SD oscillator can capture the qualitative characteristics of quasi-zero-stiffness and negative-stiffness. We focus mainly on the primary resonance of the quasi-zero-stiffness SD oscillator and the stochastic resonance (SR) of the negative-stiffness SD oscillator. Using the averaging method, we have been analyzed the amplitude response of the quasi-zero-stiffness SD oscillator. In this regard, the optimum time delay for changing the control intensity according to the optimization standard proposed can be obtained. For the optimum time delay, increasing the displacement feedback intensity is advantageous to suppress the vibrations in resonant regime where vibration isolation is needed, however, increasing the velocity feedback intensity is advantageous to strengthen the vibrations. Moreover, the effects of time-delayed feedback on the SR of the negative-stiffness SD oscillator are investigated under harmonic forcing and Gaussian white noise, based on the Langevin and Fokker-Planck approaches. The time-delayed feedback can enhance the SR phenomenon where vibrational energy harvesting is needed. This paper established the relationship between the parameters and vibration properties of a stiffness nonlinearities SD which provides the guidance for optimizing time-delayed control for vibration isolation and vibrational energy harvesting of the nonlinear systems.

  20. The effect of dynamic solar shading on energy, daylighting and thermal comfort in a nearly zero-energy loft room in Rome and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2017-01-01

    alternatives in buildings with very low space-heating demand, this study mapped and compared energy, daylighting and thermal comfort for various combinations of window size and glazing properties, with and without dynamic shading. The study considered a loft room with sloped roof windows and moderate venting...... as defined by the Adaptive Thermal Comfort (ATC) model....... options in nearly zero-energy homes in Rome and Copenhagen. The more flexible solution space with dynamic shading made it possible to either reduce the time with operative temperatures exceeding the comfort limit by 40–50 h or increase daylighting by 750–1000 h more than could be achieved without shading...

  1. Balancing the daylighting and energy performance of solar screens in residential desert buildings: Examination of screen axial rotation and opening aspect ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Sabry, Hanan

    2014-05-01

    Solar screens are typically used to control solar access into building spaces. They proved their usefulness in improving the daylighting and energy performance of buildings in the hot arid desert environments which are endowed with abundance of clear skies.The daylighting and energy performance of solar screens is affected by many parameters. These include screen perforation, depth, reflectivity and color, aspect ratio of openings, shape, tilt angle and rotation. Changing some of these parameters can improve the daylighting performance drastically. However, this can result in increased energy consumption. A balanced solution must be sought, where acceptable daylighting performance would be achieved at minimum energy consumption.This paper aims at defining solar screen designs that achieve visual comfort and at the same time minimum energy consumption in residential desert settings. The study focused on the effect of changing the solar screen axial rotation and the aspect ratio of its openings under the desert clear-sky. The individual and combined effects of changing these parameters were studied.Results of this study demonstrated that a non-rotated solar screen that has wide horizontal openings (aspect ratio of 18:1) proved to be successful in the north and south orientations. Its performance in the east/west orientations was also superior. In contrast, the screen that was rotated along its vertical axis while having small size openings (aspect ratio of 1:1) proved to be more successful in the east/west orientations. Its performance in the north orientation was also good. These solutions enhanced daylighting performance, while maintaining the energy consumption at a minimum.Moreover, it was observed that combining two screen parameters which proved useful in previous studies on daylighting or thermal performance does not add up to better solutions. The combined solutions that were tested in this study did not prove successful in satisfying daylighting and thermal

  2. Transcriptional analysis of heterologous gene expression using the endogenous sD promoter from Bacillus halodurans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Crampton, Michael C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation focused on the transcriptional analysis of heterologous gene expression using the endogenous sD promoter from Bacillus halodurans. It concludes to a successful implementation of a high throughput mRNA sandwich hybridisation...

  3. Role of antisymmetric spin-orbit component in effective interactions in the sd-shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinada, K.

    1981-10-01

    The antisymmetric spin-orbit interaction (ALS) proposed for sd-shell nuclei is investigated. It is shown that the centroid energy of the d sub(5/2) - d sub(3/2) interactions plays a crucial role in reproducing the excited band spectra of A = 18 - 24 nuclei. An empirical effective interaction without ALS component is proposed to reproduce the observed spectra of light sd-shell nuclei. (author)

  4. Continuous activation of PpIX by daylight is as effective as and less painful than conventional photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses; a randomized, controlled, single-blinded study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Hædersdal, Merete; Philipsen, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    of the face and scalp were treated with MAL-PDT in two symmetrical areas. One area was illuminated by red LED light (37 J cm(-2)) after 3-h incubation with MAL under occlusive dressing. The other area was treated with daylight for 2.5 h after the MAL cream had been under occlusion for half an hour. Results We...... found no significant difference in the treatment effect between the two treatments (P = 0.13), with a reduction of AK lesions of 79% in the daylight area compared with 71% in the LED area. Treatment response in the daylight area did not depend on the intensity of the daylight. Illumination with LED...... of porphyrins during its formation. Objectives The objective of this randomized controlled study was to compare response rates and adverse effects after methyl aminolevulinate (MAL)-PDT using conventional red light-emitting diode (LED) light vs. daylight. Patients/methods Twenty-nine patients with AK...

  5. G eobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Dan; Call, Douglas; Wang, Aijie; Cheng, Shaoan; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Summary: An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G.sulfurreducensPCA and Geobacter metallireducensGS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290±29Am-3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189±44Am-3) or the type strains (<70Am-3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50mM PBS and 650mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158±4Am-3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50mM PBS (220±4Am-3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147±19Am-3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  6. G eobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Dan

    2014-07-16

    © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Summary: An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G.sulfurreducensPCA and Geobacter metallireducensGS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290±29Am-3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189±44Am-3) or the type strains (<70Am-3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50mM PBS and 650mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158±4Am-3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50mM PBS (220±4Am-3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147±19Am-3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  7. An evaluation of the SD Bioline HIV/syphilis duo test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Jeffrey; Goheen, Joshua; Jett-Goheen, Mary; Barnes, Mathilda; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2018-01-01

    Many health agencies now recommend routine HIV and syphilis testing for pregnant women and most-at-risk populations such as men who have sex with men. With the increased availability of highly sensitive, low cost rapid point-of-care tests, the ability to meet those recommendations has increased, granting wider access to quick and accurate diagnoses. Using blood specimens collected from a Baltimore City Health Department (BCHD) sexually transmitted infection clinic, we evaluated the SD Bioline HIV/Syphilis Duo, a rapid test that simultaneously detects antibodies to HIV and syphilis and has the potential to further benefit clinics and patients by reducing costs, testing complexity, and patient wait times. SD DUO HIV sensitivity and specificity, when compared to BCHD results, were 91.7 and 99.5%, respectively. SD DUO syphilis sensitivity and specificity, when compared to rapid plasma reagin, were 85.7 and 96.8%, respectively, and 69.7 and 99.7%, respectively, when compared to Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA). SD DUO syphilis sensitivity and specificity, when compared to a traditional screening algorithm, improved to 92.3 and 100%, respectively, and improved to 72.9 and 99.7%, respectively, when compared to a reverse screening algorithm. The HIV component of the SD DUO performed moderately well. However, results for the SD DUO syphilis component, when compared to TPPA, support the need for further testing and assessment.

  8. Effects of accelerated artificial daylight aging on bending strength and bonding of glass fibers in fiber-embedded maxillofacial silicone prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamleh, Muhanad M; Watts, David C

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of different periods of accelerated artificial daylight aging on bond strength of glass fiber bundles embedded into maxillofacial silicone elastomer and on bending strength of the glass fiber bundles. Forty specimens were fabricated by embedding resin-impregnated fiber bundles (1.5-mm diameter, 20-mm long) into maxillofacial silicone elastomer. Specimens were randomly allocated into four groups, and each group was subjected to different periods of accelerated daylight aging as follows (in hours); 0, 200, 400, and 600. The aging cycle included continuous exposure to quartz-filtered visible daylight (irradiance 760 W/m(2)) under an alternating weathering cycle (wet for 18 minutes, dry for 102 minutes). Pull-out tests were performed to evaluate bond strength between fiber bundles and silicone using a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Also a three-point bending test was performed to evaluate bending strength of the fiber bundles. One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests were carried out to detect statistical significance (p aging only. After 200 hours of exposure to artificial daylight and moisture conditions, bond strength between glass fibers and heat-cured silicones is optimal, and the bending strength of the glass fiber bundles is enhanced.

  9. Continuous ultra-low-intensity artificial daylight is not as effective as red LED light in photodynamic therapy of multiple actinic keratoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, Stine Regin; Heydenreich, Jakob; Fabricius, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a simple and tolerable treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. It is of interest which light intensity is sufficient to prevent accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and effectively treat actinic keratoses (AKs). We compared the efficacy of PDT...

  10. Daylight-saving time: Consumption and demand saving and pollutants emission reduction; El cambio de horario de verano: Ahorros en consumo y demanda, y reduccion de contaminantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Gaudencio; Diaz, Rodrigo; Fiscal, Raul; Alquicira, Claudia; Martinez, Serafin; Maqueda, Martin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents some of the saving obtained in demand and in fuels with the daylight-saving time, as well as the main aspects considered to make an evaluation of it. [Espanol] Se presentan los ahorros obtenidos en consumo, demanda y combustibles con el cambio de horario de verano, asi como los principales aspectos considerados para efectuar la evaluacion de los mismos.

  11. Combination of ablative fractional laser and daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis in organ transplant recipients – a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Lei, Ulrikke; Erlendsson, A M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) for actinic keratoses (AK) is hampered by pain during illumination and inferior efficacy in organ-transplant recipients (OTR). OBJECTIVES: We assessed ablative fractional laser (AFL)-assisted daylight photodynamic therapy (PDT) (AFL-dPDT) compared...

  12. Photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses with 8% and 16% methyl aminolaevulinate and home-based daylight exposure: a double-blinded randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Haedersdal, M.; Eriksen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective but time-consuming and often painful treatment for actinic keratosis (AK). Home-based daylight-PDT has the potential to facilitate treatment procedure and to reduce associated pain due to continuous activation of small amounts of porphyrins...

  13. Daylight photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate cream as a convenient, similarly effective, nearly painless alternative to conventional photodynamic therapy in actinic keratosis treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubel, D M; Spelman, L; Murrell, D F

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Daylight photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT) of actinic keratosis (AK) has shown preliminary efficacy and safety results comparable to conventional photodynamic therapy (c-PDT), using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) cream. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the efficacy and safety of DL-PDT vs. c...

  14. A statistical analysis of the energy policy act of 2005, its changes to the daylight saving program, and impact on residential energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick L.

    Government programs designed to decrease resource consumption, improve productivity and capitalize on extended daylight hours in the summer have been developed and implemented throughout the world for nearly three hundred years. In 2005, The United States government adopted an extended daylight savings program that increases the number of weeks where the country observes Daylight Saving Time (DST) from 31 to 35 weeks. The program took effect in March 2007. Arguments in support of DST programs highlight the portion of electricity consumption attributed to residential lighting in the evening hours. Adjusting clocks forward by one hour in summer months is believed to reduce electricity consumption due to lighting and therefore significantly reduce residential energy consumption during the period of DST. This paper evaluates the efficacy of the changes to DST resulting from the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The study focuses on changes to household electricity consumption during the extended four weeks of DST. Arizona, one of two states that continue to opt out of DST serves as the study's control for a comparison with neighboring states, Colorado, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas and Utah. Results from the regression analysis of a Difference in Difference model indicate that contrary to evaluations by Congress and the Department of Energy, the four week period of Extended Daylight Saving Time does not produce a significant decrease in per capita electricity consumption in Southwestern states.

  15. Daylight-saving time: Consumption and demand saving and pollutants emission reduction; El cambio de horario de verano: Ahorros en consumo y demanda, y reduccion de contaminantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Gaudencio; Diaz, Rodrigo; Fiscal, Raul; Alquicira, Claudia; Martinez, Serafin; Maqueda, Martin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents some of the saving obtained in demand and in fuels with the daylight-saving time, as well as the main aspects considered to make an evaluation of it. [Espanol] Se presentan los ahorros obtenidos en consumo, demanda y combustibles con el cambio de horario de verano, asi como los principales aspectos considerados para efectuar la evaluacion de los mismos.

  16. Demonstration with Energy and Daylighting Assessment of Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic (SRT) Window Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekhuis, Michael; Liposcak, Curtis; Witte, Michael; Henninger, Robert; Zhou, Xiaohui; Petzen, George; Buchanan, Michael; Kumar, Sneh

    2012-03-31

    Pleotint, LLC was able to successfully extrude thermochromic interlayer for use in the fenestration industry. Pleotint has developed a thermochromic sytem that requires two thermochromic colors to make a neutral color when in the tinted state. These two colors were assembled into a single interlayer called a tri-layer prelam by Crown Operations for use in the glass lamination industry. Various locations, orientations, and constructions of thermochromic windows were studied with funds from this contract. Locations included Australia, California, Costa Rica, Indiana, Iowa, Mexico. Installed orientations included vertical and skylight glazing applications. Various constructions included monolithic, double pane, triple pane constructions. A daylighting study was conducted at LinEl Signature. LinEl Signature has a conference room with a sylight roof system that has a west orientation. The existing LinEl Signature conference room had constant tint 40% VLT transparent skylights. Irradiance meters were installed on the interior and exterior sides of a constant tint skylight. After a month and a half of data collection, the irradiance meters were removed and the constant tint skylights were replaced with Pleotint thermochromic skylight windows. The irradiance meters were reinstalled in the same locations and irradiance data was collected. Both data sets were compared. The data showed that there was a linear relationship with exterior and interior irradiance for the existing constant tint skylights. The thermochromic skylights have a non-linear relationship. The thermochromic skylights were able to limit the amount of irradiance that passed through the thermochromic skylight. A second study of the LinEl Signature conference was performed using EnergyPlus to calculate the amount of Illuminance that passed through constant tint skylights as compared to thermochromic skylights. The constant tint skylights transmitted Illuminance is 2.8 times higher than the thermochromic

  17. Purification and characterization of bacteriocin produced by oral Lactobacillus paracasei SD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannun, P; Piwat, S; Teanpaisan, R

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to purify and characterize the antimicrobial protein from Lactobacillus paracasei SD1, which is a strain from the human oral cavity. Antimicrobial activity was obtained from purifying the culture supernatant of L. paracasei SD1. Purification of the active compound was achieved with ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by chloroform and gel filtration chromatography. As revealed by SDS-PAGE, the active fraction was homogeneous, showing a protein with an approximate molecular weight of 25,000 Da. It was confirmed as having a molecular mass of 24,028.2 Da by mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial compound, named "paracasin SD1", exhibited a broad spectrum against oral pathogens. Paracasin SD1 was stable in a pH range between 3.0 and 8.0 at 100 °C for 5 min, and showed resistance to α-amylase, catalase, lysozyme and whole saliva. However, its activity was lost after proteinase K and trypsin treatment. The results obtained suggest the possibility of using paracasin SD1 for application in prevention/treatment of oral diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  19. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF P.T. KAYE

    . SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...

  20. PENYELENGGARAAN PROGRAN SD-SMP SATU ATAP DALAM LATAR BUDAYA RUMAH BETANG KALIMANTAN TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Hasan

    2014-06-01

    Abstrak: Penyelenggaraan Progran SD-SMP Satu Atap dalam Latar Budaya Rumah Betang Kali­mantan Tengah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan penyelengaaraan program SD-SMP Satu Atap dalam latar budaya rumah Betang Kalimantan Tengah yang dikaitkan dengan struktur birokrasi, sumber daya, dan komunikasi. Penelitian kualitatif dilaksanakan di tiga lokasi, yaitu pada SMPN Satu Atap 1 Mihing Raya, SMPN Satu Atap 2 Kurun, dan SMPN Satu Atap 3 Tewah di Kabupaten Gunung Mas, Propinsi Kalimantan Tengah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa acuan standar yang jelas, koordinasi yang intensif, dan pemberdayaan sumber daya manusia yang tepat sesuai dengan pendekatan nilai-nilai budaya rumah Betang dapat mencapai penyelenggaraan program SD-SMP Satu Atap yang efektif. Hal itu juga didukung oleh pengelolaan sumberdaya dan komunikasi yang mendasarkan diri pada nilai kekeluargaan, kebersamaan, loyalitas, dan keakraban.

  1. TEKNIK DAN STRATEGI TINDAK KESANTUNAN DIREKTIF DI KALANGAN ANDIK SD BERLATAR BELAKANG BUDAYA JAWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Joko Prayitno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Studi ini bertujuan untuk merumuskan taksonomi tindak kesantunan direktif dikalangan andik SD yang berlatar belakang budaya Jawa. Tujuan spesifik studi iniadalah untuk merumuskan taksonomi dan pola semestaan realisasi tindakkesantunan direktif andik SD dalam hubungannya dengan prinsip dasar berbahasa PKS dan PSS; prinsip harmoni sosial PI dan PK. Objek penelitian ini adalah skala kelangsungan dan peringkat tindak kesantunandirektif dalam kaitannya PKS, PSS, prinsip harmoni sosial PI, PK, dn prinsip kultural budaya Jawa. Sumber data penelitian meliputi keseluruhan aktivitas berbahasa andik SD yang direfleksikan oleh guru kelas SD melalui FGD, baik dalam suasana formal maupun nonformal. Data penelitian berupa skala kelangsungan dan peringkat kesantunan pertuturan menurut PKS, PSS, PI, PK, dan Pk. Interpretasi perwujudan tindak kesantunan direktif dilakukan dengan kerja analisis pragmatik yang mengacu pada analisis heuristik model Grice, skala kelangsungan dan peringkat kesantunan model BrownLevinson. Hasil studi ini menunjukkan bahwa (1 perwujudan tindak kesantunan direktif (TKD di kalangan andik SD berlatar belakang budaya Jawa berkecenderungan diwujudkan melaui tipe menyuruh pada kategori memerintah dan tipe meminta pada kategori memohon. Temuan ini menggambarkah bahwa sesuai dengan kodratnya sebagai anak pada dasarnya masih memerlukan suri tauladan dari orang tuanya di rumah, gurunya di sekolah, dan panutannya sebagai yang difigurkan atau ditokohkan di lingkungan masyarakatnya masing-masing. (2 realisasi TKD di kalangan andik SD berlatar belakang budaya Jawa berkecenderungan dinyatakan dengan cara-cara tak langsung dan modus-modus nonliteral daripada dengan cara-cara langsung atau modus literal. Realisasi ini menggambarkan bahwa andik SD pada hakikatnya masih dalam masa perkembangan mental lingual sehingga masih memerlukan bimbingan yang bernilai positif, santun, dan berkarakter dari orang tua, guru, dan lingkungan

  2. MR imaging pulse sequence rationale: SD-, T1-, and T2-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sax, S.; Weathers, S.W.; Schneiders, N.J.; Horowitz, B.L.; Mawad, M.E.; Sandlin, M.E.; Blackwell, R.; Bryan, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    Over 500 patients have been examined with a pulse sequence designed to provide spin-density (SD)-weighted images (TR=3 sec, TE=35 msec), T1-weighted images (TR=0.3 sec, TE=35msec), and T2-weighted images (TR=3 sec, TE=105 msec) from which calculated ''synthesized'' images and SD, T1, and T2 calculated images could be obtained. Each image contributes unique information. SD-weighted images optimally display anatomy and often best highlight pathology. T1-weighted images are critical in assessing cerebral hemorrhages. T2-weighted images best display most lesions, but yield incomplete information in 35% of cases. All three types of ''weighted'' images are necessary to optimally display anatomy and fully characterize a lesion. Computerized calculations and simulations suggest that no other combination of pulse sequences yields equal information for a given examination time

  3. Revisiting PSS and service design in the light of the SD-logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Nina; Patrício, Lia; Morelli, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    are only means to an end. Also, different approaches, methods and tools have been developed to design value propositions however they still lack to explicit the SDlogic principles. The design of solutions that provide value-in-use is at the centre of both Product Service System (PSS) approach and service...... comprehensive discussion about these two approaches and proposes a conceptual framework for integrating PSS organizational point of view; and SD human-centred focus to design better service.......Researchers and practitioners have increasingly recognized the importance of offering value propositions to customers that enable value co-creation as discussed in the service dominant logic (SD-logic). SD-logic recognizes customers as active co-creators and posits that products and services...

  4. From novel mathematics to efficient algorithms. Do we have proper SD foundation to build future?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachov, Fyodor V. [INR RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-08-01

    Computer implementation of sophisticated algorithms for physics applications is greatly facilitated by the new generation of component-oriented SD technologies pioneered by Wirth's Oberon and embraced by the software industry (Sun's Java and Microsoft's C no.). In a stark contrast with the deeply flawed C++, the Oberon technologies (specifically, the Component Pascal and the BlackBox development environment) offer an unparalleled SD platform for building scientific applications from sophisticated data processing to demanding symbolic calculations. Specific examples are discussed. (author)

  5. Microscopic descriptions of collective SD bands in the A=190 mass region with the Gogny force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, M.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of microscopic models, we present two methods for describing superdeformed (SD) band properties. The first one is the cranked Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov (HFB) method, without and with inclusion of particle number projection. The second one is the Gaussian overlap approximation to the generator coordinate method (GCM+GOA) with which we treat the five quadrupole collective coordinates. Both methods use the Gogny force. Moments of inertia and excitation energies of SD bands are calculated and compared with experimental results. (orig.). With 1 fig

  6. Nuclear structure of s-d shell nuclei: what is new?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, G.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the shape evolution of the even-even s-d shell nuclei with temperature and spin is studied using Landau theory of phase transitions. The most important thermal fluctuations are incorporated in this study. The ground state pairing is also included in the calculations. Both the summation and Strutinsky methods are used for extracting the Landau constants. Both yield qualitatively similar results. To conclude, Landau theory of phase transitions can be effectively and economically used to study the structure of excited s-d shell nuclei. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  7. The System Dynamics Model User Sustainability Explorer (SD-MUSE): a user-friendly tool for interpreting system dynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    System Dynamics (SD) models are useful for holistic integration of data to evaluate indirect and cumulative effects and inform decisions. Complex SD models can provide key insights into how decisions affect the three interconnected pillars of sustainability. However, the complexi...

  8. Is sdLDL a valuable screening tool for cardiovascular disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radwa Momtaz Abdelsamie Zaki Khalil

    Lipoprotein Cholesterol; LDL I, large buoyant LDL; LDL II, intermediate density LDL; LDL III, smaller dense LDL; .... triglycerides >_150 mg, high density lipoprotein (HDL) <40 mg/dl in men ... sion of phenotype B.4,12 For a given triglyceride level, women were .... that sdLDL /LDL ratio is a very strong predictor of CHD in men;.

  9. 75 FR 31464 - Certification of the Attorney General; Shannon County, SD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Certification of the Attorney General; Shannon County, SD In accordance with... within the scope of the determinations of the Attorney General and the Director of the Census made under...., Attorney General of the United States. [FR Doc. 2010-13285 Filed 6-2-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE P ...

  10. Positron annihilation and pressure-induced electronic s-d transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, A.K.; Skriver, H.L.

    1985-06-01

    The polycrystalline, partial annihilation rates for positrons in compressed cesium have been calculated using the linear muffin-tin orbitals method. These results suggest that the pressure-induced electronic s-d transition in Cs should be directly observable by momentum sensitive positron annihilation experiments

  11. Semi-automatic geographic atrophy segmentation for SD-OCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; de Sisternes, Luis; Leng, Theodore; Zheng, Luoluo; Kutzscher, Lauren; Rubin, Daniel L

    2013-01-01

    Geographic atrophy (GA) is a condition that is associated with retinal thinning and loss of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer. It appears in advanced stages of non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and can lead to vision loss. We present a semi-automated GA segmentation algorithm for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images. The method first identifies and segments a surface between the RPE and the choroid to generate retinal projection images in which the projection region is restricted to a sub-volume of the retina where the presence of GA can be identified. Subsequently, a geometric active contour model is employed to automatically detect and segment the extent of GA in the projection images. Two image data sets, consisting on 55 SD-OCT scans from twelve eyes in eight patients with GA and 56 SD-OCT scans from 56 eyes in 56 patients with GA, respectively, were utilized to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the proposed GA segmentation method. Experimental results suggest that the proposed algorithm can achieve high segmentation accuracy. The mean GA overlap ratios between our proposed method and outlines drawn in the SD-OCT scans, our method and outlines drawn in the fundus auto-fluorescence (FAF) images, and the commercial software (Carl Zeiss Meditec proprietary software, Cirrus version 6.0) and outlines drawn in FAF images were 72.60%, 65.88% and 59.83%, respectively.

  12. Context based service discovery in unmanaged networks using MDNS/DNS-SD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolikj, M.; Cuijpers, P.J.L.; Lukkien, J.J.; Buchina, N.; Bellido, F.J.; Vun, N.C.H.; Dolar, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, D.; Ling, W.-K.

    2016-01-01

    We propose an extension of the mDNS/DNS-SD service discovery protocol, which enables service clients to discover and select services based on their context. The extension improves scalability in large networks, which is of particular importance in future Internet of Things deployments.

  13. Peran modal sosial dalam implementasi konsep pemikiran Ki Hadjar Dewantara di SD Taman Muda Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukma Wijayanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan: (1 implementasi pendidikan Ki Hadjar Dewantara; dan (2 modal sosial di SD Taman Siswa Jetis. Penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan jenis penelitian studi kasus. Unit analisis penelitian adalah SD Tamansiswa Jetis. Penentuan subjek dalam penelitian ini menggunakan teknik purposive sampling dengan subjek penelitian adalah pamong, kepala sekolahdan ketua yayasan Majelis Luhur Persatuan Tamansiswa cabang Jetis. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan observasi partisipatif, wawancara dan dokumentasi. Teknik analisis penelitian ini menggunakan model interaktif Milles & Huberman. Berdasarkan penelitian diperoleh sebagai berikut: (1 Konsep pemikiran Ki Hadjar terlaksana di SD Taman Siswa Jetis yakni sistem among tidak dapat dipisahkan prinsip kemerdekaan dan kodrat alam. Pelaksanaan sistem among dilaksanakan dengan keteladanan, pembiasaan, pengajaran, serta hukumam, paksaan dan perintah. (2 Trust, Jaringan, dan norm dalam melaksanakan konsep Ki Hadjar Dewantara menggunakan nilai-nilai kekeluargaan. Kekeluargaan modal sosial yang menjadi kekuatan dalam melaksanakan konsep pendidikan Ki Hadjar di SD Taman Siswa Jetis.Kata kunci: Ki Hadjar Dewantara, Konsep Pendidikan Ki Hadjar Dewantara, Modal Sosial

  14. EVALUASI IMPLEMENTASI TQM PADA SDN KARANGREJEK II DAN SD MUHAMMADIYAH AL MUJAHIDIN WONOSARI GUNUNGKIDUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Pramono

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui: (1 seberapa besar tingkat implementasi TQM, (2 perbandingan implementasi, (3 aspek-aspek yang perlu mendapatkan perbaikan untuk ditingkatkan. Penelitian evaluasi dengan model descrepancy. Instrumen pengumpul data berupa angket jawaban skala 2 terdiri atas 69 butir. Teknik analisis data menggunakan teknik persentase. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1 implementasi TQM di SD Negeri Karangrejek II rata-rata sebesar 87,73%, aspek-aspek yang mendekati standar: mutu pembelajaran, organisasi terbalik, perubahan kultur, kolega sebagai pelanggan, profesionalisme, dan pemasaran internal. Implementasi TQM di SD Muhammadiyah Al Mujahidin rata-rata sebesar 94,42%. Aspek-aspek yang mendekati standar: organisasi terbalik, mutu pembelajaran, perubahan kultur, profesionalisme, kaizen dan menjaga hubungan dengan pelanggan. (2 Perbandingan implementasi TQM sebagai berikut: aspek mutu pembelajaran, organisasi terbalik dan perubahan kultur merupakan aspek dengan rata-rata tertinggi di SD Karangrejek II, sedangkan di SD Muhammadiyah Al Mujahidin: aspek organisasi terbalik, mutu pembelajaran, dan perubahan kultur. (3 Aspek yang perlu mendapatkan perbaikan di kedua sekolah adalah perbaikan terus-menerus.

  15. Learning from CDM SD tool experience for Article 6.4 in the Paris Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Holm; Arens, Christof; Mersmann, Florian

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Agreement (PA) emphasizes the intrinsic relationship between climate change and sustainable development (SD) and welcomes the 2030 agenda for the global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Yet, there is a lack of assessment approaches to ensure that climate and development goals...

  16. Canister storage building compliance assessment SNF project NRC equivalency criteria - HNF-SD-SNF-DB-003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLACK, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the Project's position on compliance with the SNF Project NRC Equivalency Criteria - HNF-SD-SNF-DE-003, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Path Forward Additional NRC Requirements. No non-compliances are shown. The compliance statements have been reviewed and approved by DOE. Open items are scheduled to be closed prior to project completion

  17. Short Stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Boye Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie

    2016-01-01

    -scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below......The use of appropriate growth standards/references is of significant clinical importance in assessing the height of children with short stature as it may determine eligibility for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of using World Health Organization (WHO) instead...... of national growth standards/references on height assessment in short children. Data were collected from routine clinical practice (1998-2014) from nine European countries that have available national growth references and were enrolled in NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (NCT00960128), a large...

  18. An Atlantic streamer in stratospheric ozone observations and SD-WACCM simulation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocke, Klemens; Schranz, Franziska; Maillard Barras, Eliane; Moreira, Lorena; Kämpfer, Niklaus

    2017-03-01

    Observation and simulation of individual ozone streamers are important for the description and understanding of non-linear transport processes in the middle atmosphere. A sudden increase in mid-stratospheric ozone occurred above central Europe on 4 December 2015. The GROund-based Millimeter-wave Ozone Spectrometer (GROMOS) and the Stratospheric Ozone MOnitoring RAdiometer (SOMORA) in Switzerland measured an ozone enhancement of about 30 % at 34 km altitude (8.3 hPa) from 1 to 4 December. A similar ozone increase is simulated by the Specified Dynamics Whole Atmosphere Community Climate (SD-WACCM) model. Further, the global ozone fields at 34 km altitude (8.3 hPa) from SD-WACCM and the satellite experiment Aura/MLS show a remarkable agreement for the location and timing of an ozone streamer (large-scale tongue-like structure) extending from the subtropics in northern America over the Atlantic to central Europe. This agreement indicates that SD-WACCM can inform us about the wind inside the Atlantic ozone streamer. SD-WACCM shows an eastward wind of about 100 m s-1 inside the Atlantic streamer in the mid-stratosphere. SD-WACCM shows that the Atlantic streamer flows along the edge of the polar vortex. The Atlantic streamer turns southward at an erosion region of the polar vortex located above the Caspian Sea. The spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapour indicates a filament outgoing from this erosion region. The Atlantic streamer, the polar vortex erosion region and the water vapour filament belong to the process of planetary wave breaking in the so-called surf zone of the northern midlatitude winter stratosphere.

  19. Involvement of Fenton chemistry in rice straw degradation by the lignocellulolytic bacterium Pantoea ananatis Sd-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiangshan; Zhang, Keke; Huang, Mei; Hector, Stanton B; Liu, Bin; Tong, Chunyi; Liu, Qian; Zeng, Jiarui; Gao, Yan; Xu, Ting; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xuanming; Zhu, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulolytic bacteria have revealed to be a promising source for biofuel production, yet the underlying mechanisms are still worth exploring. Our previous study inferred that the highly efficient lignocellulose degradation by bacterium Pantoea ananatis Sd-1 might involve Fenton chemistry (Fe 2+  + H 2 O 2  + H +  → Fe 3+  + OH· + H 2 O), similar to that of white-rot and brown-rot fungi. The aim of this work is to investigate the existence of this Fenton-based oxidation mechanism in the rice straw degradation process of P. ananatis Sd-1. After 3 days incubation of unpretreated rice straw with P. ananatis Sd-1, the percentage in weight reduction of rice straw as well as its cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin components reached 46.7, 43.1, 42.9, and 37.9 %, respectively. The addition of different hydroxyl radical scavengers resulted in a significant decline ( P  Fenton reagent treatment. In addition to the increased total iron ion concentration throughout the rice straw decomposition process, the Fe 3+ -reducing capacity of P. ananatis Sd-1 was induced by rice straw and predominantly contributed by aromatic compounds metabolites. The transcript levels of the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase gene related to hydrogen peroxide production were significantly up-regulated (at least P  Fenton-like reactions. Our results confirmed the Fenton chemistry-assisted degradation model in P. ananatis Sd-1. We are among the first to show that a Fenton-based oxidation mechanism exists in a bacteria degradation system, which provides a new perspective for how natural plant biomass is decomposed by bacteria. This degradative system may offer an alternative approach to the fungi system for lignocellulosic biofuels production.

  20. Test characteristics of two rapid antigen detection tests (SD FK50 and SD FK60 for the diagnosis of malaria in returned travellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Esbroeck Marjan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two malaria rapid diagnostic tests were evaluated in a travel clinic setting: the SD FK50 Malaria Ag Plasmodium falciparum test (a two-band test and the SD FK60 Malaria Ag P. falciparum/Pan test (a three-band test. Methods A panel of stored whole blood samples (n = 452 and n = 614 for FK50 and FK60, respectively from returned travellers was used. The reference method was microscopy with PCR in case of discordant results. Results For both tests, overall sensitivity for the detection of P. falciparum was 93.5%, reaching 97.6% and 100% at parasite densities above 100 and 1,000/μl respectively. Overall sensitivities for Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae for the FK60 test were 87.5%, 76.3% and 45.2%, but they reached 92.6% and 90.5% for P. vivax and P. ovale at parasite densities above 500/μl. Specificities were above 95% for all species and both tests when corrected by PCR, with visible histidine-rich protein-2 lines for P. malariae (n = 3 and P. vivax and P. ovale (1 sample each. Line intensities were reproducible and correlated to parasite densities. The FK60 tests provided clues to estimate parasite densities for P. falciparum below or above 1,000/μl. Conclusion Both the FK50 and FK60 performed well for the diagnosis of P. falciparum in the present setting, and the FK60 for the diagnosis of P. vivax and P. ovale at parasite densities > 500/μl. The potential use of the FK60 as a semi-quantitative estimation of parasite density needs to be further explored.

  1. Short Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds...

  2. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  3. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  4. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: vani_chem@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.

  5. Short communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Vonk, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy veal calves (4-6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  6. A study on the performance enhancement of low-temperature solar applications : Daylighting and Adsorption Desalination System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeong Min

    2011-02-01

    Thermal applications of solar energy are categorized by low, medium and high temperature. The present study has explored two major applications of solar energy widely researched and practiced these days. Of these, one deals with the utilization of solar energy for lighting in buildings, which is responsible for a great portion of electricity consumption, especially, for office and public buildings. Rapid improvements in lighting technology harnessing solar energy (daylight) have greatly contributed to radically reduce its consumption levels - and thereby reduce CO 2 emissions and cost. The other case considered here for solar utilization is so-called solar desalination using adsorbents (silica gels). This technology utilizes a silica gel adsorbent (desiccant) as a medium between an evaporator and a condenser to reject and facilitate latent heat of vaporization. Vapour is adsorbed and desorbed between evaporation and condensation phases. 1. Daylighting simulation A lighting upgrade is an obvious step toward improving a building's energy consumption, which could be easily assessed by using computer simulations. The present study has carried out a series of computer simulations for a lightless space as well as an actual classroom (in Jeju National University) when sun pipe systems are installed. They were first modeled by ECOTECT before RADIANCE was called in to conduct lighting analysis. Simulations were performed for equinoxes and solstices when the sun is at its highest altitude, i.e. at noon (12 PM). A lightless space and classroom of the same dimensions revealed the effectiveness of sun pipe systems to improve indoor lighting conditions throughout the year. 2. Development of adsorption desalination system utilizing silica-gel Some major components of an adsorption desalination system were designed and fabricated to assess its desalination efficiency when packs of silica-gel were used at different operating conditions. The amount of fresh water yield was studied

  7. A study on the performance enhancement of low-temperature solar applications : Daylighting and Adsorption Desalination System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong Min

    2011-02-15

    Thermal applications of solar energy are categorized by low, medium and high temperature. The present study has explored two major applications of solar energy widely researched and practiced these days. Of these, one deals with the utilization of solar energy for lighting in buildings, which is responsible for a great portion of electricity consumption, especially, for office and public buildings. Rapid improvements in lighting technology harnessing solar energy (daylight) have greatly contributed to radically reduce its consumption levels - and thereby reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and cost. The other case considered here for solar utilization is so-called solar desalination using adsorbents (silica gels). This technology utilizes a silica gel adsorbent (desiccant) as a medium between an evaporator and a condenser to reject and facilitate latent heat of vaporization. Vapour is adsorbed and desorbed between evaporation and condensation phases. 1. Daylighting simulation A lighting upgrade is an obvious step toward improving a building's energy consumption, which could be easily assessed by using computer simulations. The present study has carried out a series of computer simulations for a lightless space as well as an actual classroom (in Jeju National University) when sun pipe systems are installed. They were first modeled by ECOTECT before RADIANCE was called in to conduct lighting analysis. Simulations were performed for equinoxes and solstices when the sun is at its highest altitude, i.e. at noon (12 PM). A lightless space and classroom of the same dimensions revealed the effectiveness of sun pipe systems to improve indoor lighting conditions throughout the year. 2. Development of adsorption desalination system utilizing silica-gel Some major components of an adsorption desalination system were designed and fabricated to assess its desalination efficiency when packs of silica-gel were used at different operating conditions. The amount of fresh water yield was

  8. A modified model for estimation of daylight factor for skylight integrated with dome roof structure of mud-house in New Delhi (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chel, Arvind; Tiwari, G.N.; Singh, H.N. [Centre for Energy Studies (CES), Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2010-10-15

    The daylight factor model given by Charted Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) was modified in this paper to incorporate time variations with respect to zenith angle ({theta}{sub z}) and vertical height (h) of working surface above ground surface which was normalized with central height (H) of skylight dome. The modified model contains constant exponents which are determined using linear regression analysis based on hourly experimental data of inside and outside illuminance for each month of the year 2007-2008. The prediction of modified model is found in good agreement with experimental observed inside illuminance data on the basis of values of root mean square percentage error (e) and correlation coefficient (r). The annual average daylight factor values for big and small dome skylight rooms are determined as 2.3% and 4.4% respectively. The energy saving potential of skylight rooms for selected climatic locations in India is also presented in this paper. (author)

  9. Workshop - Solar cells and daylight. Solar cell house. House building with integrated solar cell systems; Workshop - Solceller og dagslys. Solcellehus. Boligbyggeri med integrerede solcelleanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Mio; Hansen, Ellen Kathrine

    2005-04-15

    The workshop 'Solar cells and daylight' at Aarhus School of Architecture aimed at studying and developing architectural potentials of integrating solar cell systems in building components for future house building. The aim of the process was to stress that technical conditions such as energy technological component design might work as central points of support in the future shaping and organisation of qualitative and functional design of houses. (BA)

  10. Critical current oscillations in S/F heterostructures in the presence of s-d scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedyayev, A.V.; Ryzhanova, N.V.; Pugach, N.G.

    2006-01-01

    Josephson current is investigated in the superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor junction. It was shown that the current exhibited damping oscillations as a function of the ferromagnetic layer thickness. Previous theories based on Usadel or Eilenberger equations have predicted that the damping length and oscillation period divided by 2π were the same for weak ferromagnetic spacer. This contradicts past experiments. A new calculation of the Josephson current is proposed. The Gorkov equations are solved taking into account s-d scattering in ferromagnet. It is shown that the oscillation period depends only on the exchange magnetic field in the spacer, whereas the damping length is connected to the ferromagnetic mean free path. The concordance with the former experiment allows one to conclude that s-d scattering as a pair-breaking mechanism plays a significant role in the proximity effect in S/F heterostructures

  11. Complex dynamics of an archetypal self-excited SD oscillator driven by moving belt friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhi-Xin; Cao Qing-Jie; Alain, Léger

    2016-01-01

    We propose an archetypal self-excited system driven by moving belt friction, which is constructed with the smooth and discontinuous (SD) oscillator proposed by the Cao et al. and the classical moving belt. The moving belt friction is modeled as the Coulomb friction to formulate the mathematical model of the proposed self-excited SD oscillator. The equilibrium states of the unperturbed system are obtained to show the complex equilibrium bifurcations. Phase portraits are depicted to present the hyperbolic structure transition, the multiple stick regions, and the friction-induced asymmetry phenomena. The numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the friction-induced vibration of multiple stick-slip phenomena and the stick-slip chaos in the perturbed self-excited system. The results presented here provide an opportunity for us to get insight into the mechanism of the complex friction-induced nonlinear dynamics in mechanical engineering and geography. (paper)

  12. Pengembangan Instrumen Penilaian Mapel Sains melalui Pendekatan Keterampilan Proses Sains SD/MI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Arif

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penulisan artikel ini bertujuan untuk memberikan format pengembangan intrumen penilaian keterampilan proses sains SD yang masih menjadi problematika untuk menentukan pengembangan instrumen. Di samping itu, artikel ini ditulis untuk mengetahui karakteristik dan beberpa prosedur pelaksanaan penilaian proses sains SD dengan memberikan format pengembangan instrumen penialaian proses sains yang meliputi penyusunan rencana penelitian, penyusunan kisi-kisi, pembuatan soal sampai pada penganalisian butir soal. Konsep dasar penilaian yang perlu ditekankan adalah keefektivan instrumen penilaian, yang terdiri dari tiga unsur utama yakni valid (validity, reliabel (reliability, dan praktis (practicality. Berdasarkan tujuan dan perbedaan waktu pelaksanaanya, terdapat tiga jenis bentuk penilaian proses sains pada siswa Sekolah Dasar: Penilaian Diagnostik, Penilaian formatif dan Penilaian sumatif. Tes akan dianalisis secara kualitatif baik dari segi materi, konstruksi maupun bahasa. Analisis secara kuantitatif dengan pendekatan teori tes klasik yakni dengan Iteman dan analisis secara kuantitatif menggunakan pendekatan teori tes modern yakni program Bigstep.

  13. PELAKSANAAN PROGRAM PERILAKU HIDUP BERSIH DAN SEHAT (PUBS DI SD NEGERI 001 TANJUNG BALAI KARIMUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fivi Melva Diana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Laporan Tahunan Tahun 2011 Dinas kesehatan Kabupaten Karimun, sekolah yang telah melaksanakan PHBS hanya 22,5% dengan target 65% sedangkan target nasional intitusi pendidikan yang melaksanakanPHBS adalah 70% ditahun 2014. Rendahnya cakupan ini berdampak juga terhadap tingginya angka kesakitan yang berhubungan dengan penyakit yang berorientasi lingkungan dan perilaku. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui hubungan sikap, pengetahuan dan peran guru dengan pelaksanaan PHBS di SD negeri 001 Tanjung Balai Karimun Tahun 2013. Desain Crossectional Study, populasi adalah seluruh murid kelas IV, V dan IV, sedangkan sampel sebanyak 64 orang dan dibagi secara proporsionaluntuk masing-masingkelas. Data dikumpulkan melalui kuesioner, diolah dengan uji Chi-square. Darihasil uji statistik terdapat hubunganbermakna antara pengetahuan, dan peran guru dengan pelaksanan program PHBS pada anak sekolah di SD Negeri 001 Tanjung Balai Karimun Tahun 2013 (p>0,05.Disarankan untuk meningkatan pengetahuan melalui pelatihan, penyuluhan dan memperbanyak mediapromosi seperti poster, leaflet dll.

  14. Spectral analysis of the He-enriched sdO-star HD 127493

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, Matti; Latour, Marilyn; Heber, Ulrich

    2018-02-01

    The bright sdO star HD127493 is known to be of mixed H/He composition and excellent archival spectra covering both optical and ultraviolet ranges are available. UV spectra play a key role as they give access to many chemical species that do not show spectral lines in the optical, such as iron and nickel. This encouraged the quantitative spectral analysis of this prototypical mixed H/He composition sdO star. We determined atmospheric parameters for HD127493 in addition to the abundance of C, N, O, Si, S, Fe, and Ni in the atmosphere using non-LTE model atmospheres calculated with TLUSTY/SYNSPEC. A comparison between the parallax distance measured by Hipparcos and the derived spectroscopic distance indicate that the derived atmospheric parameters are realistic. From our metal abundance analysis, we find a strong CNO signature and enrichment in iron and nickel.

  15. Daylight photocatalysis performance of biomorphic CeO2 hollow fibers prepared with lens cleaning paper as biotemplate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Junchao; Chen, Feng; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Xiaobing; Chen, Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel, simple and eco-friendly approach for hierarchical, biomorphic CeO 2 hollow fibers with mesoporous tube walls is presented by using paper as template. ► The biomorphic CeO 2 fibers was composed of nanosheets with bimodal pore-size mesoporous distribution and exhibited high light-harvesting under sunlight irradiation. ► The CeO 2 microfibers biomimicking the natural plant structures have promising application for photodegradation of organic pollutants in water. -- Abstract: Hierarchical, biomorphic CeO 2 hollow fibers with mesoporous tube walls have been fabricated using lens cleaning paper as biotemplates. After sintered at 550 °C in air, the cellulosic fibers of paper were converted into micro-tubes composing of CeO 2 crystallites with grain size about 8 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the CeO 2 fibers was evaluated by photodegradation efficiency of methylene blue in aqueous solution under daylight irradiation. The characterized results show that the CeO 2 fibers faithfully replicated micro-fibrous structure derived from original template and possessed dramatic enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with bulk CeO 2 . This simple biotemplate method provides a cost-effective and eco-friendly route to obtain high performance photocatalysts.

  16. Daylight methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy versus ingenol mebutate for the treatment of actinic keratoses: an intraindividual comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Giovanni; Fai, Dario; Fai, Carlotta; Mavilia, Luciano; Mercuri, Santo R

    2016-05-01

    Daylight-photodynamic therapy (D-PDT) and ingenol mebutate (IM) are novel therapies directed to actinic keratoses (AK). The purpose of our study was to compare effectiveness, tolerability, cosmetic outcome and patient preference of D-PDT versus IM in the treatment of grade I and II AK. Twenty-seven patients with AK on the face or scalp were enrolled. Each patient received, in a 25 cm(2) target area, D-PDT on right side and IM on left side. Overall 323 AK were treated. Both target areas achieved complete response in 40.47% of the cases and average AK clearance rate was similar for D-PDT and IM (p=0.74). In D-PDT areas mean grade II AK clearance rate was lower compared with that of grade I AK (p=0.015). In IM areas grade I and II AK average clearance rates were similar (p=0.28). At week 1 and month 1, mean local skin responses (LSR) score were higher in areas treated with IM. IM areas showed more severe pain and cosmetic sequelae. D-PDT had similar effectiveness to IM, even if IM demonstrated higher grade II AK clearance rate. Tolerability profile was superior for D-PDT in terms of LSR and pain. D-PDT was more cosmetically acceptable. Patients preferred D-PDT to IM in most cases. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Daylight photocatalysis performance of biomorphic CeO{sub 2} hollow fibers prepared with lens cleaning paper as biotemplate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Junchao; Chen, Feng [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, 212013 Zhenjiang (China); Wang, Fang; Zhao, Xiaobing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Changzhou (China); Chen, Zhigang, E-mail: ziyou1900@gmail.com [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, 212013 Zhenjiang (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Environment Functional Materials, 215009 Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); State Key laboratory of Crystal Material, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► A novel, simple and eco-friendly approach for hierarchical, biomorphic CeO{sub 2} hollow fibers with mesoporous tube walls is presented by using paper as template. ► The biomorphic CeO{sub 2} fibers was composed of nanosheets with bimodal pore-size mesoporous distribution and exhibited high light-harvesting under sunlight irradiation. ► The CeO{sub 2} microfibers biomimicking the natural plant structures have promising application for photodegradation of organic pollutants in water. -- Abstract: Hierarchical, biomorphic CeO{sub 2} hollow fibers with mesoporous tube walls have been fabricated using lens cleaning paper as biotemplates. After sintered at 550 °C in air, the cellulosic fibers of paper were converted into micro-tubes composing of CeO{sub 2} crystallites with grain size about 8 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the CeO{sub 2} fibers was evaluated by photodegradation efficiency of methylene blue in aqueous solution under daylight irradiation. The characterized results show that the CeO{sub 2} fibers faithfully replicated micro-fibrous structure derived from original template and possessed dramatic enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with bulk CeO{sub 2}. This simple biotemplate method provides a cost-effective and eco-friendly route to obtain high performance photocatalysts.

  18. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Short Communication. QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural ...

  19. Rapid microwave-assisted nonaqueous synthesis and growth mechanism of AgCl/Ag, and its daylight-driven plasmonic photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Lizhi

    2011-03-21

    We report on a rapid microwave-assisted nonaqueous synthesis and the growth mechanism of AgCl/Ag with controlled size and shape. By rationally varying the reaction temperature and the microwave irradiation time, we achieved the transformation of nanocubes to rounded triangular pyramids by a combined process of "oriented attachment" and Ostwald ripening. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) properties of the as-prepared AgCl/Ag have been found to be somewhat dependent on the size, morphology, and composition. The as-prepared AgCl/Ag exhibits high photocatalytic activity and good reusability for decomposing organic pollutants (such as methyl orange (MO), rhodamine B (RhB), and pentachlorophenol (PCP)) under indoor artificial daylight illumination (ca. 1 mW cm(-2)). The AgCl/Ag has also been found to display a superior ability to harvest diffuse indoor daylight (ca. 5 mW cm(-2)), and could complete the degradation of 10 mg  L(-1) MO within 15 min. Experiments involving the trapping of active species have shown that the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in the AgCl/Ag system may proceed through direct hole transfer. This study has revealed that plasmonic daylight photocatalysis may open a new frontier for indoor pollutant control around the clock under fluorescent lamp illumination. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Assessment of building facade performance in terms of daylighting and the associated energy consumption in architectural spaces: Vertical and horizontal shading devices for southern exposure facades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzoubi, Hussain H.; Al-Zoubi, Amneh H. [Department of Architecture, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)

    2010-08-15

    This paper examines the effect of vertical and horizontal shading devices on the quality of daylight in buildings and the associated energy saving. Excessive daylight in architectural spaces contributes negatively to the energy consumption in buildings. Blinds and shading devices are good solutions to attenuate the surplus amount of daylight in spaces. Accordingly, this study evaluates the effect of shading devices on the amount of light flux and the associated solar energy in buildings. It estimates the energy consumption attributed to lighting spaces for three common positions of shading devices. Computer simulation strategy was undertaken to correlate the illuminance level in spaces with room geometry and architectural shading elements. The Holophane model for lighting calculations was used to estimate the average illuminance level on workplane and correlate it with the expected saving energy in buildings. The study concluded that there is an optimal orientation for shading devices that keeps the internal illuminance level within the acceptable range with minimum amount of solar heat gain. (author)

  1. Gene Profiling in Late Blight Resistance in Potato Genotype SD20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Late blight caused by the oomycete fungus Phytophthora infestans (Pi is the most serious obstacle to potato (Solanum tuberosum production in the world. A super race isolate, CN152, which was identified from Sichuan Province, China, could overcome nearly all known late blight resistance genes and caused serious damage in China. The potato genotype SD20 was verified to be highly resistant to CN152; however, the molecular regulation network underlying late blight resistance pathway remains unclear in SD20. Here, we performed a time-course experiment to systematically profile the late blight resistance response genes using RNA-sequencing in SD20. We identified 3354 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, which mainly encoded transcription factors and protein kinases, and also included four NBS-LRR genes. The late blight responsive genes showed time-point-specific induction/repression. Multi-signaling pathways of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene signaling pathways involved in resistance and defense against Pi in SD20. Gene Ontology and KEGG analyses indicated that the DEGs were significantly enriched in metabolic process, protein serine/threonine kinase activity, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Forty-three DEGs were involved in immune response, of which 19 were enriched in hypersensitive response reaction, which could play an important role in broad-spectrum resistance to Pi infection. Experimental verification confirmed the induced expression of the responsive genes in the late blight resistance signaling pathway, such as WRKY, ERF, MAPK, and NBS-LRR family genes. Our results provided valuable information for understanding late blight resistance mechanism of potato.

  2. Inversion for Eigenvalues and Modes Using Sierra-SD and ROL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aquino, Wilkins [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ridzal, Denis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kouri, Drew Philip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In this report we formulate eigenvalue-based methods for model calibration using a PDE-constrained optimization framework. We derive the abstract optimization operators from first principles and implement these methods using Sierra-SD and the Rapid Optimization Library (ROL). To demon- strate this approach, we use experimental measurements and an inverse solution to compute the joint and elastic foam properties of a low-fidelity unit (LFU) model.

  3. Semi-automatic geographic atrophy segmentation for SD-OCT images

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qiang; de Sisternes, Luis; Leng, Theodore; Zheng, Luoluo; Kutzscher, Lauren; Rubin, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Geographic atrophy (GA) is a condition that is associated with retinal thinning and loss of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer. It appears in advanced stages of non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and can lead to vision loss. We present a semi-automated GA segmentation algorithm for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images. The method first identifies and segments a surface between the RPE and the choroid to generate retinal projection images in wh...

  4. The threshold anomaly in the interaction of s-d shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilwes, B.

    1990-01-01

    The energy dependence of the potential near the Coulomb barrier is studied by precise measurements of elastic scattering and quasi elastic reactions between s-d shell nuclei. The analyses with semi-microscopic (M3Y-folding model) and microscopic (closure approximation model) potentials allow us to demonstrate the generality of the threshold anomaly and the ability of these models to well reproduce the experimental data

  5. PERAN ORANG TUA TERADAP PRESTASI BELAJAR SISWA SD AL-FURQAN JEMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan Rofi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study : (1 to know how far parents’ role student learning achievement at Al-furqan Jember, (2 how to correlation between parent of student and school at SD Al-Furqan Jember. This study was done at SD Al-Furqan Jember, by using qualitative approach. Data collecting technique was done by : (1 deep interview, (2 documentation. While checking up data validity was done by cross check with triangulation technique and colleagues discussion. Data analysis was done by (1 data reduction, (2 data presentation, (3 withdrawal of conclusion. From data analysis was found that parent has so central to student learning achievement, because education in school is still not enough increase student learning achievement. With the parents’ role so not just teacher wo strive to increase student learning achievement however parent does advising to their child by join the course. While relation between student old fellow with school intertwin intensive communications with meeting of pupil sponsor mothers in majelis ta’lim that conducted by institution of Al-Furqan Jember. From all data and the result of research finding is found that parents’ role is so necessary to student learning achievement of SD Al-Furqan Jember and relation among student old fellow with school is very good and communicative. As for researcher suggestion is school have to be more improve role of old fellow to student learning process, in order to student achievement progressively mount.       Key word : Parent, learning achievement

  6. IMPLEMENTASI KEPEMIMPINAN TRANSFORMASIONAL KEPALA SEKOLAH DALAM MENINGKATKAN MUTU SEKOLAH DI SD KANISIUS SENGKAN KABUPATEN SLEMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukiman Tukiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkapkan implementasi kepemimpinan transformasional kepala sekolah dalam meningkatkan mutu sekolah SD Kanisius Sengkan, Kabupaten Sleman. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif dengan jenis penelitian studi kasus. Pengumpulan data menggunakan metode kajian dokumen, observasi, dan wawancara. Analisis data menggunakan analisis model interaktif dari Miles dan Huberman yang meliputi empat tahap analisis yaitu: pengumpulan data, reduksi data, penyajian data, dan penarikan kesimpulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kepemimpinan transformasional kepala sekolah SD Kanisius Sengkan mampu menciptakan perubahan dan membawa SD Kanisius mencapai prestasi yang baik. Kepala sekolah menjadi tokoh panutan yang dihormati, dihargai, dan dipercaya. Kepala sekolah mampu membangun semangat kebersamaan dan kedisiplinan serta memotivasi para guru dan karyawan untuk bekerja secara optimal. Kepala sekolah berani melakukan perubahan melalui tindakan-tindakan yang kreatif dan inovatif. Akhirnya kepala sekolah mampu membangun kesadaran berorganisasi pada para guru dan karyawan dengan mengembangkan sikap rasa memiliki dan rasa bertanggung jawab untuk meraih prestasi setinggi-tingginya.Kata kunci: kepala sekolah, kepemimpian transformasional, mutu sekolah.

  7. Fragmentation of stretched spin strength in N=Z sd-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.A.; Bloom, S.D.; Petrovich, F.; Philpott, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Calculations have been performed to explore the effect of configuration mixing in a large basis on the fragmentation of ''stretched'' M6 strength in the sd-shell nuclei 20 Ne, 24 Mg, 28 Si, 32 S, and 36 Ar. This work elaborates on results for 28 Si given previously, extends those calculations to neighboring N=Z nuclei with the same basis restriction (one particle in the 1f 7/2 orbit and up to four particles in the 1d 3/2 orbit) used in that earlier paper, and examines all self-conjugate sd-shell nuclei in a basis with one particle in the 1f 7/2 orbit and unrestricted occupancy of the sd-shell orbits. It is found that configuration mixing in a large basis reproduces interesting features of the spectrum for 28 Si and 32 S and gives an improved description of other properties of the observed 6 - states, but fails to describe the observed spectrum in 24 Mg. Emphasis is placed on the location of additional observable fragments of the M6 response

  8. Importance of prumycin produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SD-32 in biocontrol against cucumber powdery mildew disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keijitsu; Fukuda, Mutsumi; Amaki, Yusuke; Sakaguchi, Takatoshi; Inai, Koji; Ishihara, Atsushi; Nakajima, Hiromitsu

    2017-12-01

    Powdery mildew disease of cucurbits is caused mainly by Podosphaera fusca, which is one of the most important limiting factors in cucurbit production worldwide. Previously we reported that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens biocontrol strain SD-32 produces C 17 bacillomycin D and [Ile 2002]surfactin, and that these metabolites play important roles in SD-32's biocontrol over cucumber gray mold disease. Our further investigation demonstrated that the culture broth and its supernatant suppressed cucumber powdery mildew disease in greenhouse experiments. However, the active principle(s) remained unknown. The active compound was isolated from the culture supernatant after anti-powdery mildew disease activity-guided purification and identified as prumycin. Prumycin significantly suppressed the disease, whereas bacillomycin D and [Ile 2002]surfactin did not. Prumycin did not induce the expression of plant defense genes (PR1a and VSP1), suggesting that it does not act via plant defense response. Light microscopic observations of prumycin-treated cucumber cotyledon suggested that prumycin inhibits the conidial germination of P. fusca. This study demonstrates that prumycin is a major factor in SD-32's suppression of cucumber powdery mildew disease. Our findings shed light for the first time on prumycin's role in biocontrol by Bacillus against this disease. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. The Traffic Signal Acquisition System Based on GPS and SD Card Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Chang-yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In terms of the issues where traffic lights’ positions and traffic status information cannot be managed automatically,in this system,STC12C5A60S2 microcontroller can be used as the master chip in conjunction with the GPS position module,Neo-5Q. The wireless transceiver module,PT2262 /2272 and the portable installing SD card are used to design a new type of real-time information acquisition solution for positions of traffic lights and signal status. And the system can determine the traffic lights’ positions and the process of lighting in a real time. Then the data will be stored in SD card by the SD card module. Furthermore,the equipment can be implemented on existing facilities with a simple circuit. According to the result of experiments,the system contains a convenient storage,works in a real time and it is also advisable to help with the data reading and analysis. Thus, implementation of the system is of great significance to acquire and analyze the traffic status information in recent times.

  10. Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Mohammad Saleh; Lee, Kyungmoo; Niemeijer, Meindert; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Kwon, Young H.; Garvin, Mona K.

    2013-03-01

    Glaucoma is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One important structural parameter for the diagnosis and management of glaucoma is the cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), which tends to become larger as glaucoma progresses. While approaches exist for segmenting the optic disc and cup within fundus photographs, and more recently, within spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes, no approaches have been reported for the simultaneous segmentation of these structures within both modalities combined. In this work, a multimodal pixel-classification approach for the segmentation of the optic disc and cup within fundus photographs and SD-OCT volumes is presented. In particular, after segmentation of other important structures (such as the retinal layers and retinal blood vessels) and fundus-to-SD-OCT image registration, features are extracted from both modalities and a k-nearest-neighbor classification approach is used to classify each pixel as cup, rim, or background. The approach is evaluated on 70 multimodal image pairs from 35 subjects in a leave-10%-out fashion (by subject). A significant improvement in classification accuracy is obtained using the multimodal approach over that obtained from the corresponding unimodal approach (97.8% versus 95.2%; p < 0:05; paired t-test).

  11. PENTINGNYA PENDIDIKAN ANTI KEKERASAN BAGI ANAK SD DALAM MEWUJUDKAN WARGA NEGARA YANG BAIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit dk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kekerasan  yang terjadi di Indonesia dari hari ke sehari angkanya semakin meningkat, kekerasan itu terjadi terhadap perempuan, anak-anak,  dan kekerasan  biasanya  lebih  banyak dalam rumah tangga (KDRT. Data yang dilansir Komnas Perempuan paska diundangkan UU-PKDRT tahun 2004 menunjukkan angka yang sangat memprihatinkan. Oleh karena itu masalah  kekerasan terhadap istri (KTI  tahun 2004 mencapai 1.782 kasus, sedang tahun 2005 terdapat 4.889 kasus, dan tahun 2007  mencapai 17.772 kasus  dan angka tersebut cenderung meningkat (Kedaulatan Rakyat 29 Nov. 2008; 1. Dalam peringatan 16 hari anti kekerasan terhadap perempuan yang dimulai tanggal 25 November 2008 sampai dengan 10 Desember 2008, hari AIDS 1 Desember dan hari Hak Azasi Manusia (HAM  jatuh  pada tanggal 10 Desember masih terdapat kekerasan masif,  dan agaknya bangsa ini perlu meratifikasi kembali pelbagai kekerasan yang terjadi di Indonesia. Kekerasan virtual juga disuguhkan di layar TV melalui film anak-anak seperti Naruto, Avatar dan media elektronika melalui komputer, geme onliene dan tersosialisasi pada anak-anak SD (Sekolah Dasar.  Akibatnya anak-anak SD akrab dengan kekerasan dan mengimplementasikan dalam bentuk perilaku yang distruktif. Melalui Pendidikan anti kekerasan diharapkan dapat memberikan secercah harapan agar generasi muda khususnya anak SD menjadi warga negara yang baik, cinta damai mengasihi sesama mengabdikan diri pada anti kekerasan.   Kata Kunci: Pendididikan, Kekerasan, Sekolah Dasar.

  12. PENGGUNAAN MEDIA ILUSTRASI POP-UP SEJARAH DALAM PEMBELAJARAN IPS DI SD NEGERI BATURSARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulita Dewi Purmintasari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims: (1to know the process of learning social science in SD Negeri Batursari, (2 to know the use of illustration pop-up media in relieve the teacher to foster student‟s understanding toward the social science subject. This study was conducted in SD Negeri Batursari by using qualitative research strategies. The technique in collecting data were interview, direct observation, questionnaires and research document. The data validated by using triangulation researcher, theoretical and methodological. The technique using data collection, data reduction, and data presentation and conclusion/ verification. The result showed that fourth and rade students SD Negeri Batursari very anthusiastic in participating learning social science, students were formed into small groups and students talk to each other discussing visula messages in pop-up media. Illustration pop-up media is very helpful the teacher inleraning social science, it can be seen when students most easily to understand the material by looking at the illustration in the material. The syudents helped with the media as if the were in the illustration. Keywords: Pop-Up Media, Social Science Learning

  13. Penerapan Model Pembelajaran TPS Untuk Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar IPA Siswa Kelas V SD No 1 Mengwitani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I W Daniel Winantara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui peningkatan hasil belajar IPA siswa kelas V SD No. 1 Mengwitani setelah diterapkannya model pembelajaran think pair share (TPS. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian tindakan kelas yang dilakukan dalam dua siklus. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas V yang berjumlah 32 orang. Data penelitian ini tentang hasil belajar yang dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan metode tes. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan statistik kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya peningkatan terhadap hasil belajar IPA siswa kelas V SD No. 1 Mengwitani. Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan hasil penelitian yang diperoleh yaitu persentase rata-rata hasil belajar pada siklus I sebesar 75,31% yang berada pada kategori sedang dan pada siklus II menjadi 80,15% yang berada pada kategori tinggi. Dengan ketuntasan belajar siswa pada siklus I sebesar 65,62% dan pada siklus II mencapai 87,5%. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian tersebut dapat disimpulkan penerapan model pembelajaran think pair share dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar IPA siswa kelas V SD No. 1 Mengwitani.

  14. Ultra-Widefield Steering-Based SD-OCT Imaging of the Retinal Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Netan; Golding, John; Manry, Matthew W.; Rao, Rajesh C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features of peripheral retinal findings using an ultra-widefield (UWF) steering technique to image the retinal periphery. Design Observational study. Participants 68 patients (68 eyes) with 19 peripheral retinal features. Main Outcome Measures SD-OCT-based structural features. Methods Nineteen peripheral retinal features including: vortex vein, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), pars plana, ora serrata pearl, typical cystoid degeneration (TCD), cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, lattice and cobblestone degeneration, retinal hole, retinal tear, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), typical degenerative senile retinoschisis, peripheral laser coagulation scars, ora tooth, cryopexy scars (retinal tear and treated retinoblastoma scar), bone spicules, white without pressure, and peripheral drusen were identified by peripheral clinical examination. Near infrared (NIR) scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) images and SD-OCT of these entities were registered to UWF color photographs. Results SD-OCT resolved structural features of all peripheral findings. Dilated hyporeflective tubular structures within the choroid were observed in the vortex vein. Loss of retinal lamination, neural retinal attenuation, RPE loss or hypertrophy were seen in several entities including CHRPE, ora serrata pearl, TCD, cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, lattice and cobblestone degenerations. Hyporeflective intraretinal spaces, indicating cystoid or schitic fluid, were seen in ora serrata pearl, ora tooth, TCD, cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, retinal hole, and typical degenerative senile retinoschisis. The vitreoretinal interface, which often consisted of lamellae-like structures of the condensed cortical vitreous near or adherent to the neural retina, appeared clearly in most peripheral findings, confirming its association with many low-risk and vision-threatening pathologies

  15. Effect of internal woven roller shade and glazing on the energy and daylighting performances of an office building in the cold climate of Shillong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ramkishore; Lazarus, I.J.; Kishore, V.V.N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We simulated a number of glazing and interior roller shade alternatives. • Office room has been simulated for three window-to-wall ratios in a cold climate. • Daylighting and energy performances have been assessed for each alternative. • Maximum energy savings have been estimated in the office with a 30% glazed area. • Energy saving decreases for larger glazed area and fabric transmittance. - Abstract: The energy and visual performances of the façades are defined by many parameters including façade size, properties of glazings and shadings, and their arrangements as well as control strategies. In this study, a number of combinations of internal woven roller shades and four double glazings have been proposed and assessed in integrated manner in order to improve the energy efficiency and visual comfort in new or existing office buildings. Office rooms facing south, east, north and west have been simulated for cold climate, by varying glazed areas and proposed glazing and shading alternatives. Results have been calculated, compared and analyzed in terms of the energy consumptions, energy saving potentials, daylight autonomy, useful daylight illuminance and discomfort glare free time, for each of the combinations. Simulation results show that the choice of glazing and shading alternatives can have substantial impact on energy and visual performances of the office space. Regardless of façade orientation, the maximum energy saving is achieved for a window-to-wall ratio (WWR) of 30%. Saving potential decreases significantly for larger glazed area and for each façade orientation. For all façade orientations and glazed areas (except for 30% WWR in the north wall), a bare low-e coated double glazing (U = 1.616 W/m"2 K, SHGC = 0.209, τ_v = 0.301) is found to be the most energy efficient choice. For 30% north glazing, the energy efficiency can be maximized with a different bare low-e coated double glazing (U = 1.628 W/m"2 K, SHGC = 0.370, τ_v = 0

  16. SD-EAR: Energy Aware Routing in Software Defined Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Banerjee

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s internet-of-things (IoT environment, wireless sensor networks (WSNs have many advantages, with broad applications in different areas including environmental monitoring, maintaining security, etc. However, high energy depletion may lead to node failures in WSNs. In most WSNs, nodes deplete energy mainly because of the flooding and broadcasting of route-request (RREQ packets, which is essential for route discovery in WSNs. The present article models wireless sensor networks as software-defined wireless sensor networks (SD-WSNs where the network is divided into multiple clusters or zones, and each zone is controlled by a software-defined network (SDN controller. The SDN controller is aware of the topology of each zone, and finds out the optimum energy efficient path from any source to any destination inside the zone. For destinations outside of the zone, the SDN controller of the source zone instructs the source to send a message to all of the peripheral nodes in that zone, so that they can forward the message to the peripheral nodes in other zones, and the process goes on until a destination is found. As far as energy-efficient path selection is concerned, the SDN controller of a zone is aware of the connectivity and residual energy of each node. Therefore, it is capable of discovering an optimum energy efficient path from any source to any destination inside as well as outside of the zone of the source. Accordingly, flow tables in different routers are updated dynamically. The task of route discovery is shifted from individual nodes to controllers, and as a result, the flooding of route-requests is completely eliminated. Software-defined energy aware routing (SD-EARalso proposes an innovative sleeping strategy where exhausted nodes are allowed to go to sleep through a sleep request—sleep grant mechanism. All of these result in huge energy savings in SD-WSN, as shown in the simulation results.

  17. Color suppressed contributions to the decay modes B{sub d,s}{yields}D{sub s,d}D{sub s,d}, B{sub d,s}{yields}D{sub s,d}D{sup *}{sub s,d}, and B{sub d,s}{yields}D{sup *}{sub s,d} D{sup *}{sub s,d}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eeg, J.O. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Fajfer, S. [University of Ljubljana, Department of Physics, Ljubljana (Slovenia); J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Prapotnik, A. [J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2005-07-01

    The amplitudes for decays of the type B{sub d,s}{yields}D{sub s,d}D{sub s,d}, have no factorizable contributions, while B{sub d,s}{yields}D{sub s,d}D{sup *}{sub s,d}, and B{sub d,s}{yields}D{sup *}{sub s,d}D{sup *}{sub s,d} have relatively small factorizable contributions through the annihilation mechanism. The dominant contributions to the decay amplitudes arise from chiral loop contributions and tree level amplitudes which can be obtained in terms of soft gluon emissions forming a gluon condensate. We predict that the branching ratios for the processes anti B{sup 0}{sub d}{yields}D{sub s}{sup +}D{sub s}{sup -}, anti B{sup 0}{sub d}{yields}D{sub s}{sup +*} D{sub s}{sup -} and anti B{sup 0}{sub d}{yields}D{sub s}{sup +}D{sub s}{sup -*} are all of order (2-3) x 10{sup -4}, while anti B{sup 0}{sub s}{yields}D{sub d}{sup +}D{sub d}{sup -}, anti B{sup 0}{sub s}{yields}D{sub d}{sup +*}D{sub d}{sup -} and anti B{sup 0}{sub s}{yields}D{sub d}{sup +}D{sub d}{sup -*} are of order (4-7) x 10{sup -3}. We obtain branching ratios for two D{sup *}'s in the final state of order two times bigger. (orig.)

  18. The NFI TOKAI SD System - management of the capabilities of operators in fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, T.

    2008-01-01

    Since the JCO criticality accident occurred in 1999, even more emphasis has been placed on the management of nuclear safety in Japan. This is particularly true for the education of operators and the observance of operational procedures. Even prior to this accident, Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., NFI, regarded the education and development of skilled operators very seriously and we have developed an education system, called the SD system (Skill Development system), to assure the careful education of the operators and the improvement of their skill in order to prevent human error events. Our education system in the Tokai works, is explained. (author)

  19. KEEFEKTIFAN BUDAYA LITERASI DI SD N 3 BANJAR JAWA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN MINAT BACA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Mas Dewantara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sejauh mana keefektifan budaya literasi di SD N 3 Banjar Jawa untuk meningkatkan minat baca siswa. Metode atau teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini meliputi: wawancara, observasi, angket, dan kuisioner. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah model Miles dan Huberman, yaitu: reduksi, sajian data, dan penarikan simpulan. Dari hasil penelitian terjadi peningkatan minat baca siswa sebesar 27%. Program budaya literasi ini dikemas dengan kegiatan 15 menit membaca sebelum jam pelajaran, melaksanakan sabtu literasi, menata perpustakaan, dan menciptakan lingkungan yang kaya teks.

  20. Nitrogen Source Stabilization of Quorum Sensing in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bioaugmentation Strain SD-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Zhen; Lai, Bai-Min; Dandekar, Ajai A; Yang, Yu-Sheng; Li, Na; Yin, Jun; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2017-08-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa SD-1 is efficient at degrading aromatic compounds and can therefore contribute to the bioremediation of wastewater. P. aeruginosa uses quorum sensing (QS) to regulate the production of numerous secreted "public goods." In wastewater bioaugmentation applications, there are myriad nitrogen sources, and we queried whether various nitrogen sources impact the stabilities of both QS and the bacterial populations. In a laboratory strain of P. aeruginosa , PAO1, the absence of a nitrogen source has been shown to destabilize these populations through the emergence of QS mutant "cheaters." We tested the ability of SD-1 to grow in casein broth, a condition that requires QS for growth, when the nitrogen source with either NH 4 Cl, NaNO 3 , or NaNO 2 or with no added nitrogen source. There was great variability in susceptibility to invasion by QS mutant cheaters and, by extension, the stability of the SD-1 population. When grown with NH 4 Cl as an extra nitrogen source, no population collapse was observed; by contrast, two-thirds of cultures grown in the presence of NaNO 2 collapsed. In the populations that collapsed, the frequency of social cheaters exceeded 40%. NaNO 3 and NaNO 2 directly favor QS mutants of P. aeruginosa SD-1. Although the mechanism by which these nitrogen sources act is not clear, these data indicate that the metabolism of nitrogen can affect the stability of bacterial populations, an important observation for continuing industrial applications with this species. IMPORTANCE Bioaugmentation as a method to help remediate wastewater pollutant streams holds significant potential to enhance traditional methods of treatment. Addition of microbes that can catabolize organic pollutants can be an effective method to remove several toxic compounds. Such bioaugmented strains of bacteria have been shown to be susceptible to competition from the microbiota that are present in wastewater streams, limiting their potential effectiveness. Here, we

  1. Parity dependence in the optical potential of sd-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, J.L.; Ruiz, J.A.; Bilwes, B.; Bilwes, R.

    1989-01-01

    Elastic scattering between sd-shell nuclei differing by one, two, three and four nucleons has been measured. The oscillating pattern of the angular distributions, when it is observed, is attributed to the interference between direct elastic scattering and elastic transfer. Explicit DWBA treatment of the elastic transfer or parity dependent real potential analysis allow both a good reproduction of the data. The sign and the importance of the parity potential deduced by fitting the data are in good agreement with the predictions of microscopic calculations in the two centre shell-model

  2. Test of the fermion dynamical symmetry model microscopy in the sd shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halse, P.

    1987-01-01

    The recently formulated fermion dynamical symmetry model treats low-lying collective levels as states classified in a pseudo-orbit pseudo-spin (k-i) basis having either k = 1 and zero i seniority, or i = (3/2) and zero k seniority. The validity of this suggestion, which has not previously been subjected to a microscopic examination, is determined for even-even nuclei in the sd shell, for which the model is phenomenologically successful, by comparing these states with the eigenfunctions of a realistic Hamiltonian. Most low-lying levels are almost orthogonal to the fermion dynamical symmetry model zero seniority subspaces

  3. Holter con memorias SD y sistema experto de evaluación cardíaca

    OpenAIRE

    Pfarher, Iván; Reula, Germán; Tovorosky, Pablo; Zanin, Miguel; Caballero, Raúl M.; Maggiolo, Gustavo Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Este desarrollo se enmarca dentro de las actividades de la cátedra de Técnicas Digitales de Ingeniería en Electrónica en UTN-FRP y tiene como objeto potenciar la capacidad de diseño de los alumnos. En este caso se ha desarrollado un sistema holter utilizando memorias SD comunes en el mercado de las cámaras fotográficas implementando además un sistema ordenador de control a partir del uso de un microcontrolador con el sistema de operación y de captura embebido correspondiente para la captura, ...

  4. Development of safety function assessment trees for pressurized heavy water reactor LP/SD operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hui Chang; Chung, Chang Hyun; Kim, Ki Yong; Jee, Moon Hak; Sung, Chang Kyoung

    2003-01-01

    The objective of Configuration Risk Management Program(CRMP) is to maintain the safety level by assuring the defense-in-depth of nuclear power plant while the configurations are changed during plant operations, especially for the LP/SD. Such a safety purpose can be achieved by establishing the risk monitoring programs with both quantitative and qualitative features. Generally, the quantitative risk evaluation models, i.e., PRA models are used for the risk evaluation during full power operation, and the qualitative risk evaluation models such as safety function assessment trees are used. Through this study, safety function assessment trees were developed

  5. Modification of Iraqi Asphalt 40/50 Properties Using Saw Dust (SD and Natural Rubber Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusul l M. Darwesh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to enhance the fundamental properties for asphalt binder as those spec-ifications relate to performance of asphalt mixtures. In this paper studied the effect of add (2, 4 % SD in different sizes and (3, 5 and 7% Natural rubber latex to the straight asphalt 40/50 produced from Al-Dura refinery at 160C, it was added each additive separately and then added together to asphalt in same temperature, then tested physically and mechanically according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM, the result showed largely improvement.

  6. PENGEMBANGAN SSP TEMATIK INTEGRATIF UNTUK MEMBANGUN KARAKTER KEJUJURAN DAN KEPEDULIAN SISWA SD KELAS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hariyati Qodriyah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran berupa SSP Tematik yang dapat mengembangkan karakter siswa kelas 2 sekolah dasar, meliputi karakter kejujuran dan kepedulian. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian dan pengembangan yang terdiri dari tujuh tahap, yaitu studi pendahuluan, perencanaan, mengembangkan produk awal, uji coba awal, revisi produk utama, uji coba lapangan, dan revisi terhadap produk operasional. SSP yang dikembangkan dievaluasi oleh seorang ahli materi dan media untuk mengetahui validitasnya. Subjek uji coba berjumlah 90 siswa terdiri dari 23 siswa SD Sonosewu, Kasihan, Bantul, DIY sebagai subjek uji coba terbatas dan 33 siswa untuk kelas control dan 34 siswa untuk kelas eksperimen SD 1 Kadipiro, Kasihan, Bantul, DIY. Hasil penelitian ini berupa SSP yang meliputi: silabus, RPP, LKS, dan lembar penilaian. Hasil evaluasi dari ahli materi dan ahli media untuk menguji tingkat kevalidan SSP menyatakan bahwa SSP yang dikembangkan adalah valid dan berkategori “baik”. Hasil uji coba menunjukkan bahwa SSP yang dikembangkan dinyatakan layak serta memenuhi kriteria praktis dan efektif dalam mengembangkan karakter siswa. Pembelajaran dengan SSP yang dikembangkan mampu mengembangkan karakter kejujuran dan kepedulian. Kata Kunci: SSP, karakter jujur dan peduli   DEVELOPING THEMATIC INTEGRATIVE SSP FOR BUILDING THE CHARACTERS OF HONESTY AND CARE GRADE II STUDENT OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL Abstract This study aims to produce integrated learning sets in the form of thematic SSP that can develop the characters of honesty and care of grade II students of elementary school. This was a research and development study consisting of seven steps, i.e. preliminary study, planning, preliminary product development, preliminary tryout, main product revision, field tryout, revision of operational product, operational product revision, and revision of the final product. The developed SSP was evaluated by a science subject expert to assess

  7. Year-round daylight saving time will save more energy in India than corresponding DST or time zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, Dilip R.; SenGupta, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Many countries have experimented with daylight saving time (DST) to save energy and to align human activities more closely to the daily cycle of light and darkness. Using a novel methodology, we estimate the year-round energy savings to be obtained from advancing Indian Standard Time (IST), from the introduction of DST, and from dividing the country into two time zones. We find that the option of advancing IST consistently saves more energy than the corresponding DST option, which in turn saves more energy than the corresponding time zones option. This is because the energy benefits of advancing IST accrue for the entire year throughout the country, whereas the benefits of DST are confined to summer months and the benefits of two time zones are largely in the lower energy consuming eastern region. We recommend advancing IST by half-hour to being six hours ahead of UTC. This confers the advantages of DST and time zones without their disadvantages and is forecast to save more than 2 billion kWh of electricity every year during evening peaks that are difficult to supply. While these results are India-specific, similar exercises would be useful to many other countries. - Highlights: ► Advancing IST (YRDST) consistently saves more energy than the corresponding DST. ► DST consistently saves more energy than dividing India into two time zones. ► There are also many non-energy benefits of advancing IST. ► Results are for India; countries with DST may find it useful to consider YRDST.

  8. Organic Light-Emitting Diode with Color Tunable between Bluish-White Daylight and Orange-White Dusk Hue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yun Liao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The varying color of sunlight diurnally exhibits an important effect on circadian rhythm of living organisms. The bluish-white daylight that is suitable for work shows a color temperature as high as 9,000 K, while the homey orange-white dusk hue is as low as 2,000 K. We demonstrate in this report the feasibility of using organic light-emitting diode (OLED technology to fabricate sunlight-style illumination with a very wide color temperature range. The color temperature can be tuned from 2,300 K to 9,300 K, for example, by changing the applied voltage from 3 to 11 V for the device composing red and yellow emitters in the first emissive layer and blue emitter in the second. Unlike the prior arts, the color-temperature span can be made much wider without any additional carrier modulation layer, which should enable a more cost effective fabrication. For example, the color-temperature span is 7,000 K for the above case, while it is 1,700 K upon the incorporation of a nanoscale hole modulation layer in between the two emissive layers. The reason why the present device can effectively regulate the shifting of recombination zone is because the first emissive layer itself possesses an effective hole modulation barrier of 0.2 eV. This also explains why the incorporation of an extra hole modulation layer with a 0.7 eV barrier did not help extend the desirable color-temperature span since excessive holes may be blocked.

  9. Testing refined shell-model interactions in the sd shell: Coulomb excitation of Na26

    CERN Document Server

    Siebeck, B; Blazhev, A; Reiter, P; Altenkirch, R; Bauer, C; Butler, P A; De Witte, H; Elseviers, J; Gaffney, L P; Hess, H; Huyse, M; Kröll, T; Lutter, R; Pakarinen, J; Pietralla, N; Radeck, F; Scheck, M; Schneiders, D; Sotty, C; Van Duppen, P; Vermeulen, M; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shell-model calculations crucially depend on the residual interaction used to approximate the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Recent improvements to the empirical universal sd interaction (USD) describing nuclei within the sd shell yielded two new interactions—USDA and USDB—causing changes in the theoretical description of these nuclei. Purpose: Transition matrix elements between excited states provide an excellent probe to examine the underlying shell structure. These observables provide a stringent test for the newly derived interactions. The nucleus Na26 with 7 valence neutrons and 3 valence protons outside the doubly-magic 16O core is used as a test case. Method: A radioactive beam experiment with Na26 (T1/2=1,07s) was performed at the REX-ISOLDE facility (CERN) using Coulomb excitation at safe energies below the Coulomb barrier. Scattered particles were detected with an annular Si detector in coincidence with γ rays observed by the segmented MINIBALL array. Coulomb excitation cross sections...

  10. A framework for classification and segmentation of branch retinal artery occlusion in SD-OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingyun; Shi, Fei; Zhu, Weifang; Chen, Haoyu; Chen, Xinjian

    2016-03-01

    Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) is an ocular emergency which could lead to blindness. Quantitative analysis of BRAO region in the retina is very needed to assessment of the severity of retinal ischemia. In this paper, a fully automatic framework was proposed to classify and segment BRAO based on 3D spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first automatic 3D BRAO segmentation framework. First, a support vector machine (SVM) based classifier is designed to differentiate BRAO into acute phase and chronic phase, and the two types are segmented separately. To segment BRAO in chronic phase, a threshold-based method is proposed based on the thickness of inner retina. While for segmenting BRAO in acute phase, a two-step segmentation is performed, which includes the bayesian posterior probability based initialization and the graph-search-graph-cut based segmentation. The proposed method was tested on SD-OCT images of 23 patients (12 of acute and 11 of chronic phase) using leave-one-out strategy. The overall classification accuracy of SVM classifier was 87.0%, and the TPVF and FPVF for acute phase were 91.1%, 5.5%; for chronic phase were 90.5%, 8.7%, respectively.

  11. Geology of the USW SD-9 drill hole, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstrom, D.A.; Rautman, C.A.

    1996-10-01

    Drill hole USW SD-9 is one of several holes drilled under Site Characterization Plan Study as part of the characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which has been proposed as the potential location of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. The SD-9 drill hole is located in the northern part of the potential repository area. Quantitative and semiquantitative data are included in this report for cover recovery, rock-quality designation (RQD), lithophysal cavity abundance, and fracturing. These data are spatially variable, both within and among the major formational-level stratigraphic units. Nonwelded intervals in general exhibit higher recoveries and more intact (higher) RQD values than welded intervals. The most intact, highest-RQD materials encountered within the Topopah Spring belong to the lower 33.3 ft of the middle nonlithophysal zone. This report includes quantitative data for the framework material properties of porosity, bulk and particle density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Graphical analysis of variations in these laboratory hydrologic properties indicates first-order control of material properties by the degree of welding and the presence of zeolite minerals. Many major lithostratigraphic contacts are not well expressed in the material-property profiles; contacts of material-property units are related more to changes in the intensity of welding. Approximate in-situ saturation data of samples preserved immediately upon recovery from the hole are included in the data tabulation

  12. EFEKTIVITAS PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA PERMAINAN ULAR TANGGA SEBAGAI SARANA BELAJAR TEMATIK SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch. Chabib

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Playing by learning is a way of learning that appropriate with the characteristics of elementary school children today. Which (1 Start of critical thinking. (2 Start emerging competition between friends. (3 Having a deep curiosity. (4 Love asked and (5 Likes groups. This is supported by the results of the field observations showed that when the class is still a lot of students were busy playing and tend to be passive, when the teacher was giving a lesson. Traditional game of snakes and ladders is familiar with elementary school children. Therefore we need a through study on how to take advantage of this game help the studen learning, so it is can solve the problem of declining motivation and involvement of the student in the classroom. Bermain sambil belajar merupakan sebuah pendekatan pembelajaran yang sangat sesuai dengan karakteristik belajar anak SD saat ini, yaitu (1 mulai berpikir kritis, (2 mulai muncul persaingan antar teman, (3 mempunyai rasa ingin tahu yang mendalam, (4 suka bertanya, dan (5 suka berkelompok. Hal ini didukung dengan hasil pengamatan di lapangan yang menunjukkan bahwa ketika dikelas masih banyak siswa yang asyik bermain dan cenderung pasif, padahal guru sedang memberikan penjelasan.Permainan ular tangga merupakan permainan tradisional yang sudah akrab dengan anak SD. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan sebuah kajian yang mendalam tentang bagaimana cara memanfaatkan permainan ini dalam pembelajaran sehingga dapat mengatasi masalah tentang menurunnya motivasi dan keaktifan siswa di kelas.

  13. IMPLEMENTASI MODEL PEMBELAJARAN TWO STAY TWO STRAY DALAM PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KRITIS KELAS V SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yusuf Setia Wardana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of mathematics are to equip students with the ability to think logically, analytical, systematically, critically, and creatively, as well as the ability to cooperate. Based on observations in elementary school, there are 40% of students have not reached KKM and students have lack of critical abilities to understand math problems, and they have low activity of the study. One of models that can be applied is Two Stay Two Stray. The study used True Experimental Design with Posttest-Only Control Design. The population in this study was all fifth grade students of SD Negeri Semarang Rejosari 03. Data of critical thinking skills of the students in average on test of critical thinking skills mastery was 3.31 ≥ 2.67, it can be said to have a complete description. The conclusion is a model of Two Stay Two Stray being effective for critical thinking skills and mathematics learning outcomes of fifth grade students in SD Negeri Rejosari 03 Semarang. Keywords: two stay two stray model, critical thinking ability.

  14. Mechanical Properties Variation of B500SD High Ductility Reinforcement Regarding its Corrosion Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobo, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion effects on reinforcement become evident in the bar section reduction and in the variation of mechanical properties related to ductility. In this research work, 96 B500SD steel bars, previously subjected to different corrosion variables, have been tested. Results show that the elongation of the bars diminishes and the ratio between the maximum tensile stress and the elastic limit increases as the corrosion degree advances. These phenomena can be explained by studying the necking effect and the different steel composition through the manufacture process.

    Los efectos de la corrosión sobre las armaduras se manifiestan por la pérdida de sección y la variación de las propiedades mecánicas relacionadas con la ductilidad. En este trabajo se han ensayado a tracción 96 barras de acero B500SD que previamente se han sometido a niveles variables de corrosión. Los resultados muestran que los alargamientos de las barras disminuyen y el cociente entre la tensión máxima y el límite elástico aumenta conforme el nivel de corrosión avanza. A partir del estudio del efecto de entalla y de la distinta constitución metalográfica del acero a nivel de sección debido a su procedimiento de fabricación, se pueden explicar los fenómenos anteriores.

  15. Geology of the USW SD-9 drill hole, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstrom, D.A. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Drill hole USW SD-9 is one of several holes drilled under Site Characterization Plan Study as part of the characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which has been proposed as the potential location of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. The SD-9 drill hole is located in the northern part of the potential repository area. Quantitative and semiquantitative data are included in this report for cover recovery, rock-quality designation (RQD), lithophysal cavity abundance, and fracturing. These data are spatially variable, both within and among the major formational-level stratigraphic units. Nonwelded intervals in general exhibit higher recoveries and more intact (higher) RQD values than welded intervals. The most intact, highest-RQD materials encountered within the Topopah Spring belong to the lower 33.3 ft of the middle nonlithophysal zone. This report includes quantitative data for the framework material properties of porosity, bulk and particle density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Graphical analysis of variations in these laboratory hydrologic properties indicates first-order control of material properties by the degree of welding and the presence of zeolite minerals. Many major lithostratigraphic contacts are not well expressed in the material-property profiles; contacts of material-property units are related more to changes in the intensity of welding. Approximate in-situ saturation data of samples preserved immediately upon recovery from the hole are included in the data tabulation.

  16. Purification, characterization and anti-aging capacity of mycelia zinc polysaccharide by Lentinus edodes SD-08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqin; Wang, Cuiqin; Gao, Xia; Xu, Nuo; Lin, Lin; Zhao, Huajie; Jia, Shouhua; Jia, Le

    2015-04-09

    In the modern society, aging had been a major problem. People may rely on many medicines to delay it. However, lots of medicines were chemosynthetic, and they would do a bad side-effect on human body. Microbial sources could be used as a potential means of producing natural antioxidants. Lentinus edodes, commercial obtained in daily life, had recently become more attractive in physiological research. Zinc was now considered as a major element in assuring the correct functioning of an organism and essential for maintaining coordination of the major homeostatic networks. To investigate the bioconversion of zinc and the physiological effects of their complex (MZPS), the present studies were processed. Mycelia polysaccharides (MPS) and mycelia zinc polysaccharides (MZPS) of Lentinus edodes SD-08 were extracted by hot water leaching and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange column chromatography separately. The zinc content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The evaluation of monosaccharide compositions and proportions used gas chromatogram. The analysis of molecular weight used HPGPC chromatogram. The typical structure of polysaccharide was evaluated by IR spectrum. The antioxidant activities in vitro measured through reducing power, the scavenging effects on hydroxyl radical and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The anti-aging activities in vivo measured through the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), GSH peroxide (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA). MPS and MZPS of Lentinus edodes SD-08 were extracted and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange column chromatography separately, and four fractions (MPS-1, MPS-2, MZPS-1 and MZPS-2) were obtained. In addition, MPS composing of rhamnose, arabinose and mannose (molar proportion = 1.75:1.00:3.02) and MZPS containing rhamnose, arabinose, mannose and glucose (molar proportion = 7.19:2.26:1.00:8.39) were investigated by gas chromatography

  17. PENGEMBANGAN SSP TEMATIK-INTEGRATIF UNTUK MEMBANGUN KARAKTER DISIPLIN DAN KREATIF SISWA KELAS I SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Wahyu Setyawan

    2015-01-01

    DEVELOPING THEMATIC-INTEGRATED SSP FOR BUILDING THE CHARACTERS OF DISCIPLINE AND CREATIVE OF GRADE I STUDENT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ABSTRACT This study aims to produce integrated learning sets in the form of thematic SSP that can develop the characters of discipline and creative of grade I students of elementary school.This was a research and development study consisting of seven steps, namely: preliminary study and data collection, planning, product draft development, preliminary field tryout, revision of the tryout result, field tryout, product finalization based the field tryout result, field implementation testing, final product finalization, and dissemination. The developed SSP was evaluated by a science subject expert to assess the validity. The tryout subjects comprised 82 students consisting of 26 students of SD Baran, Pundong, Bantul, DIY in the small-scale tryout, 25 students in the control class of SD Manding Tengah, Bantul, DIY and 31 students in the experimental class of SD 1 Tulung, Bantul, DIY. The results of this study are in the form of SSP consisting of: a syllabus, lesson plans, course sheets, student worksheets, and evaluation sheets. The results of the evaluation show that the developed syllabus is good score of 47. The developed lesson plans score of 67, student course sheets score of 65, student worksheets score of 47, and assessment instruments, are very good , while the developed learning media are good score of 66. The results of the tryout show that the developed SSP otherwise meet the criteria for the practical views of teacher assessment score of 281 and a score of 730 student responses. In field trials the results obtained for the control class average pretest score of 70.8 and an average posttest score of 80.8. While the experimental class scored an average of 74.1 pretest and posttest score of 90.9. Improved control class scores of 10 and an increase of 16.8 experimental class. Teaching using developed SSP is capable of developing

  18. PENINGKATAN PENGETAHUAN ANAK SD MELALUI EDUKASI GIZI TENTANG MAKANAN JAJANAN SEHAT DAN GIZI SEIMBANG DENGAN MEDIA BUKU CERITA BERGAMBAR DI SD TIYARAN 01 DAN 03 SUKOHARJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eni purwani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There are so many snack that sold at the school that has a high risk for the health. Range from snak that consume by student have a potential occur the contamination biology or chemical that disturb the health according the long term or the short term. In generally, the seller of the snack didn’t know the food safety that they sold. And so do the student at Tiyaran 1 and 3 Elementary School didn’t really know about the healthy snack. This activity is promotif and preventif efforts, so the student can know and understanding the healthy snack in the school also can do the protection toward dangerous food material. The methode that use for this activity is giving education through the media Pictorial Story Book that has content about things that concern the snack at the school that created in the form pictorial story that simple and interesting. The purpose using media pictorial story book is to be the participant to easy undertanding the material. Beside that do the demonstration test the dangerous substance that consist of Formalin test, Borax, and the food colour that dangerous such as Methanil Yellow and Rhodamin B. This education activity can improve the elementary student’s knowledge, teacher’s, and canteen organizer’s about the healthy snack. Beside that, also improve the knowledge about the dangerous material with test the snack at the school with reagen test to detect the existency of formalin, borax, methanil yellow, rhodamin B.

  19. Sustainable building with closed cavity facades. Top energy efficiency and more daylight; Nachhaltig bauen mit Closed Cavity Fassaden. Hoechste Energieeffizienz und mehr Tageslicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf, Bernhard

    2012-08-15

    Facades have a key function within the sustainable construction since the energy conservation significantly depends on the building envelope. Beside an enhanced energy efficiency, the Green Building shall offer an improved utilization of day-lighting and comfortable indoor climatic conditions. Here, the innovative Closed Cavity Facade new standards. The former 'Poseidon building' in Frankfurt/Main (Federal Republic of Germany) and the multi-storey building of the Roche company in Basel (Switzerland) are equipped with this facade. The energy costs, operational costs as well as the maintenance costs are reduced sustainably using this closed bivalved facade.

  20. High spin structure of {sup 35}Cl and the sd-fp shell gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kshetri, Ritesh [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Saha Sarkar, M. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)]. E-mail: maitrayee.sahasarkar@saha.ac.in; Ray, Indrani [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Banerjee, P. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sarkar, S. [Department of Physics, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Raut, Rajarshi [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Goswami, A. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Chatterjee, J.M. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Chattopadhyay, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Datta Pramanik, U. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Mukherjee, A. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Dey, C.C. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bhattacharya, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Dasmahapatra, B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bhowal, Samit [Department of Physics, Surendranath Evening College, Kolkata 700009 (India); Gangopadhyay, G. [University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Datta, P. [Anandamohan College, 102/1, Raja Rammohan Sarani, Kolkata 700009 (India); Jain, H.C. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bhowmik, R.K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Muralithar, S.; Singh, R.P.; Kumar, R. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2007-01-15

    The high spin states of {sup 35}Cl have been studied by in-beam {gamma}-spectroscopy following the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 12}C({sup 28}Si,{alpha}p){sup 35}Cl at E{sub lab}=70 and 88 MeV, using the Indian National Gamma (Clover) Array (INGA). Lifetimes of six new excited states have been estimated for the first time. To understand the underlying structure of the levels and transition mechanisms, experimental results have been compared with those from the large basis cross-shell shell model calculations. Involvement of orbitals from fp shell and squeezing of the sd-fp shell gap seem to be essential for reliable reproduction of high spin states.

  1. High spin structure of 35Cl and the sd-fp shell gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, Ritesh; Saha Sarkar, M.; Ray, Indrani; Banerjee, P.; Sarkar, S.; Raut, Rajarshi; Goswami, A.; Chatterjee, J.M.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Mukherjee, A.; Dey, C.C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dasmahapatra, B.; Bhowal, Samit; Gangopadhyay, G.; Datta, P.; Jain, H.C.; Bhowmik, R.K.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R.P.; Kumar, R.

    2007-01-01

    The high spin states of 35 Cl have been studied by in-beam γ-spectroscopy following the fusion-evaporation reaction 12 C( 28 Si,αp) 35 Cl at E lab =70 and 88 MeV, using the Indian National Gamma (Clover) Array (INGA). Lifetimes of six new excited states have been estimated for the first time. To understand the underlying structure of the levels and transition mechanisms, experimental results have been compared with those from the large basis cross-shell shell model calculations. Involvement of orbitals from fp shell and squeezing of the sd-fp shell gap seem to be essential for reliable reproduction of high spin states

  2. KEEFEKTIFAN MULTIMEDIA BERBASIS KOMPUTER UNTUK PEMBELAJARAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN SOSIAL KELAS IV SD PERCOBAAN II DEPOK SLEMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Budyartati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at: (1 identifying the effecteiveness of multi media-based learning on Social Science; (2 describing the attractiveness of multi media-based learning on Social Science; which is carried out at SD Percobaan II Caturtunggal Depok Sleman Yogyakarta, term 2007/2008. The research design is pretest-posttest control group design. The data are drwan through tests which are analized quantitatively; and questionaire to measure the attractiveness of multimedia-based learning model, which will be analized qualitatavely. The treatment is carried out out by using storyboard, which is approved by experts of multimedia and teaching method. The result of the analysis shows that multi media-based learning model significantly influence the students’ achievement in Social Science. While the attractivemess of multi media-based learning relatively high, which is shown by 4.2 of average (in 1-5 scale measure.

  3. Intercomparison of natural radionuclide measurements in marine sediment sample SD-N-1/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    This intercomparison exercise was organized with the aim of providing to the participating laboratories a possibility of testing the performance of their analytical methods and to acquire basic data for establishing reference values for a number of natural radionuclides in the sediment material SD-N-1/2 from the North Sea floor. In tables are presented results expressed in mBq.g -1 on potassium, uranium isotopes, thorium-232 with the respective decay products, thorium-230, radium-226 and lead-210. Altogether 98 laboratories from 42 Member States joined this intercomparison. The results show generally good agreement, but more analytical work is needed to improve the present status of the lead-210 certification. Gamma and alpha spectroscopy were the most frequently used as the analytical techniques

  4. Source identification in acoustics and structural mechanics using Sierra/SD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Aquino, Wilkins [Duke University Durham, NC; Ross, Michael

    2013-03-01

    In this report we derive both time and frequency-domain methods for inverse identification of sources in elastodynamics and acoustics. The inverse/design problem is cast in a PDE-constrained optimization framework with efficient computation of gradients using the adjoint method. The implementation of source inversion in Sierra/SD is described, and results from both time and frequency domain source inversion are compared to actual experimental data for a weapon store used in captive carry on a military aircraft. The inverse methodology is advantageous in that it provides a method for creating ground based acoustic and vibration tests that can reduce the actual number of flight tests, and thus, saving costs and time for the program.

  5. Charge radii of magnesium isotopes by laser spectroscopy a structural study over the $sd$ shell

    CERN Multimedia

    Schug, M; Krieger, A R

    We propose to study the evolution of nuclear sizes and shapes over the magnesium chain by measuring the root-mean-square charge radii of $^{21 - 32}$Mg, essentially covering the entire $\\textit{sd}$ shell. Our goal is to detect the structural changes, which in the neutron-deficient isotopes may originate from clustering, in a way similar to neon, and on the neutron-rich side would characterize the transition to the "island of inversion". We will combine, for the first time, the sensitive $\\beta$-detection technique with traditional fluorescence spectroscopy for isotope-shift measurements and in such a way gain access to the exotic species near the ${N}$ = 8 and ${N}$ = 20 shell closures.

  6. Simulation and Optimization of One Live Pig Low-Carbon Industry Chain Using SD-RCCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuping Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The destruction of the natural environment has been drawing more and more attention. Developing low-carbon industry chains is an effective solution to the conflict between rapid economic growth and high CO2 emissions. Summarizing various traditional and new industry chain sustainable development, live pig industry was chosen as a typical industry chain to study low-carbon development using a system dynamics and random chance-constrained model (SD-RCCM. Leshan, a world natural and cultural heritage area in China, was selected as a typical city to analyze the low-carbon pig industry. Three different programs based on distribution ratios were selected to study this industry. The results showed that program 1, which considers both environmental and economic benefits, realizes sustainable development. In order to extend the pig industry chain and fully utilize pig ordure and other waste, introducing a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM and household biogas exploitation program is recommended.

  7. ECOLITERACY SISWA SD DALAM KEGIATAN PENGELOLAAN SAMPAH MELALUI GROUP INVESTIGATION BERBASIS OUTDOOR STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Karlina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to improve the student’s ecoliteracy in waste managing activities on social studies trough group investigation based outdoor study. This research is Classroom Action Research toward fourth graders have been held on two cycles. The conclusion of this research is student’s ecoliteracy cognitive aspect increases is 20%, application aspect increases is 49,6%, and attitude aspect increases is 19,4% after the two cycle action with group investigation based outdoor study. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan peningkatan ecoliteracy siswa dalam kegiatan pengelolaan sampah dalam pembelajaran IPS melalui group investigation berbasis outdoor study. Penelitian ini menerapkan jenis Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK terhadap siswa kelas IV SD yang dilaksanakan dalam dua siklus. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan adanya peningkatan ecoliteracy siswa dari aspek pengetahuan sebesar 20%, aspek aplikasi sebesar 49,6%, dan aspek sikap sebesar 19,4% setelah mengikuti dua siklus pembelajaran dengan group investigation berbasis outdoor study.

  8. An automated approach for early detection of diabetic retinopathy using SD-OCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElTanboly, Ahmed H; Palacio, Agustina; Shalaby, Ahmed M; Switala, Andrew E; Helmy, Omar; Schaal, Shlomit; El-Baz, Ayman

    2018-01-01

      This study was to demonstrate the feasibility of an automatic approach for early detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR) from SD-OCT images. These scans were prospectively collected from 200 subjects through the fovea then were automatically segmented, into 12 layers. Each layer was characterized by its thickness, tortuosity, and normalized reflectivity. 26 diabetic patients, without DR changes visible by funduscopic examination, were matched with 26 controls, according to age and sex, for purposes of statistical analysis using mixed effects ANOVA. The INL was narrower in diabetes (p = 0.14), while the NFL (p = 0.04) and IZ (p = 0.34) were thicker. Tortuosity of layers NFL through the OPL was greater in diabetes (all p diabetes. In turn, carries the promise to a reliable non-invasive diagnostic tool for early detection of DR.

  9. Penelitian tentang ukuran acuan sepatu pelajar wanita indonesia tingkat SD, SLTP dan SLTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Bandi

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was subjected to 500 Indonesia School girls from North Sumatra Province (Medan, West Java Province (Bandung, Central – Java Province (Semarang, East-Java Province (Surabaya and DKI Jaya. 100 samples of foot sizes which represented foot sizes of SD, SLTP and SLTA School girls werw taken from each province. By analyzing the data of foot sizes of the school girls, a suggestion on design of shoe lasts seritable with the shape and type of foot, fits and conform the requirements to be used as lost in shoe manufacturing could be proposed. The results of data analyse shown that : 1. The length of soles ranged from 30-35, 5 PS, the mean of which was 33 PS. 2. Instep girth ranged withim E, F, G, I.3. The foot sizes scattered between (4-17 years of age at (32-35 PS.

  10. Spectral Analysis of the sdO Standard Star Feige 34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, M.; Chayer, P.; Green, E. M.; Fontaine, G.

    2017-03-01

    We present our current work on the spectral analysis of the hot sdO star Feige 34. We combine high S/N optical spectra and fully-blanketed non-LTE model atmospheres to derive its fundamental parameters (Teff, log g) and helium abundance. Our best fits indicate Teff = 63 000 K, log g = 6.0 and log N(He)/N(H) = -1.8. We also use available ultraviolet spectra (IUE and FUSE) to measure metal abundances. We find the star to be enriched in iron and nickel by a factor of ten with respect to the solar values, while lighter elements have subsolar abundances. The FUSE spectrum suggests that the spectral lines could be broadened by rotation.

  11. Sustainable development business case report : renewable electricity generation : SD business case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This investment report is the first in a series that will be released by Sustainable Development Technology Canada as part of the SD Business Case. It focuses primarily on generating electricity from renewable energy sources and examines 4 primary technology groups or sub-sectors including wind generated electricity; solar PV generated electricity; stationary fuel cell generated electricity; and electricity generated from biological sources. Each sub-sector has been assessed in terms of its market dynamics, technology makeup and conditions, sustainability impacts, and investment risk. A selection of the leading technologies in each technology area are brought forward and rated in terms of their respective investment potential. The report first presents an overview of the SD business case plan. It defines the primary audience of the report, lists the sectors and investment categories to be assessed by the business case and provides some background information on Sustainable Development Technology Canada. The report presents the framework for data collection and analysis and an executive summary of the complete report. It then presents the results of the market assessment report for each of the 4 sectors. This includes demand, infrastructure renewal, environmental commitments, renewable energy value proposition, and future market potential. The section covering the technology assessment report discusses the various technologies and ranks them. The sustainability assessment report section provides an economic, environmental and societal assessment of each sub-sector. Risk assessment is conducted in terms of technology and non-technology related risk. Last, the report presents conclusions and investment priorities. 11 tabs., 7 figs

  12. PENERAPAN SUPERVISI KUNJUNGAN KELAS UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KINERJA GURU SD NEGERI 2 KALIMANGGIS KECAMATAN KALORAN, TEMANGGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprih Danurwati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Suprih Danurwati, 942013161. Implementation of supervision class visiting to increase teacher’s performance of SD Negeri 2 Kalimanggis District of Kaloran. Thesis. The graduatiton Program Master of Management Education Satya Wacana Christian University Salatiga. Supervisor Prof. Dr. Slameto, M.Pd. This study is to determine that through the implementation of supervision class visiting can improve the performance of teachers in the learning management. The subjects of this study are teachers in SD Negeri 2 Kalimanggis, Kaloran, Temanggung.  The procedure used in this study consists of a series of three main activities undertaken in a repeating cycle, including (a plan, (b action by observation, and (c reflection. research approach using action research methods, while the method of data collection using the study documentation, observations, questionnaires, and interviews. The results showed an increasing in the ability of teachers to prepare lesson plans and manage the learning of the first act, second, until the third act. The inference that supervision class visiting that can improve the performance of teachers in the learning management. Suggestions given to teachers, is taking  advantage of supervision activities as a source of information to improve the competence and performance, for principals use the results of this study as a reference in conducting research, while for school superintendent will use the results of this study as one of the references in activity guidance to the heads of schools and teachers to improve their performance.

  13. Culture Optimization and Amino Acid Composition of Cr-Enriched Mycelia of Pleurotus cornucopiae SD-01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Yun Meng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromium(III is an essential trace element for humans and animals. Pleutorus cornucopiae SD-01 is a nutritional and functional mushroom containing many kinds of bioactive ingredients. The aims of this work are to optimize the conditions of P. cornucopiae SD-01 cultivation with Cr enrichment in submerged culture by determining the dry cell mass, Cr content in mycelia and the rate of Cr enrichment, and to analyze the amino acid composition of Cr-enriched mycelia. The optimal medium contained (in g/L: potato 200, sucrose 25, yeast extract 4, KH2PO4 1 and MgSO4·7H2O 1. The optimum parameters of liquid culture were temperature 25 °C, cultivation time 6 days, the volume of the medium 100 mL, rotation speed 160 rpm and initial pH=6.5. Under the optimized conditions, the values of the dry cell mass, Cr content in mycelia and the rate of Cr enrichment were (6.63±0.35 g/L, (3670±211 μg/g and (12.15±1.01 % respectively, which were by (23.23±1.22, (18.19±1.06 and (45.68±2.67 % respectively, higher than those in the control. Chromium(III in Cr-enriched mycelia was mainly combined with protein and polysaccharide. The contents of total amino acids and essential amino acids in Cr-enriched mycelia were increased by (31.25±0.58 and (44.26±0.76 %, respectively.

  14. INTERVENSI ERGONOMI DALAM PEMBELAJARAN SAINS MENGURANGI KELUHAN MUSKULOSKELETAL SISWA SD 1 SANGSIT KECAMATAN SAWAN KABUPATEN BULELENG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Wijana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui peranan intervensi ergonomi dalam pembelajaran sains untuk menurunkan keluhan muskuloskeletal siswa SD. Jenis penelitian ini termasuk jenis penelitian quasi eksperimental dengan rancangan randomized pre-test and post-test control group design. Pada kelompok kontrol pembelajarannya dengan cara konvensional (tanpa intervensi ergonomi dan kelompok eksperimen dengan intervensi ergonomi. Intervensi ergonomi dalam pembelajaran sains mengacu pada pendekatan ergonomi (PE yakni gabungan antara SHIP dan TTG. Implementasi dari hal ini adalah melakukan perbaikan dan atau penataan terhadap instrumental input, environmental input dan porcess, sedangkan untuk di kelompok kontrol tidak dilakukan intervensi ergonomi, di mana kondisi instrumental input, environmental input dan process berlangsung secara konvensional. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara random. Analisis data dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji Mann-Whitney dengan taraf signifikansi 5 %. Simpulan dari hasil penelitian ini adalah (1 intervensi ergonomi dapat menurunkan keluhan muskuloskeletal siswa SD  (p < 0,05; (2 Hasil pengukuran dengan nordic body map pada kelompok kontrol terjadi keluhan pada otot pinggang (86,1%, otot pantat (86,1%, otot punggung (84,8%, otot lengan atas kiri (78,8%, otot lengan atas kanan (67,9%, otot siku kanan (78,2%, otot siku kiri (74,6%, paha kanan (76,9%, paha kiri (75,7%, otot betis kanan  (66,1%, otot betis kiri (64,2%, otot pergelangan kaki kanan (67,3%, dan otot pergelangan kaki kiri (65,5%. Dengan demikian dapat disarankan bahwa intervensi ergonomi dalam pembelajaran dengan menggunakan PE sebaiknya diterapkan dalam pembelajaran sains di SD karena telah terbukti dapat menurunkan keluhan muskuloskeletal.[MEDICINA 2009;40:11-20].  

  15. Peningkatan Pengetahuan Dan Keterampilan Guru SD Muhammadiyah 4 Batu Dalam Mengelola Pembelajaran ABK melalui Lesson Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Poerwanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anak-anak dengan kebutuhan khusus (ABK yang dikenal sebagai anak-anak cacat, atau anak-anak yang luar biasa, anak-anak yaitu yang menyimpang secara signifikan dari kriteria normal, baik dari aspek fisik, psikologis, emosional dan sosial. Mulai tahun 2001, pemerintah mulai program pendidikan inklusif, pendidikan inklusif adalah untuk memasukkan anak-anak dengan kebutuhan khusus belajar bersama dengan anak normal di kelas dan sekolah reguler. Masalahnya, guru di sekolah reguler tidak berpendidikan dan dipersiapkan khusus untuk mengelola proses belajar mengajar untuk ABK. Masalah juga dialami oleh SD Muhammadiyah 4 Batu, untuk membantu memecahkan masalah tim FKIP menerapkan aktivitas Lesson Study untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan guru dan keterampilan dalam mengelola ABK pembelajaran individual Lesson study yang dilakukan dalam tiga siklus yang dikemas dalam tiga model pembelajaran; ABK belajar sendiri di kelas khusus, pengajaran dan pembelajaran di kelas reguler dan pengajaran dan pembelajaran ABK di kelas reguler dengan bantuan GPK. Setiap siklus terdiri dari beberapa kegiatan. Studi pelajaran terdiri dari empat kegiatan yang disingkat PDCA; P (rencana atau perencanaan, D (lakukan adalah pelaksanaan pembelajaran oleh seorang guru sebagai model dan diamati oleh guru lainnya, C (cek merupakan cerminan dari perbaikan lebih lanjut proses pembelajaran, dan A (tindak adalah tindak lanjut.  Dari tiga tahapan pelaksanaan proses belajar mengajar ABK dapat memberikan manfaat bagi para guru untuk meningkatkan pemahaman dan keterampilan untuk mengelola pembelajaran untuk ABK. Melalui Lesson Study diharapkan ABK mendapatkan layanan yang tepat dan belajar yang optimal. Beberapa temuan dampak pada perilaku siswa di kelas adalah bahwa siswa dapat menerima keberadaan ABK di. Meskipun keterbatasan kelas fasilitas guru mendapatkan pengalaman berharga yang terkait dengan pengembangan pembelajaran melalui forum ABK Lesson Study. Jadi kebutuhan untuk pelaksanaan tindak

  16. Validated automatic segmentation of AMD pathology including drusen and geographic atrophy in SD-OCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Stephanie J; Izatt, Joseph A; O'Connell, Rachelle V; Winter, Katrina P; Toth, Cynthia A; Farsiu, Sina

    2012-01-05

    To automatically segment retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images of eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and various levels of image quality to advance the study of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)+drusen complex (RPEDC) volume changes indicative of AMD progression. A general segmentation framework based on graph theory and dynamic programming was used to segment three retinal boundaries in SD-OCT images of eyes with drusen and geographic atrophy (GA). A validation study for eyes with nonneovascular AMD was conducted, forming subgroups based on scan quality and presence of GA. To test for accuracy, the layer thickness results from two certified graders were compared against automatic segmentation results for 220 B-scans across 20 patients. For reproducibility, automatic layer volumes were compared that were generated from 0° versus 90° scans in five volumes with drusen. The mean differences in the measured thicknesses of the total retina and RPEDC layers were 4.2 ± 2.8 and 3.2 ± 2.6 μm for automatic versus manual segmentation. When the 0° and 90° datasets were compared, the mean differences in the calculated total retina and RPEDC volumes were 0.28% ± 0.28% and 1.60% ± 1.57%, respectively. The average segmentation time per image was 1.7 seconds automatically versus 3.5 minutes manually. The automatic algorithm accurately and reproducibly segmented three retinal boundaries in images containing drusen and GA. This automatic approach can reduce time and labor costs and yield objective measurements that potentially reveal quantitative RPE changes in longitudinal clinical AMD studies. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00734487.).

  17. Lactogenic Activity of an Enzymatic Hydrolysate from Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya in SD Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Sun, Han; Sun, Huili; Wan, Peng; Chen, Deke; Pan, Jianyu

    2015-11-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine theory believes that octopus papaya soup can stimulate milk production in lactating women. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with an enzymatic hydrolysate of Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya (EHOC) could increase milk production and nutritional indexes in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Female SD rats (n = 24) were fed a control diet (n = 8), EHOC-supplemented diet, or a positive control diet (Shengruzhi) from day 10 of pregnancy to day 10 of lactation. Maternal serum, mammary gland (day 10 of lactation), milk, and pup weight (daily) were collected for analysis. Results showed that the EHOC diet obviously elevated daily milk yield and pup weight compared to the control group (P < .05). The EHOC diet was found to increase the concentration of prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), and growth hormone (GH) significantly in the circulation and mammary gland. Mammary glands of EHOC-treated dams showed clear lobuloalveolar development and proliferation of myoepithelial cells, but no striking variations were observed among the groups. Furthermore, the nutrition content and immune globulin concentration in the milk of EHOC-supplemented dams were higher than those of the control group, especially the cholesterol, glucose, and IgG were higher by 44.98% (P < .001), 42.76% (P < .01), and 42.23% (P < .01), respectively. In conclusion, this article demonstrates that EHOC administration has beneficial effects on milk production in the dams and on performance of the dam and pup. These results indicate that EHOC could be explored as a potentially lactogenic nutriment for lactating women.

  18. MODEL PEMBELAJARAN PENJAS MELALUI PERMAINAN UNTUK PEMBENTUKAN KARAKTER KERJA SAMA, TANGGUNG JAWAB DAN KEJUJURAN SISWA SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubiyatno Rubiyatno

    2013-09-01

    Abstract This study aims at delivering game models for especially top grade elementary school students to build character, cooperation, responsibility and honesty that are ready to use. The teachers are expected to use this game model as one of integrated character value instructional forms that is appropriate and effective through enjoyable playing activities.This educational research and development (R & D was conducted by adapting R & D steps consisting of: (1 collecting information and information analysis, (2 developing initial product, (3 expert validation and revision, (4 preliminary field test and revision, (5 main field test and revision, and (6 making the final product. The preliminary field test was conducted to 14 students year 5 of SD.N.Pantaran Kulon Progo and the main field test was conducted to 40 students Class 4 and 5 of SD.N.2 Kalipetir Pengasih Kulon Progo. Data collecting instrument used were: (1 interview guide, (2 rating scale, (3 observation guide for games observation, (4 observation guide for games effectiveness, and (5 observation guide for perpetrator teachers. The data were analyzed using quantitative descriptive analysis and qualitative descriptive analysis.The result of this study is in the form of a game guidance book of integrated character building for corporation, responsibility, and honesty in the form of physical activities for upper grade elementary school students, consisting of six games: (1 blast fishing game, (2 ball war game, (3 shoot the ball to the hula hoop game, (4 my goal and basket game, (5 volley throw and catch, and (6 touching ball to the body game. As a conclusion, the game models are very good and effective to transfer character value, corporation, responsibility, and honesty Keywords: model of learning, character and elemantary students.

  19. [Choroidal thickness assessment with SD-OCT in high myopia with dome-shaped macula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebil, A; Ben Achour, B; Chaker, N; Jedidi, L; Mghaieth, F; El Matri, L

    2014-03-01

    To measure macular choroidal thickness (CT) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in highly myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula (DSM), and to investigate whether the choroid is thicker in these eyes compared to highly myopic eyes without MB. A cross-sectional study of 200 eyes was performed between January 2010 and June 2012. Twenty-four highly myopic eyes (12%) had a dome-shaped macula. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination, SD-OCT (TOPCON 2000), and B-scan ultrasonography. OCT scans were analyzed in 7 sections, and subfoveal CT was measured manually between the Bruch's membrane and the internal aspect of the sclera. The 20 eyes with isolated dome-shaped macular were paired by age and axial length (AL) with 20 eyes without macular involvement. In the subgroup with isolated MB, the mean subfoveal CT was 101.86 μm (± 21.35 μm). A statistically significant negative correlation was found between CT and AL (r=-0.623, P=0.0001). The regression equation demonstrated a decrease of 8.3 μm per mm of AL. In the subgroup without MB, matched with the subgroup with MB by age (P=0.591), and AL (P=0.815), the mean subfoveal CT was 89.54 μm (± 20.12 μm). The comparison between the two subgroups found a statistically significant difference in subfoveal CT (Pmacula compared to highly myopic eyes without dome-shaped macula. These findings suggest that abnormalities of the choroid may play a role in the pathogenesis of dome-shaped macula. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Daylight Redirecting Window Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    28 4.1.3 Fort Bliss , TX .......................................................................................29 4.1.4 Marine Corps Air Ground...Norfolk; Shawn Bogdan, Matt Siler and Kyle Hess at Naval War College, Newport; Marisela Leyva at Fort Bliss , TX; Clovis Vaughn and Andrew Burton at...team at Heschong Mahone Group (now part of TRC Companies): Lisa Heschong, Abhijeet Pande, Mudit Agarwal and Tim Perry for their immense contribution

  1. Daylight Redirecting Window Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Fort Bliss , TX; Clovis Vaughn and Andrew Burton at 29 Palms, CA; Doug Taber at Naval Post Graduate School (NPS), Monterey; and Mitch Hailey at Naval...Agarwal and Tim Perry for their immense contribution to this project. Finally, throughout the project, the guidance and counseling of Vern Novstrup at...and control) VA Norfolk Z-133 1 1 1 6 72 48 120 CA 29 Palms 1416 5 7 14 13 108 31 62 RI Newport Hewitt Hall 2 5 9 19 88 24 40 TX Fort Bliss

  2. EFEKTIVITAS PROJECT BASED LEARNING TERHADAP KETERAMPILAN MENULIS BAHAN AJAR IPA CALON GURU SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Susilawati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effectiveness of Project Based Learning (PjBL of writing skills on Science teaching materials to elementary school teachers candidates.This research used experimental methods (single-one group pretest-posttest design with instruments such as portofolio assessment sheets, observation sheets, and  questionnaire sheets .The effectiveness of analyzing used n-gain and t-test .The subject of this research is elementary school teachers candidates who contracted “Science Learning”subject  in a program study teacher education of elementary school at University Muhammadiyah Cirebon. The findings of this study has produced a contextual book for Science teaching material. In addition, there is an increased of elementary school teachers candidates who prepared the teaching materials in a printed form relevant to the needs and characters of the students as well as the curriculum. It is proven by assessments that the ability rose significantly from 2,71 (category  is adequate skill to 3,83 (category is skilled and supported by the n-gain value  at 0,87. Based on the t-test count of 8,050 larger than t-table 2,045. Recommendations from this research is that PjBL as a learning model could become one of the alternative learning models to improve writing skills material for elementary school teachers candidates. Keyword: Project-Based-Learning, science-materials-teaching, elementary-schoo-teachers- candidates.   Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis efektivitas Project Based Learning (PjBL terhadap keterampilan menulis bahan ajar IPA Calon Guru SD. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimen (Single-One Group Pretest-Posttest Design dengan menggunakan instrumen berupa lembar penilaian portofolio, lembar observasi, dan lembar angket. Efektivitas dianalisis menggunakan n-gain dan uji T. Subjek penelitian ini adalah mahasiswa calon guru yang mengontrak matakuliah Pembelajaran IPA di

  3. SISTEM INFORMASI COMMUNICATION BOOK BERBASIS WEB (Studi Kasus : SD Salman Al Farisi Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriyani Fitriyani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Communication Book kini sudah menjadi istilah yang akrab di kalangan murid SD. Sebagian sekolah sudah menerapkannya sebagai sarana komunikasi antara guru dengan orangtua. Communication Book berbeda dengan rapor atau laporan reguler. Rapor dan laporan reguler biasanya diberikan pada jangka waktu tertentu, sedangkan communication book bisa digunakan kapan saja saat diperlukan. Misalnya untuk menyampaikan pengumuman yang berkaitan dengan kegiatan proses belajar-mengajar. Communication book ini bertujuan agar orangtua mengetahui kejadian di sekolah atau hal-hal yang memang harus diketahui orangtua. Misalnya, alat-alat apa yang harus dibawa anak pada hari tertentu, dan sebagainya. Namun sistem komunikasi ini masih bersifat konvensional, dimana guru menulis informasi mengenai kegiatan belajar siswa di communication book yang harus dibawa setiap hari oleh siswa, sehingga jika siswa lupa untuk membawa communication book, maka guru tidak dapat menulis informasi yang akan disampaikan. Sistem informasi ini bertujuan untuk membuat sistem informasi communication book secara online di SD Salman Al Farisi Bandung. Sistem yang dibuat berbasis PHP dan menggunakan MySQL sebagai databasenya. Sistem informasi communication book terdapat menu-menu yang dapat mendukung komunikasi antara guru dan orangtua seperti menu informasi, kegiatan, tugas, ujian, surat panggilan dan lain-lain. Diharapkan dengan penerapan sistem ini di SD Salman Al Farisi Bandung dapat membantu komunikasi secara online dan real time. Sistem informasi ini dimulai dengan merancang hubungan antara database dan proses bisnis yang terjadi di dalam web. Kemudian dilanjutkan dengan desain tampilan dan pembuatan program. Kata Kunci : Web, Php, Mysql, Communication Book. ABSTRACT The Communication book has now become a familiar term among the elementary school students. Some schools have implemented it as a means of communication between teachers and parents. Different the communication book with

  4. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN MATERI PECAHAN BERBASIS TEORI BRUNER DI KELAS IV SD LABSCHOOL UNESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Wijayanti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran pada materi pecahan tema 3 berbasis teori Bruner ditinjau dari kualitas produk secara umum (kevalidan, kepraktisan, dan keefektifan dan dalam peningkatan kemampuan pemecahan masalah dan prestasi belajar peserta didik di kelas IV SD Labschool Unesa. Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian dan pengembangan yang menggunakan model yang dikembangkan oleh Borg & Gall. Subjek penelitian dalam uji coba terbatas berjumlah 4 siswa, sedangkan dalam uji coba lapangan berjumlah 8 siswa. Subjek uji coba produk operasional pada kelas eksperimen sebanyak 17 siswa dan kelas kontrol sebanyak 18 siswa. Pengumpulan data dalam penelitian ini menggunakan lembar penilaian produk perangkat pembelajaran, lembar observasi guru, lembar observasi peserta didik, tes hasil belajar, angket respon guru, dan agket respon peserta didik. Analisis data menggunakan independent sample t-test dengan taraf signifikansi 0,05. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perangkat pembelajaran hasil pengembangan dinyatakan valid dengan kategori sebagai berikut: silabus berkategori baik, RPP berkategori sangat baik, tes hasil belajar berkategori baik, dan media berkategori sangat baik, sehingga rerata hasil semua perangkat pembelajaran adalah berkategori baik. Penerapan perangkat pembelajaran secara umum dapat terlaksana dengan baik. Berdasarkan hasil uji coba kelas eksperimen dan kelas kontrol, terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan pada ketercapaian hasil belajar sehingga perangkat pembelajaran dikatakan efektif, sedangkan untuk kemampuan pemecahan masalah dan prestasi belajar siswa yang mengikuti pembelajaran menggunakan perangkat pembelajaran berbasis teori Bruner hasil pengembangan mengalami peningkatan. Kata Kunci: perangkat pembelajaran, teori Bruner, kemampuan pemecahan masalah, prestasi belajar DEVELOPING TEACHING KIT BASED ON THE THEORY OF BRUNER IN GRADE FOUR STUDENTS OF SD LABSCHOOL UNESA Abstract This study aims to develop a

  5. Color tuning in alert macaque V1 assessed with fMRI and single-unit recording shows a bias toward daylight colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Liu, Yang O; Lafer-Sousa, Luis; Wiest, Michael C; Conway, Bevil R

    2012-05-01

    Colors defined by the two intermediate directions in color space, "orange-cyan" and "lime-magenta," elicit the same spatiotemporal average response from the two cardinal chromatic channels in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). While we found LGN functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to these pairs of colors were statistically indistinguishable, primary visual cortex (V1) fMRI responses were stronger to orange-cyan. Moreover, linear combinations of single-cell responses to cone-isolating stimuli of V1 cone-opponent cells also yielded stronger predicted responses to orange-cyan over lime-magenta, suggesting these neurons underlie the fMRI result. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that V1 recombines LGN signals into "higher-order" mechanisms tuned to noncardinal color directions. In light of work showing that natural images and daylight samples are biased toward orange-cyan, our findings further suggest that V1 is adapted to daylight. V1, especially double-opponent cells, may function to extract spatial information from color boundaries correlated with scene-structure cues, such as shadows lit by ambient blue sky juxtaposed with surfaces reflecting sunshine. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  6. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of highly efficient, daylight active and recyclable Ag/AgBr coupled photocatalysts with synergistic dual photoexcitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Caihong; Ai, Lunhong; Li, Lili; Jiang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag/AgBr photocatalysts were controllably synthesized by solvothermal process. • Ag/AgBr composites showed excellent daylight driven photocatalytic activity. • The remarkable activity is attributed to the synergistic dual photoexcitation. -- Abstract: Efficient light harvesting has been considered to be critical for manipulating the photocatalytic behavior of photocatalysts, because it directly determines the generation of reactive redox charge carriers involved in photoreaction process. In this study, we present a successful example on efficient conversion of solar energy by Ag/AgBr coupled photocatalysts that hold unique synergistic dual photoexcitation. A series of Ag/AgBr coupled photocatalysts were controllably synthesized by an easily manipulated mild solvothermal process. The physicochemical properties of the as-prepared Ag/AgBr coupled photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The results showed the solvothermal reaction time played key role for control of crystalline structure, morphology, composition, and visible light absorption ability of the resulting photocatalysts. The as-prepared Ag/AgBr coupled photocatalysts exhibited remarkable photocatalytic performance and good reusability for decomposing organic dyes in aqueous solution under the irradiation of commercial 20 W cool daylight fluorescent lamp, owing to the synergistic dual photoexcitation cooperating between plasmonic Ag nanoparticles and narrow-band-gap AgBr

  7. Clinical, hematological and genetic data of a cohort of children with hemoglobin SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo do Val Rezende

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The hemoglobin FSD is very uncommon in newborn screening programs for sickle cell disease. In the program of Minas Gerais, Brazil, the clinical course of children with hemoglobin SD was observed to be heterogeneous. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence (1999-2012 and to describe the natural history of a cohort of newborns with hemoglobin SD. METHODS: Isoelectric focusing was the primary method used in newborn screening. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and gene sequencing were used to identify mutant alleles and for haplotyping. Gap-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect alpha-thalassemia. RESULTS: Eleven cases of hemoglobin S/D-Punjab and eight of Hb S-Korle Bu were detected. Other variants with hemoglobin D mobility were not identified. All hemoglobin D-Punjab and hemoglobin Korle Bu alleles were associated with haplotype I. Among the children with hemoglobin S/D-Punjab, there were four with the ßS CAR haplotype, six with the Benin haplotype, and one atypical. Results of laboratory tests for hemoglobin S/D-Punjab and hemoglobin S-Korle Bu were: hemoglobin 8.0 and 12.3 g/dL (p-value <0.001, leukocyte count 13.9 × 109/L and 10.5 × 109/L (p-value = 0.003, reticulocytes 7.5% and 1.0% (p-value <0.001, hemoglobin F concentration 16.1% and 6.9% (p-value = 0.001 and oxygen saturation 91.9% and 97% (p-value = 0.002, respectively. Only hemoglobin S/D-Punjab children had acute pain crises and needed blood transfusions or hydroxyurea. Those with the Benin ßS haplotype had higher total hemoglobin and hemoglobin F concentrations compared to the CAR haplotype. Transcranial Doppler was normal in all children. CONCLUSION: The clinical course and blood cell counts of children with hemoglobin S/D-Punjab were very similar to those of hemoglobin SS children. In contrast, children with hemoglobin S-Korle Bu had clinical course and blood cell counts like children with the sickle

  8. DESCRIPTION OF THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF STUDENTS IN SD NEGERI 3 PELIATAN, SUBDISTRICT UBUD, GIANYAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Indah Hapsari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Elementary school student are the group of student that potentialy having problem with nutrition due to their eating patern and development status. The cases of malnutrition in Ubud is still highly noted even if Ubud is kown as well-developed subdistrict. The aimed of the study is to descript the nutritional status and other factors related to among the students of SD Negeri 3 Peliatan, Subdistrict Ubud, Gianyar. This study was done on August 19th 2011 until August 20th 2011 and the study design was a cross-sectional. Subjects were the grade 5th and 6th students with a total of 70 student, were chosen by quota sampling technique. Every subject was asked to administer questionnaire, to get the informaton on characteristic, eating pattern and breakfast habit. Antropometric measurements were done to gain the nutritional status of sampel. History of low birth weight was collected from the parents through administering self-administered questionnaires. The data was analysed descriptively. Result showed that subjects tend to have high malnutrition cases, in whom 25.7% were undernutrition and 24.3% were overnutrition 24.3%. Majority of subjects who have good nutritional status were those who admitted to have balanced eating pattern and breakfast habit. In addition, subjects with good nutrition status tended to have good academic scores and those with history of low birth weight seemed to have good and over nutritional status. As the students of SD Negeri 3 Peliatan seemed to have remarkable problem of malnutrition, it is suggested to inform their parents regarding the best eating pattern and to emphasize the importance of berakfast habit to achieve and maintain the good nutritional status for their children. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso

  9. New excited states in sd-shell nucleus {sup 33}P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, B.; Reiter, P.; Arnswald, K.; Hess, H.; Hirsch, R.; Lewandowski, L.; Schneiders, D.; Seidlitz, M.; Siebeck, B.; Steinbach, T.; Vogt, A.; Wendt, A.; Wolf, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Isospin-symmetry breaking in nuclear physics is mainly described by Mirror-Energy Differences (MED) for mirror nuclei or Triplet-Energy Differences (TED) for isobaric triplets. Modified USD-calculations successfully reproduce MED for T=1,3/2,2 sd-shell nuclei. Refined tests of theory are given by lifetime measurements in order to deduce transition-strength values. In order to study the mirror pair {sup 33}Ar and {sup 33}P, the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 13}C+{sup 26}Mg at 46 MeV was measured at the Cologne tandem accelerator and the HORUS spectrometer employing the Doppler-Shift-Attenuation-Method (DSAM). First results yielded new γ-ray transitions in {sup 33}P and {sup 33}S. The level scheme of {sup 33}P was extended up to excitation energies of 10 MeV. Spins and parities of the new levels were determined exploiting γγ-angular correlations. Together with values from the proton-rich T{sub z} = - 3/2 partner, the levels are compared to shell model calculations, describing excitation energies of sd -shell mirror pairs. The understanding of isospin symmetry and isospin-symmetry breaking is a fundamental question in nuclear physics. Isospin-symmetry breaking is mainly described by Mirror-Energy Differences (MED) for mirror nuclei or Triplet-Energy Differences (TED) for isobaric triplets. Modified USD{sup m}{sub 1,2,3}-calculations successfully reproduced MED for the mirror nuclei {sup 33}Ar and {sup 33}P. Both {sup 33}P and {sup 33}S were produced at the Cologne FN tandem accelerator employing the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 13}C+{sup 26}Mg at 46 MeV and spectroscopically investigated using 14 HPGe detectors. Several new energy states (in {sup 33}P) and γ-ray transitions (in {sup 33}P and {sup 33}S) were detected. Spins and parities of the new levels in {sup 33}P were determined exploiting γγ-angular correlations. The level scheme of {sup 33}P was extended up to excitation energies of 10 MeV.

  10. PEMBERDAYAAN ANAK SD DALAM UPAYA PENINGKATAN KONSUMSI GARAM BERYODIUM DI DESA APUAN KECAMATAN SUSUT KABUPATEN BANGLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresna Adhi K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD is the most single common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world. It decreases child survival, causes goiters, and impairs growth and development. Apuan Village, Bangli Regency is categorized as endemic areas (TGR=20,3% according to the definition from Health Office reports of Bali Province in 2008. One of the approaches that might be worth considering in alleviating the problem is the empowerment of elementary school children in an effort to increase the consumption of iodized salt in household. This approach aimed at empowering children to provide information to their parents on iodized salt consumption. Community services activities were conducted from December 16 to 21 October 2010 in SD 1 and SD 3 Apuan involving 62 elementary school children. The main activities were the provision of knowledge and guidance to elementary school children about the benefits of iodized salt. The first phase of the activities consists of examining the level of iodine in salt. This phase was then followed by giving the students a pre-test prior to the guidance and a post-test after the guidance for measuring the level of improvement on knowledge of elementary school children about iodized salt. The second phase was conducted one week after the first phase by measuring the level of iodine in the household salt of the same respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical by computer program. Results pre-test and post-tests showed an increase in the knowledge for good knowledge category (0% to 31%, and moderate knowledge category (3.2% to 40.3% and while a decrease in the limited knowledge category (96.8% to 9.7%. Statistical analysis showed significant differences (p <0.05. Test results that contain iodine salt showed increased percentage of 72.6% in the first phase to 96.7% in the second phase. It can be concluded that elementary school children might become a good initiator to improve

  11. Proses Berpikir Siswa SD dalam Melakukan Estimasi Masalah Berhitung Berdasarkan Jenis Kelamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Rizal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Thinking Process of Primary-school Students of Different Sexes in Estimating Arithmetic Problems. This case study is intended to explore the thinking process of the fifth-year students of different sexes in estimating arithmetic problems. Two students, one male and one female, belonging to the high achievers in a mathematics test were selected for the study and then interviewed, assigned to solve arithmetic problems, and finally asked to think aloud their thinking process. The study reveals that the thinking process of both the male and female subjects is in the form of accommodation as they ap­proached the arithmetic problems by repeatedly reading the tasks. Though employing the same thinking process, in the planning stage, the male subject made use of rounding and compatible number strategies, whereas the female one used only rounding strategy. In implementing the plan, the male subject em­ployed mental counting through assimilation, but the female one used algorithm through accommoda­tion. In the evaluating stage, the male subject traced back his work through mental counting, while the female one utilized reverse operations. Abstrak: Proses Berpikir Siswa SD dalam Melakukan Estimasi Masalah Berhitung Berdasarkan Jenis Kelamin. Penelitian ini ingin mendeskripsikan proses berpikir siswa laki-laki dan perempuan yang berkemampuan matematika tinggi dalam melakukan estimasi. Penelitian dilakukan di kelas V SD, dengan subjek satu siswa laki-laki dan satu siswa perempuan yang memiliki skor 75 ke atas dalam tes kemampuan matematika. Data dikumpulkan dengan wawancara, pemberian tes dan think aloud. Analisis dilakukan dengan menelaah seluruh data, reduksi data, pengolompokan data, kategorisasi, pengkodean, dan pemeriksaan kredibilitas data dengan triangulasi waktu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa proses berpikir keduanya adalah akomodasi. Dalam membuat rencana, laki-laki menggunakan rounding dan compatible number strategy, sedangkan

  12. EVALUASI PEMBELAJARAN ANAK BERKEBUTUHAN KHUSUS (ABK DI KELAS INKLUSIF DI SD PLUS DARUL 'ULUM JOMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Maftuhatin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi permasalahan belum ada standar evaluasi pembelajaran yang pasti untuk anak yang memiliki kelebihan dan kekurangan, walaupun mereka mendapat pelayanan pendidikan di kelas inklusif. Karena itu penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mencari solusi pemecahan masalah bagaimana sistem perencanaan evaluasi pembelajaran, bentuk evaluasi, bentuk pelaporan hasil evaluasi yang terdapat di kelas inklusif. Penelitian ini difokuskan pada  perencanaan evaluasi pembelajaran, bentuk evaluasi yang dilakukan, dan bentuk laporan evaluasi yang telah dilakukan di kelas inklusif yang terdapat di SD Plus Darul Ulum. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode interview,observasi dan dokumentasi. Obyek penelitian adalah kepala sekolah, guru-guru pendamping ABK, serta koordinator kelas inklusi disertai dengan data-data di lapangan yang dapat mendukung penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa evaluasi pembelajaran sudah cukup bagus karena guru sudah menerapkan dua metode dalam evaluasi yaitu dengan soal yang disamakan dengan reguler dan yang kedua dengan soal sesuai dengan kebutuhan mereka, disertai dengan portofolio yang mencatat perkembangan mereka selama pembelajaran.This research is based on the lack of learning evaluation standard  for the children with special education need. It is based on the fact that inclusive class for them has no evaluation standard yet. Therefore, the research was used to figure out; the problem, method and the form of learning evaluation planning system. It also used to find out the result report form of learning evaluation at inclusive class, SD Plus  Darul Ulum. The focus of the research were the problem, method and the form of learning evaluation planning system. This research was done by interviewing, observation and documentation. Meanwhile the targets of the research were teachers for children with special needs, inclusion class coordinator and the supporting data.Based on the research, it can be

  13. THE ROMER DELAY AND MASS RATIO OF THE sdB+dM BINARY 2M 1938+4603 FROM KEPLER ECLIPSE TIMINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, Brad N.; Wade, Richard A.; Liss, Sandra E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2012-07-10

    The eclipsing binary system 2M 1938+4603 consists of a pulsating hot subdwarf B star and a cool M dwarf companion in an effectively circular three-hour orbit. The light curve shows both primary and secondary eclipses, along with a strong reflection effect from the cool companion. Here, we present constraints on the component masses and eccentricity derived from the Romer delay of the secondary eclipse. Using six months of publicly available Kepler photometry obtained in short-cadence mode, we fit model profiles to the primary and secondary eclipses to measure their centroid values. We find that the secondary eclipse arrives on average 2.06 {+-} 0.12 s after the midpoint between primary eclipses. Under the assumption of a circular orbit, we calculate from this time delay a mass ratio of q = 0.2691 {+-} 0.0018 and individual masses of M{sub sd} = 0.372 {+-} 0.024 M{sub Sun} and M{sub c} = 0.1002 {+-} 0.0065 M{sub Sun} for the sdB and M dwarf, respectively. These results differ slightly from those of a previously published light-curve modeling solution; this difference, however, may be reconciled with a very small eccentricity, ecos {omega} Almost-Equal-To 0.00004. We also report a decrease in the orbital period of P-dot = (-1.23 {+-} 0.07) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}.

  14. 77 FR 27417 - Foreign-Trade Zone 220-Sioux Falls, SD; Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Rosenbauer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... is used for the production of emergency vehicles and firefighting equipment (pumps, tankers, rescue... drives, DC motors, static converters, rechargeable flashlights, flashlight parts, electrical foam..., LLC, (Emergency Vehicles/Firefighting Equipment), Lyons, SD The Sioux Falls Development Foundation...

  15. The Implications for the Royal Marines Command (RMC) of Operational Manoeuvre From the Sea (OMFTS) and Sea Dragon (SD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maynard, A. T

    1997-01-01

    .... The United States Marine Corps, as part of a United States initiative, is developing OMFTS, a new amphibious power projection strategy, and has established SD, an experimental process to test its new...

  16. Nuclear ground state properties and self-consistent calculations with the Skyrme interaction. II. S-D shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flocard, H.

    1975-04-01

    Hartree-Fock results concerning the ground state properties of some S-D shell nuclei are discussed. Two different Skyrme interactions have been used. They both lead to good agreement with the experimental total binding energies, charge radii and multipole moments. In particular the observed prolate-oblate transitions occuring in the S-D shell are reproduced. The calculated spectroscopic factors are also shown to be consistent with experimental data [fr

  17. New Pulse Timing Measurements of the sdBV Star CS 1246

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchens Zackary L.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available CS 1246 is a hot subdwarf B star discovered in 2009 to exhibit a single, large-amplitude radial pulsation. An O-C diagram constructed from this mode revealed reflex motion due to the presence of a low-mass M dwarf, as well as a long-term trend consistent with a decrease in the pulsational period. The orbital reflex motion was later confirmed with radial velocity measurements. Using eight years of data collected with the Skynet Robotic Telescope Network, we show that the pulsation amplitude of CS 1246 is decaying nonlinearly. We also present an updated O-C diagram, which might now indicate a positive Ṗ and a new 2.09 ± 0.05 yr oscillation consistent with orbital reflex motion of the entire inner sdB+dM binary, possibly due to the gravitational influence of a circumbinary planet with minimum mass . However, unlike the presence of the M dwarf, we hesistate to claim this object as a definitive detection since intrinsic variability of the pulsation phase could theoretically produce a similar effect.

  18. PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA MELAYU DI SD AMANASAK KABUPATEN MUANG PATTANI THAILAND SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasuenah Dumeedae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkap pelaksanaan proses pembelajaran bahasa Melayu di SD Amanasak Kabupaten Muang Pattani Thailand Selatan, meliputi pendekatan, metode, strategi tek-nik dan media pembelajaran, interaksi guru dan siswa, serta peran guru, siswa, dan materi. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif. Subjek adalah guru, para siswa dan wakil kepala seko-lah, objek adalah pelaksanaan pembelajaran bahasa Melayu di lembaga tersebut. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah observasi berpartisipasi, wawancara, dan studi dokumentasi. Hasil penelitian ini menun-jukkan bahwa pendekatan, metode, strategi dan teknik pembelajaran yang digunakan cukup membuat siswa antusias untuk mempelajari bahasa Melayu. Media pembelajaran yang digunakan dalam labora-torium telah digunakan dengan maksimal, namun tidak sering digunakan. Interaksi guru dan siswa berjalan dengan baik, meskipun belum seluruhnya menggunakan bahasa Melayu dan bahkan penggu-naan bahasa Thai masih lebih banyak daripada bahasa Melayu. Guru telah menjalani tugasnya sebagai fasilitator, perencana, dan pengontrol dengan baik. Siswa telah diberi kesempatan untuk mencari sum-ber belajar tambahan, sementara materi yang ada cukup membuat siswa bersemangat mengikuti pem-belajaran. Pengelolaan kelas dalam belajar mengajar sudah meningkatkan hasil pembelajaran dengan efektif, dan efisien. Evaluasi proses pelajaran menggunakan tes berbahasa dari membaca, berbicara, menyimak dan menulis. Alat evaluasi sudah sesuai dengan rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran dan kemampuan siswa yang berhubungan dengan aspek kognitif, sosial, afektif, dan personal. Pengukur ini sudah mencakup materi dan keterampilan berbahasa siswa. Kata kunci: bahasa Melayu, pelaksanaan pembelajaran

  19. De weg van Vlaamse 'daders' naar de Gestapo. De tolken van de Antwerpse Sipo-SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Van Eetvelde

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Flemish Collaborators and their Route to the Gestapo. The Translators of the Sipo-SD in AntwerpDuring the Second World War, Nazi-Germany used the Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo in its occupied territories and at the home front to maintain order and execute the racial policy of the regime. With a head office in Brussels and branches in Antwerp, Ghent, Liège and Charleroi, the Gestapo was also present in military occupied Belgium. The German agents were not completely up to their task. They lacked the knowledge of the regional languages and circumstances. The help of the local Belgian populace was therefore a necessity. What motivated these men to collaborate so assiduously with the German occupier? This research is based on the postwar criminal case files, compiled by the military courts in the context of the prosecution of those who collaborated. Several biographies of Flemish collaborators with the Gestapo office in Antwerp have been reconstructed. In this way, four major motivational groups can be distinguished: opportunists, ideological perpetrators, ‘traditional’ collaborators and former members of the resistance. Contrary to existing research into similar groups of men, financial or material gain was not their primary motive. Various psychological factors played a greater role.

  20. Designing laboratory activities in elementary school oriented to scientific approach for teachers SD-Kreatif Bojonegoro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwikoranto; Surasmi, W. A.; Suparto, A.; Tresnaningsih, S.; Sambada, D.; Setyowati, T.; Faqih, A.; Setiani, R.

    2018-03-01

    Important science lessons are introduced to elementary school students through inquiry. This training is important to do because one key determinant of succesful laboratory activities is teachers. This course aims to enable teachers to design an inquiry-based Laboratory Activity and be able to apply it in the classroom. The training was conducted at SD-Kreatif Bojonegoro by Modeling, Design Laboratory activities and Implementing. The results of Laboratory Activities designed to trace the seven aspects that can support the development of inquiry skills in either category. The teacher's response in this activity is positive. The conclusion of this training can improve the ability of teachers in designing and implementing laboratory activities of Science and then expected to positively affect the frequency of science laboratory activities. Usually teachers use learning by using this Laboratory Activity, it will be affected on the pattern of inquiry behavior to the students as well so that will achieve the expected goals. Teachers are expected to continue for other topics, even for other similarly characterized subjects. This habitation is important so that the teacher's skill in making Laboratory Activity continues to be well honed and useful for the students.

  1. DESAIN MATERI BANGUN DATAR MENGGUNAKAN ORIGAMI BERKONTEKS TANGRAM DI SD KELAS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisnani Lisnani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The study aims to improve the ability of mathematical communication in recognizing, grouping various types of flat wake. The subjects of the study were elementary school students Class IIA in SD Negeri 43 Palembang amounted to 27 people. Data collection is done through observation sheets, interviews, tests, documentation, and field notes. The research method used is a research design consisting of three stages: First stage, preliminary design / preparing for the experiment; The second stage, design experiment consisting of pilot and teaching experiment. The third stage, retrospective analysis. This study develops a series of activities and strategies that learners do on a flat wake material. The results of this study in the form of learning trajectory (learning path in each activity are: First activity, learners recognize various shapes and characteristics of wake up flat with conventional way. Then, on the second activity, learners can recognize the types and characteristics of the wake up trained by using the model match a make. Furthermore, the third activity, enhances its mathematical communication ability by using origang tangram context. Keywords : Design research, mathematical communication, make a match, origami

  2. PEMBELAJARAN SAINS SD UNTUK SISWA TUNANETRA DI SLB-A YAKETUNIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilia Eki Saputri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan pelaksanaan pembelajaran sains SD di SLB-A Yaketunis. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan jenis penelitian etnografi kelas. Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis data Miles dan Huberman yaitu: reduksi, penyajian, dan verifikasi data. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pembelajaran sains di SLB-A Yaketunis diawali dengan analisis kebutuhan siswa. Materi pembelajaran yang dapat diwujudkan dalam bentuk konkrit dan media pembelajaran tersedia atau dapat disediakan guru, maka indera perabaanlah yang dimaksimalkan oleh guru. Sedangkan materi pembelajaran yang tidak dapat diwujudkan dalam bentuk konkrit, hanya diampaikan dengan memanfaatkan komunikasi verbal yang bersifat kontekstual. Budaya kelas di dalam pembelajaran sains di SLB-A Yaketunis adalah menumbuhkan rasa ingin tahu siswa terhadap fenomena-fenomena yang ada di alam semesta, pemanfaatan indera perabaan, dan pendengaran siswa di dalam belajar sains. Budaya tersebut dikembangkan dan dimanfaatkan sepanjang pembelajaran sains agar siswa menguasai keterampilan proses sains dasar (observasi, klasifikasi, mengukur, komunikasi, prediksi, dan inferensi untuk mempelajari fakta, konsep, prinsip, dan teori dalam mata pelajaran sains. Kata kunci: pembelajaran sains dan siswa tunanetra.

  3. Dynamic assessment for life extension of nuclear power plants (NPPs) using system dynamics (SD) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed to extend the life of nuclear power plants (NPPs) for the economic purpose. Especially, the primary systems in reactor are considered in the thermohydraulic and neutronic aspect, which is related to the safety system. The electric power and the lifespan of components are expressed as economic situation. In addition, political considerations are given by the presidential change and the nuclear non-proliferation characteristics. The dynamical investigation using system dynamics (SD) shows the effective time for the life extension of the NPPs by Monte-Carlo simulations. This non-linear algorithm is incorporated with the feedback loop of the event sequences. The expected event is related to the past event, which affects to the dynamical simulations of lifetime in the NPPs. In the conclusions, the safety guarantee as well as the economic profit in the re-use of long term operated power plants is presented, which is mentioned as the transient time between 2019 and 2021 in this paper. (orig.)

  4. Mercury(II) and methyl mercury speciation on Streptococcus pyogenes loaded Dowex Optipore SD-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Karaman, Isa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    A solid phase extraction procedure based on speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury on Streptococcus pyogenes immobilized on Dowex Optipore SD-2 has been established. Selective and sequential elution with 0.1 mol L -1 HCl for methyl mercury and 2 mol L -1 HCl for mercury(II) were performed at pH 8. The determination of mercury levels was performed by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Optimal analytical conditions including pH, amounts of biosorbent, sample volumes, etc., were investigated. The influences of the some alkaline and earth alkaline ions and some transition metals on the recoveries were also investigated. The capacity of biosorbent for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 4.8 and 3.4 mg g -1 . The detection limit (3 sigma) of the reagent blank for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 2.1 and 1.5 ng L -1 . Preconcentration factor was calculated as 25. The relative standard deviations of the procedure were below 7%. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference material (NRCC-DORM 2 Dogfish Muscle). The procedure was successfully applied to the speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury in natural water and environmental samples.

  5. PROBLEMATIKA PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA INDONESIA DI MI/SD DAN ALTERNATIF PEMECAHANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuentie Sova Puspidalia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The ultimate goal of Indonesian teaching is to help learners able to integrate themselves into the society successfully. This aim is in line with the development of science and technology in the globalization era, in which the role of the Indonesian language as a mean of personal development is inevitably challenged by the rapid changes and the need of international languages. For this reason, it is worried that learners face any negative wash back of the existence of International language, in instance, the lost of their own identity. To this end, the role of Indonesian teaching is getting more and more obviously important. In reality, however, the Indonesian teaching is generally assumed as the easiest subject if it is compared with other subjects. As a result of this case, learners pretend not to learn Indonesian seriously. Ironically, many students get low grade although the Indonesian lesson is seen easily to learn. In fact, elementary school (SD/MI is regarded as basis for the formation of the noble values of the nation. The study had identified several sources of problems in learning Indonesian both from the educators or learners. Besides, it was revealed that the result of learning was affected by some aspects, such as the goals, materials, methods, school facilities and infrastructure.

  6. PENGELOLAAN AKREDITASI SEKOLAH (STUDI SITUS SD NEGERI 2 MRANTI KECAMATAN PURWOREJO KABUPATEN PURWOREJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyatno Supriyatno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The onjectives of this research are to describe (1 the preparation of school self-evaluation in improving school accreditation; (2 The visitation in improving school accreditation; (3 The results of school accreditation. The type of the research is qualitative and uses ethnography design. The site of the study is SD Negeri 2 Mranti Purworejo District, Purworejo. Techniques for collecting data used are interviews, observations, and documentation. The results of this research are as follows: (1 Preparation of school self-evaluation is conducted by a special team formed by the principal. The preparation done before the new school year, it takes place by collecting data from the SNP. EDS is consisting of EDS instrument and the physical evidence for each item SNP. The preparation is conducted byhaving a checklist for each item in the SNPs form that describes the real condition of the school; (2 the visitation process in improving schools accreditation runs smoothly and according to the procedure. The process begins with the submission of the letter that comes with the implementation of the accreditation document to School Accreditation Association (BAS of district; (3 the accreditation result increases from 79 in 2005 to 86.81 in 2010.

  7. PENGEMBANGAN BUKU PENGAYAAN APRESIASI DONGENG YANG BERMUATAN CLIL BAGI PESERTA DIDIK SD KELAS TIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meina Febriani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu cara membelajarkan muatan budaya dan ilmu pengetahuan yakni dengan kegiatan apresiasi dongeng. Dongeng sebagai salah satu karya sastra memiliki potensi untuk menghela muatan Content Language Integrated Learning (CLIL dan ungkapan Jawa. Setelah mempelajari buku-buku apresiasi dongeng yang sudah ada, ditemukan fakta bahwa buku-buku tersebut masih belum sesuai harapan, baik dari aspek isi, penyajian, bahasa dan keterbacaan, maupun grafika. Relevan dengan situasi tersebut, diperlukan buku pengayaan apresiasi dongeng yang bermuatan CLIL yang sesuai bagi peserta didik SD kelas 3, baik dari aspek isi, penyajian, bahasa dan keterbacaan, maupun grafika. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Research andDevelopment (penelitian dan pengembangan dari Borg dan Gall. One way to learn culture and science that is the fabled appreciation activities. Fairy tale as one of the literary works have the potential to haul cargo Content Language Integrated Learning (CLIL and Java expression. After studying the books offairy tale sexisting appreciation, it was found that these books is not as expected, both from the aspect of content, presentation, language and readability, and graphics. Relevant to the situation, necessary book-laden fairy tale appreciation enrichment CLIL suitable for grade 3 students, both fromthe aspect of content, presentation, language and readability, and graphics. The method used in this study is the research and development (research and development of the Borg and Gall.

  8. Spectrum of {gamma} rays from the decay of SD to normal states in {sup 191}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassmann, D.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T. [and others

    1995-08-01

    In B.a.7. we propose that the statistical spectrum emitted from a sharp single excited state serves as a probe of pairing in excited states. A specific test of this proposal is the comparison of the spectra from even-even and odd-even nuclei. Whereas a pair gap exists in an even-even nucleus, it gets filled in an odd-even nucleus. Consequently, low-energy transitions can arise in the latter case, whereas they are calculated to be absent in the former case because very few levels exist in the cold gap region. In addition, transitions between 1.4 - 2.2 MeV, which {open_quotes}jump{close_quotes} across the gap, are predicted to have lower yield in the odd-even nuclei. Serendipitously, decay from a superdeformed state serves as a good initial excited sharp state. We extracted the spectrum pairwise-coincident with SD lines in {sup 191}Hg from Gammasphere data and compared it with the equivalent spectra from the even-even nuclei {sup 192,194}Hg. The differences that are predicted to occur are indeed observed. Thus, the data support our proposal that the reduction of pairing with thermal excitation energy can be probed with statistical decay spectra.

  9. Dynamic assessment for life extension of nuclear power plants (NPPs) using system dynamics (SD) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2012-12-15

    It has been proposed to extend the life of nuclear power plants (NPPs) for the economic purpose. Especially, the primary systems in reactor are considered in the thermohydraulic and neutronic aspect, which is related to the safety system. The electric power and the lifespan of components are expressed as economic situation. In addition, political considerations are given by the presidential change and the nuclear non-proliferation characteristics. The dynamical investigation using system dynamics (SD) shows the effective time for the life extension of the NPPs by Monte-Carlo simulations. This non-linear algorithm is incorporated with the feedback loop of the event sequences. The expected event is related to the past event, which affects to the dynamical simulations of lifetime in the NPPs. In the conclusions, the safety guarantee as well as the economic profit in the re-use of long term operated power plants is presented, which is mentioned as the transient time between 2019 and 2021 in this paper. (orig.)

  10. Scanning PIV investigation of the laminar separation bubble on a SD7003 airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei [Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Institut fuer Stroemungsmechanik, Braunschweig (Germany); Iowa State University, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ames, IA (United States); Hain, Rainer [Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Institut fuer Stroemungsmechanik, Braunschweig (Germany); Institut fuer Aerodynamik und Stroemungstechnik, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Braunschweig (Germany); Kaehler, Christian J. [Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Institut fuer Stroemungsmechanik, Braunschweig (Germany); Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Stroemungsmechanik und Aerodynamik, Neubiberg (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    A laminar separation bubble occurs on the suction side of the SD7003 airfoil at an angle of attack {alpha}=4-8 and a low Reynolds number less than 100,000, which brings about a significant adverse aerodynamic effect. The spatial and temporal structure of the laminar separation bubble was studied using the scanning PIV method at {alpha}=4 and Re=60,000 and 20,000. Of particular interest are the dynamic vortex behavior in transition process and the subsequent vortex evolution in the turbulent boundary layer. The flow was continuously sampled in a stack of parallel illuminated planes from two orthogonal views with a frequency of hundreds Hz, and PIV cross-correlation was performed to obtain the 2D velocity field in each plane. Results of both the single-sliced and the volumetric presentations of the laminar separation bubble reveal vortex shedding in transition near the reattachment region at Re=60,000. In a relatively long distance vortices characterized by paired wall-normal vorticity packets retain their identities in the reattached turbulent boundary layer, though vortices interact through tearing, stretching and tilting. Compared with the restricted LSB at Re=60,000, the flow at Re=20,000 presents an earlier separation and a significantly increased reversed flow region followed by ''huge'' vortical structures. (orig.)

  11. Mercury(II) and methyl mercury speciation on Streptococcus pyogenes loaded Dowex Optipore SD-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzen, Mustafa, E-mail: m.tuzen@gmail.com [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Karaman, Isa [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Biology Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-09-30

    A solid phase extraction procedure based on speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury on Streptococcus pyogenes immobilized on Dowex Optipore SD-2 has been established. Selective and sequential elution with 0.1 mol L{sup -1} HCl for methyl mercury and 2 mol L{sup -1} HCl for mercury(II) were performed at pH 8. The determination of mercury levels was performed by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Optimal analytical conditions including pH, amounts of biosorbent, sample volumes, etc., were investigated. The influences of the some alkaline and earth alkaline ions and some transition metals on the recoveries were also investigated. The capacity of biosorbent for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 4.8 and 3.4 mg g{sup -1}. The detection limit (3 sigma) of the reagent blank for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 2.1 and 1.5 ng L{sup -1}. Preconcentration factor was calculated as 25. The relative standard deviations of the procedure were below 7%. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference material (NRCC-DORM 2 Dogfish Muscle). The procedure was successfully applied to the speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury in natural water and environmental samples.

  12. Important operational parameters of membrane bioreactor-sludge disintegration (MBR-SD) system for zero excess sludge production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seong-Hoon

    2003-04-01

    In order to prevent excess sludge production during wastewater treatment, a membrane bioreactor-sludge disintegration (MBR-SD) system has been introduced, where the disintegrated sludge is recycled to the bioreactor as a feed solution. In this study, a mathematical model was developed by incorporating a sludge disintegration term into the conventional activated sludge model and the relationships among the operational parameters were investigated. A new definition of F/M ratio for the MBR-SD system was suggested to evaluate the actual organic loading rate. The actual F/M ratio was expected to be much higher than the apparent F/M ratio in MBR-SD. The kinetic parameters concerning the biodegradability of organics hardly affect the system performance. Instead, sludge solubilization ratio (alpha) in the SD process and particulate hydrolysis rate constant (k(h)) in biological reaction determine the sludge disintegration number (SDN), which is related with the overall economics of the MBR-SD system. Under reasonable alpha and k(h) values, SDN would range between 3 and 5 which means the amount of sludge required to be disintegrated would be 3-5 times higher for preventing a particular amount of sludge production. Finally, normalized sludge disintegration rate (q/V) which is needed to maintain a certain level of MLSS in the MBR-SD system was calculated as a function of F/V ratio.

  13. Two-body density matrix for closed s-d shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrova, S.S.; Kadrev, D.N.; Antonov, A.N.; Stoitsov, M.V.

    2000-01-01

    The two-body density matrix for 4 He, 16 O and 40 Ca within the Low-order approximation of the Jastrow correlation method is considered. Closed analytical expressions for the two-body density matrix, the center of mass and relative local densities and momentum distributions are presented. The effects of the short-range correlations on the two-body nuclear characteristics are investigated. (orig.)

  14. Hubungan Konsumsi Junk Food dengan Status Gizi Lebih pada Siswa SD Pertiwi 2 Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizki Nur Amalia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakGizi lebih adalah keadaan tubuh seseorang yang mengalami berat badan berlebih karena kelebihan jumlah asupan energi yang disimpan dalam bentuk cadangan berupa lemak. Prevalensi gizi lebih pada anak di Indonesia mencapai 10,4. Salah satu faktor risiko terjadinya gizi lebih adalah kebiasaan mengonsumsi junk food. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan hubungan antara konsumsi junk food dengan status gizi lebih pada anak usia sekolah. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian analitik dengan rancangan cross sectional terhadap populasi penelitian yaitu siswa kelas 1 – 5 di SD Pertiwi 2 Padang sebanyak 250 siswa. Teknik pengambilan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan kuesioner semi kuantitatif FFQ.  Status gizi ditentukan dengan pengukuran berat badan dan tinggi badan yang hasilnya dikategorikan menggunakan standar antropometri penilaian status gizi anak menurut Depkes Indonesia. Pada hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa siswa yang memiliki status gizi lebih hanya 23,6% dengan rata – rata IMT 16,9±3,69. Rata – rata frekuensi konsumsi junk food 4,6±2,9 kali per hari dan rata – rata asupan energi junk food 1046,5±918,4 kkal per hari. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara konsumsi frekuensi konsumsi junk food dengan kejadian gizi lebih (p = 0,013 dan tidak terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara asupan energi junk food dengan kejadian gizi lebih (p = 0,120.Kata kunci: gizi lebih, junk food, FFQ AbstractOverweight is a condition of an individual who suffer from excessive weight due to an excess of energy intake stored in fat tissue. Prevalence of overweight in children in Indonesia reaches 10,4 %. One of the risk factors contributing to this condition is consuming junk food. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship of junk food consumption and overweight in students. This research is an analytic study conducted in a cross sectional design using 250  students of class 1-5 in SD Pertiwi 2 Padang

  15. Anti-jugular vein thrombotic effect of Morinda citrifolia L. [noni] in male SD rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian-Ying Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a common and serious medical condition, which is estimably responsible for more than 300,000 hospital admissions annually in the USA. Pulmonary embolism (PE is a major complication of VTE, which contributes to 12% death of hospitalized patients. Heparin is the most common anti-coagulant, but severe allergic reactions, bleeding, and thrombocytopenia limit its use. Thus, seeking a botanical, nontoxic antithrombotic alternative is an interesting area. Morinda citrifolia L. [noni] is a medicinal plant used in folk remedies by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It has been reported to have a broad range of therapeutic and preventive effects. The bioactivities of NJ have been continuously discovered with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and immune modifying activities. Our novel hypothesis is whether NJ has an anti-venous thrombotic effect in rodents. To examine our hypothesis, this study was designed to examine the anti-thrombotic effect of NJ on the jugular vein thrombosis model induced by ferric chloride in SD rats.Material and Methods: NJ and placebo used in this study were donated by Morinda Holding Inc. NJ was formulated with grape juice and blue berry juice. Placebo was prepared by using the same procedure of NJ preparation, but without NJ in it. Thirty-six male SD rats were divided into six groups. Anti-venous thrombotic activities of 5% NJ, 10% NJ, heparin, and 10% NJ plus heparin were examined and compared with the positive and blank controls. Thrombosis was induced by application of a filter paper soaked in 50% ferric chloride on the right jugular vein. AFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 9:297-3092-cm fragment of the occluded vein (thrombus was removed and weighed after 1-hour maturation. Blood samples were collected for platelet count, aPTT, and PT tests.Results: The weight of a 2-cm fragment of normal jugular vein was 9.9 ± 2.1 mg, while the weight of the occluded vein in

  16. Stable, geochemically mediated biospheres in the Deep Mine Microbial Observatory, SD, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, M. R.; Casar, C. P.; Kruger, B.; Flynn, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    The terrestrial subsurface is a vast reservoir of life, hosting diverse microbial ecosystems with varying levels of connectivity to surface inputs. Understanding long term ecosystem dynamics within the subsurface biosphere is very challenging due to limitations in accessibility, sample availability, and slow microbial growth rates. The establishment of the Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) at the Sanford Underground Research Facility, SD, USA has allowed for bimonthly sampling for nearly two years at six sites spanning 250 to 1500 m below the surface. Here we present a time-resolved analysis of the geomicrobiology of the six DeMMO sites, which have been created from legacy mine boreholes modified to allow for controlled sampling. Our interdisciplinary approach includes analysis of passively draining fracture fluid for aqueous and gas geochemistry, DNA sequencing, microscopy, and isotopic measurements of organic and inorganic substrates. Fluid geochemistry varies significantly between sites, but is relatively stable over time for a given site, even through significant external perturbations such as drilling and installation of permanent sampling devices into the boreholes. The fluid-hosted microbial diversity follows these trends, with consistent populations present at each site through time, even through drilling events. For instance, the shallowest site (DeMMO 1) consistently hosts >30% uncharacterized phyla and >25% Omnitrophica whereas the deepest site (DeMMO 6) is dominated by Firmicutes and Bacterioidetes. Microbial diversity appears to respond to the availability of energy sources such as organic carbon, sulfate, sulfide, hydrogen, and iron. Carbon isotopic measurements reveal closed system behavior with significant recycling of organic carbon into the DIC pool. Together these observations suggest DeMMO hosts isolated subsurface microbial populations adapted to local geochemistry that are stable on yearlong timescales.

  17. Intelligent simulation of aquatic environment economic policy coupled ABM and SD models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihui; Zhang, Jiarui; Zeng, Weihua

    2018-03-15

    Rapid urbanization and population growth have resulted in serious water shortage and pollution of the aquatic environment, which are important reasons for the complex increase in environmental deterioration in the region. This study examines the environmental consequences and economic impacts of water resource shortages under variant economic policies; however, this requires complex models that jointly consider variant agents and sectors within a systems perspective. Thus, we propose a complex system model that couples multi-agent based models (ABM) and system dynamics (SD) models to simulate the impact of alternative economic policies on water use and pricing. Moreover, this model took the constraint of the local water resources carrying capacity into consideration. Results show that to achieve the 13th Five Year Plan targets in Dianchi, water prices for local residents and industries should rise to 3.23 and 4.99 CNY/m 3 , respectively. The corresponding sewage treatment fees for residents and industries should rise to 1.50 and 2.25 CNY/m 3 , respectively, assuming comprehensive adjustment of industrial structure and policy. At the same time, the local government should exercise fine-scale economic policy combined with emission fees assessed for those exceeding a standard, and collect fines imposed as punishment for enterprises that exceed emission standards. When fines reach 500,000 CNY, the total number of enterprises that exceed emission standards in the basin can be controlled within 1%. Moreover, it is suggested that the volume of water diversion in Dianchi should be appropriately reduced to 3.06×10 8 m 3 . The reduced expense of water diversion should provide funds to use for the construction of recycled water facilities. Then the local rise in the rate of use of recycled water should reach 33%, and 1.4 CNY/m 3 for the price of recycled water could be provided to ensure the sustainable utilization of local water resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  18. PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN MEDIA ANIMASI DALAM PEMBELAJARAN IPS TERHADAP MOTIVASI BELAJAR SISWA KELAS IV SD NEGERI MANNURUKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyullah Alannasir

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of study at manuruki elementari schole greade are (1 to now the student learning motivation in social study. (2 to she if the animation media usage in social study learning of class IV SD Negeri Mannuruki? (2 how the students' motivation in learning IPS with the use of animation media Elementary School fourth grade students Mannuruki? (3 whether there is influence of media use animation in teaching social studies to students' motivation Mannuruki Elementary School fourth grade?. This research uses experimental research (true experimental design. Data collection  techniques used were: observation, interviews, and questionnaires. The analisis of the data use is deskriptif to describe to proces of learning by using animation media and the student motivation, and inferential analisis is  used to teks the risert hipotesis by using tetest. and  The results showed that: (1 The use of animation media in teaching social studies have stages of learning in which, every meeting there are three main stages were carried out by teachers namely planning, implementation and evaluation are then designed in accordance with the steps for using media animation with both categories. (2 learning motivation of students in social study on student learning motivation, before and after learning by using animation media has increased significantly ie before the treatment is in the category enough and after treatment increased student motivation with very good category. (3 the use of the animation media influence the studens’ motivation to learn at the fourth grade of mannuruki elementary school.    

  19. Alleviating anastrozole induced bone toxicity by selenium nanoparticles in SD rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vekariya, Kiritkumar K.; Kaur, Jasmine; Tikoo, Kulbhushan, E-mail: tikoo.k@gmail.com

    2013-04-15

    Aromatase inhibitors like anastrozole play an undisputed key role in the treatment of breast cancer, but on the other hand, various side effects like osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fracture accompany the chronic administration of these drugs. Here we show for the first time that selenium nanoparticles, when given in conjugation to anastrozole, lower the bone toxicity caused by anastrozole and thus reduce the probable damage to the bone. Selenium nanoparticles at a dose of 5 μg/ml significantly reduced the cell death caused by anastrozole (1 μM) in HOS (human osteoblast) cells. In addition, our results also highlighted that in female SD rat model, SeNPs (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/kg/day) significantly prevented the decrease in bone density and increase in biochemical markers of bone resorption induced by anastrozole (0.2 mg/kg/day) treatment. Histopathological examination of the femurs of SeNP treated group revealed ossification, mineralization, calcified cartilaginous deposits and a marginal osteoclastic activity, all of which indicate a marked restorative action, suggesting the protective action of the SeNPs. Interestingly, SeNPs (1 mg/kg/day) also exhibited protective effect in ovariectomized rat model, by preventing osteoporosis, which signifies that bone loss due to estrogen deficiency can be effectively overcome by using SeNPs. - Highlights: ► SeNPs significantly reduce bone toxicity in anastrozole treated rats. ► SeNPs successfully prevented osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. ► SeNP treatment lowered the levels of TRAP and increased the levels of ALKP.

  20. Alleviating anastrozole induced bone toxicity by selenium nanoparticles in SD rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vekariya, Kiritkumar K.; Kaur, Jasmine; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2013-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors like anastrozole play an undisputed key role in the treatment of breast cancer, but on the other hand, various side effects like osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fracture accompany the chronic administration of these drugs. Here we show for the first time that selenium nanoparticles, when given in conjugation to anastrozole, lower the bone toxicity caused by anastrozole and thus reduce the probable damage to the bone. Selenium nanoparticles at a dose of 5 μg/ml significantly reduced the cell death caused by anastrozole (1 μM) in HOS (human osteoblast) cells. In addition, our results also highlighted that in female SD rat model, SeNPs (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/kg/day) significantly prevented the decrease in bone density and increase in biochemical markers of bone resorption induced by anastrozole (0.2 mg/kg/day) treatment. Histopathological examination of the femurs of SeNP treated group revealed ossification, mineralization, calcified cartilaginous deposits and a marginal osteoclastic activity, all of which indicate a marked restorative action, suggesting the protective action of the SeNPs. Interestingly, SeNPs (1 mg/kg/day) also exhibited protective effect in ovariectomized rat model, by preventing osteoporosis, which signifies that bone loss due to estrogen deficiency can be effectively overcome by using SeNPs. - Highlights: ► SeNPs significantly reduce bone toxicity in anastrozole treated rats. ► SeNPs successfully prevented osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. ► SeNP treatment lowered the levels of TRAP and increased the levels of ALKP