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Sample records for short culture period

  1. Southern hemisphere searches for short period pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchester, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    Two searches of the southern sky for short period pulsars are briefly described. The first, made using the 64-m telescope at Parkes, is sensitive to pulsars with periods greater than about 10 ms and the second, made using the Molonglo radio telescope, has sensitivity down to periods of about 1.5 ms. Four pulsars were found in the Parkes survey and none in the Molonglo survey, although analysis of the latter is as yet incomplete. 10 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  2. Field Optimization for short Period Undulators

    CERN Document Server

    Peiffer, P; Rossmanith, R; Schoerling, D

    2011-01-01

    Undulators dedicated to low energy electron beams, like Laser Wakefield Accelerators, require very short period lengths to achieve X-ray emission. However, at these short period length (LambdaU ~ 5 mm) it becomes difficult to reach magnetic field amplitudes that lead to a K parameter of >1, which is generally desired. Room temperature permanent magnets and even superconductive undulators using Nb-Ti as conductor material have proven insufficient to achieve the desired field amplitudes. The superconductor Nb$_{3}$Sn has the theoretical potential to achieve the desired fields. However, up to now it is limited by several technological challenges to much lower field values than theoretically predicted. An alternative idea for higher fields is to manufacture the poles of the undulator body from Holmium instead of iron or to use Nb-Ti wires with a higher superconductor/copper ratio. The advantages and challenges of the different options are compared in this contribution.

  3. Short period tidal variations of earth rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, C. F.; Williams, J. G.; Parke, M. E.; Dickey, J. O.

    1981-01-01

    It is explained that the tidal deformation of the earth's polar moment of inertia by the moon and sun cause periodic variations in rotation. The short period oscillations give rise to a meter-sized, diurnal signature in the lunar laser ranging data obtained at McDonald Observatory. A solution is given for the scale parameter k/C at fortnightly and monthly tidal frequencies. The results are compared with those obtained by other investigators and with a theoretical estimate which includes the effect of oceans and a decoupled fluid core.

  4. Preferred Hosts for Short-Period Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to learn more about how planets form around their host stars, a team of scientists has analyzed the population of Kepler-discovered exoplanet candidates, looking for trends in where theyre found.Planetary OccurrenceSince its launch in 2009, Kepler has found thousands of candidate exoplanets around a variety of star types. Especially intriguing is the large population of super-Earths and mini-Neptunes planets with masses between that of Earth and Neptune that have short orbital periods. How did they come to exist so close to their host star? Did they form in situ, or migrate inwards, or some combination of both processes?To constrain these formation mechanisms, a team of scientists led by Gijs Mulders (University of Arizona and NASAs NExSS coalition) analyzed the population of Kepler planet candidates that have orbital periods between 2 and 50 days.Mulders and collaborators used statistical reconstructions to find the average number of planets, within this orbital range, around each star in the Kepler field. They then determined how this planet occurrence rate changed for different spectral types and therefore the masses of the host stars: do low-mass M-dwarf stars host more or fewer planets than higher-mass, main-sequence F, G, or K stars?Challenging ModelsAuthors estimates for the occurrence rate for short-period planets of different radii around M-dwarfs (purple) and around F, G, and K-type stars (blue). [Mulders et al. 2015]The team found that M dwarfs, compared to F, G, or K stars, host about half as many large planets with orbital periods of P 50 days. But, surprisingly, they host significantly more small planets, racking up an average of 3.5 times the number of planets in the size range of 12.8 Earth-radii.Could it be that M dwarfs have a lower total mass of planets, but that mass is distributed into more, smaller planets? Apparently not: the authors show that the mass of heavy elements trapped in short-orbital-period planets is higher for M

  5. A short period undulator for MAX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahola, H.; Meinander, T.

    1992-01-01

    A hybrid undulator for generation of high brilliance synchrotron radiation in the photon energy range of 60--600 eV at the 550 MeV electron storage ring MAX in Lund, Sweden has been designed and built at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in close collaboration with MAX-lab of Lund University. At the rather modest electron energy of MAX this photon energy range can be reached only by an undulator featuring a fairly short period and the smallest possible magnetic gap. Even then, higher harmonics (up to the 13th) of the radiation spectrum must be utilized. An optimization of the magnetic design resulted in a hybrid configuration of NdFeB magnets and soft iron poles with a period of 24 mm and a minimum magnetic gap of 7--10 mm. A variable-gap vacuum chamber allows reduction of the vacuum gap from a maximum of 20 mm, needed for injection, down to 6 mm during stored beam operation. A special design of this chamber permits a magnetic gap between pole tips that is only 1 mm larger than the vacuum gap. Adequate field uniformity was ensured by calibration of magnets to equal strength at their true operating point and verification of the homogeneity of their magnetization. Magnetic measurements included Hall probe scans of the undulator field and flip coil evaluations of the field integral

  6. Theoretical study of nitride short period superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, N. E.; Svane, A.

    2018-02-01

    Discussion of band gap behavior based on first principles calculations of electronic band structures for various short period nitride superlattices is presented. Binary superlattices, as InN/GaN and GaN/AlN as well as superlattices containing alloys, as InGaN/GaN, GaN/AlGaN, and GaN/InAlN are considered. Taking into account different crystallographic directions of growth (polar, semipolar and nonpolar) and different strain conditions (free-standing and pseudomorphic) all the factors influencing the band gap engineering are analyzed. Dependence on internal strain and lattice geometry is considered, but the main attention is devoted to the influence of the internal electric field and the hybridization of well and barrier wave functions. The contributions of these two important factors to band gap behavior are illustrated and estimated quantitatively. It appears that there are two interesting ranges of layer thicknesses; in one (few atomic monolayers in barriers and wells) the influence of the wave function hybridization is dominant, whereas in the other (layers thicker than roughly five to six monolayers) dependence of electric field on the band gaps is more important. The band gap behavior in superlattices is compared with the band gap dependence on composition in the corresponding ternary and quaternary alloys. It is shown that for superlattices it is possible to exceed by far the range of band gap values, which can be realized in ternary alloys. The calculated values of the band gaps are compared with the photoluminescence emission energies, when the corresponding data are available. Finally, similarities and differences between nitride and oxide polar superlattices are pointed out by comparison of wurtzite GaN/AlN and ZnO/MgO.

  7. Culture and Cooperation during the Interwar Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anişoara Popa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the most important Publications of the International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (1925-1946 we will explore the ideas concerning culture and personalities involved in the intellectual cooperation during the Interwar Period. Pointing out the role that the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation had and the Romanian contribution to this cooperation is another purpose of this article.

  8. On the short periods oscillation in relativistic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilano, R.; Morales, S.; Navone, H.; Sevilla, D.; Zorzi, A.

    2009-01-01

    We expand the study of neutron and strange matter stars with general relativistic formalism. We analyze the correlation with the observational data short periods oscillations in these stars, and we intend to discriminate between them.

  9. Origin of very-short orbital-period binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaji, S.

    1983-01-01

    Recent observations of four close binaries have established that there is a group of very-short orbital-period (VSOP) binaries whose orbital periods are less than 60 minutes. The VSOP binaries consist of both X-ray close binaries and cataclysmic variables. Their orbital periods are too short to have a main-sequence companion. However, four binaries, none of which belongs to any globular cluster, are too abundant to be explained by the capturing mechanism of a white dwarf. Therefore it seemed to be worthwhile to present an evolutionary scenario from an original binary system which can be applied for all VSOP binaries. (Auth.)

  10. How Do Earth-Sized, Short-Period Planets Form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    Matching theory to observation often requires creative detective work. In a new study, scientists have used a clever test to reveal clues about the birth of speedy, Earth-sized planets.Former Hot Jupiters?Artists impression of a hot Jupiter with an evaporating atmosphere. [NASA/Ames/JPL-Caltech]Among the many different types of exoplanets weve observed, one unusual category is that of ultra-short-period planets. These roughly Earth-sized planets speed around their host stars at incredible rates, with periods of less than a day.How do planets in this odd category form? One popular theory is that they were previously hot Jupiters, especially massive gas giants orbiting very close to their host stars. The close orbit caused the planets atmospheres to be stripped away, leaving behind only their dense cores.In a new study, a team of astronomers led by Joshua Winn (Princeton University) has found a clever way to test this theory.Planetary radius vs. orbital period for the authors three statistical samples (colored markers) and the broader sample of stars in the California Kepler Survey. [Winn et al. 2017]Testing MetallicitiesStars hosting hot Jupiters have an interesting quirk: they typically have metallicities that are significantly higher than an average planet-hosting star. It is speculated that this is because planets are born from the same materials as their host stars, and hot Jupiters require the presence of more metals to be able to form.Regardless of the cause of this trend, if ultra-short-period planets are in fact the solid cores of former hot Jupiters, then the two categories of planets should have hosts with the same metallicity distributions. The ultra-short-period-planet hosts should therefore also be weighted to higher metallicities than average planet-hosting stars.To test this, the authors make spectroscopic measurements and gather data for a sample of stellar hosts split into three categories:64 ultra-short-period planets (orbital period shorter than a

  11. Design issues for cryogenic cooling of short period superconducting undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Dietderich, D.R.; Marks, S.; Prestemon, S.O.; Schlueter, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting insertion devices, which produce periodic magnetic fields, have been built and installed in a number of synchrotron-light source storage-rings. For the most part, these devices have been wigglers, which have relatively long period lengths. This report concerns itself with the special cryogenic issues associated with short period undulators. The motivation for considering the incorporation of superconducting technology in insertion device designs is to achieve higher magnetic fields than can be achieved with more conventional permanent magnet technology. Since the peak field decreases sharply with increased magnet gap to period ratio, the cryogenic design of the magnet system is crucial. In particular, the insulation required for a warm vacuum bore device is impractical for short period undulators. This report describes the issues that are related to a cold bore (∼4 K) and an intermediate temperature bore (30 to 70 K) designs. The criteria for the use of small cryocoolers for cooling a short period undulator are presented. The problems associated with connecting small coolers to an undulator at 4.2 K are discussed

  12. Response of phytoplankton assemblages isolated for short periods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of phytoplankton assemblages isolated in enclosures for short periods of time was examined in hyper-eutrophic Lake Chivero (Harare, Zimbabwe), to determine the factors that influenced the structure of the phytoplankton community, after noticing a marked decline in the dominance of Microcystis aeruginosa ...

  13. Magnetospheric Truncation, Tidal Inspiral, and the Creation of Short-period and Ultra-short-period Planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    Sub-Neptunes around FGKM dwarfs are evenly distributed in log orbital period down to ∼10 days, but dwindle in number at shorter periods. Both the break at ∼10 days and the slope of the occurrence rate down to ∼1 day can be attributed to the truncation of protoplanetary disks by their host star magnetospheres at corotation. We demonstrate this by deriving planet occurrence rate profiles from empirical distributions of pre-main-sequence stellar rotation periods. Observed profiles are better reproduced when planets are distributed randomly in disks—as might be expected if planets formed in situ—rather than piled up near disk edges, as would be the case if they migrated in by disk torques. Planets can be brought from disk edges to ultra-short (<1 day) periods by asynchronous equilibrium tides raised on their stars. Tidal migration can account for how ultra-short-period planets are more widely spaced than their longer-period counterparts. Our picture provides a starting point for understanding why the sub-Neptune population drops at ∼10 days regardless of whether the host star is of type FGK or early M. We predict planet occurrence rates around A stars to also break at short periods, but at ∼1 day instead of ∼10 days because A stars rotate faster than stars with lower masses (this prediction presumes that the planetesimal building blocks of planets can drift inside the dust sublimation radius).

  14. Magnetospheric Truncation, Tidal Inspiral, and the Creation of Short-period and Ultra-short-period Planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail: evelee@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2017-06-10

    Sub-Neptunes around FGKM dwarfs are evenly distributed in log orbital period down to ∼10 days, but dwindle in number at shorter periods. Both the break at ∼10 days and the slope of the occurrence rate down to ∼1 day can be attributed to the truncation of protoplanetary disks by their host star magnetospheres at corotation. We demonstrate this by deriving planet occurrence rate profiles from empirical distributions of pre-main-sequence stellar rotation periods. Observed profiles are better reproduced when planets are distributed randomly in disks—as might be expected if planets formed in situ—rather than piled up near disk edges, as would be the case if they migrated in by disk torques. Planets can be brought from disk edges to ultra-short (<1 day) periods by asynchronous equilibrium tides raised on their stars. Tidal migration can account for how ultra-short-period planets are more widely spaced than their longer-period counterparts. Our picture provides a starting point for understanding why the sub-Neptune population drops at ∼10 days regardless of whether the host star is of type FGK or early M. We predict planet occurrence rates around A stars to also break at short periods, but at ∼1 day instead of ∼10 days because A stars rotate faster than stars with lower masses (this prediction presumes that the planetesimal building blocks of planets can drift inside the dust sublimation radius).

  15. Planetary perturbations and the origins of short-period comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, T.; Tremaine, S.; Duncan, M.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the dynamical plausibility of possible sources for the short-period comets, a representative sample of comet orbits in the field of the sun and the giant planets was integrated, with the aim to determine whether the distribution of orbits from a proposed source that reach observable perihelia (q less than 2.5 AU) matches the observed distribution of short-period orbits. It is found that the majority of the short-period comets, those with orbital period P less than 20 yr (the Jupiter family), cannot arise from isotropic orbits with perihelia near Jupiter's orbit, because the resulting observable comet orbits have the wrong distribution in period, inclination, and argument of perihelion. The simulations also show that Jupiter-family comets cannot arise from isotropic orbits with perihelia in the Uranus-Neptune region. On the other hand, a source of low-inclination Neptune-crossing orbits yields a distribution of observable Jupiter-family comets that is consistent with the data in all respects. These results imply that the Jupiter-family comets arise from a disk source in the outer solar system rather than from the Oort comet cloud. 30 refs

  16. CLATHRATE HYDRATES FORMATION IN SHORT-PERIOD COMETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marboeuf, Ulysse; Mousis, Olivier; Petit, Jean-Marc; Schmitt, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The initial composition of current models of cometary nuclei is only based on two forms of ice: crystalline ice for long-period comets and amorphous ice for short-period comets. A third form of ice, i.e., clathrate hydrate, could exist within the short-period cometary nuclei, but the area of formation of this crystalline structure in these objects has never been studied. Here, we show that the thermodynamic conditions in the interior of short-period comets allow the existence of clathrate hydrates in Halley-type comets. We show that their existence is viable in the Jupiter family comets only when the equilibrium pressure of CO clathrate hydrate is at least 1 order of magnitude lower than the usually assumed theoretical value. We calculate that the amount of volatiles that could be trapped in the clathrate hydrate layer may be orders of magnitude greater than the daily amount of gas released at the surface of the nucleus at perihelion. The formation and the destruction of the clathrate hydrate cages could then explain the diversity of composition of volatiles observed in comets, as well as some pre-perihelion outbursts. We finally show that the potential clathrate hydrate layer in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko would, unfortunately, be deep inside the nucleus, out of reach of the Rosetta lander. However, such a clathrate hydrate layer would show up by the gas composition of the coma.

  17. Teaching English Using Local Culture Content Short Story

    OpenAIRE

    Sanda, Silfi

    2009-01-01

    This paper is mainly about the use of local culture content short story in developing students' English proficiency and some activities that can be employed for this purpose. The local culture exposed in the short story is the traditional woven clothes of Palembang, Songket in term of process and product. The short story used in this topic is Cek Ipah "The Palembang Songket Weaver". This short story is authors' original work telling about everyday live of palembang songket weaver which covers...

  18. Short-Period Surface Wave Based Seismic Event Relocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Gaynor, A.; Cleveland, M.; Nyblade, A.; Kintner, J. A.; Homman, K.; Ammon, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate and precise seismic event locations are essential for a broad range of geophysical investigations. Superior location accuracy generally requires calibration with ground truth information, but superb relative location precision is often achievable independently. In explosion seismology, low-yield explosion monitoring relies on near-source observations, which results in a limited number of observations that challenges our ability to estimate any locations. Incorporating more distant observations means relying on data with lower signal-to-noise ratios. For small, shallow events, the short-period (roughly 1/2 to 8 s period) fundamental-mode and higher-mode Rayleigh waves (including Rg) are often the most stable and visible portion of the waveform at local distances. Cleveland and Ammon [2013] have shown that teleseismic surface waves are valuable observations for constructing precise, relative event relocations. We extend the teleseismic surface wave relocation method, and apply them to near-source distances using Rg observations from the Bighorn Arche Seismic Experiment (BASE) and the Earth Scope USArray Transportable Array (TA) seismic stations. Specifically, we present relocation results using short-period fundamental- and higher-mode Rayleigh waves (Rg) in a double-difference relative event relocation for 45 delay-fired mine blasts and 21 borehole chemical explosions. Our preliminary efforts are to explore the sensitivity of the short-period surface waves to local geologic structure, source depth, explosion magnitude (yield), and explosion characteristics (single-shot vs. distributed source, etc.). Our results show that Rg and the first few higher-mode Rayleigh wave observations can be used to constrain the relative locations of shallow low-yield events.

  19. Short-rotation woody-crops program. Quarterly progress report for period ending May 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, J.H.; Ranney, J.W.

    1982-04-01

    Progress of twenty projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program is summarized for the period March 1 through May 31, 1981. Individual quarterly reports included from each of the projects discuss accomplishments within specific project objectives and identify recent papers and publications resulting from the research. The major project activities are species screening and genetic selection, stand establishment and cultural treatment, and harvest, collection, transportation, and storage.

  20. Short-rotation woody-crops program. Quarterly progress report for period ending August 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, J.H.; Ranney, J.W.

    1982-04-01

    Progress of twenty-one projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program is summarized for the period June 1 through August 31, 1981. Individual quarterly reports included from each of the projects discuss accomplishments within specific project objectives and identify recent papers and publications resulting from the research. The major program activities are species screening and genetic selection, stand establishment and cultural treatment, and harvest, collection, transportation, and storage.

  1. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie-Anne Marquet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low” the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1, whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON. Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05 compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism.

  2. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Hausswirth, Christophe; Molle, Odeline; Hawley, John A.; Burke, Louise M.; Tiollier, Eve; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2016-01-01

    Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low”) the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1), whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON). Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05) compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism. PMID:27897989

  3. Surface electron structure of short-period semiconductor superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, I.; Czech Academy Science, Prague,; Strasser, T.; Schattke, W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Semiconductor superlattices represent man-made crystals with unique physical properties. By means of the directed layer-by-layer molecular epitaxy growth their electric properties can be tailored (band structure engineering). Longer translational periodicity in the growth direction is responsible for opening of new electron energy gaps (minigaps) with surface states and resonances localized at superlattice surfaces. Similarly as for the electron structure of the bulk, a procedure enabling to modify the surface electron structure of superlattices is desirable. Short-period superlattice (GaAs) 2 (AlAs) 2 with unreconstructed (100) surface is investigated in detail. Theoretical description in terms of full eigenfunctions of individual components has to be used. The changes of electron surface state energies governed by the termination of a periodic crystalline potential, predicted on simple models, are confirmed for this system. Large surface state shifts are found in the lowest minigap of the superlattice when this is terminated in four different topmost layer configurations. The changes should be observable in angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy as demonstrated in calculations based on the one step model of photoemission. Surface state in the center of the two dimensional Brillouin zone moves from the bottom of the minigap (for the superlattice terminated by two bilayers of GaAs) to its top (for the superlattice terminated by two bilayers of AlAs) where it becomes a resonance. No surface state/resonance is found for a termination with one bilayer of AlAs. The surface state bands behave similarly in the corresponding gaps of the k-resolved section of the electron band structure. The molecular beam epitaxy, which enables to terminate the superlattice growth with atomic layer precision, provides a way of tuning the superlattice surface electron structure by purely geometrical means. The work was supported by the Grant Agency of the Academy of Sciences

  4. New serial time codes for seismic short period and long period data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.; Rao, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses a new time code for time indexing multichannel short period (1 to 25 hz) seismic event data recorded on a single track of magnetic tape in digital format and discusses its usefulness in contrast to Vela time code used in continuous analog multichannel data recording system on multitrack instrumentation tape deck. This paper also discusses another time code, used for time indexing of seismic long period (DC to 2.5 seconds) multichannel data recorded on a single track of magnetic tape in digital format. The time code decoding and display system developed to provide quick access to any desired portion of the tape in both data recording and repro duce system is also discussed. (author). 7 figs

  5. Ocular discomfort responses after short periods of contact lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Eric; Tilia, Daniel; McNally, John; de la Jara, Percy Lazon

    2015-06-01

    To investigate if contact lens-related discomfort is a function of the time of day at which lenses are worn. This was a randomized, crossover, open-label clinical trial where subjective responses, with and without contact lenses, were assessed every 2 hours during five stages (A to E). Each stage began at the time when subjects would normally have inserted their contact lenses (T0). During stage A, no lenses were worn, whereas in stage B, lenses were worn continuously for 12 hours. In stages C to E, lenses were worn for only 4 hours. Contact lenses were inserted at T0 for stage C, but for stages D and E, lenses were not inserted until T0 + 4 and T0 + 8 hours, respectively. Mixed linear models were used for statistical analysis. In the absence of contact lenses, ocular comfort and dryness remained reasonably constant throughout the observation period. Ocular comfort and dryness decreased during 12 hours of continuous lens wear and became significantly worse from the 8-hour time onward compared with insertion (p 0.05) to the first 4 hours of continuous contact lens wear. Comparing the scores of each of these stages with the no-lens response at the corresponding time showed no significant differences for comfort (p > 0.23) or dryness (p > 0.37). Short periods of wear can be experienced at any time of day without significant change in ocular discomfort and dryness. This suggests that subjective responses at the end of the day are determined by the length of time lenses are in contact with the eye, rather than the time of day at which lenses are worn.

  6. Short-Period Binary Stars: Observations, Analyses, and Results

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F; Hobill, David W

    2008-01-01

    Short-period binaries run the gamut from widely separated stars to black-hole pairs; in between are systems that include neutron stars and white dwarfs, and partially evolved systems such as tidally distorted and over-contact systems. These objects represent stages of evolution of binary stars, and their degrees of separation provide critical clues to how their evolutionary paths differ from that of single stars. The widest and least distorted systems provide astronomers with the essential precise data needed to study all stars: mass and radius. The interactions of binary star components, on the other hand, provide a natural laboratory to observe how the matter in these stars behaves under different and often varying physical conditions. Thus, cataclysmic variables with and without overpoweringly strong magnetic fields, and stars with densities from that found in the Sun to the degenerate matter of white dwarfs and the ultra-compact states of neutron stars and black holes are all discussed. The extensive inde...

  7. The first orbital parameters and period variation of the short-period eclipsing binary AQ Boo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Liyun; Pi, Qingfeng; Han, Xianming L.; Zhang, Xiliang; Lu, Hongpeng; Wang, Daimei; Li, TongAn

    2016-10-01

    We obtained the first VRI CCD light curves of the short-period contact eclipsing binary AQ Boo, which was observed on March 22 and April 19 in 2014 at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, and on January 20, 21 and February 28 in 2015 at Kunming station of Yunnan Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. Using our six newly obtained minima and the minima that other authors obtained previously, we revised the ephemeris of AQ Boo. By fitting the O-C (observed minus calculated) values of the minima, the orbital period of AQ Boo shows a decreasing tendency P˙ = - 1.47(0.17) ×10-7 days/year. We interpret the phenomenon by mass transfer from the secondary (more massive) component to the primary (less massive) one. By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we also derived the photometric orbital parameters of AQ Boo for the first time. We conclude that AQ Boo is a near contact binary with a low contact factor of 14.43%, and will become an over-contact system as the mass transfer continues.

  8. Precessional Periods of Long and Short Foucault Pendulums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Michitoshi

    1978-01-01

    Derives the precessional period of a Foucault pendulum without using small oscillation amplitudes. Shows that if the path of the pendulum passes through the origin, the periods for differing amplitudes are essentially the same. (GA)

  9. Language Features and Culture Features on Short Message

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phone is regarded as“the fifth media”after newspaper,radio,TV and the Internet.The mobile phone short message further highlights the importance of written signs in communication.“The thumb revolution”is eagerly anticipating one kind of trend by the hand replace of mouth,sound substitute for the quiet around us. My paper will analyze the language features and the culture features of mobile phone short messages which are written in Chinese and English.

  10. Short periodic oscillations of the dwarf nova VW Hydri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefner, R.; Schoembs, R.

    1977-01-01

    A coherent oscillation of approximately 88 s period and 0.m005 amplitude was detected during the decline stage at the end of the long eruption of VW Hyi in December 1975. The period changed erratically between 86 and 90 s during eight nights. There are indications that the amplitude depends on the phase of the orbital revolution. The new period favours models in which such oscillations are caused by the orbital motion of inhomogeneities in the disc. (orig.) [de

  11. Economic investigations of short rotation intensively cultured hybrid poplars

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Lothner

    1983-01-01

    The history of the economic analyses is summarized for short rotation intensively cultured hybrid poplar at the North Central Forest Experiment Station. Early break-even analyses with limited data indicated that at a price of $25-30 per dry ton for fiber and low to medium production costs, several systems looked profitable. Later cash flow analyses indicated that two...

  12. CULTURE DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD: REALITIES AND TENDENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAMAN IURIE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article represents the result of a national sociological research conducted in the rural communities of the Republic of Moldova and it is based on the analysis of the statistical yearbooks data, which describe the situation of cultural consumption by the inhabitants of the local rural communities. The results obtained within the sociological research and the confrontation of the statistical data indicate that the changes that took place during the transition period have radically mo-diied the cultural palette in the Republic of Moldova, free time spending becoming much more individualized compared with the collectivist style offered by the Soviet empire. Cultural consumption is also influenced by the individual person and by the attention/care offered to culture both by the family and by the local public administration.

  13. Studying Short-Period Comets and Long-Period Comets Detected by WISE/NEOWISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Emily A.; Fernández, Yanga R.; Bauer, James M.; Stevenson, Rachel; Mainzer, Amy K.; Grav, Tommy; Masiero, Joseph; Walker, Russell G.; Lisse, Carey M.

    2014-11-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission surveyed the sky in four infrared wavelength bands (3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22-micron) between January 2010 and February 2011 [1, 2]. During the mission, WISE serendipitously observed 160 comets, including 21 newly discovered objects. About 89 of the comets observed by WISE displayed a significant dust tail in the 12 and 22-micron (thermal emission) bands, showing a wide range of activity levels and dust morphology. Since the observed objects are a mix of both long-period comets (LPCs) and short-period comets (SPCs), differences in their activity can be used to better understand the thermal evolution that each of these populations has undergone. For the comets that displayed a significant dust tail, we have estimated the sizes and ages of the particles using dynamical models based on the Finson-Probstein method [3, 4]. For a selection of 40 comets, we have then compared these models to the data using a novel tail-fitting method that allows the best-fit model to be chosen analytically rather than subjectively. For comets that were observed multiple times by WISE, the dust tail particle properties were estimated separately, and then compared. We find that the dust tails of both LPCs and SPCs are primarily comprised of ~mm to cm sized particles, which were the result of emission that occurred several months to several years prior to the observations. The LPCs nearly all have strong dust emission close to the comet's perihelion distance, and the SPCs mostly have strong dust emission close to perihelion, but some have strong dust emission well before perihelion. Acknowledgments: This publication makes use of data products from (1) WISE, which is a joint project of UCLA and JPL/Caltech, funded by NASA; and (2) NEOWISE, which is a project of JPL/Caltech, funded by the Planetary Science Division of NASA. EK was supported by a NASA Earth and Space Sciences Fellowship. RS gratefully acknowledges support from the NASA

  14. Short-Period RF Undulator for a SASE Nanometer source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis is described towards development of a RF undulator with a period < 1 cm, an undulator parameter K of the order of unity, and a gap greater than 2.25 mm. The application for the undulator is for a SASE source to produce 1 nm wavelength radiation using a low energy electron beam in the range 1-2 GeV. Particle orbit calculations in a conventional standing-wave resonator configuration show that the presence of a co-propagating component of RF field can cause deleterious motion for the undulating electrons that can seriously degrade their radiation spectrum. To obviate this problem, resonator designs were devised in which only the counter-propagating field components interact with the particles. Two resonator configurations with the same undulator parameter K = 0.4 have been devised and are described in this report.

  15. Beamline front end for in-vacuum short period undulator at the photon factory storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyauchi, Hiroshi, E-mail: hiroshi.miyauchi@kek.jp [Accelerator Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Accelerator Science, School of High Energy Accelerator Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Tahara, Toshihiro, E-mail: ttahara@post.kek.jp; Asaoka, Seiji, E-mail: seiji.asaoka@kek.jp [Accelerator Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    The straight-section upgrade project of the Photon Factory created four new short straight sections capable of housing in-vacuum short period undulators. The first to fourth short period undulators SGU#17, SGU#03, SGU#01 and SGU#15 were installed at the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory storage ring in 2005, 2006, 2009 and 2013, respectively. The beamline front end for SGU#15 is described in this paper.

  16. Long-period and short-period variations of ionospheric parameters studied from complex observations performed on Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laso, B; Lobachevskii, L A; Potapova, N I; Freizon, I A; Shapiro, B S

    1980-09-01

    Cuban data from 1978 are used to study long-period (i.e., diurnal) variations of Doppler shift on a 3000 km path at frequencies of 10 and 15 MHz these variations are related to variations of parameters on the ionospheric path. Short-period variations were also studied on the basis of Doppler shift data and vertical sounding data in the 0.000111-0.00113 Hz frequency range. The relation between the observed variations and internal gravity waves are discussed.

  17. Moessbauer studies on ancient Chinese pottery of Yangshao Culture Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhengfang, Yu; Qi, Zheng; Yufang, Zheng

    1988-02-01

    Eleven pieces of ancient Chinese pottery (4770 B.C. - 2960 B.C.) of Yangshao Culture Period collected from the Xi'an area have been studied by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy. The samples were refired up to 1100/sup 0/C in steps of 100/sup 0/C for 2 h in air. The highest temperature up to which the Moessbauer pattern remains basically unchanged can be identified with the original firing temperature. The result indicates that the firing temperatures for most of the sherds were between 900-1000/sup 0/C. The function of the grit contained in the pottery has been discussed. The crimson and reddish painted materials on the surface of sherds have been studied, respectively. The first appearance of pottery can probably be traced back to an even earlier period.

  18. Moessbauer studies on ancient Chinese pottery of Yangshao Culture Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhengfang; Zheng Qi; Zheng Yufang; Zhongshan Univ., Guangzhou

    1988-01-01

    Eleven pieces of ancient Chinese pottery (4770 B.C. - 2960 B.C.) of Yangshao Culture Period collected from the Xi'an area have been studied by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy. The samples were refired up to 1100 0 C in steps of 100 0 C for 2 h in air. The highest temperature up to which the Moessbauer pattern remains basically unchanged can be identified with the original firing temperature. The result indicates that the firing temperatures for most of the sherds were between 900-1000 0 C. The function of the grit contained in the pottery has been discussed. The crimson and reddish painted materials on the surface of sherds have been studied, respectively. The first appearance of pottery can probably be traced back to an even earlier period. (orig.)

  19. The effect of short recovery period investment on least-cost generation system expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiqun He; David, A.K.; Fernando, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of the short recovery period of private investment on least-cost generation system expansion is analysed, and a trade-off method for generation system expansion, which gives consideration to both the least-cost strategy and the short recovery period of private investment, is presented. First, the optimal mix of generation units under a standard recovery period for all units is established, and then the surcharge, due to the difference between the short recovery period and the standard recovery period, is calculated and shared between all units. The former is an optimization to make best use of natural resources, and the latter is a trade-off method to spread the surcharge throughout the system. (Author)

  20. A survey for very short-period planets in the Kepler data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Brian; Stark, Christopher C.; Chambers, John [Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Adams, Elisabeth R. [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Deming, Drake, E-mail: bjackson@dtm.ciw.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    We conducted a search for very short-period transiting objects in the publicly available Kepler data set. Our preliminary survey has revealed four planetary candidates, all with orbital periods less than 12 hr. We have analyzed the data for these candidates using photometric models that include transit light curves, ellipsoidal variations, and secondary eclipses to constrain the candidates' radii, masses, and effective temperatures. Even with masses of only a few Earth masses, the candidates' short periods mean that they may induce stellar radial velocity signals (a few m s{sup –1}) detectable by currently operating facilities. The origins of such short-period planets are unclear, but we discuss the possibility that they may be the remnants of disrupted hot Jupiters. Whatever their origins, if confirmed as planets, these candidates would be among the shortest-period planets ever discovered. Such planets would be particularly amenable to discovery by the planned TESS mission.

  1. A survey for very short-period planets in the Kepler data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Brian; Stark, Christopher C.; Chambers, John; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Deming, Drake

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a search for very short-period transiting objects in the publicly available Kepler data set. Our preliminary survey has revealed four planetary candidates, all with orbital periods less than 12 hr. We have analyzed the data for these candidates using photometric models that include transit light curves, ellipsoidal variations, and secondary eclipses to constrain the candidates' radii, masses, and effective temperatures. Even with masses of only a few Earth masses, the candidates' short periods mean that they may induce stellar radial velocity signals (a few m s –1 ) detectable by currently operating facilities. The origins of such short-period planets are unclear, but we discuss the possibility that they may be the remnants of disrupted hot Jupiters. Whatever their origins, if confirmed as planets, these candidates would be among the shortest-period planets ever discovered. Such planets would be particularly amenable to discovery by the planned TESS mission.

  2. Staggered and short-period solutions of the saturable discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khare, A.; Rasmussen, K.O.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    2009-01-01

    We point out that the nonlinear Schrodinger lattice with a saturable nonlinearity also admits staggered periodic aswell as localized pulse-like solutions. Further, the same model also admits solutions with a short period. We examine the stability of these solutions and find that the staggered as ...

  3. Spectra of short-period pulsars according to the hypothesis of the two types of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malov, I.F.

    1985-01-01

    The lack of low-frequency turnovers in the spectra of PSR 0531+21 and 1937+21 may be expl ned if the generation of radio emission in these pulsars occurs near the light cylinder. Differences of high frequency cut-offs and spectral inoices for long-period pulsars and short-period ones are discussed

  4. A Search for Exoplanets in Short-Period Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Kaitchuck

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the progress of a search for exoplanets with S-type orbits in short-period binary star systems. The selected targets have stellar orbital periods of just a few days. These systems are eclipsing binaries so that exoplanet transits, if planets exist, will be highly likely. We report the results for seven binary star systems.

  5. Short interval overnight laser scanning suggest sub-circadian periodicity of tree turgor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlinszky, Andras; Barfod, Anders

    2018-01-01

    in amplitude and 2-6hour periodicity. Sub-circadian process dynamics of plants were so far not in focus of research, but here we compare the findings with other published cases of short-term periodicity in leaf turgor, sap flow and especially trunk diameter. Several authors have noted overnight variations...

  6. Short interval overnight laser scanning suggests sub-circadian periodicity of tree turgor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlinszky, Andras; Barfod, Anders

    2018-01-01

    in amplitude and 2-6hour periodicity. Sub-circadian process dynamics of plants were so far not in focus of research, but here we compare the findings with other published cases of short-term periodicity in leaf turgor, sap flow and especially trunk diameter. Several authors have noted overnight variations...

  7. Representation of Business Culture in Selected Malaysian Short Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanirah Wahab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has brought numerous changes in all aspects of life especially in the economic sector. For the past few decades, the importance of economic growth and achievement has become the “obsession” of people around the world. Malaysia is no exception to this economic globalisation whirlwind. As well-known business hub with cutting edge technologies and blooming business enterprises, economic globalisation has shifted the way Malaysian society view things or connect with one another. This paper explores how business culture is represented in Malaysian short stories as well as examines the stand of the writers regarding the impact of economic globalisation on their society. In doing so, this paper compares and critically analyses three - selected short stories in the light of globalisation theory. The five main characteristics of globalisation namely, internationalisation, liberalisation, universalisation, westernisation and deterritorialisation are taken into account while dissecting these literary works. From the analysis, each writer voices out similar concerns regarding the impact of economic globalisation on their society. Malaysian fictions are preoccupied with the erosion of good values and the nation’s physical changes due to economic globalisation. The parallel stand demonstrates that regardless of their ethnicity and gender, they react uniformly to the changes.

  8. Coherent Phonon Dynamics in Short-Period InAs/GaSb Superlattices

    OpenAIRE

    Noe, G. T.; Haugan, H. J.; Brown, G. J.; Sanders, G. D.; Stanton, C. J.; Kono, J.

    2011-01-01

    We have performed ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy studies on a series of InAs/GaSb-based short-period superlattice (SL) samples with periods ranging from 46 \\AA to 71 \\AA. We observe two types of oscillations in the differential reflectivity with fast ($\\sim$ 1- 2 ps) and slow ($\\sim$ 24 ps) periods. The period of the fast oscillations changes with the SL period and can be explained as coherent acoustic phonons generated from carriers photoexcited within the SL. This mode provides an accura...

  9. Effects of age, gender, and stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimi, Mitsunobu

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on age-related changes in visual short-term memory using visual stimuli that did not allow verbal encoding. Experiment 1 examined the effects of age and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. Experiment 2 examined the effects of age, gender, and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. The worst memory performance and the largest performance difference between the age groups were observed in the shortest stimulus presentation period conditions. The performance difference between the age groups became smaller as the stimulus presentation period became longer; however, it did not completely disappear. Although gender did not have a significant effect on d' regardless of the presentation period in the young group, a significant gender-based difference was observed for stimulus presentation periods of 500 ms and 1,000 ms in the older group. This study indicates that the decline in visual short-term memory observed in the older group is due to the interaction of several factors.

  10. Short-period AM CVn systems as optical, X-ray and gravitational-wave sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, G.; Yungelson, L.; Portegies Zwart, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    We model the population of AM CVn systems in the Galaxy and discuss the detectability of these systems with optical, X-ray and gravitational-wave detectors. We concentrate on the short-period (P < 1500 s) systems, some of which are expected to be in a phase of direct-impact accretion. Using a

  11. Evaluation of short-period rainfall estimates from Kalpana-1 satellite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The INSAT Multispectral Rainfall Algorithm (IMSRA) technique for rainfall estimation, has recently been developed to meet the shortcomings of the Global Precipitation Index (GPI) technique of rainfall estimation from the data of geostationary satellites; especially for accurate short period rainfall estimates. This study ...

  12. Meta-historical Foundations of the Periodization of the World Musical Culture History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Opanasiuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The periodization of the history of the world music is carried out on the basis of definition of regularity of the procedural being of cultures, their imaginative type and chronotopus in the area of the last (conditionally 5000-year meta-period. On the meta-cultural level there are: symbolic (ancient cultures, classical (Antique culture, romantic-semantic, generally – romantic (Byzantine culture, intentionally-semantic / intentionally-romantic, generally – intentional (European culture musical art with appropriate principles of modeling of the culturally – artistic phenomenon.

  13. PLANET HUNTERS: ASSESSING THE KEPLER INVENTORY OF SHORT-PERIOD PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Lintott, Chris J.; Lynn, Stuart; Smith, Arfon M.; Simpson, Robert J.; Fischer, Debra A.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Brewer, John M.; Parrish, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We present the results from a search of data from the first 33.5 days of the Kepler science mission (Quarter 1) for exoplanet transits by the Planet Hunters citizen science project. Planet Hunters enlists members of the general public to visually identify transits in the publicly released Kepler light curves via the World Wide Web. Over 24,000 volunteers reviewed the Kepler Quarter 1 data set. We examine the abundance of ≥2 R ⊕ planets on short-period ( ⊕ Planet Hunters ≥85% efficient at identifying transit signals for planets with periods less than 15 days for the Kepler sample of target stars. Our high efficiency rate for simulated transits along with recovery of the majority of Kepler ≥4 R ⊕ planets suggests that the Kepler inventory of ≥4 R ⊕ short-period planets is nearly complete.

  14. Ultra-short period X-ray mirrors: Production and investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibishkin, M.S.; Chkhalo, N.I.; Fraerman, A.A.; Pestov, A.E.; Prokhorov, K.A.; Salashchenko, N.N.; Vainer, Yu.A.

    2005-01-01

    Technological problems that deal with manufacturing of highly effective ultra-short (d=0.7-3.2 nm) period X-ray multilayer mirrors (MLM) are discussed in the article. In an example of Cr/Sc and W/B 4 C MLM it is experimentally shown, that the problem of periodicity and selectivity for multilayer dispersive X-ray elements has been generally solved by now. However, the problem of short-period MLM reflectivity increase related to existing of transitive borders between layers in structures remains rather urgent. The new technique of tungsten deposition using the RF source in order to decrease roughness in borders is discussed and tested. The results of measurements on wavelengths of 0.154, 0.834 and 1.759 nm are given. The RbAP crystals ordinary used in experiments and short-period W/B 4 C MLM produced are compared. The specular and non-specular characteristics of scattering on the 0.154 nm wavelengths are also measured in order to study transitive borders structures

  15. An essay on the extent and significance of the Greek athletic culture in the classical period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Heine

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the extent of the Greek athletic culture in the classical period. It is demonstrated that the athletic culture had a surprising extent, and the article goes on the discuss the historical significance of this fact.......This article discusses the extent of the Greek athletic culture in the classical period. It is demonstrated that the athletic culture had a surprising extent, and the article goes on the discuss the historical significance of this fact....

  16. Complexity analyses show two distinct types of nonlinear dynamics in short heart period variability recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Alberto; Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Cysarz, Dirk; Van Leeuwen, Peter; Takahashi, Anielle C. M.; Catai, Aparecida M.; Gnecchi-Ruscone, Tomaso

    2015-01-01

    Two diverse complexity metrics quantifying time irreversibility and local prediction, in connection with a surrogate data approach, were utilized to detect nonlinear dynamics in short heart period (HP) variability series recorded in fetuses, as a function of the gestational period, and in healthy humans, as a function of the magnitude of the orthostatic challenge. The metrics indicated the presence of two distinct types of nonlinear HP dynamics characterized by diverse ranges of time scales. These findings stress the need to render more specific the analysis of nonlinear components of HP dynamics by accounting for different temporal scales. PMID:25806002

  17. Design of a short-period superconducting undulator at KEK-PF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmi, K.; Ikeda, N.; Ishii, S.

    1998-06-01

    A short-period undulator using a superconducting magnet is proposed. This undulator has been designed to install in the KEK-Photon Factory 2.5-GeV or 6.5-GeV storage ring. The idea of a staggered wiggler, developed in Stanford university, is used in this undulator. The target of the period and K value of the undulator are set to be 1 cm and 1, respectively. We can obtain monochromatic photons with an energy of {approx} 5keV or {approx} 40 keV by using the undulator. (author)

  18. A superconducting short period undulator for a harmonic generation FEL experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingold, G.; Solomon, L.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Krinsky, S.; Li, D.; Lynch, D.; Sheehan, J.; Woodle, M.; Qiu, X.Z.; Yu, L.H.

    1993-01-01

    A three stage superconducting (SC) undulator for a high gain harmonic generation (HGE) FEL experiment in the infrared is under construction at the NSLS in collaboration with Grumman Corporation. A novel undulator technology suitable for short period (6-40mm) undulators will be employed for all three stages, the modulator, the dispersive section and the radiator. The undulator triples the frequency of a 10.4μm CO 2 seed laser. So far a 27 period (one third of the final radiator) prototype radiator has been designed, built and tested

  19. Magnetoresistance calculations for a two-dimensional electron gas with unilateral short-period strong modulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Výborný, Karel; Smrčka, Ludvík

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 20 (2002), s. 205318-1 - 205318-8 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : magnetoresistance * short-period superlattices * two-dimensional electron gas Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2002

  20. Hydrostatic pressure and strain effects in short period InN/GaN superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, Niels Egede

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structures of short-period pseudomorphically grown superlattices (SLs) of the form mInN/nGaN are calculated and the band gap variation with the well and the barrier thicknesses is discussed including hydrostatic pressure effects. The calculated band gap shows a strong dependence...... strongly on the strain conditions and SL geometry, but weakly on the applied external hydrostatic pressure....

  1. Observation of short period fluctuation of CygX-1 with balloon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Michio; Sakurai, Takahisa; Uchida, Masayoshi

    1977-01-01

    CygX-1 presents very complex short period fluctuation of X-ray, therefore the hard X-ray was especially observed in 1972 and 1973 with large balloons, and the data were analyzed. This short period fluctuation and energy spectra of CygX-1 in the normal and flare time bands were compared. The observing apparatuses consisted of the 3 in diameter NaI detector and a high pressure proportional counter. The observing method is to turn the gondora alternately to the directions of source (ON) and background (OFF). As for the data analysis, the events at ON and OFF in the observation data in 1972 and 1973 were plotted for time interval. The background component is in agreement with Poisson's distribution, but source component is not. This difference for Poisson's distribution means the behavior of CygX-1. The power spectrum was analyzed, and the strong power density was observed at 5.4 x 10 -2 Hz in ON, but such power density was not observed in OFF. Accordingly this is presumed to be caused by CygX-1. The events for time interval in flare time are shown. The rise of about 2.9 σ exists at 80 msec. The count rates were compared for photon energy in the normal and flare times. The short period fluctuation of hard X-ray from CygX-1 deviates from Poisson's distribution and is different in the normal and flare times. (Nakai, Y.)

  2. Anomalous short period geomagnetic variations at two stations in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunaratnam, K.

    1986-08-01

    An analysis of the rates of change in the geomagnetic field components in the period range 20-600 sec recorded at Kondavil and Hikkaduwa, two stations in the equatorial electrojet belt near the northern and south western coasts respectively of Sri Lanka, shows anomalous variations. The results confirm induced current concentration in the Palk Strait and deflection of induced currents around the southerncoast of Sri Lanka postulated by earlier workers from observations of SSC and Bay events at Indian stations and from analogue and numerical model studies. At Kondavil, which is situated close to the geomagnetic equator, no appreciable difference in the night-time and day-time values of ΔZ/ΔH and ΔD/ΔH ratios was noticed while at Hikkaduwa, a station situated under the edge of the equatorial electrojet belt, a day-time enhancement of ΔZ/ΔH ratios was found at all periods in the observed range. An enhancement of the H component at Colombo over that at Hikkaduwa was also found at short periods, the enhancement being greater at day-time. The day-time enhancement in the ΔZ/ΔH ratios at Hikkaduwa and in the ratio of the H components at Colombo and Hikkaduwa could be due to the effect of the equatorial electrojet on the short period variations. (author)

  3. Survival of a planet in short-period Neptunian desert under effect of photoevaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionov, Dmitry E.; Pavlyuchenkov, Yaroslav N.; Shematovich, Valery I.

    2018-06-01

    Despite the identification of a great number of Jupiter-like and Earth-like planets at close-in orbits, the number of `hot Neptunes' - the planets with 0.6-18 times of Neptune mass and orbital periods less than 3 d - turned out to be very small. The corresponding region in the mass-period distribution was assigned as the `short-period Neptunian desert'. The common explanation of this fact is that the gaseous planet with few Neptune masses would not survive in the vicinity of host star due to intensive atmosphere outflow induced by heating from stellar radiation. To check this hypothesis, we performed numerical simulations of atmosphere dynamics for a hot Neptune. We adopt the previously developed self-consistent 1D model of hydrogen-helium atmosphere with suprathermal electrons accounted. The mass-loss rates as a function of orbital distances and stellar ages are presented. We conclude that the desert of short-period Neptunes could not be entirely explained by evaporation of planet atmosphere caused by the radiation from a host star. For the less massive Neptune-like planet, the estimated upper limits of the mass-loss may be consistent with the photoevaporation scenario, while the heavier Neptune-like planets could not lose the significant mass through this mechanism. We also found the significant differences between our numerical results and widely used approximate estimates of the mass-loss.

  4. The Effect of a Short-term Glucose Deprivation on Neuron Net Functioning of Hippocampus Primary Culture on a Multi-electrode Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Vedunova M.V.; Korotchenko S.A.; Balashova A.N.; Isakova A.O.; Khaspekov L.G.; Kazantsev V.B.; Mukhina I.V.

    2011-01-01

    There has been studied the effect of a short-term glucose deprivation on neuron net functioning of hippocampus primary culture developing within 32 days on a multi-electrode matrix MED64 (Alpha MED Sciences Company, Japan) in an early and remote periods after deprivation. A short-term glucose deprivation (20 min) has been shown to result in the increase of electrobiological activity of neuron net of hippocampus primary culture, with the cascade of metabolic reactions being activated leading t...

  5. Multi-band photometric study of the short-period eclipsing binary GR Boo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daimei; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Lu, Hongpeng

    2017-05-01

    We present BVRI light curves with complete phase coverage for the short-period (p = 0.377day) eclipsing binary star GR Boo. We carried out the observations using the SARA 90 cm telescope located at Kitt Peak National Observatory. We obtained six new light curve minimum times. By fitting all of the available O-C minimum times, we obtained an updated ephemeris that shows the orbital period of GR Boo is decreasing at a rate of P˙ = - 2.36 ×10-7 days/year. This decrease in its period can be explained by either mass transfer from the more massive component to the less massive one, or angular momentum exchange due to magnetic activities. We also obtained a set of revised orbital parameters using the Wilson & Devinney program. And finally, we concluded that GR Boo is a contact binary with a dark spot.

  6. Short-period oscillations in photoemission from thin films of Cr(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyalikh, Denis V.; Zahn, Peter; Richter, Manuel; Dedkov, Yu. S.; Molodtsov, S. L.

    2005-07-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission (PE) study of thin films of Cr grown on Fe(100) reveals thickness-dependent short-period oscillations of the PE intensity close to the Fermi energy at k‖˜0 . The oscillations are assigned to quantum-well states (QWS) caused by the nesting between the Fermi-surface sheets around the Γ and the X points in the Brillouin zone of antiferromagnetic Cr. The experimental data are confirmed by density-functional calculations applying a screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green’s function method. The period of the experimentally observed QWS oscillations amounts to about 2.6 monolayers and is larger than the fundamental 2-monolayer period of antiferromagnetic coupling in Cr.

  7. THE SHORT ROTATION PERIOD OF HI’IAKA, HAUMEA’S LARGEST SATELLITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, Danielle M.; Margot, Jean-Luc [University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ragozzine, Darin [Florida Institute of Technology, Department of Physics and Space Sciences, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Burkhart, Luke D.; Holman, Matthew [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fuentes, Cesar [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Santiago (Chile); Brown, Michael E., E-mail: dhastings@g.ucla.edu [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, MC 150-21, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Hi’iaka is the larger outer satellite of the dwarf planet Haumea. Using relative photometry from the Hubble Space Telescope and Magellan and a phase dispersion minimization analysis, we have identified the rotation period of Hi’iaka to be ∼9.8 hr (double peaked). This is ∼120 times faster than its orbital period, creating new questions about the formation of this system and possible tidal evolution. The rapid rotation suggests that Hi’iaka could have a significant obliquity and spin precession that could be visible in light curves within a few years. We then turn to an investigation of what we learn about the (currently unclear) formation of the Haumea system and family based on this unexpectedly rapid rotation rate. We explore the importance of the initial semimajor axis and rotation period in tidal evolution theory and find that they strongly influence the time required to despin to synchronous rotation, relevant to understanding a wide variety of satellite and binary systems. We find that despinning tides do not necessarily lead to synchronous spin periods for Hi’iaka, even if it formed near the Roche limit. Therefore, the short rotation period of Hi’iaka does not rule out significant tidal evolution. Hi’iaka’s spin period is also consistent with formation near its current location and spin-up due to Haumea-centric impactors.

  8. Improvement of the Original Isolation Procedure for Hormone Studies in Short-Time Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadder Atmaca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies indicated that hormone responsiveness of cells and metabolic activity was lost during various of experimental procedure. In the light of this observation, I aimed to investigate to obtain optimal conditions for short time cultured hepatocytes and also to determine the type of test can be used to evaluate suitablity of hepatocytes for hormones studies. During the isolation period 50 IU/ml and 100 IU/ml collagenase were used. Adrenaline (10-6M was used to measure sensitivity of hepatocytes to hormones and glycogenolsis was measured at the end of 2hr incubation period. Adrenaline significantly increased gylcogenolysis (Control: 0.16±0.01 mg/2hr; Adrenaline: 0.30±0.01 mg/2hr only when the 50 IU/ml collagenase was used and the viability of the cells were over 95%. Viability tests were applied to hepatocytes that obtained by using 50 IU collagenase. Cellular glutathione, methylthiazoltetrazolium reduction, lactatedehdrogenase leakage, ATP level measured to determine viability following the attachment and incubation period. No differences were observed at the end of each period.Altogether, the present study indicated that membrane integrity and metabolic function of the hepatocytes can be improved by modifying slightly the original procedure of Reese and Byard.

  9. QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS AND BROADBAND VARIABILITY IN SHORT MAGNETAR BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppenkothen, Daniela; Watts, Anna L.; Uttley, Phil; Van der Horst, Alexander J.; Van der Klis, Michiel [Astronomical Institute ' ' Anton Pannekoek' ' , University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090-GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kouveliotou, Chryssa [Office of Science and Technology, ZP12, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Goegues, Ersin [Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Orhanl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I -Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Granot, Jonathan [The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Ra' anana 43537 (Israel); Vaughan, Simon [X-Ray and Observational Astronomy Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Finger, Mark H., E-mail: D.Huppenkothen@uva.nl [Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in magnetar giant flares has opened up prospects for neutron star asteroseismology. However, with only three giant flares ever recorded, and only two with data of sufficient quality to search for QPOs, such analysis is seriously data limited. We set out a procedure for doing QPO searches in the far more numerous, short, less energetic magnetar bursts. The short, transient nature of these bursts requires the implementation of sophisticated statistical techniques to make reliable inferences. Using Bayesian statistics, we model the periodogram as a combination of red noise at low frequencies and white noise at high frequencies, which we show is a conservative approach to the problem. We use empirical models to make inferences about the potential signature of periodic and QPOs at these frequencies. We compare our method with previously used techniques and find that although it is on the whole more conservative, it is also more reliable in ruling out false positives. We illustrate our Bayesian method by applying it to a sample of 27 bursts from the magnetar SGR J0501+4516 observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and we find no evidence for the presence of QPOs in any of the bursts in the unbinned spectra, but do find a candidate detection in the binned spectra of one burst. However, whether this signal is due to a genuine quasi-periodic process, or can be attributed to unmodeled effects in the noise is at this point a matter of interpretation.

  10. Absence of a Metallicity Effect for Ultra-short-period Planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, Joshua N.; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Isaacson, Howard; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Rogers, Leslie; Petigura, Erik A.; Howard, Andrew W.; Schlaufman, Kevin C.; Cargile, Phillip; Hebb, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Ultra-short-period (USP) planets are a newly recognized class of planets with periods shorter than one day and radii smaller than about 2  R ⊕ . It has been proposed that USP planets are the solid cores of hot Jupiters that have lost their gaseous envelopes due to photo-evaporation or Roche lobe overflow. We test this hypothesis by asking whether USP planets are associated with metal-rich stars, as has long been observed for hot Jupiters. We find the metallicity distributions of USP-planet and hot-Jupiter hosts to be significantly different ( p = 3 × 10 −4 ) based on Keck spectroscopy of Kepler stars. Evidently, the sample of USP planets is not dominated by the evaporated cores of hot Jupiters. The metallicity distribution of stars with USP planets is indistinguishable from that of stars with short-period planets with sizes between 2 and 4  R ⊕ . Thus, it remains possible that the USP planets are the solid cores of formerly gaseous planets that are smaller than Neptune.

  11. Absence of a Metallicity Effect for Ultra-short-period Planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, Joshua N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Isaacson, Howard; Marcy, Geoffrey W. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rogers, Leslie [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Petigura, Erik A.; Howard, Andrew W. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schlaufman, Kevin C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cargile, Phillip [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hebb, Leslie [Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Ultra-short-period (USP) planets are a newly recognized class of planets with periods shorter than one day and radii smaller than about 2  R {sub ⊕}. It has been proposed that USP planets are the solid cores of hot Jupiters that have lost their gaseous envelopes due to photo-evaporation or Roche lobe overflow. We test this hypothesis by asking whether USP planets are associated with metal-rich stars, as has long been observed for hot Jupiters. We find the metallicity distributions of USP-planet and hot-Jupiter hosts to be significantly different ( p = 3 × 10{sup −4}) based on Keck spectroscopy of Kepler stars. Evidently, the sample of USP planets is not dominated by the evaporated cores of hot Jupiters. The metallicity distribution of stars with USP planets is indistinguishable from that of stars with short-period planets with sizes between 2 and 4  R {sub ⊕}. Thus, it remains possible that the USP planets are the solid cores of formerly gaseous planets that are smaller than Neptune.

  12. Epitaxial nanowire formation in metamorphic GaAs/GaPAs short-period superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nan; Ahrenkiel, S. Phillip

    2017-07-01

    Metamorphic growth presents routes to novel nanomaterials with unique properties that may be suitable for a range of applications. We discuss self-assembled, epitaxial nanowires formed during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of metamorphic GaAs/GaPAs short-period superlattices. The heterostructures incorporate strain-engineered GaPAs compositional grades on 6°-B miscut GaAs substrates. Lateral diffusion within the SPS into vertically aligned, three-dimensional columns results in nanowires extending along A directions with a lateral period of 70-90 nm. The microstructure is probed by transmission electron microscopy to confirm the presence of coherent GaAs nanowires within GaPAs barriers. The compositional profile is inferred from analysis of {200} dark-field image contrast and lattice images.

  13. Role of short periodic orbits in quantum maps with continuous openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Carlos A.; Carlo, Gabriel G.; Benito, R. M.; Borondo, F.

    2018-04-01

    We apply a recently developed semiclassical theory of short periodic orbits to the continuously open quantum tribaker map. In this paradigmatic system the trajectories are partially bounced back according to continuous reflectivity functions. This is relevant in many situations that include optical microresonators and more complicated boundary conditions. In a perturbative regime, the shortest periodic orbits belonging to the classical repeller of the open map—a cantor set given by a region of exactly zero reflectivity—prove to be extremely robust in supporting a set of long-lived resonances of the continuously open quantum maps. Moreover, for steplike functions a significant reduction in the number needed is obtained, similarly to the completely open situation. This happens despite a strong change in the spectral properties when compared to the discontinuous reflectivity case. In order to give a more realistic interpretation of these results we compare with a Fresnel-type reflectivity function.

  14. Methodological issues and pitfalls of short safety culture questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagtman, H.M.; Koornneef, F.; Akselsson, R.; Stewart, S.

    2013-01-01

    Safety culture surveys have been fielded in many different sectors of industrial activities. Many of these surveys consist of a long list of questions which is time consuming for the respondents. As part of the FP6 HILAS project a shorter survey has been developed, which aimed at getting a high

  15. Cooperative learning combined with short periods of lecturing: A good alternative in teaching biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Santander, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The informal activities of cooperative learning and short periods of lecturing has been combined and used in the university teaching of biochemistry as part of the first year course of Optics and Optometry in the academic years 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. The lessons were previously elaborated by the teacher and included all that is necessary to understand the topic (text, figures, graphics, diagrams, pictures, etc.). Additionally, a questionnaire was prepared for every chapter. All lessons contained three parts: objectives, approach and development, and the assessment of the topic. Team work, responsibility, and communication skills were some of the abilities developed with this new methodology. Students worked collaboratively in small groups of two or three following the teacher's instructions with short periods of lecturing that clarified misunderstood concepts. Homework was minimized. On comparing this combined methodology with the traditional one (only lecture), students were found to exhibit a higher satisfaction with the new method. They were more involved in the learning process and had a better attitude toward the subject. The use of this new methodology showed a significant increase in the mean score of the students' academic results. The rate of students who failed the subject was significantly inferior in comparison with those who failed in the previous years when only lecturing was applied. This combined methodology helped the teacher to observe the apprenticeship process of students better and to act as a facilitator in the process of building students' knowledge. Copyright © 2008 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Determination of circulation and short period fluctuation in Ilha Grande Bay (RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimine Ikeda

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available A mesosoale study was made of the Ilha Grande area. The local circulation described through -progressive vector diagrams showed a clochwise bottom circulation determined in June 1976, while in the upper 10 m the direction of the flow entering the Ilha Grande Bay was towards the center in the west and towards the Marambaia sandbank in the east side of the Bay. Short periods and amplitude fluctuations were evaluted using power spectral analysis, Fourier and Maximum Entropy Method, which showed that in the upper 10 m predominant periods decrease from 1.1h (A = 6.3cm sec-1 (position = 3C to 1.0h (A = 7.4 cm sec-1 (position = 2D and increase to 5.8h (A = 6.8 cm., sec-1 (position = ID, while at the bottom layer the predominant period increases from 0.4 h (A = 5.0 cm sec-1 (position = 3G to 6.4h (A = 7.0 cm sec-1 (position = 2G and to 4.4h (A = 7.9 cm sec-1 (position = 1G . From the original data it has been possible to determine an "intense pulsation" between 30-70 cm sec-1 in the upper 10 m with about 1.0h period and 10-20 min duration in all the stations.

  17. Short communication: Lactose enhances bile tolerance of yogurt culture bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Behannis; Aryana, Kayanush

    2018-03-01

    Lactose is an energy source for culture bacteria. Bile tolerance is an important probiotic property. Our aim was to elucidate the effect of lactose on bile tolerance of yogurt starter culture Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB-12 and Streptococcus thermophilus ST-M5. Bile tolerance of pure cultures was determined using 0.3% oxgall in MRS THIO broth (Difco, Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD) for L. bulgaricus and 0.3% oxgall in M17 broth (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) for Strep. thermophilus. Lactose was added to both broths at 0 (control), 1, 3, and 5% (wt/vol) broth. Dilutions were plated hourly for 12 h. Experiments were replicated 3 times. At 2, 4, and 12 h of incubation, lactose incorporated at all amounts, 1, 3, and 5% (wt/vol), showed higher counts of Strep. thermophilus ST-M5 compared with the control. Lactose use at 5% (wt/vol) significantly enhanced bile tolerance of both L. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus compared with control. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Short-Term Study Abroad: Culture and the Path of Least Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmons, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    American universities are decreasing the length of study abroad programs in an effort to send more students abroad. Recent publications find that "short-term" programs struggle to increase participants' cultural understanding. However, these research findings fail to offer an explanation as to why shorter programs are falling short. This…

  19. Effect of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs on Students' Cultural Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The number of U.S. students studying abroad has been growing, particularly those participating in short-term trips. However, literature on the effect of these short-term trips is lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess quantitatively the effect on bachelor students' cross-cultural adaptability using a pre-post design. Significant changes…

  20. Dissolution of short and long rockwool and glasswool fibers by macrophages in flowthrough cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, K; Holopainen, M; Kangas, J; Kalliokoski, P; Savolainen, K

    1998-07-01

    Dissolution of MMVF (man-made vitreous fibers) by macrophages has previously been studied utilizing cell cultures in wells. A new, more dynamic method has been developed to explore the effects of macrophages on MMVF dissolution. In this method, the culture medium flows through a membrane on which the macrophages and fibers are placed. The dissolution of short and long rockwool and glasswool fibers was investigated in the present study by macrophages by assessing the dissolution of Si (silicon), Fe (iron), and Al (aluminium) from the fibers. Dissolution of these elements usually increased as a function of time. Generally, the dissolution of elements from the fibers in the flowthrough culture exceeded that observed with the culture in wells system. The dissolution of glasswool fibers was greater in medium than in cell culture, whereas the opposite was true for rockwool fibers. Dissolution of Si was greater from glasswool than from rockwool fibers, while the opposite was true for Fe and Al. Macrophages that had phagocytized fibers in flowthrough culture contained Si, and there were also precipitations with Si in the samples. The fibers in the flowthrough culture also exhibited surface changes such as breakings, pittings, etching, and peeling. The short rockwool fibers tended to fracture more than short glasswool fibers, while long glasswool fibers were more extensively broken than short glasswool fibers. The results with this new, dynamic, flowthrough culture method with macrophages demonstrate that this method provides valuable information on the abilities of macrophages to dissolve MMVF leading to subsequent morphological changes of fibers.

  1. THE FREQUENCY OF LOW-MASS EXOPLANETS. III. TOWARD η+ AT SHORT PERIODS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Tinney, C. G.; Bailey, J.; Horner, J.; Butler, R. P.; O'Toole, Simon J.; Jones, H. R. A.; Carter, B. D.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the occurrence rate of 'super-Earth' planets (m sin i + ) is a critically important step on the path toward determining the frequency of Earth-like planets (η + ), and hence the uniqueness of our solar system. Current radial-velocity surveys, achieving precisions of 1 m s -1 , are now able to detect super-Earths and provide meaningful estimates of their occurrence rate. We present an analysis of 67 solar-type stars from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search specifically targeted for very high precision observations. When corrected for incompleteness, we find that the planet occurrence rate increases sharply with decreasing planetary mass. Our results are consistent with those from other surveys: in periods shorter than 50 days, we find that 3.0% of stars host a giant (msin i > 100 M + ) planet, and that 17.4% of stars host a planet with msin i + . The preponderance of low-mass planets in short-period orbits is in conflict with formation simulations in which the majority of super-Earths reside at larger orbital distances. This work gives a hint as to the size of η + , but to make meaningful predictions on the frequency of terrestrial planets in longer, potentially habitable orbits, low-mass terrestrial planet searches at periods of 100-200 days must be made an urgent priority for ground-based Doppler planet searches in the years ahead.

  2. SOHO/SWAN OBSERVATIONS OF SHORT-PERIOD SPACECRAFT TARGET COMETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combi, M. R.; Lee, Y.; Patel, T. S.; Maekinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quemerais, E.

    2011-01-01

    SWAN, the Solar Wind ANisotropies all-sky hydrogen Lyα camera on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft that makes all-sky images of interplanetary neutral hydrogen, has an ongoing campaign to make special observations of comets, both short- and long-period ones, in addition to the serendipitous observations of comets as part of the all-sky monitoring program. We report here on a study of several short-period comets that were detected by SWAN: 21P/Giacobini-Zinner (1998 and 2005 apparitions), 19P/Borrelly (2001 apparition), 81P/Wild 2 (1997 apparition), and 103P/Hartley 2 (1997 apparition). SWAN observes comets over long continuous stretches of their visible apparitions and therefore provides excellent temporal coverage of the water production. For some of the observations we are also able to analyze an entire sequence of images over many days to several weeks/months using our time-resolved model and extract daily average water production rates over continuous periods of several days to months. The short-term (outburst) and long-term behavior can be correlated with other observations. The overall long-term variation is examined in light of seasonal effects seen in the pre- to post-perihelion differences. For 21P/Giacobini-Zinner and 81P/Wild 2 the activity variations over each apparition were more continuously monitored but nonetheless consistent with previous observations. For 19P/Borrelly we found a very steep variation of water production rates, again consistent with some previous observations, and a variation over six months around perihelion that was reasonably consistent with the spin-axis model of Schleicher et al. and the illumination of the main active areas. During the 1997-1998 apparition of 103P/Hartley 2, the target comet of the EPOXI mission (the Deep Impact extended mission), we found a variation with heliocentric distance (∼r -3.6 ) that was almost as steep as 19P/Borrelly and, given the small measured radius near aphelion, this places

  3. Language model: Extension to solve inconsistency, incompleteness, and short query in cultural heritage collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kian Lam; Lim, Chen Kim

    2017-10-01

    With the explosive growth of online information such as email messages, news articles, and scientific literature, many institutions and museums are converting their cultural collections from physical data to digital format. However, this conversion resulted in the issues of inconsistency and incompleteness. Besides, the usage of inaccurate keywords also resulted in short query problem. Most of the time, the inconsistency and incompleteness are caused by the aggregation fault in annotating a document itself while the short query problem is caused by naive user who has prior knowledge and experience in cultural heritage domain. In this paper, we presented an approach to solve the problem of inconsistency, incompleteness and short query by incorporating the Term Similarity Matrix into the Language Model. Our approach is tested on the Cultural Heritage in CLEF (CHiC) collection which consists of short queries and documents. The results show that the proposed approach is effective and has improved the accuracy in retrieval time.

  4. Performance of a reactor containing denitrifying immobilized biomass in removing ethanol and aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) in a short operating period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusmao, Valquiria Ribeiro; Chinalia, Fabio Alexandre; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amancio

    2007-01-01

    A horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass reactor (HAIB) containing denitrifying biomass was evaluated with respect to its ability to remove, separately and in a short operating period (30 days), organic matter, nitrate, and the hydrocarbons benzene (41.4 mg L -1 ), toluene (27.8 mg L -1 ), ethylbenzene (31.1 mg L -1 ), o-xylene (28.5 mg L -1 ), m-xylene (28.4 mg L -1 ) and p-xylene (32.1 mg L -1 ). The purified culture, which was grown in the presence of the specific hydrocarbon, was used as the source of cells to be immobilized in the polyurethane foam. After 30 days of operation, the foam was removed and a new immobilized biomass was grown in the presence of another hydrocarbon. The average hydrocarbon removal efficiency attained was 97%. The organic matter, especially ethanol, was removed with an average efficiency of 83% at a mean influent concentration of 1185.0 mg L -1 . A concomitant removal of 97% of nitrate was observed for a mean influent concentration of 423.4 mg L -1 . The independent removal of each hydrocarbon demonstrated that these contaminants can be biodegraded separately, without the need for a compound to be the primary substrate for the degradation of another. This study proposes the application of the system for treatment of areas contaminated with these compounds, with substitution and formation of a biofilm in a 30-day period

  5. Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Pivovaroff, Mike J.; Soufli, Regina; Alameda, Jennifer; Mirkarimi, Paul; Descalle, Marie-Anne; Baker, Sherry L.; McCarville, Tom; Ziock, Klaus; Hornback, Donald; Romaine, Suzanne; Bruni, Ric; Zhong, Zhong; Honkimäki, Veijo; Ziegler, Eric; Christensen, Finn E.; Jakobsen, Anders C.

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer coatings enhance x-ray mirror performance at incidence angles steeper than the critical angle, allowing for improved flux, design flexibility and facilitating alignment. In an attempt to extend the use of multilayer coatings to photon energies higher than previously achieved, we have developed multilayers with ultra-short periods between 1 and 2 nm based on the material system WC/SiC. This material system was selected because it possesses very sharp and stable interfaces. In this article, we show highlights from a series of experiments performed in order to characterize the stress, microstructure and morphology of the multilayer films, as well as their reflective performance at photon energies from 8 to 384 keV

  6. The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE): Observing Mass Loss on Short-Period Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Arika; Fleming, Brian; France, Kevin

    2018-06-01

    The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE) is an NUV spectrograph packaged into a 6U CubeSat, designed to characterize the interaction between exoplanetary atmospheres and their host stars. CUTE will conduct a transit spectroscopy survey, gathering data over multiple transits on more than 12 short-period exoplanets with a range of masses and radii. The instrument will characterize the spectral properties of the transit light curves to atomic and molecular absorption features predicted to exist in the upper atmospheres of these planets, including Mg I, Mg II, Fe II, and OH. The shape and evolution of these spectral light curves will be used to quantify mass loss rates, the stellar drives of that mass loss, and the possible existence of exoplanetary magnetic fiends. This poster presents the science motivation for CUTE, planned observation and data analysis methods, and expected results.

  7. THE VERY SHORT PERIOD M DWARF BINARY SDSS J001641-000925

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, James R. A.; Becker, Andrew C.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Gunning, Heather C.; Munshi, Ferah A.; Albright, Meagan [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); West, Andrew A. [Astronomy Department, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Bochanski, John J. [Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Hilton, Eric J., E-mail: jrad@astro.washington.edu [Department of Geology and Geophysics and Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    We present follow-up observations and analysis of the recently discovered short period low-mass eclipsing binary, SDSS J001641-000925. With an orbital period of 0.19856 days, this system has one of the shortest known periods for an M dwarf binary system. Medium-resolution spectroscopy and multi-band photometry for the system are presented. Markov Chain Monte Carlo modeling of the light curves and radial velocities yields estimated masses for the stars of M {sub 1} = 0.54 {+-} 0.07 M {sub Sun} and M {sub 2} = 0.34 {+-} 0.04 M {sub Sun }, and radii of R {sub 1} = 0.68 {+-} 0.03 R {sub Sun} and R {sub 2} = 0.58 {+-} 0.03 R {sub Sun }, respectively. This solution places both components above the critical Roche overfill limit, providing strong evidence that SDSS J001641-000925 is the first verified M-dwarf contact binary system. Within the follow-up spectroscopy we find signatures of non-solid body rotation velocities, which we interpret as evidence for mass transfer or loss within the system. In addition, our photometry samples the system over nine years, and we find strong evidence for period decay at the rate of P-dot {approx} 8 s yr{sup -1}. Both of these signatures raise the intriguing possibility that the system is in over-contact, and actively losing angular momentum, likely through mass loss. This places SDSS J001641-000925 as not just the first M-dwarf over-contact binary, but one of the few systems of any spectral type known to be actively undergoing coalescence. Further study of SDSS J001641-000925 is ongoing to verify the nature of the system, which may prove to be a unique astrophysical laboratory.

  8. Short-term Periodization Models: Effects on Strength and Speed-strength Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Hagen; Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Mickel, Christoph; Sander, Andre; Szilvas, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Dividing training objectives into consecutive phases to gain morphological adaptations (hypertrophy phase) and neural adaptations (strength and power phases) is called strength-power periodization (SPP). These phases differ in program variables (volume, intensity, and exercise choice or type) and use stepwise intensity progression and concomitant decreasing volume, converging to peak intensity (peaking phase). Undulating periodization strategies rotate these program variables in a bi-weekly, weekly, or daily fashion. The following review addresses the effects of different short-term periodization models on strength and speed-strength both with subjects of different performance levels and with competitive athletes from different sports who use a particular periodization model during off-season, pre-season, and in-season conditioning. In most periodization studies, it is obvious that the strength endurance sessions are characterized by repetition zones (12-15 repetitions) that induce muscle hypertrophy in persons with a low performance level. Strictly speaking, when examining subjects with a low training level, many periodization studies include mainly hypertrophy sessions interspersed with heavy strength/power sessions. Studies have demonstrated equal or statistically significant higher gains in maximal strength for daily undulating periodization compared with SPP in subjects with a low to moderate performance level. The relatively short intervention period and the lack of concomitant sports conditioning call into question the practical value of these findings for competitive athletes. Possibly owing to differences in mesocycle length, conditioning programs, and program variables, competitive athletes either maintained or improved strength and/or speed-strength performance by integrating daily undulating periodization and SPP during off-season, pre-season and in-season conditioning. In high-performance sports, high-repetition strength training (>15) should be

  9. Short-term spheroid culture of primary colorectal cancer cells as an in vitro model for personalizing cancer medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Maria; Hagel, Grith; Glenthoj, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy treatment of cancer remains a challenge due to the molecular and functional heterogeneity displayed by tumours originating from the same cell type. The pronounced heterogeneity makes it difficult for oncologists to devise an effective therapeutic strategy for the patient. One approac...... and combinations most commonly used for treatment of colorectal cancer. In summary, short-term spheroid culture of primary colorectal adenocarcinoma cells represents a promising in vitro model for use in personalized medicine....... for increasing treatment efficacy is to test the chemosensitivity of cancer cells obtained from the patient's tumour. 3D culture represents a promising method for modelling patient tumours in vitro. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate how closely short-term spheroid cultures of primary colorectal...... cancer cells resemble the original tumour. Colorectal cancer cells were isolated from human tumour tissue and cultured as spheroids. Spheroid cultures were established with a high success rate and remained viable for at least 10 days. The spheroids exhibited significant growth over a period of 7 days...

  10. Born dry in the photoevaporation desert: Kepler's ultra-short-period planets formed water-poor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Eric D.

    2017-11-01

    Recent surveys have uncovered an exciting new population of ultra-short-period (USP) planets with orbital periods less than a day. These planets typically have radii ≲1.5 R⊕, indicating that they likely have rocky compositions. This stands in contrast to the overall distribution of planets out to ∼100 d, which is dominated by low-density sub-Neptunes above 2 R⊕, which must have gaseous envelopes to explain their size. However, on the USP orbits, planets are bombarded by intense levels of photoionizing radiation and consequently gaseous sub-Neptunes are extremely vulnerable to losing their envelopes to atmospheric photoevaporation. Using models of planet evolution, I show that the rocky USP planets can easily be produced as the evaporated remnants of sub-Neptunes with H/He envelopes and that we can therefore understand the observed dearth of USP sub-Neptunes as a natural consequence of photoevaporation. Critically however, planets on USP orbits could often retain their envelopes if they are formed with very high-metallicity water-dominated envelopes. Such water-rich planets would commonly be ≳2 R⊕ today, which is inconsistent with the observed evaporation desert, indicating that most USP planets likely formed from water-poor material within the snow-line. Finally, I examine the special case of 55 Cancri e and its possible composition in the light of recent observations, and discuss the prospects for further characterizing this population with future observations.

  11. Raman analysis of phonon modes in a short period AlN/GaN superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Ketaki; Datta, Debopam; Gosztola, David J.; Shi, Fengyuan; Nicholls, Alan; Stroscio, Michael A.; Dutta, Mitra

    2018-03-01

    AlN/GaN-based optoelectronic devices have been the subject of intense research underlying the commercialization of efficient devices. Areas of considerable interest are the study of their lattice dynamics, phonon transport, and electron-phonon interactions specific to the interface of these heterostructures which results in additional optical phonon modes known as interface phonon modes. In this study, the framework of the dielectric continuum model (DCM) has been used to compare and analyze the optical phonon modes obtained from experimental Raman scattering measurements on AlN/GaN short-period superlattices. We have observed the localized E2(high), A1(LO) and the E1(TO) modes in superlattice measurements at frequencies shifted from their bulk values. To the best of our knowledge, the nanostructures used in these studies are among the smallest yielding useful Raman signatures for the interface modes. In addition, we have also identified an additional spread of interface phonon modes in the TO range resulting from the superlattice periodicity. The Raman signature contribution from the underlying AlxGa1-xN ternary has also been observed and analyzed. A temperature calibration was done based on Stokes/anti-Stokes ratio of A1(LO) using Raman spectroscopy in a broad operating temperature range. Good agreement between the experimental results and theoretically calculated calibration plot predicted using Bose-Einstein statistics was obtained.

  12. Compensatory growth response of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum following short starvation periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodi, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Eisa; Farhadian, Omidvar; Mahboobi-Soofiani, Nasrollah; Morshedi, Vahid

    2015-07-01

    This sixty-day study was performed to determine the effects of short-term starvation and re-feeding cycles on growth, feeding performances and body composition of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss). Three hundred trout fingerlings with an average initial weight of 17.5±0.06 g were randomly distributed in 15 circular fiberglass tanks. The fish were exposed to 5 different feeding regimes; control: continuously fed twice daily to apparent satiation; T1: starved for 1 day and re-fed for 2 days; T2: starved for 1 day and re-fed for 4 days; T3: starved for 3 days and re-fed for 12 days; T4: starved for 4 days and re-fed for 16 days. At the end of the experiment, growth performance, feed utilization, whole body ash and moisture contents were not significantly ( P>0.05) different among the treatments. However, whole body protein content in T3 was significantly higher than other treatments ( Ptrout culture.

  13. Use of 7Be to document soil erosion associated with a short period of extreme rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda, A.; Schuller, P.; Walling, D.E.; Castillo, A.

    2008-01-01

    Intensification and expansion of agricultural production since the 1970s have increased soil erosion problems in south-central Chile. Quantitative information on soil loss is needed for erosion risk assessment and to establish the effectiveness of improved land management practices. Since information from traditional sources, such as erosion plots, is limited, attention has been directed to the use of environmental radionuclides for documenting erosion rates. Cs-137 has been successfully utilised for this purpose, but only provides information on medium-term erosion rates. There is also a need to document event-related soil erosion. This paper outlines the basis for using 7 Be measurements to document short-term erosion and reports its successful use for quantifying the erosion that occurred within an arable field, as a result of a period of heavy rainfall (400 mm in 27 days) occurring in May 2005. The study field had been under a no-till, no-burning system for 18 years, but immediately prior to the period of heavy rainfall the harvest residues were burnt. The erosion recorded therefore reflected both the extreme nature of the rainfall and the effects of the burning in increasing surface runoff and erosion. The sampled area corresponded to that used previously by the authors to document the medium-term erosion rates associated with both conventional tillage and the subsequent switch to a no-till system. Comparisons between the erosion documented for the period of heavy rainfall in 2005 with these medium-term erosion rates permits some tentative conclusions regarding the importance of extreme events and the impact of burning in increasing the erosion associated with the no-till system

  14. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Figueredo Chaves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form for assessment of psychosocial self-efficacy in diabetes care within the Brazilian cultural context. METHODS Assessment of the instrument’s conceptual equivalence, as well as its translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed following international standards. The Expert Committee’s assessment of the translated version was conducted through a web questionnaire developed and applied via the web tool e-Surv. The cross-culturally adapted version was used for the pre-test, which was carried out via phone call in a group of eleven health care service users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pre-test results were examined by a group of experts, composed by health care consultants, applied linguists and statisticians, aiming at an adequate version of the instrument, which was subsequently used for test and retest in a sample of 100 users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus via phone call, their answers being recorded by the web tool e-Surv. Internal consistency and reproducibility of analysis were carried out within the statistical programming environment R. RESULTS Face and content validity were attained and the Brazilian Portuguese version, entitled Escala de Autoeficácia em Diabetes – Versão Curta, was established. The scale had acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.634 (95%CI 0.494– 0.737, while the correlation of the total score in the two periods was considered moderate (0.47. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.50. CONCLUSIONS The translated and cross-culturally adapted version of the instrument to spoken Brazilian Portuguese was considered valid and reliable to be used for assessment within the Brazilian population diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of a web tool (e-Surv for recording the Expert Committee responses as well as the responses in the

  15. Towards a Fundamental Understanding of Short Period Eclipsing Binary Systems Using Kepler Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Andrej

    Kepler's ultra-high precision photometry is revolutionizing stellar astrophysics. We are seeing intrinsic phenomena on an unprecedented scale, and interpreting them is both a challenge and an exciting privilege. Eclipsing binary stars are of particular significance for stellar astrophysics because precise modeling leads to fundamental parameters of the orbiting components: masses, radii, temperatures and luminosities to better than 1-2%. On top of that, eclipsing binaries are ideal physical laboratories for studying other physical phenomena, such as asteroseismic properties, chromospheric activity, proximity effects, mass transfer in close binaries, etc. Because of the eclipses, the basic geometry is well constrained, but a follow-up spectroscopy is required to get the dynamical masses and the absolute scale of the system. A conjunction of Kepler photometry and ground- based spectroscopy is a treasure trove for eclipsing binary star astrophysics. This proposal focuses on a carefully selected set of 100 short period eclipsing binary stars. The fundamental goal of the project is to study the intrinsic astrophysical effects typical of short period binaries in great detail, utilizing Kepler photometry and follow-up spectroscopy to devise a robust and consistent set of modeling results. The complementing spectroscopy is being secured from 3 approved and fully funded programs: the NOAO 4-m echelle spectroscopy at Kitt Peak (30 nights; PI Prsa), the 10- m Hobby-Eberly Telescope high-resolution spectroscopy (PI Mahadevan), and the 2.5-m Sloan Digital Sky Survey III spectroscopy (PI Mahadevan). The targets are prioritized by the projected scientific yield. Short period detached binaries host low-mass (K- and M- type) components for which the mass-radius relationship is sparsely populated and still poorly understood, as the radii appear up to 20% larger than predicted by the population models. We demonstrate the spectroscopic detection viability in the secondary

  16. The Very Short Period M Dwarf Binary SDSS J001641-000925

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, James R. A.; Becker, Andrew C.; West, Andrew A.; Bochanski, John J.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Holtzman, Jon; Gunning, Heather C.; Hilton, Eric J.; Munshi, Ferah A.; Albright, Meagan

    2013-02-01

    We present follow-up observations and analysis of the recently discovered short period low-mass eclipsing binary, SDSS J001641-000925. With an orbital period of 0.19856 days, this system has one of the shortest known periods for an M dwarf binary system. Medium-resolution spectroscopy and multi-band photometry for the system are presented. Markov Chain Monte Carlo modeling of the light curves and radial velocities yields estimated masses for the stars of M 1 = 0.54 ± 0.07 M ⊙ and M 2 = 0.34 ± 0.04 M ⊙, and radii of R 1 = 0.68 ± 0.03 R ⊙ and R 2 = 0.58 ± 0.03 R ⊙, respectively. This solution places both components above the critical Roche overfill limit, providing strong evidence that SDSS J001641-000925 is the first verified M-dwarf contact binary system. Within the follow-up spectroscopy we find signatures of non-solid body rotation velocities, which we interpret as evidence for mass transfer or loss within the system. In addition, our photometry samples the system over nine years, and we find strong evidence for period decay at the rate of \\dot{P}\\sim 8 s yr-1. Both of these signatures raise the intriguing possibility that the system is in over-contact, and actively losing angular momentum, likely through mass loss. This places SDSS J001641-000925 as not just the first M-dwarf over-contact binary, but one of the few systems of any spectral type known to be actively undergoing coalescence. Further study of SDSS J001641-000925 is ongoing to verify the nature of the system, which may prove to be a unique astrophysical laboratory. Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. Support for the design and construction of the Magellan Echellette Spectrograph was received from the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, the

  17. Estimating return periods of extreme values from relatively short time series of winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Kristjan; Agustsson, Halfdan; Rognvaldsson, Olafur; Arfeuille, Gilles

    2013-04-01

    An important factor for determining the prospect of individual wind farm sites is the frequency of extreme winds at hub height. Here, extreme winds are defined as the value of the highest 10 minutes averaged wind speed with a 50 year return period, i.e. annual exceeding probability of 2% (Rodrigo, 2010). A frequently applied method to estimate winds in the lowest few hundred meters above ground is to extrapolate observed 10-meter winds logarithmically to higher altitudes. Recent study by Drechsel et al. (2012) showed however that this methodology is not as accurate as interpolating simulated results from the global ECMWF numerical weather prediction (NWP) model to the desired height. Observations of persistent low level jets near Colima in SW-Mexico also show that the logarithmic approach can give highly inaccurate results for some regions (Arfeuille et al., 2012). To address these shortcomings of limited, and/or poorly representative, observations and extrapolations of winds one can use NWP models to dynamically scale down relatively coarse resolution atmospheric analysis. In the case of limited computing resources one has typically to make a compromise between spatial resolution and the duration of the simulated period, both of which can limit the quality of the wind farm siting. A common method to estimate maximum winds is to fit an extreme value distribution (e.g. Gumbel, gev or Pareto) to the maximum values of each year of available data, or the tail of these values. If data are only available for a short period, e.g. 10 or 15 years, then this will give a rather inaccurate estimate. It is possible to deal with this problem by utilizing monthly or weekly maxima, but this introduces new problems: seasonal variation, autocorrelation of neighboring values, and increased discrepancy between data and fitted distribution. We introduce a new method to estimate return periods of extreme values of winds at hub height from relatively short time series of winds, simulated

  18. Textured dysprosium and gadolinium poles for high-field, short-period hybrid undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murokh, Alex; Solovyov, Vyacheslav; Agustsson, Ron; O'Shea, Finn H.; Chubar, Oleg; Chen, Yung; Grandsaert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the feasibility of enhancement of the gap field in a short-period hybrid undulator by using pole inserts with the saturation inductance B s , over that of iron, 2 T. Dysprosium metal, with the saturation inductance of 3.4 T below 90 K, and Gadolinium with B s =2.7 T, appear as good candidates as the optimized pole material. However, due to the high magnetic anisotropy of Dy, such a high level of magnetization can only be realized when the external field lies in the basal plane. This implies that the pole has to be single-crystalline or highly textured. Considering that growing large, >10mm, Dy single crystals is difficult, we propose secondary recrystallization as a method to induce the required texture in thin Dy and Gd foils. The textured foils can be stacked to produce pole inserts of the desired geometry and orientation. Results of small-scale processing and magnetic measurements of thin (20–60 μ) foils provide evidence that the required texture quality can be achieved by a relatively simple sequence of heat-treatments and cold rolling. The advantage of textured Dy and Gd poles is demonstrated in a several period test undulator. -- Highlights: • Textured rare-earth materials for use as undulator pole materials. • We measure the development of texture in Dy and Gd. • We compare the rare-earth materials with high saturation steel in undulators. • Thin sheets of Dy and Gd materials perform similar to single crystals

  19. Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and short-term collective social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valori, Luca; Picciolo, Francesco; Allansdottir, Agnes; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2012-01-24

    An outstanding open problem is whether collective social phenomena occurring over short timescales can systematically reduce cultural heterogeneity in the long run, and whether offline and online human interactions contribute differently to the process. Theoretical models suggest that short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity are mutually excluding, since they require very different levels of social influence. The latter jointly depends on two factors: the topology of the underlying social network and the overlap between individuals in multidimensional cultural space. However, while the empirical properties of social networks are intensively studied, little is known about the large-scale organization of real societies in cultural space, so that random input specifications are necessarily used in models. Here we use a large dataset to perform a high-dimensional analysis of the scientific beliefs of thousands of Europeans. We find that interopinion correlations determine a nontrivial ultrametric hierarchy of individuals in cultural space. When empirical data are used as inputs in models, ultrametricity has strong and counterintuitive effects. On short timescales, it facilitates a symmetry-breaking phase transition triggering coordinated social behavior. On long timescales, it suppresses cultural convergence by restricting it within disjoint groups. Moreover, ultrametricity implies that these results are surprisingly robust to modifications of the dynamical rules considered. Thus the empirical distribution of individuals in cultural space appears to systematically optimize the coexistence of short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity, which can be realized simultaneously for the same moderate level of mutual influence in a diverse range of online and offline settings.

  20. Differential Gene Expression Profiling of Enriched Human Spermatogonia after Short- and Long-Term Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Conrad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide a molecular signature for enriched adult human stem/progenitor spermatogonia during short-term (<2 weeks and long-term culture (up to more than 14 months in comparison to human testicular fibroblasts and human embryonic stem cells. Human spermatogonia were isolated by CD49f magnetic activated cell sorting and collagen−/laminin+ matrix binding from primary testis cultures obtained from ten adult men. For transcriptomic analysis, single spermatogonia-like cells were collected based on their morphology and dimensions using a micromanipulation system from the enriched germ cell cultures. Immunocytochemical, RT-PCR and microarray analyses revealed that the analyzed populations of cells were distinct at the molecular level. The germ- and pluripotency-associated genes and genes of differentiation/spermatogenesis pathway were highly expressed in enriched short-term cultured spermatogonia. After long-term culture, a proportion of cells retained and aggravated the “spermatogonial” gene expression profile with the expression of germ and pluripotency-associated genes, while in the majority of long-term cultured cells this molecular profile, typical for the differentiation pathway, was reduced and more genes related to the extracellular matrix production and attachment were expressed. The approach we provide here to study the molecular status of in vitro cultured spermatogonia may be important to optimize the culture conditions and to evaluate the germ cell plasticity in the future.

  1. Observation of a Short Period Quasi-periodic Pulsation in Solar X-Ray, Microwave, and EUV Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Cho, Kyung-Suk [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Nakariakov, Valery M., E-mail: pankaj@kasi.re.kr [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-10

    This paper presents the multiwavelength analysis of a 13 s quasi-periodic pulsation (QPP) observed in hard X-ray (12–300 keV) and microwave (4.9–34 GHz) emissions during a C-class flare that occurred on 2015 September 21. Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA) 304 and 171 Å images show an emerging loop/flux tube (L1) moving radially outward, which interacts with the preexisting structures within the active region (AR). The QPP was observed during the expansion of and rising motion of L1. The Nobeyama Radioheliograph microwave images in 17/34 GHz channels reveal a single radio source that was co-spatial with a neighboring loop (L2). In addition, using AIA 304 Å images, we detected intensity oscillations in the legs of L2 with a period of about 26 s. A similar oscillation period was observed in the GOES soft X-ray flux derivative. This oscillation period seems to increase with time. We suggest that the observed QPP is most likely generated by the interaction between L2 and L3 observed in the AIA hot channels (131 and 94 Å). The merging speed of loops L2 and L3 was ∼35 km s{sup −1}. L1 was destroyed possibly by its interaction with preexisting structures in the AR, and produced a cool jet with the speed of ∼106–118 km s{sup −1} associated with a narrow CME (∼770 km s{sup −1}). Another mechanism of the QPP in terms of a sausage oscillation of the loop (L2) is also possible.

  2. A neutral network based technique for short-term forecasting of anomalous load periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sforna, M [ENEL, s.p.a, Italian Power Company (Italy); Lamedica, R; Prudenzi, A [Rome Univ. ` La Sapienza` , Rome (Italy); Caciotta, M; Orsolini Cencelli, V [Rome Univ. III, Rome (Italy)

    1995-01-01

    The paper illustrates a part of the research activity conducted by authors in the field of electric Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF) based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) architectures. Previous experiences with basic ANN architectures have shown that, even though these architecture provide results comparable with those obtained by human operators for most normal days, they evidence some accuracy deficiencies when applied to `anomalous` load conditions occurring during holidays and long weekends. For these periods a specific procedure based upon a combined (unsupervised/supervised) approach has been proposed. The unsupervised stage provides a preventive classification of the historical load data by means of a Kohonen`s Self Organizing Map (SOM). The supervised stage, performing the proper forecasting activity, is obtained by using a multi-layer percept ron with a back propagation learning algorithm similar to the ones above mentioned. The unconventional use of information deriving from the classification stage permits the proposed procedure to obtain a relevant enhancement of the forecast accuracy for anomalous load situations.

  3. Ontogeny of sensorimotor gating and short-term memory processing throughout the adolescent period in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja A. Goepfrich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence and puberty are highly susceptible developmental periods during which the neuronal organization and maturation of the brain is completed. The endocannabinoid (eCB system, which is well known to modulate cognitive processing, undergoes profound and transient developmental changes during adolescence. With the present study we were aiming to examine the ontogeny of cognitive skills throughout adolescence in male rats and clarify the potential modulatory role of CB1 receptor signalling. Cognitive skills were assessed repeatedly every 10th day in rats throughout adolescence. All animals were tested for object recognition memory and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. Although cognitive performance in short-term memory as well as sensorimotor gating abilities were decreased during puberty compared to adulthood, both tasks were found to show different developmental trajectories throughout adolescence. A low dose of the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716 was found to improve recognition memory specifically in pubertal animals while not affecting behavioral performance at other ages tested. The present findings demonstrate that the developmental trajectory of cognitive abilities does not occur linearly for all cognitive processes and is strongly influenced by pubertal maturation. Developmental alterations within the eCB system at puberty onset may be involved in these changes in cognitive processing.

  4. Self-publishing of Lithuanian cultural periodicals in Soviet and contemporary times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Urbanaviciute

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse self-publishing trends of Lithuanian cultural periodicals focusing on the historical and contemporary contexts. The article provides an overview of the reasons for historical cultural periodical self-published texts, known as samizdats, to appear, as well as their publishing and circulation trends in Lithuania. It also analyses what contemporary cultural self-publishing is: whether it is a completely independent, logical consequence of the digital age, which emerged under favourable circumstances, or if it can be characterized as having something in common with the past experiences. The most active years of the periodical underground press publishing in Soviet Lithuanian self-publishing development were between 1975 and 1981. Self-published texts ideologically diverged into three main directions: religious, civic, and cultural-artistic. A total of 22 publications were being published for a longer or shorter period of time. While analysing contemporary cultural self-publishing topics, the report focuses only on online cultural texts, irrespective of the printed ones. Survey method was used to find out how much and in what aspect modern Internet users perceive historical periodical self-publishing, and how and in what aspect they value modern cultural self-published texts. The results show that 18-35-year-old respondents have not acquired the skills necessary to analyse samizdat publishing. They associate the word self-publishing with digital texts only, which due to favourable conditions spread easily through social networks and blogs. In the era of advancing computer technologies and the Internet, every person who has the time and desire may become a developer, an author, or at least a disseminator of information: this tradition is becoming more and more topical and quite frequently – an almost self-evident phenomenon.

  5. Planet X as the source of the periodic and steady-state flux of short period comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matese, J.J.; Whitmire, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The cratering and fossil records suggest that impacts on the earth have been modulated with a period of roughly 30 Myr. In the Planet X model, this modulation is the result of the interaction of Planet X with a primordial disk of planetesimals lying beyond the orbit of Neptune. In this paper, observational and theoretical evidence supporting the existence of Planet X and the planetesimal disk is briefly reviewed, and the constraints on the orbit parameters of Planet X and the disk parameters which must be satisfied to ensure consistency with observational limits are discussed

  6. Bifurcations of a periodically forced microbial continuous culture model with restrained growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingli; Yuan, Qigang

    2017-08-01

    A three dimensional microbial continuous culture model with a restrained microbial growth rate is studied in this paper. Two types of dilution rates are considered to investigate the dynamic behaviors of the model. For the unforced system, fold bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation are detected, and numerical simulations reveal that the system undergoes degenerate Hopf bifurcation. When the system is periodically forced, bifurcation diagrams for periodic solutions of period-one and period-two are given by researching the Poincaré map, corresponding to different bifurcation cases in the unforced system. Stable and unstable quasiperiodic solutions are obtained by Neimark-Sacker bifurcation with different parameter values. Periodic solutions of various periods can occur or disappear and even change their stability, when the Poincaré map of the forced system undergoes Neimark-Sacker bifurcation, flip bifurcation, and fold bifurcation. Chaotic attractors generated by a cascade of period doublings and some phase portraits are given at last.

  7. U.S.-Based Short-Term Public Health Cultural Immersion Experience for Chinese Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Dorothy Lewis; Biederman, Donna J.

    2017-01-01

    A U.S. and Chinese university developed a short-term student exchange program in public/community health. The program--which consisted of lectures, seminars, field trips, cross-cultural experiences, and a synthesis excursion--resulted in high levels of program satisfaction, increased intrapersonal awareness, and skill acquisition. Program content…

  8. Exposing Students to Repeat Photography: Increasing Cultural Understanding on a Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmons, Kelly K.; Brannstrom, Christian; Hurd, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, repeat photography has been used to analyze land cover change. This paper describes how repeat photography may be used as a tool to enhance the short-term study abroad experience by facilitating cultural interaction and understanding. We present evidence from two cases and suggest a five-step repeat photography method for educators…

  9. Magneto-transport studies of InAs/GaSb short period superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadley, Victoria Jane

    2002-01-01

    This thesis studies the transport properties of short period semiconducting InAs/GaSb superlattices in the presence of strong electric and magnetic fields applied parallel to the growth axis. Electrical transport parallel to the growth axis occurs through the superlattice miniband, which have widths varying from three to 30meV. Resonant scattering between confined Landau levels and Stark levels is observed at low temperatures (4.2K). In addition LO-phonon assisted scattering between Landau levels is observed in both type-I GaAs/AIAs and type-ll inAs/GaSb superlattices, which are enhanced in the type-ll system due to the strong interband coupling. K·p band structure calculations show that the interband coupling causes the superlattice miniband energy dispersion to be strongly dependent on the in-plane wavevector and the applied magnetic field. For large applied electric fields, where the miniband is split into discrete Stark levels, strong stark-cyclotron resonance (SCR) features are observed, which occur when the Landau level separation equals to the stark level separation. These resonances are enhanced when compared to SCR in type-I superlattices due to the suppression of miniband conduction in higher lying Landau levels. At low electric fields electrical transport through the superlattice miniband yields characteristic miniband transport features, which are modelled using the Esaki-Tsu miniband transport model. Strong electron - LO-phonon scattering is also observed in InAs/GaSb superlattices, where we report the first observation of miniband transport assisted via the emission of LO-phonons between stark levels in adjacent wells. Below 50K thermally activated behaviour is reported and at high magnetic fields (in the quantum limit) complete localisation of carriers is observed. In this regime LO-phonon delocalised transport in also observed. (author)

  10. Nitrogen fertilization and yield formation of potato during a short growing period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. MUSTONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects various rates of nitrogen application on accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. were studied during a short growing period of 140–180 days, at MTT Agrifood Research Finland in 2000–2001. The treatments were 0, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 and the potato cultivars tested were Van Gogh and Nicola. Four successive harvests were made during the course of the experiment to monitor changes in the accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen over the season. Applications of nitrogen substantially increased haulm dry matter accumulation and to an even greater extent their nitrogen contents. The highest dry matter values were generally registered at 120 kg N ha-1. Dry matter and nitrogen content of haulms started to decline during the later part of season and most nitrogen was relocated to tubers. The results suggest that an application of only 60 kg N ha-1 was sufficient to promote rapid canopy development and there were only small reductions in dry matter and nitrogen accumulation until late in the season when the canopy started to senesce as nitrogen supply diminished. Tuber yield, plant dry matter and nitrogen accumulation at maturity were related to crop nitrogen supply. Although application of the high rate, 120 N kg ha-1, resulted in a significant increase in dry matter accumulation, this was not reflected in the profit because the higher nitrogen application reduced dry matter content of tubers by 2.6% in 2000 and by 1.1% in 2001 relative to the use of 60 kg N ha-1. Apparent fertilizer nitrogen recovery values on a whole plant basis ranged from 53 to 75%. The proportion of fertilizer recovered in tubers clearly declined with increase in nitrogen supply.;

  11. The Conceptual Model of Calculating the Return Period of the Costs for Creation of the Enterprise’s Economic Security Service in the Short-Term Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melikhova Tetiana O.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the return period of the costs, advanced for the creation of economic security service of enterprise during a year, involves consideration of interaction of the conditional money flow, accumulated for a certain number of months, and the constant costs. The main component of the constant costs are the annual depreciation deductions. The return period is considered as gross, net, valid, and specified. The gross (net, valid, and specified return period is the time, wherein the gross conditional money flow, equal to the advanced costs, will be accumulated. The gross return period, taking account of the effect of time factor, is proposed to be defined as the ratio of annual depreciation deductions increased by the annual compounding coefficient to the conditional average monthly gross money flow, increased by the average monthly inflation index. As for the short-term period, a relationship between the gross, net, valid, and specified return periods of the costs, advanced to the creation of the economic security service, has been identified. The net (valid, specified return period is equal to the gross period adjusted to the coefficient of excess of the gross conditional money flow, accumulated in the gross period, over the net (valid, specified conditional cash flow.

  12. Tidally distorted exoplanets: Density corrections for short-period hot-Jupiters based solely on observable parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J. R.; Watson, C. A.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Moulds, V. [Astrophysics Research Centre, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Pollacco, D.; Wheatley, P. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Littlefair, S. P., E-mail: jburton04@qub.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-10

    The close proximity of short-period hot-Jupiters to their parent star means they are subject to extreme tidal forces. This has a profound effect on their structure and, as a result, density measurements that assume that the planet is spherical can be incorrect. We have simulated the tidally distorted surface for 34 known short-period hot-Jupiters, assuming surfaces of constant gravitational equipotential for the planet, and the resulting densities have been calculated based only on observed parameters of the exoplanet systems. Comparing these results to the density values, assuming the planets are spherical, shows that there is an appreciable change in the measured density for planets with very short periods (typically less than two days). For one of the shortest-period systems, WASP-19b, we determine a decrease in bulk density of 12% from the spherical case and, for the majority of systems in this study, this value is in the range of 1%-5%. On the other hand, we also find cases where the distortion is negligible (relative to the measurement errors on the planetary parameters) even in the cases of some very short period systems, depending on the mass ratio and planetary radius. For high-density gas planets requiring apparently anomalously large core masses, density corrections due to tidal deformation could become important for the shortest-period systems.

  13. Toward 2D Seismic Wavefield Monitoring: Seismic Gradiometry for Long-Period Seismogram and Short-Period Seismogram Envelope applied to the Hi-net Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, T.; Nishida, K.; Takagi, R.; Obara, K.

    2015-12-01

    The high-sensitive seismograph network Japan (Hi-net) operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) has about 800 stations with average separation of 20 km. We can observe long-period seismic wave propagation as a 2D wavefield with station separations shorter than wavelength. In contrast, short-period waves are quite incoherent at stations, however, their envelope shapes resemble at neighbor stations. Therefore, we may be able to extract seismic wave energy propagation by seismogram envelope analysis. We attempted to characterize seismic waveform at long-period and its envelope at short-period as 2D wavefield by applying seismic gradiometry. We applied the seismic gradiometry to a synthetic long-period (20-50s) dataset prepared by numerical simulation in realistic 3D medium at the Hi-net station layout. Wave amplitude and its spatial derivatives are estimated by using data at nearby stations. The slowness vector, the radiation pattern and the geometrical spreading are extracted from estimated velocity, displacement and its spatial derivatives. For short-periods at shorter than 1 s, seismogram envelope shows temporal and spatial broadening through scattering by medium heterogeneity. It is expected that envelope shape may be coherent among nearby stations. Based on this idea, we applied the same method to the time-integration of seismogram envelope to estimate its spatial derivatives. Together with seismogram envelope, we succeeded in estimating the slowness vector from the seismogram envelope as well as long-period waveforms by synthetic test, without using phase information. Our preliminarily results show that the seismic gradiometry suits the Hi-net to extract wave propagation characteristics both at long and short periods. This method is appealing that it can estimate waves at homogeneous grid to monitor seismic wave as a wavefield. It is promising to obtain phase velocity variation from direct waves, and to grasp wave

  14. Impact of high temperature and short period annealing on SnS films deposited by E-beam evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedi, Sreedevi; Reddy, Vasudeva Reddy Minnam; Kang, Jeong-yoon; Jeon, Chan-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparation SnS films using electron beam evaporation at room temperature. • SnS films were annealed at a high temperaure for different short period of times. • The films showed highly oriented (111) planes with orthorhombic crystal structure. • Surface morphology showed bigger and faceted grains embedded in orthorombic. • The TEM confirmed that big orthorombic slabs had single-crystalline nature. - Abstract: Thin films of SnS were deposited on Mo-substrate using electron beam evaporation at room temperature. As-deposited SnS films were annealed at a constant high temperaure of 860 K for different short period of times, 1 min, 3 min, and 5 min. The impact of heat treatment period on the physical properties of SnS films was investigated using appropriate characterization tools. XRD analysis revealed that the films were highly oriented along (111) plane with orthorhombic crystal structure. Surface morphology of as-deposited SnS films showed an identical leaf texture where as the annealed films showed large orthorombic slab shape grains in adidition to the leaf shape grains, which indicates the significance of short period annealing at high temperature. The transmission electron microscopy confirmed that those large orthorombic slabs had single-crystalline nature. The results emphasized that the short period annealing treatment at high temperature stimulated the growth of film towards the single crystallinity.

  15. Impact of high temperature and short period annealing on SnS films deposited by E-beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedi, Sreedevi; Reddy, Vasudeva Reddy Minnam; Kang, Jeong-yoon; Jeon, Chan-Wook, E-mail: cwjeon@ynu.ac.kr

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Preparation SnS films using electron beam evaporation at room temperature. • SnS films were annealed at a high temperaure for different short period of times. • The films showed highly oriented (111) planes with orthorhombic crystal structure. • Surface morphology showed bigger and faceted grains embedded in orthorombic. • The TEM confirmed that big orthorombic slabs had single-crystalline nature. - Abstract: Thin films of SnS were deposited on Mo-substrate using electron beam evaporation at room temperature. As-deposited SnS films were annealed at a constant high temperaure of 860 K for different short period of times, 1 min, 3 min, and 5 min. The impact of heat treatment period on the physical properties of SnS films was investigated using appropriate characterization tools. XRD analysis revealed that the films were highly oriented along (111) plane with orthorhombic crystal structure. Surface morphology of as-deposited SnS films showed an identical leaf texture where as the annealed films showed large orthorombic slab shape grains in adidition to the leaf shape grains, which indicates the significance of short period annealing at high temperature. The transmission electron microscopy confirmed that those large orthorombic slabs had single-crystalline nature. The results emphasized that the short period annealing treatment at high temperature stimulated the growth of film towards the single crystallinity.

  16. Seismic Site Effects from the Seafloor Motion Recorded by the Short-period Ocean Bottom Seismometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. Y.; Cheng, W. B.; Chin, S. J.; Hsu, S. K.; Dong, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    For decades, it has been mentioned that submarine slope failures are spatially linked to the presence of gas hydrates/gas-charged sediments. When triggered by earthquakes, oversteepen and instable sediments may prompt breakouts of the slopes containing gas hydrates and cause submarine landslides and tsunamis. Widely distributed BSRs have been observed in the area offshore of southwestern Taiwan where the active accretionary complex meets with the passive China continental margin. In the region, large or small scale landslides were also reported based on seismic interpretations. In order to clarify the link between earthquake, landslide and the presence of gas hydrate, we evaluate the response of seafloor sediments in regard to passive dynamic loads. Horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratios are used to characterize the local sediment response. Ambient noise as well as distant earthquakes are used as generators of the passive dynamic loads. Based on this study, we aim to characterize the site in terms of its physical properties and the local site effect produced by shallow marine sediments. The results show that the maximum H/V ratios appeared in the range of 5-10 Hz, where the horizontal amplitudes increased by an order of magnitude relative to the vertical amplitude. The stations located in the northwestern part of study area were characterized by another relatively small peak at proximately 2 Hz, which may indicates the presence of a discontinuity of sediments. For most stations, the H/V ratios estimated based on the earthquake (i.e. strong input signal) and noise (background, micro-seismic noise) records were characterized by different pattern. No distinct peak is observed for the H/V pattern calculated during earthquakes. This phenomenon may suggest that no clear sedimentary boundary exist when a stronger motion applies. Estimating H/V spectral ratios of data recorded by the seven short period OBSs (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) deployed in the southwest Taiwan

  17. Chronology of the early period of the Ananyino cultural and historical area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzminykh Sergei V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to the chronology of the early period in the Ananyino cultural and historical area development are discussed in the article. The chronology is based upon the objects imported from the Black Sea region, Northern Caucasus and Transcaucasia and their Ananyino replicas or imitations. Radiocarbon dates have also been taken into account. The period under consideration is divided into two stages (I-1 and I-2. They are characterized by differing technological facilities that had determined the appearance of a differing set of material culture objects. The first stage, the transition from the Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, is dated within the 9th to mid-8th century BC. The second phase (mid-8th to first quarter/first half of the 7th century BC is associated with the spread of Caucasian imports in the Volga-Kama area and mostly in the post-Maklasheevka culture sites. On the basis of these imports it is possible to claim that the Ananyino area was included into the international trade and exchange system of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Transcaucasia. Monuments of the early period of the Ananyino cultural and historical area are primarily synchronized with the pre-Scythian funeral monuments of the steppe zone of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus.

  18. A short period of high-intensity interval training improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Jacobs, Robert A; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improvements in pulmonary V̇O2 kinetics following a short period of high-intensity training (HIT) would be associated with improved skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Ten untrained male volunteers (age: 26 ± 2; mean ± SD) performed six HIT...

  19. Capability of simultaneous Rayleigh LiDAR and O2 airglow measurements in exploring the short period wave characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taori, Alok; Raghunath, Karnam; Jayaraman, Achuthan

    We use combination of simultaneous measurements made with Rayleigh lidar and O2 airglow monitoring to improve lidar investigation capability to cover a higher altitude range. We feed instantaneous O2 airglow temperatures instead the model values at the top altitude for subsequent integration method of temperature retrieval using Rayleigh lidar back scattered signals. Using this method, errors in the lidar temperature estimates converges at higher altitudes indicating better altitude coverage compared to regular methods where model temperatures are used instead of real-time measurements. This improvement enables the measurements of short period waves at upper mesospheric altitudes (~90 km). With two case studies, we show that above 60 km the few short period wave amplitude drastically increases while, some of the short period wave show either damping or saturation. We claim that by using such combined measurements, a significant and cost effective progress can be made in the understanding of short period wave processes which are important for the coupling across the different atmospheric regions.

  20. Physiological aspects of short-rotation culture of the poplar. Fertilization of soils by sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, G

    1988-01-01

    This study, on the poplar (Populus Trichocarpa x Populus deltoides, c.v. Raspalje) concerned two different problems. The first is a physiological study on the tree treated in short rotation; the second deals with a fertilization by sewage sludge and the consequences on the environment. We have carried out in the laboratory two complementary experiments, the one, on the culture of the poplar in hydroponic medium with a pollutant element (Hg), and the other in the potentialities of soil retention. In the first part, we have showed that: - the best period for coppicing is between Mid August and May, as soon as the stumps were four or five years-old, - the coppicing has a stimulating effect on the growth of the coppice shoots, - the mean number of dominant coppice shoots, after several coppicing, is two, - the productivity is about 20 to 30 tonnes of dry matter per hectare and per year. The second part of this study has showed that: - using 3.2 tonnes of dehydrated sewage sludge per hectare and per year to fertilize, has the same effects on productivity of poplars as a classical fertilization (every 5 years) by chemical manure (N, P, K), - there were no differences in the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg), in the different parts of the poplars, between the different plots fertilized with sewage sludge, chemical manure and controlled. Moreover, the experiments performed, in the laboratory showed that: - pollutant elements (Cd, Cu) were fixed in the top of the column soil, - using a hydroponic solution containing a mercuric chloride, labelled ({sup 203}Hg), the poplars absorb very little of the pollutant element. Only 10% of the mercury in the solution was to be found in the plant and 99% of this in the root-system, more precisely, at the level epidermic barrier.

  1. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale - Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Fernanda Figueredo; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Pagano, Adriana Silvina; Torres, Heloísa de Carvalho

    2017-03-23

    To translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the Diabetes Empowerment Scale - Short Form for assessment of psychosocial self-efficacy in diabetes care within the Brazilian cultural context. Assessment of the instrument's conceptual equivalence, as well as its translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed following international standards. The Expert Committee's assessment of the translated version was conducted through a web questionnaire developed and applied via the web tool e-Surv. The cross-culturally adapted version was used for the pre-test, which was carried out via phone call in a group of eleven health care service users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pre-test results were examined by a group of experts, composed by health care consultants, applied linguists and statisticians, aiming at an adequate version of the instrument, which was subsequently used for test and retest in a sample of 100 users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus via phone call, their answers being recorded by the web tool e-Surv. Internal consistency and reproducibility of analysis were carried out within the statistical programming environment R. Face and content validity were attained and the Brazilian Portuguese version, entitled Escala de Autoeficácia em Diabetes - Versão Curta, was established. The scale had acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha of 0.634 (95%CI 0.494- 0.737), while the correlation of the total score in the two periods was considered moderate (0.47). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.50. The translated and cross-culturally adapted version of the instrument to spoken Brazilian Portuguese was considered valid and reliable to be used for assessment within the Brazilian population diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of a web tool (e-Surv) for recording the Expert Committee responses as well as the responses in the validation tests proved to be a reliable, safe and innovative method. Traduzir

  2. Effect of Dynamic Culture and Periodic Compression on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Yu, Li; Lim, Casey G; Goodley, Addison S; Xiao, Xuan; Placone, Jesse K; Ferlin, Kimberly M; Nguyen, Bao-Ngoc B; Hsieh, Adam H; Fisher, John P

    2016-07-01

    We have recently developed a bioreactor that can apply both shear and compressive forces to engineered tissues in dynamic culture. In our system, alginate hydrogel beads with encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured under different dynamic conditions while subjected to periodic, compressive force. A customized pressure sensor was developed to track the pressure fluctuations when shear forces and compressive forces were applied. Compared to static culture, dynamic culture can maintain a higher cell population throughout the study. With the application of only shear stress, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed that hMSCs experienced less chondrogenic differentiation than the static group. The second study showed that chondrogenic differentiation was enhanced by additional mechanical compression. After 14 days, alcian blue staining showed more extracellular matrix formed in the compression group. The upregulation of the positive chondrogenic markers such as Sox 9, aggrecan, and type II collagen were demonstrated by qPCR. Our bioreactor provides a novel approach to apply mechanical forces to engineered cartilage. Results suggest that a combination of dynamic culture with proper mechanical stimulation may promote efficient progenitor cell expansion in vitro, thereby allowing the culture of clinically relevant articular chondrocytes for the treatment of articular cartilage defects.

  3. Development of Speech Fluency over a Short Period of Time: Effects of Pedagogic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Parvaneh; Campbell, Colin; McCormack, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a short-term pedagogic intervention on development of second language (L2) fluency among learners studying English for academic purposes at a UK university. It also examines the interaction between development of fluency and complexity and accuracy. Through a pretest and posttest design, data were collected…

  4. Development and Cross-Validation of the Short Form of the Cultural Competence Scale for Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duckhee Chae, PhD, RN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop and validate the short form of the Korean adaptation of the Cultural Competence Scale for Nurses. Methods: To shorten the 33-item Cultural Competence Scale for Nurses, an expert panel (N = 6 evaluated its content validity. The revised items were pilot tested using a sample of nine nurses, and clarity was assessed through cognitive interviews with respondents. The original instrument was shortened and validated through item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, convergent validity, and reliability using data from 277 hospital nurses. The 14-item final version was cross-validated through confirmatory factor analysis, convergent validity, discriminant validity, known-group comparisons, and reliability using data from 365 nurses belonging to 19 hospitals. Results: A 4-factor, 14-item model demonstrated satisfactory fit with significant factor loadings. The convergent validity between the developed tool and transcultural self-efficacy was significant (r = .55, p < .001. The convergent validity evaluated using the Average Variance Extracted and discriminant validity were acceptable. Known-group comparisons revealed significant differences in the mean scores of the groups who spent more than one month abroad (p = .002 were able to communicate in a foreign language (p < .001 and had education to care for foreign patients (p = .039. Cronbach's α was .89, and the reliability of the subscales ranged from .74 to .91. Conclusion: The Cultural Competence Scale for Nurses-Short Form demonstrated good reliability and validity. It is a short and appropriate instrument for use in clinical and research settings to assess nurses' cultural competence. Keywords: cultural competence, psychometric properties, nurse

  5. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  6. Nature of short-period microtremors on the cliff-like ground. part 6; Gakechi kinbo no tanshuki bido. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T; Kimura, Y [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Yasui, [Toda Corp., Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Short-period microtremors were observed on the cliff-like ground to discuss vibration characteristics of the ground. It is known that damage of an earthquake becomes especially serious in the vicinity of the cliff-like ground with steep slopes. The present investigation has performed observations on short-period microtremors in two cliff-like grounds, one with a height of about 17 m and an inclination angle of about 55 degrees, and another with a height of 11 m and an inclination angle of about 60 degrees. The areas of the investigation are the Musashino tableland of the Pleistocene era covered by the Kanto loam bed, and the Oritate area (a farm land) with the cliff-like ground which has been formed as a result of erosion of a river terrace consisted of a gravel bed. The observation was carried out with nine moving coil type vibration converters having a natural period of one second installed for horizontal movements and seven converters installed for vertical movements. The result of the investigation revealed that, at the Musashino tableland, no noticeable influence of the cliff-like ground was recognized in the short-period microtremors; at the Oritate area, the spectra of the horizontal movements vary largely with vibrating directions; and the cliff effect can be seen in microtremors with frequencies from 5 Hz to 9 Hz. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  7. The metabolic dynamics of cartilage explants over a long-term culture period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.K Moo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although previous studies have been performed on cartilage explant cultures, the generalized dynamics of cartilage metabolism after extraction from the host are still poorly understood due to differences in the experimental setups across studies, which in turn prevent building a complete picture. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the response of cartilage to the trauma sustained during extraction and determined the time needed for the cartilage to stabilize. Explants were extracted aseptically from bovine metacarpal-phalangeal joints and cultured for up to 17 days. RESULTS: The cell viability, cell number, proteoglycan content, and collagen content of the harvested explants were analyzed at 0, 2, 10, and 17 days after explantation. A high percentage of the cartilage explants were found to be viable. The cell density initially increased significantly but stabilized after two days. The proteoglycan content decreased gradually over time, but it did not decrease to a significant level due to leakage through the distorted peripheral collagen network and into the bathing medium. The collagen content remained stable for most of the culture period until it dropped abruptly on day 17. CONCLUSION: Overall, the tested cartilage explants were sustainable over long-term culture. They were most stable from day 2 to day 10. The degradation of the collagen on day 17 did not reach diseased levels, but it indicated the potential of the cultures to develop into degenerated cartilage. These findings have implications for the application of cartilage explants in pathophysiological fields.

  8. Closeout of IE Bulletin 79-12: short-period scrams at boiling-water reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBevac, C.J.; Holland, R.A.

    1985-03-01

    IE Circular 77-07 was issued on April 14, 1977 because of the occurrence of short period scram events at Dresden Unit 2 on December 28, 1976 and at Monticello on February 23, 1977. The circular advised BWR plants to revise their control rod withdrawal sequences and operating procedures to reduce the likelihood of future short period scrams. However, similar events continued to occur. These included events at Oyster Creek on December 14, 1978; at Browns Ferry Unit 1 on January 18, 1979; and at Hatch Unit 1 on January 31, 1979. As a result of these events, IE Bulletin 79-12 was issued on May 31, 1979. This bulletin required a written response from licensees of GE-designed BWRs regarding specific actions listed in the bulletin. All of the licensees responded in a satisfactory manner. No similar events have been reported since IE Bulletin 79-12 was issued

  9. A high-average power tapered FEL amplifier at submillimeter frequencies using sheet electron beams and short-period wigglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidwell, S.W.; Radack, D.J.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Booske, J.H.; Carmel, Y.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Levush, B.; Latham, P.E.; Zhang, Z.X.

    1990-01-01

    A high-average-power FEL amplifier operating at submillimeter frequencies is under development at the University of Maryland. Program goals are to produce a CW, ∼1 MW, FEL amplifier source at frequencies between 280 GHz and 560 GHz. To this end, a high-gain, high-efficiency, tapered FEL amplifier using a sheet electron beam and a short-period (superconducting) wiggler has been chosen. Development of this amplifier is progressing in three stages: (1) beam propagation through a long length (∼1 m) of short period (λ ω = 1 cm) wiggler, (2) demonstration of a proof-of-principle amplifier experiment at 98 GHz, and (3) designs of a superconducting tapered FEL amplifier meeting the ultimate design goal specifications. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of phase-precipitation versus instability behavior in short period FeCr superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, F.J. [UCAM, Universidad Católica de Murcia, Campus de los Jerónimos, 30107 Guadalupe (Murcia) (Spain); Castejón-Mochón, J.F., E-mail: jfcastejon@ucam.edu [UCAM, Universidad Católica de Murcia, Campus de los Jerónimos, 30107 Guadalupe (Murcia) (Spain); Castrillo, P.; Berenguer-Vidal, R. [UCAM, Universidad Católica de Murcia, Campus de los Jerónimos, 30107 Guadalupe (Murcia) (Spain); Dopico, I.; Martin-Bragado, I. [IMDEA Materials Institute, Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe (Madrid) (Spain)

    2017-02-15

    The structural evolution of FeCr superlattices has been studied using a quasi-atomistic Object Kinetic Monte Carlo model. Superlattices with different spatial periods have been simulated for anneal durations from few hours to several months at 500 °C. Relatively-long period superlattices stabilize into Fe-rich and Cr-rich layers with compositions close to those of bulk α and α′ phases. In contrast, superlattices with very short periods (4, 5, 6 nm) are observed to undergo instability and, for long annealing times, evolve into three-dimensionally decomposed regions, in qualitative agreement to recent experimental observations. The instability onset is delayed as the spatial period increases, and it occurs via interface roughness. This evolution can be explained as a minimization of the free-energy associated to the α/α′ interfaces. A comprehensive description of the evolution dynamics of FeCr-based structures is obtained with our model.

  11. Physiological Responses of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) to Short Periods of Water Stress During Different Developmental Stages

    OpenAIRE

    R. Vurayai; V. Emongor and B. Moseki

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the responses of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) to short periods of water stress imposed at different growth stages, and the recuperative ability of the species from drought stress. A major problem associated with Bambara groundnut production is its very low yields due to intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal variability in rainfall in semi-arid regions. The response pattern of physiological processes to water stress imposed at different growth ...

  12. Short Term Strategies for a Dynamic Multi-Period Routing Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelelli, E.; Bianchessi, N.; Mansini, R.; Speranza, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a Dynamic Multi-Period Routing Problem (DMPRP) faced by a company which deals with on-line pick-up requests and has to serve them by a fleet of uncapacitated vehicles over a finite time horizon. When a request is issued, a deadline of a given number of days d ≤ 2 is associated to it: if

  13. La crítica cultural periodística y literatura infantil y juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgt. Ana Beatriz Ammann

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo considera la crítica cultural periodística como parte de un conocimiento "especializado" que inviste de sentido las prácticas sociales. Se pregunta cuál es el espacio de la literatura infantil en los suplementos culturales en relación con un campo de producción que restringe "lo literario" según normas y categorías propias de las políticas institucionales y mediáticas. Por último, se detiene en algunos aspectos respecto del objeto literario para niños, el rol de los mediadores y la imagen de los destinatarios en el contexto histórico y cultural contemporáneo

  14. Short communication: study of immune parameters in three Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, G; Fragou, S; Chronopoulou, R; Kominakis, A; Rogdakis, E; Politis, I

    2007-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether immunosuppression occurs in 3 different Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period. A total of 33 ewes from 3 breeds [i.e., the low-producing Boutsiko breed (n = 11), which is highly adaptable to harsh environments; the high-producing but environmentally fragile Chios breed (n = 11); and an intermediate synthetic breed (50% Boutsiko, 25% Arta, and 25% Chios, n = 11)] were used. Blood samples were collected at 18 and 2 d before parturition and at 15 d after parturition. Total cell-associated and membrane-bound urokinase plasminogen activator (U-PA) activity, free U-PA binding sites on cellular membranes, and superoxide anion (SA) production by activated phagocytes were determined. Results indicated that all immune parameters measured remained constant during the periparturient period for the Boutsiko breed. In contrast, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils and in SA production by monocytes-macrophages at d 2 before parturition for the Chios breed. In the synthetic breed, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by monocytes-macrophages and in SA production by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils at d 15 after parturition. Thus, mild immunosuppression during the periparturient period was observed in the 2 breeds with the highest milk production.

  15. A large outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infection with short incubation period in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Bjørn Odd; Lingaas, Egil; Torfoss, Dag; Strøm, Erik H; Nordøy, Ingvild

    2010-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen with a high mortality rate. We report a large, nosocomial outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infection. Patients with L. monocytogenes isolated from a sterile site, or from faeces when diarrhoea and fever were present, were included. Clinical data were collected from the patient records. The incubation period was calculated as the time between exposure and start of symptoms. Seventeen patients (11 women, median age 64 years) were infected of whom 15 patients were at increased risk for listeriosis. Eleven patients received empiric antibiotic treatment, eight of them with cephalosporins. Three patients died with a resulting mortality rate of 18%. The source of the outbreak was a Camembert cheese made from pasteurised milk containing up to 360 million colony forming units per portion. The median incubation period was 3-4 days. The incubation period in this outbreak was significantly shorter than previously reported, a fact that may be due to the high number of ingested bacteria. Furthermore, food restrictions in hospitals seem warranted, as do treatment with antibiotics effective against L. monocytogenes in at-risk populations. Copyright © 2010 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Propagation of short-period gravity waves at high-latitudes during the MaCWAVE winter campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nielsen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending Vertically winter campaign an all-sky monochromatic CCD imager has been used to investigate the properties of short-period mesospheric gravity waves at high northern latitudes. Sequential measurements of several nightglow emissions were made from Esrange, Sweden, during a limited period from 27–31 January 2003. Coincident wind measurements over the altitude range (~80–100 km using two meteor radar systems located at Esrange and Andenes have been used to perform a novel investigation of the intrinsic properties of five distinct wave events observed during this period. Additional lidar and MSIS model temperature data have been used to investigate their nature (i.e. freely propagating or ducted. Four of these extensive wave events were found to be freely propagating with potential source regions to the north of Scandinavia. No evidence was found for strong orographic forcing by short-period waves in the airglow emission layers. The fifth event was most unusual exhibiting an extensive, but much smaller and variable wavelength pattern that appeared to be embedded in the background wind field. Coincident wind measurements indicated the presence of a strong shear suggesting this event was probably due to a large-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

  17. Non-radial oscillations of rotating stars and their relevance to the short-period oscillations of cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaloizou, J.; Pringle, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The usual hypothesis, that the short-period coherent oscillations seen in cataclysmic variables are attributable to g modes in a slowly rotating white dwarf, is considered. It is shown that this hypothesis is untenable for three main reasons: (i) the observed periods are too short for reasonable white dwarf models, (ii) the observed variability of the oscillations is too rapid and (iii) the expected rotation of the white dwarf, due to accretion, invalidates the slow rotation assumption on which standard g-mode theory is based. The low-frequency spectrum of a rotating pulsating star is investigated taking the effects of rotation fully into account. In this case there are two sets of low-frequency modes, the g modes, and modes similar to Rossby waves in the Earth's atmosphere and oceans, which are designated r modes. Typical periods for such modes are 1/m times the rotation period of the white dwarfs outer layers (m is the aximuthal wavenumber). It is concluded that non-radial oscillations of rotating white dwarfs can account for the properties of the oscillations seen in dwarf novae. Application of these results to other systems is also discussed. (author)

  18. First Kepler results on compact pulsators - V. Slowly pulsating subdwarf B stars in short-period binaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaler, Stephen D.; Reed, Michael D.; Østensen, Roy H.

    2010-01-01

    of sdB stars with a close M-dwarf companion with orbital periods of less than half a day. Because the orbital period is so short, the stars should be in synchronous rotation, and if so, the rotation period should imprint itself on the multiplet structure of the pulsations. However, we do not find clear......The survey phase of the Kepler Mission includes a number of hot subdwarf B (sdB) stars to search for non-radial pulsations. We present our analysis of two sdB stars that are found to be g-mode pulsators of the V1093 Her class. These two stars also display the distinct irradiation effect typical...... evidence for such rotational splitting. Though the stars do show some frequency spacings that are consistent with synchronous rotation, they also display multiplets with splittings that are much smaller. Longer-duration time series photometry will be needed to determine if those small splittings...

  19. Short-period atmospheric gravity waves - A study of their statistical properties and source mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedzelman, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Gravity waves for the one year period beginning 19 October 1976 around Palisades, New York, are investigated to determine their statistical properties and sources. The waves have typical periods of 10 min, pressure amplitudes of 3 Pa and velocities of 30 m/s. In general, the largest, amplitude waves occur during late fall and early winter when the upper tropospheric winds directly overhead are fastest and the static stability of the lower troposphere is greatest. Mean wave amplitudes correlate highly with the product of the mean maximum wind speed and the mean low level stratification directly aloft. A distinct diurnal variation of wave amplitudes with the largest waves occurring in the pre-dawn hours is also observed as a result of the increased static stability then. The majority of waves are generated by shear instability; however, a number of waves are generated by distant sources such as nuclear detonations or large thunderstorms. The waves with distant sources can be distinguished on the basis of their generally much higher coherency across the grid and velocities that depart markedly from the wind velocity at any point in the sounding.

  20. Non-thyroid cancer in Northern Ukraine in the post-Chernobyl period: Short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, M; Ostroumova, E; Brenner, A; Federenko, Z; Gorokh, Y; Zvinchuk, O; Shpak, V; Tereschenko, V; Tronko, M; Mabuchi, K

    2015-06-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Ukraine in 1986 led to widespread radioactive releases into the environment - primarily of radioiodines and cesium - heavily affecting the northern portions of the country, with settlement-averaged thyroid doses estimated to range from 10 mGy to more than 10 Gy. The increased risk of thyroid cancer among exposed children and adolescents is well established but the impact of radioactive contamination on the risk of other types of cancer is much less certain. To provide data on a public health issue of major importance, we have analyzed the incidence of non-thyroid cancers during the post-Chernobyl period in a well-defined cohort of 13,203 individuals who were <18 years of age at the time of the accident. The report is based on standardized incidence ratio (SIR) analysis of 43 non-thyroid cancers identified through linkage with the National Cancer Registry of Ukraine for the period 1998 through 2009. We compared the observed and expected number of cases in three cancer groupings: all solid cancers excluding thyroid, leukemia, and lymphoma. Our analyses found no evidence of a statistically significant elevation in cancer risks in this cohort exposed at radiosensitive ages, although the cancer trends, particularly for leukemia (SIR=1.92, 95% confidence interval: 0.69; 4.13), should continue to be monitored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Short period sound speed oscillation measured by intensive XBT survey and its role on GNSS/acoustic positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, M.; Matsui, R.; Imano, M.; Honsho, C.

    2017-12-01

    In the GNSS/acoustic measurement, sound speed in ocean plays a key role of accuracy of final positioning. We have shown than longer period sound speed undulation can be properly estimated from GNSS-A analysis itself in our previous work. In this work, we have carried out intensive XBT measurement to get temporal variation of sound speed in short period to be compared with GNSS-A derived one. In the individual temperature profile obtained by intensive XBT measurements (10 minutes interval up to 12 times of cast), clear vertical oscillation up to 20 m of amplitude in the shallow part were observed. These can be interpreted as gravitational internal wave with short-period and hence short wavelength anomaly. Kido et al. (2007) proposed that horizontal variation of the ocean structure can be considered employing five or more transponders at once if the structure is expressed by two quantities, i.e., horizontal gradient in x/y directions. However, this hypothesis requires that the variation must has a large spatial scale (> 2-5km) so that the horizontal variation can be regarded as linear within the extent of acoustic path to seafloor transponders. Therefore the wavelength of the above observed internal wave is getting important. The observed period of internal wave was 30-60 minute. However its wavelength cannot be directly measured. It must be estimate based on density profile of water column. In the comparison between sound speed change and positioning, the delay of their phases were 90 degree, which indicates that most steep horizontal slope of internal wave correspond to largest apparent positioning shift.

  2. Tailoring of the electrical and thermal properties using ultra-short period non-symmetric superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Komar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric modules based on half-Heusler compounds offer a cheap and clean way to create eco-friendly electrical energy from waste heat. Here we study the impact of the period composition on the electrical and thermal properties in non-symmetric superlattices, where the ratio of components varies according to (TiNiSnn:(HfNiSn6−n, and 0 ⩽ n ⩽ 6 unit cells. The thermal conductivity (κ showed a strong dependence on the material content achieving a minimum value for n = 3, whereas the highest value of the figure of merit ZT was achieved for n = 4. The measured κ can be well modeled using non-symmetric strain relaxation applied to the model of the series of thermal resistances.

  3. A Population of planetary systems characterized by short-period, Earth-sized planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze data from the Quarter 1–17 Data Release 24 (Q1–Q17 DR24) planet candidate catalog from NASA’s Kepler mission, specifically comparing systems with single transiting planets to systems with multiple transiting planets, and identify a population of exoplanets with a necessarily distinct system architecture. Such an architecture likely indicates a different branch in their evolutionary past relative to the typical Kepler system. The key feature of these planetary systems is an isolated, Earth-sized planet with a roughly 1-d orbital period. We estimate that at least 24 of the 144 systems we examined (≳17%) are members of this population. Accounting for detection efficiency, such planetary systems occur with a frequency similar to the hot Jupiters. PMID:27790984

  4. A Population of planetary systems characterized by short-period, Earth-sized planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Jason H; Coughlin, Jeffrey L

    2016-10-25

    We analyze data from the Quarter 1-17 Data Release 24 (Q1-Q17 DR24) planet candidate catalog from NASA's Kepler mission, specifically comparing systems with single transiting planets to systems with multiple transiting planets, and identify a population of exoplanets with a necessarily distinct system architecture. Such an architecture likely indicates a different branch in their evolutionary past relative to the typical Kepler system. The key feature of these planetary systems is an isolated, Earth-sized planet with a roughly 1-d orbital period. We estimate that at least 24 of the 144 systems we examined ([Formula: see text]17%) are members of this population. Accounting for detection efficiency, such planetary systems occur with a frequency similar to the hot Jupiters.

  5. Biomass production of dense direct-seeded lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) at short rotation periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backlund, I.; Bergsten, U.

    2012-07-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) is a fast-growing species that is suitable for producing woody biomass in Nordic countries. Direct seeding of this species is cheaper than planting and creates dense, stable stands. The objective of this study was to quantify the stem volume and biomass production of direct seeded lodgepole pine stands grown under different site conditions with different stem densities, at an age that would permit extensive harvesting of biomass. A circle-plot inventory was performed in 16 of the oldest direct seeded lodgepole pine stands in mid-northern Sweden. Stemwood production of almost 200 m{sup 3}/ha was achieved on average on the best sites, rising to about 300 m{sup 3}/ha for the best circle-plots within 30 years of direct seeding despite the fact that pre-commercial thinning was made once or twice. This corresponds to 100 and 140 tons of dry weight biomass/ha, respectively. Higher stand stem densities ({>=}3000 st/ha) yielded more biomass with only slight reductions in diameter at breast height. The development of stem volume with respect to dominant height in direct seeded stands was becoming comparable to that in planted stands with similar spacing. It therefore seems that there is an unutilized potential for cost-effectively growing lodgepole pine in dense stands for biomass production after direct seeding. It may be possible to devise regimes for short(er) rotation forestry that would yield substantial amount of inexpensive biomass for biorefineries within a few decades. (orig.)

  6. Exploring the Impact of a Culturally Tailored Short Film in Modifying Dementia Stigma Among Chinese Americans: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Chung, Jamie O P; Woo, Benjamin K P

    2016-04-01

    Chinese Americans, one of the fastest growing ethnic groups among the US elderly population, perceive high levels of dementia stigma. The authors examined the extent of the stigma and explored the impact of media through a culturally tailored short film to modify dementia stigma. Chinese American participants were asked to answer a dementia questionnaire. A short film was then used to address the impact of media on dementia stigma. Among 90 randomly selected participants, 89% (n = 80) found the short film to be a useful way to modify their misconceptions about dementia. In the comparison between the group who felt less influenced by the short film and the group who recognized the short film to be extremely helpful, the latter group had a higher baseline of stigma toward dementia, as well as a shorter duration of residence in the USA. Chinese Americans still perceive severe dementia stigma. Nevertheless, a culturally tailored short film demonstrated promising impact in modifying stigma toward dementia.

  7. BVRI Photometric Study of the Short Period, Solar Type, Semi-Detached Binary, NSVS 10083189

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samec, Ronald G.; Caton, Daniel B.; Olsen, Amber; Faulkner, Danny R.; Hill, Robert L.

    2017-06-01

    Precision BVRcIc light curves of NSVS 5066754 were taken on 11 nights in February through April 2015 at Dark Sky Observatory in North Carolina with the 0.81-m reflector of Appalachian State University and on 1 night on the SARA 1-m reflector at Kitt Peak National Observatory in remote mode. It is an ~ F8V eclipsing binary with a period of 0.4542238 (2) d.Seven times of minimum light were calculated, for 5 primary and 2 secondary eclipses from our present observations:HJD I = 2457067.75453±0.0003, 2457088.64907±0.0001, 2457089.55708±0.0001, 2457098.64163±0.0004, 24557113.63117±0.0002HJD II = 2457066.61874±0.0008, 2457067.52329±0.0017.In addition, seven observations at minima were introduced as low weighted times of minimum light taken from archived NSVS Data.The following decreasing quadratic ephemeris was determined from all available times of minimum light in this study covering some 15 years:JD Hel MinI = 2457089.55665±0.00054d + 0.4542179±0. 0000006 X E -0.00000000049±0.00000000005 × E2We note that this result has a strong level of confidence. This again gives evidence that the components are coming into contact possibly due to magnetic braking as indicated by dark spot activity on the binary.We initially modeled the B,V,R,I curves simultaneously with the Wilson-Devinney program in a shallow contact configuration (mode 3) as indicated by our Binary Maker 3 fits. This led to a near but non-contact configuration. Next, the general Mode 2 was used to give clues regarding the configuration. During this investigation, the primary component came into contact while the secondary star remained detached. Next, a solution was determined in a semidetached, mode 4 state (larger component filling its critical lobe and the secondary under filing. This may indicate that NSVS 10083189 is coming into contact for the first time. The mode and the period change corroborate.Our semi-detached, near contact solution, gave a mass ratio of 0.58, with component temperatures of

  8. Short and long periodic atmospheric variations between 25 and 200 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, C. G.; Woodrum, A.

    1973-01-01

    Previously collected data on atmospheric pressure, density, temperature and winds between 25 and 200 km from sources including Meteorological Rocket Network data, ROBIN falling sphere data, grenade release and pitot tube data, meteor winds, chemical release winds, satellite data, and others were analyzed by a daily difference method and results on the distribution statistics, magnitude, and spatial structure of gravity wave and planetary wave atmospheric variations are presented. Time structure of the gravity wave variations were determined by the analysis of residuals from harmonic analysis of time series data. Planetary wave contributions in the 25-85 km range were discovered and found to have significant height and latitudinal variation. Long period planetary waves, and seasonal variations were also computed by harmonic analysis. Revised height variations of the gravity wave contributions in the 25 to 85 km height range were computed. An engineering method and design values for gravity wave magnitudes and wave lengths are given to be used for such tasks as evaluating the effects on the dynamical heating, stability and control of spacecraft such as the space shuttle vehicle in launch or reentry trajectories.

  9. Probability Estimates of Solar Proton Doses During Periods of Low Sunspot Number for Short Duration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William F.; Rojdev, Kristina; Matzkind, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    In an earlier paper presented at ICES in 2015, we investigated solar particle event (SPE) radiation exposures (absorbed dose) to small, thinly-shielded spacecraft during a period when the monthly smoothed sunspot number (SSN) was less than 30. Although such months are generally considered "solar-quiet", SPEs observed during these months even include Ground Level Events, the most energetic type of SPE. In this paper, we add to previous study those SPEs that occurred in 1973-2015 when the SSN was greater than 30 but less than 50. Based on the observable energy range of the solar protons, we classify the event as GLEs, sub-GLEs, and sub-sub-GLEs, all of which are potential contributors to the radiation hazard. We use the spectra of these events to construct a probabilistic model of the absorbed dose due to solar protons when SSN < 50 at various confidence levels for various depths of shielding and for various mission durations. We provide plots and tables of solar proton-induced absorbed dose as functions of confidence level, shielding thickness, and mission-duration that will be useful to system designers.

  10. Magnetic field topology of the cool, active, short-period binary system σ2 Coronae Borealis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, L.; Kochukhov, O.; Alecian, E.; Neiner, C.; Morin, J.; Wade, G. A.; BinaMIcS Collaboration

    2018-06-01

    Aims: The goal of this work is to study the cool, active binary star σ2 CrB, focussing on its magnetic field. The two F9-G0 components of this system are tidally locked and in a close orbit, increasing the chance of interaction between their magnetospheres. Methods: We used Stokes IV data from the twin spectropolarimeters Narval at the TBL and ESPaDOnS at the CFHT. The least-squares deconvolution multi-line technique was used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. We then applied a new binary Zeeman-Doppler imaging code to reconstruct simultaneously the magnetic topology and brightness distribution of both components of σ2 CrB. This analysis was carried out for two observational epochs in 2014 and 2017. Results: A previously unconfirmed magnetic field of the primary star has been securely detected. At the same time, the polarisation signatures of the secondary appear to have a systematically larger amplitude than that of the primary. This corresponds to a stronger magnetic field, for which the magnetic energy of the secondary exceeds that of the primary by a factor of 3.3-5.7. While the magnetic energy is similar for the secondary star in the two epochs, the magnetic energy is about twice as high in 2017 for the primary. The magnetic field topology of the two stars in the earlier epoch (2014) is very different. The fractions of energy in the dipole and quadrupole components of the secondary are similar and thereafter decrease with increasing harmonic angular degree ℓ. At the same time, for the primary the fraction of energy in the dipole component is low and the maximum energy contribution comes from ℓ = 4. However, in the 2017 epoch both stars have similar field topologies and a systematically decreasing energy with increasing ℓ. In the earlier epoch, the magnetic field at the visible pole appears to be of opposite polarity for the primary and secondary, suggesting linked magnetospheres. The apparent rotational periods of both σ2 Cr

  11. Interfacial electronic charge transfer and density of states in short period Cu/Cr multilayers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, T W; Bello, A F; Klepeis, J E; Van Buuren, T

    1999-01-01

    Nanometer period metallic multilayers are ideal structures to investigate electronic phenomena at interfaces between metal films since interfacial atoms comprise a large atomic fraction of the samples. The Cu/Cr binary pair is especially suited to study the interfaces in metals since these elements are mutually insoluble, thus eliminating mixing effects and compound formation and the lattice mismatch is very small. This allows the fabrication of high structural quality Cu/Cr multilayers that have a structure which can be approximated in calculations based on idealized atomic arrangements. The electronic structure of the Cu and the Cr layers in several samples of thin Cu/Cr multilayers were studied using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Total electron yield was measured and used to study the white lines at the Cu L(sub 2) and L(sub 3) absorption edges. The white lines at the Cu absorption edges are strongly related to the unoccupied d-orbitals and are used to calculate the amount of charge transfer between the Cr and Cu atoms in interfaces. Analysis of the Cu white lines show a charge transfer of 0.026 electrons/interfacial Cu atom to the interfacial Cr atoms. In the Cu XAS spectra we also observe a van Hove singularity between the L(sub 2) and L(sub 3) absorption edges as expected from the structural analysis. The absorption spectra are compared to partial density of states obtained from a full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital calculation. The calculations support the presence of charge transfer and indicate that it is localized to the first two interfacial layers in both Cu and Cr

  12. Influence of temperature of the short-period heat treatment on mechanical properties of the NiTi alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Čapek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The equiatomic alloy of nickel and titanium, known as nitinol, possesses unique properties such as superelasticity, pseudoplasticity, shape memory, while maintaining good corrosion resistance and sufficient biocompatibility. Therefore it is used for production of various devices including surgery implants. Heat treatment of nickel-rich NiTi alloys can result in precipitation of nickel-rich phases, which strongly influence tensile and fatigue behaviour of the material.In this work we have studied influence of short-period heat treatment on tensile behaviour and fatigue life of the NiTi (50.9 at. % Ni wire intended for fabrication of surgery stents.

  13. A hybrid multi-objective cultural algorithm for short-term environmental/economic hydrothermal scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Youlin; Zhou Jianzhong; Qin Hui; Wang Ying; Zhang Yongchuan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Multi-objective optimization model of short-term environmental/economic hydrothermal scheduling. → A hybrid multi-objective cultural algorithm (HMOCA) is presented. → New heuristic constraint handling methods are proposed. → Better quality solutions by reducing fuel cost and emission effects simultaneously are obtained. -- Abstract: The short-term environmental/economic hydrothermal scheduling (SEEHS) with the consideration of multiple objectives is a complicated non-linear constrained optimization problem with non-smooth and non-convex characteristics. In this paper, a multi-objective optimization model of SEEHS is proposed to consider the minimal of fuel cost and emission effects synthetically, and the transmission loss, the water transport delays between connected reservoirs as well as the valve-point effects of thermal plants are taken into consideration to formulate the problem precisely. Meanwhile, a hybrid multi-objective cultural algorithm (HMOCA) is presented to deal with SEEHS problem by optimizing both two objectives simultaneously. The proposed method integrated differential evolution (DE) algorithm into the framework of cultural algorithm model to implement the evolution of population space, and two knowledge structures in belief space are redefined according to the characteristics of DE and SEEHS problem to avoid premature convergence effectively. Moreover, in order to deal with the complicated constraints effectively, new heuristic constraint handling methods without any penalty factor settings are proposed in this paper. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed HMOCA method are demonstrated by two case studies of a hydrothermal power system. The simulation results reveal that, compared with other methods established recently, HMOCA can get better quality solutions by reducing fuel cost and emission effects simultaneously.

  14. Magnetic Activity and Period Variation Studies of the Short-period Eclipsing Binaries. II. V1101 Her, AD Phe, and NSV 455 (J011636.15-394955.7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Qing-feng; Zhang, Li-yun; Bi, Shao-lan; Han, Xianming L.; Wang, Dai-mei; Lu, Hong-peng

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present new BVRI light curves of short-period contact eclipsing binaries V1101 Her and AD Phe from our observations carried out from 2014 to 2015 using the SARA KP and SARA CT telescopes. There is an eclipsing binary located at α(2000) = 01h16m36.ˢ15 and δ(2000) = -39°49‧55.″7 in the field of view of AD Phe. We derived an updated ephemeris and found there a cyclic variation overlaying a continuous period increase (V1101 Her) and decrease (AD Phe). This kind of cyclic variation may be attributed to the light time effect via the presence of the third body or magnetic activity cycle. The orbital period increase suggests that V1101 Her is undergoing a mass-transfer from the primary to the secondary component (dM 1/dt = 2.64(±0.11) × 10-6 M ⊙ yr-1) with the third body (P 3 = 13.9(±1.9) years), or 2.81(±0.07) × 10-6 M ⊙ yr-1 for an increase andmagnetic cycle (12.4(±0.5) years). The long-term period decrease suggests that AD Phe is undergoing a mass-transfer from the secondary component to the primary component at a rate of -8.04(±0.09) × 10-8 M ⊙ yr-1 for a period decrease and the third body (P 3 = 56.2(±0.8) years), or -7.11(±0.04) × 10-8 M ⊙ yr-1 for a decrease and magnetic cycle (50.3(±0.5) years). We determined their orbital and geometrical parameters. For AD Phe, we simultaneously analyzed our BVRI light curves and the spectroscopic observations obtained by Duerbeck & Rucinski. The spectral type of V1101 Her was classified as G0 ± 2V by LAMOST stellar spectra survey. The asymmetry of the R-band light curve of AD Phe obtained by McFarlane & Hilditch in 1987 is explained by a cool spot on the primary component.

  15. Culture belief based multi-objective hybrid differential evolutionary algorithm in short term hydrothermal scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huifeng; Zhou Jianzhong; Zhang Yongchuan; Lu Youlin; Wang Yongqiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Culture belief is integrated into multi-objective differential evolution. ► Chaotic sequence is imported to improve evolutionary population diversity. ► The priority of convergence rate is proved in solving hydrothermal problem. ► The results show the quality and potential of proposed algorithm. - Abstract: A culture belief based multi-objective hybrid differential evolution (CB-MOHDE) is presented to solve short term hydrothermal optimal scheduling with economic emission (SHOSEE) problem. This problem is formulated for compromising thermal cost and emission issue while considering its complicated non-linear constraints with non-smooth and non-convex characteristics. The proposed algorithm integrates a modified multi-objective differential evolutionary algorithm into the computation model of culture algorithm (CA) as well as some communication protocols between population space and belief space, three knowledge structures in belief space are redefined according to these problem-solving characteristics, and in the differential evolution a chaotic factor is embedded into mutation operator for avoiding the premature convergence by enlarging the search scale when the search trajectory reaches local optima. Furthermore, a new heuristic constraint-handling technique is utilized to handle those complex equality and inequality constraints of SHOSEE problem. After the application on hydrothermal scheduling system, the efficiency and stability of the proposed CB-MOHDE is verified by its more desirable results in comparison to other method established recently, and the simulation results also reveal that CB-MOHDE can be a promising alternative for solving SHOSEE.

  16. Interfacial intermixing in InAs/GaSb short-period-superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, E.; Satpati, B.; Trampert, A.; Rodriguez, J. B.; Baranov, A. N.; Tournie, E.

    2010-01-01

    The unique properties of the noncommon-atom InAs/GaSb short-period-superlattices (SPSL) strongly depend on the interface structure. These interfaces are characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The compositional sharpness is obtained from the comparison of the experimental contrast in g 002 two-beam dark-field TEM images with simulated intensity profiles, which are calculated assuming that the element distribution profiles are described by sigmoidal functions. The interfacial intermixing, defined by the chemical width, is obtained for SPSL with different periods and layer thicknesses, even in the extreme case of nominally less than 3 ML thick InAs layers. Nominal 1 ML InSb layers intentionally inserted are also identified.

  17. On the use of volumetric strain meters to infer additional characteristics of short-period seismic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Glassmoyer, G.

    1989-01-01

    Volumetric strain meters (Sacks-Evertson design) are installed at 15 sites along the San Andreas fault system, to monitor long-term strain changes for earthquake prediction. Deployment of portable broadband, high-resolution digital recorders (GEOS) at several of the sites extends the detection band for volumetric strain to periods shorter than 5 ?? 10-2 sec and permits the simultaneous observation of seismic radiation fields using conventional short-period pendulum seismometers. Recordings of local and regional earthquakes indicate that dilatometers respond to P energy but not direct shear energy and that straingrams can be used to resolve superimposed reflect P and S waves for inference of wave characteristics not permitted by either sensor alone. Simultaneous measurements of incident P- and S-wave amplitudes are used to introduce a technique for single-station estimates of wave field inhomogeneity, free-surface reflection coefficients and local material P velocity. -from Authors

  18. Layering of Structure in the North American Upper Mantle: Combining Short Period Constraints and Full Waveform Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, C.; Calo, M.; Bodin, T.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Recent receiver function (RF) studies of the north American craton suggest the presence of layering within the cratonic lithosphere with significant lateral variations in the depth. However, the location and character of these discontinuities depends on assumptions made on a background 3D velocity model. On the other hand, the implementation of the Spectral Element Method (SEM) for the computation of the seismic wavefield in 3D structures is allowing improved resolution of volumetric structure in full waveform tomography. The corresponding computations are however very heavy and limit our ability to attain short enough periods to resolve short scale features such as the existence and lateral variations of discontinuities. In order to overcome these limitations, we have developed a methodology that combines full waveform inversion tomography and information provided by short period seismic observables. In a first step we constructed a 3D discontinuous radially anisotropic starting model combining 1D models calculated using RF and L and R wave dispersion data in a Bayesian framework using trans-dimensional MCMC inversion at a collection of 30 stations across the north American continent (Calò et al., 2016). This model was then interpolated and smoothed using a procedure based on residual homogenization (Capdeville et al. 2013) and serves as input model for full waveform tomography using a three-component waveform dataset previously collected (Yuan et al., 2014). The homogenization is necessary to avoid meshing problems and heavy SEM computations. In a second step, several iterations of the full waveform inversion are performed until convergence, using a regional SEM code for forward computations (RegSEM, Cupillard et al., 2012). Results of the inversion are volumetric velocity perturbations around the homogenized starting model, which are then added to the discontinuous 3D starting model. The final result is a multiscale discontinuous model containing both short and

  19. Short-period volcanic gas precursors to phreatic eruptions: Insights from Poás Volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Maarten; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Pacheco, Javier; Avard, Geoffroy; Kern, Christoph; Liuzzo, Marco; Martinez, Maria; Giudice, Gaetano; Fischer, Tobias P.

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions involving interaction with water are amongst the most violent and unpredictable geologic phenomena on Earth. Phreatic eruptions are exceptionally difficult to forecast by traditional geophysical techniques. Here we report on short-term precursory variations in gas emissions related to phreatic blasts at Poás volcano, Costa Rica, as measured with an in situ multiple gas analyzer that was deployed at the edge of the erupting lake. Gas emitted from this hyper-acid crater lake approaches magmatic values of SO2/CO2 1–6 days prior to eruption. The SO2 flux derived from magmatic degassing through the lake is measureable by differential optical absorption spectrometry (sporadic campaign measurements), which allows us to constrain lake gas output and input for the major gas species during eruptive and non-eruptive periods. We can further calculate power supply to the hydrothermal system using volatile mass balance and thermodynamics, which indicates that the magmatic heat flux into the shallow hydrothermal system increases from ∼27 MW during quiescence to ∼59 MW during periods of phreatic events. These transient pulses of gas and heat from the deeper magmatic system generate both phreatic eruptions and the observed short-term changes in gas composition, because at high gas flux scrubbing of sulfur by the hydrothermal system is both kinetically and thermodynamically inhibited whereas CO2gas is always essentially inert in hyperacid conditions. Thus, the SO2/CO2 of lake emissions approaches magmatic values as gas and power supply to the sub-limnic hydrothermal system increase, vaporizing fluids and priming the hydrothermal system for eruption. Our results suggest that high-frequency real-time gas monitoring could provide useful short-term eruptive precursors at volcanoes prone to phreatic explosions.

  20. Legal Culture as the Determinant of Value Orientations in Youth in the Society of the Transition Period (Philosophical Analysis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulzhanova, Zhuldizay T.; Kulzhanova, Gulbaram T.

    2016-01-01

    This research is devoted to the philosophical analysis of legal culture as a determinant of value orientations in the transition period society. The purpose of the study is to discover the essence and specificity of legal culture as a determinant of value orientations in a transition society from the philosophical perspective. In accordance with…

  1. Periodic heat shock accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in pellet culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is one of diseases that seriously affect elderly people's quality of life. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs offer a potential promise for the joint repair in OA patients. However, chondrogenic differentiation from hMSCs in vitro takes a long time (∼ 6 weeks and differentiated cells are still not as functionally mature as primary isolated chondrocytes, though chemical stimulations and mechanical loading have been intensively studied to enhance the hMSC differentiation. On the other hand, thermal stimulations of hMSC chondrogenesis have not been well explored. In this study, the direct effects of mild heat shock (HS on the differentiation of hMSCs into chondrocytes in 3D pellet culture were investigated. Periodic HS at 41 °C for 1 hr significantly increased sulfated glycosaminoglycan in 3D pellet culture at Day 10 of chondrogenesis. Immunohistochemical and Western Blot analyses revealed an increased expression of collagen type II and aggrecan in heat-shocked pellets than non heat-shocked pellets on Day 17 of chondrogenesis. In addition, HS also upregulated the expression of collagen type I and X as well as heat shock protein 70 on Day 17 and 24 of differentiation. These results demonstrate that HS accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs and induced an early maturation of chondrocytes differentiated from hMSCs. The results of this study will guide the design of future protocols using thermal treatments to facilitate cartilage regeneration with human mesenchymal stem cells.

  2. Loss of the ability to generate large burst-forming unit-like megakaryocytic colonies from thawed cord blood in semisolid cultures after short term suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskola, M; Bäckman, S; Möttönen, S; Kekomäki, R

    2015-04-01

    Total colony-forming cells from thawed cord blood units (CBUs) include megakaryocytic colony-forming units (CFU-Mks), which survive the freezing process. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether different megakaryocytic progenitors from unseparated CBUs survive the freezing process and a short-term liquid culture. Thawed samples of CBUs were cultured in liquid medium. During the cultures, serial samples were drawn to assess the growth of different megakaryocytic progenitors in a semisolid collagen medium with identical cytokines as in the liquid medium. Megakaryocytic cells were detected using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. In suspension culture, the megakaryocytic progenitors almost completely lost the ability to generate large (burst-forming unit-like, BFU-like) megakaryocytic colonies in semisolid cultures (large colonies, median count per chamber d0: 7.25 vs. d7: 1.5; P culture in suspension resulted in the decline of small colonies as well (d7: 16.0 vs. d14: 5.75; P = 0.0088). Total CFU-Mk count declined from 23.3 (range 12.5-34.0) at d0 to 7.25 (range 1.0-13.5) at d14 (P culture after a short suspension culture. Small CFU-Mks were observed throughout the cultures. It may be that the BFU-Mk colonies matured and acquired CFU-Mk behaviour. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  3. Input-output analysis of energy requirements for short rotation, intensive culture, woody biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, C.H.; Grado, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    A production model for short rotation, intensive culture (SRIC) plantations was developed to determine the energy and financial cost of woody biomass. The model was based on hybrid poplars planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2100 cuttings ha -1 , with average annual growth forecast at 16 metric tonne, oven dry (mg(OD)). Energy and financial analyses showed preharvest cost 4381 megajoules (MJ) Mg -1 (OD) and $16 (US) Mg -1 (OD). Harvesting and transportation requirements increased the total costs 6130 MJ Mg -1 (OD) and $39 Mg -1 (OD) for the delivered material. On an energy cost basis, the principal input was land, whereas on a financial basis, costs were more uniformly distributed among equipment, land, labor, and materials and fuel

  4. CSI 2264: CHARACTERIZING YOUNG STARS IN NGC 2264 WITH SHORT-DURATION PERIODIC FLUX DIPS IN THEIR LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; Rebull, Luisa; Plavchan, Peter; Carey, Sean [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McGinnis, Pauline; Alencar, Silvia H. P. [Departamento de Física—ICEx—UFMG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, 30270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Turner, Neal J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Terebey, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Morales-Calderón, María [Centro de Astrobiología, Dpto. de Astrofísica, INTA-CSIC, PO BOX 78, E-28691, ESAC Campus, Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Bouvier, Jerome; Venuti, Laura [Université de Grenoble, Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134, Palermo (Italy); Song, Inseok [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602–2451 (United States); Gutermuth, Rob, E-mail: stauffer@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    We identify nine young stellar objects (YSOs) in the NGC 2264 star-forming region with optical CoRoT light curves exhibiting short-duration, shallow periodic flux dips. All of these stars have infrared excesses that are consistent with their having inner disk walls near the Keplerian co-rotation radius. The repeating photometric dips have FWHMs generally less than 1 day, depths almost always less than 15%, and periods (3 < P < 11 days) consistent with dust near the Keplerian co-rotation period. The flux dips vary considerably in their depth from epoch to epoch, but usually persist for several weeks and, in two cases, were present in data collected in successive years. For several of these stars, we also measure the photospheric rotation period and find that the rotation and dip periods are the same, as predicted by standard “disk-locking” models. We attribute these flux dips to clumps of material in or near the inner disk wall, passing through our line of sight to the stellar photosphere. In some cases, these dips are also present in simultaneous Spitzer IRAC light curves at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. We characterize the properties of these dips, and compare the stars with light curves exhibiting this behavior to other classes of YSOs in NGC 2264. A number of physical mechanisms could locally increase the dust scale height near the inner disk wall, and we discuss several of those mechanisms; the most plausible mechanisms are either a disk warp due to interaction with the stellar magnetic field or dust entrained in funnel-flow accretion columns arising near the inner disk wall.

  5. CSI 2264: CHARACTERIZING YOUNG STARS IN NGC 2264 WITH SHORT-DURATION PERIODIC FLUX DIPS IN THEIR LIGHT CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; Rebull, Luisa; Plavchan, Peter; Carey, Sean; McGinnis, Pauline; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John; Turner, Neal J.; Terebey, Susan; Morales-Calderón, María; Bouvier, Jerome; Venuti, Laura; Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria; Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore; Song, Inseok; Gutermuth, Rob

    2015-01-01

    We identify nine young stellar objects (YSOs) in the NGC 2264 star-forming region with optical CoRoT light curves exhibiting short-duration, shallow periodic flux dips. All of these stars have infrared excesses that are consistent with their having inner disk walls near the Keplerian co-rotation radius. The repeating photometric dips have FWHMs generally less than 1 day, depths almost always less than 15%, and periods (3 < P < 11 days) consistent with dust near the Keplerian co-rotation period. The flux dips vary considerably in their depth from epoch to epoch, but usually persist for several weeks and, in two cases, were present in data collected in successive years. For several of these stars, we also measure the photospheric rotation period and find that the rotation and dip periods are the same, as predicted by standard “disk-locking” models. We attribute these flux dips to clumps of material in or near the inner disk wall, passing through our line of sight to the stellar photosphere. In some cases, these dips are also present in simultaneous Spitzer IRAC light curves at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. We characterize the properties of these dips, and compare the stars with light curves exhibiting this behavior to other classes of YSOs in NGC 2264. A number of physical mechanisms could locally increase the dust scale height near the inner disk wall, and we discuss several of those mechanisms; the most plausible mechanisms are either a disk warp due to interaction with the stellar magnetic field or dust entrained in funnel-flow accretion columns arising near the inner disk wall

  6. PHOTOMETRIC STUDIES OF THREE NEGLECTED SHORT-PERIOD CONTACT BINARIES GN BOOTIS, BL LEONIS, AND V1918 CYGNI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Qian, S.-B.

    2013-01-01

    We present new photometry for three short-period contact binaries, GN Boo, BL Leo, and V1918 Cyg, observed from 2008 December to 2012 April using several small telescopes in China. Photometric models were deduced from new observations using the updated Wilson-Devinney Code. The results show that GN Boo and BL Leo are W-type contact binaries, while V1918 Cyg is an A-type one. The mass ratios and fill-out factors are q = 0.320(± 0.002) and f = 5.8(± 0.1)% for GN Boo, q = 0.476(± 0.005) and f = 21.3(± 1.1)% for BL Leo, q = 0.264(± 0.002), and f = 49.7(± 0.7)% for V1918 Cyg, respectively. From the (O – C) curves, it is discovered that the orbital periods of three binaries have varied in a complicated way, i.e., cyclic oscillation for GN Boo, long-term period decrease for BL Leo, and both for V1918 Cyg. The cyclic variations for GN Boo and V1918 Cyg may probably be attributed to the magnetic activity of the primary component or light-time effect due to the third body. Meanwhile, the secular period decreases for BL Leo and V1918 Cyg may result from mass transfer from the primary to the secondary, accompanying the mass and angular momentum loss from the central system. Finally, GN Boo, BL Leo, and V1918 Cyg will evolve into deep contact binaries. Additionally, a statistical study of 37 contact binaries with decreasing periods is given. We obtained the relations of q – f and q – dln P/dt, and preliminarily determined the mass loss rate of dln M/dt from the binary system.

  7. Short-term dynamics of culturable bacteria in a soil amended with biotransformed dry olive residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, J A; Pascual, J; González-Menéndez, V; Sampedro, I; García-Romera, I; Bills, G F

    2014-03-01

    Dry olive residue (DOR) transformation by wood decomposing basidiomycetes (e.g. Coriolopsis floccosa) is a possible strategy for eliminating the liabilities related to the use of olive oil industry waste as an organic soil amendment. The effects of organic fertilization with DOR on the culturable soil microbiota are largely unknown. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to measure the short-term effects of DOR and C. floccosa-transformed DOR on the culturable bacterial soil community, while at the same time documenting the bacterial diversity of an agronomic soil in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula. The control soil was compared with the same soil treated with DOR and with C. floccosa-transformed DOR for 0, 30 and 60 days. Impact was measured from total viable cells and CFU counts, as well as the isolation and characterization of 900 strains by fatty acid methyl ester profiles and 16S rRNA partial sequencing. The bacterial diversity was distributed between Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Sphingobacteria and Cytophagia. Analysis of the treatments and controls demonstrated that soil amendment with untransformed DOR produced important changes in bacterial density and diversity. However, when C. floccosa-transformed DOR was applied, bacterial proliferation was observed but bacterial diversity was less affected, and the distribution of microorganisms was more similar to the unamended soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version of the Short Sensory Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Su Im; Loh, Siew Yim; Chinna, Karuthan; Marret, Mary J

    2016-01-01

    To translate, culturally adapt, and examine psychometric properties of the Malay version Short Sensory Profile (SSP-M). Pretesting (n = 30) of the original English SSP established its applicability for use with Malaysian children aged 3-10 years. This was followed by the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the SSP-M. Two forward and two back translations were compared and reviewed by a committee of 10 experts who validated the content of the SSP-M, before pilot testing (n = 30). The final SSP-M questionnaire was completed by 419 parents of typically developing children aged 3-10 years. Cronbach's alpha of each section of the SSP-M ranged from 0.73 to 0.93 and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) indicated good reliability (0.62-0.93). The seven factor model of the SSP-M had an adequate fit with evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. We conclude that the SSP-M is a valid and reliable screening tool for use in Malaysia with Malay-speaking parents of children aged 3-10 years. The SSP-M enables Malay-speaking parents to answer the questionnaire with better reliability, and provides occupational therapists with a valid tool to screen for sensory processing difficulties.

  9. PG 0308 + 096 and PG 1026 + 002 - Two new short period binary stars resulting from common-envelope evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Rex A.; Wade, Richard A.; Liebert, James; Green, Richard F.; Sion, Edward M.; Bechtold, J.; Foss, Diana; Kidder, K.

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry have been used to study the excess UV stars PG 0308 + 096 and PG 1026 + 002. Both objects are short-period binary systems, each containing a DA white dwarf star and a dM star. Orbital periods of approximately 0.284 day for PG 0308 + 096, and aproximately 0.597 day for PG 1026, have been found by spectroscopic analysis of the H-alpha emission line. Ly-alpha and Balmer line profile fitting were used to estimate the mass of white dwarf stars; mass estimates for the dM stars are based on their spectral types. The orbital inclinations are derived from these masses, the periods, and amplitudes of the H-alpha radial velocity curves. The equivalent width of the H-alpha emission line, in each binary system, varies with the orbital phase in such a manner as to imply that it arises, in large part at least, from the hemisphere of the M star that faces the white dwarf star.

  10. Bibliographic culture of periodical as a direction of informational and analytical work of library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. О. Подрезова

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of article is definition of changes in the work of Informational and Bibliographic Department of Scientific Library of Odesa I. I. Mechnikov National University that have happened recently. The purpose of publication consists in the description of directions of activity of the Department and particular of informational analytics. The author mainly used methods of theoretical research such as analysis, synthesis, generalization. The analysis shows that in consequence of transformation in the work of Informational and Bibliographic Department informational analitycs has become its priority activity. The main purpose of such kind of work is improving the quality of publishing output of university that is realized in forming of bibliographical culture of publications as well as promotion of the periodicals in global scientific space. To that end legal and regulatory framework of periodical publications, their inclusion to the list of academic editions ofUkrainewas monitored. Besides conditions of inclusion of editions to such scientometric databases as Scopus, IndexCopernicus, Russian Science Citation Index were studied. Described experience of transformation processes in the Scientific Library of Odesa I. I. Mechnikov National University will be useful for other higher school libraries. Materials of publication may be used by editorial boards of journals for editing periodical for publishing and for including of edition to the international scientific society. The analysis of the Department’s work showed a necessity of reorganization. Generally the Scientific Library of Odesa I. I. Mechnikov National University responds quickly to the modern transformations in educational process and scientific activity considering development of informational technologies.

  11. Exercise during Short-Term and Long-Term Continuous Exposure to Hypoxia Exacerbates Sleep-Related Periodic Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Morrison, Shawnda A.; Neyt, Xavier; Mairesse, Olivier; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Macdonald-Nethercott, Eoin; Pangerc, Andrej; Dolenc-Groselj, Leja; Eiken, Ola; Pattyn, Nathalie; Mekjavic, Igor B.; Meeusen, Romain

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Exposure to hypoxia elevates chemosensitivity, which can lead to periodic breathing. Exercise impacts gas exchange, altering chemosensitivity; however, interactions between sleep, exercise and chronic hypoxic exposure have not been examined. This study investigated whether exercise exacerbates sleep-related periodic breathing in hypoxia. Methods: Two experimental phases. Short-Term Phase: a laboratory controlled, group-design study in which 16 active, healthy men (age: 25 ± 3 y, height: 1.79 ± 0.06 m, mass: 74 ± 8 kg) were confined to a normobaric hypoxic environment (FIO2 = 0.139 ± 0.003, 4,000 m) for 10 days, after random assignment to a sedentary (control, CON) or cycle-exercise group (EX). Long-Term Phase: conducted at the Concordia Antarctic Research Station (3,800 m equivalent at the Equator) where 14 men (age: 36 ± 9 y, height: 1.77 ± 0.09 m, mass: 75 ± 10 kg) lived for 12–14 months, continuously confined. Participants were stratified post hoc based on self-reported physical activity levels. We quantified apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and physical activity variables. Results: Short-Term Phase: mean AHI scores were significantly elevated in the EX group compared to CON (Night1 = CON: 39 ± 51, EX: 91 ± 59; Night10 = CON: 32 ± 32, EX: 92 ± 48; P = 0.046). Long-Term Phase: AHI was correlated to mean exercise time (R2 = 0.4857; P = 0.008) and the coefficient of variation in night oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2; R2 = 0.3062; P = 0.049). Conclusions: Data indicate that exercise (physical activity) per se affects night SpO2 concentrations and AHI after a minimum of two bouts of moderate-intensity hypoxic exercise, while habitual physical activity in hypobaric hypoxic confinement affects breathing during sleep, up to 13+ months' duration Citation: Tellez HF, Morrison SA, Neyt X, Mairesse O, Piacentini MF, Macdonald-Nethercott E, Pangerc A, Dolenc-Groselj L, Eiken O, Pattyn N, Mekjavic IB, Meeusen R. Exercise during short-term and long

  12. 75 FR 1656 - Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for Public Comments; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... culture policy statement, including: (1) development of a common safety culture definition; and (2... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0485] Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for...: Issuance of draft safety culture policy statement and notice of opportunity for public comment; Extension...

  13. Comparative effects of sodium channel blockers in short term rat whole embryo culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Mats F; Sköld, Anna-Carin; Ericson, Ann-Christin; Annas, Anita; Villar, Rodrigo Palma; Cebers, Gvido; Hellmold, Heike; Gustafson, Anne-Lee; Webster, William S

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect on the rat embryonic heart of two experimental drugs (AZA and AZB) which are known to block the sodium channel Nav1.5, the hERG potassium channel and the L-type calcium channel. The sodium channel blockers bupivacaine, lidocaine, and the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine were used as reference substances. The experimental model was the gestational day (GD) 13 rat embryo cultured in vitro. In this model the embryonic heart activity can be directly observed, recorded and analyzed using computer assisted image analysis as it responds to the addition of test drugs. The effect on the heart was studied for a range of concentrations and for a duration up to 3 h. The results showed that AZA and AZB caused a concentration-dependent bradycardia of the embryonic heart and at high concentrations heart block. These effects were reversible on washout. In terms of potency to cause bradycardia the compounds were ranked AZB > bupivacaine > AZA > lidocaine > nifedipine. Comparison with results from previous studies with more specific ion channel blockers suggests that the primary effect of AZA and AZB was sodium channel blockage. The study shows that the short-term rat whole embryo culture (WEC) is a suitable system to detect substances hazardous to the embryonic heart. - Highlights: • Study of the effect of sodium channel blocking drugs on embryonic heart function • We used a modified method rat whole embryo culture with image analysis. • The drugs tested caused a concentration dependent bradycardia and heart block. • The effect of drugs acting on multiple ion channels is difficult to predict. • This method may be used to detect cardiotoxicity in prenatal development

  14. Comparative effects of sodium channel blockers in short term rat whole embryo culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Mats F, E-mail: Mats.Nilsson@farmbio.uu.se [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University (Sweden); Sköld, Anna-Carin; Ericson, Ann-Christin; Annas, Anita; Villar, Rodrigo Palma [AstraZeneca R and D Södertälje (Sweden); Cebers, Gvido [AstraZeneca R and D, iMed, 141 Portland Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hellmold, Heike; Gustafson, Anne-Lee [AstraZeneca R and D Södertälje (Sweden); Webster, William S [Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect on the rat embryonic heart of two experimental drugs (AZA and AZB) which are known to block the sodium channel Nav1.5, the hERG potassium channel and the L-type calcium channel. The sodium channel blockers bupivacaine, lidocaine, and the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine were used as reference substances. The experimental model was the gestational day (GD) 13 rat embryo cultured in vitro. In this model the embryonic heart activity can be directly observed, recorded and analyzed using computer assisted image analysis as it responds to the addition of test drugs. The effect on the heart was studied for a range of concentrations and for a duration up to 3 h. The results showed that AZA and AZB caused a concentration-dependent bradycardia of the embryonic heart and at high concentrations heart block. These effects were reversible on washout. In terms of potency to cause bradycardia the compounds were ranked AZB > bupivacaine > AZA > lidocaine > nifedipine. Comparison with results from previous studies with more specific ion channel blockers suggests that the primary effect of AZA and AZB was sodium channel blockage. The study shows that the short-term rat whole embryo culture (WEC) is a suitable system to detect substances hazardous to the embryonic heart. - Highlights: • Study of the effect of sodium channel blocking drugs on embryonic heart function • We used a modified method rat whole embryo culture with image analysis. • The drugs tested caused a concentration dependent bradycardia and heart block. • The effect of drugs acting on multiple ion channels is difficult to predict. • This method may be used to detect cardiotoxicity in prenatal development.

  15. Analyzing the Relationship of Organizational Trust and Organizational Culture with Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Teachers of Second Intermediate Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhosseini, Sakineh; Nadi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to study the relationship of organizational trust, organizational culture with knowledge sharing behavior among teachers of Second Intermediate Period in the City of Isfahan. Research method was correlation and statistical population included all teachers of Second Intermediate Period of Isfahan in academic year 2013-2014 (N…

  16. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A passive method for the determination of the equilibrium factor between radon gas and its short period progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Fabio O.; Canoba, Analia C.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the radiological importance of 222 Rn gas and its progeny of short period it is extremely necessary to count with an adequate methodology for the determination of its concentration in the different atmospheres in which human activity is developed. In this work a method was developed to determine the concentration of 222 Rn gas and the equilibrium factor between the concentration of the gas and its descendants, by means of a single device that has two Makrofol passive tracks detector. This device is completely passive and integrating, conditions that make it very appropriate to be used in any atmospheres in which human activity is developed, for example in houses, schools, places of work, underground mines, etc. (author)

  18. Short-range order in alloys of nickel with the elements of group VIII of the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, F.A.

    1981-08-01

    Experimental measurements of the diffuse X-ray scattering intensity were performed on alloys of Ni with Rh and Os. The atomic short-range order (SRO) parameters αsub(i) and the size-effect parameters βsub(i) were calculated from these measurements. It is established that SRO and size-effect exist in Ni-Rh and Ni-Os alloys analogously as in a few other alloys of Ni with the elements of group VIII of the periodic table. The experimental data was interpreted theoretically by calculating the interaction energies from the pseudo-potentials and the effective valencies of the individual components of the systems studied. It was found that theoretically calculated values of the interaction energies for these alloys are inconsistent with the experimentally determined sign of the SRO parameter. (author)

  19. A short historical investigation into cross-cultural Australian ideas about the marine animal group Teredinidae, their socioecological consequences and some options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Gardner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available How are contemporary multicultural coastal Australians, Aboriginals and settlers alike, to develop wiser ideas and practices towards marine animals as well as each other? To illustrate the importance and complexity of this question, I offer a short historical investigation of some contrasting ideas and practices held by Australian Aboriginal and settler cultures about marine animals of the group Teredinidae. I present two “screenshots”: one from the period 1798-1826 and another from 1970-2012. The first period examines a negative but influential interpretation by Thomas Malthus of a cross cultural encounter featuring Australian Aboriginal consumption of local Teredinidae known as “cobra”. While this cultural tone remains largely unchanged in the second period, the biological understanding of the marine animals has developed greatly. So has awareness of the socioecology of Teredinidae: their estuarine habitats and cultural significance. Their potential role as subjects of community based monitoring is undeveloped but could serve overlapping concerns of environmental justice as well as the restoration and “future proofing” of habitats. Such a new composite of ideas and practices will rely on better integration of biology with community based social innovations. A symbolic beginning would be a change in Australian English colloquialisms for Teredinidae, from the erroneous “shipworm” or “mangrove worm” to the more accurate “burrowing clam”.

  20. Quasi-periodic oscillations in short recurring bursts of the soft gamma repeater J1550–5418

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppenkothen, D.; D' Angelo, C.; Watts, A. L.; Heil, L.; Van der Klis, M.; Van der Horst, A. J. [Astronomical Institute " Anton Pannekoek," University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kouveliotou, C. [Astrophysics Office, ZP 12, NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Baring, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Göğüş, E.; Kaneko, Y. [SabancıUniversity, Orhanlı-Tuzla, İstanbul 34956 (Turkey); Granot, J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Ra' anana 43537 (Israel); Lin, L. [François Arago Centre, APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris (France); Von Kienlin, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Younes, G., E-mail: D.Huppenkothen@uva.nl [NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in magnetar giant flares has opened up prospects for neutron star asteroseismology. The scarcity of giant flares makes a search for QPOs in the shorter, far more numerous bursts from soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) desirable. In Huppenkothen et al., we developed a Bayesian method for searching for QPOs in short magnetar bursts, taking into account the effects of the complicated burst structure, and have shown its feasibility on a small sample of bursts. Here we apply the same method to a much larger sample from a burst storm of 286 bursts from SGR J1550–5418. We report a candidate signal at 260 Hz in a search of the individual bursts, which is fairly broad. We also find two QPOs at ∼93 Hz, and one at 127 Hz, when averaging periodograms from a number of bursts in individual triggers, at frequencies close to QPOs previously observed in magnetar giant flares. Finally, for the first time, we explore the overall burst variability in the sample and report a weak anti-correlation between the power-law index of the broadband model characterizing aperiodic burst variability and the burst duration: shorter bursts have steeper power-law indices than longer bursts. This indicates that longer bursts vary over a broader range of timescales and are not simply longer versions of the short bursts.

  1. Genome variability of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the short period of the 2010 epidemic in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Tatsuya; Yamada, Manabu; Fukai, Katsuhiko; Shimada, Nobuaki; Morioka, Kazuki; Yoshida, Kazuo; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Kanno, Toru; Yamakawa, Makoto

    2017-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is highly contagious and has a high mutation rate, leading to extensive genetic variation. To investigate how FMDV genetically evolves over a short period of an epidemic after initial introduction into an FMD-free area, whole L-fragment sequences of 104 FMDVs isolated from the 2010 epidemic in Japan, which continued for less than three months were determined and phylogenetically and comparatively analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of whole L-fragment sequences showed that these isolates were classified into a single group, indicating that FMDV was introduced into Japan in the epidemic via a single introduction. Nucleotide sequences of 104 virus isolates showed more than 99.56% pairwise identity rates without any genetic deletion or insertion, although no sequences were completely identical with each other. These results indicate that genetic substitutions of FMDV occurred gradually and constantly during the epidemic and generation of an extensive mutant virus could have been prevented by rapid eradication strategy. From comparative analysis of variability of each FMDV protein coding region, VP4 and 2C regions showed the highest average identity rates and invariant rates, and were confirmed as highly conserved. In contrast, the protein coding regions VP2 and VP1 were confirmed to be highly variable regions with the lowest average identity rates and invariant rates, respectively. Our data demonstrate the importance of rapid eradication strategy in an FMD epidemic and provide valuable information on the genome variability of FMDV during the short period of an epidemic. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Danish version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire (SMFA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Marianne Pia; Andersen, Signe; Jørgensen, Annette

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) into Danish (SMFA-DK) and assess the psychometric properties. METHODS: SMFA was translated and cross-culturally adapted according to a standardized procedure. Minor changes......, content validity as coding according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), floor/ceiling effects, construct validity as factor analysis, correlations between SMFA-DK and Short Form 36 and also known group method. Responsiveness and effect size were calculated...

  3. Study of short-period RS Canum Venaticorum and W Ursae Majoris binary systems: The global nature of Hα

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barden, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    I present the rotation versus emission characteristics of the Hα line for several short-period (P -5 ) and the Rossby number (the ratio between the rotational period and the convective time scale) is seen for those components showing emission. Such a correlation suggests that the Hα line is a good diagnostic for the study of the magnetic-related activity in late-type stellar systems. Plotting the L/sub Halpha//L/sub bol/ against a measure of the tidal amplitude of Scharlemann shows that the activity of the W UMa secondary components may be shut off by the tidal forces of the primaries. The shut-off appears in those components having a tidal amplitude > or approx. =0.02. It is, however, unclear whether the tidal damping of the differential rotation is the sole mechanism responsible for the shut-off of the Hα emission, as the activity damping may also be attributable to the contact nature of the W UMa systems

  4. The Discovery and Mass Measurement of a New Ultra-short-period Planet: K2-131b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fei; Winn, Joshua N.; Gandolfi, Davide; Wang, Sharon X.; Teske, Johanna K.; Burt, Jennifer; Albrecht, Simon; Barragán, Oscar; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Fridlund, Malcolm; Hatzes, Artie P.; Hirano, Teruyuki; Hirsch, Lea A.; Johnson, Marshall C.; Justesen, Anders Bo; Livingston, John; Persson, Carina M.; Prieto-Arranz, Jorge; Vanderburg, Andrew; Alonso, Roi; Antoniciello, Giuliano; Arriagada, Pamela; Butler, R. P.; Cabrera, Juan; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Cusano, Felice; Csizmadia, Szilárd; Deeg, Hans; Dieterich, Sergio B.; Eigmüller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Everett, Mark E.; Fukui, Akihiko; Grziwa, Sascha; Guenther, Eike W.; Henry, Gregory W.; Howell, Steve B.; Johnson, John Asher; Korth, Judith; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Narita, Norio; Nespral, David; Nowak, Grzegorz; Palle, Enric; Pätzold, Martin; Rauer, Heike; Montañés Rodríguez, Pilar; Shectman, Stephen A.; Smith, Alexis M. S.; Thompson, Ian B.; Van Eylen, Vincent; Williamson, Michael W.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.

    2017-12-01

    We report the discovery of a new ultra-short-period planet and summarize the properties of all such planets for which the mass and radius have been measured. The new planet, K2-131b, was discovered in K2 Campaign 10. It has a radius of {1.81}-0.12+0.16 {R}\\oplus and orbits a G dwarf with a period of 8.9 hr. Radial velocities obtained with Magellan/PFS and TNG/HARPS-N show evidence for stellar activity along with orbital motion. We determined the planetary mass using two different methods: (1) the “floating chunk offset” method, based only on changes in velocity observed on the same night; and (2) a Gaussian process regression based on both the radial velocity and photometric time series. The results are consistent and lead to a mass measurement of 6.5+/- 1.6 {M}\\oplus and a mean density of {6.0}-2.7+3.0 g cm-3.

  5. Lithospheric layering in the North American craton revealed by including Short Period Constraints in Full Waveform Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, C.; Calo, M.; Bodin, T.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent receiver function studies of the North American craton suggest the presence of significant layering within the cratonic lithosphere, with significant lateral variations in the depth of the velocity discontinuities. These structural boundaries have been confirmed recently using a transdimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach (TMCMC), inverting surface wave dispersion data and converted phases simultaneously (Calò et al., 2016; Roy and Romanowicz 2017). The lateral resolution of upper mantle structure can be improved with a high density of broadband seismic stations, or with a sparse network using full waveform inversion based on numerical wavefield computation methods such as the Spectral Element Method (SEM). However, inverting for discontinuities with strong topography such as MLDS's or LAB, presents challenges in an inversion framework, both computationally, due to the short periods required, and from the point of view of stability of the inversion. To overcome these limitations, and to improve resolution of layering in the upper mantle, we are developing a methodology that combines full waveform inversion tomography and information provided by short period seismic observables. We have extended the 30 1D radially anisotropic shear velocity profiles of Calò et al. 2016 to several other stations, for which we used a recent shear velocity model (Clouzet et al., 2017) as constraint in the modeling. These 1D profiles, including both isotropic and anisotropic discontinuities in the upper mantle (above 300 km depth) are then used to build a 3D starting model for the full waveform tomographic inversion. This model is built after 1) homogenization of the layered 1D models and 2) interpolation between the 1D smooth profiles and the model of Clouzet et al. 2017, resulting in a smooth 3D starting model. Waveforms used in the inversion are filtered at periods longer than 30s. We use the SEM code "RegSEM" for forward computations and a quasi-Newton inversion

  6. Three Hungarian researchers and three periods of the history and culture of the Albanian people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrvete Dreshaj-Baliu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study is the contribution of three Hungarian researchers: the publicist, the editor and the historian Windisch (Karl Go$ lieb von Windisch, 1725 -1793; the outstanding historian, medievalist, latinist and germanist Thalloczy (Ludwig von Thallóczy, 1857-1916; and the geographer and ethnographer of international dimensions Nopcsa (Baron Nopcsha 1877-1933. Their selection is not random; it refl ects the up to now development in the science of Albanology and our goal as researchers and evaluators to place them on the Pantheon of the Albanian studies. These three names represent, at the same time, three particular dimensions of our national history: the fate of an ethnicity detached from its national territory in certain historical and cultural circumstances (Windisch; documentation of the Albanian space in a particularly controversial period of the Middle Ages in Albania and the Balkans (Thalloczy; and the wealthiest historical, ethnographic, material, spiritual and linguistic landscape of the Albanian people in the beginning of the twentieth century (Nopcsa. Therefore, let us state in the very beginning that recognition of their contribution also implies the recognition of some of the most important achievements of the Albanian studies.

  7. MARVELS-1b: A SHORT-PERIOD, BROWN DWARF DESERT CANDIDATE FROM THE SDSS-III MARVELS PLANET SEARCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Brian L.; Ge Jian; Fleming, Scott W.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Stassun, Keivan G.; Gary, Bruce; Pepper, Joshua; Gaudi, B. Scott; Eastman, Jason D.; Siverd, Robert J.; Barnes, Rory; Laws, Chris; Wisniewski, John P.; Wright, Jason; Ghezzi, Luan; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Da Costa, Luiz Nicolaci; Porto de Mello, G. F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new short-period brown dwarf (BD) candidate around the star TYC 1240-00945-1. This candidate was discovered in the first year of the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanets Large-area Survey (MARVELS), which is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) III, and we designate the BD as MARVELS-1b. MARVELS uses the technique of dispersed fixed-delay interferometery to simultaneously obtain radial velocity (RV) measurements for 60 objects per field using a single, custom-built instrument that is fiber fed from the SDSS 2.5 m telescope. From our 20 RV measurements spread over a ∼370 day time baseline, we derive a Keplerian orbital fit with semi-amplitude K = 2.533 ± 0.025 km s -1 , period P = 5.8953 ± 0.0004 days, and eccentricity consistent with circular. Independent follow-up RV data confirm the orbit. Adopting a mass of 1.37 ± 0.11 M sun for the slightly evolved F9 host star, we infer that the companion has a minimum mass of 28.0 ± 1.5 M Jup , a semimajor axis 0.071 ± 0.002 AU assuming an edge-on orbit, and is probably tidally synchronized. We find no evidence for coherent intrinsic variability of the host star at the period of the companion at levels greater than a few millimagnitudes. The companion has an a priori transit probability of ∼14%. Although we find no evidence for transits, we cannot definitively rule them out for companion radii ∼ Jup .

  8. Training Load, Physical Performance, Biochemical Markers, and Psychological Stress During A Short Preparatory Period in Brazilian Elite Male Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Thiago A G; Bara Filho, Maurício G; Coimbra, Danilo R; Miranda, R; Werneck, Francisco Z

    2017-12-11

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between training load (TL) and physical performance, biochemical markers, and psychological stress during a short preparatory period (PP) in Brazilian elite male volleyball players. Twelve volleyball players from a team competing in the Brazilian Men's Volleyball Super League were enrolled (26.9 ± 4.6 years). Countermovement Jump (CMJ), Creatine Kinase (CK), Testosterone (T), Cortisol (Cr), T/Cr ratio, and Recovery and Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport) were collected at baseline, after 2, 4, and 6 week. TL was quantified daily using the Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE). Differences were noted between Total Weekly TL (TWTL) (F3,33 = 50.907; p = 0.0001), CK (F3,33 = 16.157; p = 0.0001), and T (F3,33 = 3.283; p = 0.03). No differences were seen in CMJ (F3,33 = 1.821; p = 0.16), Cr (F3,33 = 2.409; p = 0.08), or T/Cr ratio (F3,33 = 1.527; p = 0.23). The RESTQ-Sport demonstrated differences between moments in Social Stress (F3,33 = 2.297; p = 0.04; Eta = 0.25), Success (F3,33 = 4.350; p = 0.01; Eta = 0.19), General Well-being (F3,33 = 4.465; p = 0.01; Eta = 0.36), and Injury (F3,33 = 2.792; p = 0.05; Eta = 0.62). The results showed a significant correlations of small to moderate magnitude between TWTL and CK (r = 0.32; p = 0.05). In conclusion, a short PP in volleyball leads to increased TL, CK level, and psychological stress. TL was related with the increase of CK, suggesting muscle damage without increased of physical performance.

  9. Intimal permeability evaluated in a short-term organ culture of diabetic guinea pig aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, M.J.; Verlangieri, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A novel short-term organ culture system was used to evaluate intimal permeability changes by measuring aortic [ 14 C]methylated albumin accumulation. Aortic plugs were removed from the upper thoracic aorta of male guinea pigs and maintained in serum-free media. The accumulation of [ 14 C]albumin in the intimal-medial layer was determined after a 5 h incubation. In preliminary studies, albumin recovered from intimal-injured aortic plugs was significantly greater than those from non-injured plugs. Aortic plugs from streptozotocin-treated guinea pigs, diabetic for 3 weeks, also accumulated significantly more [ 14 C]albumin than plugs from nondiabetic controls. Histological changes were not observed in the aorta of either the diabetic or control group. A strong significant inverse correlation was found between plasma ascorbic acid levels and [ 14 C]-activity recovered from aortic plugs. This study demonstrates a simple and rapid method for assessing aortic permeability changes under a well-defined in vitro system, and suggests that vascular permeability changes in the streptozotocin-diabetic guinea pig may be associated with an ascorbic acid deficit

  10. Measurement invariance of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) across three cultural groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshanloo, Mohsen; Wissing, Marie P.; Khumalo, Itumeleng P.; Lamers, S.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the factorial structure and invariance of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) across cultural groups from three nations, namely, the Netherlands, South Africa, and Iran (N = 1120). The three-dimensional structure of mental well-being was supported in all the

  11. Cultured to Fail? Representations of Gender-Entangled Urban Women in Two Short Stories by Valerie Tagwira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Nyambi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a subtle yet discernible connection between the post-2000 political power struggle and the gender struggle in Zimbabwe. In both cases, a patriarchal power hierarchy shaped by tradition and history is perpetuated and justified as the mark of the nation’s unique identity. In cultural, political, and economic spheres, the status of most urban Zimbabwean women is still reflected as inferior to that of most men. During this economic and political crisis period, the prevailing gender power-relations evolved into gendered appraisals of the impact of the crisis and this created the potential for rather universal and androcentric conclusions. The consequent eclipse of female-centric voices of the political and gender struggle tends to suppress women’s perspectives, consequently inhibiting a gender-inclusive imagining of the nation. This article argues that discourses about gender struggle in Zimbabwe’s post-2000 crisis have not sufficiently addressed the question of space; that is, the significance of the oppressed women’s physical and social space in shaping their grievances and imaginings of exit routes. Similarly, the article argues that representations of this historic period in literary fiction have accentuated the wider political and economic struggles at the expense of other (especially gender struggles, thereby rendering them inconsequential. Using two short stories by Valerie Tagwira (“Mainini Grace’s Promise” and “The Journey”, the article explores the stories’ focalization of gender-entangled women in an urban space to understand the literary evocation of the condition of women caught up in a crisis in urban settings.

  12. Cultural Democracy in a Period of Cultural Expansion: The Social Composition of Arts Audiences in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaggio, Paul; Useem, Michael

    1978-01-01

    Visitors to museums and audiences of live performing arts tend to be better educated, of higher occupational standing, and more affluent than the general populace. Recent trends indicate that expansion in the scale of arts activities and government subsidies has not been accompanied by a democratization of cultural consumption. (Author/EB)

  13. Cultural relations between Hungary and Albania during the period of Humanism and Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet Mala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultural Hungarian-Albanian relations during the Middle Ages are characterized by a relatively poor intensity. Actually, relations between these two countries are more intense in the political field and especially through the partnership between Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg and John Hunyadi. Regarding the origin, the Hungarian culture identity is rather distinct from the Albanian one. Lack of cultural contacts, among others, was conditioned also by the fact that these relations were held under war circumstances and their primary aim was the common defense from Ottoman attacks. Actually, the Albanian medieval culture remained a Mediterranean culture with elements of Byzantine influence in the continental and southern areas. Meanwhile, Hungary belonged to Central Europe, which, even though far away from Mediterranean cultural mainstream, sought to be influenced by this culture, namely by the Renaissance that emanated exactly in the Mediterranean region. It was Matthias Corvinus effort, regarding the cultural influence of the Mediterranean and Renaissance in Hungary but also the fact that Hungary possessed some of the most important towns of the Adriatic coast and particularly Ragusa. This city was the center where cultural relations between Albanian and Hungary started and became intensified in the religious, intellectual and human field.

  14. Waveform correlation and coherence of short-period seismic noise within Gauribidanur array with implications for event detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadauria, Y.S.; Arora, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    In continuation with our effort to model the short-period micro seismic noise at the seismic array at Gauribidanur (GBA), we have examined in detail time-correlation and spectral coherence of the noise field within the array space. This has implications of maximum possible improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) relevant to event detection. The basis of this study is about a hundred representative wide-band noise samples collected from GBA throughout the year 1992. Both time-structured correlation as well as coherence of the noise waveforms are found to be practically independent of the inter element distances within the array, and they exhibit strong temporal and spectral stability. It turns out that the noise is largely incoherent at frequencies ranging upwards from 2 Hz; the coherency coefficient tends to increase in the lower frequency range attaining a maximum of 0.6 close to 0.5 Hz. While the maximum absolute cross-correlation also diminishes with increasing frequency, the zero-lag cross-correlation is found to be insensitive to frequency filtering regardless of the pass band. An extremely small value of -0.01 of the zero-lag correlation and a comparatively higher year-round average estimate at 0.15 of the maximum absolute time-lagged correlation yields an SNR improvement varying between a probable high of 4.1 and a low of 2.3 for the full 20-element array. 19 refs., 6 figs

  15. Nature of short-period microtremors on the cliff-like ground. 3; Gakechi kinbo no tanshuki bido . 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T; Matsuzawa, H [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Vibration characteristics were investigated of the ground in the vicinity of a cliff-like sharp slope. Short-period microtremors were observed in the vicinity of an artificially made cliff-like test ground, height 8m and inclination 90{degree}, and a natural cliff, height approximately 9m and inclination approximately 35{degree}. The artificial cliff was reinforced by a virtually vertical retaining wall of concrete, and the ground was prepared for testing with a belt approximately 20m wide and 50m long along the cliff face. All the vibration components were simultaneously measured at measuring spots that were located 5-40m apart from the cliff end and orientated perpendicular to the cliff face. It was then found that in case of artificial cliff there is a conspicuous 3.1Hz prevalent ground vibration in the component squarely meeting the cliff face, that the prevalent ground vibration is not particularly great near the cliff end because the retaining wall and the ground are artificially prepared, that there is no influence of the cliff-like ground in the ground vibration parallel to or vertical along the cliff face, and that in case of natural ground there are no vibration characteristic proper to a cliff-like ground in any of the vibration components. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Evidence of negative electrorefraction in type-II GaAs/GaAlAs short-period superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchukin, V A; Ledentsov, N N; Karachinsky, L Ya; Novikov, I I; Egorov, A Yu; Blokhin, S A; Maximov, M V; Gordeev, N Yu; Kulagina, M M; Ustinov, V M

    2015-01-01

    A type-II GaAs/GaAlAs short-period superlattice (SPSL) used as an electro-optic medium for the spectral range 820–850 nm is studied in a vertical microcavity geometry. SPSL is sandwiched between two GaAlAs distributed Bragg reflectors. Optical power reflectance (OR) spectra are measured as a function of applied reverse bias at different tilt angles and temperatures. All spectra reveal a blue shift of the reflectivity dip upon applied voltage which evidences a negative electrorefraction of the electro-optic medium. The shift enhances up to ∼0.6 nm once the exciton resonance is brought close to the wavelength of the reflectivity dip. As opposed to those modulators based on quantum–confined Stark effect, no increased absorption is observed at an applied bias, because the integrated intensity of the reflectivity dip in the OR spectra is virtually constant. This indicates a low absorption loss with applied bias and consequently a high potential for the increased dynamic range of the related modulator. (paper)

  17. Nature of short-period microtremors on the cliff-like ground. Part 4; Gakechi kinbo no tanshuki bido. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T; Yoshiike, T [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Microtremors were measured on the cliff-like ground with a height about 10 m, to examine the vibration characteristics. Test field-1 near Akabane, Kita-ku, Tokyo is located in a part of Musashino plateau covered with Kanto loam on its surface, and has relatively sound ground. Test field-2 at Machida is located in the western part of Tama hills, and also has Kanto loam on its surface. For the cliff-like ground with inclined angle 70{degree} at Akabane, remarkably predominant frequency 3.2 Hz was observed for the microtremors in the direction perpendicular to the cliff surface. However, this predominant vibration did not become larger due to the damping effects of the reinforcement walls near the end of cliff and the large trees on the cliff. Influence of the cliff-like ground was scarcely observed in the microtremors spectrum in both the directions parallel and vertical to the cliff-surface. From the observation of microtremors with short period on the cliff-like ground with inclined angle around 32{degree} at Machida, influence of cliff-like ground was not observed in the microtremors spectrum in all of the vibrating directions perpendicular, parallel and vertical to the cliff surface. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Optical properties of spontaneous lateral composition modulation in AlAs/InAs short-period superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francoeur, S.; Zhang, Yong; Norman, A. G.; Alsina, F.; Mascarenhas, A.; Reno, J. L.; Jones, E. D.; Lee, S. R.; Follstaedt, D. M.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of lateral composition modulation, spontaneously generated during the epitaxial growth of an AlAs/InAs short-period superlattice, on the electronic band structure is investigated using phototransmission and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Compared with uniform layers of identical average composition, the presence of the composition modulation considerably reduces the band-gap energy and produces strongly polarized emission and absorption spectra. We demonstrate that the dominant polarization direction can selectively be aligned along the [1(bar sign)10] or [010] crystallographic directions. In compressively strained samples, the use of (001) InP substrates slightly miscut toward (111)A or (101) resulted in modulation directions along [110] or [100], respectively, and dominant polarization directions along a direction orthogonal to the respective composition modulation. Band-gap reductions as high as 350 and 310 meV are obtained for samples with composition modulation along [110] and [100], respectively. Ratios of polarized intensities up to 26 are observed in transmission spectra. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  19. Cross-cultural differences in sibling power balance and its concomitants across three age periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, K.L.; Metindogan, A.; Coban, S.; Watve, S.; Paranipe, A.; Koot, Hans M.; Van Lier, P.; Branje, Susan; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    We examined cross-cultural differences in (1) sibling power balance and (2) the associations between sibling power balance and internalizing and externalizing problems in three separate cross-cultural studies (early childhood, late childhood, and adolescence). The early childhood samples consisted

  20. Cross-Cultural Differences in Sibling Power Balance and Its Concomitants across Three Age Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Kirsten L.; Metindogan, Aysegül; Coban, Selma; Watve, Sujala; Paranjpe, Analpa; Koot, Hans M.; van Lier, Pol; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2017-01-01

    We examined cross-cultural differences in (1) sibling power balance and (2) the associations between sibling power balance and internalizing and externalizing problems in three separate cross-cultural studies (early childhood, late childhood, and adolescence). The "early childhood samples" consisted of 123 Turkish and 128 Dutch mothers…

  1. Cultural Identities of Adolescent Immigrants: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study Including the Pre-Migration Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the cultural identities of adolescent immigrants in the pre-migration period and during the first 3 years after immigration. The target population consists of high-school Jewish adolescents from Russia and Ukraine participating in an Israeli immigration program. In this program, Jewish adolescents immigrate to Israel…

  2. [Seiichi Ishida, a chief physician of Shinsaku Takasugi: culture and politics as seen by a doctor of the Reformation period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Kazukuni

    2009-12-01

    This is first paper on Seiichi Ishida, who worked as the Bakan town doctor at the end of the Edo period. Seiichi was initially a private practice physician of Habuura, Asa-gun. He then studied Dutch medicine under Banri Hyakutake of Hakata and on his return home he further prospered. From the Kaei period, the assessment of Seiichi as an artistic, cultured person became high and at the beginning of the Ansei period he moved to Okinoshima of Shimonoseki. By the Bunkyu period, Seiichi held an important place in the history of cultural exchange among Shimonoseki's cultural figures. In the Keio period he moved to Odo, which was to the West of Isakiura and further inland. It was a very tranquil and beautiful place. It was from around this time that his socialization commenced with samurai belonging to the reformist group of the Hagi Domain. Shinsaku Takasugi in particular, adored Seiichi as a friend of the heart who loved Chinese poetry, and trusted him as his chief physician. Furthermore, Seiichi's political activity intensified and it has become clear that he was deeply involved in rescuing Botoni Nomura from Himeshima and the Hagi Domain's production of counterfeit currency.

  3. ABOUT THE FISCAL CULTURE CONSOLIDATION IN ROMANIA DURING THE COMMUNIST AND POST- COMMUNIST PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel LEONIDA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes of tax systems, frequent changes, intensification of the globalization process, fiscal competition to attract capital and increase of tax revenues, and some conflicting states between different divergent tax systems generate a certain culture of taxation. Frequency and dynamics of such changes, as well as the change of the Tax Code or Tax Procedure Code, without assessing that they are included in the national fiscal culture can generate low levels of collection and a tendency towards non-compliance from the part of taxpayers, who will not feel morally obliged to fulfill their part of the institutional contract with the state, due to difficulties of understanding, adaptation and rapid application of new changes. Such dynamic elements, as a whole, outline the fiscal culture specific to each state. On that basis, we intend to conduct an assessment of cultural accumulation generated by taxation.

  4. Production of well-matured compost from night-soil sludge by an extremely short period of thermophilic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Ohtaki, Akihito; Takemoto, Minoru; Fujiwara, Shunrokuro

    2011-03-01

    The effect of various operational conditions on the decomposition of organic material during the composting of night-soil treatment sludge was quantitatively examined. The optimum composting conditions were found to be a temperature of ca. 60°C and an initial pH value of 8. Rapid decomposition of organic matter ceased by the sixth day of composting under these optimum conditions, and the final value of the cumulative emission of carbon (E(C)), which represents the degree of organic matter decomposition, was less than 40%, indicating that the sludge contained only a small amount of easily degradable organic material. A plant growth assay using Komatsuna (Brassica campestris L. var. rapiferafroug) in a 1/5000a standard cultivation pot was then conducted for the compost at various degrees of organic matter decomposition: the raw composting material, the final compost obtained on day 6, and the 2 intermediate compost products (i.e., E(C)=10% and 20%). It was found that the larger the E(C), the greater the yield of Komatsuna growth. It was also found that 6 days of composting is sufficient to promote Komatsuna growth at the standard loading level, which is equivalent to a 1.5 g N/pot, since the promotion effect was as high as that obtained using chemical fertilizer. It can therefore be concluded that well-matured compost could be obtained in a short period of time (i.e., as early as 6 days), when night-soil sludge is composted under optimum conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. InN/GaN short-period superlattices as ordered InGaN ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Imai, Daichi; Wang, Ke; Yoshikawa, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Coherent (InN) 1 /(GaN) n short-period superlattices (SPSs) were successfully grown through dynamic atomic layer epitaxy (D-ALEp) mode by RF-plasma molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), where GaN layer thicknesses n were thinned down to 4 monolayer (ML). After this achievement, we demonstrated quasi-ternary InGaN behavior in their photoluminescence (PL) spectra for the first time. It was found interestingly that GaN layer thickness of n = 4 ML was the criterion both for structural control and continuum-band formation. Although highly lattice-mismatched InN/GaN interfaces easily introduce relaxation in (InN) 1 /(GaN) 4 SPSs during growth depending on the dynamic surface stoichiometry condition, this problem was overcome by precise control/removal of fluid-like residual In/Ga metals on the growth front with in-situ monitoring method. The (InN) 1 /(GaN) n SPSs with n ≥ 7 ML showed a constant PL peak energy around 3.2 eV at 12 K, reflecting discrete electron/hole wavefunctions. On the other hand, the (InN) 1 /(GaN) 4 SPSs indicated the red-shifted PL peak at 2.93 eV at 12 K, which was attributed to the continuum-band state with increasing in the overlap of electrons/hole wavefunctions. This result is concluded that the (InN) 1 /(GaN) 4 SPSs can be considered as ordered InGaN alloys. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. The Annals of Braila - The Most Important Regional Culture Journal in the Interwar Period of the Lower Danube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Dosuleanu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available “The Annals of Braila” is one of the most important regional cultural journals published in the interwar period, due to the cultural phenomenon of regionalism. This was the response of Romanian intellectuals to the exaggerated influence of the West in all areas, that is the emergence of what Titu Maiorescu called forms without substance. As a result, immediately after the Great Union of 1918, young people, mostly students, who already exposed their ideas in scientific societies, began to organize information-gathering activities in all domains in certain areas and then they published them as scientific texts. That is how regional culture journals appeared in Craiova, Brasov, Timisoara and Constanta. Curiously, all have been mentioned in history books of press or in dictionaries except “The Annals of Braila”. A careful examination shows that the journal was probably not only a refuge, as the Braila journal was as important as the other. And in order to support this we should mention: it appeared for 12 years despite the financial difficulties, while others were released for a smaller period of time, it had as collaborators important people of the Romanian culture and literature, and its studies concerned the entire area of the Lower Danube, the analyzes, documents, information having considered other cities that are on the Danube shores. Therefore, we believe that the “Annals of Braila” journal must stand alongside the other regional culture journals and enjoy the same importance.

  7. "Nothing special, everything is maamuli": socio-cultural and family practices influencing the perinatal period in urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Shanti; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura; Razee, Husna; Ritchie, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Globally, India contributes the largest share in sheer numbers to the burden of maternal and infant under-nutrition, morbidity and mortality. A major gap in our knowledge is how socio-cultural practices and beliefs influence the perinatal period and thus perinatal outcomes, particularly in the rapidly growing urban setting. Using data from a qualitative study in urban south India, including in-depth interviews with 36 women who had recently been through childbirth as well as observations of family life and clinic encounters, we explored the territory of familial, cultural and traditional practices and beliefs influencing women and their families through pregnancy, childbirth and infancy. We found that while there were some similarities in cultural practices to those described before in studies from low resource village settings, there are changing practices and ideas. Fertility concerns dominate women's experience of married life; notions of gender preference and ideal family size are changing rapidly in response to the urban context; however inter-generational family pressures are still considerable. While a rich repertoire of cultural practices persists throughout the perinatal continuum, their existence is normalised and even underplayed. In terms of diet and nutrition, traditional messages including notions of 'hot' and 'cold' foods, are stronger than health messages; however breastfeeding is the cultural norm and the practice of delayed breastfeeding appears to be disappearing in this urban setting. Marriage, pregnancy and childbirth are so much part of the norm for women, that there is little expectation of individual choice in any of these major life events. A greater understanding is needed of the dynamic factors shaping the perinatal period in urban India, including an acknowledgment of the health promoting as well as potentially harmful cultural practices and the critical role of the family. This will help plan culturally appropriate integrated perinatal

  8. “Nothing Special, Everything Is Maamuli”: Socio-Cultural and Family Practices Influencing the Perinatal Period in Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Shanti; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura; Razee, Husna; Ritchie, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, India contributes the largest share in sheer numbers to the burden of maternal and infant under-nutrition, morbidity and mortality. A major gap in our knowledge is how socio-cultural practices and beliefs influence the perinatal period and thus perinatal outcomes, particularly in the rapidly growing urban setting. Methods and Findings Using data from a qualitative study in urban south India, including in-depth interviews with 36 women who had recently been through childbirth as well as observations of family life and clinic encounters, we explored the territory of familial, cultural and traditional practices and beliefs influencing women and their families through pregnancy, childbirth and infancy. We found that while there were some similarities in cultural practices to those described before in studies from low resource village settings, there are changing practices and ideas. Fertility concerns dominate women’s experience of married life; notions of gender preference and ideal family size are changing rapidly in response to the urban context; however inter-generational family pressures are still considerable. While a rich repertoire of cultural practices persists throughout the perinatal continuum, their existence is normalised and even underplayed. In terms of diet and nutrition, traditional messages including notions of ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ foods, are stronger than health messages; however breastfeeding is the cultural norm and the practice of delayed breastfeeding appears to be disappearing in this urban setting. Marriage, pregnancy and childbirth are so much part of the norm for women, that there is little expectation of individual choice in any of these major life events. Conclusions A greater understanding is needed of the dynamic factors shaping the perinatal period in urban India, including an acknowledgment of the health promoting as well as potentially harmful cultural practices and the critical role of the family. This will

  9. "Nothing special, everything is maamuli": socio-cultural and family practices influencing the perinatal period in urban India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Raman

    Full Text Available Globally, India contributes the largest share in sheer numbers to the burden of maternal and infant under-nutrition, morbidity and mortality. A major gap in our knowledge is how socio-cultural practices and beliefs influence the perinatal period and thus perinatal outcomes, particularly in the rapidly growing urban setting.Using data from a qualitative study in urban south India, including in-depth interviews with 36 women who had recently been through childbirth as well as observations of family life and clinic encounters, we explored the territory of familial, cultural and traditional practices and beliefs influencing women and their families through pregnancy, childbirth and infancy. We found that while there were some similarities in cultural practices to those described before in studies from low resource village settings, there are changing practices and ideas. Fertility concerns dominate women's experience of married life; notions of gender preference and ideal family size are changing rapidly in response to the urban context; however inter-generational family pressures are still considerable. While a rich repertoire of cultural practices persists throughout the perinatal continuum, their existence is normalised and even underplayed. In terms of diet and nutrition, traditional messages including notions of 'hot' and 'cold' foods, are stronger than health messages; however breastfeeding is the cultural norm and the practice of delayed breastfeeding appears to be disappearing in this urban setting. Marriage, pregnancy and childbirth are so much part of the norm for women, that there is little expectation of individual choice in any of these major life events.A greater understanding is needed of the dynamic factors shaping the perinatal period in urban India, including an acknowledgment of the health promoting as well as potentially harmful cultural practices and the critical role of the family. This will help plan culturally appropriate

  10. Simulation of channeling and radiation of 855 MeV electrons and positrons in a small-amplitude short-period bent crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korol, Andrei V., E-mail: korol@mbnexplorer.com [MBN Research Center, Altenhöferallee 3, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bezchastnov, Victor G. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politechnicheskaya Str. 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Politechnicheskaya 29, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sushko, Gennady B.; Solov’yov, Andrey V. [MBN Research Center, Altenhöferallee 3, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Channeling and radiation are studied for the relativistic electrons and positrons passing through a Si crystal periodically bent with a small amplitude and a short period. Comprehensive analysis of the channeling process for various bending amplitudes is presented on the grounds of numerical simulations. The features of the channeling are highlighted and elucidated within an analytically developed continuous potential approximation. The radiation spectra are computed and discussed.

  11. Implementing high-temperature short-time media treatment in commercial-scale cell culture manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlscheidt, Michael; Charaniya, Salim; Kulenovic, Fikret; Corrales, Mahalia; Shiratori, Masaru; Bourret, Justin; Meier, Steven; Fallon, Eric; Kiss, Robert

    2014-04-01

    The production of therapeutic proteins by mammalian cell culture is complex and sets high requirements for process, facility, and equipment design, as well as rigorous regulatory and quality standards. One particular point of concern and significant risk to supply chain is the susceptibility to contamination such as bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma, and viruses. Several technologies have been developed to create barriers for these agents to enter the process, e.g. filtration, UV inactivation, and temperature inactivation. However, if not implemented during development of the manufacturing process, these types of process changes can have significant impact on process performance if not managed appropriately. This article describes the implementation of the high-temperature short-time (HTST) treatment of cell culture media as an additional safety barrier against adventitious agents during the transfer of a large-scale commercial cell culture manufacturing process. The necessary steps and experiments, as well as subsequent results during qualification runs and routine manufacturing, are shown.

  12. Cultural Dimension of International Relations During Interwar Period: International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation and the Scientific Study of International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anişoara Popa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the past is highly influenced/leaded by the “lens” (readings, ideologies, etc. that have guided us through approaching realities of a specific period of time. In this article, we will discuss the cultural dimension of international relations characteristic for the interwar period , emphasizing , while tracing back on Romanian historiography, the aspects regarding the role that the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation had in organizing the scientifically study of IR and the specific participation of Romania within this League of Nations‘ body activity.

  13. Proliferation differentiation and therapeutic effect of short-term cultured murine bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zekun; Cong Jianbo

    1986-01-01

    Murine bone marrow cells were cultured in conditioned medium of muscle. After 24 hours of culture, both adherent and suspended cells appeared in the culture. The adherent cells mainly consisted of macrophages and the suspended cells were predominantly granulocytes. After 6 days, the total number of nucleated cells and CFU-C in the culture increased about 400% and 600% respectively, but CFU-S reduced to 21% approximately. Lymphocytes persisted only for 4 days. The stem cells (CFU-S) from 6-day culture were injected into the lethally irradiated syngenic mice. The 30 day survival rate of the treated mice was 89% whereas that of the controls was only 7%. The bone marrow cells in 2/8 of recipients sacrificed at 30 or 60 days were of donor type and 6/8 of the recipients were chimeras

  14. Typing of clinical Mycobacterium avium complex strains cultured during a 2-year period in Denmark by using IS1245

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Jeanett; Andersen, Åse B.; Askgaard, Dorthe

    1999-01-01

    In the present study restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses with the recently described insertion sequence IS1245 as a probe was performed with clinical Mycobacterium avium complex strains cultured in Denmark during a 2-year period. The overall aim of the study was to disclose potentia...... as potting soil) and veterinary samples were found to contain viable M avium isolates belonging to genotypes also found in humans....

  15. POSITION AND CHARACTER (Ɖ OR X) OF ENERGY STATES IN SHORT-PERIOD (GaAs)m(AlAs)n SUPERLATTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Nagle , J.; Garriga , M.; Stolz , W.; Isu , T.; Ploog , K.

    1987-01-01

    We have grown a series of (GaAs)m(AlAs)n short period superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy including samples with m=n and m≠n. Low temperature photoluminescence, excitation spectroscopy and ellipsometry measurements have been performed to determine the positions and origins of the different electronic states.

  16. Recent Periodicals: Local History, Family and Community History, Cultural Heritage, Folk Studies, Anthropology - A Review (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vladova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An annual bibliography of papers in the field of local history, family and community history, cultural heritage, folk studies and anthropology, published in 2016, is collected. The inspected journals are: Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy, Chemistry: Bulgarian Journal of Science Education, Current Anthropology, Family and Community History, Folklore, History and Memory, Journal of Family History, Journal of Folklore Research, Past & Present, Winterthur Portfolio. Many of those journals are available at us under subscription.

  17. United Kingdom's defence procurement: a period of smart enlightenment or halting culture

    OpenAIRE

    O Callaghan, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to map predominant cultures and examine their compatibility with the Smart Procurement Initiative. An initiative that was identified in the Strategic Defence Review to address the limitations of UK's defence procurement process that had previously failed to deliver defence equipment to cost, time and specification. The introduction reviews those factors, which influenced procurement since World War 11. The background to UK's current procurement process...

  18. Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire for screening children and adolescents for plastic surgery: cross-cultural validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucupira, Eduardo; Sabino, Miguel; Lima, Edson Luiz de; Dini, Gal Moreira; Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2017-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome measurements assessing the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery are important for determining whether the intervention is indicated or not. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions) for Brazilian Portuguese, test its psychometric properties and assess the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic at a public university hospital. A total of 124 consecutive patients of both sexes were selected between September 2013 and February 2014. Forty-seven patients participated in the cultural adaptation of the questionnaire. The final version was tested for reliability on 20 patients. Construct validity was tested on 57 patients by correlating the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions) with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale. The child/adolescent and parent versions of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.768 and 0.874, respectively, and had good inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.757 and ICC = 0.853, respectively) and intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.738 and ICC = 0.796, respectively). The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire is a reproducible instrument with face, content and construct validity.The mood state and feelings among children and adolescents seeking cosmetic surgery were healthy.

  19. Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire for screening children and adolescents for plastic surgery: cross-cultural validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sucupira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Patient-reported outcome measurements assessing the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery are important for determining whether the intervention is indicated or not. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions for Brazilian Portuguese, test its psychometric properties and assess the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic at a public university hospital. METHODS: A total of 124 consecutive patients of both sexes were selected between September 2013 and February 2014. Forty-seven patients participated in the cultural adaptation of the questionnaire. The final version was tested for reliability on 20 patients. Construct validity was tested on 57 patients by correlating the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale. RESULTS: The child/adolescent and parent versions of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire showed Cronbach’s alpha of 0.768 and 0.874, respectively, and had good inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.757 and ICC = 0.853, respectively and intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.738 and ICC = 0.796, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire is a reproducible instrument with face, content and construct validity.The mood state and feelings among children and adolescents seeking cosmetic surgery were healthy.

  20. The Semantic Drift of Quotations in Blogspace: A Case Study in Short-Term Cultural Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerique, Sébastien; Roth, Camille

    2018-01-01

    We present an empirical case study that connects psycholinguistics with the field of cultural evolution, in order to test for the existence of cultural attractors in the evolution of quotations. Such attractors have been proposed as a useful concept for understanding cultural evolution in relation with individual cognition, but their existence has been hard to test. We focus on the transformation of quotations when they are copied from blog to blog or media website: by coding words with a number of well-studied lexical features, we show that the way words are substituted in quotations is consistent (a) with the hypothesis of cultural attractors and (b) with known effects of the word features. In particular, words known to be harder to recall in lists have a higher tendency to be substituted, and words easier to recall are produced instead. Our results support the hypothesis that cultural attractors can result from the combination of individual cognitive biases in the interpretation and reproduction of representations. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Identification and root cause analysis of cell culture media precipitates in the viral deactivation treatment with high-temperature/short-time method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaolin; Stimpfl, Gregory; Wen, Zai-Qing; Frank, Gregory; Hunter, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    High-temperature/short-time (HTST) treatment of cell culture media is one of the proven techniques used in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing industry for the prevention and mitigation of media viral contamination. With the HTST method, the formulated media is pasteurized (virus-deactivated) by heating and pumping the media continuously through the preset high-temperature holding tubes to achieve a specified period of time at a specific temperature. Recently, during the evaluation and implementation of HTST method in multiple Amgen, Inc. manufacturing facilities, media precipitates were observed in the tests of HTST treatments. The media precipitates may have adverse consequences such as clogging the HTST system, altering operating conditions and compromising the efficacy of viral deactivation, and ultimately affecting the media composition and cell growth. In this study, we report the identification of the composition of media precipitates from multiple media HTST runs using combined microspectroscopic methods including Raman, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The major composition in the precipitates was determined to be metal phosphates, including calcium phosphate, magnesium phosphate, and iron (III) phosphate. Based on the composition, stoichiometry, and root-cause study of media precipitations, methods were implemented for the mitigation and prevention of the occurrence of the media precipitation. Viral contamination in cell culture media is an important issue in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing industry and may have serious consequences on product quality, efficacy, and safety. High-temperature/short-time (HTST) treatment of cell culture media is one of the proven techniques used in the industry for the prevention and mitigation of media viral contamination. With the HTST method, the formulated media is pasteurized (virus-deactivated) by heating at preset conditions. This

  2. Short report: Influence of culture and trauma history on autobiographical memory specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Clare; Jobson, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of culture and trauma history on autobiographical memory specificity. Chinese international and British undergraduate university students (N=64) completed the autobiographical memory test, Hopkins symptom checklist-25, twenty statements test, trauma history questionnaire, and impact of events scale-revised. The results indicated that the British group provided significantly more specific memories than the Chinese group. The high trauma exposure group provided significantly fewer specific autobiographical memories than the low trauma exposure group. The interaction was not significant. The findings suggest that even in cultures where specificity is not as evident in autobiographical remembering style, trauma exposure appears to exert similar influence on autobiographical memory specificity.

  3. The association between short periods of everyday life activities and affective states: a replication study using ambulatory assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eBossmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Regularly conducted exercise programs effectively influence affective states. Studies suggest that this is also true for short bouts of physical activity of ten minutes or less. Accordingly, everyday life activities of short duration might be used to regulate affective states. However, this association has rarely been studied in reference to unstructured activities in ongoing real-life situations. The current study examined the influence of various everyday life activities on three dimensions of mood (valence, calmness, energetic arousal in a predominantly inactive sample. Ambulatory Assessment (AA was used to investigate the association between actual physical activity (aPA and affective states during the course of one day. Seventy-seven students ages 19 - 30 participated in the study. aPA was assessed with accelerometers, and affective state assessments were conducted hourly using an e-diary with a six-item mood scale that was specially designed for AA. Multilevel analyses indicated that the mood dimensions energetic arousal (p = .001 and valence (p = .005 were positively influenced by the intensity of the activity carried out in the ten minutes prior to the assessment. As their activity increased, the participants’ positive feelings and energetic arousal increased. However, the students’ calmness was not affected by their activity levels. The findings highlight the importance of integrating short activity intervals of 10 minutes or less into everyday life routines to improve affective states.

  4. Investigating longitudinal and cross cultural measurement Invariance of Inglehart’s short post-materialism scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ippel, L.; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.; Moors, G.B.D.

    2014-01-01

    Inglehart applies a four item ranking scale to measure post-materialism which is used for cross-cultural and cross-temporal comparative purposes. The aim of this research is to test measurement invariance of the scale to establish to what extent the scale produces comparable results in time and

  5. Socio-cultural factors surrounding mental distress during the perinatal period in Zambia: a qualitative investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwape Lonia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of mental distress during pregnancy and after childbirth imposes detrimental developmental and health consequences for families in all nations. In Zambia, the Ministry of Health (MoH has proposed a more comprehensive approach towards mental health care, recognizing the importance of the mental health of women during the perinatal period. Aim The study explores factors contributing to mental distress during the perinatal period of motherhood in Zambia. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in Lusaka, Zambia with nineteen focus groups comprising 149 women and men from primary health facilities and schools respectively. Findings There are high levels of mental distress in four domains: worry about HIV status and testing; uncertainty about survival from childbirth; lack of social support; and vulnerability/oppression. Conclusion Identifying mental distress and prompt referral for interventions is critical to improving the mental health of the mother and prevent the effects of mental distress on the baby. Recommendation Strategies should be put in place to ensure pregnant women are screened for possible perinatal mental health problems during their visit to antenatal clinic and referral made to qualified mental health professionals. In addition further research is recommended in order to facilitate evidence based mental health policy formulation and implementation in Zambia.

  6. The optimal period of Ca-EDTA treatment for parthenogenetic activation of porcine oocytes during maturation culture

    OpenAIRE

    MORITA, Yasuhiro; TANIGUCHI, Masayasu; TANIHARA, Fuminori; ITO, Aya; NAMULA, Zhao; DO, Lanh Thi Kim; TAKAGI, Mitsuhiro; TAKEMOTO, Tatsuya; OTOI, Takeshige

    2016-01-01

    The changes triggered by sperm-induced activation of oocytes, which are required for normal oocyte development, can be mediated by other agents, thereby inducing the parthenogenesis. In this study, we exposed porcine oocytes to 1 mM Ca-EDTA, a metal-ion chelator, at various intervals during 48 hr of in vitro maturation to determine the optimum period of Ca-EDTA treatment for parthenogenetic activation. When the oocytes were cultured with or without Ca-EDTA from 36 hr (post-12), 24 hr (post-24...

  7. The relative kicking frequency of infants born full-term and preterm during learning and short-term and long-term memory periods of the mobile paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcock, Jill C; Bhat, Anjana N; Lobo, Michele A; Galloway, James C

    2005-01-01

    Infants born preterm differ in their spontaneous kicking, as well as their learning and memory abilities in the mobile paradigm, compared with infants born full-term. In the mobile paradigm, a supine infant's ankle is tethered to a mobile so that leg kicks cause a proportional amount of mobile movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative kicking frequency of the tethered (right) and nontethered (left) legs in these 2 groups of infants. Ten infants born full-term and 10 infants born preterm (infants participated in the study. The relative kicking frequencies of the tethered and nontethered legs were analyzed during learning and short-term and long-term memory periods of the mobile paradigm. Infants born full-term showed an increase in the relative kicking frequency of the tethered leg during the learning period and the short-term memory period but not for the long-term memory period. Infants born preterm did not show a change in kicking pattern for learning or memory periods, and consistently kicked both legs in relatively equal amounts. Infants born full-term adapted their baseline kicking frequencies in a task-specific manner to move the mobile and then retained this adaptation for the short-term memory period. In contrast, infants born preterm showed no adaptation, suggesting a lack of purposeful leg control. This lack of control may reflect a general decrease in the ability of infants born preterm to use their limb movements to interact with their environment. As such, the mobile paradigm may be clinically useful in the early assessment and intervention of infants born preterm and at risk for future impairment.

  8. Response of Aspergillus niger Inoculated on Tomatoes Exposed to Vapor Phase Mustard Essential Oil for Short or Long Periods and Sensory Evaluation of Treated Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elena Aguilar-González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of mustard essential oil (EO in vapor phase against Aspergillus niger was evaluated in vitro and in vivo (in tomatoes. Mold response in tomatoes exposed for short or long periods to selected concentrations of mustard EO was also evaluated. Furthermore, a sensory evaluation was also performed among treated tomatoes and compared with nontreated ones. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for the studied EO was determined by the inverted Petri dish method. MIC for the in vitro and in vivo tests for mustard EO was of 3.08 μL/Lair. In vitro and in vivo results demonstrate the effectiveness of vapors of mustard EO against A. niger. The studied EO contains highly volatile organic compounds with strong inhibitory effects, even when applied for short periods, and can consequently be considered a good alternative to traditional synthetic antimicrobials without detriment of selected sensory attributes.

  9. X-RAY AND EUV OBSERVATIONS OF SIMULTANEOUS SHORT AND LONG PERIOD OSCILLATIONS IN HOT CORONAL ARCADE LOOPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Nakariakov, Valery M.

    2015-01-01

    We report decaying quasi-periodic intensity oscillations in the X-ray (6–12 keV) and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) channels (131, 94, 1600, 304 Å) observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), respectively, during a C-class flare. The estimated periods of oscillation and decay time in the X-ray channel (6–12 keV) were about 202 and 154 s, respectively. A similar oscillation period was detected at the footpoint of the arcade loops in the AIA 1600 and 304 Å channels. Simultaneously, AIA hot channels (94 and 131 Å) reveal propagating EUV disturbances bouncing back and forth between the footpoints of the arcade loops. The period of the oscillation and decay time were about 409 and 1121 s, respectively. The characteristic phase speed of the wave is about 560 km s −1 for about 115 Mm of loop length, which is roughly consistent with the sound speed at the temperature about 10–16 MK (480–608 km s −1 ). These EUV oscillations are consistent with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation Doppler-shift oscillations interpreted as the global standing slow magnetoacoustic wave excited by a flare. The flare occurred at one of the footpoints of the arcade loops, where the magnetic topology was a 3D fan-spine with a null-point. Repetitive reconnection at this footpoint could have caused the periodic acceleration of non-thermal electrons that propagated to the opposite footpoint along the arcade and that are precipitating there, causing the observed 202 s periodicity. Other possible interpretations, e.g., the second harmonics of the slow mode, are also discussed

  10. X-RAY AND EUV OBSERVATIONS OF SIMULTANEOUS SHORT AND LONG PERIOD OSCILLATIONS IN HOT CORONAL ARCADE LOOPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Cho, Kyung-Suk [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Nakariakov, Valery M., E-mail: pankaj@kasi.re.kr [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    We report decaying quasi-periodic intensity oscillations in the X-ray (6–12 keV) and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) channels (131, 94, 1600, 304 Å) observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), respectively, during a C-class flare. The estimated periods of oscillation and decay time in the X-ray channel (6–12 keV) were about 202 and 154 s, respectively. A similar oscillation period was detected at the footpoint of the arcade loops in the AIA 1600 and 304 Å channels. Simultaneously, AIA hot channels (94 and 131 Å) reveal propagating EUV disturbances bouncing back and forth between the footpoints of the arcade loops. The period of the oscillation and decay time were about 409 and 1121 s, respectively. The characteristic phase speed of the wave is about 560 km s{sup −1} for about 115 Mm of loop length, which is roughly consistent with the sound speed at the temperature about 10–16 MK (480–608 km s{sup −1}). These EUV oscillations are consistent with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation Doppler-shift oscillations interpreted as the global standing slow magnetoacoustic wave excited by a flare. The flare occurred at one of the footpoints of the arcade loops, where the magnetic topology was a 3D fan-spine with a null-point. Repetitive reconnection at this footpoint could have caused the periodic acceleration of non-thermal electrons that propagated to the opposite footpoint along the arcade and that are precipitating there, causing the observed 202 s periodicity. Other possible interpretations, e.g., the second harmonics of the slow mode, are also discussed.

  11. CSI 2264: Characterizing Young Stars In NGC 2264 With Short-Duration Periodic Flux Dips in Their Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    excess presumably due to circumstellar Table 1 Basic Information for YSOs with Short Duration Flux Dips Mon IDa 2MASS ID CoRoTb CoRoTc SpTd Hα EWd FR4.5e...reported in Venuti et al. (2014); the JHKs data are from the on line 2MASS all-sky point source catalog; the IRAC data are from Sung et al. (2009), or...little additional reddening as inferred from their mean 2MASS photometry. One exception is Mon-6975, whose IR colors of H − Ks = 0.42, J −H = 0.90

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation of the US consumer form of the short Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT): the Korean consumer form of the short PCAT (KC PCAT) and the Korean standard form of the short PCAT (KS PCAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ki-Yeob

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that countries with well-structured primary care have better health outcomes, better health equity and reduced healthcare costs. This study aimed to culturally modify and validate the US consumer form of the short Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) in primary care in the Republic of Korea (hereafter referred to as Korea). The Korean consumer form of the short PCAT (KC PCAT) was cross-culturally modified from the original version using a standardised transcultural adaptation method. A pre-test version of the KC PCAT was formulated by replacement of four items and modification of a further four items from the 37 items of the original consumer form of the short PCAT at face value evaluation meetings. Pilot testing was done with a convenience sample of 15 responders at two different sites. Test-retest showed high reliability. To validate the KC PCAT, 606 clients participated in a survey carried out in Korea between February and May 2006. Internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability and factor analysis were conducted in order to test validity. Psychometric testing was carried out on 37 items of the KC PCAT to make the KS PCAT which has 30 items and has seven principal domains: first contact utilisation, first contact accessibility, ongoing accountable care (ongoing care and coordinated rapport care), integrated care (patient-centred care with integration between primary and specialty care or between different specialties), comprehensive care, community-oriented care and culturally-oriented care. Component factors of the verified KS PCAT explained 58.28% of the total variance in the total item scores of primary care. The verified KS PCAT has been characterised by the seven classic domains of primary care with minor modifications. This may provide clues concerning differences in expectations for primary care in the Korean population as compared with that of the US. The KS PCAT is a reliable and valid tool for the evaluation of the quality of

  13. Short communication: Effect of heat stress on markers of autophagy in the mammary gland during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, S E; Ramirez-Lee, Y; Tao, S; Monteiro, A P A; Ahmed, B M; Dahl, G E

    2016-06-01

    Heat stress (HT) during the dry period compromises mammary gland (MG) growth, thus negatively affecting subsequent milk yield. Cooling during the late dry period, when mammary tissue proliferates, is a common management practice. However, it neglects MG involution during the early dry period, a process that is accomplished by both apoptosis and autophagy. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of HT on MG autophagy during the early dry period. Holstein cows were dried off ~45d before expected calving and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: HT or cooling (CL). All cows were housed in the same free stall barn during the dry period, but only the stall area for CL cows was equipped with soakers and fans. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were measured daily during the dry period. Mammary gland biopsies were collected from each cow 3d before dry-off and on d 3, 7, 14, and 22±2 after dry-off. Autophagy in the MG was determined by measuring protein expression of 2 autophagic markers, autophagy-related protein 7 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3). The average temperature-humidity index during the dry period was 77.7, which indicated that HT and CL cows were exposed to significant heat stress. However, the cooling system effectively alleviated heat strain in CL cows by decreasing the rectal temperature (39.0 vs. 39.4°C) and respiration rate (47.3 vs. 71.2 breaths per minute) relative to HT cows. Protein expression of autophagy-related protein 7, a marker for early autophagosome formation, did not change within or between groups. In contrast, protein expression of LC3-II, a marker of autophagosomes, and its precursor LC3-I showed a dynamic expression pattern in MG from CL cows during the early dry period. Relative to HT cows, MG from CL cows displayed higher expression of LC3-I and LC3-II on d 7 and lower expression of LC3-II on d 14 and 22 after dry-off. Collectively, our data provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the impairment of

  14. An observational study of cross-cultural communication in short-term, diverse professional learning groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Leslie; Hogg, Peter; Higgins, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the evaluation of a European funded 3-week summer school which took place in 2013 involving 60 staff and students from five universities. The evaluation looked at one group in detail using a qualitative approach to consider whether students and teachers can work together in multicultural groups in order to achieve their goal. Method: One group was observed during 2 two-hour sessions of group activity; at the beginning and end of the summer school task. Video data was analysed using the Rapport Management framework, a model of cross-cultural communication, to determine what motivated this group's interactions. Results: As the group's deadline became imminent ‘face-threatening acts’ (FTAs) were more apparent. These were tolerated in this group because of the development of a strong social bond. There was inequity in participation with members of the group falling into either high- or low-involvement categories. This was also well-tolerated but meant some students may not have gained as much from the experience. The group lacked guidance on managing group dynamics. Conclusion: Cultural differences in communication were not the main threat to multi-cultural working groups. Potential problems can arise from failing to provide the group with a framework for project and team management. An emphasis on ground rules and the allocation of formal roles is important as is the encouragement of socialisation which supports the group during challenging times

  15. RADIAL VELOCITY PLANETS DE-ALIASED: A NEW, SHORT PERIOD FOR SUPER-EARTH 55 Cnc e

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    Radial velocity measurements of stellar reflex motion have revealed many extrasolar planets, but gaps in the observations produce aliases, spurious frequencies that are frequently confused with the planets' orbital frequencies. In the case of Gl 581 d, the distinction between an alias and the true frequency was the distinction between a frozen, dead planet and a planet possibly hospitable to life. To improve the characterization of planetary systems, we describe how aliases originate and present a new approach for distinguishing between orbital frequencies and their aliases. Our approach harnesses features in the spectral window function to compare the amplitude and phase of predicted aliases with peaks present in the data. We apply it to confirm prior alias distinctions for the planets GJ 876 d and HD 75898 b. We find that the true periods of Gl 581 d and HD 73526 b/c remain ambiguous. We revise the periods of HD 156668 b and 55 Cnc e, which were afflicted by daily aliases. For HD 156668 b, the correct period is 1.2699 days and the minimum mass is (3.1 ± 0.4) M + . For 55 Cnc e, the correct period is 0.7365 days-the shortest of any known planet-and the minimum mass is (8.3 ± 0.3) M + . This revision produces a significantly improved five-planet Keplerian fit for 55 Cnc, and a self-consistent dynamical fit describes the data just as well. As radial velocity techniques push to ever-smaller planets, often found in systems of multiple planets, distinguishing true periods from aliases will become increasingly important.

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Danish version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire (SMFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Marianne; Andersen, Signe; Joergensen, Annette; Frandsen, Christian; Jensen, Liselotte; Benedikz, Eirikur

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) into Danish (SMFA-DK) and assess the psychometric properties. SMFA was translated and cross-culturally adapted according to a standardized procedure. Minor changes in the wording in three items were made to adapt to Danish conditions. Acute patients (n = 201) and rehabilitation patients (n = 231) with musculoskeletal problems aged 18-87 years were included. The following analysis were made to evaluate psychometric quality of SMFA-DK: Reliability with Chronbach's alpha, content validity as coding according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), floor/ceiling effects, construct validity as factor analysis, correlations between SMFA-DK and Short Form 36 and also known group method. Responsiveness and effect size were calculated. Cronbach's alpha values were between 0.79 and 0.94. SMFA-DK captured all components of the ICF, and there were no floor/ceiling effects. Factor analysis demonstrated four subscales. SMFA-DK correlated good with the SF-36 subscales for the rehabilitation patients and lower for the newly injured patients. Effect sizes were excellent and better for SMFA-DK than for SF-36. The study indicates that SMFA-DK can be a valid and responsive measure of outcome in rehabilitation settings.

  17. The frequency of resistance to antibiotics of most frequently isolated bacteria from blood cultures during the period 1997-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirović Veljko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of resistance to antibiotics of the most frequently isolated bacteria from blood cultures of hospitalized patients during the period 1997-2002. The resistance to antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion method according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards procedures. The majority of staphylococci isolates were resistant to methicillin, and the proportion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was stable (76.8-81.6%, during the follow-up period. None of the staphylococci isolates were resistant to vancomycin, but there was a very high incidence of high-level resistance of enterococci to aminoglycosides (47.2-72.2%. In 1998, only one strain among enterococci was resistant to vancomycin (Enterococcus faecium, VanA fenotype. Enterococcus spp isolates expressed variable frequency of resistance to ampicillin (15-40.1% during the follow-up period. Among Enterobacteriaceae there were no isolates resistant to imipenem, but dramatic increase of the resistance to ceftriaxone was found from 35.9% in 1997 to 95.9% in 2002 (p<0.001. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases production was found in all the species of enterobacteria isolates. Resistance to imipenem was observed in Acinetobacter spp isolates in 2002 for the first time. Pseudomonas spp isolates expressed high and very variable resistance to all antibiotics tested during the follow-up period.

  18. Psychometric Evaluation and Cultural Correlates of the Mate Retention Inventory–Short Form (MRI-SF in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Atari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the psychometric properties of the Persian translation of the Mate Retention Inventory–Short Form (MRI-SF in Iran. We also investigated sex differences in the use of mate retention tactics and investigated the relationships between mate retention behaviors and a number of related cultural constructs. Participants (N = 308 ranged in age from 18 to 57 years. All participants were in a committed romantic relationship, with mean relationship length of 63.5 months (SD = 73.8. Participants completed the Persian translation of the MRI-SF and measures of religiosity, relationship satisfaction, self-esteem, and socioeconomic status. Cultural measures specific to Iran were also included, such as Mahr (for married individuals, self-perceived Qeiratiness (for men, and self-perceived jealousy (for women. Mahr is a mandatory amount of money or possessions paid or promised to be paid by the groom to the bride at the time of the marriage contract. Qeirati is a male-specific adjective in Persian meaning protective against unwanted attention toward a man’s romantic partner. Female jealousy is usually regarded the counterpart of male Qeiratiness in Iranian culture. The 19 mate retention tactics formed a two-component structure, consistent with previous research. Results demonstrate adequate internal consistency of 2-item assessments of mate retention tactics. Observed sex differences accorded with previous mate retention research and are discussed in reference to evolutionary perspectives on human mating. Several significant associations emerged between mate retention tactics and Iranian culture-specific variables and are discussed from a cross-cultural perspective.

  19. Examination of Measurement Invariance across Culture and Gender on the RCMAS-2 Short Form among Singapore and U.S. Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Patricia A.; Ang, Rebecca P.

    2016-01-01

    Tests of measurement invariance were conducted across culture and gender on the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-Second Edition (RCMAS-2) Short Form in a sample of 1,003 Singapore and U.S. adolescents. The results of multi-group confirmatory factor analyses across culture and gender supported at least partial measurement invariance. ANOVA…

  20. Forecast demand and supply of energy in the short period. Its forecast and sensitivity analysis until the 2004 fiscal year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Yukari; Suehiro, Shigeru; Yanagisawa, Akira; Imaeda, Toshiya; Komiyama, Ryouichi

    2004-01-01

    The object of this report is forecast demand and supply of energy in the 2003 and 2004 fiscal year, which correspond to a business recovery period. A macroeconomics model and an energy supply model are calculated by changing actual GNP, crude oil rate and the rerunning period of nuclear power plants. The calculation results are compared with the reference case. In the first chapter, forecast Japanese economy until the 2004 fiscal year is explained. In the second chapter, the results of energy demand and supply in the first chapter are investigated by the home supply and consumption of primary energy (the reference case) and each energy resources. The sensitivity analytical results of actual GNP, consumer price index, home supply of the primary energy, energy expenditure, sales account of electric power, city gas and fuel by five cases such as reference, increase and decrease of oil cost and increase and decrease of economic growth are investigated. The effects of fast rerunning period of nuclear power plant and atmosphere temperature on these above demands of energies are indicated in the third chapter. (S.Y.)

  1. Rapid expansion of T cells: Effects of culture and cryopreservation and importance of short-term cell recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Arian; Ullenhag, Gustav; Wagenius, Gunnar; Tötterman, Thomas H; Eriksson, Fredrik

    2013-06-01

    Successful cell therapy relies on the identification and mass expansion of functional cells for infusion. Cryopreservation of cells is an inevitable step in most cell therapies which also entails consequences for the frozen cells. This study assessed the impact of cryopreservation and the widely used protocol for rapid expansion of T lymphocytes. The effects on cell viability, immunocompetence and the impact on apoptotic and immunosuppressive marker expression were analyzed using validated assays. Cryopreservation of lymphocytes during the rapid expansion protocol did not affect cell viability. Lymphocytes that underwent mass expansion or culture in high dose IL-2 were unable to respond to PHA stimulation by intracellular ATP production immediately after thawing (ATP = 16 ± 11 ng/ml). However, their reactivity to PHA was regained within 48 hours of recovery (ATP = 356 ± 61 ng/ml). Analysis of mRNA levels revealed downregulation of TGF-β and IL-10 at all time points. Culture in high dose IL-2 led to upregulation of p73 and BCL-2 mRNA levels while FoxP3 expression was elevated after culture in IL-2 and artificial TCR stimuli. FoxP3 levels decreased after short-term recovery without IL-2 or stimulation. Antigen specificity, as determined by IFNγ secretion, was unaffected by cryopreservation but was completely lost after addition of high dose IL-2 and artificial TCR stimuli. In conclusion, allowing short-time recovery of mass expanded and cryopreserved cells before reinfusion could enhance the outcome of adoptive cell therapy as the cells regain immune competence and specificity.

  2. THE ACS LCID PROJECT. I. SHORT-PERIOD VARIABLES IN THE ISOLATED DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES CETUS AND TUCANA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Edouard J.; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme

    2009-01-01

    We present the first study of the variable star populations in the isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) Cetus and Tucana. Based on Hubble Space Telescope images obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys in the F475W and F814W bands, we identified 180 and 371 variables in Cetus and Tucana, respectively. The vast majority are RR Lyrae stars. In Cetus, we also found three anomalous Cepheids (ACs), four candidate binaries and one candidate long-period variable (LPV), while six ACs and seven LPV candidates were found in Tucana. Of the RR Lyrae stars, 147 were identified as fundamental mode (RRab) and only eight as first-overtone mode (RRc) in Cetus, with mean periods of 0.614 and 0.363 day, respectively. In Tucana, we found 216 RRab and 82 RRc giving mean periods of 0.604 and 0.353 day. These values place both galaxies in the so-called Oosterhoff Gap, as is generally the case for dSph. We calculated the distance modulus to both galaxies using different approaches based on the properties of RRab and RRc, namely, the luminosity-metallicity and period-luminosity-metallicity relations, and found values in excellent agreement with previous estimates using independent methods: (m - M) 0,Cet = 24.46 ± 0.12 and (m - M) 0,Tuc = 24.74 ± 0.12, corresponding to 780 ± 40 kpc and 890 ± 50 kpc. We also found numerous RR Lyrae variables pulsating in both modes simultaneously (RRd): 17 in Cetus and 60 in Tucana. Tucana is, after Fornax, the second dSph in which such a large fraction of RRd (∼17%) has been observed. We provide the photometry and pulsation parameters for all the variables, and compare the latter with values from the literature for well studied dSph of the Local Group and Galactic globular clusters. The parallel WFPC2 fields were also searched for variables, as they lie well within the tidal radius of Cetus, and at its limit in the case of Tucana. No variables were found in the latter, while 15 were discovered in the outer field of Cetus (11 RRab, three RRc

  3. A Conceptual Model for Calculating the Return of Costs Invested in the Creation of an Economic Security Service, During a Short-Term Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melikhova Tetiana O.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at suggesting methods for calculating the short-term period of return of costs invested in creation of an economic security service. The article considers approaches to calculation of the period of return of costs, advanced at the level of enterprise, which build the methodical basis for definition of such period. At the level of structural subdivisions of enterprise, which do not produce products, it is suggested to use conditional money flow as a source of financing advanced costs. The calculation of the short-term return on investment at the enterprise level provides for: allocation of expenses for the permanent and the replacement parts during the year; determination of the production of money flow and the money flow accumulated during the year. Annual depreciation payments are the basis of fixed costs. Methods of determination of the gross, net, valid, and specified periods of return of costs, advanced during the year for introduction of an economic security service at enterprise, have been suggested.

  4. Exercise following a short immobilization period is detrimental to tendon properties and joint mechanics in a rat rotator cuff injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, Cathryn D; Sarver, Joseph J; Dourte, Leann M; Würgler-Hauri, Carola C; Williams, Gerald R; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2010-07-01

    Rotator cuff tears are a common clinical problem that can result in pain and disability. Previous studies in a rat model showed enhanced tendon to bone healing with postoperative immobilization. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of postimmobilization activity level on insertion site properties and joint mechanics in a rat model. Our hypothesis was that exercise following a short period of immobilization will cause detrimental changes in insertion site properties compared to cage activity following the same period of immobilization, but that passive shoulder mechanics will not be affected. We detached and repaired the supraspinatus tendon of 22 Sprague-Dawley rats, and the injured shoulder was immobilized postoperatively for 2 weeks. Following immobilization, rats were prescribed cage activity or exercise for 12 weeks. Passive shoulder mechanics were determined, and following euthanasia, tendon cross-sectional area and mechanical properties were measured. Exercise following immobilization resulted in significant decreases compared to cage activity in range of motion, tendon stiffness, modulus, percent relaxation, and several parameters from both a structurally based elastic model and a quasi-linear viscoelastic model. Therefore, we conclude that after a short period of immobilization, increased activity is detrimental to both tendon mechanical properties and shoulder joint mechanics, presumably due to increased scar production. (c) 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  5. Untargeted LC-MS/MS Profiling of Cell Culture Media Formulations for Evaluation of High Temperature Short Time Treatment Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Patrick; McGillicuddy, Nicola; Albrecht, Simone; Morrissey, Brian; Kaisermayer, Christian; Lindeberg, Anna; Bones, Jonathan

    2017-09-19

    An untargeted LC-MS/MS platform was implemented for monitoring variations in CHO cell culture media upon exposure to high temperature short time (HTST) treatment, a commonly used viral clearance upstream strategy. Chemically defined (CD) and hydrolysate-supplemented media formulations were not visibly altered by the treatment. The absence of solute precipitation effects during media treatment and very modest shifts in pH values observed indicated sufficient compatibility of the formulations evaluated with the HTST-processing conditions. Unsupervised chemometric analysis of LC-MS/MS data, however, revealed clear separation of HTST-treated samples from untreated counterparts as observed from analysis of principal components and hierarchical clustering sample grouping. An increased presence of Maillard products in HTST-treated formulations contributed to the observed differences which included organic acids, observed particularly in chemically defined formulations, and furans, pyridines, pyrazines, and pyrrolidines which were determined in hydrolysate-supplemented formulations. The presence of Maillard products in media did not affect cell culture performance with similar growth and viability profiles observed for CHO-K1 and CHO-DP12 cells when cultured using both HTST-treated and untreated media formulations.

  6. A non-accelerating foreshock sequence followed by a short period of quiescence for a large inland earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, I.; Kawakata, H.

    2012-12-01

    Laboratory experiments [e.g. Scholz, 1968; Lockner et al., 1992] and field observations [e.g. Dodge et al., 1996; Helmstetter and Sornette, 2003; Bouchon et al., 2011] have elucidated part of foreshock behavior and mechanism, but we cannot identify foreshocks while they are occurring. Recently, in Japan, a dense seismic network, Hi-net (High Sensitivity Seismograph Network), provides continuous waveform records for regional seismic events. The data from this network enable us to analyze small foreshocks which occur on long period time scales prior to a major event. We have an opportunity to grasp the more detailed pattern of foreshock generation. Using continuous waveforms recorded at a seismic station located in close proximity to the epicenter of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi inland earthquake, we conducted a detailed investigation of its foreshocks. In addition to the two officially recognized foreshocks, calculation of cross-correlation coefficients between the continuous waveform record and one of the previously recognized foreshocks revealed that 20 micro foreshocks occurred within the same general area. Our analysis also shows that all of these foreshocks occurred within the same general area relative to the main event. Over the two week period leading up to the Iwate-Miyagi earthquake, such foreshocks only occurred during the last 45 minutes, specifically over a 35 minute period followed by a 10 minute period of quiescence just before the mainshock. We found no evidence of acceleration of this foreshock sequence. Rock fracturing experiments using a constant loading rate or creep tests have consistently shown that the occurrence rate of small fracturing events (acoustic emissions; AEs) increases before the main rupture [Scholz, 1968]. This accelerative pattern of preceding events was recognized in case of the 1999 Izmit earthquake [Bouchon et al., 2011]. Large earthquakes however need not be accompanied by acceleration of foreshocks if a given fault's host rock

  7. Development of a versatile high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization device for small-scale processing of cell culture medium formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Patrick; Curtin, Sean; Kaisermayer, Christian; Lindeberg, Anna; Bones, Jonathan

    2018-07-01

    The compatibility of CHO cell culture medium formulations with all stages of the bioprocess must be evaluated through small-scale studies prior to scale-up for commercial manufacturing operations. Here, we describe the development of a bespoke small-scale device for assessing the compatibility of culture media with a widely implemented upstream viral clearance strategy, high-temperature short-time (HTST) treatment. The thermal stability of undefined medium formulations supplemented with soy hydrolysates was evaluated upon variations in critical HTST processing parameters, namely, holding times and temperatures. Prolonged holding times of 43 s at temperatures of 110 °C did not adversely impact medium quality while significant degradation was observed upon treatment at elevated temperatures (200 °C) for shorter time periods (11 s). The performance of the device was benchmarked against a commercially available mini-pilot HTST system upon treatment of identical formulations on both platforms. Processed medium samples were analyzed by untargeted LC-MS/MS for compositional profiling followed by chemometric evaluation, which confirmed the observed degradation effects caused by elevated holding temperatures but revealed comparable performance of our developed device with the commercial mini-pilot setup. The developed device can assist medium optimization activities by reducing volume requirements relative to commercially available mini-pilot instrumentation and by facilitating fast throughput evaluation of heat-induced effects on multiple medium lots.

  8. An in vitro, short-term culture method for mammalian haploid round spermatids amenable for molecular manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnugara, Tushna; Dhar, Surbhi; Rao, M R Satyanarayana

    2012-01-01

    Extensive chromatin remodeling is a characteristic feature of mammalian spermiogenesis. To date, methods for the molecular manipulation of haploid spermatids are not available as there is a lack of a well-established culture system. Biochemical experiments and knockout studies reveal only the final outcome; studying the incremental details of the intricate mechanisms involved is still a challenge. We have established an in vitro culture system for pure haploid round spermatids isolated from rat testes that can be maintained with good viability for up to 72 hr. Changes in cell morphology and flagellar growth were also studied in the cultured spermatids. Further, we have demonstrated that upon treatment of cells with specific histone deacetylase inhibitors, sodium butyrate and trichostatin A, there is an increase in the hyperacetylation status of histone H4, mimicking an important event characteristic of histone replacement process that occurs during later stages of spermiogenesis. We have also tried various methods for introducing DNA and protein into these round spermatids in culture, and report that while DNA transfection is still a challenging task, protein transfection could be achieved using Chariot™ peptide as a transfection reagent. Thus, the method described here sets a stage to study the molecular roles of spermatid-specific proteins and chromatin remodelers in the cellular context. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Task-irrelevant distractors in the delay period interfere selectively with visual short-term memory for spatial locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Francesco; Scott, Jerry; Aron, Adam R; Ester, Edward F

    2017-07-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables the representation of information in a readily accessible state. VSTM is typically conceptualized as a form of "active" storage that is resistant to interference or disruption, yet several recent studies have shown that under some circumstances task-irrelevant distractors may indeed disrupt performance. Here, we investigated how task-irrelevant visual distractors affected VSTM by asking whether distractors induce a general loss of remembered information or selectively interfere with memory representations. In a VSTM task, participants recalled the spatial location of a target visual stimulus after a delay in which distractors were presented on 75% of trials. Notably, the distractor's eccentricity always matched the eccentricity of the target, while in the critical conditions the distractor's angular position was shifted either clockwise or counterclockwise relative to the target. We then computed estimates of recall error for both eccentricity and polar angle. A general interference model would predict an effect of distractors on both polar angle and eccentricity errors, while a selective interference model would predict effects of distractors on angle but not on eccentricity errors. Results showed that for stimulus angle there was an increase in the magnitude and variability of recall errors. However, distractors had no effect on estimates of stimulus eccentricity. Our results suggest that distractors selectively interfere with VSTM for spatial locations.

  10. Short communication: Tryptic β-casein hydrolysate modulates enteric nervous system development in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossais, F; Clawin-Rädecker, I; Lorenzen, P C; Klempt, M

    2017-05-01

    The intestinal tract of the newborn is particularly sensitive to gastrointestinal disorders, such as infantile diarrhea or necrotizing colitis. Perinatal development of the gut also encompasses the maturation of the enteric nervous system (ENS), a main regulator of intestinal motility and barrier functions. It was recently shown that ENS maturation can be enhanced by nutritional factors to improve intestinal maturation. Bioactivity of milk proteins is often latent, requiring the release of bioactive peptides from inactive native proteins. Several casein-derived hydrolysates presenting immunomodulatory properties have been described recently. Furthermore, accumulating data indicate that milk-derived hydrolysate can enhance gut maturation and enrichment of milk formula with such hydrolysates has recently been proposed. However, the capability of milk-derived bioactive hydrolysate to target ENS maturation has not been analyzed so far. We, therefore, investigated the potential of a recently described tryptic β-casein hydrolysate to modulate ENS growth parameters in an in vitro model of rat primary culture of ENS. Rat primary cultures of ENS were incubated with a bioactive tryptic β-casein hydrolysate and compared with untreated controls or to cultures treated with native β-casein or a Prolyve β-casein hydrolysate (Lyven, Colombelles, France). Differentiation of enteric neurons and enteric glial cells, and establishment of enteric neural network were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. Effect of tryptic β-casein hydrolysate on bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)/Smad pathway, an essential regulator of ENS development, was further assessed using quantitative PCR and immunochemistry. Tryptic β-casein hydrolysate stimulated neurite outgrowth and simultaneously modulated the formation of enteric ganglia-like structures, whereas native β-casein or Prolyve β-casein hydrolysate did not. Additionally, treatment with tryptic bioactive

  11. Successful operation of continuous reactors at short retention times results in high-density, fast-rate Dehalococcoides dechlorinating cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Anca G; Fajardo-Williams, Devyn; Popat, Sudeep C; Torres, César I; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2014-03-01

    The discovery of Dehalococcoides mccartyi reducing perchloroethene and trichloroethene (TCE) to ethene was a key landmark for bioremediation applications at contaminated sites. D. mccartyi-containing cultures are typically grown in batch-fed reactors. On the other hand, continuous cultivation of these microorganisms has been described only at long hydraulic retention times (HRTs). We report the cultivation of a representative D. mccartyi-containing culture in continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs) at a short, 3-d HRT, using TCE as the electron acceptor. We successfully operated 3-d HRT CSTRs for up to 120 days and observed sustained dechlorination of TCE at influent concentrations of 1 and 2 mM TCE to ≥ 97 % ethene, coupled to the production of 10(12) D. mccartyi cells Lculture (-1). These outcomes were possible in part by using a medium with low bicarbonate concentrations (5 mM) to minimize the excessive proliferation of microorganisms that use bicarbonate as an electron acceptor and compete with D. mccartyi for H2. The maximum conversion rates for the CSTR-produced culture were 0.13 ± 0.016, 0.06 ± 0.018, and 0.02 ± 0.007 mmol Cl(-) Lculture (-1) h(-1), respectively, for TCE, cis-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride. The CSTR operation described here provides the fastest laboratory cultivation rate of high-cell density Dehalococcoides cultures reported in the literature to date. This cultivation method provides a fundamental scientific platform for potential future operations of such a system at larger scales.

  12. Increased production of megakaryocytes near purity from cord blood CD34+ cells using a short two-phase culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Lucie; Robert, Amélie; Proulx, Chantal; Pineault, Nicolas

    2008-03-20

    Expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) ex vivo remains an important focus in fundamental and clinical research. The aim of this study was to determine whether the implementation of such expansion phase in a two-phase culture strategy prior to the induction of megakaryocyte (Mk) differentiation would increase the yield of Mks produced in cultures. Toward this end, we first characterized the functional properties of five cytokine cocktails to be tested in the expansion phase on the growth and differentiation kinetics of CD34+-enriched cells, and on their capacity to expand clonogenic progenitors in cultures. Three of these cocktails were chosen based on their reported ability to induce HPC expansion ex vivo, while the other two represented new cytokine combinations. These analyses revealed that none of the cocktails tested could prevent the differentiation of CD34+ cells and the rapid expansion of lineage-positive cells. Hence, we sought to determine the optimum length of time for the expansion phase that would lead to the best final Mk yields. Despite greater expansion of CD34+ cells and overall cell growth with a longer expansion phase, the optimal length for the expansion phase that provided greater Mk yield at near maximal purity was found to be 5 days. Under such settings, two functionally divergent cocktails were found to significantly increase the final yield of Mks. Surprisingly, these cocktails were either deprived of thrombopoietin or of stem cell factor, two cytokines known to favor megakaryopoiesis and HPC expansion, respectively. Based on these results, a short resource-efficient two-phase culture protocol for the production of Mks near purity (>95%) from human CD34+ CB cells has been established.

  13. Fatalism and short-termism as cultural barriers to cardiac rehabilitation among underprivileged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Mathieu; Dumas, Alex; Stuart, Stephen A

    2013-11-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of death and disability in Canada, and individuals of low socioeconomic status appear particularly vulnerable to such disorders. Although many health-related institutions have promoted cardiovascular health and have created cardiac rehabilitation programmes, they have not attained their desired outcomes, especially amongst socioeconomically deprived men. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's sociocultural theory, this qualitative study aims to understand the social mechanisms underpinning the lifestyles and health practices of men who had suffered a cardiovascular incident requiring hospitalisation. In all, 20 interviews were conducted with francophone men aged 40 to 65 years living in the province of Québec, Canada. The analysis strongly suggests that the respondents' living conditions and disease were significant obstacles to their adoption of a healthy lifestyle. Their despair and pessimism, apparently originating in the harshness of their financial realities, physical limitations and social networks, led them to believe that they could do little to control their lives, thereby limiting the fulfillment of any long-term ambitions. Therefore, the adoption of a habitus characterised by fatalistic and short-term perceptions of health influenced their lifestyle choices, leading them to maintain lives that were in stark contrast with the recommendations made by health promotion experts. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Autoradiographic demonstration of unscheduled DNA synthesis in oral tissues treated with chemical carcinogens in short-term organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, F.; Umemura, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Takayama, S.

    1981-01-01

    A system in which oral tissues of inbred F344 adult rats and Syrian golden hamster embryos were used in combination with autoradiography was developed for measurement of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). For this, oral mucosa, submandibular gland, tooth germ and mandible in short-term organ cultures were treated with 4-nitroquinoline l-oxide or N-methyl-N-nitrosourea plus (methyl- 3 H)thymidine. Significant numbers of silver grains, indicating UDS, were detected over the nuclei of cells of all these tissues except rat salivary gland after treatment with carcinogens. This autoradiographic method is suitable for detection of UDS in oral tissues in conditions mimicking those in vivo. Results obtained in this study indicated a potential use of this system for studies on the mechanism of carcinogenesis at a cellular level comparable to in vivo carcinogenesis studies on oral tissues. (author)

  15. Stress modulation of earthquakes: A study of long and short period stress perturbations and the crustal response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher W.

    laboratory to explore the causal relationship between low-amplitude stress changes and dynamically triggered events. Interestingly, observations of dynamically triggered M≥5.5 earthquakes are absent in the seismic records [Johnson et al., 2015; Parsons and Velasco, 2011], which invokes questions regarding whether or not large magnitude events can be dynamically triggered. Emerging results in the literature indicate undocumented M≥5.5 events at near to intermediate distances are dynamically triggered during the passage of surface waves but are undetected by automated networks [Fan and Shearer, 2016]. This raises new questions about the amplitude and duration of dynamic stressing for large magnitude events. I used 35-years of global seismicity and find that large event rate increases only occur following a delay from the transient load, suggesting aseismic processes are associated with large magnitude triggered events. To extend this finding I investigated three cases of large magnitude delayed dynamic triggering following the M8.6 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake [Pollitz et al., 2012] by producing microseismicity catalogs and modeling the transient stresses. The results indicate immediate triggering of microseismic events that hours later culminate into a large magnitude event and support the notion that large magnitude events are triggerable by transient loading, but seismic and aseismic processes (e.g. induced creep or fluid mobilization) are contributing to the nucleation process. Open questions remain concerning the source of a nucleation delay period following a stress perturbation that require both geodetic and seismic observations to constrain the source of delayed dynamic triggering and possibly provide insight into a precursory nucleation phase. Induced seismicity has gained much attention in the past 5 years as earthquake rates in regions of low tectonic strain accumulation accelerate to unprecedented levels [Ellsworth, 2013]. The source of the seismicity is

  16. Analisis Parameter Gap Dalam Tahapan Dekonvolusi Prediktif Guna Mereduksi Short Period Multiple dan Meningkatkan S/N Ratio pada Pengolahan Data Seismik Refleksi 2D Marine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella Chintia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan nilai gap terbaik dari salah satu parameter gap yang digunakan untuk mereduksi short-period multiple dengan metode dekonvolusi prediktif. Variasi Nilai gap yang digunakan adalah 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, dan 64 ms. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, diketahui bahwa gap 12 merupakan gap terbaik. Nilai gap 12 menghasilkan sp gather, penampang stack dan NTG (Near Trace Gather yang lebih tajam dibandingkan dengan gap lainnya. Selain itu, dari spectrum analysis didapatkan sp gather dan penampang stack yang menunjukkan bahwa frekuensi terletak pada rentang nilai 10 - 80 Hz, dan nilai spectrum amplitude seismik yang terkecil berkisar -21 s.d 0 dB.

  17. K2-111 b - a short period super-Earth transiting a metal poor, evolved old star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlund, Malcolm; Gaidos, Eric; Barragán, Oscar; Persson, Carina M.; Gandolfi, Davide; Cabrera, Juan; Hirano, Teruyuki; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Csizmadia, Sz.; Nowak, Grzegorz; Endl, Michael; Grziwa, Sascha; Korth, Judith; Pfaff, Jeremias; Bitsch, Bertram; Johansen, Anders; Mustill, Alexander J.; Davies, Melvyn B.; Deeg, Hans J.; Palle, Enric; Cochran, William D.; Eigmüller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Guenther, Eike; Hatzes, Artie P.; Kiilerich, Amanda; Kudo, Tomoyuki; MacQueen, Phillip; Narita, Norio; Nespral, David; Pätzold, Martin; Prieto-Arranz, Jorge; Rauer, Heike; Van Eylen, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Context. From a light curve acquired through the K2 space mission, the star K2-111(EPIC 210894022) has been identified as possibly orbited by a transiting planet. Aims: Our aim is to confirm the planetary nature of the object and derive its fundamental parameters. Methods: We analyse the light curve variations during the planetary transit using packages developed specifically for exoplanetary transits. Reconnaissance spectroscopy and radial velocity observations have been obtained using three separate telescope and spectrograph combinations. The spectroscopic synthesis package SME has been used to derive the stellar photospheric parameters that were used as input to various stellar evolutionary tracks in order to derive the parameters of the system. The planetary transit was also validated to occur on the assumed host star through adaptive imaging and statistical analysis. Results: The star is found to be located in the background of the Hyades cluster at a distance at least 4 times further away from Earth than the cluster itself. The spectrum and the space velocities of K2-111 strongly suggest it to be a member of the thick disk population. The co-added high-resolution spectra show that that it is a metal poor ([Fe/H] = - 0.53 ± 0.05 dex) and α-rich somewhat evolved solar-like star of spectral type G3. We find Teff = 5730 ± 50 K, log g⋆ = 4.15 ± 0.1 cgs, and derive a radius of R⋆ = 1.3 ± 0.1 R⊙ and a mass of M⋆ = 0.88 ± 0.02 M⊙. The currently available radial velocity data confirms a super-Earth class planet with a mass of 8.6 ± 3.9 M⊕ and a radius of 1.9 ± 0.2 R⊕. A second more massive object with a period longer than about 120 days is indicated by a long-term radial velocity drift. Conclusions: The radial velocity detection together with the imaging confirms with a high level of significance that the transit signature is caused by a planet orbiting the star K2-111. This planet is also confirmed in the radial velocity data. A second more

  18. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation of yoruba version of the short-form 36 health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbada, Chidozie Emmanuel; Adeogun, Gafar Atanda; Ogunlana, Michael Opeoluwa; Adedoyin, Rufus Adesoji; Akinsulore, Adesanmi; Awotidebe, Taofeek Oluwole; Idowu, Opeyemi Ayodiipo; Olaoye, Olumide Ayoola

    2015-09-14

    The Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) is a valid quality of life tool often employed to determine the impact of medical intervention and the outcome of health care services. However, the SF-36 is culturally sensitive which necessitates its adaptation and translation into different languages. This study was conducted to cross-culturally adapt the SF-36 into Yoruba language and determine its reliability and validity. Based on the International Quality of Life Assessment project guidelines, a sequence of translation, test of item-scale correlation, and validation was implemented for the translation of the Yoruba version of the SF-36. Following pilot testing, the English and the Yoruba versions of the SF-36 were administered to a random sample of 1087 apparently healthy individuals to test validity and 249 respondents completed the Yoruba SF-36 again after two weeks to test reliability. Data was analyzed using Pearson's product moment correlation analysis, independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance, multi trait scaling analysis and Intra-Class Correlation (ICC) at p Yoruba SF-36 ranges between 0.636 and 0.843 for scales; and 0.783 and 0.851 for domains. The data quality, concurrent and discriminant validity, reliability and internal consistency of the Yoruba version of the SF-36 are adequate and it is recommended for measuring health-related quality of life among Yoruba population.

  19. Influence of the interface on growth rates in AlN/GaN short period superlattices via metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, L. E.; Korakakis, D.

    2011-11-01

    AlN/GaN short period superlattices are well suited for a number of applications including, but not limited to, digital alloys, intersubband devices, and emitters. In this work, AlN/GaN superlattices with periodicities ranging from 10 to 20 Å have been grown via metal organic vapor phase epitaxy in order to investigate the influence of the interface on the binary alloy growth rates. The GaN growth rate at the interface was observed to decrease with increasing GaN thickness while the AlN growth rate remained constant. This has been attributed to a decrease in the decomposition rate of GaN at the hetero-interface as seen in other III-V hetero-structures.

  20. Effects of feeding strategy during a short finishing period on performance, carcass and meat quality in previously-grazed young bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeño, A; Vieira, C; Serrano, E; Lavín, P; Mantecón, A R

    2006-04-01

    Twenty-one Brown Swiss×Limousin young bulls reared on pasture were housed for a short finishing period (60 days). CA group (concentrate-ad libitum group) received concentrate and straw ad libitum for the whole finishing period. CR group (concentrate-restricted group) received 4kg of concentrate/animal per day and ad libitum alfalfa hay throughout the 60days. CRA group (concentrate-restricted/ad libitum group) received the same diet as CR group for the first 30days and the same diet as CA group for the last 30days. CA and CRA groups presented higher fatness values. Myoglobin concentration in muscle was highest in CA group (P0.05). It is concluded that, in this type of young animal, 4kg concentrate plus ad libitum alfalfa hay for a 60-day finishing period, despite lower fatness, provides carcasses and meat with acceptable quality characteristics, similar to those obtained from ad libitum fed animals for the same period.

  1. Effects of Pre - Season Short - Term Daily Undulating Periodized Training on Muscle Strength and Sprint Performance of Under - 20 Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ricardo L OPES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of daily undulating training periodization designed for maximal lower limb muscle strength and sprint performance in under - 20 soccer players. Twenty - four male athletes (age = 19.1 ± 1.2 yr; mass = 71.1 ± 6. 8 kg; height = 178.0 ± 0.1 cm participated in four weeks of a daily undulating periodized (DUP training soccer program. During the pre - and post - training periods the subjects performed a one repetition maximum (1 RM half back squat test and a 15 - meter s print. Significant training - induced changes were observed in sprint times (pre = 2.38 ± 0.01 s; post = 2.31 ± 0.02 s and 1 RM tests (pre = 107.0 ± 2.0 kg; post = 128.0 ± 2.2 kg. These results indicate that a DUP program is efficient in promoting positive neuromuscular adaptations in soccer players, even with a short - term preseason training period.

  2. A dearth of short-period massive binaries in the young massive star forming region M 17. Evidence for a large orbital separation at birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, H.; Ramírez-Tannus, M. C.; de Koter, A.; Kaper, L.; Tramper, F.; Bik, A.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: The formation of massive stars remains poorly understood and little is known about their birth multiplicity properties. Here, we aim to quantitatively investigate the strikingly low radial-velocity dispersion measured for a sample of 11 massive pre- and near-main-sequence stars (σ1D= 5.6 ± 0.2 km s-1) in the very young massive star forming region M 17, in order to obtain first constraints on the multiplicity properties of young massive stellar objects. Methods: We compute the radial-velocity dispersion of synthetic populations of massive stars for various multiplicity properties and we compare the obtained σ1D distributions to the observed value. We specifically investigate two scenarios: a low binary fraction and a dearth of short-period binary systems. Results: Simulated populations with low binary fractions () or with truncated period distributions (Pcutoff > 9 months) are able to reproduce the low σ1D observed within their 68%-confidence intervals. Furthermore, parent populations with fbin > 0.42 or Pcutoff < 47 d can be rejected at the 5%-significance level. Both constraints are in stark contrast with the high binary fraction and plethora of short-period systems in few Myr-old, well characterized OB-type populations. To explain the difference in the context of the first scenario would require a variation of the outcome of the massive star formation process. In the context of the second scenario, compact binaries must form later on, and the cut-off period may be related to physical length-scales representative of the bloated pre-main-sequence stellar radii or of their accretion disks. Conclusions: If the obtained constraints for the M 17's massive-star population are representative of the multiplicity properties of massive young stellar objects, our results may provide support to a massive star formation process in which binaries are initially formed at larger separations, then harden or migrate to produce the typical (untruncated) power-law period

  3. Retention of a 24-hour time memory in Syrian hamsters carrying the 20-hour short circadian period mutation in casein kinase-1ε (ck1εtau/tau).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Sean W; Yoon, Jeena; Shrestha, Tenjin C; Ralph, Martin R

    2014-10-01

    Circadian rhythmic expression of conditioned place avoidance (CPA) was produced in Syrian hamsters homozygous for the circadian short period mutation, tau. In constant dim red light neither the 20 h endogenous period, nor a 20 h place conditioning schedule eliminated the 24 h modulation of CPA behavior described previously for wild type (wt) hamsters and other species. Tau mutants exhibited a 20 h rhythm superimposed on the 24 h modulation. The 20 h component was removed selectively with lesions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Wt animals conditioned on a 20 h schedule did not produce a 20 h rhythm, but still expressed the 24 h modulation. The results show that the context entrainable oscillator (CEO) underlying memory for the timing of an unconditioned stimulus, retains a period of about 24 h regardless of clock gene background (tau mutation) and/or the conditioning schedule (24 vs 20 h). Therefore the CEO responsible for time memory is distinct from the biological clock controlling activity; the underlying circadian molecular mechanisms may differ from the ubiquitous transcription-translation feedback oscillator; and time memory itself is not classically conditioned. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The analysis of fundamental period of cultural heritage buildings: experimental data for church towers in Basilicata (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzi, Fabrizio T.; Liberatore, Domenico; Masini, Nicola; Sileo, Maria; Zotta, Cinzia; Potenza, Maria Rosaria; Scavone, Manuela; Sorrentino, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    Seismic hazard is among the main factors conditioning the conservation of historical centres and cultural heritage located in them. This consideration is suitable especially for downtown areas located in Italy, whose territory is prone to seismic hazards, in the southern area especially. As a matter of fact, the historical sources inform us that most of monuments located in Southern Italy suffered damage and consequent restoration or rebuilding due to the earthquake of the past. Therefore, knowing what buildings are the most exposed to the seismic risk can help the stakeholders to fix priority actions aimed at mitigating the effects of future events. Starting from these preliminary remarks, in the framework of the Project PRO_CULT, we started an extensive campaign of measurements of dynamic features of the church towers in some towns of the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy). The aim of the research activity is to assess the fundamental period of such a typology of historical buildings and comparing it with the dynamic features of the foundation soil to put into evidence possible resonance phenomena responsible of an increase of building damage during the seismic shaking. The selection of the towns to be considered as a target of the experimental survey was performed taking into account the availability of written sources dealing with the historical seismic effects suffered by the bell-towers over the centuries with special attention to the sites heavily affected by the 16 December 1857 Basilicata and 23 November 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata earthquakes (Gizzi and Masini 2007). The fundamental period of bell-towers is estimated using ambient noise vibration signals recorded at the highest level of the towers. The techniques used to get the dynamic values are both the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and the Horizontal to Horizontal Spectral Ratio (HHSR) (Liberatore et al. 2008). Once the fundamental frequency has been estimated, it is compared with the

  5. IUE spectrophotometry of the DA4 primary in the short-period white dwarf-red dwarf spectroscopic binary Case 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sion, E. M.; Guinan, E. F.; Wesemael, F.

    1984-01-01

    Low-resolution ultraviolet International Ultraviolet Explorer spectra of the DA white dwarf Case 1 are presented. The spectra show the presence of the 1400 A feature, already discovered in several other DA stars, and of a shallower trough in the 1550-1700 A range. A model atmosphere analysis of the ultraviolet energy distribution of the Ly-alpha red wing yields T(e) = 13,000 + or - 500 K. Possible interpretations of the 1400 A feature are reviewed. Case 1 is the coolest white dwarf found in a short-period, detached white dwarf-red dwarf binary, and its cooling time is consistent with estimates of the efficiency of angular momentum removal mechanisms in the phases subsequent to common envelope binary evolution.

  6. THE MAXIMUM AMOUNTS OF RAINFALL FALLEN IN SHORT PERIODS OF TIME IN THE HILLY AREA OF CLUJ COUNTY - GENESIS, DISTRIBUTION AND PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLAGA IRINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The maximum amounts of rainfall are usually characterized by high intensity, and their effects on the substrate are revealed, at slope level, by the deepening of the existing forms of torrential erosion and also by the formation of new ones, and by landslide processes. For the 1971-2000 period, for the weather stations in the hilly area of Cluj County: Cluj- Napoca, Dej, Huedin and Turda the highest values of rainfall amounts fallen in 24, 48 and 72 hours were analyzed and extracted, based on which the variation and the spatial and temporal distribution of the precipitation were analyzed. The annual probability of exceedance of maximum rainfall amounts fallen in short time intervals (24, 48 and 72 hours, based on thresholds and class values was determined, using climatological practices and the Hyfran program facilities.

  7. Pathogenic effects of Rift Valley fever virus NSs gene are alleviated in cultured cells by expressed antiviral short hairpin RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Tristan; Paweska, Janusz T; Arbuthnot, Patrick; Weinberg, Marc S

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a member of the Bunyaviridae family, may cause severe hepatitis, encephalitis and haemorrhagic fever in humans. There are currently no available licensed vaccines or therapies to treat the viral infection in humans. RNA interference (RNAi)-based viral gene silencing offers a promising approach to inhibiting replication of this highly pathogenic virus. The small (S) segment of the RVFV tripartite genome carries the genetic determinates for pathogenicity during infection. This segment encodes the non-structural S (NSs) and essential nucleocapsid (N) genes. To advance RNAi-based inhibition of RVFV replication, we designed several Pol III short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression cassettes against the NSs and N genes, including a multimerized plasmid vector that included four shRNA expression cassettes. Effective target silencing was demonstrated using full- and partial-length target reporter assays, and confirmed by western blot analysis of exogenous N and NSs expression. Small RNA northern blots showed detectable RNAi guide strand formation from single and multimerized shRNA constructs. Using a cell culture model of RVFV replication, shRNAs targeting the N gene decreased intracellular nucleocapsid protein concentration and viral replication. The shRNAs directed against the NSs gene reduced NSs protein concentrations and alleviated NSs-mediated cytotoxicity, which may be caused by host transcription suppression. These data are the first demonstration that RNAi activators have a potential therapeutic benefit for countering RVFV infection.

  8. Impact of streamflow data assimilation and length of the verification period on the quality of short-term ensemble hydrologic forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianasolo, A.; Thirel, G.; Ramos, M. H.; Martin, E.

    2014-11-01

    Data assimilation has gained wide recognition in hydrologic forecasting due mainly to its capacity to improve the quality of short-term forecasts. In this study, a comparative analysis is conducted to assess the impact of discharge data assimilation on the quality of streamflow forecasts issued by two different modeling conceptualizations of catchment response. The sensitivity of the performance metrics to the length of the verification period is also investigated. The hydrological modeling approaches are: the coupled physically-based hydro-meteorological model SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU, a distributed model with a data assimilation procedure that uses streamflow measurements to assess the initial state of soil water content that optimizes discharge simulations, and the lumped soil moisture-accounting type rainfall-runoff model GRP, which assimilates directly the last observed discharge to update the state of the routing store. The models are driven by the weather ensemble prediction system PEARP of Météo-France, which is based on the global spectral ARPEGE model zoomed over France. It runs 11 perturbed members for a forecast range of 60 h. Forecast and observed data are available for 86 catchments over a 17-month period (March 2005-July 2006) for both models and for 82 catchments over a 52-month period (April 2005-July 2009) for the GRP model. The first dataset is used to investigate the impact of streamflow data assimilation on forecast quality, while the second is used to evaluate the impact of the length of the verification period on the assessment of forecast quality. Forecasts are compared to daily observed discharges and scores are computed for lead times 24 h and 48 h. Results indicate an overall good performance of both hydrological models forced by the PEARP ensemble predictions when the models are run with their data assimilation procedures. In general, when data assimilation is performed, the quality of the forecasts increases: median differences between

  9. HATS-43b, HATS-44b, HATS-45b, and HATS-46b: Four Short-period Transiting Giant Planets in the Neptune–Jupiter Mass Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahm, R.; Hartman, J. D.; Jordán, A.; Bakos, G. Á.; Espinoza, N.; Rabus, M.; Bhatti, W.; Penev, K.; Sarkis, P.; Suc, V.; Csubry, Z.; Bayliss, D.; Bento, J.; Zhou, G.; Mancini, L.; Henning, T.; Ciceri, S.; de Val-Borro, M.; Shectman, S.; Crane, J. D.; Arriagada, P.; Butler, P.; Teske, J.; Thompson, I.; Osip, D.; Díaz, M.; Schmidt, B.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2018-03-01

    We report the discovery of four short-period extrasolar planets transiting moderately bright stars from photometric measurements of the HATSouth network coupled to additional spectroscopic and photometric follow-up observations. While the planet masses range from 0.26 to 0.90 {M}{{J}}, the radii are all approximately a Jupiter radii, resulting in a wide range of bulk densities. The orbital period of the planets ranges from 2.7 days to 4.7 days, with HATS-43b having an orbit that appears to be marginally non-circular (e = 0.173 ± 0.089). HATS-44 is notable for having a high metallicity ([{Fe}/{{H}}] = 0.320 ± 0.071). The host stars spectral types range from late F to early K, and all of them are moderately bright (13.3 Carnegie Institute is operated by PU in conjunction with PUC, the station at the High Energy Spectroscopic Survey (H.E.S.S.) site is operated in conjunction with MPIA, and the station at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) is operated jointly with ANU. This paper includes data gathered with the MPG 2.2 m and ESO 3.6 m telescopes at the ESO Observatory in La Silla. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  10. Attenuation of short-period P, PcP, ScP, and pP waves in the earth's mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, G.; Clements, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The parameter t* (ratio of body wave travel time to the average quality factor Q) was estimated under various assumptions of the nature of the earthquake sources for short-period P, PcP, and ScP phases originating from earthquakes in the Fiji-Tonga region and recorded at the Warramunga Seismic Array at Tennant Creek (Northern Territory, Australia). Spectral ratios were calculated for the amplitudes of PcP to P and of pP to P. The data reveal a laterally varying Q structure in the Fiji-Tonga region. The high-Q lithosphere descending beneath the Tonga Island arc is overlain above 350 km depth by a wedgelike zone of high attenuation with an average Q/sub α/ between 120 and 200 at short periods. The upper mantle farther to the west of the Tonga island arc is less attenuating, with Q/sub α/, between 370 and 560. Q/sub α/ is about 500 in the upper mantle on the oceanic side of the subduction zone. The t* estimates of this study are much smaller than estimates from the free oscillation model SL8. This can be partly explained by regional variations of Q in the upper mantle. If no lateral Q variations occur in the lower mantle, a frequency-dependent Q can make the PcP and ScP observations consistent with model SL8. Adopting the absorption band model to describe the frequency dependence of Q, the parameter tau 2 , the cut-off period of the high-frequency end of the absorption band, was determined. For different source models with finite corner frequencies, the average tau 2 for the mantle is between 0.01 and 0.10 s (corresponding to frequencies between 16 and 1.6 Hz) as derived from the PcP data, and between 0.06 and 0.12 s (2.7 and 1.3 Hz), as derived from the ScP data

  11. [The effects of 16-weeks pilates mat program on anthropometric variables and body composition in active adult women after a short detraining period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco; Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel

    2015-04-01

    previous studies have analysed the effect of mat Pilates practice on anthropometric variables and body composition in sedentaries. To date no researchs have investigated the benefits of Pilates on these variables after a short detraining period. to determine the effect of a 16-week mat Pilates program on anthropometric variables, body composition and somatotype of women with previous practice experience after three weeks of detraining period. twenty-one women underwent a complete anthropometric assessment according with ISAK guidelines before and after a 16 week mat Pilates program (two days, one hour). All women had one to three years of mat Pilates experience and came to three weeks of detraining period (Christmas holiday). women showed significant decreases for body mass, BMI, upper limb (biceps and triceps) and trunk (subscapular, iliac crest, supraspinale and abdominal) individual skinfolds, 6 and 8 skinfold sums, endomorphy and fat mass; and a significant increases for muscle mass. The mean somatotype was classified as mesomorphic endomorph in the pre- (4.91, 4.01, 1.47) and post-test (4.68, 4.16, 1.69). Eight women changed their somatotype clasification after the intervention program. the practice of mat Pilates for 16 weeks caused changes associated with health state improvements on anthropometric variables, especially on skinfolds which significantly decreased, body composition (fat and muscle masses decreased and increased, respectively) and somatotype (there was a significantly decreased on the endomorph component in experienced women after three week of detraning. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. The Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire: cross-cultural adaptation, validation and reliability of the Hausa language version in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; Adegoke, Babatunde O; Oyetoke, Fatima O; Aliyu, Habeeb N; Aliyu, Salamatu U; Rufai, Adamu A

    2011-11-22

    Accurate assessment of physical activity is important in determining the risk for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, cancer and obesity. The absence of culturally relevant measures in indigenous languages could pose challenges to epidemiological studies on physical activity in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF) to the Hausa language, and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Hausa version of IPAQ-SF in Nigeria. The English IPAQ-SF was translated into the Hausa language, synthesized, back translated, and subsequently subjected to expert committee review and pre-testing. The final product (Hausa IPAQ-SF) was tested in a cross-sectional study for concurrent (correlation with the English version) and construct validity, and test-retest reliability in a sample of 102 apparently healthy adults. The Hausa IPAQ-SF has good concurrent validity with Spearman correlation coefficients (ρ) ranging from 0.78 for vigorous activity (Min Week-1) to 0.92 for total physical activity (Metabolic Equivalent of Task [MET]-Min Week-1), but poor construct validity, with cardiorespiratory fitness (ρ = 0.21, p = 0.01) and body mass index (ρ = 0.22, p = 0.04) significantly correlated with only moderate activity and sitting time (Min Week-1), respectively. Reliability was good for vigorous (ICC = 0.73, 95% C.I = 0.55-0.84) and total physical activity (ICC = 0.61, 95% C.I = 0.47-0.72), but fair for moderate activity (ICC = 0.33, 95% C.I = 0.12-0.51), and few meaningful differences were found in the gender and socioeconomic status specific analyses. The Hausa IPAQ-SF has acceptable concurrent validity and test-retest reliability for vigorous-intensity activity, walking, sitting and total physical activity, but demonstrated only fair construct validity for moderate and sitting activities. The Hausa IPAQ-SF can be used for

  13. Cross-cultural equivalence of the patient- and parent-reported quality of life in short stature youth (QoLISSY) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinger, Monika; Quitmann, Julia; Silva, Neuza; Rohenkohl, Anja; Chaplin, John E; DeBusk, Kendra; Mimoun, Emmanuelle; Feigerlova, Eva; Herdman, Michael; Sanz, Dolores; Wollmann, Hartmut; Pleil, Andreas; Power, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Testing cross-cultural equivalence of patient-reported outcomes requires sufficiently large samples per country, which is difficult to achieve in rare endocrine paediatric conditions. We describe a novel approach to cross-cultural testing of the Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth (QoLISSY) questionnaire in five countries by sequentially taking one country out (TOCO) from the total sample and iteratively comparing the resulting psychometric performance. Development of the QoLISSY proceeded from focus group discussions through pilot testing to field testing in 268 short-statured patients and their parents. To explore cross-cultural equivalence, the iterative TOCO technique was used to examine and compare the validity, reliability, and convergence of patient and parent responses on QoLISSY in the field test dataset, and to predict QoLISSY scores from clinical, socio-demographic and psychosocial variables. Validity and reliability indicators were satisfactory for each sample after iteratively omitting one country. Comparisons with the total sample revealed cross-cultural equivalence in internal consistency and construct validity for patients and parents, high inter-rater agreement and a substantial proportion of QoLISSY variance explained by predictors. The TOCO technique is a powerful method to overcome problems of country-specific testing of patient-reported outcome instruments. It provides an empirical support to QoLISSY's cross-cultural equivalence and is recommended for future research.

  14. Joint analysis of short-period variations of ionospheric parameters in Siberia and the Far East and processes of the tropical cyclogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernigovskaya, M. A.; Kurkin, V. I.; Orlov, I. I.; Sharkov, E. A.; Pokrovskaya, I. V.

    2009-04-01

    In this work a possibility of manifestation of strong meteorological disturbances in the Earth lower atmosphere in variations of ionospheric parameters in the zone remote from the disturbance source has been studied. The spectral analysis of short-period variations (about ten minutes, hours) in maximum observed frequencies (MOF) of one-skip signals of oblique sounding has been carried out. These variations were induced by changes in the upper atmosphere parameters along the Magadan-Irkutsk oblique-incidence sounding path on the background of diurnal variations in the parameter under study. Data on MOF measurements with off-duty factor approximately 5 min in equinoxes (September, March) of 2005-2007 were used. The analysis was made using the improved ISTP-developed technique of determining periodicities in time series. The increase of signal spectrum energy at certain frequencies is interpreted as manifestation of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID) associated with propagation of internal gravity waves in the atmosphere. The analysis revealed TIDs of temporal scales under consideration. The question concerning localization of possible sources of revealed disturbances is discussed. Troposphere meteorological disturbances giant in their energy (tropical cyclones, typhoon) are considered as potential sources of observable TIDs. The needed information on tropical cyclones that occurred in the north area of the Indian Ocean, south-west and central areas of the Pacific Ocean in 2005-2007 is taken from the electron base of satellite data on the global tropical cyclogenesis "Global-TC" (ISR RAS). In order to effectively separate disturbances associated with the magnetospheric-ionospheric interaction and disturbances induced by the lower atmosphere influence on the upper atmosphere, we analyze the tropical cyclogenesis events that occurred in quiet helio-geomagnetic conditions. The study was supported by the Program of RAS Presidium N 16 (Part 3) and the RFBR Grant N 08-05-00658.

  15. Origin of short-period (30-300 s) Doppler frequency fluctuations of lower F region reflections in the equatorial electrojet region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastri, J.H.; Ramesh, K.B.; Rao, J.V.S.V.; Somayajulu, V.V.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of phase path P of lower F-region reflections at normal incidence at Kodaikanal revealed the ubiquitous presence of 30-300-s quasi-sinusoidal variations in the time rate of change of phase path, P (Doppler frequency shift) during day time. A study is made of the influence of the irregularities in the equatorial electrojet on the P fluctuations using simultaneous observations of F-region phase path at Kodaikanal and of equatorial electrojet with the VHF-backscatter radar at Thumba. It is shown that the spectral content of the Doppler fluctuations (quantified in terms of variance, sigma squared computed from P time series synthesized through FFT exp -1 (FFT) in the chosen period bands, 30-300 s/30-120 s of the FFT of original P times series) bears a significant positive linear relationship to the horizontal phase velocity of electrojet irregularities (3-m scale size) on a hourly basis. This result is in consonance with earlier findings (Sastri et al., 1990) of a significant linear relationship of sigma squared to the electrojet strength (estimated from H-field data) and a practical cessation of the P fluctuations at times of disappearance of Esq on ionograms (partial/complete counterelectrojet). The present work substantiates the interpretation that the short-period Doppler-frequency fluctuations are due to phase-path changes imposed on lower F region reflections by the refractive-index variations associated with the convective motions of plasma density irregularities (type I and II) in the daytime equatorial electrojet. 49 refs

  16. Quantum state engineering with ultra-short-period (AlN)m/(GaN)n superlattices for narrowband deep-ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Na; Lin, Wei; Chen, Xue; Huang, Kai; Li, Shuping; Li, Jinchai; Chen, Hangyang; Yang, Xu; Ji, Li; Yu, Edward T; Kang, Junyong

    2014-12-21

    Ultra-short-period (AlN)m/(GaN)n superlattices with tunable well and barrier atomic layer numbers were grown by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy, and employed to demonstrate narrowband deep ultraviolet photodetection. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray reciprocal space mapping confirm that superlattices containing well-defined, coherently strained GaN and AlN layers as thin as two atomic layers (∼ 0.5 nm) were grown. Theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that an optical absorption band as narrow as 9 nm (210 meV) at deep-ultraviolet wavelengths can be produced, and is attributable to interband transitions between quantum states along the [0001] direction in ultrathin GaN atomic layers isolated by AlN barriers. The absorption wavelength can be precisely engineered by adjusting the thickness of the GaN atomic layers because of the quantum confinement effect. These results represent a major advance towards the realization of wavelength selectable and narrowband photodetectors in the deep-ultraviolet region without any additional optical filters.

  17. A Bright Short Period M-M Eclipsing Binary from the KELT Survey: Magnetic Activity and the Mass-Radius Relationship for M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Jack B.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Zhou, George; Conroy, Kyle E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Collins, Karen; Stevens, Daniel J.; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Stockdale, Christopher; Myers, Gordon; Colón, Knicole D.; Bento, Joao; Kehusmaa, Petri; Petrucci, Romina; Jofré, Emiliano; Quinn, Samuel N.; Lund, Michael B.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Siverd, Robert J.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Harlingten, Caisey; Pepper, Joshua; Gaudi, B. Scott; James, David; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Reichart, Daniel; Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna; Bailey, Jeremy; Melville, Graeme

    2017-08-01

    We report the discovery of KELT J041621-620046, a moderately bright (J ˜ 10.2) M-dwarf eclipsing binary system at a distance of 39 ± 3 pc. KELT J041621-620046 was first identified as an eclipsing binary using observations from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) survey. The system has a short orbital period of ˜1.11 days and consists of components with {M}1={0.447}+0.052-0.047 {M}⊙ and {M}2={0.399}+0.046-0.042 {M}⊙ in nearly circular orbits. The radii of the two stars are {R}1={0.540}+0.034-0.032 {R}⊙ and {\\text{}}{R}2=0.453+/- 0.017 {R}⊙ . Full system and orbital properties were determined (to ˜10% error) by conducting an EBOP (Eclipsing Binary Orbit Program) global modeling of the high precision photometric and spectroscopic observations obtained by the KELT Follow-up Network. Each star is larger by 17%-28% and cooler by 4%-10% than predicted by standard (non-magnetic) stellar models. Strong Hα emission indicates chromospheric activity in both stars. The observed radii and temperature discrepancies for both components are more consistent with those predicted by empirical relations that account for convective suppression due to magnetic activity.

  18. Cirugía ambulatoria y de corta hospitalización en el cáncer de mama Ambulatory breast cancer surgery with short hospitalization period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Cantero Ronquillo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La cirugía mayor ambulatoria y de corta estadía constituye un método eficaz y seguro si se hace una selección adecuada de los enfermos y se utilizan técnicas quirúrgicas depuradas con la creación consecuente de la infraestructura para tales fines. Tradicionalmente, el cáncer de mama ha requerido ingreso hospitalario por el riesgo de hemorragia posoperatoria, la necesidad del control de los drenajes quirúrgicos, etc. Internacionalmente esto ha cambiado tras la introducción de nuevas técnicas quirúrgicas como la biopsia del ganglio centinela, la estandarización de las técnicas preservadoras de tejido mamario, así como la especialización de grupos de cirugía en afecciones de la mama. La creación de un grupo de mastología en nuestro centro permitió incursionar en esta modalidad y ya podamos contar 31 pacientes operadas entre enero de 2004 y junio de 2006. Fueron utilizadas diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas con cirugía de corta estadía, previo establecimiento de los criterios de selección. Pudimos concluir que el tratamiento ambulatorio del cáncer de mama en casos seleccionados es factible, dado que se garantiza la seguridad de la paciente, la calidad asistencial y la continuidad en la atención, que además facilita la recuperación psicológica de la enferma y su reinserción temprana en la familiaAmbulatory major surgery with short hospitalization period is an efficient and safe method if a proper selection of patients is made and refined surgical techniques are used, all supported on adequate infrastructure to this end. Traditionally, breast cancer has required admission at hospital due to postsurgical hemorrhage risk, need for surgical drainage control, etc. This has changed worlwide after the introduction of new surgical techniques as sentinel node biopsy, standardization of preserving techniques for breast tissue and specialization of surgeon teams in breast illnesses. The creation of a mastology group in our center

  19. Newspaper periodicals of Kyiv of 1919 as a source on the study of socioeconomic, international, and cultural and educational development of Ukraine in the period of the White Guard government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudyi H. Ya.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides data on the quantitative and lingual composition of Kyiv newspaper periodicals in 1919 - the period of Kyiv occupation by Denikin’s troops, and defines the characteristic features of this regime. Based on the analysis of 1919 Kyiv periodicals, the author establishes principal thematic complexes revealing the state of socioeconomic and spiritual life of Ukraine in that time, in particular, Denikin’s government aiming at the implementation of land legislation, which would return pre-revolutionary productive relations in villages; definition of a role and place of trade union movement for uniting Ukrainian workers; regulation of monetary circulation due to the White Guard ban of the Soviet money; food provision for Kyiv; Ukrainian school problems; financial support of national education, creation and operation of the National Education Foundation, collecting funds to support Ukrainian schools; activity of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences during the Denikin’s regime; development of the national culture and art, etc.

  20. Reflections on the Cultural Encounter between the Jews and the Greeks and Romans in Jewish Coin Iconography of the Hellenistic-Roman Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to the written and archaeological sources, the numismatic material from the Persian, Hellenistic, and particularly the Roman Imperial periods in Palestine constitutes an almost uninterrupted material source from which detailed knowledge can be drawn concerning the political, cultural and......—by extension—even social processes. In this article examples reflecting the results of the cultural encounter between the Jewish and the Greco-Roman world are discussed, which are well illustrated by the differences in the iconography of the Jewish coinages of the first century BCE and first century CE...

  1. The impact of organisational culture on the delivery of person-centred care in services providing respite care and short breaks for people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkley, Catherine; Bamford, Claire; Poole, Marie; Arksey, Hilary; Hughes, Julian; Bond, John

    2011-07-01

    Ensuring the development and delivery of person-centred care in services providing respite care and short breaks for people with dementia and their carers has a number of challenges for health and social service providers. This article explores the role of organisational culture in barriers and facilitators to person-centred dementia care. As part of a mixed-methods study of respite care and short breaks for people with dementia and their carers, 49 telephone semi-structured interviews, two focus groups (N= 16) and five face-to-face in-depth interviews involving front-line staff and operational and strategic managers were completed in 2006-2007. Qualitative thematic analysis of transcripts identified five themes on aspects of organisational culture that are perceived to influence person-centred care: understandings of person-centred care, attitudes to service development, service priorities, valuing staff and solution-focused approaches. Views of person-centred care expressed by participants, although generally positive, highlight a range of understandings about person-centred care. Some organisations describe their service as being person-centred without the necessary cultural shift to make this a reality. Participants highlighted resource constraints and the knowledge, attitudes and personal qualities of staff as a barrier to implementing person-centred care. Leadership style, the way that managers' support and value staff and the management of risk were considered important influences. Person-centred dementia care is strongly advocated by professional opinion leaders and is prescribed in policy documents. This analysis suggests that person-centred dementia care is not strongly embedded in the organisational cultures of all local providers of respite-care and short-break services. Provider organisations should be encouraged further to develop a shared culture at all levels of the organisation to ensure person-centred dementia care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing

  2. Use of Gifu Anaerobic Medium for culturing 32 dominant species of human gut microbes and its evaluation based on short-chain fatty acids fermentation profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Aina; Nara, Misaki; Sugiyama, Yuta; Sakanaka, Mikiyasu; Yachi, Hiroyuki; Kitakata, Aya; Nakagawa, Akira; Minami, Hiromichi; Okuda, Shujiro; Katoh, Toshihiko; Katayama, Takane; Kurihara, Shin

    2017-10-01

    Recently, a "human gut microbial gene catalogue," which ranks the dominance of microbe genus/species in human fecal samples, was published. Most of the bacteria ranked in the catalog are currently publicly available; however, the growth media recommended by the distributors vary among species, hampering physiological comparisons among the bacteria. To address this problem, we evaluated Gifu anaerobic medium (GAM) as a standard medium. Forty-four publicly available species of the top 56 species listed in the "human gut microbial gene catalogue" were cultured in GAM, and out of these, 32 (72%) were successfully cultured. Short-chain fatty acids from the bacterial culture supernatants were then quantified, and bacterial metabolic pathways were predicted based on in silico genomic sequence analysis. Our system provides a useful platform for assessing growth properties and analyzing metabolites of dominant human gut bacteria grown in GAM and supplemented with compounds of interest.

  3. Culture of chondrocytes in alginate surrounded by fibrin gel: characteristics of the cells over a period of eight weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almqvist, K. F.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Baeten, D.; Cornelissen, M.; Verdonk, R.; Veys, E. M.; Verbruggen, G.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To produce tissue engineered cartilage by human articular chondrocytes in vitro for further use in in vivo manipulations for the treatment of cartilage defects. METHODS: Human articular chondrocytes were cultured in 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0% of alginate for up to four weeks. The optimal

  4. Producing biodiesel from cotton seed oil using Rhizopus oryzae ATTC #34612 whole cell biocatalysts: Culture media and cultivation period optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of culture medium composition and cultivation time on biodiesel production by Rhizopus oryzae ATCC #34612 whole cell catalysts, immobilized on novel rigid polyethylene biomass supports, was investigated. Supplementation of the medium with carbon sources led to higher lipase activity and i...

  5. Effect of re-expansion after short-period lung collapse on pulmonary capillary permeability and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in isolated rabbit lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, T; Ishibe, Y; Okazaki, N; Miura, K; Liu, R; Nagai, S; Minami, Y

    2004-04-01

    Re-expansion pulmonary oedema is a rare complication caused by rapid re-expansion of a chronically collapsed lung. Several cases of pulmonary oedema associated with one-lung ventilation (OLV) have been reported recently. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in pulmonary oedema fluid are suggested to play important roles in its development. Activation of cytokines after re-expansion of collapsed lung during OLV has not been thoroughly investigated. Here we investigated the effects of re-expansion of the collapsed lung on pulmonary oedema formation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Lungs isolated from female white Japanese rabbits were perfused and divided into a basal (BAS) group (n=7, baseline measurement alone), a control (CONT) group (n=9, ventilated without lung collapse for 120 min) and an atelectasis (ATEL) group (n=9, lung collapsed for 55 min followed by re-expansion and ventilation for 65 min). Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and the coefficient of filtration (Kfc) were measured at baseline and 60 and 120 min. At the end of perfusion, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid/plasma protein ratio (B/P), wet/dry lung weight ratio (W/D) and mRNA expressions of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were determined. TNF-alpha and IL-1beta mRNA were significantly up-regulated in lungs of the ATEL group compared with BAS and CONT, though no significant differences were noted in PVR, Kfc, B/P and W/D within and between groups. MPO increased at 120 min in CONT and ATEL groups. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated upon re-expansion and ventilation after short-period lung collapse, though no changes were noted in pulmonary capillary permeability.

  6. Short-period strain (0.1-105 s): Near-source strain field for an earthquake (M L 3.2) near San Juan Bautista, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. J. S.; Borcherdt, R. D.; Linde, A. T.

    1986-10-01

    Measurements of dilational earth strain in the frequency band 25-10-5 Hz have been made on a deep borehole strainmeter installed near the San Andreas fault. These data are used to determine seismic radiation fields during nuclear explosions, teleseisms, local earthquakes, and ground noise during seismically quiet times. Strains of less than 10-10 on these instruments can be clearly resolved at short periods (< 10 s) and are recorded with wide dynamic range digital recorders. This permits measurement of the static and dynamic strain variations in the near field of local earthquakes. Noise spectra for earth strain referenced to 1 (strain)2/Hz show that strain resolution decreases at about 10 dB per decade of frequency from -150 dB at 10-4 Hz to -223 dB at 10 Hz. Exact expressions are derived to relate the volumetric strain and displacement field for a homogeneous P wave in a general viscoelastic solid as observed on colocated dilatometers and seismometers. A rare near-field recording of strain and seismic velocity was obtained on May 26, 1984, from an earthquake (ML 3.2) at a hypocentral distance of 3.2 km near the San Andreas fault at San Juan Bautista, California. While the data indicate no precursory strain release at the 5 × 10-11 strain level, a coseismic strain release of 1.86 nanostrain was observed. This change in strain is consistent with that calculated from a simple dislocation model of the event. Ground displacement spectra, determined from the downhole strain data and instrument-corrected surface seismic data, suggest that source parameters estimated from surface recordings may be contaminated by amplification effects in near-surface low-velocity materials.

  7. Gene-Culture Coevolution in a Social Cetacean: Integrating Acoustic and Genetic Data to Understand Population Structure in the Short-Finned Pilot Whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cise, Amy

    The evolutionary ecology of a species is driven by a combination of random events, ecological and environmental mechanisms, and social behavior. Gene-culture coevolutionary theory attempts to understand the evolutionary trajectory of a species by examining the interactions between these potential drivers. Further, our choice of data type will affect the patterns we observe, therefore by integrating several types of data we achieve a holistic understanding of the various aspects of evolutionary ecology within a species. In order to understand population structure in short-finned pilot whales, I use a combination of genetic and acoustic data to examine structure on evolutionary (genetic) and cultural (acoustic) timescales. I first examine structure among geographic populations in the Pacific Ocean. Using genetic sequences from the mitochondrial control region, I show that two genetically and morphologically distinct types of short-finned pilot whale, described off the coast of Japan, have non-overlapping distributions throughout their range in the Pacific Ocean. Analysis of the acoustic features of their social calls indicates that they are acoustically differentiated, possibly due to limited communication between the two types. This evidence supports the hypothesis that the two types may be separate species or subspecies. Next, I examine structure among island communities and social groups within the Hawaiian Island population of short-finned pilot whales. Using a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, I showed that the hierarchical social structure in Hawaiian pilot whales is driven by genetic relatedness; individuals remain in groups with their immediate family members, and preferentially associate with relatives. Similarly, social structure affects genetic differentiation, likely by restricting access to mates. Acoustic differentiation among social groups indicates that social structure may also restrict the flow of cultural information, such as vocal

  8. Terminal values and meaning in life among university students with varied levels of altruism in the present period of socio-cultural change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Głaz Stanisław

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The author of this paper, interested in the issues of values preference, meaning in life and altruism among university students has attempted to show a relation between them in the present period of clearly noticeable socio-cultural change. The study was conducted in 2009-2010 in Kraków among university students. The age of the respondents ranged from 21 to 25. 200 sets of correctly completed questionnaires were used for the results analysis.

  9. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Mengue Feniman Moritz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination, upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

  10. The yeast culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Strain 47 as manipulator of rumen fermentation in postpartal period of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Doležal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, examined was the effect of a yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Strain 47 on rumen fermentation of cows. Animals received a diet consisting of good maize silage with a higher dry matter content (16  kg, 16  kg of clovergrass haylage, 3  kg of meadow hay and 7.5  kg feed mixture. The yeast culture was added to the mixture in the dose 6  g/day and cow. The supplement of yeast culture showed a positive effect on VFA production in comparison with control (1.16±0.013B vs. 0.84±0.063A  g/ 100 ml, and lower production of lactic acid. The utilisation of ammonia was higher by cows in treated group (8.68±0.084A mmol/L. The difference in number of protozoa of cows in the control and experimental groups was significant (302.0±12.349A vs. 359.2±1.304B ths /1 ml of rumen fluid.

  11. Pros and cons of fish skin cells in culture: long-term full skin and short-term scale cell culture from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakers, Sebastian; Klinger, Matthias; Kruse, Charli; Gebert, Marina

    2011-12-01

    Here, we report the establishment of a permanent skin cell culture from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The cells of the fish skin cell culture could be propagated over 60 passages so far. Furthermore, we show for the first time that it is possible to integrate freshly harvested rainbow trout scales into this new fish skin cell culture. We further demonstrated that epithelial cells derived from the scales survived in the artificial micro-environment of surrounding fibroblast-like cells. Also, antibody staining indicated that both cell types proliferated and started to build connections with the other cell type. It seems that it is possible to generate an 'artificial skin' with two different cell types. This could lead to the development of a three-dimensional test system, which might be a better in vitro representative of fish skin in vivo than individual skin cell lines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of potassium hydroxide mount and mycological culture with histopathologic examination using periodic acid-Schiff staining of the nail clippings in the diagnosis of onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, M Manjunath; Teerthanath, S; Karnaker, Vimal K; Girisha, B S; Krishna Prasad, M S; Pinto, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a common problem noticed in clinical practice. Currently available standard laboratory methods show inconsistent sensitivity; hence there is a need for newer methods of detection. This study involves comparison of standard laboratory tests in the diagnosis of onychomycosis, namely, potassium hydroxide mount (KOH mount) and mycological culture, with histopathologic examination using periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining of the nail clippings. A total of 101 patients with clinically suspected onychomycosis were selected. Nail scrapings and clippings were subjected to KOH mount for direct microscopic examination, culture using Sabouraud's dextrose agar (with and without antibiotics) and histopathologic examination with PAS staining (HP/PAS). Statistical analysis was done by McNemar's test. Direct microscopy with KOH mount, mycological culture, and HP/PAS showed positive results in 54 (53%), 35 (35%), and 76 (75%) patients respectively. Laboratory evidence of fungal infection was obtained in 84 samples by at least one of these three methods. Using this as the denominator, HP/PAS had a sensitivity of 90%, which was significantly higher compared to that of KOH mount (64%) or mycological culture (42%). Histopathologic diagnosis with PAS staining of nail clippings was the most sensitive among the tests. It was easy to perform, rapid, and gave significantly higher rates of detection of onychomycosis compared to the standard methods, namely KOH mount and mycological culture.

  13. How natural is the supernatural? Synthesis of the qualitative literature from low and middle income countries on cultural practices and traditional beliefs influencing the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Shanti; Nicholls, Rachel; Ritchie, Jan; Razee, Husna; Shafiee, Samaneh

    2016-08-01

    to review qualitative research studies conducted in low resource settings around the perinatal continuum over the past two decades, with particular focus on the cultural realm; to identify common themes in the research-base, in order to provide policy direction for culturally appropriate perinatal interventions. systematic literature search of electronic databases from 1990 to 2014, including Medline, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO, using relevant search terms such as traditional beliefs, practices, pregnancy, childbirth; established criteria used to determine quality of studies; and thematic synthesis of the literature enabled by NVivo 10 software. low and middle income countries using the World Bank classification. religious and spiritual beliefs strongly influenced behaviour over the perinatal period. Beliefs in supernatural influences, particularly malevolent forces were widespread, such that pregnancy was concealed in many parts of Africa and Asia. In most low resource settings, pregnancy and childbirth were seen as normal phenomena. Rituals played an important part for women and their infants, reinforced by inter-generational support. Cross-cutting themes that emerged were: (1) the role of women as mothers, demonstrating their'goodness' by bearing pain and suffering; (2) the idea of the 'natural' incorporating the supernatural; and (3) negotiating change across generations. a diverse repertoire of cultural practices influences perinatal well-being across low resource settings. Health practitioners and policy-makers need to acknowledge the primacy of women's reproductive roles, the cultural constructions of motherhood; that supernatural forces are believed to exert powerful influences on the health of mother and infant; that inter-generational tensions result in resisting or embracing change. Public health planners and practitioners need to take culture seriously, not ignore the contribution of culture in shaping women's behaviours and choices throughout the

  14. High-Precision Locations and the Stress Field from Instrumental Seismicity, Moment Tensors, and Short-Period Mechanisms through the Mina Deflection, Central Walker Lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, C. J.; Smith, K. D.

    2012-12-01

    well as available and developed short-period focal mechanisms are compiled to evaluate the stress field to assess mechanisms of slip accommodation. Based on the complex distribution of fault orientations, the stress field varies locally northward from the SWL throughout the MD; however, in many cases, fault plane alignments can be isolated from high-precision locations, providing better constraints on stress and slip orientations.

  15. Short period strain balanced gallium arsenide nitride/indium arsenide nitride superlattice lattice matched to indium phosphide for mid-infrared photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhusal, Lekhnath

    Dilute nitrogen-containing III-V-N alloys have been intensively studied for their unusual electronic and optical behavior in the presence of a small amount of nitrogen. Those behaviors can further be manipulated, with a careful consideration of the strain and strain balancing, for example, in the context of a strain-balanced superlattice (SL) based on those alloys. In this work, the k.p approximation and the band anti-crossing model modified for the strain have been used to describe the electronic states of the strained bulk-like GaAs1-xNx and InAs 1-yNy ternaries in the vicinity of the center of the Brillouin zone (Gamma-point). Band-offsets between the conduction and valence bands of GaAs1-xNx and InAs1-yN y have also been evaluated, before implementing them into the SL structure. By minimizing the total mechanical energy of the stack of the alternating layers of GaAs1-xNx and InAs1-yNy in the SL, the ratio of the thicknesses of the epilayers is determined to make the structure lattice-matching on the InP(001), through the strain-balancing. Mini-band energies of the strain-balanced GaAs1-xNx/InAs 1-yNy short-period SL on InP(001) is then investigated using the transfer matrix formalism. This enabled identifying the evolution of the band edge transition energies of the superlattice structure for different nitrogen compositions. Results show the potential of the new proposed design to exceed the existing limits of bulk-like InGaAsN alloys and offer the applications for photon absorption/emission energies in the range of ~0.65-0.35eV at 300K for a typical nitrogen composition of ≤5%. The optical absorption coefficient of such a SL is then estimated under the anisotropic medium approximation, where the optical absorption of the bulk structure is modified according to the anisotropy imposed by the periodic potential in the growth direction. As an application, the developed SL structure is used to investigate the performance of double, triple and quadruple junction

  16. Field performance of Populus in short-rotation intensive culture plantations in the north-central U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward A. Hansen; Michael E. Ostry; Wendell D. Johnson; David N. Tolsted; Daniel A. Netzer; William E. Berguson; Richard B. Hall

    1994-01-01

    Describes a network of short-rotation, Populus research and demonstration plantations that has been established across a 5-state region in the north-central U.S. to identify suitable hybrid poplar clones for large-scale biomass plantations in the region. Reports 6-year results.

  17. Postirradiation changes in the amount and contact properties of bone marrow neutrophils in a short-term culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukhlovin, A.B.; Nikolaevskaya, L.V.

    1988-01-01

    A study was made of the adherence to plastic Petri dishes and viability ( as non-pyknotic cell counts) of rat bone marrow cells cultured for 5 to 22 h in 199 media containing 15% fresh isologous serum. An overall decrease in the number of viable myelokaryocytes including mature neutrophils was observed in the cultures irradiated with doses of 3 to 12 Gy. In addition gamma irradiation increased substantially the adherence of neutrophyls and to a lesser extent of other myelokaryocytes. A possibility of early radiation-induced disturbances in granulocytic maturation is discussed

  18. Phrase-Final Words in Greek Storytelling Speech: A Study on the Effect of a Culturally-Specific Prosodic Feature on Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutrari, Ariadne; Tselekidou, Freideriki; Proios, Hariklia

    2018-02-27

    Prosodic patterns of speech appear to make a critical contribution to memory-related processing. We considered the case of a previously unexplored prosodic feature of Greek storytelling and its effect on free recall in thirty typically developing children between the ages of 10 and 12 years, using short ecologically valid auditory stimuli. The combination of a falling pitch contour and, more notably, extensive final-syllable vowel lengthening, which gives rise to the prosodic feature in question, led to statistically significantly higher performance in comparison to neutral phrase-final prosody. Number of syllables in target words did not reveal substantial difference in performance. The current study presents a previously undocumented culturally-specific prosodic pattern and its effect on short-term memory.

  19. Effects of arginine vasotocin and mesotocin on the activation and development of amiloride-blockable short-circuit current across larval, adult, and cultured larval bullfrog skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Makoto; Fujimaki-Aoba, Kayo; Hokari, Shigeru

    2010-03-01

    Amphibian skin has osmoregulatory functions, with Na(+) crossing from outside to inside. Na(+) transport can be measured as the short-circuit current (SCC). We investigated the short-term and long-term effects of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and mesotocin (MT) (which modulate Na(+) transport) on the activation and development of an amiloride-blockable SCC (adult-type feature) in larval, adult, and corticoid-cultured larval bullfrog skins. We found: (1) AVT-receptor (AVT-R) and MT-receptor (MT-R) mRNAs could be detected in both larval and adult skins, (2) in the short term (within 60 min), the larval SCC (amiloride-stimulated SCC) was increased by AVT, forskolin, and MT, suggesting that AVT and MT did not activate the inactive ENaC (epithelial sodium channel) protein thought to be expressed in larval skin, (3) in the short term (within 90 min), AVT, forskolin, and MT stimulated the adult SCC (amiloride-blockable SCC), (4) AVT and MT increased both the larval and adult SCC via receptors insensitive to OPC-21268 (an antagonist of the V(1)-type receptor), OPC-31260 (an antagonist of the V(2)-type receptor), and ([d(CH(2))(5),Tyr(Me)(2),Thr(4),Orn(8),des-Gly-NH (2) (9) ]VT) (an antagonist of the oxytocin receptor), (5) culturing EDTA-treated larval skin with corticoids supplemented with AVT (1 microM) or MT (1 microM) for 2 weeks (long-term effects of AVT and MT) did not alter the corticoid-induced development of an amiloride-blockable SCC (adult-type feature). AVT and MT thus have the potential to stimulate SCC though channels that are already expressed, but they may not influence the development of the amiloride-blockable SCC (an adult-type feature) in larval skin.

  20. Patterns and Impacts of Short-Term Cross-Cultural Experience in Science and Mathematics Teaching: Benefits, Value, and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyaprasith, Kamonwan; Finley, Fred N.; Phonphok, Nason

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates a cross-cultural experience in science and mathematics teaching in Thailand--an internship program. In this study, qualitative data sources including semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, and pre-post questionnaire were collected from five groups of participants, which were: (a) administrators; (b) Thai…

  1. ON THE POSSIBLE EXISTENCE OF SHORT-PERIOD g-MODE INSTABILITIES POWERED BY NUCLEAR-BURNING SHELLS IN POST-ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH H-DEFICIENT (PG1159-TYPE) STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Gonzalez Perez, J. M.; Kepler, S. O.

    2009-01-01

    We present a pulsational stability analysis of hot post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) H-deficient pre-white dwarf stars with active He-burning shells. The stellar models employed are state-of-the-art equilibrium structures representative of PG1159 stars derived from the complete evolution of the progenitor stars, through the thermally pulsing AGB phase and born-again episode. On the basis of fully nonadiabatic pulsation computations, we confirmed theoretical evidence for the existence of a separate PG1159 instability strip in the log T eff -log g diagram characterized by short-period g-modes excited by the ε-mechanism. This instability strip partially overlaps the already known GW Vir instability strip of intermediate/long-period g-modes destabilized by the classical κ-mechanism acting on the partial ionization of C and/or O in the envelope of PG1159 stars. We found that PG1159 stars characterized by thick He-rich envelopes and located inside this overlapping region could exhibit both short and intermediate/long periods simultaneously. As a natural application of our results, we study the particular case of VV 47, a pulsating planetary nebula nucleus (PG1159 type) that is particularly interesting because it has been reported to exhibit a rich and complex pulsation spectrum including a series of unusually short pulsation periods. We found that the long periods exhibited by VV 47 can be readily explained by the classical κ-mechanism, while the observed short-period branch below ∼300 s could correspond to modes triggered by the He-burning shell through the ε-mechanism, although more observational work is needed to confirm the reality of these short-period modes. Were the existence of short-period g-modes in this star convincingly confirmed by future observations, VV 47 could be the first known pulsating star in which both the κ-mechanism and the ε-mechanism of mode driving are simultaneously operating.

  2. Attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, and making music or singing in a choir as determinants for survival: Swedish interview survey of living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygren, L O; Konlaan, B B; Johansson, S E

    To investigate the possible influence of attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, making music or singing in a choir as determinants for survival. A simple random sample was drawn of 15,198 individuals aged 16-74 years. Of these, 85% (12,982) were interviewed by trained non-medical interviewers between 1982 and 1983 about cultural activities. They were followed up with respect to survival until 31 December 1991. Swedish interview survey of living conditions comprising a random sample of the adult Swedish population. 12,675 people interviewed between 1982 and 1983. Survival of subjects after controlling for eight confounding variables: age, sex, education level, income, long term disease, social network, smoking, and physical exercise. 6,301 men and 6,374 women were followed up; 533 men and 314 women died during this period. The control variables influenced survival in the expected directions except for social network for men; a significant negative effective was found when the analysis was made separately for men and women. We found an influence on mortality when the eight control variables were controlled for in people who rarely attended events compared with those attending most often, the relative risk being 1.57 (95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.09). Attendance at cultural events may have a positive influence on survival. Long term follow up of large samples with confounders that are well controlled for and with the cultural stimulation more highly specified should be used to try to falsify the hypothesis before experiments start.

  3. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  4. Cultured to Fail? Representations of Gender-Entangled Urban Women in Two Short Stories by Valerie Tagwira

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Nyambi

    2014-01-01

    There is a subtle yet discernible connection between the post-2000 political power struggle and the gender struggle in Zimbabwe. In both cases, a patriarchal power hierarchy shaped by tradition and history is perpetuated and justified as the mark of the nation’s unique identity. In cultural, political, and economic spheres, the status of most urban Zimbabwean women is still reflected as inferior to that of most men. Du...

  5. Short-term alpha-tocopherol treatment during neonatal period modulates pro-inflammatory response to endotoxin (LPS) challenge in the same calves several months later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin E, a major natural antioxidant, has been previously shown to attenuate pro-inflammatory response to immune challenge in cattle. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of short-term treatment with alpha-tocopherol in newborn calves on selected elements of the pro-inflamatory response to LPS...

  6. Student Teachers of Technology and Design: Can Short Periods of STEM-Related Industrial Placement Change Student Perceptions of Engineering and Technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Ken S.

    2012-01-01

    This is a report, on a small-scale case study, of a programme of short industrial placements (5 day block) for student teachers of technology and design in Northern Ireland. Such placements increase student awareness and understanding of the nature of Engineering and Technology and therefore better prepare them to teach these subjects, as integral…

  7. Birthweight and placental weight; do changes in culture media used for IVF matter? Comparisons with spontaneous pregnancies in the corresponding time periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskild, Anne; Monkerud, Lars; Tanbo, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Have changes in culture media used for IVF resulted in changes in offspring birthweight or placental weight that differed from the trends in offspring from spontaneous conceptions during the corresponding time periods? Changes in culture media used for IVF were associated with significant differences in offspring birthweight and in placental weight to birthweight ratio when compared with the trend in offspring from spontaneous conceptions during the time periods. The effect of culture media used for IVF on offspring birthweight has varied between studies. There is a large variation in birthweight between newborns, and birthweight may vary across populations and over time. Such variations may therefore have influenced previous results. We included all singleton births from IVF at one treatment center in Norway during the years 1999-2011(n = 2435) and all singleton births from spontaneous conceptions in Norway during the same years (n = 698 359). Three different media were used for embryo culture; Medicult Universal IVF (1999 through 2007, n = 1584), Medicult ISM1 (2008 until 20 September 2009, n = 402) and Vitrolife G-1 PLUS (21 September 2009 through 2011, n = 449). We estimated mean birthweight and placental weight in IVF pregnancies by culture media. We also estimated mean weights in IVF and in spontaneous pregnancies by year of birth. Thereafter, we studied whether the changes in mean weights in IVF pregnancies differed from the changes in weight in spontaneous pregnancies in the periods corresponding to culture media changes by applying a grouped difference-in-difference analysis. Adjustments were made for parity, maternal age and gestational age at birth. In singleton offspring from IVF the mean birthweight was 3447.6 g with Medicult Universal, 3351.7 g with Medicult ISM1 and 3441.4 g with Vitrolife G-1 PLUS (P ISM1 (P = 0.16) and increased with 79.9 g by the change from Medicult ISM1 to Vitrolife G-1 PLUS (P = 0.01) when compared with changes in offspring

  8. Assessment of cultural beliefs and practices during the postnatal period in a coastal town of South India -­‐ A mixed method research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chythra R Rao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The postpartum period continues to be an important part of the tradition and culture among Indian women. But frequently the health of the postnatal women is neglected. So, the present study aimed to explore the beliefs and practices in the postpartum period regarding diet, rest, hygiene and confinement and assess association between cultural practices and socio demographic characteristics. METHODS A combined quantitative and qualitative study was carried out in the rural areas of Udupi district in Karnataka. Participants for the quantitative study were 110 women who had given birth in the past three months. This was followed by one focus group discussion (FGD among twelve consenting mothers at one of the rural health centers. RESULTS Among the 110 women, over 80% of women had increased their diet intake postpartum. Vegetables such as brinjal and fruits like papaya were avoided by 65.5% and 73.6% women respectively. Among the mothers 10.9% consumed less than 500 ml of water every day and 10% did not drink milk at all. Majority 94 (85% were aware of vulval and perineal hygiene. Household work was avoided by 56% of the women while 86.3% avoided going outdoors. Many women took home remedies for faster recuperation. These practices were influenced by the socioeconomic status and the woman’s educational status. CONCLUSION Traditional postpartum practices are still popular among women in rural Karnataka. It is critical to identify the harmful practices and reinforce the positive healthy practices to make postpartum period a healthy and joyful period for the mother.

  9. [Nonuniform distribution and contribution of the P- and P/Q-type calcium channels to short-term inhibitory synaptic transmission in cultured hippocampal neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizerna, O P; Fedulova, S A; Veselovs'kyĭ, M S

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the sensitivity of GABAergic short-term plasticity to the selective P- and P/Q-type calcium channels blocker omega-agatoxin-IVA. To block the P-type channels we used 30 nM of this toxin and 200 nM of the toxin was used to block the P/Q channel types. The evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSC) were studied using patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration in postsynaptic neuron and local extracellular stimulation of single presynaptic axon by rectangular pulse. The present data show that the contribution of P- and P/Q-types channels to GABAergic synaptic transmission in cultured hippocampal neurons are 30% and 45%, respectively. It was shown that the mediate contribution of the P- and P/Q-types channels to the amplitudes of eIPSC is different to every discovered neuron. It means that distribution of these channels is non-uniform. To study the short-term plasticity of inhibitory synaptic transmission, axons of presynaptic neurons were paired-pulse stimulated with the interpulse interval of 150 ms. Neurons demonstrated both the depression and facilitation. The application of 30 nM and 200 nM of the blocker decreased the depression and increased facilitation to 8% and 11%, respectively. In addition, we found that the mediate contribution of the P- and P/Q-types channels to realization of synaptic transmission after the second stimuli is 4% less compared to that after the first one. Therefore, blocking of both P- and P/Q-types calcium channels can change the efficiency of synaptic transmission. In this instance it facilitates realization of the transmission via decreased depression or increased facilitation. These results confirm that the P- and P/Q-types calcium channels are involved in regulation of the short-term inhibitory synaptic plasticity in cultured hippocampal neurons.

  10. Development of rabbit embryos during a 96-h period of in vitro culture after superovulatory treatment under conditions of elevated ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H; Dooley, M P; Hopkins, S M; Anderson, L L; Yibchok-anun, S; Hsu, W H

    1999-08-16

    The effects of elevated ambient temperature on the response to exogenous gonadotropins were evaluated in female New Zealand White rabbits exposed to 33+/-1 degrees C (mean +/- SE) and 10-30% relative humidity (8 h/day) during a 5-day period. Does were treated with pFSH (0.3 mg/0.3 ml Standard Armour) twice daily during three consecutive days with a minimum interval of 8 h between injections. Six hours after the last FSH injection all does were removed from the experimental chamber, given hCG (25 IU/kg) and paired overnight. Nineteen hours after pairing, embryos were flushed from the reproductive tracts, evaluated, and subjected to in vitro culture during a 96-h period. The ovulatory responses to exogenous gonadotropins and fertilization rates did not differ significantly under conditions of elevated ambient temperature, whereas fewer blastocysts and increased number of degenerate embryos were observed after culture. We conclude that although hyperthermia was induced during exposure to elevated ambient temperature, it did not alter the ovulatory responses to gonadotropin treatment and plasma concentrations of FSH and LH compared with does in a thermoneutral environment. Exposure of donor rabbits to elevated ambient temperature before mating, however, increased embryonic degeneration.

  11. The Upper Limit of the Periodic Table of Elements Points out to the "Long" Version of the Table, Instead of the "Short" One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we present an analysis of the internal constitution of the “short” and “long” forms of the Periodic Table of Elements. As a result, we conclude that the second (long version is more correct. We also suggest a long version of the Table consisting of 8 periods and 18 groups, with the last (heaviest element being element No. 155, which closes the Table.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of comprehensive synaptic connectivity in short- and long-term cultured rat hippocampal neurons with new analytical methods inspired by Scatchard and Hill plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanamoto, Ryo; Shindo, Yutaka; Niwano, Mariko [Department of Biosciences and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University (Japan); Matsumoto, Yoshinori [Department of Applied Physics and Physico-Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University (Japan); Miki, Norihisa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 223-8522 (Japan); Hotta, Kohji [Department of Biosciences and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University (Japan); Oka, Kotaro, E-mail: oka@bio.keio.ac.jp [Department of Biosciences and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University (Japan)

    2016-03-18

    To investigate comprehensive synaptic connectivity, we examined Ca{sup 2+} responses with quantitative electric current stimulation by indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass electrode with transparent and high electro-conductivity. The number of neurons with Ca{sup 2+} responses was low during the application of stepwise increase of electric current in short-term cultured neurons (less than 17 days in-vitro (DIV)). The neurons cultured over 17 DIV showed two-type responses: S-shaped (sigmoid) and monotonous saturated responses, and Scatchard plots well illustrated the difference of these two responses. Furthermore, sigmoid like neural network responses over 17 DIV were altered to the monotonous saturated ones by the application of the mixture of AP5 and CNQX, specific blockers of NMDA and AMPA receptors, respectively. This alternation was also characterized by the change of Hill coefficients. These findings indicate that the neural network with sigmoid-like responses has strong synergetic or cooperative synaptic connectivity via excitatory glutamate synapses. - Highlights: • We succeed to evaluate the maturation of neural network by Scathard and Hill Plots. • Long-term cultured neurons showed two-type responses: sigmoid and monotonous. • The sigmoid-like increase indicates the cooperatevity of neural networks. • Excitatory glutamate synapses cause the cooperatevity of neural networks.

  13. Rapid Identification of Microorganisms from Positive Blood Culture by MALDI-TOF MS After Short-Term Incubation on Solid Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtoni, Antonio; Cipriani, Raffaella; Marra, Elisa Simona; Barbui, Anna Maria; Cavallo, Rossana; Costa, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is a useful tool for rapid identification of microorganisms. Unfortunately, its direct application to positive blood culture is still lacking standardized procedures. In this study, we evaluated an easy- and rapid-to-perform protocol for MALDI-TOF MS direct identification of microorganisms from positive blood culture after a short-term incubation on solid medium. This protocol was used to evaluate direct identification of microorganisms from 162 positive monomicrobial blood cultures; at different incubation times (3, 5, 24 h), MALDI-TOF MS assay was performed from the growing microorganism patina. Overall, MALDI-TOF MS concordance with conventional methods at species level was 60.5, 80.2, and 93.8% at 3, 5, and 24 h, respectively. Considering only bacteria, the identification performances at species level were 64.1, 85.0, and 94.1% at 3, 5, and 24 h, respectively. This protocol applied to a commercially available MS typing system may represent, a fast and powerful diagnostic tool for pathogen direct identification and for a promptly and pathogen-driven antimicrobial therapy in selected cases.

  14. Cultural and Domestic Arrangement of Migrant Kolkhozes and the Daily Life of Settlers in the North Caucasus Region in the Period of Collectivization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istyagin Vadim R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article based on rare archival materials for the first time used in scientific circulation the author examines the issues of cultural and domestic arrangement of migrant kolkhozes (collective farms in the North Caucasus region in the period of agriculture collectivization. The author highlights the key activities of regional authorities in the sphere of cultural development within these collective farms. It is stated that cultural arrangement of resettlement of collective farms in the 1930s was far from ideal. But taking into account state importance of the resettlement campaign, the authorities managed to achieve certain positive changes. An integral part of the cultural life of the people of the red army was its political and ideological component, due to the high level of politicization of public life in the USSR in 1930s. The red army collective farms were equipped with schools, nurseries and kindergartens, clubs and cinemas but these institutions were poorly organized. The article points out that labour of the red army settlers had little common features with farms of the local people. Community production activities and everyday leisure are, on the contrary, marked by the similarity of lifestyle. The mass spread of literacy stimulated the reader’s interest – immigrants in their leisure hours read the newspapers, magazines and books, mainly fiction. The author examines the everyday life of immigrants, and it is largely substantiated by their social moods which contributed to the formation of the red army collective farms. The author came to the conclusion that the daily life of settlers was largely due to their social disadvantage. Food and accommodation, working conditions were at a very low level. For most of them, life and work in the Kuban Cossack villages was a daily test of their physical and moral forces and was not much different from the life of the Kuban collective farmers.

  15. THE ESTHETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SHORT FILM “MY SHOES” IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL MEDIA AND VISUAL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk ULUTAS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the visual products which has become widespread through the visual media in general and the social media in particular is highly effecting individuals’ way of thinking, perception, interpretation and vision. The short films shot recently spread over social media moves this affect to another dimension. This affect sometimes arises in a rational level in individuals’ minds but sometimes it takes place in an emotional level and occurs in an irrational way. This study examines the existence of an esthetic phenomenon spreading over social media and the final procuct in an esthetical extent after the processes of the production stage with the sample film. The purpose of this study is to exposure, while an esthetic phenomenon is produced how the producer’s world of though and the perspective creates reality and in this context how the product appeals to the receivers’ cognition levels and accordingly to their emotions.

  16. RADIO FLARING FROM THE T6 DWARF WISEPC J112254.73+255021.5 WITH A POSSIBLE ULTRA-SHORT PERIODICITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Route, Matthew; Wolszczan, Alexander, E-mail: mroute@purdue.edu, E-mail: alex@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-04-20

    We present new results from a continuing 5 GHz search for flaring radio emission from a sample of L and T brown dwarfs, conducted with the 305 m Arecibo radio telescope. In addition to the previously reported flaring from the T6.5 dwarf 2MASS J10475385+212423, we have detected and confirmed circularly polarized flares from another T6 dwarf, WISEPC J112254.73+255021.5. Although the flares are sporadic, they appear to occur at a stable period of 0.288 hr. Given the current constraints, periods equal to its second and third subharmonic cannot be ruled out. The stability of this period over the eight-month timespan of observations indicates that, if real, it likely reflects the star’s rapid rotation. If confirmed, any of the three inferred periodicities would be much shorter than the shortest, 1.41 hr, rotation period of a brown dwarf measured so far. This finding would place a new observational constraint on the angular momentum evolution and rotational stability of substellar objects. The detection of radio emission from the sixth ∼1000 K dwarf further demonstrates that the coolest brown dwarfs and, possibly, young giant planets, can be efficiently investigated using radio observations at centimeter wavelengths as a tool.

  17. Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeij, R J; Dijkstra, J; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Gross, James J; Lam, T J G M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, A.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source-glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)-and energy level-standard (std) or low-on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones

  18. Udder health of dairy cows fed different dietary energy levels after a short or no dry period without use of dry cow antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeij, van R.J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Dijkstra, J.; Remmelink, G.J.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2018-01-01

    Reports on the effects of length of dry period (DP) on udder health of cows that were not treated with dry cow antibiotics are scarce. Additionally, the effects of a reduced dietary energy level for cows with a 0-d DP on udder health have not yet been studied. The aims of this study were (1) to

  19. Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeij, van R.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Gross, J.J.; Lam, Theo J.G.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source—glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)—and energy level—standard (std) or low—on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones

  20. Influence of winds on temporally varying short and long period gravity waves in the near shore regions of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Glejin, J.; SanilKumar, V.; Nair, T.M.B.; Singh, J.

    pro- vided by the NOAA-CIRES (Cooperative Institute for Re- search in the Environmental Sciences) Climate Diagnostics Center in Boulder, Colorado (http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/). To determine the sea/land breeze system at Ratnagiri during the study period...

  1. Rapid identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry subsequent to very short-term incubation on solid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, E A; Schüle, I; Grünastel, B; Wüllenweber, J; Peters, G; Becker, K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid identification of the causative microorganism is important for appropriate antimicrobial therapy of bloodstream infections. Bacteria from positive blood culture (BC) bottles are not readily available for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Lysis and centrifugation procedures suggested for direct MALDI-TOF MS from positive BCs without previous culture are associated with additional hands-on processing time and costs. Here, we describe an alternative approach applying MALDI-TOF MS from bacterial cultures incubated very briefly on solid medium. After plating of positive BC broth on Columbia blood agar (n = 165), MALDI-TOF MS was performed after 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12 and (for control) 24 h of incubation until reliable identification to the species level was achieved (score ≥2.0). Mean incubation time needed to achieve species-level identification was 5.9 and 2.0 h for Gram-positive aerobic cocci (GPC, n = 86) and Gram-negative aerobic rods (GNR, n = 42), respectively. Short agar cultures with incubation times ≤2, ≤4, ≤6, ≤8 and ≤12 h yielded species identification in 1.2%, 18.6%, 64.0%, 96.5%, 98.8% of GPC, and in 76.2%, 95.2%, 97.6%, 97.6%, 97.6% of GNR, respectively. Control species identification at 24 h was achieved in 100% of GPC and 97.6% of GNR. Ethanol/formic acid protein extraction performed for an additional 34 GPC isolates cultivated from positive BCs showed further reduction in time to species identification (3.1 h). MALDI-TOF MS using biomass subsequent to very short-term incubation on solid medium allows very early and reliable bacterial identification from positive BCs without additional time and cost expenditure. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  2. Ultra-short-period W/B4C multilayers for x-ray optics-microstructure limits on reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Christopher Charles [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

    1997-12-01

    Multilayer thin films are used as Bragg reflectors for soft x-rays in the energy range 50eV < E < 1000eV in many x-ray optics applications such as x-ray microscopes and telescopes, reducing optics for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, and x-ray polarizers and phase retarders. Applications often depend critically on reflectivity, which has not been systematically characterized for multilayer periods below 20Å. For this study, W/B4C multilayers were fabricated by magnetron sputtering on Si(111), with periods from 48Å to as little as 4.7Å. The x-ray reflectivity measured at λ = 1.54Å and at 45° incidence (289 eV < E < 860 eV) was found to decrease sharply for multilayer periods less than 15-20Å. Examination by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) showed an expansion of the thickness of the W-rich layers of 30-40% from the nominal values, consistent with intermixture of the two materials during sputter growth, and discontinuous W-rich layers for multilayer periods below about 15Å. The experimental data for the specular reflectivity in the hard and soft x-ray regimes and the diffuse scattering fit well to a model of multilayer roughness. The model is expressed as a power-law dependence of roughness on spatial frequency. Analysis of small-angle scattering in transmission from multilayers grown on freestanding Si3N4 membranes confirms the onset of discontinuity at periods between 14Å and 22Å. Spectroscopy studies by x-ray absorption (NEXAFS) and electron energy loss (EELS) at the boron K-edge (188eV) are consistent with changes in the average boron bonding environment, as the multilayer period decreases and the W-rich layers are increasingly thin and dispersed. A discrete W-rich phase is present for periods at least as small as 6.3Å.

  3. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of a Farsi Version of the Impulsive Behavior Scale‎-Short Form in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Shokri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate psychometric properties of the Impulsive Behavior Scale-Short Form (IBS-SF among undergraduate Farsi-speaking Iranian students. In this study, 201 individuals (95 men, 106 women answered to the IBS-SF and the Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale‎ (PRIUSS.Methods: The confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency methods were used to compute the factorial validity and reliability of the IBS-SF, respectively. In order to examine the construct validity of the IBS-SF, the correlation of different dimensions of IBS-SF with PRIUSS was determined.Results: The results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that a 5-factor structure of the negative urgency, lack of perseverance, lack of premeditation, sensation seeking, and positive urgency was replicated in the Iranian sample. The IBS-SF convergent validity was confirmed by a correlation between different features of impulsivity trait and problematic and risky internet use behavior. The internal consistency of the different subscales of impulsivity trait ranged from 0.67 to 0.80.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the IBS-SF is a valid and reliable scale for measuring impulsivity trait among undergraduate Farsi-speaking Iranian students.

  4. [Cross-cultural adaptation and apparent and content validity of the short version of The Eating Motivation Survey (TEMS) in Brazilian Portuguese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Jéssica Maria Muniz; Alvarenga, Marle Dos Santos

    2017-10-26

    Understanding why people eat what they eat is essential for developing nutritional guidelines capable of modifying inadequate and dysfunctional eating patterns. Such understanding can be assessed by specific instruments, amongst which The Eating Motivation Survey (TEMS) allows the identification of factors that determine motivations for eating and food choices. The aim of this study is to present the cross-cultural adaptation of the short version of TEMS for use in studies in the Brazilian population. The process involved conceptual and item equivalences; semantic equivalence by 2 translators, 1 linguist, 22 experts (frequency of response understanding), and 23 bilingual individuals (with response comparisons by the paired t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and intra-class correlation coefficient); and operational equivalence, performed with 32 individuals. The measurement equivalence corresponding to psychometric properties is under way. All equivalences showed satisfactory results for the scale's use in Brazil, thus allowing application of TEMS to assess motivations for eating choices in the Brazilian context.

  5. The effects of short work vs. longer work periods within intermittent exercise on V̇o2p kinetics, muscle deoxygenation, and energy system contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrudden, Michael C; Keir, Daniel A; Belfry, Glen R

    2017-06-01

    We examined the effects of inserting 3-s recovery periods during high-intensity cycling exercise at 25-s and 10-s intervals on pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇o 2p ), muscle deoxygenation [deoxyhemoglobin (HHb)], their associated kinetics (τ), and energy system contributions. Eleven men (24 ± 3 yr) completed two trials of three cycling protocols: an 8-min continuous protocol (CONT) and two 8-min intermittent exercise protocols with work-to-rest periods of 25 s to 3 s (25INT) and 10 s to 3 s (10INT). Each protocol began with a step-transition from a 20-W baseline to a power output (PO) of 60% between lactate threshold and maximal V̇o 2p (Δ60). This PO was maintained for 8 min in CONT, whereas 3-s periods of 20-W cycling were inserted every 10 s and 25 s after the transition to Δ60 in 10INT and 25INT, respectively. Breath-by-breath gas exchange measured by mass spectrometry and turbine and vastus lateralis [HHb] measured by near-infrared spectroscopy were recorded throughout. Arterialized-capillary lactate concentration ([Lac - ]) was obtained before and 2 min postexercise. The τV̇o 2p was lowest ( P 0.05) between conditions. Postexercise [Lac - ] was lowest ( P exercise speeded V̇o 2p kinetics and reduced overall V̇o 2p , suggesting an increased reliance on PCr-derived phosphorylation during the work period of INT compared with an identical PO performed continuously. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We report novel observations on the effects of differing heavy-intensity work durations between 3-s recovery periods on pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇o 2p ) kinetics, muscle deoxygenation, and energy system contributions. Relative to continuous exercise, V̇o 2p kinetics are faster in intermittent exercise, and increased frequency of 3-s recovery periods improves microvascular O 2 delivery and reduces V̇o 2p and arterialized-capillary lactate concentration. The metabolic burden of identical intensity work is altered when performed intermittently vs. continuously. Copyright

  6. Early feeding of carnivorous rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with a hyperglucidic diet during a short period: effect on dietary glucose utilization in juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, I; Aramendi, M; Zambonino-Infante, J; Panserat, S

    2007-06-01

    Based on the concept of nutritional programming in higher vertebrates, we tested whether an acute hyperglucidic stimulus during early life could induce a long-lasting effect on carbohydrate utilization in carnivorous rainbow trout. The trout were fed a hyperglucidic diet (60% dextrin) at two early stages of development: either at first feeding (3 days, stimulus 1) or after yolk absorption (5 days, stimulus 2). Before and after the hyperglucidic stimulus, they received a commercial diet until juvenile stage (>10 g). Fish that did not experience the hyperglucidic stimuli served as controls. The short- and long-term effects of the stimuli were evaluated by measuring the expression of five key genes involved in carbohydrate utilization: alpha-amylase, maltase (digestion), sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter (SGLT1; intestinal glucose transport), and glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase, involved in the utilization and production of glucose, respectively. The hyperglucidic diet rapidly increased expressions of maltase, alpha-amylase, and glucokinase in stimulus 1 fish and only of maltase in stimulus 2 fish, probably because of a lower plasticity at this later stage of development. In the final challenge test with juveniles fed a 25% dextrin diet, both digestive enzymes were upregulated in fish that had experienced the hyperglucidic stimulus at first feeding, confirming the possibility of modification of some long-term physiological functions in rainbow trout. In contrast, no persistent molecular adaptations were found for the genes involved in glucose transport or metabolism. In addition, growth and postprandial glycemia were unaffected by the stimuli. In summary, our data show that a short hyperglucidic stimulus during early trout life may permanently influence carbohydrate digestion.

  7. Studies of self focusing and filamentation instabilities in short wavelength laser fusion: Final technical report for the period 29 May 1986-28 April 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Chan.

    1988-04-01

    Azimuthal periodic breakup of a radially modulated 0.35 μm laser beam has been inferred in plasmas produced from solid targets. The breakup is more severe in gold plasmas compared to glass or aluminum plasmas and occurs at rather modest laser intensities of /approximately/5 /times/ 10 12 Wcm 2 . Thermal filamentation is suggested as the mechanism for the observed beam breakup

  8. Short Term Culture of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Commercial Osteoconductive Carriers Provides Unique Insights into Biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B. Murphy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For spinal fusions and the treatment of non-union fractures, biological substrates, scaffolds, or carriers often are applied as a graft to support regeneration of bone. The selection of an appropriate material critically influences cellular function and, ultimately, patient outcomes. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs are regarded as a critical component of bone healing. However, the interactions of BMSCs and commercial bone matrices are poorly reported. BMSCs were cultured with several commercially available bone substrates (allograft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM, collagen, and various forms of calcium phosphates for 48 h to understand their response to graft materials during surgical preparation and the first days following implantation (cell retention, gene expression, pH. At 30 and 60 min, bone chips and inorganic substrates supported significantly more cell retention than other materials, while collagen-containing materials became soluble and lost their structure. At 48 h, cells bound to β-tricalcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite (βTCP-HA and porous hydroxyapatite (HA granules exhibited osteogenic gene expression statistically similar to bone chips. Through 24 h, the DBM strip and βTCP-collagen became mildly acidic (pH 7.1–7.3, while the DBM poloxamer-putties demonstrated acidity (pH 10. The dissolution of DBM and collagen led to a loss of cells, while excessive pH changes potentially diminish cell viability and metabolism. Extracts from DBM-poloxamers induced osteogenic gene expression at 48 h. This study highlights the role that biochemical and structural properties of biomaterials play in cellular function, potentially enhancing or diminishing the efficacy of the overall therapy.

  9. Short- and long-term effects of forage supplementation of calves during the preweaning period on performance, reproduction, and milk yield at first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Ll; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2015-07-01

    Sixty female Holstein calves [body weight (BW)=39.5±3.76kg] were fed a ground starter concentrate [19% crude protein, 19% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] during the preweaning period. Furthermore, oats hay (68% NDF) was supplemented only during the postweaning period (CON) or during both pre- and postweaning periods (OH) to evaluate performance until first breeding, diet digestibility after weaning, reproductive performance, and milk yield at first lactation. Calves were individually housed and bedded with wood shavings. All calves were offered 6 L/d of milk replacer (MR) at 12% dry matter (DM) in 2 feedings until 28d of age, 3 L/d of MR at 12% DM in 2 feedings from 29 to 44d of age calves, and 1.5 L of MR at 12% DM in 1 feeding from 45 to 51d of age. Animals were weaned at 52d of age. Starter concentrate and forage intake were recorded daily and BW weekly until 65d of age. Two weeks after weaning, total-tract apparent digestibility was determined in 6 calves per treatment. Heifer BW was recorded at 10 mo of age. Breeding and milk yield at first lactation were also recorded. Starter concentrate intake was greater in OH compared with CON animals during the preweaning period. As a result, calves in the OH treatment had greater average daily gain (ADG) than CON animals during the preweaning period. After weaning, OH calves consumed more forage than CON animals, but we found no differences between treatments in ADG and starter concentrate intake. Similarly, total-tract apparent digestibility did not differ between treatments, and BW and ADG from 2wk after weaning to 10mo of age did not differ between treatments. Moreover, no differences in reproductive performance [age at first artificial insemination (AI), age at fertile insemination, conception rate at first AI, and number of AI] or milk yield at first lactation were observed between treatments, although a positive relationship between growth rate early in life and future energy-corrected milk yield was found. We

  10. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Driving Anger Scale (DAS: long form and short form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessye Almeida Cantini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Driving anger has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years because it may induce individuals to drive aggressively or adopt risk behaviors. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS was designed to evaluate the propensity of drivers to become angry or aggressive while driving. This study describes the cross-cultural adaptation of a Brazilian version of the short form and the long form of the DAS.Methods: Translation and adaptation were made in four steps: two translations and two back-translations carried out by independent evaluators; the development of a brief version by four bilingual experts in mental health and driving behaviors; a subsequent experimental application; and, finally, an investigation of operational equivalence.Results: Final Brazilian versions of the short form and of the long form of the DAS were made and are presented. Conclusions: This important instrument, which assesses driving anger and aggressive behaviors, is now available to evaluate the driving behaviors of the Brazilian population, which facilitates research in this field.

  11. Assessment of short reports using a human rights-based approach to tobacco control to the Commitee on Economics, Cultural and Social Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Carolyn; Henry, Kirsten; Loftus, John; Lando, Harry

    2017-07-28

    The health impact of tobacco use remains a major global public health concern and a human rights issue. The Human Rights and Tobacco Control Network (HRTCN) was established to increase the visibility of tobacco as a human rights issue. HRTCN submitted short reports to the UN Committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights evaluating individual nations' tobacco control policies and offering recommendations. HRTCN reviewed Concluding Observations documents for nations for which the HRTCN submitted reports. If tobacco was mentioned in the Concluding Observations through acknowledging the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control ratification, policy changes or discussing tobacco in the recommendations, this was scored as a positive finding. HRTCN also reviewed Concluding Observations for nations for which HRTCN did not submit reports as a comparison. Thirty-eight HRTCN reports were submitted and tobacco was mentioned in Concluding Observations for 11 nations for a rate of 28.9%. In a comparison set of Concluding Observations (n=59), 7% had comments or recommendations relative to tobacco. This was not a controlled study and the 28.9% 'success rate' for impacting the Concluding Observations, although encouraging, is less than optimal-and leaves room for improvement. The higher rate of tobacco mentions for the cases where the HRTCN short reports were submitted provides preliminary indications that the short reports may have potential to increase the state focus on tobacco control. Future work will seek to improve the design and scope of the reports, and the specificity of the background information and recommendations offered. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale adapted to Spanish and French: Towards a cross-cultural research in problematic mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz

    2017-01-01

    Research into smartphone addiction has followed the scientific literature on problematic mobile phone use developed during the last decade, with valid screening scales being developed to identify maladaptive behaviour associated with this technology, usually in adolescent populations. This study adapts the short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale [SAS-SV] into Spanish and into French. The aim of the study was to (i) examine the scale's psychometric properties in both languages, (ii) estimate the prevalence of potential excessive smartphone use among Spanish and Belgian adults, and (iii) compare the addictive symptomatology measured by the SAS-SV between potentially excessive users from both countries. Data were collected via online surveys administered to 281 and 144 voluntary participants from both countries respectively, aged over 18years and recruited from academic environments. Results indicated that the reliability was excellent (i.e., Cronbach alphas: Spain: .88 and Belgium: .90), and the validity was very good (e.g., unifactoriality with a 49% and 54% of variance explained through explorative factor analysis, respectively). Findings showed that the prevalence of potential excessive smartphone use 12.5% for Spanish and 21.5% for francophone Belgians. The scale showed that at least 60% of excessive users endorsed withdrawal and tolerance symptoms in both countries, although the proposed addictive symptomatology did not cover the entire group of estimated excessive users and cultural differences appeared. This first cross-cultural study discusses the smartphone excessive use construct from its addictive pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry following short incubation on a solid medium is a valuable tool for rapid pathogen identification from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, Rebekka; Hoffmann, Alexander; Geis, Gabriele; Gatermann, Sören

    2015-01-01

    Rapid identification of the causative microorganism is a key element in appropriate antimicrobial therapy of bloodstream infections. Whereas traditional analysis of positive blood cultures requires subculture over at least 16-24h prior to pathogen identification by, e.g. matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), sample preparation procedures enabling direct MALDI-TOF MS, i.e. without preceding subculture, are associated with additional effort and costs. Hence, we integrated an alternative MALDI-TOF MS approach in diagnostic routine using a short incubation on a solid medium. Positive blood cultures were routinely plated on chocolate agar plates and incubated for 4h (37 °C, 5% CO2). Subsequently, MALDI-TOF MS using a Microflex LT instrument (Bruker Daltonics) and direct smear method was performed once per sample. For successful identification of bacteria at species level, score cut-off values were used as proposed by the manufacturer (≥ 2.0) and in a modified form (≥ 1.5 for MALDI-TOF MS results referring to Gram-positive cocci and ≥ 1.7 for MALDI-TOF MS results referring to bacteria other than Gram-positive cocci). Further data analysis also included an assessment of the clinical impact of the MALDI-TOF MS result. Applying the modified score cut-off values, our approach led to an overall correct species identification in 69.5% with misidentification in 3.4% (original cut-offs: 49.2% and 1.8%, respectively); for Gram-positive cocci, correct identification in 68.4% (100% for Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci, 80% for beta-hemolytic streptococci), for Gram-negative bacteria, correct identification in 97.6%. In polymicrobial blood cultures, in 72.7% one of the pathogens was correctly identified. Results were not reliable for Gram-positive rods and yeasts. The approach was easy to implement in diagnostic routine. In cases with available clinical data and successful pathogen identification, in 51.1% our

  14. Short periods of high temperature during meiosis prevent normal meiotic progression and reduce grain number in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draeger, Tracie; Moore, Graham

    2017-09-01

    Exposure of wheat to high temperatures during male meiosis prevents normal meiotic progression and reduces grain number. We define a temperature-sensitive period and link heat tolerance to chromosome 5D. This study assesses the effects of heat on meiotic progression and grain number in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Chinese Spring), defines a heat-sensitive stage and evaluates the role of chromosome 5D in heat tolerance. Plants were exposed to high temperatures (30 or 35 °C) in a controlled environment room for 20-h periods during meiosis and the premeiotic interphase just prior to meiosis. Examination of pollen mother cells (PMCs) from immature anthers immediately before and after heat treatment enabled precise identification of the developmental phases being exposed to heat. A temperature-sensitive period was defined, lasting from premeiotic interphase to late leptotene, during which heat can prevent PMCs from progressing through meiosis. PMCs exposed to 35 °C were less likely to progress than those exposed to 30 °C. Grain number per spike was reduced at 30 °C, and reduced even further at 35 °C. Chinese Spring nullisomic 5D-tetrasomic 5B (N5DT5B) plants, which lack chromosome 5D, were more susceptible to heat during premeiosis-leptotene than Chinese Spring plants with the normal (euploid) chromosome complement. The proportion of plants with PMCs progressing through meiosis after heat treatment was lower for N5DT5B plants than for euploids, but the difference was not significant. However, following exposure to 30 °C, in euploid plants grain number was reduced (though not significantly), whereas in N5DT5B plants the reduction was highly significant. After exposure to 35 °C, the reduction in grain number was highly significant for both genotypes. Implications of these findings for the breeding of thermotolerant wheat are discussed.

  15. Surface hardness evaluation of different composite resin materials: influence of sports and energy drinks immersion after a short-term period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Erdemir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study evaluated the effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of different composite resin restorative materials over a 1-month period. Material and Methods: A total of 168 specimens: Compoglass F, Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, and Premise were prepared using a customized cylindrical metal mould and they were divided into six groups (N=42; n=7 per group. For the control groups, the specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C and the water was renewed daily. For the experimental groups, the specimens were immersed in 5 mL of one of the following test solutions: Powerade, Gatorade, X-IR, Burn, and Red Bull, for two minutes daily for up to a 1-month test period and all the solutions were refreshed daily. Surface hardness was measured using a Vickers hardness measuring instrument at baseline, after 1-week and 1-month. Data were statistically analyzed using Multivariate repeated measure ANOVA and Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests (α=0.05. Results: Multivariate repeated measures ANOVA revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the hardness of the restorative materials in different immersion times (p<0.001 in different solutions (p<0.001. The effect of different solutions on the surface hardness values of the restorative materials was tested using Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests, and it was observed that specimens stored in distilled water demonstrated statistically significant lower mean surface hardness reductions when compared to the specimens immersed in sports and energy drinks after a 1-month evaluation period (p<0.001. The compomer was the most affected by an acidic environment, whereas the composite resin materials were the least affected materials. Conclusions: The effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of a restorative material depends on the duration of exposure time, and the composition of the material.

  16. Study of niobium isotopes having excess neutrons and a short half-life; Etude des isotopes du niobium excedentaires en neutrons et de courte periode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebenthal, K [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-02-01

    By irradiating Mo with 14 MeV neutrons isomers have been found for {sup 98}Nb (2.8 s half-life) {sup 99}Nb (9 s) and {sup 100}Nb (2.4 s). No isomer of this type seems to exist for {sup 96}Nb. Rapid separation methods are developed for isolating {sup 98}Zr from fission products, and for separating Zr and Nb. The half-life of {sup 98}Zr is measured (31 s) and the formation of {sup 98}Nb (2.8 s) from {sup 98}Zr (31 s) is shown by milking. Rough {beta} and {gamma} measurements of these nuclei are described. The {gamma} spectrum of {sup 98}Nb (51 mn) is studied with a high-resolution Ge/Li - detector. (authors) [French] Des irradiations des isotopes de molybdene avec des neutrons de 14 MeV ont mis en evidence l'existence des isomeres de {sup 98}Nb (periode 2.8 s) {sup 99}Nb (9 s) et {sup 100}Nb (2.4 s). Pour le {sup 96}Nb un isomere de ce type ne semble pas exister. Des methodes rapides de separation sont mises au point pour isoler le zirconium 98 des produits de fission, et pour separer ensuite le niobium du zirconium. La periode du {sup 98}Zr est de 3l s, et on demontre la formation du {sup 98}Nb (2.8 s) a partir du Zr (31 s). Ces corps sont etudies sommairement en spectroscopie {beta} et {gamma}. Le spectre gamma de {sup 98}Nb (periode 51 mn) est etudie avec un detecteur Ge/Li de haute resolution. (auteurs)

  17. Characterization by Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy of (AlAs)m(InAs)m short period superlattices grown by migration enhanced epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradshaw, J.; Song, X.J.; Shealy, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    We report growth of (InAs)1(AlAs)1 and (InAs)2(AlAs)2 strained layer superlattices by migration enhanced epitaxy. The samples were grown on InP (001) substrates and characterized by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Satellite peaks in the x-ray data...... confirm the intended periodicity and indicate the presence of some disorder in the monolayer sample. The energies of the zone folded and quantum confined optic phonons are in reasonable agreement with calculations based on one-dimensional elastic continuum and linear chain models. Journal of Applied...

  18. Short communication: concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in dairy cows are not well correlated during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M M; Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Overton, T R; McArt, J A A

    2015-09-01

    The objective was to use longitudinal data of blood nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations to describe the relationship between NEFA and BHBA in dairy cows during the periparturient period. Blood NEFA and BHBA concentration data collected from d 21 prepartum to 21 postpartum for 269 multiparous Holstein cows were selected from 4 different studies carried out within our research groups. Overall, NEFA concentrations were increased beginning near parturition with a relatively steady elevation of NEFA through d 9, after which concentrations gradually decreased. Prepartum BHBA concentrations began to increase beginning several days before parturition, continued to increase during the first week after parturition, and remained elevated through d 21 postpartum. Of the 269 cows included in the data set, 117 cows (43.5%) had at least one postpartum hyperketonemic event (BHBA ≥1.2mmol/L), and 202 cows (75.1%) had at least one event of elevated postpartum NEFA concentrations (≥0.70mmol/L) between 3 and 21 d in milk. Area under the curve (AUC) was used to investigate relationships between metabolites over time. Overall, the correlations between transition period NEFA and BHBA AUC were weak. We detected a negative correlation between prepartum BHBA AUC and postpartum NEFA AUC (r=-0.26). A positive correlation existed between postpartum NEFA AUC and postpartum BHBA AUC; however, the correlation coefficient was low (r=0.26). Large variation was found between the day of maximum NEFA concentration within the first 21 d in milk and day of maximum BHBA concentration for the same period. The mean and median times of maximum NEFA concentration were 6.8 and 6 d, respectively, whereas the mean and median times of maximum BHBA were 9.6 and 8 d, respectively; however, the range in days for both the mean and median day of maximum concentrations was very large. Overall, our data set indicates a weak relationship between blood concentrations of NEFA

  19. Short-wavelength multiline erbium-doped fiber ring laser by a broadband long-period fiber grating inscribed in a taper transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzueto-Sánchez, G; Martínez-Rios, A

    2014-01-01

    A stable multiwavelength all-fiber erbium-doped fiber ring laser (EDFRL) based on a broadband long-period fiber grating (LPFG) inscribed in a fiber taper transition is presented. The LPFG’s characteristics were engineered to provide a higher loss at the natural lasing wavelength of the laser cavity. The LPFG inscribed on a taper transition provided a depth greater than 25 dB, and posterior chemical etching provided a broad notch band to inhibit laser generation on the long-wavelength side of the EDF gain. Up to four simultaneous laser wavelengths are generated in the range of 1530–1535 nm. (paper)

  20. Shannon Entropy in a European Seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax System during the Initial Recovery Period after a Short-Term Exposure to Methylmercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harkaitz Eguiraun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is an environmental contaminant of increasing relevance as a seafood safety hazard that affects the health and welfare of fish. Non-invasive, on-line methodologies to monitor and evaluate the behavior of a fish system in aquaculture may make the identification of altered systems feasible—for example, due to the presence of agents that compromise their welfare and wholesomeness—and find a place in the implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points and Fish Welfare Assurance Systems. The Shannon entropy (SE of a European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax system has been shown to differentiate MeHg-treated from non-treated fish, the former displaying a lower SE value than the latter. However, little is known about the initial evolution of the system after removal of the toxicant. To help to cover this gap, the present work aims at providing information about the evolution of the SE of a European seabass system during a recuperation period of 11 days following a two-week treatment with 4 µg·MeHg/L. The results indicate that the SE of the system did not show a recovery trend during the examined period, displaying erratic responses with daily fluctuations and lacking a tendency to reach the initial SE values.

  1. An Ultra-short Period Rocky Super-Earth with a Secondary Eclipse and a Neptune-like Companion around K2-141

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malavolta, Luca; Mayo, Andrew W.; Louden, Tom

    2018-01-01

    of USP planets, and it is therefore extremely important to increase the still limited sample of USP planets with precise and accurate mass and density measurements. We report here the characterization of a USP planet with a period of 0.28 days around K2-141 (EPIC 246393474), and the validation...... of an outer planet with a period of 7.7 days in a grazing transit configuration. We derived the radii of the planets from the K2 light curve and used high-precision radial velocities gathered with the HARPS-N spectrograph for mass measurements. For K2-141b, we thus inferred a radius of 1.51 ± 0.05 R......⊕ and a mass of 5.08 ± 0.41 M ⊕, consistent with a rocky composition and lack of a thick atmosphere. K2-141c is likely a Neptune-like planet, although due to the grazing transits and the non-detection in the RV data set, we were not able to put a strong constraint on its density. We also report the detection...

  2. Mechanisms controlling primary and new production in a global ecosystem model – Part II: The role of the upper ocean short-term periodic and episodic mixing events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Popova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of 6 h, daily, weekly and monthly atmospheric forcing resulted in dramatically different predictions of plankton productivity in a global 3-D coupled physical-biogeochemical model. Resolving the diurnal cycle of atmospheric variability by use of 6 h forcing, and hence also diurnal variability in UML depth, produced the largest difference, reducing predicted global primary and new production by 25% and 10% respectively relative to that predicted with daily and weekly forcing. This decrease varied regionally, being a 30% reduction in equatorial areas primarily because of increased light limitation resulting from deepening of the mixed layer overnight as well as enhanced storm activity, and 25% at moderate and high latitudes primarily due to increased grazing pressure resulting from late winter stratification events. Mini-blooms of phytoplankton and zooplankton occur in the model during these events, leading to zooplankton populations being sufficiently well developed to suppress the progress of phytoplankton blooms. A 10% increase in primary production was predicted in the peripheries of the oligotrophic gyres due to increased storm-induced nutrient supply end enhanced winter production during the short term stratification events that are resolved in the run forced by 6 h meteorological fields. By resolving the diurnal cycle, model performance was significantly improved with respect to several common problems: underestimated primary production in the oligotrophic gyres; overestimated primary production in the Southern Ocean; overestimated magnitude of the spring bloom in the subarctic Pacific Ocean, and overestimated primary production in equatorial areas. The result of using 6 h forcing on predicted ecosystem dynamics was profound, the effects persisting far beyond the hourly timescale, and having major consequences for predicted global and new production on an annual basis.

  3. Energy compensation in the real world: good compensation for small portions of chocolate and biscuits over short time periods in complicit consumers using commercially available foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Katherine M; McKeown, Pascal P; Woodside, Jayne V

    2015-02-01

    While investigations using covert food manipulations tend to suggest that individuals are poor at adjusting for previous energy intake, in the real world adults rarely consume foods of which they are ill-informed. This study investigated the impact in fully complicit consumers of consuming commercially available dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits and fruit bars on subsequent appetite. Using a repeated measures design, participants received four small portions (4 × 10-11 g) of either dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits, fruit bars or no food throughout five separate study days (counterbalanced in order), and test meal intake, hunger, liking and acceptability were measured. Participants consumed significantly less at lunch following dark chocolate, milk chocolate and sweet biscuits compared to no food (smallest t(19) = 2.47, p = 0.02), demonstrating very good energy compensation (269-334%). No effects were found for fruit bars (t(19) = 1.76, p = 0.09), in evening meal intakes (F(4,72) = 0.62, p = 0.65) or in total intake (lunch + evening meal + food portions) (F(4,72) = 0.40, p = 0.69). No differences between conditions were found in measures of hunger (largest F(4,76) = 1.26, p = 0.29), but fruit bars were significantly less familiar than all other foods (smallest t(19) = 3.14, p = 0.01). These findings demonstrate good compensation over the short term for small portions of familiar foods in complicit consumers. Findings are most plausibly explained as a result of participant awareness and cognitions, although the nature of these cognitions cannot be discerned from this study. These findings however, also suggest that covert manipulations may have limited transfer to real world scenarios. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. FORECASTING ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM PERIOD BY USING ARIMAX MODEL IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS SECTOR IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the forecasting of energy consumption in the Construction and Materials sectors. The scope of the study covers the forecasting periods of energy consumption for the next 10 years, 2017-2026, 20 years, 2017-2036, and 30 years, 2017-2046, by using ARIMAX Model. The prediction results show that these models are effective in the forecast measured by RMSE, MAE, and MAPE. The results show that from the first model (2,1,1, which predicted the duration of 10 years, 2017-2026, indicates that Thailand has increased an energy consumption rate with the average of 18.09%, while the second model (2,1,2 with the prediction of 20 years, 2017-2036, Thailand arises its energy consumption up to 37.32%. In addition, the third model (2,1,3 predicted the duration of 30 years from 2017 to 2046, and it has found that Thailand increases its energy consumption up to 49.72%.

  5. Probability Estimates of Solar Particle Event Doses During a Period of Low Sunspot Number for Thinly-Shielded Spacecraft and Short Duration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William; Rojdev, Kristina; Matzkind, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    In an earlier paper (Atwell, et al., 2015), we investigated solar particle event (SPE) radiation exposures (absorbed dose) to small, thinly-shielded spacecraft during a period when the sunspot number (SSN) was less than 30. These SPEs contain Ground Level Events (GLE), sub-GLEs, and sub-sub-GLEs (Tylka and Dietrich, 2009, Tylka and Dietrich, 2008, and Atwell, et al., 2008). GLEs are extremely energetic solar particle events having proton energies extending into the several GeV range and producing secondary particles in the atmosphere, mostly neutrons, observed with ground station neutron monitors. Sub-GLE events are less energetic, extending into the several hundred MeV range, but do not produce secondary atmospheric particles. Sub-sub GLEs are even less energetic with an observable increase in protons at energies greater than 30 MeV, but no observable proton flux above 300 MeV. In this paper, we consider those SPEs that occurred during 1973-2010 when the SSN was greater than 30 but less than 50. In addition, we provide probability estimates of absorbed dose based on mission duration with a 95% confidence level (CL). We also discuss the implications of these data and provide some recommendations that may be useful to spacecraft designers of these smaller spacecraft.

  6. Gradient decent based multi-objective cultural differential evolution for short-term hydrothermal optimal scheduling of economic emission with integrating wind power and photovoltaic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huifeng; Yue, Dong; Xie, Xiangpeng; Dou, Chunxia; Sun, Feng

    2017-01-01

    With the integration of wind power and photovoltaic power, optimal operation of hydrothermal power system becomes great challenge due to its non-convex, stochastic and complex-coupled constrained characteristics. This paper extends short-term hydrothermal system optimal model into short-term hydrothermal optimal scheduling of economic emission while considering integrated intermittent energy resources (SHOSEE-IIER). For properly solving SHOSEE-IIER problem, a gradient decent based multi-objective cultural differential evolution (GD-MOCDE) is proposed to improve the optimal efficiency of SHOSEE-IIER combined with three designed knowledge structures, which mainly enhances search ability of differential evolution in the shortest way. With considering those complex-coupled and stochastic constraints, a heuristic constraint-handling measurement is utilized to tackle with them both in coarse and fine tuning way, and probability constraint-handling procedures are taken to properly handle those stochastic constraints combined with their probability density functions. Ultimately, those approaches are implemented on five test systems, which testify the optimization efficiency of proposed GD-MOCDE and constraint-handling efficiency for system load balance, water balance and stochastic constraint-handling measurements, those obtained results reveal that the proposed GD-MOCDE can properly solve the SHOSEE-IIER problem combined with those constraint-handling approaches. - Highlights: • Gradient decent method is proposed to improve mutation operator. • Hydrothermal system is extended to hybrid energy system. • The uncertainty constraint is converted into deterministic constraint. • The results show the viability and efficiency of proposed algorithm.

  7. Cumhuriyet Tarihi Üzerine Kısa Bir Dönemlendirme Denemesi / A Short Essay on Periodization of History of Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz SUNAY

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarihi, bir asra yaklaşan geçmişiyle oldukça keskin dönüşümlerin gözlendiği bir süreci ifade ediyor. Bu dönüşümlerin içeride ve dışarıdaki hangi değişimler ekseninde meydana geldiği konusunda, nesnel araştırmaların yapıldığı bilinmekle birlikte; son tahlilde, cumhuriyet tarihinde olan bitenleri ileri-geri; devrimci-karşı devrimci şeklindeki öznel değerlendirmelerin belirlediği de söylenebilir. Geçmişte, nelerin olup bittiğine dair çoğu anlatımın, örtülü de olsa bu zaafla malul olduğu söylenebilir; bu çerçevede, tarihin bilimden ziyade, ideoloji olduğuna ilişkin tezler üzerinde düşünmek gerekiyor. Tarihin bilim olduğu kabul edilse bile, güçlünün kaleminden okunduğu, bu nedenle bilimlerin en Darwinist’i olduğu tezi, ihmal edilebilir gibi gözükmüyor. Bu çalışmada, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarihinin ana hatları üzerinden kuşbakışı bir gözlem deneniyor; ek okumalar öneriliyor. Son doksan beş yılda nelerin olup, nelerin bittiğine ilişkin kimi zaman alternatif bir perspektiften bakılmaya çalışılıyor. / History of the Turkish Republic expresses a period with considerably sharp transformations with its past which almost reaches one century. It is known that objective studies have been made on the axises on which these transformations took place at home and abroad; nevertheless, in the last analysis, it can be claimed that the occurrences in republican history are determined by subjective evaluations such as forward-backward, revolutionary-counter revolutionary etc. It can be said that most narrations as to what happened in the past suffer from this weakness albeit implicitly; within this framework, the thesis that history is more an ideology than a science should be contemplated. Even if it is accepted that history is science, it is hardly negligible that it is read from the pen of the mighty, for which reason it is the most Darwinist of all sciences

  8. Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeij, R J; Dijkstra, J; Bruckmaier, R M; Gross, J J; Lam, T J G M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2017-10-01

    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source-glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)-and energy level-standard (std) or low-on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH); and lactation curve characteristics between wk 1 and 44 postpartum in cows after a 0-d or 30-d DP. Cows (n = 110) were assigned randomly to 3 transition treatments: a 30-d DP with a standard energy level required for expected milk yield [30-d DP(std)], a 0-d DP with the same energy level as cows with a 30-d DP [0-d DP(std)], and a 0-d DP with a low energy level [0-d DP(low)]. In wk 1 to 7, cows were fed the same basal ration but the level of concentrate increased to 6.7 kg/d for cows fed the low energy level and to 8.5 kg/d for cows fed the standard energy level in wk 4. From wk 8 postpartum onward, cows received a G ration (mainly consisting of corn silage and grass silage) or an L ration (mainly consisting of grass silage and sugar beet pulp) with the same energy level contrast (low or std) as in early lactation. Cows fed the G ration had greater milk, lactose, and protein yields, lower milk fat percentage, greater dry matter and energy intakes, and greater plasma IGF-1 concentration compared with cows fed the L ration. Dietary energy source did not affect EB or lactation curve characteristics. In cows with a 0-d DP, the reduced energy level decreased energy intake, EB, and weekly body weight gain, but did not affect milk production or lactation curve characteristics. A 30-d DP resulted in a greater total predicted lactation yield, initial milk yield after calving, peak milk yield, energy intake, energy output in milk, days to conception [only when compared with 0-d DP(low)], plasma GH concentration [only when compared with 0-d DP(std)], and decreased weekly body weight gain compared with a 0-d DP. A

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation of the short-form condom attitude scale: validity assessment in a sub-sample of rural-to-urban migrant workers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tapash; Anderson, Claire; Evans, Catrin; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur; Rahman, Mosiur

    2013-03-19

    condom use. Validated scale is a short, simple and reliable instrument for measuring attitudes towards condom use in vulnerable populations like current study sample. This culturally-customized scale can be used to monitor the progress of condom uptake and promotion activities in Bangladesh or similar settings.

  10. Acute bacterial meningitis cases diagnosed by culture and PCR in a children's hospital throughout a 9-Year period (2000-2008) in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavasileiou, Konstantina; Papavasileiou, Eleni; Tzanakaki, Georgina; Voyatzi, Aliki; Kremastinou, Jenny; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos

    2011-04-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis is one of the most severe infectious diseases, affecting mainly infants and, secondarily, older children and adolescents. Diagnosis in the early stages is often difficult and despite treatment with appropriate antibiotic therapy, the case fatality rate remains high. In the present study, the incidence of bacterial meningitis was registered in a general pediatric hospital in Athens, Greece, during a 9-year period (2000-2008), and the use of molecular methods in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis versus the conventional cultural methods was evaluated. The impact of vaccination against meningitis-causing bacteria on the incidence of bacterial meningitis was also assessed. From a total of 1833 children hospitalized with suspected clinical symptoms and signs of meningitis, all cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples were analyzed by white blood cell (WBC) count, measurement of glucose, protein, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, as well as by conventional bacteriologic culture methods. If samples showed altered CSF markers that were consistent with meningitis in general, they were further investigated by PCR for bacterial pathogens. Of the 1833 patients, 289 (15.76%) were found to be positive for meningitis after CSF examination, based on white blood cell count and differentiation, glucose, protein, and CRP. Fifty-six of the 289 (19.37%) had confirmed bacterial meningitis, as diagnosed by either culture and/or PCR. Of these 56 cases, 44 (78.6%) were detected only by PCR, and 12 cases (21.4%) were confirmed by PCR and culture. The predominant microorganism was Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (n = 40; 71.4%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae not typed [NT] (n = 7; 12.5%), Streptococcus spp. (n =4; 7.1%), Haemophilus influenzae NT (n = 2; 3.6%), and S. pneumoniae serotype 3, Streptococcus group B, and S. pneumoniae serotype 18C (each n = 1; 1.8%). In Greece, according to data from the National Meningitis Reference

  11. Expression of transcription factors after short-term exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures to hyper-g, and to simulated and sounding rocket micro-g

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampp, R.; Babbick, M.

    Previous microarray studies with cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana cv Columbia have shown responses in gene expression which were partly specific to exposure to microgravity sounding rocket experiment TEXUS In order to get access to early responses upon changes in gravitational fields we used exposure times as short as 2 min For this purpose we selected a range of genes which code for different groups of transcription factors WRKY ERF MYB MADS Samples were taken in 5-min clinorotation 2- and 3-dimensional hypergravity 8g and 2-min intervals sounding rocket experiment Amounts of transcripts were determined by quantitative RT PCR Most transcripts showed a significant transient change in content within a time frame of up to 30 min after changing the external gravitational field strength They could be grouped into 1 basic stress responses which occurred under all conditions 2 clinorotation-related effects which were either identical or opposite between 2D 60 rpm 4x10 -2 g and 3D clinorotation random positioning machine and 3 alterations specific to the microgravity exposure under sounding rocket conditions MAXUS The data are discussed in relation to gravitation-dependent signalling chains and with regard to the simulation of microgravity by means of clinorotation Supported by a grant from the Deutsches Zentrum f u r Luft- und Raumfahrt e V grant no 50 WB 0143

  12. Cross-cultural comparison of long-term care in the United States and Finland: Research done through a short-term study-abroad experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tina M; Gilland, Sarah; Frank, Jacquelyn B; Murphy, Bridget C; English, Courtney; Meade, Jana; Morrow, Kaylee; Rush, Evan

    2017-01-01

    In May 2014, a short-term study-abroad experience was conducted in Finland through a course offered at Indiana State University (ISU). Students and faculty from ISU and Eastern Illinois University participated in the experience, which was created to facilitate a cross-cultural comparison of long-term-care settings in the United States and Finland. With its outstanding system of caring for the health and social needs of its aging populace, Finland is a logical model to examine when considering ways to improve the quality of life for older adults who require care in the United States . Those participating in the course visited a series of long-term-care facilities in the region surrounding Terre Haute, Indiana, then travelled to Lappeenranta, Finland to visit parallel sites. Through limited-participation observation and semistructured interviews, similarities and differences in experiences, educations, and policies affecting long-term care workers in the United States and Finland were identified and are described here.

  13. The language used in describing autobiographical memories prompted by life period visually presented verbal cues, event-specific visually presented verbal cues and short musical clips of popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zator, Krysten; Katz, Albert N

    2017-07-01

    Here, we examined linguistic differences in the reports of memories produced by three cueing methods. Two groups of young adults were cued visually either by words representing events or popular cultural phenomena that took place when they were 5, 10, or 16 years of age, or by words referencing a general lifetime period word cue directing them to that period in their life. A third group heard 30-second long musical clips of songs popular during the same three time periods. In each condition, participants typed a specific event memory evoked by the cue and these typed memories were subjected to analysis by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program. Differences in the reports produced indicated that listening to music evoked memories embodied in motor-perceptual systems more so than memories evoked by our word-cueing conditions. Additionally, relative to music cues, lifetime period word cues produced memories with reliably more uses of personal pronouns, past tense terms, and negative emotions. The findings provide evidence for the embodiment of autobiographical memories, and how those differ when the cues emphasise different aspects of the encoded events.

  14. 8-prenylnaringenin and tamoxifen inhibit the shedding of irradiated epithelial cells and increase the latency period of radiation-induced oral mucositis. Cell culture and murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryck, Tine de; Impe, Annouchka van; Bracke, Marc E. [Ghent University, Laboratory of Experimental Cancer Research, Department Radiation Oncology and Experimental Cancer Research, Ghent (Belgium); Vanhoecke, Barbara W. [Ghent University, Laboratory of Experimental Cancer Research, Department Radiation Oncology and Experimental Cancer Research, Ghent (Belgium); Ghent University, Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Ghent (Belgium); Heyerick, Arne [Ghent University, Laboratory of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Ghent (Belgium); Vakaet, Luc; Neve, Wilfried de [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent (Belgium); Mueller, Doreen [Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); Schmidt, Margret [Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) partner site Dresden and German Cancer Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Doerr, Wolfgang [Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, CCC, and CD-Laboratory RadOnc, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-05-01

    The major component in the pathogenesis of oral radiation-induced mucositis is progressive epithelial hypoplasia and eventual ulceration. Irradiation inhibits cell proliferation, while cell loss at the surface continues. We conceived to slow down this desquamation by increasing intercellular adhesion, regulated by the E-cadherin/catenin complex. We investigated if 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) or tamoxifen (TAM) decrease the shedding of irradiated human buccal epithelial cells in vitro and thus delay the ulcerative phase of radiation-induced mucositis in vivo. In vitro, aggregates of buccal epithelial cells were irradiated and cultured in suspension for 11 days. 8-PN or TAM were investigated regarding their effect on cell shedding. In vivo, the lower tongue surface of mice was irradiated with graded single doses of 25 kV X-rays. The incidence, latency, and duration of the resulting mucosal ulcerations were analyzed after topical treatment with 8-PN, TAM or solvent. 8-PN or TAM prevented the volume reduction of the irradiated cell aggregates during the incubation period. This was the result of a higher residual cell number in the treated versus the untreated irradiated aggregates. In vivo, topical treatment with 8-PN or TAM significantly increased the latency of mucositis from 10.9 to 12.1 and 12.4 days respectively, while the ulcer incidence was unchanged. 8-PN and TAM prevent volume reduction of irradiated cell aggregates in suspension culture. In the tongues of mice, these compounds increase the latency period. This suggests a role for these compounds for the amelioration of radiation-induced mucositis in the treatment of head and neck tumors. (orig.) [German] Die wesentliche Komponente in der Pathogenese der radiogenen Mukositis ist eine progressive epitheliale Hypoplasie und letztendlich Ulzeration. Die Bestrahlung hemmt die Zellproliferation, waehrend der Zellverlust an der Oberflaeche fortbesteht. Wir versuchten, diese Desquamation durch eine Stimulation der

  15. Localization of Short Duration Periodic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    TDOA m, referenced to the hydrophone that is common between TDOA l and m. This measure is effectively a count of the number of matching click times...the localization of multiple interfering sperm whales using multi- sensor time difference of arrival”, 130 Journal of the Acoustical Society of

  16. Cultural adaptation and validation of the Filipino version of Kidney Disease Quality of Life--Short Form (KDQOL-SF version 1.3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataclan, Rommel P; Dial, Ma Antonietta D

    2009-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease is the 10th leading cause of death among Filipinos. Those with chronic kidney disease are exposed to stressors which effect their daily lives. Therefore, assessment of health-related quality of life is important in these patients. The objective of the present study was to translate the Kidney Disease Quality of Life--Short Form version 1.3 (KDQOL-SF ver. 1.3) into Filipino and measure its validity and reliability. Translation and cultural adaptation began with two translations into Filipino, with reconciliation of the forward translators. Pretesting with 10 renal patients, review by experts (nephrologist, translator and dialysis nurse) and back-translation was also done. The final questionnaire was administered to 80 patients with chronic renal disease undergoing haemodialysis for at least 3 months, who could understand Filipino, and were without life-threatening or terminal conditions at the time of the test. A convenience sample of 30 patients from the group had a repeat test 10-14 days after to determine test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and internal consistency reliability was measured by determining the Cronbach's alpha value. Validity was measured using Pearson's correlation between the overall health rating scale and the items from the questionnaire. All of the items showed good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.40), ranging from 0.58 (social interaction) to 0.98 (role--emotional). Internal consistency reliability values were acceptable, with Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.60 (cognitive function) to 0.80 (physical functioning and role--physical). Regarding construct validity, overall health rating in kidney disease-targeted scales was significantly correlated with symptoms/problems, effects of kidney disease and burden of kidney disease. All items in the SF 36 scales had significant correlation with overall health rating (P < 0.05) except

  17. Expression of transcription factors after short-term exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures to hypergravity and simulated microgravity (2-D/3-D clinorotation, magnetic levitation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbick, M.; Dijkstra, C.; Larkin, O. J.; Anthony, P.; Davey, M. R.; Power, J. B.; Lowe, K. C.; Cogoli-Greuter, M.; Hampp, R.

    Gravity is an important environmental factor that controls plant growth and development. Studies have shown that the perception of gravity is not only a property of specialized cells, but can also be performed by undifferentiated cultured cells. In this investigation, callus of Arabidopsis thaliana cv. Columbia was used to investigate the initial steps of gravity-related signalling cascades, through altered expression of transcription factors (TFs). TFs are families of small proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific promoter sequences. Based on microarray studies, members of the gene families WRKY, MADS-box, MYB, and AP2/EREBP were selected for investigation, as well as members of signalling chains, namely IAA 19 and phosphoinositol-4-kinase. Using qRT-PCR, transcripts were quantified within a period of 30 min in response to hypergravity (8 g), clinorotation [2-D clinostat and 3-D random positioning machine (RPM)] and magnetic levitation (ML). The data indicated that (1) changes in gravity induced stress-related signalling, and (2) exposure in the RPM induced changes in gene expression which resemble those of magnetic levitation. Two dimensional clinorotation resulted in responses similar to those caused by hypergravity. It is suggested that RPM and ML are preferable to simulate microgravity than clinorotation.

  18. Fermentation to short-chain fatty acids and lactate in human faecal batch cultures. Intra- and inter-individual variations versus variations caused by changes in fermented saccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, P B; Hove, H; Clausen, M R

    1991-01-01

    in homogenates pooled from three individuals increased short-chain fatty acid production linearly. Amounts and ratios of short-chain fatty acids formed were highly dependent on the type of substrate fermented. Fermentable saccharides increased ammonia assimilation, in contrast to the metabolic inert cellulose...

  19. New evidence for variation in colonisation, cultural transmission, and subsistence from Lapita (2900 BP) to the historic period in southwest Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochrane, E.E.; Rivera-Collazo, I.C.; Walsh, E.

    2011-01-01

    Fiji was colonised approximately 3000 BP by populations with intricately decorated Lapita pottery. At nearly the same time, culturally related populations also colonised nearby Tonga and Samoa and the archaeology of each archipelago indicates continued contact, but also cultural divergence over time. Previous research in the far western islands of Fiji has also identified late Lapita colonisation deposits and subsequent cultural changes that have raised further questions about regional variation in the Fijian archaeological record. Here we present results of the first survey, excavation, and archaeological analyses from the islands of southwestern Fiji and interpret these findings relative to current research on the colonisation of Fiji-West Polynesia, changes in the spatial scale of cultural transmission in the region, and changes in foraging practices and environments. Survey and test excavations identified eleven sites and pushed back the colonisation of the far western islands to 2900 BP. Preliminary analyses of cultural materials from these sites indicate a complexly structured colonising population in Fiji-West Polynesia, variation over time in the frequency of contact between populations in Fiji, and subsistence practices likely influenced by environmental change and human competition. (author). 47 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. VERY-LOW-MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. III. A SHORT-PERIOD BROWN DWARF CANDIDATE AROUND AN ACTIVE G0IV SUBGIANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Bo; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Wang Ji [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Barnes, Rory; Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Dutra-Ferreira, Leticia; Porto de Mello, G. F. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira do Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP: 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lctea S/N, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W Brooks St, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: boma@astro.ufl.edu [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2013-01-01

    We present an eccentric, short-period brown dwarf candidate orbiting the active, slightly evolved subgiant star TYC 2087-00255-1, which has effective temperature T{sub eff} = 5903 {+-} 42 K, surface gravity log (g) = 4.07 {+-} 0.16 (cgs), and metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.23 {+-} 0.07. This candidate was discovered using data from the first two years of the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanets Large-area Survey, which is part of the third phase of Sloan Digital Sky Survey. From our 38 radial velocity measurements spread over a two-year time baseline, we derive a Keplerian orbital fit with semi-amplitude K = 3.571 {+-} 0.041 km s{sup -1}, period P = 9.0090 {+-} 0.0004 days, and eccentricity e = 0.226 {+-} 0.011. Adopting a mass of 1.16 {+-} 0.11 M{sub Sun} for the subgiant host star, we infer that the companion has a minimum mass of 40.0 {+-} 2.5 M{sub Jup}. Assuming an edge-on orbit, the semimajor axis is 0.090 {+-} 0.003 AU. The host star is photometrically variable at the {approx}1% level with a period of {approx}13.16 {+-} 0.01 days, indicating that the host star spin and companion orbit are not synchronized. Through adaptive optics imaging we also found a point source 643 {+-} 10 mas away from TYC 2087-00255-1, which would have a mass of 0.13 M{sub Sun} if it is physically associated with TYC 2087-00255-1 and has the same age. Future proper motion observation should be able to resolve if this tertiary object is physically associated with TYC 2087-00255-1 and make TYC 2087-00255-1 a triple body system. Core Ca II H and K line emission indicate that the host is chromospherically active, at a level that is consistent with the inferred spin period and measured v{sub rot}sin i, but unusual for a subgiant of this T{sub eff}. This activity could be explained by ongoing tidal spin-up of the host star by the companion.

  1. Determination of the watering scheme for naturally grown cane sugar cultures during the maturing period in the north of the Ivory Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langellier, P.

    1980-01-01

    In order to produce sugar canes of optimum richness at the time of harvesting, it is necessary to determine the duration of the weaning period and the water requirements prior to this period. This problem was studied for a naturally grown cane with a NCo 376 cycle grown in the north of the Ivory coast. Water balances were determined using neutronic and tensiometric methods. It was thus possible to confirm the practical usefulness of tensiometers and to establish a weaning period of one month and a half and to determine a vegetation coefficient K=0.5 [fr

  2. Growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN){sub 1}/(GaN){sub 1–20} short-period superlattices on +c-GaN template in dynamic atomic layer epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Hashimoto, Naoki; Wang, Ke; Imai, Daichi [Center for SMART Green Innovation Research, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Itoi, Takaomi [Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akihiko, E-mail: yoshi@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Center for SMART Green Innovation Research, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Kogakuin University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan)

    2016-04-11

    The growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN){sub 1}/(GaN){sub 1–20} short-period superlattices (SPSs) were investigated with their application to ordered alloys in mind. The SPSs were grown on +c-GaN template at 650 °C by dynamic atomic layer epitaxy in conventional plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It was found that coherent structured InN/GaN SPSs could be fabricated when the thickness of the GaN barrier was 4 ML or above. Below 3 ML, the formation of SPSs was quite difficult owing to the increased strain in the SPS structure caused by the use of GaN as a template. The effective or average In composition of the (InN){sub 1}/(GaN){sub 4} SPSs was around 10%, and the corresponding InN coverage in the ∼1 ML-thick InN wells was 50%. It was found that the effective InN coverage in ∼1 ML-thick InN wells could be varied with the growth conditions. In fact, the effective In composition could be increased up to 13.5%, i.e., the corresponding effective InN coverage was about 68%, by improving the capping/freezing speed by increasing the growth rate of the GaN barrier layer.

  3. Growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN)_1/(GaN)_1_–_2_0 short-period superlattices on +c-GaN template in dynamic atomic layer epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Hashimoto, Naoki; Wang, Ke; Imai, Daichi; Itoi, Takaomi; Yoshikawa, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    The growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN)_1/(GaN)_1_–_2_0 short-period superlattices (SPSs) were investigated with their application to ordered alloys in mind. The SPSs were grown on +c-GaN template at 650 °C by dynamic atomic layer epitaxy in conventional plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It was found that coherent structured InN/GaN SPSs could be fabricated when the thickness of the GaN barrier was 4 ML or above. Below 3 ML, the formation of SPSs was quite difficult owing to the increased strain in the SPS structure caused by the use of GaN as a template. The effective or average In composition of the (InN)_1/(GaN)_4 SPSs was around 10%, and the corresponding InN coverage in the ∼1 ML-thick InN wells was 50%. It was found that the effective InN coverage in ∼1 ML-thick InN wells could be varied with the growth conditions. In fact, the effective In composition could be increased up to 13.5%, i.e., the corresponding effective InN coverage was about 68%, by improving the capping/freezing speed by increasing the growth rate of the GaN barrier layer.

  4. Count of splenic stromal precursor cells in mice and expression of cytokine genes in these cells in primary cultures during different periods after immunization of animals with S. typhimurium antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorskaya, Yu F; Danilova, T A; Mezentseva, M V; Shapoval, I M; Narovlyanskii, A N; Nesterenko, V G

    2011-06-01

    Injection of S. typhimurium antigens significantly (9-fold) increased cloning efficiency and, hence, the content of stromal precursor cells in the spleen as soon as after 24 h. These parameters returned to normal by days 6-15 after immunization. Cultured splenocytes collected from immune (but not intact) animals expressed the genes of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β (on days 1, 6, 15) and IL-6 (on days 1 and 6), TNF-α (on days 6 and 15), and of IFN-α and IL-18 (on days 6 and 15). The expression of IL-4 gene was suppressed on day 6 after immunization, of IL-10 gene on days 1 and 6, of IL-6 gene on day 15. Hence, no signs of immune response suppression by stromal cells were found in this system. The spectrum and dynamics of the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes in stromal cell cultures from the spleen of immunized mice seemed to correspond to those needed for support of the immune response to S. typhimurium antigens, observed in immunized animals. The results indicate possible involvement of stromal cells in the realization of immune response in vivo. The increase of stromal precursor cells cloning efficiency in response to antigen injection could not be reproduced in vitro: the presence of S. typhimurium antigens in primary cultures of intact mouse bone marrow and spleen throughout the entire period of culturing ≈ 20-fold reduced cloning efficiency in cultures.

  5. Alexandrea in Aegypto. The role of the Egyptian tradition in the Hellenistic and Roman periods : ideology, culture, identity, and public life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2011-01-01

    Alexandria, the capital of Egypt during the Hellenistic and Roman periods is often hailed as the ancient cosmopolitan center of Mediterranean par excellence. Since the foundation of the city by Alexander the Great in 331 BC, several traditions- along with their representatives, mainly Greek and

  6. Use of a solid-phase 3H-radioimmunoassay for the measurement of immunoglobulin produced in short-term cultures of antibody-secreting cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongini, P.K.A.; Heber-Katz, E.

    1982-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for assaying immunoglobulin produced from antibody-secreting myeloma, hybridoma and immune spleen cells is described. Specific antibody is detected by culturing antibody-producing cells on antigen-coated flexible polyvinylchloride microtiter wells, washing away the cells, and measuring the bound specific antibody with tritiated affinity-purified anti-isotype reagents. Antibody produced from 10 3 myeloma cells can be detected with as little as 4 h of incubation. With 24-48 h of incubation, antibody from as few as approximately 3-15 myeloma, hybridoma or immune spleen plaque-forming cells (PFC) can be detected. This culture-well RIA has certain distinct advantages over the hemolytic PFC assay and RIA assays in which antibody in culture supernatants is measured. (Auth.)

  7. Short philtrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm Short philtrum To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A short philtrum is a shorter than normal distance between ...

  8. Middle Helladic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    and their quality was improved considerably toward the end of this period. The profound cultural innovations of the Middle Helladic period were initially interpreted as a result of violent population movement and troubles provoked by the coming of the first Indo-European races. However, this matter does no more...... Helladic period is considered as a period of economic and social decline it was the time during which the mainland features merged with the insular influence, that is all the Aegean elements which led to the creation of the Mycenaean civilization were mixed in a creative way....

  9. Short-term exposure of umbilical cord blood CD34+ cells to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor early in culture improves ex vivo expansion of neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturana, Flavia; Timmins, Nicholas E; Nielsen, Lars K

    2011-03-01

    Despite the availability of modern antibiotics/antimycotics and cytokine support, neutropenic infection accounts for the majority of chemotherapy-associated deaths. While transfusion support with donor neutrophils is possible, cost and complicated logistics make such an option unrealistic on a routine basis. A manufactured neutrophil product could enable routine prophylactic administration of neutrophils, preventing the onset of neutropenia and substantially reducing the risk of infection. We examined the use of pre-culture strategies and various cytokine/modulator combinations to improve neutrophil expansion from umbilical cord blood (UCB) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC). Enriched UCB HPC were cultured using either two-phase pre-culture strategies or a single phase using various cytokine/modulator combinations. Outcome was assessed with respect to numerical expansion, cell morphology, granulation and respiratory burst activity. Pre-culture in the absence of strong differentiation signals (e.g. granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; G-CSF) failed to provide any improvement to final neutrophil yields. Similarly, removal of differentiating cells during pre-culture failed to improve neutrophil yields to an appreciable extent. Of the cytokine/modulator combinations, the addition of granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-colony-stimulating factor (CSF) alone gave the greatest increase. In order to avoid production of monocytes, it was necessary to remove GM-CSF on day 5. Using this strategy, neutrophil expansion improved 2.7-fold. Although all cytokines and culture strategies employed have been reported previously to enhance HPC expansion, we found that the addition of GM-CSF alone was sufficient to improve total cell yields maximally. The need to remove GM-CSF on day 5 to avoid monocyte differentiation highlights the context and time-dependent complexity of exogenous signaling in hematopoietic cell differentiation and growth.

  10. Short-Term Study Tours as a Driver for Increasing Domestic Student Mobility in Order to Generate Global Work-Ready Students and Cultural Exchange in Asia Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharoun, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Recent federal government programmes in Australia have seen a shift in focus from the international student towards increasing the possibilities for domestic mobility through short- and long-term exchange opportunities. The current New Colombo Plan funding scheme encourages Australian students, who have traditionally undertaken semester-long…

  11. Validation of a culturally modified short form of the McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities in 6 to 8 year old Zimbabwean school children: a cross section study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandawasvika Gwendoline Q

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of cognitive impairment among school children from developing communities is under reported due to lack of culturally appropriate screening tools. The objective of this study was to validate a culturally modified short form of the McCarthy Scales of Children Abilities (MSCA in school children aged 6–8 years from varied backgrounds. Methods One hundred and one children aged 6–8 years attending mainstream classes were enrolled cross-sectionally from three schools: one rural and two urban. Two assessments were conducted on each child and the Short form MSCA was compared to an independent assessment by the educational psychologist. Results When comparing the results of the MSCA to local standard at -2SD, -1.5 SD and -1SD the sensitivity rates ranged from 17 to 50% with lower sensitivity at -2SD cut-off point. Specificity rates had less variation ranging from 95% to 100%. The number of children identified with cognitive impairment using -2SD, -1.5SD and -1SD below the mean for MSCA as a cut-off point were 3(3%, 7(7% and 13(13% respectively while the psychologist identified 18 (18%. The overall mean score on MSCA was 103 (SD 15. The rural children tended to score significantly lower marks compared to their peers from urban areas, mean (SD 98(15 and 107(15 respectively, p=0.006. There was no difference in the mean (SD scores between boys and girls, 103(17 and 103(15 respectively, p=0.995. Conclusion The culturally modified short form MSCA showed high specificity but low sensitivity. Prevalence of cognitive impairment among 6 to 8 year children was 3%. This figure is high when compared to developed communities.

  12. Imbalance of morphofunctional responses of Jurkat T lymphoblasts at short-term culturing with relief zinc- or copper-containing calcium phosphate coating on titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, L S; Shupletsova, V V; Dunets, N A; Khaziakhmatova, O G; Yurova, K A; Khlusova, M Yu; Slepchenko, G B; Cherempey, E G; Sharkeev, Yu P; Komarova, E G; Sedelnikova, M B; Khlusov, I A

    2017-01-01

    Morphofunctional response of Jurkat T cells that were cultured for 24 h on substrates prepared from commercially pure titanium with relief microarc bilateral calcium phosphate coating containing copper or zinc was studied. Changes in the concentration of essential trace elements contained in this coating can cause significant imbalance of molecular processes of differentiation, secretion, apoptosis, and necrosis and reduce tumor cell survival.

  13. Is screening for depression in the perinatal period enough? The co-occurrence of depression, substance abuse, and intimate partner violence in culturally diverse pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Cynthia D; Hazen, Andrea L; Baker-Ericzén, Mary J; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2013-10-01

    The perinatal period provides unique opportunities to identify and intervene with the co-occurrence of perinatal depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), and substance use problems. Psychosocial screening recommended for women seen in maternal child health settings tends to target single rather than multiple risk factors; there is limited research examining the co-occurrence of these issues especially in racially and ethnically diverse women across the perinatal period. These analyses explore the relationships of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics in a large, diverse sample of women. Women receiving perinatal services at routinely scheduled visits, including the 6-week postpartum visit, were recruited from 10 community obstetric/gynecologic clinics. Data were collected on perinatal depression, IPV, maternal substance use, and sociodemographic characteristics by bilingual, bicultural research assistants. A total of 1868 women were screened, 1526 (82%) Latina, 1099 (58.8%) interviewed in Spanish; 20.4% (n=382) screened positive for depressive symptoms based on an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 10 or above, 20.9% reported harmful drinking, 4.3% reported drug use, 23% reported substance use problems, and 3.5% reported current or recent IPV. Women who were Black, Asian, Pacific Islander, or other race/ethnicity had greater odds for depressive symptoms relative to women who were Hispanic or Latino (odds ratio [OR]=1.81, p=0.005). Women reporting substance use problems (OR=2.37, p<0.0001) and IPV (OR=3.98, p<0.0001) had higher odds for depressive symptoms. In a predominately Latina sample, 1 in 5 mothers (20.4%) screened positive for depressive symptoms and over one third (36.7%) reported one or more psychosocial issues during the perinatal period. Screening for multiple risk factors rather than just one can help clinicians tailor interventions for the successful management of psychosocial issues.

  14. Short communication: Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, G; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L J A

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC (Fossomatic 5000, Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) and TBC (BactoScan FC 150, Foss) were measured. Staphylococcal count was correlated to SCC (r=0.40), TBC (r=0.51), and SPC (r=0.53). Coliform count was correlated to TBC (r=0.33), but not to any of the other variables. Staphylococcus aureus did not correlate to SCC. The contribution of the staphylococcal count to the SPC was 31%, whereas the coliform count comprised only 1% of the SPC. The agreement of the repeated measurements was low. This study indicates that staphylococci in goat bulk milk are related to SCC and make a significant contribution to SPC. Because of the high variation in bacterial counts, repeated sampling is necessary to draw valid conclusions from bulk milk culturing. 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Short-term, serum-free, static culture of cord blood-derived CD34+ cells: effects of FLT3-L and MIP-1alpha on in vitro expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, G; Querol, S; Cancelas, J A; García, J

    1999-08-01

    The use of ex vivo expanded cells has been suggested as a possible means to accelerate the speed of engraftment in cord blood (CB) transplantation. The aim of this study was to fix the optimal condition for the generation of committed progenitors without affecting the stem cell compartment. Analysis of the effects of FLT3-L and MIP-1alpha when combined with SCF, IL-3 and IL-6, in short-term (6 days), serum-free expansion cultures of CB-selected CD34+ cells. An important expansion was obtained that ranged between 8-15 times for CFU-GM, 21-51 times for the BFU-E/CFU-Mix population and 11 to 30 times for CD34+ cells assessed by flow cytometry. From the combinations tested, those in which FLT3-L was present had a significant increase in the expansion of committed progenitors, while the presence of MIP-1alpha had a detrimental effect on the generation of more differentiated cells. However, stem cell candidates assessed by week 5 CAFC assay could be maintained in culture when both MIP-1a and FLT3-L were present (up to 91% recovery). This culture system was also able to expand megakaryocytic precursors as determined by the co-expression of CD34 and CD61 antigens (45-70 times), in spite of the use of cytokines non-specific for the megakaryocytic lineage. The results obtained point to the combination of SCF, IL-3, IL-6, FLT3-L and MIP-1alpha as the best suited for a pre-clinical short-term serum-free static ex vivo expansion protocol of CB CD34+ cells, since it can generate large numbers of committed progenitor cells as well as maintaining week 5 CAFC.

  16. Contribution to the experimental survey of the nuclear isomerism. Application of the deferred coincidences method to research and to the survey of metastable states of short period; Contribution a l'etude experimentale de l'isomerie nucleaire. Application de la methode des coincidences differees a la recherche et a l'etude d'etats metastables de periode courte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-06-15

    Various methods of the physics brought many informations on the nuclear elements which one can arrange some ponderable quantities, what is the case of the steady elements and some, unsteady elements, as most of natural radioelements. On the other hand, elements of shorter life duration, and notably those that are carried to an excited state, are more badly known, and one can get information to their consideration that by the mediator of the properties of the transitions that they undergo, when they give birth has best-known nuclear cash: among these transitions represent the isomeric transitions. The goal of this work is the survey of the isomeric transitions from metastable states of short period, included in the domain of the microsecond to some milliseconds. The method of the deferred coincidences has been put to the point and applied in this goal while using the advantages of the selectors to several channels, under two main aspects where the device to several channels was either a selector of time, either a selector of amplitudes. This method served to study the working of Geiger-Muller counter and to measure with precision the period of {sup 181}Ta{sup *} in of the varied experimental conditions. The adopted value is 17,2 {+-}0,2 {mu}s. This work also found an immediate practical application to the setting in evidence of very weak quantities of hafnium in zirconium, of which it constitutes a tenacious and difficult impurity to analyze by the ordinary ways. (M.B.) [French] Les diverses methodes de la physique ont apporte de nombreux renseignements sur les especes nucleaires dont on peut disposer en quantites ponderables, ce qui est le cas des especes stables et de certaines especes instables, comme la plupart des radioelements naturels. Par contre, les noyaux de duree de vie plus courte, et notamment ceux qui sont portes a un etat excite, sont plus mal connus, et on ne peut obtenir de renseignements a leur egard que par l'intermediaire des proprietes des

  17. Postmodern Movement and Culture: dividing in into periods and discussing its phases Movimento Pós-Moderno e Cultura: periodizando e discutindo suas fases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Figueiredo Salvi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This research tried to divide into periods the postmodern thought starting from the analysis of transformations, which happened inside the movement itself. So, three fundamental phases were emphasized. The first one is responsible for to formation of the postmodern thought in the area of Languages, Arts and Architecture, specifically. The second one is the phase that involves wide dissemination, migration and great controversies about this movement. Finally, the third phase demonstrates relative maturation of the postmodern movement, whose production of theories take place in several fields of knowledge.Esta pesquisa procurou estabelecer uma periodização do pensamento pós-moderno a partir da análise das transformações ocorridas dentro do próprio movimento. Assim, três fases fundamentais foram destacadas. A primeira é entendida como aquela responsável pela formação do pensamento pós-moderno especificamente nas áreas de letras, artes e arquitetura. A segunda é aquela fase que envolve ampla difusão, migração e grandes polêmicas sobre este movimento. Por fim, a terceira fase demonstra relativo amadurecimento do movimento pós-moderno, cuja produção cada vez mais acentuada de teorias ocorre em variadas áreas do conhecimento.

  18. Problem Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ovary syndrome. Read our information on PCOS for teens , and see your doctor if you think you may have PCOS. Major weight loss. Girls who have anorexia will often stop having periods. When to see ...

  19. Differential effect of TGFβ on the proteome of cancer associated fibroblasts and cancer epithelial cells in a co-culture approach - a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczorowska, Maria Magdalena; Friedemann, Charlotte; Geiger, Klaus; Follo, Marie; Biniossek, Martin Lothar; Schilling, Oliver

    2017-12-01

    Solid tumors contain various components that together form the tumor microenvironment. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are capable of secreting and responding to signaling molecules and growth factors. Due to their role in tumor development, CAFs are considered as potential therapeutic targets. A prominent tumor-associated signaling molecule is transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), an inducer of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The differential action of TGFβ on CAFs and ETCs (epithelial tumor cells) has recently gained interest. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of TGFβ on CAFs and ETCs at the proteomic level. We established a 2D co-culture system of differentially fluorescently labeled CAFs and ETCs and stimulated this co-culture system with TGFβ. The respective cell types were separated using FACS and subjected to quantitative analyses of individual proteomes using mass spectrometry. We found that TGFβ treatment had a strong impact on the proteome composition of CAFs, whereas ETCs responded only marginally to TGFβ. Quantitative proteomic analyses of the different cell types revealed up-regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in TGFβ treated CAFs. In addition, we found that the TGFβ treated CAFs exhibited increased N-cadherin levels. From our data we conclude that CAFs respond to TGFβ treatment by changing their proteome composition, while ETCs appear to be rather resilient.

  20. Translation, cultural adaptation assessment, and both validity and reliability testing of the kidney disease quality of life - short form version 1.3 for use with Iranian patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakpour, Amir; Yekaninejad, Mirsaeed; Mølsted, Stig

    2011-01-01

    AIM: The aims of the study were to translate the Kidney Disease Quality of Life--Short Form version 1.3 (KDQOL-SF ver. 1.3) questionnaire into Iranian (Farsi), and to then assess it in terms of validity and reliability on Iranian patients. METHODS: The questionnaire was first translated into Farsi...... a larger group (212 patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis). Afterwards, reliability was estimated by internal consistency, and validity was assessed using known group comparisons and constructs for the patient group as a whole. Finally, the factor structure of the questionnaire...... be summarized into an 11 factor structure that jointly accounted for 79.81% of the variance. CONCLUSION: The Iranian version of the KDQOL-SF questionnaire is both highly reliable and valid for use with Iranian patients on haemodialysis....

  1. Comparability of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Pediatric short form symptom measures across culture: examination between Chinese and American children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Yuan, Changrong; Wang, Jichuan; Brown, Jeanne Geiger; Zhou, Fen; Zhao, Xiufang; Shen, Min; Hinds, Pamela S

    2016-10-01

    Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pediatric forms measure symptoms and function of pediatric patients experiencing chronic disease by using the same measures. Comparability is one of the most important purposes of the PROMIS initiative. This study aimed to test the factorial structures of four symptom measures (i.e., Anxiety, Depression, Fatigue, and Pain Interference) in the original English and the Chinese versions and examine the measurement invariance of the measures across two cultures. Four PROMIS Pediatric measures were used to assess symptoms, respectively, in Chinese (n = 232) and American (n = 200) children and adolescents (8-17 years old) in treatment for cancer or in survivorship. The categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) model was used to examine factorial structures, and multigroup CCFA was applied to test measurement invariance of these measures between the Chinese and American samples. The CCFA models of the four PROMIS Pediatric symptom measures fit the data well for both the Chinese and American children and adolescents. Minor partial measurement invariance was identified. Factor means and factor variances of the four PROMIS measures were not significantly different between the two populations. Our results provide evidence that the four PROMIS Pediatric symptom measures have valid factorial structures and a statistical property of measurement invariance across American and Chinese children and adolescents with cancer. This means that the items of these measures were interpreted in a conceptually similar manner by two groups. They could be readily used for meaningful cross-cultural comparisons involving pediatric oncology patients in these two countries.

  2. Direct short-term effects of EBP teaching: change in knowledge, not in attitude; a cross-cultural comparison among students from European and Asian medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah S. Widyahening

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We report about the direct short-term effects of a Clinical Epidemiology and Evidence-based Medicine (CE-EBM module on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of students in the University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU, Universitas Indonesia (UI, and University of Malaya (UM. Methods: We used an adapted version of a 26-item validated questionnaire, including four subscales: knowledge, attitude, behavior, and future use of evidence-based practice (EBP. The four components were compared among the students in the three medical schools before the module using one-way ANOVA. At the end of the module, we measured only knowledge and attitudes. We computed Cronbach's α to assess the reliability of the responses in our population. To assess the change in knowledge and attitudes, we used the paired t-test in the comparison of scores before and after the module. Results: In total, 526 students (224 UI, 202 UM, and 100 UMCU completed the questionnaires. In the three medical schools, Cronbach's α for the pre-module total score and the four subscale scores always exceeded 0.62. UMCU students achieved the highest pre-module scores in all subscales compared to UI and UM with the comparison of average (SD score as the following: knowledge 5.04 (0.4 vs. 4.73 (0.69 and 4.24 (0.74, p<0.001; attitude 4.52 (0.64 vs. 3.85 (0.68 and 3.55 (0.63, p<0.001; behavior 2.62 (0.55 vs. 2.35 (0.71 and 2.39 (0.92, p=0.016; and future use of EBP 4.32 (0.59 vs. 4.08 (0.62 and 3.7 (0.71, p<0.01. The CE-EBM module increased the knowledge of the UMCU (from average 5.04±0.4 to 5.35±0.51; p<0.001 and UM students (from average 4.24±0.74 to 4.53±0.72; p<0.001 but not UI. The post-module scores for attitude did not change in the three medical schools. Conclusion: EBP teaching had direct short-term effects on knowledge, not on attitude. Differences in pre-module scores are most likely related to differences in the system and infrastructure of both medical schools and their

  3. Short-term effectiveness of a culturally tailored educational intervention on foot self-care among type 2 diabetes patients in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adarmouch, Latifa; Elyacoubi, Abdelhadi; Dahmash, Latifeh; El Ansari, Nawal; Sebbani, Majda; Amine, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Self-management education (SME) is an important yet unacknowledged aspect of diabetes care. Despite the raise of diabetes and its complications with significant burden in developing countries, research on SME interventions in Morocco is lacking. To assess the effectiveness of a culturally tailored SME intervention on foot-care self-management practices among type 2 diabetes patients and to identify factors associated with practices variation. We designed a pre-post prospective quasi-experimental study and recruited patients with type 2 diabetes aged 30 years old or above. The intervention consisted of an interactive group discussion using different materials: a narrative video, a PowerPoint presentation and a printed guide. Foot-care practices were assessed prior to the session and one month later using 2 items from the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA). Binary logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with a favorable variation, defined as an increase in the mean frequency score of foot-care by a minimum of 1 day/week. A total of 199 participants were recruited and 133 completed the second assessment. Mean age was 55.2 ± 11.2 years old. Women represented 67% and 72% of participants was illiterate. The foot-care score mean increased from 3.5 ± 2.9 days to 5.9 ± 1.8 days one month after the intervention (mean variation was 2.4 ± 3.1 days; p education about diabetic foot was associated with lower likelihood of a favorable variation (OR = 0.26; 95%CI: 0.08-0.78). There was a general improvement in foot-care practices after the intervention. Our findings suggest the role of literacy and previous patient education in shaping the observed variation. Culturally tailored interventions targeting other disease management domains are needed in our context.

  4. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  5. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF P.T. KAYE

    . SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...

  6. Cultural adaptation and validation of the “Kidney Disease and Quality of Life - Short Form (KDQOL-SF™ version 1.3” questionnaire in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd ElHafeez Samar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL instruments need disease and country specific validation. In Arab countries, there is no specific validated questionnaire for assessment of HRQOL in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. The aim of this study was to present an Arabic translation, adaptation, and the subsequent validation of the kidney disease quality of life-short form (KDQOL-SFTM version 1.3 questionnaire in a representative series of Egyptian CKD patients. Methods KDQOL-SFTM version 1.3 was translated into Arabic by two independent translators, and then subsequently translated back into English. After translation disparities were reconciled, the final Arabic questionnaire was tested by interviewing 100 pre-dialysis CKD (stage 1-4 patients randomly selected from outpatients attending the Nephrology clinic at the Main Alexandria University Hospital. Test re-test reliability was performed, with a subsample of 50 consecutive CKD patients, by two interviews 7 days apart and internal consistency estimated by Cronbach’s α. Discriminant, concept, and construct validity were assessed. Results All items of SF-36 met the criterion for internal consistency and were reproducible. Of the 10 kidney disease targeted scales, only three had Cronbach’s α TM 1.3 were significantly inter-correlated. Finally, principal component analysis of the kidney disease targeted scale indicated that this part of the questionnaire could be summarized into 10 factors that together explained 70.9% of the variance. Conclusion The results suggest that this Arabic version of the KDQOL-SFTM 1.3 questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for use in Egyptian patients with CKD.

  7. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-02-01

    Feb 1, 2017 ... which no bacterial cause had been found by culture or by molecular biology. Isolation of ... Germany for sequencing. Analysis with the Blast .... Alain Farra was the principal investigator, working from levies on sites, cultivation ...

  8. SHORT CONTRIBUTIONS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    organisations as cultures: in which we construct ... an ecological world view and a political perspective of. EfS which ... moral considerations" and not just values of profit and growth. .... of Kurt Lewin: Theory, research and practice. Journal.

  9. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pond was drained and left empty for two weeks to dry and then lime was added .... using inoculating wire loop and cultured on Blood and MacConkey agar and ... and temperate zones causing Ichthyophthiriasis or 'white spot disease' (Scholz,.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) questionnaire: application in a sample of short-term survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Antonio; Trujillo-Martín, Maria del Mar; Rueda, Antonio; Pérez-Ruiz, Elisabeth; Avis, Nancy E; Bilbao, Amaia

    2015-11-16

    The aim of this study was to validate the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) in short-term Spanish cancer survivor's patients. Patients with breast, colorectal or prostate cancer that had finished their initial cancer treatment 3 years before the beginning of this study completed QLACS, WHOQOL, Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, EORTC-QLQ-BR23 and EQ-5D. Cultural adaptation was made based on established guidelines. Reliability was evaluated using internal consistency and test-retest. Convergent validity was studied by mean of Pearson's correlation coefficient. Structural validity was determined by a second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis was used to assess the unidimensionality of the Generic and Cancer-specific scales. Cronbach's alpha were above 0.7 in all domains and summary scales. Test-retest coefficients were 0.88 for Generic and 0.82 for Cancer-specific summary scales. QLACS generic summary scale was correlated with other generic criterion measures, SF-36 MCS (r = - 0.74) and EQ-VAS (r = - 0.63). QLACS cancer-specific scale had lower values with the same constructs. CFA provided satisfactory fit indices in all cases. The RMSEA value was 0.061 and CFI and TLI values were 0.929 and 0.925, respectively. All factor loadings were higher than 0.40 and statistically significant (P validity and reliability of QLACS questionnaire to be used in short-term cancer survivors.

  11. Short-Term Intercultural Psychotherapy: Ethnographic Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical…

  12. Short Stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Boye Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie

    2016-01-01

    -scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below......The use of appropriate growth standards/references is of significant clinical importance in assessing the height of children with short stature as it may determine eligibility for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of using World Health Organization (WHO) instead...... of national growth standards/references on height assessment in short children. Data were collected from routine clinical practice (1998-2014) from nine European countries that have available national growth references and were enrolled in NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (NCT00960128), a large...

  13. Short-term memory in networks of dissociated cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranias, Mark R; Ju, Han; Rajaram, Ezhilarasan; VanDongen, Antonius M J

    2013-01-30

    Short-term memory refers to the ability to store small amounts of stimulus-specific information for a short period of time. It is supported by both fading and hidden memory processes. Fading memory relies on recurrent activity patterns in a neuronal network, whereas hidden memory is encoded using synaptic mechanisms, such as facilitation, which persist even when neurons fall silent. We have used a novel computational and optogenetic approach to investigate whether these same memory processes hypothesized to support pattern recognition and short-term memory in vivo, exist in vitro. Electrophysiological activity was recorded from primary cultures of dissociated rat cortical neurons plated on multielectrode arrays. Cultures were transfected with ChannelRhodopsin-2 and optically stimulated using random dot stimuli. The pattern of neuronal activity resulting from this stimulation was analyzed using classification algorithms that enabled the identification of stimulus-specific memories. Fading memories for different stimuli, encoded in ongoing neural activity, persisted and could be distinguished from each other for as long as 1 s after stimulation was terminated. Hidden memories were detected by altered responses of neurons to additional stimulation, and this effect persisted longer than 1 s. Interestingly, network bursts seem to eliminate hidden memories. These results are similar to those that have been reported from similar experiments in vivo and demonstrate that mechanisms of information processing and short-term memory can be studied using cultured neuronal networks, thereby setting the stage for therapeutic applications using this platform.

  14. Short Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds...

  15. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  16. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  17. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: vani_chem@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.

  18. Short communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Vonk, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy veal calves (4-6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  19. The influence of short-time period of an adaptation to decreased ambient temperature on interleukin-6 and corticosterone levels in female Wistar strain rats in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Wójcik

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, there has been little research examining whether short-time changes of external environmental conditions exert any effects on immune responses. The activation of metabolic changes, release of hormones responsive for immunomodulation and the action of interleukins play an important role in interaction with hormones of an anterior pituitary gland in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of a short-time change of ambient temperature (30 minutes on interleukin-6 (IL-6 and corticosterone plasma concentration of female rats in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle. The climatic chamber with automatically adjustable and monitored internal environmental parameters (temperature, oxygenation, humidity was used during the experiment. The estimation of the vaginal lavage using a microscope was done to determine the estrous cycle. On the day of the experiment, animals were divided into 2 groups: the control group (ambient temperature 21 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C; normoxia 21% O2 and the test group (ambient temperature 10 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C; normoxia 21% O2 stayed in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes. The blood samples were collected before the experiment and after 30, 60, 90, 150 and 210 minutes from the beginning of the experiment. The concentrations of IL-6 and corticosterone were measured in blood plasma samples using ELISA method. There was a significant elevation of IL-6 levels after staying in 10 degrees C during the first 150 minutes from the beginning of the experiment, with the highest value occurring after 60 minutes (426.6 pg/ml; SE - 146.1 with comparison to the value at first sampling (108.5 pg/ml; SE - 29.5; p<0.05 and with comparison to the control group at the same time from the beginning of the experiment (87.6 pg/ml; SE - 2.3; p<0.05. The changed level of corticosterone in the test group in comparison to control group was observed but the differences were

  20. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Short Communication. QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural ...

  1. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Crotti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Short QT Syndrome is a recently described new genetic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT interval, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This autosomal dominant syndrome can afflict infants, children, or young adults; often a remarkable family background of cardiac sudden death is elucidated. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, with atrial fibrillation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. Gain of function mutations in three genes encoding K+ channels have been identified, explaining the abbreviated repolarization seen in this condition: KCNH2 for Ikr (SQT1, KCNQ1 for Iks (SQT2 and KCNJ2 for Ik1 (SQT3. The currently suggested therapeutic strategy is an ICD implantation, although many concerns exist for asymptomatic patients, especially in pediatric age. Pharmacological treatment is still under evaluation; quinidine has shown to prolong QT and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, but awaits additional confirmatory clinical data.

  2. Is adolescence a critical period for learning formal thinking skills? A case study investigating the development of formal thinking skills in a short-term inquiry-based intervention program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Forrest S.

    Current domestic and international comparative studies of student achievement in science are demonstrating that the U.S. needs to improve science education if it wants to remain competitive in the global economy. One of the causes of the poor performance of U.S. science education is the lack of students who have developed the formal thinking skills that are necessary to obtain scientific literacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that formal thinking skills can be taught to adolescents, however only 25% of incoming college freshman have these necessary skills. There is some evidence that adolescence (girls aged 11-13, boys aged 12-14) is a critical period where students must learn formal thinking skills, similar to the critical period that exists for young children learning languages. It is not known whether it is more difficult for students to learn formal thinking skills either prior to or following adolescence. The purpose of this quantitative case study is to determine whether adolescence is a critical period for students to learn formal thinking skills. The study also investigates whether a formal thinking skills focused program can improve students' intelligence. In this study 32 students who had not developed any formal thinking skills, ranging in age from 10-16, underwent an intensive four-week, inquiry-based, formal thinking skill intervention program that focused on two formal thinking skills: (1) the ability to control and exclude variables; and (2) the ability to manipulate ratios and proportionalities. The students undergoing the training were matched with control students by age, gender, formal thinking skill ability, and intelligence. The control group attended their traditional science course during the intervention periods. The results of the study showed that the intervention program was successful in developing students' formal thinking skills. The pre-adolescents (males, age 10-11, females, age 10) were unable to learn formal thinking skills

  3. Culture media used in the micropropagation of orchids hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Luzia Yuriko Miyata; Fabíola Villa

    2014-01-01

    In orchid cultivation, tissue culture has been an important and effective tool for obtaining good quality seedlings on a large scale and within a short period of time. This study aims to evaluate culture media on the in vitro growth and development of orchid hybrids. Seedlings 1-1.5 cm long, deriving from in vitro germination of seeds, were inoculated in 250 mL flasks containing 50 mL of culture medium, with salts from the media where each of them were treated. Treatments consisted of applyin...

  4. Short-day treatment alters Douglas-fir seedling dehardening and transplant root proliferation at varying rhizosphere temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Anthony S. Davis; BArrett C. Wilson; R. Kasten Dumroese; Rosa C. Goodman; K. Francis Salifu

    2008-01-01

    We tested effects of shortened day length during nursery culture on Douglis-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedling development at dormancy release. Seedlings from a 42 N source were grown either under ambient photoperiods (long-day (LD)) or with a 28 day period of 9 h light: 15 h dark photoperiods (short...

  5. Periodicity, the Canon and Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Scanlon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic according to this title is admittedly a broad one, embracing two very general concepts of time and of the cultural valuation of artistic products. Both phenomena are, in the present view, largely constructed by their contemporary cultures, and given authority to a great extent from the prestige of the past. The antiquity of tradition brings with it a certain cachet. Even though there may be peripheral debates in any given society which question the specifics of periodization or canonicity, individuals generally accept the consensus designation of a sequence of historical periods and they accept a list of highly valued artistic works as canonical or authoritative. We will first examine some of the processes of periodization and of canon-formation, after which we will discuss some specific examples of how these processes have worked in the sport of two ancient cultures, namely Greece and Mesoamerica.

  6. Análise do desenvolvimento das práticas urbanas de lazer relacionadas a produção cultural no período nacional-desenvolvimentista à globalização Analysis of urban development practices related to leisure and cultural production from the national-developmentalist period to globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Bettine de Almeida

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apresentar-se-á um cenário geral do desenvolvimento do lazer desde o nacional-desenvolvimentismo com Getúlio Vargas, Juscelino Kubitschek, Regime Militar até a globalização com a redemocratização e ampliação vertiginosa do lazer de consumo. Este panorama geral possibilitará afirmar que o lazer se desenvolveu pelo investimento estatal. Discutiu-se cada um dos momentos históricos contemplando as ações políticas, econômicas e culturais mais significativas, conforme análise bibliográfica. Objetivou-se construir neste trabalho a complexificação sistêmica do lazer no Brasil, concluindo que o lazer se complexificou a partir da racionalização das formas de vida, sistematização dos tempos e desencantamento do mundo. Com a teoria habermasiana fez-se a síntese entre as esferas de influência do lazer (Estado, Mercado e Cultura. Na conclusão apresentou-se a definição do lazer como fruto das relações entre subjetividades intactas no sistema capitalista, que se desenvolveu por meio da complexificação da sociedade, possuindo uma íntima ligação cultural-artística. Expressando as três esferas do Mundo da Vida (cultura, sociedade e personalidade.A general view of the development of leisure will be presented from the national development with Getúlio Vargas, Juscelino Kubitschek and also the military regime until the democratization and globalization period with the large expansion of leisure consumption. This overview will enable to conclude that leisure was developed by the state investment. It was discussed each of the historical moments contemplating the more significant political economic and cultural actions, based on literature review. The objective on this work was to build the systemic complexification of leisure in Brazil, concluding that leisure has been further complicated from the rationalization of life forms, the organization of time and also the world disenchantment. With Habermas's theory was made the

  7. Measuring Cultural Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsiurko, Natalka; Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Many claim that national economic success depends upon cultural homogeneity. We collect new time-series data and develop new measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization for the OECD countries. We show that cultural diversity may vary by type across countries and over short peri...

  8. Cell Culture Made Easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Frank J.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps to generate cell samples for observation and experimentation. The procedures (which use ordinary laboratory equipment) will establish a short-term primary culture of normal mammalian cells. Information on culture vessels and cell division and a list of questions to generate student interest and involvement in the topics are…

  9. Method and Apparatus for a Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleis, Stanley J. (Inventor); Geffert, Sandra K. (Inventor); Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A bioreactor and method that permits continuous and simultaneous short, moderate, or long term cell culturing of one or more cell types or tissue in a laminar flow configuration is disclosed, where the bioreactor supports at least two laminar flow zones, which are isolated by laminar flow without the need for physical barriers between the zones. The bioreactors of this invention are ideally suited for studying short, moderate and long term studies of cell cultures and the response of cell cultures to one or more stressors such as pharmaceuticals, hypoxia, pathogens, or any other stressor. The bioreactors of this invention are also ideally suited for short, moderate or long term cell culturing with periodic cell harvesting and/or medium processing for secreted cellular components.

  10. Short communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Fehrmann-Cartes, K.; Íiguez-González, G.

    2015-01-01

    with soybean (SO) and hydrogenated vegetable (HVO) oils on chemical and FA composition of milk and cheese and sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine multiparous Holstein cows averaging 169 ± 24. d in milk at the beginning of the study were used in a replicated (n = 3) 3 × 3 Latin square design that included 3...... periods of 21. d. All cows received a basal diet formulated with a 56:44 forage:concentrate ratio. Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control; no fat supplement), and the basal diet supplemented with SO (unrefined oil; 500. g/d per cow) and HVO (manufactured from palm oil; 500. g/d per cow...

  11. Cultural Diplomacy in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Anthony

    The evolution of European government activities in the sphere of international cultural relations is examined. Section 1 describes the period between World War I and World War II when European governments tried to enhance their prestige and policies by means of cultural propaganda. Section 2 analyzes the period during World War II when the…

  12. Adubação e o período anterior à interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do amendoim Effect of fertilization on weeds and on the period before weed interference in the peanut culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Yamauti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o efeito da adubação sobre a comunidade infestante e sobre o período anterior à interferência (PAI das plantas daninhas na cultura do amendoim, cv. IAC Runner 886, em sistema convencional. Os períodos de convivência estudados foram: 0, 7, 15, 20, 30, 45, 55 e 126 dias após a emergência (DAE, totalizando oito tratamentos, dispostos em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em dois níveis de adubação: 0 e 150 kg ha-1 da formulação 00-20-20 (N-P-K. A adubação não alterou a composição da comunidade infestante, destacando-se Cyperus rotundus, Eleusine indica, Indigofera hirsuta, Portulaca oleraceae e Sida rhombifolia como as espécies de maior importância relativa. Contudo, a densidade de plantas daninhas foi maior na área não adubada, mas sem afetar de modo diferenciado a massa seca acumulada por elas. O cultivar de amendoim IAC Runner 886 pode conviver com essa comunidade com e sem adubação por até 15 e 17 DAE (PAI, respectivamente, sem sofrer perdas significativas na produção. A interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu entre 31 e 34% a produtividade do amendoim para as áreas sem adubação e com adubação, respectivamente.This experiment was carried out to study the effect of fertilization on weed community and on the period before weed interference (PBI in peanut culture, IAC Runner 886, under a conventional till system. The weed control periods studied were: 0, 7, 15, 20, 30, 45, 55, and 126 days after emergence (DAE, totaling eight treatments, arranged in a randomized block design, with four replications and two levels of fertilization (0 and 150 kg ha-1 of formulation 00-20-20 (N-P-K. Fertilization did not affect the weed community, with the species Cyperus rotundus, Eleusine indica, Indigofera hirsuta, Portulaca oleracea and Sida rhombifolia being the most prominent at all levels of fertilization. However, weed density was higher in the non- fertilized

  13. Extension of the culture period for the in vitro growth of bovine oocytes in the presence of bone morphogenetic protein-4 increases oocyte diameter, but impairs subsequent developmental competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yinghua; Kanno, Chihiro; Sakaguchi, Kenichiro; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Katagiri, Seiji; Nagano, Masashi

    2017-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) inhibits luteinization of granulosa cells during in vitro growth (IVG) culture of bovine oocytes; however, oocytes derived from a 12 day IVG were less competent for development than in vivo-grown oocytes. We herein investigated whether an extended IVG culture with BMP-4 improves oocyte growth and development to blastocysts after in vitro fertilization. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) were cultured for 14 or 16 days with BMP-4 (10 ng/mL), while a 12 day culture with BMP-4 served as the in vitro control. OGC viability was maintained for the 16 day culture with BMP-4 (83.2%), but was significantly lower without BMP-4 (58.9%) than the control (83.0%). Prolong-cultured oocytes at 16 days had statistically greater diameter (114.6 μm) than the control (111.7 μm). IVG oocytes with BMP-4 for the 16 day culture had a similar nuclear maturation rate to the control (approximately 67%); however, blastocyst rates in BMP-4 treated oocytes of 14 (1.8%) and 16 day (0%) IVG were statistically lower than that of 12 day IVG (9.0%). In conclusion, BMP-4 maintained OGC viability and promoted oocyte growth in a prolonged culture, but impaired the developmental competence of oocytes. Prolonged culture may not be an appropriate strategy for enhancing the developmental competence of IVG oocytes. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Progress in short period multilayer coatings for water window applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullikson, E.M.; Salmassi, F.; Aquila, A.L.; Dollar, F.

    2006-01-01

    Absolute photoionization cross-section measurements for a mixture of ground and metastable states of Xe4+, Xe5+, and Xe6+ are reported in the photon energy range of 4d-nf transitions, which occur within or adjacent to the 13.5 nm window for extreme ultraviolet lithography light source development. The reported values allow the quantification of opacity effects in xenon plasmas due to these 4d-4f autoionizing states. The oscillator strengths for the 4d-4f and 4d-5f transitions in Xeq+ (q=1-6) ions are calculated using nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock and random phase approximations. These are compared with published experimental values for Xe+ to Xe3+ and with the values obtained from the present experimental cross-section measurements for Xe4+ to Xe6+. The calculations assisted in the determination of the metastable content in the ion beams for Xe5+T and Xe6+. The experiments were performed by merging a synchrotron photon beam generated by an undulator beamline of the Advanced Light Source with an ion beam produced by an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

  15. Analytical studies by activation. Part A and B: Counting of short half-life radio-nuclides. Part C: Analytical programs for decay curves; Etudes d'analyse par activation. Parties A et B: le comptage des radio-nucleides de periodes courtes. Partie C: programme de depouillement des courbes de decroissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junod, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-03-01

    Part A and B: Since a radio-nuclide of short half-life is characterized essentially by the decrease in its activity even while it is being measured, the report begins by recalling the basic relationships linking the half-life the counting time, the counting rate and the number of particles recorded. The second part is devoted to the problem of corrections for counting losses due to the idle period of multichannel analyzers. Exact correction formulae have been drawn up for the case where the short half-life radionuclide is pure or contains only a long half-life radio-nuclide. By comparison, charts have been drawn up showing the approximations given by the so-called 'active time' counting and by the counting involving the real time associated with a measurement of the overall idle period, this latter method proving to be more valid than the former. A method is given for reducing the case of a complex mixture to that of a two-component mixture. Part C: The problems connected with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the decay curves of a mixture of radioactive sources of which one at least has a short half-life are presented. A mathematical description is given of six basic processes for which some elements of Fortran programs are proposed. Two supplementary programs are drawn up for giving an overall treatment of problems of dosage in activation analysis: one on the basis of a simultaneous irradiation of the sample and of one or several known samples, the other with separate irradiation of the unknown and known samples, a dosimeter (activation, or external) being used for normalizing the irradiation flux conditions. (author) [French] Parties A et B: Un radionucleide de periode courte etant defini specialement par la decroissance de son activite pendant la duree meme du comptage, on rappelle en premiere partie de ce rapport les relations fondamentales qui lient periode, temps de comptage, taux de comptage et nombre d'impulsions enregistrees. La seconde partie

  16. Medicare Program: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment and Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment Systems and Quality Reporting Programs; Short Inpatient Hospital Stays; Transition for Certain Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospitals Under the Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment System; Provider Administrative Appeals and Judicial Review. Final rule with comment period; final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-13

    This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) and the Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system for CY 2016 to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare services paid under the OPPS and those paid under the ASC payment system. In addition, this final rule with comment period updates and refines the requirements for the Hospital Outpatient Quality Reporting (OQR) Program and the ASC Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program. Further, this document includes certain finalized policies relating to the hospital inpatient prospective payment system: Changes to the 2-midnight rule under the short inpatient hospital stay policy; and a payment transition for hospitals that lost their status as a Medicare-dependent, small rural hospital (MDH) because they are no longer in a rural area due to the implementation of the new Office of Management and Budget delineations in FY 2015 and have not reclassified from urban to rural before January 1, 2016. In addition, this document contains a final rule that finalizes certain 2015 proposals, and addresses public comments received, relating to the changes in the Medicare regulations governing provider administrative appeals and judicial review relating to appropriate claims in provider cost reports.

  17. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND REPORTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    1976). Among raptors there are those species where only the female incubates, those where the male may also incubate for short to longer periods, and those in which females and males equally share the incubation (Newton 1979). It is well known that both sexes incubate the clutch in vultures, both in the wild (Mundy et al.

  18. Yeşilçam Döneminde Van’ın Sinema Kültürü Van’s Cinema Culture in Yeşilçam Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu ERTAYLAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of theoretical studies concerning cinema due to the increase in the number of communication and fine arts faculties has been a stubborn fact. Many academics and picturegoers have scrutinised the past and present Turkish cinema; many new and old films have been examined in terms of their subject matters, styles, ideologies, genres, directors or the representation of a specific subject; films have been analysed through certain research methods; and eventually, a theoretically significant literature has started to be created. The significance of these kinds of studies cannot be denied. Yet, it is evident that the number of field studies in Turkish cinema falls behind the pleasing increase in the number of theoretical studies. Although there are no requirements to equalise these numbers, it is believed that the significance of field studies should not be ignored.The field studies based on the data collected from a certain pilot region have the potential to provide practical answers for problems specific to this region. In this respect, the study titled “Van’s Cinema Culture in Yeşilçam Period” is considered significant. With this study, it is aimed to obtain data concerning the development of cinema in Van and also to contribute to the advancement of the field. Such a study necessitates research studies that would offer an insight to previous periods or at least official documents that have evidential value. However, the lack of sources materials has been an important problem during the study. This problem has forced the study to be based predicate mainly on interviews and a descriptive analysis. Therefore, the interviews with the owners of old movie theatres as well as the local people of Van who are famous for their interest in cinema and art have become prominent. The data obtained; is associated with the general socio-political and socio-cultural condition of Turkey in the same periods.In the first part, the

  19. Deciphering Periodic Methanol Masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklum, Bringfried; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus; Hopp, Ulrich; Kraus, Alex; Linz, Hendrik; Sanna, Alberto; Sobolev, Andrej; Wolf, Verena

    2018-05-01

    Impressive progress has been made in recent years on massive star formation, yet the involved high optical depths even at submm/mm wavelengths make it difficult to reveal its details. Recently, accretion bursts of massive YSOs have been identified to cause flares of Class II methanol masers (methanol masers for short) due to enhanced mid-IR pumping. This opens a new window to protostellar accretion variability, and implies that periodic methanol masers hint at cyclic accretion. Pinning down the cause of the periodicity requires joint IR and radio monitoring. We derived the first IR light curve of a periodic maser host from NEOWISE data. The source, G107.298+5.639, is an intermediate-mass YSO hosting methanol and water masers which flare every 34.5 days. Our recent joint K-band and radio observations yielded first but marginal evidence for a phase lag between the rise of IR and maser emission, respectively, and revealed that both NEOWISE and K-band light curves are strongly affected by the light echo from the ambient dust. Both the superior resolution of IRAC over NEOWISE and the longer wavelengths compared to our ground-based imaging are required to inhibit the distractive contamination by the light echo. Thus, we ask for IRAC monitoring of G107 to cover one flare cycle, in tandem with 100-m Effelsberg and 2-m Wendelstein radio and NIR observations to obtain the first high-quality synoptic measurements of this kind of sources. The IR-maser phase lag, the intrinsic shape of the IR light curves and their possible color variation during the cycle allow us to constrain models for the periodic maser excitation. Since methanol masers are signposts of intermediate-mass and massive YSOs, deciphering their variability offers a clue to the dynamics of the accretion-mediated growth of massive stars and their feedback onto the immediate natal environment. The Spitzer light curve of such a maser-hosting YSO would be a legacy science product of the mission.

  20. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  1. Natural short sleeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep - natural short sleeper ... 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. Short sleepers sleep less than 75% of what is normal for their age. Natural short sleepers are different from people who chronically do ...

  2. Short QT syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenzo Gaita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The short QT syndrome (SQTS is a recently described genetic arrhythmogenic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT intervals on surface electrocardiogram (ECG and a high incidence of sudden death (SD during life, including the first months of life. The inheritance of SQTS is autosomal dominant, with genetic heterogeneity. Gain-of-function mutations in 3 genes encoding potassium channels have been associated to the disease: KCNH2 encoding IKr (SQT1, KCNQ1 encoding IKs (SQT2, and KCNJ2 encoding IK1 (SQT3. Loss-of-function mutations in 3 genes encoding the cardiac L-type calcium channel, CACNA1C, CACNB2b and CACNA2D1 may underlie a mixed phenotype of Brugada pattern ECG (or non-specific repolarization changes in case of CACNA2D1 and shorter than normal QT intervals. Clinical presentation is often severe, as cardiac arrest represents the first clinical presentation in most subjects. Moreover, often a noticeable family history of cardiac SD is present. Atrial fibrillation may be observed, also in young individuals. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, and atrial and ventricular fibrillation are easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. The outcome of patients with SQTS becomes relatively safe when they are identified and treated. Currently, the suggested therapeutic strategy is an implantable cardioverter- defibrillator (ICD in patients with personal history of aborted SD or syncope. In asymptomatic adult patients from highly symptomatic families and in newborn children pharmacological treatment with hydroquinidine, which has been shown to prolong the QT interval and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, may be proposed.

  3. Coder period - amplitude; Codeur periode - amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa Viera, D; Mourchou, R; Calvet, A; Pacchiani, L; Tattegrain, A

    1966-07-01

    For some flowmeters on nuclear reactors, apparatus which deliver an ac signal proportional to the flow, are usually used. This frequency information is converted into a continuous voltage with a coder. The described coder was studied for the Cabri reactor which was requiring a short response delay. (A.L.B.)

  4. The selective treatment of clinical mastitis based on on-farm culture results: I. Effects on antibiotic use, milk withholding time, and short-term clinical and bacteriological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, A; Godden, S M; Bey, R; Ruegg, P L; Leslie, K

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this multi-state, multi-herd clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of using an on-farm culture system to guide strategic treatment decisions in cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted in 8 commercial dairy farms ranging in size from 144 to 1,795 cows from Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Ontario, Canada. A total of 422 cows affected with mild or moderate clinical mastitis in 449 quarters were randomly assigned to either (1) a positive-control treatment program or (2) an on-farm, culture-based treatment program. Quarter cases assigned to the positive-control group received immediate on-label intramammary treatment with cephapirin sodium. Quarters assigned to the culture-based treatment program were cultured on-farm and treated with cephapirin sodium after 18 to 24h of incubation if they had gram-positive growth or a mixed infection. Quarters with gram-negative or no growth did not receive intramammary therapy. The proportion of quarter cases assigned to positive-control and culture-based treatments that received intramammary antibiotic therapy because of study assignment was 100 and 44%, respectively; the proportion of cases that received secondary antibiotic therapy was 36 and 19%, respectively; and the proportion of cases that received intramammary antibiotic therapy because of study assignment or secondary therapy was 100 and 51%, respectively. A tendency existed for a decrease in the number of days in which milk was discarded from cows assigned to the culture-based treatment program versus cows assigned to the positive-control group (5.9 vs. 5.2 d). No statistically significant differences existed between cases assigned to the positive-control and cases assigned to the culture-based treatment program in days to clinical cure (2.7 vs. 3.2 d), bacteriological cure risk within 21 d of enrollment (71 vs. 60%), new intramammary infection risk within 21 d of enrollment (50 vs. 50%), and treatment failure risk (presence of infection

  5. Storytelling and German Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Connie S. Eigenmann

    The genre of fairytales, one structured form of storytelling, has been labeled "Marchen." German culture is orally transmitted in this generic form, and can be traced to a collection of 210 fairytales, the Grimm brothers'"Kinder-und Taus-Marchen," first published shortly after 1800. For this study, research questions were posed…

  6. AccessCulture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtysson, Bjarki

    of the European Union, and how its cultural policy responds to the changes that the digital paradigm has brought upon the field. The self-publishing features of various Web 2.0 platforms, along with the interactive and distributional potentials that the Internet offers, have given rise to what is referred to here...... in cultural production and consumption. The first part of this works looks at how these changes respond to the field of cultural policy, as well as suggesting a possible culturepolitical reaction in a model which I refer to as access culture. In terms of theoretical approach, the notion of digital cultural...... of YouTube, MySpace, Facebook and Flickr, along with lesser known platforms such as the animated short film Elephants Dream, the BBC's Creative Archive, various Internet artworks and the Internet Archive. I furthermore introduce the copyright system Creative Commons in order to suggest legal, widely...

  7. Regional variation in short distance homogamy

    OpenAIRE

    Haandrikman, Karen; van Wissen, Leo

    2011-01-01

    A third of all Dutch cohabiters choose a partner from the same municipality, so-called short distance homogamy. This article analyses the regional variation in this phenomenon, and it explains this variation in terms of geographical, socioeconomic, demographic and cultural determinants. Population register data on all new cohabiters in 2004 were used. Regression methods were employed to explain spatial patterns. Regional variation in short distance homogamy is largely explained by geographica...

  8. Contamination of a green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) from fresh water by radionuclides typical of PWR effluents: culture in a turbidostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombre, L.; Carraro, S.; Myttenaere, C.

    1987-01-01

    The fixation of radioactive polluents, typical for PWR effluents, by the green soft water algae Scenedesmus obliquus is studied by means of a continuous culture method and in controlled conditions (turbidostat). Transfer factors are obtained. The elimination of radiocesium occurs in two distinct phases characterized respectively by a short biological period of less than one hour and a long period of the order of one day. The photosynthetic metabolism of the algae accounts for 25% of the decorporation. (Author)

  9. Perfluoroctano líquido como tamponante vitreorretiniano de curta duração no pós-operatório de portadores de descolamento de retina por ruptura gigante Perfluoroctane liquid as a short-term vitreous-retinal tamponade in the postoperative period in patients with retinal detachment due to giant tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carvalho Ventura

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Relatar os resultados de vitrectomia via pars plana com utilização de perfluocarbono líquido (Perfluoroctano-Ophtalmos®, como tamponante vítreo-retiniano de curta duração, no pós-operatório de portadores de descolamento de retina, por ruptura gigante. MÉTODOS: Estudaram-se dez desses pacientes. Todos os casos eram complicados por vitreorretinopatia proliferativa grau B ou pior com rupturas que variavam em extensão de 90º a 210º. O perfluorocarbono líquido foi introduzido, por via pars plana, com o volume necessário para ultrapassar o limite posterior da ruptura, permanecendo no pós-operatório por cinco dias, estando os pacientes em decúbito dorsal. Após esse período submetiam-se a segunda intervenção para troca do perfluorocarbono líquido para gás ou óleo de silicone. RESULTADOS: Após período de acompanhamento médio de 16,2 ± 12,4 meses (2 a 43 meses, 80% das retinas estavam aplicadas, sendo necessária a repetição desta técnica em 1 caso (10% caso e em 2 casos (20% não houve reaplicação da retina por vitreorretinopatia avançada. Houve melhora da acuidade visual em 5 casos (50%. CONCLUSÃO: Observaram-se bons resultados quanto à aplicação da retina (80% e melhora da acuidade visual (50% quando do uso do perfluorocarbono líquido como tamponante vitreorretiniano de curta duração no pós-operatório de cirurgias de descolamento de retina por rupturas gigantes.PURPOSE: To report pars plana vitrectomy results of intravitreous use of liquid perfluorocarbon as a short-term postoperative tamponade in retinal detachment due to giant tears in a series of patients. METHODS: Ten of those patients, all of them complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade B or worse, with tear extension varying from 90º to 210º were studied. Perfluorocarbon liquid was injected via pars plana until the posterior tear limit, remaining in the postoperative period during five days, with the patients in supine position

  10. Cultural resource management and the necessity of cultural and natural resource collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick Kevin Donald; Kara Kusche; Collin Gaines

    2005-01-01

    Cultural Resource Specialists function as interpreters of past and present human behavior through the analysis of cultural/natural resources vital to human ecological sustainability. When developing short and long-term preservation strategies for cultural resources, it is more current and innovative for Cultural Resource Specialists to think of past human populations...

  11. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  12. Nothing a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Frank

    2009-01-01

    What is 'nothing'? What remains when you take all the matter away? Can empty space - a void - exist? This Very Short Introduction explores the science and the history of the elusive void: from Aristotle who insisted that the vacuum was impossible, via the theories of Newton and Einstein, to our very latest discoveries and why they can tell us extraordinary things about the cosmos. Frank Close tells the story of how scientists have explored the elusive void, and the rich discoveries that they have made there. He takes the reader on a lively and accessible history through ancient ideas and cultural superstitions to the frontiers of current research

  13. Culture Jamming Versus Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardia Acynthia Putri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This literature study researched Adbusters, the anti-commercial organization, and described the organization’s activities and media usage, mainly in the period of 2007-2010, which critized the populer culture. Adbusters is an organization which performs “Culture Jamming”; a rebellious act reacting towards commercialism domination in many aspects including popular culture. Compared to other similar organizations, Adbusters has been executing more various activisms using several media which other organizations do not use. This study used the Adbusters’ official website and blogs as main data sources. The data of Adbusters’ activities and media usage were categorized and analyzed, thus the tendency of its development can be described. This study also analyzed Adbusters’ activity using Media Hegemony Theory and Political Economy Media Theory. The media has been dominated by a certain group that owns politic and economic power, so the information flow has been dominated by them. Media and its contents have been commercialized, thus capitalism and commercialism have been considered as a common system that should run the world. Adbusters has been trying to stop the domination and change the society’s way of thinking into a more critical way of thinking.   Abstrak: Studi literatur ini meneliti tentang Adbusters, sebuah organisasi anti komersial, dengan mendeskripsikan aktivitas serta penggunaan media organisasi tersebut dari tahun 2007-2010 dalam mengkritisi budaya populer. Adbusters adalah organisasi yang melakukan Culture Jamming, aksi perlawanan terhadap dominasi komersialisme di segala aspek termasuk popular culture. Dibandingkan dengan organisasi lain yang serupa, aktivitas Adbusters lebih bervariasi dan menggunakan media-media yang tidak biasa digunakan organisasi lain. Penelitian ini menggunakan situs online resmi Adbusters sebagai sumber data utama. Data mengenai aktivitas dan

  14. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  15. Organizational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1988-01-01

    Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of sec...

  16. "Doctors on the move": Exploring professionalism in the light of cultural transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKimm, Judy; Wilkinson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    As the world becomes "flattened" and travel is easier, doctors and other health professionals move and live around the world in large numbers: some for short periods (such as student electives) others on a longer-term or permanent basis. Similarly, as wider migration patterns play out, all doctors need to learn to work in multi-cultural environments, whether they move countries or work in their "home country". We consider cross-cultural aspects of "professionalism" in terms of medical students' and graduates' assimilation into different cultures and some of the aspects of professional practice that may be problematic where cultural expectations and practices may differ. Specifically we explore professional socialization, identity formation, acculturation and cultural competency as related concepts that help our understanding of challenges for individuals and strategies for curriculum development or support mechanisms.

  17. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with air (called pneumotho- rax), it will hinder expansion of the lung, resulting in shortness of ... of Chest Physi- cians. Shortness of Breath: Patient Education. http: / / www. onebreath. org/ document. doc? id= 113. ...

  18. TECHNICAL CULTURE AND HUMAN AXJOSPHERE

    OpenAIRE

    ­Krystyna Chałas

    2014-01-01

    Technical culture is the value of each historical period. It is the subject of the ongoing development. While it is a value which is associated with different categories of values, mainly material, cognitive, social. Between culture and these three categories of values ​ there is a cognitive effect. Technical culture determines the quality of human axjosphere. The aim of this study is to show the relationships and dependencies between technical culture and the structures in which a person liv...

  19. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  20. Blacks in Pop Music: A Short Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickelman, Melinda

    1991-01-01

    A short history of black pop music includes artists who have changed pop music or culture and highlights from the 1920s into the 1980s, from Fats Waller to Michael Jackson. In black pop music, there is a direct line of influence from the sharecropper to the current Top 40. (SLD)

  1. Regional variation in short distance homogamy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haandrikman, K.; van Wissen, L.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A third of all Dutch cohabiters choose a partner from the same municipality, so-called short distance homogamy. This article analyses the regional variation in this phenomenon, and it explains this variation in terms of geographical, socioeconomic, demographic and cultural determinants. Population

  2. Cultural entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Klamer (Arjo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCultural entrepreneurship is a new character in the cultural sector. This paper characterizes the cultural entrepreneur paying homage to the hermeneutic approach of Don Lavoie and others. The challenge is to render the "cultural" meaningful. An invention is the highlighting of the

  3. Industrial cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    1996-01-01

    The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed.......The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed....

  4. Short Corr1munication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999). In vitro culture techniques have been used to study different aspects of gennination .... differentiation of protocomes, in seed callus of an orchid and correlated changes in free amino acids ... with tobacco tissue culture. Physiol. Plant.

  5. The Periodic Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  6. Book Reviews in Periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt, Harold J.

    All recent issues of periodicals found which contain indexed book reviews are listed in this compilation from Drake Memorial Library at the New York State University at Brockport. The periodicals are listed by 29 subject headings in this informal guide designed to be used at Drake Library. The number of reviews in the periodical in a recent year…

  7. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  8. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor Hobeanu; Loredana Vacarescu Hobeanu

    2010-01-01

    Communication reveals the importance of organizational culture and management culture supported by the remarkable results in economic and social level of organization. Their functions are presented and specific ways of expression levels of organizational culture and ways of adapting to the requirements of the organization's management culture.

  9. Astronomy and culture

    CERN Document Server

    Hetherington, Edith

    2009-01-01

    While astronomy is a burgeoning science, with tremendous increases in knowledge every year, it also has a tremendous past, one that has altered humanity's understanding of our place in the universe. The impact of astronomy on culture - whether through myths and stories, or through challenges to the intellectual status quo - is incalculable. This volume in the Greenwood Guides to the Universe series examines how human cultures, in all regions and time periods, have tried to make sense of the wonders of the universe. Astronomy and Culture shows students how people throughout time have struggled

  10. Cultural commons and cultural evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Giangiacomo

    2010-01-01

    Culture evolves following a process that is akin to biological evolution, although with some significant differences. At the same time culture has often a collective good value for human groups. This paper studies culture in an evolutionary perspective, with a focus on the implications of group definition for the coexistence of different cultures. A model of cultural evolution is presented where agents interacts in an artificial environment. The belonging to a specific memetic group is a majo...

  11. Tools to quantify safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avella, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the notion of safety culture and then describes some of the tools that can be used to assess it. Required characteristics to obtain reliable tools and techniques are provided, along with a short summary of the most common and important tools and techniques used to assess safety culture at the nuclear field is described. At the end of this paper, the reader will better understand the importance of the safety culture of the organization and will have requirements to help him in choosing reliable tools and techniques. Further, there will be recommendations on how best to follow-up after an assessment of safety culture. (author)

  12. Narcissism and the Strategic Pursuit of Short-Term Mating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, David P.; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the curr...... limitations of these cross-culturally universal findings and presents suggestions for future research into revealing the precise psychological features of narcissism that facilitate the strategic pursuit of short-term mating....

  13. Painful menstrual periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... into two groups, depending on the cause: Primary dysmenorrhea Secondary dysmenorrhea Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that ...

  14. Over the Counter Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    A group exhibition which brings together 8 contemporary scottish artists to explore scottish identity and culture during the referendum period.\\ud \\ud My Contribution: "Real Life and How to Live it in Pangea. A large scale installation with video, free posters and postcards articulating the idea where the supercontinent Pangea (250 million years ago) and Pangea Ultima (in 250 million years time) stand for periods of Global hope and continuity exploring the idea that that the current stormy wo...

  15. Culturing Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  16. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Safety culture has become a topic of increasing interest for industry and regulators as issues are raised on safety problems around the world. The keys to safety culture are organizational effectiveness, effective communications, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages the identification and resolution of safety issues. The necessity of a strong safety culture places an onus on all of us to continually question whether the safety measures already in place are sufficient, and are being applied. (author)

  17. On some periodicity effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The talk is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of wave-guide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim o...

  18. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  19. Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 (SF-MPQ-2: A Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation Study of the Persian Version in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Kachooei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to develop and validate the Persian version of Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 (SF-MPQ-2 in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Translation and back translation was performed using Beaton’s guideline. After a consensus has achieved on the Persian version of SF-MPQ-2, it was administered to 30 patients with knee osteoarthritis in a pilot study. Then, we enrolled 100 patients with knee osteoarthritis to fill the final SF-MPQ-2 as well as SF-36 and WOMAC questionnaires. Forty-three patients returned 3 days after the initial visit to fill the Persian SF-MPQ-2 for the second time. Construct validity was tested by Pearson’s correlation coefficient between subscales of SF-MPQ-2 and subscales of SF-36 and WOMAC. Internal consistency for total and subscales was calculated by Cronbach’s alpha and reliability between test retest was performed using Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Results: ICC for subscales of SF-MPQ-2 ranged from 0.73 to 0.90. The ICC for total SF-MPQ-2 was 0.90. Cronbach’s alpha for subscales was 0.65-0.74 at the first visit and 0.58-0.81 at the second visit. Cronbach’s alpha for the total questionnaire was 0.88 and 0.91 at the first and second visit, respectively. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was highly significant when comparing subscales specifically with WOMAC (r=-0.47 to -0.61; P

  20. Spanish cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Schizophrenia Quality of Life short-version questionnaire (SQoL18) in 3 middle-income countries: Bolivia, Chile and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra; Boyer, Laurent; Boucekine, Mohamed; Auquier, Pascal

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to adapt the Schizophrenia - Quality of Life short-version questionnaire (SQoL18) for use in three middle-income countries in Latin America and to evaluate the factor structure, reliability, and external validity of this questionnaire. The SQoL18 was translated into Spanish using a well-validated forward-backward process. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the SQoL18 in a sample of 253 patients with schizophrenia attending outpatient mental health services in three Latin American countries. For participants in each country (Bolivia, N=83; Chile, N=85; Peru, N=85), psychometric properties were compared to those reported from the reference population (507 patients with schizophrenia) assessed in the validation study. In addition, differential item functioning (DIF) analyses were performed to see whether all items behave in the same way in each country. Factor analysis performed in the 3 countries showed that the questionnaire's structure adequately matched the initial structure of the SQoL18. The unidimensionality of the dimensions was preserved, and the internal/external validity indices were close to those of the reference population. However, one dimension of the SQoL18 (resilience) presented some unsatisfactory properties including low Cronbach's alpha coefficients, one INFIT value higher than 1.2, and one item showing DIF between the 3 countries. These results demonstrate the satisfactory acceptability and psychometric properties of the SQoL18, suggesting the relevance of this questionnaire among patients with schizophrenia in these 3 Latin American countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 (SF-MPQ-2: A Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation Study of the Persian Version in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Kachooei

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to develop and validate the Persian version of Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 (SF-MPQ-2 in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Translation and back translation was performed using Beaton’s guideline. After a consensus has achieved on the Persian version of SF-MPQ-2, it was administered to 30 patients with knee osteoarthritis in a pilot study. Then, we enrolled 100 patients with knee osteoarthritis to fill the final SF-MPQ-2 as well as SF-36 and WOMAC questionnaires. Forty-three patients returned 3 days after the initial visit to fill the Persian SF-MPQ-2 for the second time. Construct validity was tested by Pearson’s correlation coefficient between subscales of SF-MPQ-2 and subscales of SF-36 and WOMAC. Internal consistency for total and subscales was calculated by Cronbach’s alpha and reliability between test retest was performed using Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Results: ICC for subscales of SF-MPQ-2 ranged from 0.73 to 0.90. The ICC for total SF-MPQ-2 was 0.90. Cronbach’s alpha for subscales was 0.65-0.74 at the first visit and 0.58-0.81 at the second visit. Cronbach’s alpha for the total questionnaire was 0.88 and 0.91 at the first and second visit, respectively. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was highly significant when comparing subscales specifically with WOMAC (r=-0.47 to -0.61; P

  2. Defining and assessing organizational culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellot, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Using theories from several disciplines, the concept of organizational culture remains controversial. Conflicting definitions, lack of semantic clarity, and debate over the most appropriate methods for assessing organizational culture have led to disagreement over the value and validity of such inquiry. This paper reviews development of the concept of organizational culture and methods for assessing organizational culture, focusing on the healthcare environment. Most work on organizational culture concerns the traditional corporation. Therefore, some adaptation to the central goals and focus of a human services organization are necessary before application to healthcare settings. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Periods and Nori motives

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  4. Beyond Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the lack of literature relating to cultural differences and school library media programs and reviews the book "Beyond Culture" by Edward T. Hall. Highlights include the population/environment crisis, cultural literacy, the use of technology, and Marshall McLuhan's idea of the global village. (LRW)

  5. Bile culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - bile ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium to see if bacteria, viruses, or fungi ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Body fluid - anaerobic culture. In: ... . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:225-226. Kim AY, ...

  6. Handling Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden

    2011-01-01

    The article indicates how companies may prepare for and deal with cultural differences. Because the research base is still rather limited an overall perspective may not be realised. After discussing definitions and concepts of culture, as well as values, cultural differences between states are

  7. Assessment of Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilic Zabric, T.; Kavsek, D.

    2006-01-01

    A strong safety culture leads to more effective conduct of work and a sense of accountability among managers and employees, who should be given the opportunity to expand skills by training. The resources expended would thus result in tangible improvements in working practices and skills, which encourage further improvement of safety culture. In promoting an improved safety culture, NEK has emphasized both national and organizational culture with an appropriate balance of behavioural sciences and quality management systems approaches. In recent years there has been particular emphasis put on an increasing awareness of the contribution that human behavioural sciences can make to develop good safety practices. The purpose of an assessment of safety culture is to increase the awareness of the present culture, to serve as a basis for improvement and to keep track of the effects of change or improvement over a longer period of time. There is, however, no single approach that is suitable for all purposes and which can measure, simultaneously, all the intangible aspects of safety culture, i.e. the norms, values, beliefs, attitudes or the behaviours reflecting the culture. Various methods have their strengths and weaknesses. To prevent significant performance problems, self-assessment is used. Self-assessment is the process of identifying opportunities for improvement actively or, in some cases, weaknesses that could cause more serious errors or events. Self-assessments are an important input to the corrective action programme. NEK has developed questionnaires for safety culture self-assessment to obtain information that is representative of the whole organization. Questionnaires ensure a greater degree of anonymity, and create a less stressful situation for the respondent. Answers to questions represent the more apparent and conscious values and attitudes of the respondent. NEK proactively co-operates with WANO, INPO, IAEA in the areas of Safety Culture and Human

  8. "Fate: The short film"

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Quintana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    "Fate: The Short Film" is a four minute short film which reflects the idea that nobody can escape from the fate. It has a good picture and sound quality with an understandable message for all public and with the collaboration of actors, filmmaker, stylist, script advisor and media technician.

  9. [Shunt and short circuit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Abundis, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Shunt and short circuit are antonyms. In French, the term shunt has been adopted to denote the alternative pathway of blood flow. However, in French, as well as in Spanish, the word short circuit (court-circuit and cortocircuito) is synonymous with shunt, giving rise to a linguistic and scientific inconsistency. Scientific because shunt and short circuit made reference to a phenomenon that occurs in the field of the physics. Because shunt and short circuit are antonyms, it is necessary to clarify that shunt is an alternative pathway of flow from a net of high resistance to a net of low resistance, maintaining the stream. Short circuit is the interruption of the flow, because a high resistance impeaches the flood. This concept is applied to electrical and cardiovascular physiology, as well as to the metabolic pathways.

  10. Suicide and Western culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; McArthur, Milford

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the cultural roots and transmission of Western suicide and suicidal behaviour. We explored a period of antiquity (mythical Greece-61 CE) and selected accounts of 10 prominent suicides. The precipitating circumstances were tabulated and an assessment made of the most likely attendant emotions. The same process was followed for a recent period (1994-2008), from which 10 suicides were identified. The precipitating circumstances and the attendant emotions were compared. These circumstances and emotions were then compared to statements commonly encountered in clinical practice from people demonstrating suicidal behaviour. Finally, we looked for evidence that these stories (and the response models) had entered Western culture. Precipitating circumstances, loss of a loved one, actual or imminent execution or imprisonment, other losses and public disgrace, and the negative emotions of shame, guilt, fear, anger, grief and sorrow were common to both historical periods. These circumstances and emotions are similar to those commonly expressed by people who have demonstrated suicidal behaviour. There was a clear record (literature, visual arts) of these stories forming part of our cultural heritage. Models of maladaptive responses to certain adverse circumstances are part of Western culture. Suicide as a response to certain circumstances and negative emotions can be traced back more than 2000 years. Cultural change will be necessary to minimize suicide.

  11. Idiopathic short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaški Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a complex process and the basic characteristic of child- hood growth monitoring provides insight into the physiological and pathological events in the body. Statistically, the short stature means departure from the values of height for age and sex (in a particular environment, which is below -2 standard deviation score, or less than -2 standard deviation, i.e. below the third percentile. Advances in molecular genetics have contributed to the improvement of diagnostics in endocrinology. Analysis of patients’ genotypes should not be performed before taking a classical history, detailed clinical examination and appropriate tests. In patients with idiopathic short stature specific causes are excluded, such as growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, short stature due to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, dysmorphology syndromes and chronic childhood diseases. The exclusion of abovementioned conditions leaves a large number of children with short stature whose etiology includes patients with genetic short stature or familial short stature and those who are low in relation to genetic potential, and who could also have some unrecognized endocrine defect. Idiopathic short stature represents a short stature of unknown cause of heterogeneous etiology, and is characterized by a normal response of growth hormone during stimulation tests (>10 ng/ml or 20 mJ/l, without other disorders, of normal body mass and length at birth. In idiopathic short stature standard deviation score rates <-2.25 (-2 to -3 or <1.2 percentile. These are also criteria for the initiation of growth hormone therapy. In children with short stature there is also the presence of psychological and social suffering. Goals of treatment with growth hormone involve achieving normal height and normal growth rate during childhood.

  12. Traditional culture of Slovakian minorities in Central and Southeastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavkovski Peter

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Europe and within various historical and socio-economic conditions, Slovaks have formed many enclaves and diasporas. In order to investigate common cultural and ethnic characteristics and/or differences between Slovaks in Slovakia and the various diasporas that they formed in relationship with majorities of their host countries, we suggest the usage of the cartographic method. Namely, during the 1997-1999 the Institute of Ethnology of the Slovakian Academy of Science used the cartographic method to analyze various complex questions relating to the traditional culture and ethnic history of many Slovakian minorities in the countries of Central Europe: in Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Hungary. The project was named Traditional Culture of Slovakian Minorities in Central Europe - the application of ethno-cartographic method in research and comparison of cultural manifestation. The project yield positive results and in 2000-2002 proceeded with yet another scientific project: Traditional Culture of Slovakian Minorities in Southeastern Europe - the application of the cartographic method in research and comparison of cultural manifestations once more, the data were obtained on the traditional folk culture of the Slovakian enclaves in Vojvodina and Croatia. The cartographic method used in both projects enabled researchers to document relevant data in a relatively short period of time. A solid foundation was created for a scientific synthesis of selected topics that deal with the traditional culture of Slovakian minorities in Central and Southeastern Europe, and its comparisons with the parent country culture. The cartographic method is widely used in Slovakia, in some 250 sites. Further, the scientific project of the Institute of Ethnology of the Slovakian Academy of Science named Traditional Culture of Slovakian Minorities in Central and Southern Europe as an integral part of their cultural inheritance (In between cultural stability and

  13. Growing Arabidopsis in vitro: cell suspensions, in vitro culture, and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Pantoja, Omar

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of basic methods in Arabidopsis tissue culture is beneficial for any laboratory working on this model plant. Tissue culture refers to the aseptic growth of cells, organs, or plants in a controlled environment, in which physical, nutrient, and hormonal conditions can all be easily manipulated and monitored. The methodology facilitates the production of a large number of plants that are genetically identical over a relatively short growth period. Techniques, including callus production, cell suspension cultures, and plant regeneration, are all indispensable tools for the study of cellular biochemical and molecular processes. Plant regeneration is a key technology for successful stable plant transformation, while cell suspension cultures can be exploited for metabolite profiling and mining. In this chapter we report methods for the successful and highly efficient in vitro regeneration of plants and production of stable cell suspension lines from leaf explants of both Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis halleri.

  14. Culture of insect tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cestari, A.N.; Simoes, L.C.G.

    1978-01-01

    Several aspects are discussed related to the behavior of politenic chromosomes from Rhyncosciara salivary glands kept in culture during different periods of time, without interference of insect hormones. Nucleic acid-and protein synthesis in isolated nuclei and chromosomes are also investigated. Autoradiographic techniques and radioactive precursors for nucleic acids and proteins are used in the research. (M.A.) [pt

  15. Mean-periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Berenstein

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.

  16. The short story as a form of self-legitimation and self-reflexion (on the example of a Bosnian and Hercegovinian short story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Softić-Gasal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The short story, as a new literary genre of Bosnian and Herzegovinian literature of the transitional period, has found its way to enter the market of recipients. The role of the reader as a member of a specific cultural group is very important when trying to define the short story. The reader is one of the participants of a contextual network that makes all literary works “open”, thus offering enormous possibilities of detailed reading, rereading and reflection. Previous attempts to define the short story depict it as a modern, contemporary and intensive prose form and a response to the internal raptures of modern recipients. Engaging readers in the process of creating has been achieved by the well-known Brechtian waking up to reality which breaks, to some extent, both the narrative and theatrical illusions. By comparing the so called open forms of stories/dramas,a particular pattern of linguistic behaviour of characters is observed that reflects their difficulties to articulate their feelings, to express them and to reveal them to themselves and to others. Most of the compared short stories/dramas of open forms are characterized by impaired communication between characters. Their statements barely follow one another or, in turn, come with hesitation and have the characteristics of intellectual disability. Zlatko Topčić’s stories Garib and Hasanaginica present the social problem of accepting the allegorical morality/mentality of male society, while promoting the characters as carriers of both the burden of otherness and their own immanent perspective of resistance. Games of signifiers (God, ownership, state represent the power of the ideology of modern class society. Many short stories from the period of transition of Bosnian and Herzegovinian society are a valuable challenge to the reader’s sensibility to grasp the relativity of the perspective of all socially assumed standards of evaluation.

  17. Short Research Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-10

    Mar 10, 2018 ... Developing a culture of learning will assist in developing a culture of ... organisation that promotes radiation safety in the workplace. ... for patients and operators, which places them at increased risk of the effects of ionising radiation. ... It is concerning that there is a difference in training between radiologists.

  18. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  19. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  20. Super periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.

  1. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  2. The Periodic Table CD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  3. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  4. Supersymmetrically transformed periodic potentials

    OpenAIRE

    C, David J. Fernandez

    2003-01-01

    The higher order supersymmetric partners of a stationary periodic potential are studied. The transformation functions associated to the band edges do not change the spectral structure. However, when the transformation is implemented for factorization energies inside of the forbidden bands, the final potential will have again the initial band structure but it can have bound states encrusted into the gaps, giving place to localized periodicity defects.

  5. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan; Suresh Rama Chandran; Geetha Thirumalnesan; Nedumaran Doraisamy

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recove...

  6. The Reformation: A Very Short Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    TKACHENKO, Rostislav

    2017-01-01

    A small, relatively recent, and well-written book by Peter Marshall belongs tothe well-known Oxford series called “Very Short Introductions.” It is an informativeand analytical introduction to the history, culture, politics, and theology of theReformation that took place in sixteenth-century Europe. The Reformation is anacademic research-based book that is nevertheless very accessible to a wide audience. It is part of the larger company of historical and cultural mini-handbooks such as, The M...

  7. Imaging in short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2012-09-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  8. Imaging in short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  9. Short bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, L.G.J.B.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of short bowel syndrome. When approximately 1 m or less small bowel is retained after extensive resection, a condition called short bowel syndrome is present. Since the advent of parenteral nutrition, the prognosis of patients with a very short bowel has dramatically improved. Patients with 40 to 100 cm remaining jejunum and/or ileum can generally be maintained with oral nutrition due to increased absorption of the small bowel remnant as result of intestinal adaptation. This study reports clinical, biochemical and nutritional aspects of short bowel patients on oral or parenteral nutrition, emphasizing data on absorption of various nutrients and on bone metabolism. Furthermore, some technical apsects concerning long-term parenteral nutrition are discussed. (Auth.)

  10. Catapults fall short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    In reply to the news story "UK Catapults fall short, claims review of technology centres", which describes an independent review that criticized the management of the UK's network of technology innovation centres.

  11. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    1984-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  12. Imaging in short stature

    OpenAIRE

    Vikas Chaudhary; Shahina Bano

    2012-01-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions ...

  13. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  14. A pilot study of short-duration sputum pretreatment procedures for optimizing smear microscopy for tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Daley

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB lacks sensitivity for the detection of acid fast bacilli. Sputum pretreatment procedures may enhance sensitivity. We did a pilot study to compare the diagnostic accuracy and incremental yield of two short-duration (<1 hour sputum pretreatment procedures to optimize direct smears among patients with suspected TB at a referral hospital in India.Blinded laboratory comparison of bleach and universal sediment processing (USP pretreated centrifuged auramine smears to direct Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN and direct auramine smears and to solid (Loweinstein-Jensen (LJ and liquid (BACTEC 460 culture. 178 pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB suspects were prospectively recruited during a one year period. Thirty six (20.2% were positive by either solid or liquid culture. Direct ZN smear detected 22 of 36 cases and direct auramine smears detected 26 of 36 cases. Bleach and USP centrifugation detected 24 cases each, providing no incremental yield beyond direct smears. When compared to combined culture, pretreated smears were not more sensitive than direct smears (66.6% vs 61.1 (ZN or 72.2 (auramine, and were not more specific (92.3% vs 93.0 (ZN or 97.2 (auramine.Short duration sputum pretreatment with bleach and USP centrifugation did not increase yield as compared to direct sputum smears. Further work is needed to confirm this in a larger study and also determine if longer duration pre-treatment might be effective in optimizing smear microscopy for TB.

  15. Cultural contrast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cultural contains a great number of styles;culture differentiation does not depend on region differentiation.This research would interpret what difference between Hong Kong and Shenzhen.1.Food culture in china Traditional Chinese medicine suggests eating local seasonal fruit and vegetables,as they are most suitable for the body during a particular season.It is also divided food into 3 characteristics:cooling foods,warming foods and balance or

  16. Culture evolves

    OpenAIRE

    Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to...

  17. Short-timescale variability in cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, F.A.; Mason, K.O.

    1982-01-01

    Rapid variability, including flickering and pulsations, has been detected in cataclysmic binaries at optical and x-ray frequencies. In the case of the novalike variable TT Arietis, simultaneous observations reveal that the x-ray and optical flickering activity is strongly correlated, while short period pulsations are observed that occur at the same frequencies in both wavelength bands

  18. Manuscript Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What do Mesoamerica, Greece, Byzantium, Island, Chad, Ethiopia, India, Tibet, China and Japan have in common? Like many other cultures of the world, they share a particular form of cultural heritage: ancient handwritten documents. In 2007, scholars from some20 countries around the world gathered...... at the University of Copenhagen for a workshop on manuscripts to compare notes. This event led to the publication of this volume, which brings together16 articles on philological, cultural, and material aspects of manuscripts in search for a common ground across disciplines and cultures....

  19. Periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluck, E.; Heumann, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups of the periodic table shall be numbered from 1 to 18, instead of I to VIII as before. The recommendations has been approved of by the Committee on Nomenclature of the American Chemical Society. The new system abandons the distinction between main groups (a) and auxiliary groups (b), which in the past frequently has been the reason for misunderstandings between European and American chemists, due to different handling. The publishing house VCH Verlagsgesellschaft recently produced a new periodic table that shows the old and the new numbering system together at a glance, so that chemists will have time to get familiar with the new system. In addition the new periodic table represents an extensive data compilation arranged by elements. The front page lists the chemical properties of elements, the back page their physical properties. (orig./EF) [de

  20. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recovery after the medical intervention and was discharged after 24 hours with no residual paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP is a complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common amongst males in Asia. It presents as acute flaccid paralysis in a case of hyperthyroidism with associated hypokalemia. The features of thyrotoxicosis may be subtle or absent. Thus, in cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to consider thyrotoxicosis as one of the possible causes, and take measures accordingly.