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Sample records for short coupled pvc

  1. Improvement in mechanical properties of glass fiber fabric/PVC composites with chopped glass fibers and coupling agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaewoong; Park, Su Bin; Lee, Joon Seok; Kim, Jong Won

    2017-07-01

    Glass fiber reinforced polyvinylchloride (PVC) composite is used widely because of its low price, chemical resistance, and dimensional stability, but most are short fiber reinforced PVC composites. Fabric reinforced composite have undulated regions, which is the only region without fiber, due to the characteristics of the weave construction, and it limits increasing the mechanical properties. Therefore, in this study, to increase the mechanical properties, the undulated regions of the glass fiber fabric/PVC composite were filled with a silane coupling agent treated chopped fiber. The physical properties, dynamic mechanical thermal properties, and mechanical properties of the prepared composite were observed. The critical fiber aspect ratio of the chopped fiber is different for each mechanical property. This shows that the fabric-reinforced composite of chopped fibers affect each of the mechanical properties differently. In addition, the silane coupling treatment increases the compatibility of the composite components, improving the mechanical properties.

  2. Effects of short glass fibers on the mechanical properties of glass fiber fabric/PVC composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Bin; Lee, Joon Seok; Kim, Jong Won

    2017-03-01

    Fiber-reinforced composites using glass fiber and polyvinylchloride (PVC) have been used widely as architectural materials, electrical applications, automotive sector, and packing materials because of their reasonable price, chemical resistance, and dimensional stability. On the other hand, most of the composites are short fiber-reinforced PVC composites. In particular, in the case of fabric reinforced composites, undulated regions exist where there is only resin due to the characteristics of the weave construction, which causes a decrease in strength. In this paper, PVC was reinforced with chopped glass fibers with different lengths and contents to produce glass fiber fabric/PVC composites. The physical properties of the composites, such as thickness, density, volume fraction (V f), and void content (V c) were identified. The mechanical properties, including tensile strength, flexural strength, and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) were also identified. A cross section of the composites was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Compared to the fabric reinforced composite without chopped glass fiber, the tensile strength was increased by 3.90% (from 316.15 MPa to 328.48 MPa at 5 wt.% chopped fibers with 3 mm length), flexural strength was increased by 7.15% (from 87.07 MPa to 93.30 MPa at 10 wt.% chopped fibers with 2 mm length), and ILSS was increased by 8.71% (from 7.34 MPa to 7.98 MPa at 10 wt.% chopped fibers with 1 mm length). Therefore, the critical fiber aspect ratio of chopped fiber works differently on each of the three mechanical properties.

  3. Investigation of the Effects of Titanate as Coupling Agent and Some Inorganic Nanoparticles as Fillers on Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Soft PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Hajian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of titanate as a coupling agent and some particulate nanoscale particles such as TiO2, CaCO3, and ZnO on thermal and mechanical properties of emulsion polyvinylchloride (E-PVC were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and mechanical tests. In this research, it was found that, in the presence of nanoparticles of CaCO3, TiO2, and ZnO, the peak temperature of dehydrochlorination of E-PVC was shifted to higher temperatures, and the rate of mass loss was decreased. Also results of differential scanning calorimetry showed that the addition of nanoparticle of CaCO3, TiO2, and ZnO led to an increase in glass transition temperature. The impact strength, elastic modulus and toughness of the samples were enhanced after addition of 0–10 part of filer in hundred parts of resin (phr nano-CaCO3, nano-TiO2, and nano-ZnO due to improvement of compatibility of the polymer and the nano-particles. Also UV and thermal stability of the samples were enhanced by means of the nanoparticles. It was found that, in the presence of titanate as coupling agent, content of additives that could be used in the composite of PVC shifts to higher amounts.

  4. short communication microwave assisted oxidative coupling of thiols

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: mohammadi@iauahvaz.ac.ir. SHORT COMMUNICATION. MICROWAVE ASSISTED OXIDATIVE COUPLING ... 13C NMR spectra were referenced to external SiMe4. Chromium was analyzed iodometrically. In the case of the reduced product of the oxidant, chromium was determined ...

  5. Progress and Challenges in Short to Medium Range Coupled Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, G. B.; Martin, M. J.; Tolman, H. L.; Akella, Santha; Balmeseda, M.; Chambers, C. R. S.; Cummings, J. A.; Drillet, Y.; Jansen, P. A. E. M.; Laloyaux, P.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The availability of GODAE Oceanview-type ocean forecast systems provides the opportunity to develop high-resolution, short- to medium-range coupled prediction systems. Several groups have undertaken the first experiments based on relatively unsophisticated approaches. Progress is being driven at the institutional level targeting a range of applications that represent their respective national interests with clear overlaps and opportunities for information exchange and collaboration. These include general circulation, hurricanes, extra-tropical storms, high-latitude weather and sea-ice forecasting as well as coastal air-sea interaction. In some cases, research has moved beyond case and sensitivity studies to controlled experiments to obtain statistically significant metrics.

  6. Arrhythmic storm: Short-coupled variant torsade de pointes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Ana Rita; Frutuoso, Cecília; Vasconcelos, Mariana; Dias, Paula; Garcia, Raquel; Pinho, Teresa; Araújo, Vítor; Maciel, Maria Júlia

    2016-05-01

    A 49-year-old woman, with no relevant family history, was admitted in 1996 for arrhythmic storm with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (torsade de pointes) which degenerated into ventricular fibrillation. Iatrogenic causes were excluded, the electrocardiogram (ECG) was normal and there was no structural heart disease. She refused cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. Treatment was begun with amiodarone, which she took irregularly. She remained asymptomatic until 2014 when she was admitted for a new arrhythmic storm with torsade de pointes, refractory to antiarrhythmic therapy and aggravated by ventricular pacing (65 defibrillations). She had frequent ventricular extrasystoles (with short-coupled period <300 ms) preceding the tachycardia. After administration of isoprenaline infusion electric stability was maintained. In this setting and in the absence of structural heart disease or iatrogenic cause, a diagnosis of short-coupled variant torsade de pointes was established. A cardioverter-defibrillator was implanted and she was treated with verapamil, without recurrence of arrhythmias. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. A reciclagem de PVC no Brasil Recycling of PVC Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Magda Piva

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa discute as possibilidades práticas da reciclagem de PVC. Na reciclagem de polímeros, a do PVC representa uma importante parcela. PVC é um polímero que é usado em uma ampla faixa de produtos: filmes, fios, cabos, em compostos para uma variedade de formas. A reciclagem é uma técnica vantajosa, capaz de reproduzir as propriedades do polímero original, no polímero reciclado e isto em condições razoavelmente econômicas. A tecnologia brasileira, em relação a produtos reciclados, apresenta algumas diferenças da reciclagem tradicional. Métodos alternativos de reciclagens são necessários se os processos não desvalorizam os resultados finais.This research discuss the practical possibilities of recycling PVC. PVC, plays an important part in the recycleability of polymers; PVC is a polymer which is used in a very wide range of products -films, wire, cabes, in compounds for a variety of forms. Recycling is only worthwile, one is able to reproduce the original polymer properties in the polymer being recycled, and this under reasonable economics conditions. The brasilian technology that produces recycled products is a little different from the tradicional recycling. Therefore alternative methods to recycle are needed if recycling is not to devalue the end results.

  8. PC and PVC Acoustics Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzader, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    Described are four musical instruments constructed from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe. The use of computerized synthesizers to play scales and chords is discussed. Suggestions for other illustrations of acoustics are included. (CW)

  9. Organic Heat Stabilizers for Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): A Synergistic Behavior of Eugenol and Uracil Derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asawakosinchai, Aran; Jubsilp, Chanchira; Mora, Phattarin; Rimdusit, Sarawut

    2017-09-01

    Recycling ability, mechanical, and thermal properties of PVC stabilized with organic heat stabilizers, i.e., uracil (DAU) and eugenol were investigated to substitute PVCs stabilized with commercial lead, Ca/Zn, and organic-based stabilizer for PVC pipe production. PVC stabilized with the DAU and the eugenol can be processable at 30 °C lower than that of the PVC stabilized with commercial heat stabilizers. The most remarkable short-term thermal stability belonged to the PVC stabilized with the DAU, and its original color can be maintained at least up to 3 processing cycles. Synergistic behavior in thermal stability of the PVC mixed with DAU and eugenol at mass ratios of 1.5:1.5 was observed. Mechanical properties of DAU- and eugenol-stabilized PVC were higher than the samples with other heat stabilizers. Glass transition temperature of the PVC stabilized with all heat stabilizers was determined to be 99 °C with the exception of the value of 89 °C for eugenol-stabilized PVC. Therefore, the DAU and the eugenol showed high potential to be used as an organic heat stabilizer for PVC because of their non-toxic and good heat resistance properties.

  10. Organic Heat Stabilizers for Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): A Synergistic Behavior of Eugenol and Uracil Derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asawakosinchai, Aran; Jubsilp, Chanchira; Mora, Phattarin; Rimdusit, Sarawut

    2017-10-01

    Recycling ability, mechanical, and thermal properties of PVC stabilized with organic heat stabilizers, i.e., uracil (DAU) and eugenol were investigated to substitute PVCs stabilized with commercial lead, Ca/Zn, and organic-based stabilizer for PVC pipe production. PVC stabilized with the DAU and the eugenol can be processable at 30 °C lower than that of the PVC stabilized with commercial heat stabilizers. The most remarkable short-term thermal stability belonged to the PVC stabilized with the DAU, and its original color can be maintained at least up to 3 processing cycles. Synergistic behavior in thermal stability of the PVC mixed with DAU and eugenol at mass ratios of 1.5:1.5 was observed. Mechanical properties of DAU- and eugenol-stabilized PVC were higher than the samples with other heat stabilizers. Glass transition temperature of the PVC stabilized with all heat stabilizers was determined to be 99 °C with the exception of the value of 89 °C for eugenol-stabilized PVC. Therefore, the DAU and the eugenol showed high potential to be used as an organic heat stabilizer for PVC because of their non-toxic and good heat resistance properties.

  11. Planar Printed Shorted Monopole Antenna with Coupled Feed for LTE/WWAN Mobile Handset Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Gu Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A shorted monopole antenna with coupled feed for LTE/WWAN mobile handset applications is described. The basic resonance of the shorted monopole combines with the resonance formed by the coupling between the coupling strip and the feeding pad to cover the LTE700, GSM850, and GSM900 bands. Both the feeding pad and the coupling strip operate with the shorting strip as a loop antenna. The resonance of the loop antenna and the harmonics of the shorted monopole combine to cover the GSM1800, GSM1900, UMTS, and LTE2300 bands. A stable and omnidirectional radiation pattern with reasonable gain has been observed over the operating bandwidth.

  12. PVC-gulve i baderum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.A.

    Denne SBI-anvisning indeholder forskrifter for udførelsen af PVC-gulve, så det sikres, at gulvene får en tilstrækkelig god kvalitet. Forskrifterne svarer stort set til de, der findes i Norge og Sverige. Afsnittet om primere, spartelmasser og klæbestoffer er dog udvidet en del, ligesom forskrifterne...... er forsynet med forklarende tekst. Prøvemetoderne for PVC-gulvbelægninger er anbefalet af NKB's gulvudvalg....

  13. Coupling among Electroencephalogram Gamma Signals on a Short Time Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. McAssey

    2010-01-01

    coupling states among several signals are also identified, using a mixed multivariate beta distribution to model coupling strength across multiple gamma signals with reference to a common base signal. We first apply our variable-window method to simulated signals and compare its performance to a fixed-window approach. We then focus on gamma signals recorded in two regions of the rat hippocampus. Our results indicate that this may be a useful method for mapping coupling patterns among signals in EEG datasets.

  14. Effects of recycled PVC content and processing temperature on the properties of PVC foam products

    OpenAIRE

    Sombatsompop, N.; Khamphan, K.; Chantawart, S.; Supanpesat, J.; Suwapanaviwat, S.; Thongsang, S.

    2005-01-01

    This work used different types of recycled PVC products including PVC pipes and bottles, as rigid recyclates, and PVC plastic coverings, as soft recyclate. The PVC recyclates were added into virgin PVC foam, ranging from 0-100wt%. The PVC blends were then moulded with different processing temperatures, and their properties were monitored. It was found that the concentration of the pipe recyclates up to 60 wt% could be used to add into the PVC virgin for production of rigid PVC foam products. ...

  15. Web Based ATM PVC Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waaij, B.D.; Sprenkels, Ron; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Pras, Aiko

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a public domain web based ATM PVC Management tool for the Dutch SURFnet research ATM network. The aim of this tool is to assists in the creation and deletion of PVCs through local and remote ATM network domains. The tool includes security mechanisms to restrict the

  16. PET and PVC separation with hyperspectral imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Monica; Mei, Alessandro; Leonardi, Alessandra; Lupo, Emanuela; Marca, Floriana La

    2015-01-20

    Traditional plants for plastic separation in homogeneous products employ material physical properties (for instance density). Due to the small intervals of variability of different polymer properties, the output quality may not be adequate. Sensing technologies based on hyperspectral imaging have been introduced in order to classify materials and to increase the quality of recycled products, which have to comply with specific standards determined by industrial applications. This paper presents the results of the characterization of two different plastic polymers--polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)--in different phases of their life cycle (primary raw materials, urban and urban-assimilated waste and secondary raw materials) to show the contribution of hyperspectral sensors in the field of material recycling. This is accomplished via near-infrared (900-1700 nm) reflectance spectra extracted from hyperspectral images acquired with a two-linear-spectrometer apparatus. Results have shown that a rapid and reliable identification of PET and PVC can be achieved by using a simple two near-infrared wavelength operator coupled to an analysis of reflectance spectra. This resulted in 100% classification accuracy. A sensor based on this identification method appears suitable and inexpensive to build and provides the necessary speed and performance required by the recycling industry.

  17. Electrospinning of PVC with natural rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Muhammad Hariz; Abdullah, Ibrahim [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohamed, Mahathir [Radiation Processing Technology Division (BTS), Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000, Kajang (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was mixed with natural rubbers which are liquid natural rubber (LNR), liquid epoxidised natural rubber (LENR) and liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) for a preparation of a fine non-woven fiber’s mat. PVC and each natural rubbers(PVC:LENR, PVC:LNR and PVC:LENRA) were mixed based on ratio of 70:30. Electrospinning method was used to prepare the fiber. The results show that the spinnable concentration of PVC/ natural rubber/THF solution is 16 wt%. The morphology, diameter, structure and degradation temperature of electrospun fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM photos showed that the morphology and diameter of the fibers were mainly affected by the addition of natural rubber. TGA results suggested that PVC electrospun fiber has higher degradation temperature than those electrospun fibers that contain natural rubber.

  18. RETGEM with polyvinylchloride (PVC) electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Razin, V I; Reshetin, A I; Filippov, S N

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new design of the RETGEM (Resistive Electrode Thick GEM) based on electrodes made of a polyvinylchloride material (PVC). Our device can operate with gains of 10E5 as a conventional TGEM at low counting rates and as RPC in the case of high counting rates without of the transit to the violent sparks. The distinct feature of present RETGEM is the absent of the metal coating and lithographic technology for manufacturing of the protective dielectric rms. The electrodes from PVC permit to do the holes by a simple drilling machine. Detectors on a RETGEM basis could be useful in many fields of an application requiring a more cheap manufacturing and safe operation, for example, in a large neutrino experiments, in TPC, RICH systems.

  19. Thermal degradation of PVC: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Sun, Lushi; Ma, Chuan; Qiao, Yu; Yao, Hong

    2016-02-01

    This review summarized various chemical recycling methods for PVC, such as pyrolysis, catalytic dechlorination and hydrothermal treatment, with a view to solving the problem of energy crisis and the impact of environmental degradation of PVC. Emphasis was paid on the recent progress on the pyrolysis of PVC, including co-pyrolysis of PVC with biomass/coal and other plastics, catalytic dechlorination of raw PVC or Cl-containing oil and hydrothermal treatment using subcritical and supercritical water. Understanding the advantage and disadvantage of these treatment methods can be beneficial for treating PVC properly. The dehydrochlorination of PVC mainly happed at low temperature of 250-320°C. The process of PVC dehydrochlorination can catalyze and accelerate the biomass pyrolysis. The intermediates from dehydrochlorination stage of PVC can increase char yield of co-pyrolysis of PVC with PP/PE/PS. For the catalytic degradation and dechlorination of PVC, metal oxides catalysts mainly acted as adsorbents for the evolved HCl or as inhibitors of HCl formation depending on their basicity, while zeolites and noble metal catalysts can produce lighter oil, depending the total number of acid sites and the number of accessible acidic sites. For hydrothermal treatment, PVC decomposed through three stages. In the first region (T<250°C), PVC went through dehydrochlorination to form polyene; in the second region (250°C

  20. PVC pipes in gas distribution: still going strong!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermkens, Rene; Wolters, Mannes; Weller, Jeroen; Visser, Roy; Davidovski, Z.; Belloir, P.; Fumire, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands (impact-modified) PVC is the preferred material for low-pressure (30 and 100 mbar) gas distribution systems. More than 50% of the total length (about 122,000 km) of this system is rigid PVC or impact-modified PVC. The installation of rigid PVC (uPVC) pipelines started about 50

  1. Modification of PVC compounds with butadiene-acrylonitrile elastomers

    OpenAIRE

    J. Stabik; M. Rojek

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present the research programme on influence of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers on properties of plasticized polyvinylchloride as window gaskets material.Design/methodology/approach: Short literature review concerning application of modified PVC as gasket material was presented. In experimental part two types of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers were used as elastomeric plasticizers. Compounds with fifteen different levels of modifiers content (up to...

  2. Environmental stress cracking of PVC and PVC-CPE - Part III Crack growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breen, J.

    1995-01-01

    The fracture toughness of Polyvinylchloride (PVC) and PVC modified with 10% chlorinated polyethylene (PVC-CPE) was studied in vapour and in liquid environments by crack growth measurements on single-edge notch specimens under three-point bending at 23°C. In addition, some results obtained in air at

  3. Effects of recycled PVC content and processing temperature on the properties of PVC foam products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sombatsompop, N.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work used different types of recycled PVC products including PVC pipes and bottles, as rigid recyclates, and PVC plastic coverings, as soft recyclate. The PVC recyclates were added into virgin PVC foam, ranging from 0-100wt%. The PVC blends were then moulded with different processing temperatures, and their properties were monitored. It was found that the concentration of the pipe recyclates up to 60 wt% could be used to add into the PVC virgin for production of rigid PVC foam products. The higher the recyclate content led to the higher the blend density and the mechanical properties (flexural and impact strength, and hardness. For bottle recyclates, up to 60 wt% of bottle recyclates could be used for rigid PVC foam production, but the overall properties, except for the impact strength, of the PVC foam did not improve withincreasing the recycled bottles. For recycled coverings, increasing plastic coverings led to an increase in average cell size, but resulted in decreases of impact and hardness resistances. The flexible or soft PVC foam products could be manufactured with use of 0-100wt% recycled coverings. In summary, it could be concludedthat recyclates of pipes, bottles and plastic coverings can be mixed with virgin PVC foam for making foam products.

  4. Abnormal Left Ventricular Mechanics of Ventricular Ectopic Beats: Insights into Origin and Coupling Interval in Premature Ventricular Contraction-Induced Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potfay, Jonathan; Kaszala, Karoly; Tan, Alex Y.; Sima, Adam P.; Gorcsan, John; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A.; Huizar, Jose F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony caused by premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) has been proposed as a mechanism of PVC-induced cardiomyopathy (CM). We sought to understand the impact of different PVC locations and coupling intervals (prematurity) on LV regional mechanics and global function of the PVC beat itself. Methods and Results Using our premature pacing algorithm, pentageminal PVCs at coupling intervals of 200–375ms were delivered from the epicardial right ventricular (RV) apex, RV outflow tract (RVOT), and LV free wall, as well as premature atrial contractions (PACs) from the left atrial (LA) appendage at a coupling interval of 200ms in seven healthy canines. LV short axis echocardiographic images, LV stroke volume (SV) and dP/dtmax were obtained during all ectopic beats and VP. LV dyssynchrony was assessed by dispersion of QRS-to-peak strain (earliest – last QRS-to-peak strain) between 6 different LV segments during each of the aforementioned beats (GE, EchoPac). LV dyssynchrony was greater during long- rather than short-coupled PVCs and PVCs at 375ms compared with rapid VP at 400ms (P<0.0001), whereas, no difference was found between PVC locations. Longer PVC coupling intervals were associated with greater SV and dP/dtmax despite more pronounced dyssynchrony (P<0.001). Conclusions PVCs with longer coupling intervals demonstrate more pronounced LV dyssynchrony, whereas PVC location has minimal impact. LV dyssynchrony cannot be attributed to prematurity or abnormal ventricular activation alone, but rather to a combination of both. This study suggests that late-coupled PVCs may cause a more severe cardiomyopathy if dyssynchrony is the leading mechanism responsible for PVC-induced CM. PMID:26297787

  5. Couple disagreement about short-term fertility desires in Austria: Effects on intentions and contraceptive behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Testa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Because of the dyadic nature of reproduction, the couple is the most suitable context forstudying reproductive decision-making. OBJECTIVE I investigate the effects of couple disagreement about short-term childbearing desires on the formulation and implementation of fertility intentions. Do men and women incorporate the perception of a disagreement with the partner about wanting a(nother child now in their reports on short-term fertility intentions and contraceptive behaviour? Are there relevant differences by type of disagreement, parity, gender and gender equality within the couple? METHODS Using individual-level data from the Austrian Generation and Gender Survey conductedin 2008, I regress respondent's short-term fertility intentions (ordinal regression modelsand non-use of contraception (logistic regression model on couple's short-term childbearing desires and a set of background variables. RESULTS The findings show that disagreement is shifted toward a pregnancy intentionpregnancy-seeking behaviour at parity zero and toward avoiding pregnancy and maintainingcontraceptive use at higher parities. Childless women are less responsive to the perceptionof their partner's desires than childless men when they express their short-termchildbearing intentions. Neither women nor men are likely to stop contraception if they perceive a disagreement with their partner about wanting a(nother child. Moreover, if theman is actively involved in childcare duties the chance to resolve the couple conflict in favour of childbearing increases. CONCLUSIONS This paper calls for the collection of data from both members of each couple so that theanalysis of the partner's actual desires can complement the analysis of the partner's perceived desires.

  6. INVESTIGATION RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC-BASED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Niftaliev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Obtained hydrophobic filler compositions based on PVC from calcium carbonate, which is a byproduct in the preparation of mineral nitrogen fertilizers. The methods for pretreatment of the chalk used as a filler in PVC compositions. Conducted modifying the properties of chalk with hydrophobic additives: stearic acid, zinc stearate, calcium stearate. When stearic acid treated chalk heating leads to an interaction with the surface layers of calcium carbonate, a thin film of calcium stearate. Therefore, more cost-effective to create compositions with PVC content of one percent of calcium stearate as its hydrophobic surface is easily wetted by the polymer matrix, which provides rapid mixing of PVC compounds. As a result, the excipient serves as an additional stabilizer, providing higher thermal stability of PVC products, compared with its values for the composition of the compared with the other ingredients. Extrusion processes that are central to the processing of PVC compounds filled by acting them filler, fractional increase heat and accelerate melting and increase output. The rheological properties of polymeric compositions created PVC. A significant reduction in viscosity observed for water repellent based on stearic acid. Study viscosity characteristics for hydrophobic additives showed that their activity increased in the series: zinc stearate, calcium stearate, stearic acid. It was established that modifying additives used in the preparation of hydrophobic carbonate filler PVC compositions exhibit both plasticizers and stabilizing properties.

  7. D-FNN Based Modeling and BP Neural Network Decoupling Control of PVC Stripping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-zhi Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PVC stripping process is a kind of complicated industrial process with characteristics of highly nonlinear and time varying. Aiming at the problem of establishing the accurate mathematics model due to the multivariable coupling and big time delay, the dynamic fuzzy neural network (D-FNN is adopted to establish the PVC stripping process model based on the actual process operation datum. Then, the PVC stripping process is decoupled by the distributed neural network decoupling module to obtain two single-input-single-output (SISO subsystems (slurry flow to top tower temperature and steam flow to bottom tower temperature. Finally, the PID controller based on BP neural networks is used to control the decoupled PVC stripper system. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed integrated intelligent control method.

  8. The Turkish Adaptation of the Burnout Measure-Short Version (BMS) and Couple Burnout Measure-Short Version (CBMS) and the Relationship between Career and Couple Burnout Based on Psychoanalytic-Existential Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capri, Burhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to carry out the Turkish adaptation, validity, and reliability studies of Burnout Measure-Short Form (BMS) and Couple Burnout Measure-Short Form (CBMS) and also to analyze the correlation between the careers and couple burnout scores of the participants from the psychoanalytic-existential perspective. This research…

  9. PET and PVC Separation with Hyperspectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Moroni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional plants for plastic separation in homogeneous products employ material physical properties (for instance density. Due to the small intervals of variability of different polymer properties, the output quality may not be adequate. Sensing technologies based on hyperspectral imaging have been introduced in order to classify materials and to increase the quality of recycled products, which have to comply with specific standards determined by industrial applications. This paper presents the results of the characterization of two different plastic polymers—polyethylene terephthalate (PET and polyvinyl chloride (PVC—in different phases of their life cycle (primary raw materials, urban and urban-assimilated waste and secondary raw materials to show the contribution of hyperspectral sensors in the field of material recycling. This is accomplished via near-infrared (900–1700 nm reflectance spectra extracted from hyperspectral images acquired with a two-linear-spectrometer apparatus. Results have shown that a rapid and reliable identification of PET and PVC can be achieved by using a simple two near-infrared wavelength operator coupled to an analysis of reflectance spectra. This resulted in 100% classification accuracy. A sensor based on this identification method appears suitable and inexpensive to build and provides the necessary speed and performance required by the recycling industry.

  10. Flow-fiber coupled viscosity in injection molding simulations of short fiber reinforced thermoplastics

    OpenAIRE

    LI, Tianyi; Luyé, Jean-François

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this communication is to numerically investigate the use of fiber-dependent viscosity models in injection molding simulations of short fiber reinforced thermoplastics with a latest commercial software (Moldflow Insight 2018). We propose to use the homogenization-based Lipscomb's model to take into account possible flow-fiber coupling effects. The original model is adapted and then implemented in the Moldflow Insight API framework. Numerical simulations are performed in a...

  11. PVC as pharmaceutical packaging material. A literature survey with special emphasis on plasticized PVC bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dooren, A A

    1991-06-21

    In this report the state of the art with respect to PVC as pharmaceutical packaging material is described. A general introduction into the applications of PVC is followed by a description of its production process. The metabolic effects of the monomer of PVC, vinyl chloride and of the most commonly used plasticizer diethylhexylphthalate are mentioned. Special attention is given to the pharmaceutical properties of plasticized PVC bags in comparison to other plastics and the environmental aspects of waste PVC disposal. Although there are emotional and political queries regarding the future use of PVC as a (pharmaceutical) packaging material, we conclude that there is no scientific justification for a total or partial ban of PVC. PVC will remain a fact of life as a cheap, versatile, high-performance and well-investigated plastic material for medical and pharmaceutical applications, to be replaced by newer plastics only for certain well-defined indications where the requirements of the plastic to be used are so specific that it will economically and technically be justified to use another polymer. Community and hospital pharmacists have to be prepared for a role in intake of waste plastic disposables, probably against deposit money, in order to fulfil the logistics needed for recycling.

  12. [Acroosteolysis in PVC autoclave cleaners: history of an occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchetti, C; Osculati, A; Colosio, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the history of an occupational disease which has now disappeared: acroosteolysis of manual tank cleaners in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which is a rare disease characterized by destructive alterations of the distal phalanges of the hands. All the available literature on this disease was examined. The history of acroosteolysis was studied within the general framework of the history of the discovery of adverse health effects of exposure to vinyl chloride, and this history was studied up to the end of the 1960's. The disease was observed for the first time in mid-1963 in Belgium (Jemeppe) in a chemical plant operated by Solvay, and affected two workers whose job was the manual cleaning of vessels used for the polymerization of vinyl chloride; similar cases occurred in almost all PVC production plants all over the world, but not in the plants where the main activity was the production of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Little more than one hundred cases are described in the scientific literature, and this number increases by a few dozen if we consider known but unpublished cases. These figures confirm the rarity of the disease, which peaked at the end of the 1960's and disappeared during the 1970's, probably due to the complete elimination of manual reactor cleaning. Observation of the disease lasted no more than fifteen years and the disease was not replicated in experimental conditions on animals. The disease was clinically characterized, had a short latency (from several months to several years), was rare and unequivocally linked to the manual cleaning of PVC polymerization tanks. However many questions still remain open: the period when the disease first appeared (many years after the start of PVC production in the world), the etiology of the disease (the most accredited hypothesis considers three concomitant factors: a chemical factor--one of the many substances used during polymerization, and particularly vinyl chloride monomer

  13. Experimental Investigation of Concrete Filled PVC Tube Columns Confined By Plain PVC Socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of an experimental study for concrete column filled poly vinyl chloride (PVC tubes confined by plain socket with 5.8 & 6.8 mm thicknesses, 102 mm diameter and 100 mm depth. The total of five concrete filled columns using PVC tubes (CFT PVC was tested to investigate the columns’ behaviour. The column is 700 mm height, 100 mm external diameter and 3.5 mm tube thickness with different thickness of plain socket. The results presented include maximum axial load, plain socket confinement effect, the mode of failure, and lateral PVC strain. The axial load enhancement of PVC-concrete columns confined using plain socket shows an increment of 21.3% up to 55.2% and axial strain from 21% to 40% compared with displacement for control composite columns at 192 kN ultimate load.

  14. Fracture Characterization of PVC Foam Core Sandwich Specimen Using the DCB-UBM Test Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saseendran, Vishnu; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2017-01-01

    coupled with experimental validation is paramount to determine the fracture resistance of the face/core interface. In this paper, the test-rig exploiting the double cantilever beam with uneven bending moments (DCB-UBM) concept is used to determine the fracture toughness of PVC foam core sandwich...

  15. Fracture Characterization of PVC Foam Core Sandwich Specimen Using the DCB-UBM Test Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saseendran, Vishnu; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    coupled with experimental validation is paramount to determine the fracture resistance of the face/core interface. In this paper, the test-rig exploiting the double cantilever beam with uneven bending moments (DCB-UBM) concept is used to determine the fracture toughness of PVC foam core sandwich...

  16. Rapid quenching effects in PVC films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. D.; Mandell, J. F.; Mcgarry, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    Using a specially constructed microbalance for hydrostatic weighing, density changes in PVC thin films (with no additives, 30-100 micrometers thick), due to rapid quenching (approximately 300 C/sec) through the glass transition temperature, have been observed. The more severe the quench, the greater is the free volume content. Isobaric volume recovery of PVC has also been studied by volume dilatometry. Both show aging of relaxing molecular rearrangements takes place as a linear function of logarithmic aging time at room temperature. Distribution of retardation times and Primak's distributed activation energy spectra have been applied to the volume recovery data. The concomitant changes in mechanical properties of PVC after quenching have been monitored by tensile creep and stress-strain to failure. All reflect the presence of excess free volume content, due to rapid quenching.

  17. PVC-viemäriputkien sukittaminen

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppinen, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö tehtiin New Tube Suomi Oy:n toimeksiantona. Sen tavoitteena oli selvittää PVC-viemäriputkien sukittamisen vaikutuksia mekaanisten lujuusominaisuuksien kannalta rengasjäykkyyteen ja lopulliseen komposiittirakenteeseen. Lisäksi tavoitteena oli selvittää sukittamisen vaikutuksia säädöksien ja saneerausmenetelmän kannalta. Opinnäytetyö on jaettu kahteen osaan. Teoreettisessa osuudessa selvitettiin rakennuskantaa ja saneeraustarvetta sekä PVC-putkien historiaa ja elinkaarta on käs...

  18. Superhydrophobic Materials Technology-PVC Bonding Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Scott R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Efird, Marty [VeloxFlow, LLC

    2013-05-03

    The purpose of the technology maturation project was to develop an enhanced application technique for applying diatomaceous earth with pinned polysiloxane oil to PVC pipes and materials. The oil infiltration technique is applied as a spray of diluted oil in a solvent onto the superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth substrate. This makes the surface take on the following characteristics: wet-cleanable; anti-biofouling; waterproof; and anti-corrosion. The project involved obtaining input and supplies from VeloxFlow and the development of successful techniques that would quickly result in a commercial license agreement with VeloxFlow and other companies that use PVC materials in a variety of other fields of use.

  19. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1AYM2-1PVC2 [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1AYM2-1PVC2 1AYM 1PVC 2 2 ----SDRIIQITRGDSTITSQDVANAVVGYGVWPHYLTP...GREV-------GTQVENEKQPSDDNWLNFDGTLLGNLLIFPHQFINLRSNNSATLIVPYVNAVPMDSMVRHNNWSLVIIPVCQLQS-NNISNIVPITVSISPMCAEFS...e> ASN CA 176 1PVC 2 1PVC

  20. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1AYN2-1PVC2 [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1AYN2-1PVC2 1AYN 1PVC 2 2 ----SDRIIQITRGDSTITSQDVANAVVGYGVWPHYLTP...GREV-------GTQVENEKQPSDDNWLNFDGTLLGNLLIFPHQFINLRSNNSATLIVPYVNAVPMDSMVRHNNWSLVIIPVCQLQS-NNISNIVPITVSISPMCAEFS...ine>ASN CA 177 1PVC 2 1PVC

  1. Polarizing PVC--A Discrepant Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headly, David; Karabatek, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an experiment teaching polarization phenomena and the Triboelectric Series in a unit on electrostatics. Using rods (2-3 ft in length) made from wood, aluminum, PVC, and Plexiglas on an inverted watch glass, these items demonstrated to the class how a party balloon rubbed with fake rabbit fur (charging the balloon negative)…

  2. Electrical conduction mechanism of polyvinyl chloride (PVC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The electrical conduction mechanism in polyvinyl chloride (PVC)– polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blend film has been studied at various temperatures in the range 313 K to 353 K. The results are presented in the form of I–V characteristics. Analysis has been made in the light of Poole–Frenkel, Fowler–Nordheim, ...

  3. Short-Pulse Amplification by Strongly-Coupled Stimulated Brillouin Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Matthew; Jia, Qing; Mikhailova, Julia; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2016-10-01

    We examine the feasibility of strongly-coupled stimulated Brillouin scattering as a mechanism for the plasma-based amplification of sub-picosecond pulses. Fluid theory and particle-in-cell calculations are used to compare the relative advantages of Raman and Brillouin amplification over a broad range of parameters, with a focus on determining the maximum amplified pulse intensities and minimum durations that can be achieved. Amplification of short-wavelength pulses is considered in detail, with particular emphasis on the practical development of plasma-based x-ray amplifiers. Our results suggest that Brillouin scattering may allow amplification of shorter wavelength light than Raman scattering, but that at optical frequencies better performance is generally realized with Raman amplification, as strongly-coupled Brillouin scattering has limited capacity for amplifying sub-picosecond pulses. This work was supported by NNSA Grant No. DENA0002948 and AFOSR Grant No. FA9550-15-1-0391. M.R.E. gratefully acknowledges the support of the NSF through a Graduate Research Fellowship.

  4. In silico investigation of the short QT syndrome, using human ventricle models incorporating electromechanical coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail eAdeniran

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Genetic forms of the Short QT Syndrome (SQTS arise due to cardiac ion channel mutations leading to accelerated ventricular repolarisation, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Results from experimental and simulation studies suggest that changes to refractoriness and tissue vulnerability produce a substrate favourable to re-entry. Potential electromechanical consequences of the SQTS are less well understood. The aim of this study was to utilize electromechanically coupled human ventricle models to explore electromechanical consequences of the SQTS. Methods and results: The Rice et al. mechanical model was coupled to the ten Tusscher et al. ventricular cell model. Previously validated K+ channel formulations for SQT variants 1 and 3 were incorporated. Functional effects of the SQTS mutations on transients, sarcomere length shortening and contractile force at the single cell level were evaluated with and without the consideration of stretch activated channel current (Isac. Without Isac, the SQTS mutations produced dramatic reductions in the amplitude of transients, sarcomere length shortening and contractile force. When Isac was incorporated, there was a considerable attenuation of the effects of SQTS-associated action potential shortening on Ca2+ transients, sarcomere shortening and contractile force. Single cell models were then incorporated into 3D human ventricular tissue models. The timing of maximum deformation was delayed in the SQTS setting compared to control. Conclusion: The incorporation of Isac appears to be an important consideration in modelling functional effects of SQT 1 and 3 mutations on cardiac electro-mechanical coupling. Whilst there is little evidence of profoundly impaired cardiac contractile function in SQTS patients, our 3D simulations correlate qualitatively with reported evidence for dissociation between ventricular repolarization and the end of mechanical systole.

  5. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  6. Evaluation of retail fresh meat packagings covered with stretch films of plasticized PVC and non-PVC alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Togeskov, P.; Hallas, J.

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics and performance of several non-PVC stretch films were compared to those of plasticized PVC. Initially the main polymer components Of the film were identified by infrared spectrometry and differential scanning calorimetry. The differences between films in mechanical properties......, such as puncture resistance and tensile strength, varied about a factor of two, while the differences in elongation at break were considerably higher. Plasticized PVC showed properties somewhere in the middle. The water vapour transmission was highest for PVC, while its permeability to oxygen was the lowest....... The potential for overall migration was assessed by substitute testing, using 95% ethanol and isooctane as test media, and the migration from PVC was found to be the highest. However, after use of the appropriate reduction factor of four, as allowed for fresh meat, the PVC film also proved to conform...

  7. Cell Adhesion to Plasma-Coated PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiane C. Rangel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To produce environments suitable for cell culture, thin polymer films were deposited onto commercial PVC plates from radiofrequency acetylene-argon plasmas. The proportion of argon in the plasmas, PAr, was varied from 5.3 to 65.8%. The adhesion and growth of Vero cells on the coated surfaces were examined for different incubation times. Cytotoxicity tests were performed using spectroscopic methods. Carbon, O, and N were detected in all the samples using XPS. Roughness remained almost unchanged in the samples prepared with 5.3 and 28.9% but tended to increase for the films deposited with PAr between 28.9 and 55.3%. Surface free energy increased with increasing PAr, except for the sample prepared at 28.9% of Ar, which presented the least reactive surface. Cells proliferated on all the samples, including the bare PVC. Independently of the deposition condition there was no evidence of cytotoxicity, indicating the viability of such coatings for designing biocompatible devices.

  8. Short- and Long-Term Effectiveness of Two Communication Training Modalities with Distressed Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Ludwig; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of communication training in treating marital discord for conjoint and conjoint group modalities. Results showed that conjoint couples (N=16) improved on five of seven outcome variables, while conjoint group couples (N=13) improved on two. One-year follow-up showed substantial reduction in treatment gains. (WAS)

  9. Continous assessment of a drinking water PVC pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques Arsenio, A.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Wielinga, M.P.C.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 the Dutch drinking water network stretched for almost 116,000 km supplying water to more than 16 million people. Almost 50% was made of PVC. The analysis of the failure registration of 5 Dutch drinking water companies showed that ca. 29 % of the total number of failures in the PVC Dutch

  10. Strawberries packaged with Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC film/ Morangos embalados com filme de Ppolicloreto de Vinila (PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ruffo Roberto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries cv. Dover with approximately 75% of their surface with red color was packaged in disposable polyethylene terephthalate (PET container and sealed with PVC film of 15mm thick. Strawberries without film serves as control. The fruits were stored at 12°C for ten days and there were determined during storage time the titratable acidity, solid soluble and vitamin C contents, color, respiration rate, texture and weight loss. After 6 days the strawberries packaged without film had decayed while the fruits packaged with PVC film were in conditions of consumption and commercialization. After 10 days all fruits were inappropriate to consumption. Packages with PVC film extended the shelf life of strawberries preserving the color characteristic of the product and vitamin C content, reducing the respiration rate and weight loss, characterizing this packaging as being adequate to this kind of product.Foram utilizados morangos cv. Dover com aproximadamente 75% de sua superfície com coloração vermelha e embalados em potes de polietileno tereftalato (PET. No tratamento CONTROLE os morangos foram acondicionados sem filme e no tratamento FILME, as embalagens foram seladas com filme de PVC de 15mm de espessura. As frutas foram armazenadas a 12°C por dez dias e foram determinadas ao longo do tempo acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis, vitamina C, cor, taxa de respiração, textura e perda de massa. Após 6 dias de armazenagem os morangos CONTROLE estavam impróprios para consumo pois apresentavam deterioração visível por bolores enquanto que os embalados com PVC estavam em condições de consumo e comercialização. Após 10 dias todos os morangos estavam impróprios para consumo. A embalagem utilizando filme de PVC aumentou a vida de prateleira de morangos em relação aos sem embalagem pois preservou melhor a coloração característica do produto e teor de vitamina C e reduziu as taxas de respiração e de perda de massa, caracterizando a

  11. Estimation of coupling between oscillators from short time series via phase dynamics modeling: limitations and application to EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, D A; Bodrov, M B; Velazquez, J L Perez; Wennberg, R A; Bezruchko, B P

    2005-06-01

    We demonstrate in numerical experiments that estimators of strength and directionality of coupling between oscillators based on modeling of their phase dynamics [D. A. Smirnov and B. P. Bezruchko, Phys. Rev. E 68, 046209 (2003)] are widely applicable. Namely, although the expressions for the estimators and their confidence bands are derived for linear uncoupled oscillators under the influence of independent sources of Gaussian white noise, they turn out to allow reliable characterization of coupling from relatively short time series for different properties of noise, significant phase nonlinearity of the oscillators, and nonvanishing coupling between them. We apply the estimators to analyze a two-channel human intracranial epileptic electroencephalogram (EEG) recording with the purpose of epileptic focus localization.

  12. Degradation studies on plasticized PVC films submited to gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinhas Glória Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly (vinyl chloride, PVC, is a rigid polymer and for several of its applications must be compounded with plasticizing agents. The plasticizers minimize the dipolar interactions, which exist between the polymer's chains, promoting their mobility. In this work we studied the properties of PVC/plasticizer systems submitted to different doses of gamma radiation. We have used four commercial plasticizers amongt them di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate, DEHP, which is present in a great number of commercial applications. The PVC/plasticizer systems have been studied as films made by the solvent evaporation technique. Irradiated and non-irradiated films have been characterized by viscosimetric analysis, mechanical essays and infrared spectroscopy. The results have shown that the rigid, non plasticized, PVC film presented the greatest degradation index, while among the plasticized films the one which presented the larger degradation index due to chain scission was the DEHP plasticized PVC.

  13. Short and long-term effectiveness of couple counselling: a study protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schofield, Margot J; Mumford, Nicholas; Jurkovic, Dubravko; Jurkovic, Ivancica; Bickerdike, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    .... Two types of relationship services (couple counselling and relationship education) have demonstrated efficacy in many controlled studies but evidence of the effectiveness of community-based relationship services has lagged behind...

  14. Adjoint BFKL at finite coupling: a short-cut from the collinear limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, Benjamin [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure,Paris 75005 (France); Caron-Huot, Simon [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center,Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Sever, Amit [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2015-01-08

    In the high energy Regge limit, the six gluons scattering amplitude is controlled by the adjoint BFKL eigenvalue and impact factor. In this paper we determine these two building blocks at any value of the ’t Hooft coupling in planar N=4 SYM theory. This is achieved by means of analytic continuations from the collinear limit, where similar all loops expressions were recently established. We check our predictions against all available data at weak and strong coupling.

  15. Rapid speciation of iron by on-line coupling of short column capillary electrophoresis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with the collision cell technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao-Hui; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2007-04-01

    A method for rapid speciation analysis of iron was developed by on-line coupling of short column capillary electrophoresis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The collision cell technique was used to eliminate argon-based polyatomic interferences and a Micromist nebulizer was employed to increase the nebulization efficiency. Rapid speciation analysis of Fe(II) and Fe(III) was achieved within 1 min by short column capillary electrophoresis in a 14 cm x 50 microm id capillary at 28 kV voltage with a mixture of 15 mmol/L tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane + 1 mmol/L 1,10-phenanthroline + 1 mmol/L EDTA (pH 8.6) as running electrolyte. The precisions (RSD, n = 5) of migration time and peak area for Fe(II) and Fe(III) were in the range of 1.0 - 2.6 and 1.9 - 3.9%, respectively. The limits of detection (3sigma) of Fe(II) and Fe(III) were 10.0 and 8.3 microg/L, respectively.

  16. Short and long-term effectiveness of couple counselling: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schofield Margot J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy couple relationships are fundamental to a healthy society, whereas relationship breakdown and discord are linked to a wide range of negative health and wellbeing outcomes. Two types of relationship services (couple counselling and relationship education have demonstrated efficacy in many controlled studies but evidence of the effectiveness of community-based relationship services has lagged behind. This study protocol describes an effectiveness evaluation of the two types of community-based relationship services. The aims of the Evaluation of Couple Counselling study are to: map the profiles of clients seeking agency-based couple counselling and relationship enhancement programs in terms of socio-demographic, relationship, health, and health service use indicators; to determine 3 and 12-month outcomes for relationship satisfaction, commitment, and depression; and determine relative contributions of client and therapy factors to outcomes. Methods/Design A quasi-experimental pre-post-post evaluation design is used to assess outcomes for couples presenting for the two types of community-based relationship services. The longitudinal design involves a pre-treatment survey and two follow-up surveys at 3- and 12-months post-intervention. The study is set in eight Relationships Australia Victoria centres, across metropolitan, outer suburbs, and regional/rural sites. Relationships Australia, a non-government organisation, is the largest provider of couple counselling and relationship services in Australia. The key outcomes are couple satisfaction, relationship commitment, and depression measured by the CESD-10. Multi-level modelling will be used to account for the dyadic nature of couple data. Discussion The study protocol describes the first large scale investigation of the effectiveness of two types of relationship services to be conducted in Australia. Its significance lies in providing more detailed profiles of couples who

  17. Influence of nanocatalyst on oxidative coupling, steam and dry reforming of methane: A short review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsi, Ali; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil

    2016-01-01

    The influence of nanocatalyst on three main reactions for natural gas conversion such as steam reforming, dry reforming and oxidative coupling of methane has been reviewed with an emphasis on the literatures’ reports and results. Although literatures’ experimental results showed that the conversion...

  18. Polypropylene/Short Glass Fibers Composites: Effects of Coupling Agents on Mechanical Properties, Thermal Behaviors, and Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Horng Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the melt compounding method to produce polypropylene (PP/short glass fibers (SGF composites. PP serves as matrix while SGF serves as reinforcement. Two coupling agents, maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene, (PP-g-MA and maleic anhydride grafted styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene block copolymer (SEBS-g-MA are incorporated in the PP/SGF composites during the compounding process, in order to improve the interfacial adhesion and create diverse desired properties of the composites. According to the mechanical property evaluations, increasing PP-g-MA as a coupling agent provides the composites with higher tensile, flexural, and impact properties. In contrast, increasing SEBS-g-MA as a coupling agent provides the composites with decreasing tensile and flexural strengths, but also increasing impact strength. The DSC results indicate that using either PP-g-MA or SEBS-g-MA as the coupling agent increases the crystallization temperature. However, the melting temperature of PP barely changes. The spherulitic morphology results show that PP has a smaller spherulite size when it is processed with PP-g-MA or SEBS-g-MA as the coupling agent. The SEM results indicate that SGF is evenly distributed in PP matrices, but there are distinct voids between these two materials, indicating a poor interfacial adhesion. After PP-g-MA or SEBS-g-MA is incorporated, SGF can be encapsulated by PP, and the voids between them are fewer and indistinctive. This indicates that the coupling agents can effectively improve the interfacial compatibility between PP and SGF, and as a result improves the diverse properties of PP/SGF composites.

  19. Cytocompatibility and Mechanical Properties of Short Phosphate Glass Fibre Reinforced Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites: Effect of Coupling Agent Mediated Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew; Walker, Gavin; Scotchford, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In this study three chemical agents Amino-propyl-triethoxy-silane (APS), sorbitol ended PLA oligomer (SPLA) and Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) were identified to be used as coupling agents to react with the phosphate glass fibre (PGF) reinforcement and the polylactic acid (PLA) polymer matrix of the composite. Composites were prepared with short chopped strand fibres (l = 20 mm, ϕ = 20 µm) in a random arrangement within PLA matrix. Improved, initial composite flexural strength (~20 MPa) was observed for APS treated fibres, which was suggested to be due to enhanced bonding between the fibres and polymer matrix. Both APS and HDI treated fibres were suggested to be covalently linked with the PLA matrix. The hydrophobicity induced by these coupling agents (HDI, APS) helped to resist hydrolysis of the interface and thus retained their mechanical properties for an extended period of time as compared to non-treated control. Approximately 70% of initial strength and 65% of initial modulus was retained by HDI treated fibre composites in contrast to the control, where only ~50% of strength and modulus was retained after 28 days of immersion in PBS at 37 °C. All coupling agent treated and control composites demonstrated good cytocompatibility which was comparable to the tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) control, supporting the use of these materials as coupling agent’s within medical implant devices. PMID:24955744

  20. Illustration of the Impedance Behaviour of Extremely Low-Profile Coupled Shorted-Patches Antennas for UHF RFID of People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Svanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently introduced coupled shorted-patches technique for the design of extremely low-profile UHF RFID tag antennas is used to illustrate the flexibility of selected feeding methods for tuning the antenna input impedance for the complex values required for matching with typical RFID chips. We present parametric studies of the impedance behaviour of dipole-excited and directly excited antennas designed for radiofrequency identification of people in the European UHF frequency band. Our study can significantly facilitate the design of this class of on-body tag antennas.

  1. Flame Retardation Modification of Paper-Based PVC Wallcoverings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Hui; Yang, Haiyang; Xiao, He; Cao, Shilin; Huang, Liulian; Chen, Lihui; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The flame-retarded paper-based polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wallcoverings were successfully prepared, using plant fiber paper as base material and adding inorganic flame retardants and flame-retarded plasticizer as additives...

  2. CONTECH(R) A-2000 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Determine the effectiveness and long-term durability of the Contech A-2000 PVC pipe : in an irrigation application. This type of pipe may prove to be a viable alternative to : reinforced concrete pipe (RCP).

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Novel PVC/Silica–Lignin Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Klapiszewski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An advanced SiO2–lignin hybrid material was obtained and tested as a novel poly(vinyl chloride (PVC filler. The processing of compounds of poly(vinyl chloride in the form of a dry blend with silica–lignin hybrid material and, separately, with the two components from which that material was prepared, was performed in a Brabender mixing chamber. An analysis was made of processing (mass melt flow rate, MFR, thermal (thermogravimetric analysis, Congo red and Vicat softening temperature test and tensile properties of the final PVC composites with fillers in a range of concentrations between 2.5 wt % and 10 wt %. Additionally, the effects of filler content on the fusion characteristics of PVC composites were investigated. The homogeneity of dispersion of the silica–lignin hybrid material in the PVC matrix was determined by optical microscopy and SEM. Finally, it should be noted that it is possible to obtain a PVC composite containing up to 10 wt % of silica–lignin filler using a melt processing method. The introduction of hybrid filler into the PVC matrix results in a homogeneous structure of the composites and positive processing and functional properties, especially thermal stability and Vicat softening temperature.

  4. Hoechst and Wacker plan joint venture in PVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, I.

    1992-12-02

    Restructuring of Europe's petrochemical industry has taken a further step with the announcement that Hoechst (Frankfurt) and Wacker Chemie (Munich) are planning a joint venture in polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The venture would include production, R D, sales and marketing, plus both companies' PVC recycling activities. However, their vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) plants, and Hoechst's Kalle PVC film business, have been left out. Erich Schnitzler, head of Hoechst's PVC business unit, does not anticipate problems with the European Community's competition directorate. We are both among the middle-sized European PVC producers, and together we would have a 9%-10% market share. Our joint venture would not limit competition. Both partners are hoping for approval from Brussels in first-quarter 1993. Hoechst has 255,000 m.t./year of PVC capacity at Gendorfand Knapsack, while Wacker has 365,000 m.t./year at Burghausen and Cologne. All the units, except Wacker's Cologne plant, are back integrated to VCM. The joint venture would buy VCM from the two parent companies and on the merchant market.

  5. Short-Term Acceptability of the Woman’s Condom among Married Couples in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Woman’s Condom, a second-generation female condom designed for acceptability, is poised for introduction in China. Method. This single-arm study was conducted among 60 couples in China in 2010 to assess acceptability of the Woman’s Condom. Results. Male participants reported that ease of handling, inserting, and removing the device improved significantly from first to fourth use. Female and male participants reported that comfort during insertion, feel of lubricant during insertion, comfort/fit of outer ring during use, and overall comfort improved significantly from first to fourth use. Further, at fourth use, female participants reported significant improvement in the comfort of the feel of the condom material and lubricant. Female and male participants reported that satisfaction with stability and sensation during sex and ability to achieve orgasm improved significantly from first to fourth use. At fourth use, female participants reported statistically significant improvement in sensation compared to using nothing. A majority of participants (78% stated that they would use the Woman’s Condom in the future, primarily due to its dual protection profile. Conclusion. This study has shown that, in China, the Woman’s Condom appears to be acceptable to married couples. User experience contributes to improvement in many aspects of device acceptability.

  6. Enhancement of the thermo-mechanical properties and efficacy of mixing technique in the preparation of graphene/PVC nanocomposites compared to carbon nanotubes/PVC

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Mudassir; Lee, Moonyong

    2014-01-01

    Thin films of poly vinyl chloride (PVC)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and PVC/graphene (GN) nanocomposites were prepared by mixing in the presence of different quantities of nanoparticles. Film casting was performed using tetrahydrofuran as a solvent. The as-prepared PVC/MWCNT and PVC/GN nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, and...

  7. Roles of ionic strength and biofilm roughness on adhesion kinetics of Escherichia coli onto groundwater biofilm grown on PVC surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjaroen, Dao; Ling, Fangqiong; Monroy, Guillermo; Derlon, Nicolas; Mogenroth, Eberhard; Boppart, Stephen A.; Liu, Wen-Tso; Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms of Escherichia coli attachment on biofilms grown on PVC coupons were investigated. Biofilms were grown in CDC reactors using groundwater as feed solution over a period up to 27 weeks. Biofilm physical structure was characterized at the micro- and meso-scales using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), respectively. Microbial community diversity was analyzed with Terminal Restricted Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). Both physical structure and microbial community diversity of the biofilms were shown to be changing from 2 weeks to 14 weeks, and became relatively stable after 16 weeks. A parallel plate flow chamber coupled with an inverted fluorescent microscope was also used to monitor the attachment of fluorescent microspheres and E. coli on clean PVC surfaces and biofilms grown on PVC surfaces for different ages. Two mechanisms of E. coli attachment were identified. The adhesion rate coefficients (kd) of E. coli on nascent PVC surfaces and 2-week biofilms increased with ionic strength. However, after biofilms grew for 8 weeks, the adhesion was found to be independent of solution chemistry. Instead, a positive correlation between kd and biofilm roughness as determined by OCT was obtained, indicating that the physical structure of biofilms could play an important role in facilitating the adhesion of E. coli cells. PMID:23497979

  8. Short-term solar irradiance forecasting via satellite/model coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Steven D.; Rogers, Matthew A.; Haynes, John M.; Sengupta, Manajit; Heidinger, Andrew K.

    2017-12-01

    The short-term (0-3 h) prediction of solar insolation for renewable energy production is a problem well-suited to satellite-based techniques. The spatial, spectral, temporal and radiometric resolution of instrumentation hosted on the geostationary platform allows these satellites to describe the current cloud spatial distribution and optical properties. These properties relate directly to the transient properties of the downwelling solar irradiance at the surface, which come in the form of 'ramps' that pose a central challenge to energy load balancing in a spatially distributed network of solar farms. The short-term evolution of the cloud field may be approximated to first order simply as translational, but care must be taken in how the advection is handled and where the impacts are assigned. In this research, we describe how geostationary satellite observations are used with operational cloud masking and retrieval algorithms, wind field data from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), and radiative transfer calculations to produce short-term forecasts of solar insolation for applications in solar power generation. The scheme utilizes retrieved cloud properties to group pixels into contiguous cloud objects whose future positions are predicted using four-dimensional (space + time) model wind fields, selecting steering levels corresponding to the cloud height properties of each cloud group. The shadows associated with these clouds are adjusted for sensor viewing parallax displacement and combined with solar geometry and terrain height to determine the actual location of cloud shadows. For mid/high-level clouds at mid-latitudes and high solar zenith angles, the combined displacements from these geometric considerations are non-negligible. The cloud information is used to initialize a radiative transfer model that computes the direct and diffuse-sky solar insolation at both shadow locations and intervening clear-sky regions. Here, we describe the formulation of

  9. Influence of short coherence length on the superconducting proximity effect of silicon-coupled junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, M.; Nishino, T.; Murai, F.; Kawabe, U.

    1988-08-01

    NbN-Si-NbN and Nb-Si-Nb junctions with coplanar structure were fabricated using electron beam lithography. The critical superconducting current of the NbN-SI-NbN junction decreased exponentially with increasing temperature above 4.2 K. The current also decayed exponentially with increasing spacing between superconducting electrodes for both Nb and NbN junctions. It was found that the coherence length in the semiconductor is determined only by the physical properties of the semiconductor, and it is independent of the condition at the superconductor-semiconductor interface and of the superconducting electrode material with a short coherence length. The coherence length in the semiconductor obtained from the experimental results agreed with the calculated value derived from the model of Seto and Van Duzer (1972).

  10. Nonequilibrium Andreev bound states population in short superconducting junctions coupled to a resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klees, Raffael L.; Rastelli, Gianluca; Belzig, Wolfgang

    2017-10-01

    Inspired by recent experiments, we study a short superconducting junction of length L ≪ξ (coherence length) inserted in a dc-SQUID containing an ancillary Josephson tunnel junction. We evaluate the nonequilibrium occupation of the Andreev bound states (ABS) for the case of a conventional junction and a topological junction, with the latter case of ABS corresponding to a Majorana mode. We take into account small phase fluctuations of the Josephson tunnel junction, acting as a damped LC resonator, and analyze the role of the distribution of the quasiparticles of the continuum assuming that these quasiparticles are in thermal distribution with an effective temperature different from the environmental temperature. We also discuss the effect of strong photon irradiation in the junction leading to a nonequilibrium occupation of the ABS. We systematically compare the occupations of the bound states and the supercurrents carried by these states for conventional and topological junctions.

  11. "J waves" induced after short coupling intervals: a manifestations of latent depolarization abnormality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Nakayama, Masafumi; Sato, Masahito; Okabe, Masaaki; Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Takatsuki, Seiji; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2017-04-24

    To confirm the presence of tachycardia-induced slur or notch in the terminal portion of the QRS complexes in a general patient population. A tachycardia-induced J wave was defined as a slur or notch in the terminal portion of the QRS complexes newly induced at short RR intervals during atrial premature contractions (APCs) or atrial electrical stimulation in the electrophysiological study (EPS). Twenty-three out of 2000 patients with general diseases were involved. All patients with aborted sudden cardiac death, ventricular fibrillation or a family history of sudden cardiac death were excluded. The mean age was 72 ± 9 years, and 11 patients were male (47.8%). When the RR interval was shortened from 821 ± 142 ms to 464 ± 52 ms in the conducted APCs (P waves became diagnostic (0.02 ± 0.03 mV to 0.20 ± 0.07 mV, P waves were confined to the inferior leads in 22 (95.7%) patients and were notched in 11 (47.8%) and slurred in 12 (52.2%) patients. The induction of J waves was accompanied by visible changes of the QRS morphology. When the post-APC RR interval was prolonged to 992 ± 305 ms (P = 0.0154 vs. baseline), the J waves were similar to baseline levels. During the EPS, J wave induction was confirmed during atrial stimulation. There were no characteristic clinical or ECG features in the patients with tachycardia-induced J waves. J waves can be newly induced by short RR intervals in a general patient population, and a conduction delay is the likely mechanism causing such J waves.

  12. Recycling of PVC Waste via Environmental Friendly Vapor Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin; Jin, Fangming; Zhang, Guangyi; Duan, Xiaokun

    2010-11-01

    This paper focused on the dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a plastic which is widely used in the human life and thereby is leading to serious "white pollution", via vapor treatment process to recycle PVC wastes. In the process, HCl emitted was captured into water solution to avoid hazardous gas pollution and corruption, and remaining polymers free of chlorine could be thermally degraded for further energy recovery. Optimal conditions for the dechlorination of PVC using vapor treatment was investigated, and economic feasibility of this method was also analyzed based on the experimental data. The results showed that the efficiency of dechlorination increased as the temperature increased from 200° C to 250° C, and the rate of dechlorination up to 100% was obtained at the temperature near 250° C. Meanwhile, about 12% of total organic carbon was detected in water solution, which indicated that PVC was slightly degraded in this process. The main products in solution were identified to be acetone, benzene and toluene. In addition, the effects of alkali catalysis on dechlorination were also studied in this paper, and it showed that alkali could not improve the efficiency of the dechlorination of PVC.

  13. Short-time scale coupling between thermohaline and meteorological forcing in the Ría de Pontevedra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C. Pardo

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Two cruises were performed in May-June and October-November 1997 in the Ría de Pontevedra under strong downwelling conditions. Temperature and salinity data were recorded in short sampling periods to describe the changes in thermohaline property distribution in a short time scale. In order to obtain the residual fluxes in the Ría, a bi-dimensional non-stationary salt and thermal-energy weight averaged box-model was applied. Outputs from this kinematic model were compared with Upwelling Index, river flow and density gradient, resulting in a good multiple correlation, which proves the strong coupling between thermohaline properties and meteorological variability. Ekman forcing affects the whole area but mainly controls the dynamics of outer zones. The intensity of its effect on the circulation pattern within the Ría depends on the grade of stratification of the water bodies. River flow is more relevant in inner parts. According to estimated spatially averaged velocities, water residence time is lower than two weeks in outer parts of the Ría, and decreases toward the inner zones.

  14. Strain rate dependence in plasticized and un-plasticized PVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, M. J.; Siviour, C. R.

    2012-08-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation has been made into the mechanical behaviour of two poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) polymers - an un-plasticized PVC and a diisononyl phthalate (DINP)-plasticized PVC. Measurements of the compressive stress-strain behaviour of the PVCs at strain rates ranging from 10-3 to 103s-1 and temperatures from - 60 to 100∘C are presented. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis was also performed in order to understand the material transitions observed in compression testing as the strain rate is increased. This investigation develops a better understanding of the interplay between the temperature dependence and rate dependence of polymers, with a focus on locating the temperature and rate-dependent material transitions that occur during high rate testing.

  15. PET and PVC separation system based on optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, G. G.; Álvarez Chávez, J. A.; Pérez-Torres, J. R.; Gómez-Vieyra, A.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we present experimental results of a cost-efficient photonic system capable to discriminate Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) bottles from those made of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET). The proposed array uses a semiconductor laser emitting at 810 nm, whose output is diverged employing a line lens in order to obtain a line light pattern. Given the lower attenuation coefficient of the PVC in comparison to PET at this wavelength, the received optical power is higher for the PVC than for the PET, which results in higher photogenerated current and, consequently, higher voltage after the transimpedance amplifier. Experiments considering several samples reveal an average voltage difference of 10% between materials, probing its feasibility for future industrial applications.

  16. Strain rate dependence in plasticized and un-plasticized PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siviour C.R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and analytical investigation has been made into the mechanical behaviour of two poly (vinyl chloride (PVC polymers – an un-plasticized PVC and a diisononyl phthalate (DINP-plasticized PVC. Measurements of the compressive stress-strain behaviour of the PVCs at strain rates ranging from 10−3 to 103s−1 and temperatures from − 60 to 100∘C are presented. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis was also performed in order to understand the material transitions observed in compression testing as the strain rate is increased. This investigation develops a better understanding of the interplay between the temperature dependence and rate dependence of polymers, with a focus on locating the temperature and rate-dependent material transitions that occur during high rate testing.

  17. Erfaringer med substitution af PVC ved renere teknologi og brancheaftaler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    Rapporten gennemgår den danske debat om PVC og de miljøpolitiske tiltag, der har været gennemført. Et survey i danske plastvirksomheder gennemført i projektet viser, at industrien er forberedt på at gennemføre en omfattende substitution af PVC, hvis der stilles politisk krav om det eller markedet...... efterspørger det. Til gengæld viser brancheaftalerne sig at være et svagt instrument og der peges på et behov for en opfølgning af de gode resultater, der er opnået med substitution af PVC i en række renere teknologi projekter, som har fået statslig støtte....

  18. PVC removal from mixed plastics by triboelectrostatic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul-Hyun [Hanyang University, Department of Geoenvironmental System Engineering, Haengdangdong, Seongdonggu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Gajongdong 30, Yusonggu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Ho-Seok [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Gajongdong 30, Yusonggu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hsjeon@kigam.re.kr; Park, Jai-Koo [Hanyang University, Department of Geoenvironmental System Engineering, Haengdangdong, Seongdonggu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-01

    Ever increasing oil price and the constant growth in generation of waste plastics stimulate a research on material separation for recycling of waste plastics. At present, most waste plastics cause serious environmental problems due to the disposal by reclamation and incineration. Particularly, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials among waste plastics generates hazardous HCl gas, dioxins containing Cl, and so on, which lead to air pollution and shorten the life of incinerator, and it makes difficultly recycling of other plastics. Therefore, we designed a bench scale triboelectrostatic separator for PVC removal from mixed plastics (polyvinyl chloride/polyethylene terephthalate), and then carried out material separation tests. In triboelectrostatic separation, PVC and PET particles are charged negatively and positively, respectively, due to the difference of the work function of plastics in tribo charger of the fluidized-bed, and are separated by means of splitter through an opposite electric field. In this study, the charge efficiency of PVC and PET was strongly dependent on the tribo charger material (polypropylene), relative humidity (below 30%), air velocity (over 10 m/s), and mixture ratio (PET:PVC = 1:1). At the optimum conditions (electrode potential of 20 kV and splitter position of -2 cm), PVC rejection and PET recovery in PET products were 99.60 and 98.10%, respectively, and the reproducibility of optimal test was very good ({+-}1%). In addition, as a change of splitter position, we developed the technique to recover high purity PET (over 99.99%) although PET recovery decreases by degrees.

  19. DEHA-plasticized PVC for retail packaging of fresh meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Naamansen, Ebbe Tubæk

    1998-01-01

    A selection of frequently consumed meat products were packed in two commercial types of plasticized PVC film with declared plasticizer compositions of 11 and 21% di-(ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA), respectively. The meat products were analysed for DEHA after packaging and storage until their "use by....... The DEHA concentration at the "use by" date in fresh lean trimmings and slices of pork leg was 1-2 mg/kg, whereas neck and strip loin with some fat at the surface contained about 5-10 mg/kg. More fatty types of meat such as minced beef and pork with 18-20% fat, packaged once in plasticized PVC, contained...

  20. [Safety during the thermal disposal of medical waste containing PVC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatenko, N A; Karmanov, V V; Vaisman, Ya I; Samutin, N M

    2013-01-01

    In the article the issues of environmental, sanitary and hygienic safety of medical waste management are considered. Recently, for the treatment of certain types of medical waste thermal methods using small plants not equipped with a proper flue gas cleaning system are widely used. In this article the potential danger of supertoxicants generation when applying thermal methods of neutralization of medical waste that contains polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is justified by thermogravimetric and mass spectrometric studies. This research shows the necessity of introducing technologies of separate collection of PVC medical waste and its' thermal recycling in compliance with special requirements.

  1. The Entire Nucleotide Sequence of Friend-Related and Paralysis-Inducing PVC-441 Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) and Its Comparison with Those of PVC-211 MuLV and Friend MuLV

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Oka, Kiyomasa; Tanaka, Keiji; Jinno, Atsushi; Ruscetti, Sandra K.; Kai, Kazushige

    1998-01-01

    PVC-441 murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is a member of the PVC group of Friend MuLV (F-MuLV)-derived neuropathogenic retroviruses. In order to determine the molecular basis for the difference in neuropathogenicity between PVC-441 and the previously characterized PVC-211 MuLVs, the entire nucleotide sequence of PVC-441 MuLV was determined and compared with those of PVC-211 and F-MuLV. The results suggest that PVC-441 and PVC-211 MuLVs were formed as a result of random mutations of F-MuLV and deve...

  2. A development and biological safety evaluation of novel PVC medical devices with surface structures modified by UV irradiation to suppress plasticizer migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haishima, Yuji; Isama, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Chie; Yuba, Toshiyasu; Matsuoka, Atsuko

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the chemical, physicochemical, and biological properties of PVC sheets treated with UV irradiation on their surfaces to suppress the elution of a plasticizer, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), for developing novel polyvinyl chloride (PVC) medical devices. The PVC sheets irradiated under conditions 1 (52.5 μW/cm(2), 136 J/cm(2)) and 2 (0.45 mW/cm(2), 972 J/cm(2)) exhibited considerable toxicity in cytotoxicity tests and chromosome aberration tests due to the generation of DEHP oxidants, but no toxicity was detected in the PVC sheet irradiated under condition 3 (8.3 mW/cm(2), 134 J/cm(2)). The release of DEHP from the surface irradiated under condition 3 was significantly suppressed, and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) converted from a portion of DEHP could be easily removed from the surface by washing with methanol. The physicochemical properties of the surface regarding the suppression of DEHP elution remained stable through all sterilizations tested, but MEHP elution was partially recrudesced by the sterilizations except for gamma irradiation. These results indicated that UV irradiation using a strong UV-source over a short time (condition 3) followed by methanol washing and gamma sterilization may be useful for preparing novel PVC products that did not elute plasticizers and do not exhibit toxicity originating from UV irradiation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Determination of methylmercury and inorganic mercury by coupling short-column ion chromatographic separation, on-line photocatalyst-assisted vapor generation, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-ju; Hsu, I-hsiang; Sun, Yuh-chang

    2009-12-18

    We have combined short-column ion chromatographic separation and on-line photocatalyst-assisted vapor generation (VG) techniques with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to develop a simple and sensitive hyphenated method for the determination of aqueous Hg(2+) and MeHg(+) species. The separation of Hg(2+) and MeHg(+) was accomplished on a cation-exchange guard column using a glutathione (GSH)-containing eluent. To achieve optimal chromatographic separation and signal intensities, we investigated the influence of several of the operating parameters of the chromatographic and photocatalyst-assisted VG systems. Under the optimized conditions of VG process, the shortcomings of conventional SnCl(2)-based VG techniques for the vaporization of MeHg(+) was overcome; comparing to the concentric nebulizer-ICP-MS system, the analytical sensitivity of ICP-MS toward the detection of Hg(2+) and MeHg(+) were also improved to 25- and 7-fold, respectively. With the use of our established HPLC-UV/nano-TiO(2)-ICP-MS system, the precision for each analyte, based on three replicate injections of 2 ng/mL samples of each species, was better than 15% RSD. This hyphenated method also provided excellent detection limits--0.1 and 0.03 ng/mL for Hg(2+) and MeHg(+), respectively. A series of validation experiments--analysis of the NIST 2672a Standard Urine Reference Material and other urine samples--confirmed further that our proposed method could be applied satisfactorily to the determination of inorganic Hg(2+) and MeHg(+) species in real samples.

  4. Phthalate release from soft PVC baby toys, Report from the Dutch Consensus Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konemann WH; RIVM/CSR

    1998-01-01

    Op verzoek van de staatssecretaris van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport, heeft een werkgroep van vertegenwoordigers van betrokken partijen de afgifte van ftalaten uit zacht PVC babyspeelgoed onderzocht. Omdat di-isononylftalaat (DINP) veruit de meest gebruikte weekmaker in PVC babyspeelgoed

  5. Predicting the Migration Rate of Dialkyl Organotins from PVC Pipe into Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organotins (OTs) are additives widely used as thermal and light stabilizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. OTs can leach into water flowing through PVC pipes. This work examines the leaching rates of two neurotoxic OTs, dimethyl tin (DMT) and dibutyl tin (DBT), from PVC pi...

  6. PVC-MEMBRANE POTENTIOMETRIC SENSORS BASED ON A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ethylimino)-1,3-dihydro-indol-. 2-one (DEDIO) as an ionophore in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix, is reported. The plasticized membrane sensor exhibits a Nernstian response for Fe(III) ions over a wide concentration range (2.0 × 10-6 - 5.0 ...

  7. The PVC-rat and other alternatives in microsurgical training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remie, R

    2001-01-01

    The number of animals used in educational training programs in experimental microsurgery can be reduced by using artificial devices such as the anastomoses device and the MD PVC-Rat. Such in vitro methods allow development of technical skills, making the transition to in vivo models much easier.

  8. Properties of irradiated PVC plasticized with non-endocrine disruptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutzler, B.W.; Machado, L.D.B.; Lugao, A.B. E-mail: ablugao@net.ipen.br; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H

    2000-03-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) is under heavy attack from environmentalist groups due to the use of plasticizers and its recycling difficulties. Chloro-organics and phtalates are considered now as ubiquitous global contaminants due to their potential as weak endocrine disruptor and huge consumption. In order to make PVC acceptable for the irradiation processing industry in the long term, non-toxic plasticizers should be used. PVC was added with dioctyl phtalate (DOP) and epoxy soybean oil (ESO) and irradiated up to 50 kGy. Mechanical properties, optical properties and viscosity were measured and compared. The elongation and mechanical strength were under the usual range and they didn't show any significant change in the studied range of irradiation dose. All the samples showed a weak yellowing effect after irradiation and the molecular weight measured by viscosimetry showed only negligible changes. In conclusion, DOP and ESO were shown to be effective in stabilizing the radiolytic abstraction of HCl from PVC. Both plasticizers imparted good color stability and overall properties to the products.

  9. Properties of Commercial PVC Films with Respect to Electron Dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Liqing, Xie

    The properties of three commercially available polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film supplies and one made without additives were tested with respect to their application as routine dose monitors at electron accelerators. Dose fractionation was found to increase the response and the post-irradiation heat...

  10. [Determination of short chain chlorinated paraffins in leather products by solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiya; Wan, Xin; Li, Lixia; Wang, Chengyun; Jin, Shupei; Xing, Jun

    2014-10-01

    The short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are the additives frequently used in the leather production in China, but they have been put into the list of forbidden chemicals issued by European Union recently. In fact, there is not a commonly recognized method for the determination of the SCCPs in the leather products due to the serious matrix interferences from the leather products and the complex chemical structures of the SCCPs. A method of solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-MS) was established for the determination of the SCCPs in the leather products after the optimization of the SPE conditions. It was found that the interferences from the leather products were thor- oughly separated from the analyte of the SCCPs on a home-made solid phase extraction (SPE) column filled with silica packing while eluted with a mixed solvent of n-hexane-methylene chloride (2:1, v/v). With this method, the recoveries for the SCCPs spiked in the real leather samples varied from 90.47% to 99.00% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 6.7%, and the limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.069 and 0.110 mg/kg. This method is suitable for qualitative and quantitative analysis of SCCPs in the leather products.

  11. Flame Retardation Modification of Paper-Based PVC Wallcoverings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flame-retarded paper-based polyvinyl chloride (PVC wallcoverings were successfully prepared, using plant fiber paper as base material and adding inorganic flame retardants and flame-retarded plasticizer as additives. Flame retardancy, thermostability, smoke suppression and mechanical properties were tested regarding to the prepared wallcoverings. The results showed that 2ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O could improve flame retardancy and thermostability of paper-based PVC wallcoverings; plasticizer tricresyl phosphate increased flame retardancy of the prepared materials auxiliarily. Also, flame-retarded paper-based PVC wallcoverings with higher flame retardancy, smoke suppression and mechanical property was prepared using plant fiber paper with fix quantity of 90 g/m3 as base material, using 2ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O as inorganic flame retardant, and using tricresyl phosphate as plasticizer. For the flame-retarded paper-based PVC wallcoverings in this study, the limit oxygen index (LOI reaches 32.3, maximal smoke density is 16.91 %, and the horizontal and longitudinal wet tensile strength reaches 1.38 kN·m−1 and 1.51 kN·m−1 respectively. Meanwhile, its flame retardancy meets the requirements about flame retardancy for material Class B1 listed in Chinese National Standards GB 8624-2012, Classification for burning behavior of building materials and products. This research creates an effective path to prepare paper-based PVC wallcoverings with high flame retardancy.

  12. Self-Plasticization of PVC via click reaction of a monooctyl phthalate derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Puyou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Modified PVC (M-PVC material with suppressed migration and low glass transition temperature was prepared via click reaction of a monooctyl phthalate derivative. Chemical structure and composition of M-PVC were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR and element analysis. Thermal stability, glass transition temperature and migration stability of M-PVC were studied with TGA, DSC and migration tests, respectively. The study showed that M-PVC exhibited poor thermal stability, and low glass transition temperature of 66.0°C. No migration was found in distilled water, 10% (v/v ethanol, 30% (w/vacetic acid and petroleum ether. The PVC material is expected to preparing PVC products in the areas with high migration resistance requirement.

  13. Palladium Nanoparticles Immobilized on Poly(vinyl chloride-Supported Pyridinium as an Efficient and Recyclable Catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The palladium nanoparticles immobilized on the polymeric surface of poly(vinyl chloride-supported pyridinium (PVC-Py-Pd0 were achieved by a simple procedure by applying the corresponding functionalized polymer and palladium chloride in ethanol solution. The as-prepared catalyst (PVC-Py-Pd0 was found to be air and moisture stable and exhibits significant catalytic activity for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction of various aryl halides and phenylboronic acid under milder operating conditions. The procedure presented here showed several merits such as short reaction time, simple experimental and isolated procedure and excellent yields of products. Furthermore, the catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for at least six times with consistent activities.

  14. Processing and Properties of Carbon Nanotube PVC Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Trommer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT were incorporated in coating masses based on PVC by means of three roll mill. The best results could be obtained using the 5 µm gap. Thin PVC sheets were formed via knife coating having an electrical conductivity up to 1,500 S/m that are applicable as electric heating elements. For the use in the antistatic range, CNT contents ≤0.5% are sufficient. Rheological measurements indicate the quality of particle processing. AFM investigations are suitable to investigate the alignment of the nanoparticles in the bulk polymer. Using this method, the decrease of agglomerates as well as the splitting of CNT bundles within further mass processing could be visualized.

  15. PVC-PBMA nanocomposite polymer electrolytes for lithium battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, R.; Rani, M. Usha; Babu, Ravishanker

    2017-05-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-Poly (butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) composite polymer electrolytes with incorporation of different ratio of ZrO2 doped was prepared by solution casting technique. The ionic conductivity, dielectric behavior, ionic transference number and surface morphology of the composite polymer electrolytes were characterized by using ac impedance, dielectric, DC polarization method and SEM studies respectively. The best room temperature ionic conductivity (0.520mScm-1 at 303 K), high dielectric constant (27340 ± 10 at 50 Hz) and high pore size obtained for 10 wt% of ZrO2 doped composite polymer electrolytes. DC polarization method confirms the occurrences of conduction in composite PVC-PBMA blend polymer electrolytes predominantly due to ions.

  16. Plastic flow and failure in single point incremental forming of PVC sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. F. Martins

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an innovative and effective methodology to characterize plastic flow and failure in single point incremental forming (SPIF of polymers that allows determining the stresses and the accumulated values of ductile damage directly from the experimental values of strain at various positions over the deformed polymer sheets. The approach traces the deformation path of material elements in conical and pyramidal SPIF parts, undergoing linear strain loading paths from beginning until failure, and is built upon the generalization of the analytical framework conditions assumed by Glover et al. [1] to the pressure-sensitive yield surfaces of polymers under incompressible, non-associated, plastic flow. Experimentation in conventional and multi-stage SPIF of Polyvinylchloride (PVC sheets confirms the effectiveness of the proposed methodology and demonstrates that standard non-coupled damage models currently utilized in sheet metal forming are inapplicable to describe failure in polymers. Instead fracture forming limit lines (FFL’s should be employed.

  17. Spectroscopic, Physical and Topography of Photochemical Process of PVC Films in the Presence of Schiff Base Metal Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Yousif

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The photostability of poly(vinyl chloride, PVC, containing various Schiff base metal complexes (0.5% by weight was investigated. Various indices corresponding to a number of functional groups were monitored with irradiation of polymeric films to determine their photostabilization activities. The quantum yield of the chain scission (Φcs of modified polymeric films was found to be (1.15–4.65 × 106. The surface morphology of a PVC sample was investigated by the use of atomic force microscope (AFM. The photostability of PVC films in the presence of Schiff base additives was found to follow the following order: PVC < PVC + CuL2 < PVC + CdL2 < PVC + ZnL2 < PVC + SnL2 < PVC + NiL2. Various mechanisms for PVC films photostability containing the Schiff base additives have been suggested.

  18. Morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of PVC/MMT nanocomposites prepared by solution blending and solution blending + melt compounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madaleno, Liliana Andreia Oliveira; Schjødt-Thomsen, Jan; Pinto, José Cruz

    2010-01-01

    and solution blending + melt compounding The effects on morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of the PVC/MMT nanocomposites were studied by varying the amount of Na-MMT and OMMT in both methods SEM and XRD analysis revealed that possible intercalated and exfoliated structures were obtained in all...... of the PVC/MMT nanocomposites Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that PVC/Na-MMT nanocomposites have better thermal stability than PVC/OMMT nanocomposites and PVC. In general, PVC/MMT nanocomposites prepared by solution blending + melt compounding revealed improved thermal properties compared to PVC....../MMT nanocomposites prepared by solution blending Vicar tests revealed a significant decrease in Vicar softening temperature of PVC/MMT nanocomposites prepared by solution blending + melt compounding compared to unfilled PVC The mechanical properties of the PVC/MMT nanocomposites were, in general, greatly improved...

  19. New plasticizers for PVC-compositions in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAZITOVA Aliya Karamovna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the analysis and development of effective types of plasticizers for a wide range of finishing (linoleum and insulating building materials (insulation tape, cable plastic with improved mechanical and technical characteristics. In connection with the growth of consumption of finishing and insulating materials, the development of new formulations of PVC compositions for construction with the use of new plasticizers is not only an urgent task, but also within the framework of construction it allows solving the problems of effective quality control of a finished PVC composition. This paper presents the results of the tests of ctylphenoxyethylphtalates as a new chemical additivies for plasticizing PVC in the formulation of the upper and middle layers of linoleum, adhesive film and cable compound О-40 rec. ОМ-40 (black. It is noted, that obtained samples of adhesive tape with their main characteristics (tensile strength at break, extension coefficient, shatter point, thermostability correspond to technical specification (TS 2245-001-00203312-2003. Obtained samples of plasticate were analyzed according to GOST 5960-72 rev. 1-9 (PVC plasticate for isolation and protective covers of wires and cables, by main characteristics (specific insulation resistance, tensile strength at break, breaking elongation, shatter point are not inferior to commercial prototypes, and such characteristics as «Weight loss at 160о С» and «Water absorption» are significantly lower. It is noted that, in case of using octylphenoxyethyl phtalates, obtained samples of films of upper and middle layers of linoleum analyzed according to norms of STI 00203312-100-2006 have a higher melt flow rate. In addition, films obtained through introduction of suggested plasticizers possess a low value of extractability by gasoline and oils.

  20. Physico-Chemical Studies of the Pvc K+ - Selective Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana COROIAN

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A plasticized ion-selective membrane based on PVC matrix which tricrezylphosphate (TCP and containing K+ - ionophores (dibenzo-18-crown-6 and decyl-18-crown-6 was used to obtain a potentiometric potassium sensor. The potassium selective membranes were characterized in terms of their electrochemical and physical properties, surface morphology and structural parameters. The a.c. impedance, UV/VIS analysis of the membranes was also studied.

  1. Strength analysis of welded corners of PVC window profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postawa, P.; Stachowiak, T.; Gnatowski, A.

    2017-08-01

    The article presents the results of researches which main purpose was to define the influence of welding parameters on strength of welded corners of PVC window profile. PVC profiles of a branded name GENEO® produced by Rehau Company were used for this research. The profiles were made by using a co-extrusion method. The surface of the profile was made of PVC mixture with no additives. Its main task was to get a smooth surface resistant to a smudge. The use of an unfilled polyester provides an aesthetic look and improves the resistance of extrudate to water getting into inner layers. The profile's inner layers have been filled up with glass fibre in order to improve its stiffness and mechanical properties. Window frames with cut corners used for this research, were produced on technological line of EUROCOLOR Company based in Pyskowice (Poland). The main goal of this analysis was to evaluate the influence of the main welding parameter (temperature upsetting) on hardness of welds we received in whole process. A universal testing machine was used for the research.

  2. Development of a continuous flow model system for studies of biofilm formation on polymers and its application on PVC-C and PVC-P

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    could be harvested from three different combinations of flow velocity and residence time. Biofilm formation was followed by ATP analysis on test material (chlorinated polyvinylchloride, PVC-C), negative control (stainless steel) and positive control (plasticized polyvinylchloride, PVC-P) incubated...... in separate flow model systems. Results show a good agreement between biofilm densities on test pieces from the developed flow model system and batch-incubated test pieces during 16 weeks of incubation; average values during 8 to 16 weeks of operation were 40 pg ATP/cm2 for steel, 60 pg ATP/cm2 for PVC......-C, while most of the very deviating values for PVC-P were between 2-13,000 pg ATP/cm2. During 43 weeks of operation of the continuous flow model systems the biofilm formation increased on all three materials, with biofilm formation on PVC-C at the same level as on the negative steel control (values of 75...

  3. Processing of a PVC waste by the metallic recycling process; Kinzoku no risaikuru purosesu ni yoru PVC haikibutsu no shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-05

    Mr. Derek Fray of Cambridge University was PVC '99 conference held in Brighton in the United Kingdom some time ago, and the strip process of tin, zinc, metal of the copper in the iron recycling reported the possibility that the problem of a PVC waste could be solved. Though hydrogen chlorides, carbon dioxide, steam, etc. arise, when PVC burns in the excessive air, they are as the hydrogen chloride with these impurity forms the chlorides with nonferrous metal except for the iron. For example, it becomes possible that it recovers by the condensation by forming the volatile tetrachloride tin, when it deals with the steel plate which coated the tin in 130 degrees C PVC deriving gas. This reaction is the diffusion control in vapor phase, and there is no necessity of putting the object in the shredder. This process can be applied to the case in which there is the polymer coating like the canned food in addition to the tin coating. And, it can be also applied to the removal of zinc from the steel plate that for automobile was galvanized. By the heating of the steel plate, zinc is melted, and it evaporates, and it is recovered as a zinc oxide dust, and dangerous object and problem of the processing occur. In the meantime, in making to be the volatile zinc chloride in about 10 minutes, when it deals with this steel plate with chlorination reagent (chlorine, hydrogen chloride) and excessive air at 750 degrees C, zinc can be removed. It is to electrolyse this zinc chloride in condensation and after the purification, and high-pure zinc oxide and chlorine are got. The person though in Europe, this report has not pulled the interest very much, and it is sure of that this research is realizable in the laboratory level, and it is lamented that the enterprises in which a waste is arising, etc. do not show the interest in present state. (translated by NEDO)

  4. Grief following termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality: Does marital intimacy foster short-term couple congruence?

    OpenAIRE

    Nazaré, Bárbara; Fonseca, Ana; Canavarro,Maria Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to 1) compare women and men in congruent and incongruent couples regarding the intensity of grief responses and the prevalence of clinically relevant grief responses following a termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality; and to 2) assess the role of marital intimacy in fostering couple congruence on grief responses. Background: In spite of the detrimental effects of incongruent grief on the marital relationship, previous studies have seldom compared congrue...

  5. Quality control in the recycling stream of PVC from window frames by hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Valentina; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Di Maio, Francesco; Rem, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is one of the most commonly used thermoplastic materials in respect to the worldwide polymer consumption. PVC is mainly used in the building and construction sector, products such as pipes, window frames, cable insulation, floors, coverings, roofing sheets, etc. are realised utilising this material. In recent years, the problem of PVC waste disposal gained increasing importance in the public discussion. The quantity of used PVC items entering the waste stream is gradually increased as progressively greater numbers of PVC products approach to the end of their useful economic lives. The quality of the recycled PVC depends on the characteristics of the recycling process and the quality of the input waste. Not all PVC-containing waste streams have the same economic value. A transparent relation between value and composition is required to decide if the recycling process is cost effective for a particular waste stream. An objective and reliable quality control technique is needed in the recycling industry for the monitoring of both recycled flow streams and final products in the plant. In this work hyperspectral imaging technique in the near infrared (NIR) range (1000-1700 nm) was applied to identify unwanted plastic contaminants and rubber present in PVC coming from windows frame waste in order to assess a quality control procedure during its recycling process. Results showed as PVC, PE and rubber can be identified adopting the NIR-HSI approach.

  6. Analysis of Phthalate Ester Content in PVC Plastics by means of FT-Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbygaard, Thomas; Berg, Rolf W.

    2004-01-01

    Polyvinyl chloride, PVC or [CH2-CHCl]n , is a common polymer used extensively for a wide range of industrial and household products. To achieve the proper material characteristics (e.g. softness, ductility), plasticizers such as phthalates are usually added to the otherwise hard and brittle PVC......, medical devices and toys may harm the e.g. reproductive organs of exposed infants. PVC is readily distinguished from other common polymers (e.g. polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene) by the use of Raman spectroscopy. By far the most commonly used phthalate plasticizer in PVC is di(2-ethylhexyl...

  7. Molding of PVC Air Soles with Modified Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Omprakash H. Nautiyal

    2012-01-01

    Molding of PVC Air soles are currently produced with the formulations of Resin (25 Kg), DOP/DBP ( 8+8 Kg), CPW (3 Kg), R9 (0.750 Kg), Ivamol (0.500 Kg), Stearic acid (0.500 Kg), Foaming ADC (0.350 Kg), MBR (8kg) and CaCO3). Quality parameters investigated for such products have shown that internal microcellular structures were not uniform and durability was also weak. Hence the invention was undertaken eliminating CPW and Stearic acid. Instead of this Naphthenic oil was employed for molding t...

  8. Comparative acute toxicity of leachates from plastic products made of polypropylene, polyethylene, PVC, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, and epoxy to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithner, Delilah; Nordensvan, Ildikó; Dave, Göran

    2012-06-01

    The large global production of plastics and their presence everywhere in the society and the environment create a need for assessing chemical hazards and risks associated with plastic products. The aims of this study were to determine and compare the toxicity of leachates from plastic products made of five plastics types and to identify the class of compounds that is causing the toxicity. Selected plastic types were those with the largest global annual production, that is, polypropylene, polyethylene, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), or those composed of hazardous monomers (e.g., PVC, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene [ABS], and epoxy). Altogether 26 plastic products were leached in deionized water (3 days at 50°C), and the water phases were tested for acute toxicity to Daphnia magna. Initial Toxicity Identification Evaluations (C18 filtration and EDTA addition) were performed on six leachates. For eleven leachates (42%) 48-h EC50s (i.e the concentration that causes effect in 50 percent of the test organisms) were below the highest test concentration, 250 g plastic/L. All leachates from plasticized PVC (5/5) and epoxy (5/5) products were toxic (48-h EC50s ranging from 2 to 235 g plastic/L). None of the leachates from polypropylene (5/5), ABS (5/5), and rigid PVC (1/1) products showed toxicity, but one of the five tested HDPE leachates was toxic (48-h EC50 17-24 g plastic/L). Toxicity Identification Evaluations indicated that mainly hydrophobic organics were causing the toxicity and that metals were the main cause for one leachate (metal release was also confirmed by chemical analysis). Toxic chemicals leached even during the short-term leaching in water, mainly from plasticized PVC and epoxy products.

  9. Comparative Fatigue Lives of Rubber and PVC Wiper Cylindrical Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlcek, Brian L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Savage, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Three coating materials for rotating cylindrical-coated wiping rollers were fatigue tested in 2 Intaglio printing presses. The coatings were a hard, cross-linked, plasticized PVC thermoset (P-series); a plasticized PVC (A-series); and a hard, nitryl rubber (R-series). Both 2- and 3-parameter Weibull analyses as well as a cost-benefit analysis were performed. The mean value of life for the R-series coating is 24 and 9 times longer than the P- and A-series coatings, respectively. Both the cost and replacement rate for the R-series coating was significantly less than those for the P- and A-series coatings. At a very high probability of survival the R-series coating is approximately 2 and 6 times the lives of the P- and A-series, respectively, before the first failure occurs. Where all coatings are run to failure, using the mean (life) time between removal (MTBR) for each coating to calculate the number of replacements and costs provides qualitatively similar results to those using a Weibull analysis.

  10. Analysis of Adipate Ester Contents in PVC Plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    2006-01-01

    Plasticizers are needed in flexible PVC (PolyVinylChloride) products. There is serious concern that commonly used phthalate esters may harm life reproduction systems. To avoid the problems, instead adipate di-esters (AEs) of C8 to C10 alcohols are used as higher prized alternatives; e.g. di-2......-ethylhexyl adipate or DEHA [103-23-1], also known as Adimoll® or di-octyl adipate, DOA, see Fig. 1. A widely used plasticizer in food (cling) films is DEHA, often in combination with polymers, epoxidized soya-bean oil, etcetera. DEHA also occurs in children toys. We have previously shown that the presence...... of phthalate esters in PVC can be rapidly analyzed by Fourier transform (FT-) Raman spectroscopy excited with a 1064 nm laser. Here in this project we report a similar study. The aim was to find out whether FT-Raman spectroscopy can be used to determine the presence of adipate esters (AEs) as plasticizers...

  11. Fittings of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) or acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) with plain sockets for pipes under pressure - Dimensions of sockets - Metric series

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1985-01-01

    Fittings of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) or acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) with plain sockets for pipes under pressure - Dimensions of sockets - Metric series

  12. Plastics piping systems for industrial applications : acrylonitrile-butadiene- styrene (ABS), unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-C) : specifications for components and the system : metric series

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Plastics piping systems for industrial applications : acrylonitrile-butadiene- styrene (ABS), unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-C) : specifications for components and the system : metric series

  13. Are Couples Really Happy after Divorce? An Analysis of the Negative Post-Divorce Effects in Hanif Kureishi’s Short Story Midnight All Day

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Güneş

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the negative post-divorce effects on the separated couples in Hanif Kureishi’s short story Midnight All Day. In so doing, it focuses upon two negative aspects related to the post-divorce phases. First, it looks closely at how Kureishi’s fictional male character Ian feels frustrated, unhappy and fragmented in the wake of his divorce from his wife Jane, even though he finds at once a new lover Marina. Secondly, the paper also discusses another disturbing negative aspect of I...

  14. Resonant excitation of coupled Rayleigh waves in a short and narrow fluid channel clad between two identical metal plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. García-Chocano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of ultrasonic waves through a slit between two water immersed brass plates is studied for sub-wavelength plate thicknesses and slit apertures. Extraordinary high absorption is observed at discrete frequencies corresponding to resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves on the both sides of the channel. The coupling of the Rayleigh waves occurs through the fluid and the corresponding contribution to the dispersion has been theoretically derived and also experimentally confirmed. Symmetric and anti-symmetric modes are predicted but only the symmetric mode resonances have been observed. It follows from the dispersion equation that the coupled Rayleigh waves cannot be excited in a channel with apertures less than the critical one. The calculated critical aperture is in a good agreement with the measured acoustic spectra. These findings could be applied to design a broadband absorptive metamaterial.

  15. Non-collinear wave mixing for non-linear ultrasonic detection of physical ageing in PVC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demcenko, A.; Akkerman, Remko; Nagy, P.B.; Loendersloot, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This work considers the characterization of linear PVC acoustic properties using a linear ultrasonic measurement technique and the non-collinear ultrasonic wave mixing technique for measurement of the physical ageing state in PVC. The immersion pulse-echo measurements were used to evaluate phase

  16. Effect of complexing salt on conductivity of PVC/PEO polymer blend ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    PVC), poly(ehylene oxide). (PEO) and different lithium salts (LiClO4, LiBF4 and LiCF3SO3) were prepared by the solution casting tech- nique. The effect of complexing salt on the ionic conductivity of the PVC/PEO host polymer is discussed. Solid.

  17. PVC stay-in-place panel covers for tilt-up and pre-cast construction

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2012-01-01

    Octaform™ stay-in-place concrete forming system is PVC insulated concrete form system. These forms have been used in the industry for various applications to improve the insulation and corrosion resistance of structures. Octaform™ has developed the panel covers so the advantages of PVC stay-in-place concrete forming systems could be applied to tilt-up and pre-cast construction.

  18. Using a Modified Taylor Cell to Validate Simulation and Measurement of Field-to-Shorted-Trace Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Op 't Land, Sjoerd; Ramdani, Mohamed; Perdriau, Richard; Braux, Yannis; Drissi, M'Hamed

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Predicting the immunity of electronic boards to radiated electromagnetic interference requires the computation of the coupling efficiency of an electromagnetic field to PCB traces. In the case of complex PCBs, full-wave electromagnetic solvers are convenient, yet at the expense of simulation time. Therefore, this paper introduces the extension of a modified Taylor-based analytical model to the case of traces terminated at one end by a non-characteristic impedance. This...

  19. Seismic Coupling of Short-Period Wind Noise Through Mars' Regolith for NASA's InSight Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teanby, N. A.; Stevanović, J.; Wookey, J.; Murdoch, N.; Hurley, J.; Myhill, R.; Bowles, N. E.; Calcutt, S. B.; Pike, W. T.

    2017-10-01

    NASA's InSight lander will deploy a tripod-mounted seismometer package onto the surface of Mars in late 2018. Mars is expected to have lower seismic activity than the Earth, so minimisation of environmental seismic noise will be critical for maximising observations of seismicity and scientific return from the mission. Therefore, the seismometers will be protected by a Wind and Thermal Shield (WTS), also mounted on a tripod. Nevertheless, wind impinging on the WTS will cause vibration noise, which will be transmitted to the seismometers through the regolith (soil). Here we use a 1:1-scale model of the seismometer and WTS, combined with field testing at two analogue sites in Iceland, to determine the transfer coefficient between the two tripods and quantify the proportion of WTS vibration noise transmitted through the regolith to the seismometers. The analogue sites had median grain sizes in the range 0.3-1.0 mm, surface densities of 1.3-1.8 g cm^{-3}, and an effective regolith Young's modulus of 2.5^{+1.9}_{-1.4} MPa. At a seismic frequency of 5 Hz the measured transfer coefficients had values of 0.02-0.04 for the vertical component and 0.01-0.02 for the horizontal component. These values are 3-6 times lower than predicted by elastic theory and imply that at short periods the regolith displays significant anelastic behaviour. This will result in reduced short-period wind noise and increased signal-to-noise. We predict the noise induced by turbulent aerodynamic lift on the WTS at 5 Hz to be ˜2×10^{-10} ms^{-2} Hz^{-1/2} with a factor of 10 uncertainty. This is at least an order of magnitude lower than the InSight short-period seismometer noise floor of 10^{-8} ms^{-2} Hz^{-1/2}.

  20. Study on thickness distribution of thermoformed medical PVC blister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiping

    2017-08-01

    Vacuum forming has many advantages over other plastic forming processes due to its cost effectiveness, time efficiency, higher product precision, and more design flexibility. Nevertheless, when pressures greater than the atmospheric value are required to force the thermo-plastic into more intimate contact with the mold surface, pressure forming is a better choice. This paper studies the process of air-pressure thermoforming of plastic sheet, and focuses on medical blister PVC products. ANSYS POLYFLOW tool is used to simulate the process and analyze the wall thickness distribution of the blister. The influence of mold parameters on the wall thickness distribution of thermoformed part is thus obtained through simulation. Increasing radius between mold and side wall at the bottom of blister and draft prove to improve the wall thickness distribution.

  1. Construction of Tb3+ PVC-MembraneElectrode Based on N,N’-Bis(pyrrolylmethylene-2-aminobenzylamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Zamani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report as new Tb3+-PVC membrane sensor based on N,N’-bis(pyrrolylmethylene- 2-aminobenzylamine (PMA as a suitable ion carrier. Poly vinylchloride (PVC-based membrane composed of PMA with oleic acid (OA as anionic additives and acetophenone (AP as plasticizing solvent mediators. The Tb3+ sensor exhibits a Nernstian slope of 19.7±0.4 mV per decade over the concentration range of 1.0×10-5 to 1.0×10-2 M and a detection limit of 4.6×10-6 M of Tb3+ ions. The potentiometric response of the sensor is independent of the solution pH in the range of 2.9–8.1. It has a very short response time, in the whole concentration range (∼5 s. The recommended sensor revealed comparatively good selectivity with respect to most alkali, alkaline earth, some transition and heavy metal ions. It was successfully employed as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Tb(III ions with EDTA. The electrode was also employed for the determination of the fluoride ion in two mouth wash preparations and the determination of Tb3+ ions concentration in mixtures of three different ions.

  2. Biotreatment effects in films and blends of PVC/PCL previously treated with heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Campos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on biomodification and the pre-heat (130(0C influence on Poly (vinyl chloride / Poly (epsilon-caprolactone films. The results showed that heat pre-treatment improved the biomodification of PVC films, but it inhibited the biomodification of the PVC/PCL film.Poli épsilon-caprolactona é um importante polímero biodegradável e miscível com o PVC, um polímero sintético industrial, termo susceptível e não biodegradável. A blenda PVC/PCL é importante quanto a suas propriedades mecânicas e biodegradabilidade. Neste trabalho foi analisada a biomodificação da blenda PVC/PCL pré-tratada com calor (130ºC, através da espectroscopia UV-Vis. Os resultados mostraram que o pré-tratamento com calor pode facilitar a biomodificação em filmes de PVC, mas pode inibir a biomodificação nos filmes da blenda PVC/PCL.

  3. Isolation and molecular characterization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic degrading fungal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Ishtiaq; Ahmed, Safia; Robson, Geoff; Javed, Imran; Ali, Naeem; Atiq, Naima; Hameed, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The recalcitrant nature of polyvinyl chloride creates serious environmental concerns during manufacturing and waste disposal. The present study was aimed to isolate and screen different soil fungi having potential to biodegrade PVC films. After 10 months of soil burial experiment, it was observed that a number of fungal strains were flourishing on PVC films. On morphological as well as on 18rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic basis they were identified as Phanerochaete chrysosporium PV1, Lentinus tigrinus PV2, Aspergillus niger PV3, and Aspergillus sydowii PV4. The biodegradation ability of these fungal isolates was further checked in shake flask experiments by taking thin films of PVC (C source) in mineral salt medium. A significant change in color and surface deterioration of PVC films was confirmed through visual observation and Scanning electron microscopy. During shake flask experiments, P. chrysosporium PV1 produced maximum biomass of about 2.57 mg ml(-1) followed by A. niger PV3. P. chrysosporium PV1 showed significant reduction (178,292 Da(-1)) in Molecular weight of the PVC film than control (200,000 Da(-1)) by gel permeation chromatography. Furthermore more Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance also revealed structural changes in the PVC. It was concluded that isolated fungal strains have significant potential for biodegradation of PVC plastics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. PVC mixtures’ mechanical properties with the addition of modified calcite as filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Dušica R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study mechanical properties of PVC mixtures (PVC, stabilizer, lubricant, filler such as tensile strength, tensile elongation, breaking strength, and breaking elongation were investigated. Unmodified calcite, as well as calcite modified by stearic acid, were used as fillers in wet and dry processes. The PVC mixtures containing the calcite modified by wet procedure have better mechanical properties compared to those with the calcite modified by the dry process. Tensile and breaking strength of the PVC mixture containing the calcite modified with 1.5% stearic acid using wet process, are higher for 2.8% and 5.2%, respectively, compared to the PVC mixture containing the calcite modified with the same amount of acid used in the dry process. The tensile strength difference between the mixtures increases with the increase of the concentration of used stearic acid up to 3%. The strength of PVC mixture with the calcite modified by wet process is 3.1% higher compared to the mixture containing calcite modified by dry process. The results showed that the bonding strength between calcite and the adsorbed organic component affected tensile strength, tensile elongation and breaking strength of the PVC mixtures. The best filler was obtained by wet modification using 1.5% stearic acid solution that provided the formation of a stearate monolayer chemisorbed on calcite. The PVC mixtures containing the calcite modified by wet process using 1.5% stearic acid solution exhibited the best mechanical properties. This calcite was completely hydrophobic with dominant chemically adsorbed surfactant, which means that stearate chemisorbed on calcite provided stronger interaction in the calcite-stearic acid-PVC system.

  5. Parametars for the evaluation of the quality of PVC containers for pharmaceutical preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Dimitrovska

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the parameters for the evaluation of the quality of poly(vinyl chloride (PVC containers for pharmaceutical preparations is made. The requirements for the quality of PVC containers regulated by Ph. Eur., DIN and ISO standards differ in the prescribed parameters for physical, chemical and biological examination. Different ranges of tolerance for certain parameters also exist. The comparison of the parameters prescribed for these types of containers in Ph. Eur., DIN and ISO standards is made for a more detailed evaluation of PVC container quality

  6. Simultaneous determination of three antioxidants in foods and cosmetics by flow injection coupled to an ultra-short monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jiménez, J F; Valencia, M C; Capitán-Vallvey, L F

    2009-07-01

    The combination of an ultra-short C18 monolithic column (5 mm long) with flow injection analysis results in a versatile and efficient system that has been used for the determination of three antioxidants [propylgallate (PG), butylhydroxyanisole (BA), and butylhydroxytoluene (BT)]. Due to the wide variety of polarities of the analytes, two different carriers (carrier A: methanol-water 42% and carrier B: methanol-water 70%) were able to separate the analytes in only 85 s. The applicable concentration range, the detection, and the relative standard deviation (n=10) were: for PG, from 2.77 to 300 microg/mL, 0.84 microg/mL, 2.84%; for BA, between 1.51 and 300 microg/mL, 0.46 microg/mL, and 2.70%; and for BT, between 1.65 and 100 microg/mL, 0.55 microg/mL, and 2.22%, respectively. The method was applied and validated satisfactorily for the determination of PG, BA, and BT in food and cosmetic samples.

  7. Sequence and expression pattern of a novel human orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, GPRC5B, a family C receptor with a short amino-terminal domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P

    2000-01-01

    Query of GenBank with the amino acid sequence of human metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2 (mGluR2) identified a predicted gene product of unknown function on BAC clone CIT987SK-A-69G12 (located on chromosome band 16p12) as a homologous protein. The transcript, entitled GPRC5B, was cloned......-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPRC5B displays homology to retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RAIG1, 33% sequence identity) and to several family C (mGluR-like) GPCRs (20-25% sequence identity). Both RAIG1 and GPRC5B have short extracellular amino-terminal domains (ATDs) that contrast the very long ATDs characterizing...

  8. Flow injection determination of ketotifen fumarate using PVC membrane selective electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, M M; Issa, Y M; Mohammed, Sabrein H

    2009-11-01

    In this study a PVC membrane electrode for determination of ketotifen fumarate is reported, where ketotifen tetraphenylborate (Keto-TPB) was used as ion exchanger. The electrode has linear range of 5.6x10(-6)-1.0x10(-2) and 1.0x10(-5)-1.0x10(-2) mol/L, with detection limits 2.37x10(-6)and 4.60x10(-6) mol/L in batch and flow injection analysis (FIA), respectively. The electrodes show a Nernstian slope value (58.40 and 61.50 mV/decade in batch and FIA, respectively), and the response time is very short (amino acids reflect high selectivity of the prepared electrodes. These are used for determination of Ketotifen using potentiometric titration and standard addition methods in pure samples and its pharmaceutical preparations (Zaditen tablets and syrup). The average recovery values are 99.5 and 99.2% with RSD 1.4 and 1.2% for potentiometric titrations and standard addition methods, respectively. The electrode response at different temperatures was also studied.

  9. Neodymium(III PVC Membrane Electrodchemical Sensor Based on N-benzoylethylidene-2-aminobenzylamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Zamani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The N-benzoylethylidene-2-aminobenzylamine (BEA was used as a suitable ionophore in construction of neodymium ion selective electrode. The electrode with composition of 30% PVC, 58% solvent mediator (NB, 2% ionophore (BEA and 10% anionic additive (OA shows the best potentiometric response characteristics. The Nd3+ sensor exhibits a Nernstian slope of 21.2 ± 0.2 mV decade-1 over the concentration range of 1.0 × 10-6 to 1.0 × 10-2 mol L-1, and a detection limit of 6.3 × 10-7 mol L-1 of Nd3+ ions. The potentiometric response of the sensor is independent of the solution pH in the range of 2.4–8.5. It has a very short response time, in the whole concentration range (~7 s, and can be used for at least eight weeks. The proposed sensor revealed high selectivity with respect to all common alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions, including members of the lanthanide family other than Nd3+. The Nd3+ sensor was successfully applied as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Nd3+ ions with EDTA. The electrode was also employed for the determination of the fluoride ion in two mouth wash preparations.

  10. Positron irradiation effect on positronium formation in gamma-irradiated LDPE and unplasticized PVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Zang, P.; Cao, X. Z.; Yu, R. S.; Wang, B. Y.

    2017-06-01

    Positron irradiation effects on positronium formation in low-density polyethylene (LDPE), gamma-irradiated LDPE and unplasticized PVC (UPVC) are studied. At least in one of the three different measurements, i.e., prolonged positron annihilation measurement at room temperature, low temperature in darkness and subsequent measurement under light, changes in o-Ps intensity are observed in non-irradiated LDPE and gamma-irradiated LDPE. While in UPVC, change in o-Ps intensity is hardly observable in all the above-mentioned three measurements. Reduction of o-Ps intensity by light indicates that positronium formation via the recombination of a positron and a trapped electron exists in LDPE and gamma-irradiated LDPE. The absence of light bleaching effect, together with the fact that the value of o-Ps intensity in heating and cooling process of a thermal circle is nearly the same, indicates that in UPVC, positronium can not be formed through trapped electron mechanism. This study highlights the speciality of positronium formation in UPVC, positronium is formed exclusively by the recombination of electron-positron pairs with short separations.

  11. High Density Schottky Barrier Infrared Charge-Coupled Device (IRCCD) Sensors For Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) Applications At Intermediate Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabd, H.; Villani, T. S.; Tower, J. R.

    1982-11-01

    Monolithic 32 x 64 and 64 x 128 palladium silicide (Pd2Si) interline transfer IRCCDs sensitive in the 1-3.5 pm spectral band have been developed. This silicon imager exhibits a low response nonuniformity of typically 0.2-1.6% rms, and has been operated in the temperature range between 40-140K. Spectral response measurements of test Pd2Si p-type Si devices yield quantum efficiencies of 7.9% at 1.25 μm, 5.6% at 1.65 μm and 2.2% at 2.22 μm. Improvement in quantum efficiency is expected by optimizing the different structural parameters of the Pd2Si detectors. The spectral response of the Pd2Si detectors fit a modified Fowler emission model. The measured photo-electric barrier height for the Pd2Si detector is ≍0.34 eV and the measured quantum efficiency coefficient, C1, is 19%/eV. The dark current level of Pd2Si Schottky barrier focal plane arrays (FPAs) is sufficiently low to enable operation at intermediate tem-peratures at TV frame rates. Typical dark current level measured at 120K on the FPA is 2 nA/cm2. The Pd2Si Schottky barrier imaging technology has been developed for satellite sensing of earth resources. The operating temperature of the Pd2Si FPA is compatible with passive cooler performance. In addition, high density Pd2Si Schottky barrier FPAs are manufactured with high yield and therefore represent an economical approach to short wavelength IR imaging. A Pd2Si Schottky barrier image sensor for push-broom multispectral imaging in the 1.25, 1.65, and 2.22 μm bands is being studied. The sensor will have two line arrays (dual band capability) of 512 detectors each, with 30 μm center-to-center detector spacing. The device will be suitable for chip-to-chip abutment, thus providing the capability to produce large, multiple chip focal planes with contiguous, in-line sensors.

  12. Are Couples Really Happy after Divorce? An Analysis of the Negative Post-Divorce Effects in Hanif Kureishi’s Short Story Midnight All Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Güneş

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the negative post-divorce effects on the separated couples in Hanif Kureishi’s short story Midnight All Day. In so doing, it focuses upon two negative aspects related to the post-divorce phases. First, it looks closely at how Kureishi’s fictional male character Ian feels frustrated, unhappy and fragmented in the wake of his divorce from his wife Jane, even though he finds at once a new lover Marina. Secondly, the paper also discusses another disturbing negative aspect of Ian’s life after the break-up with Jane – the negative aspect linked to his parental responsibility towards his daughter. The paper debates that Ian’s the situation is actually almost all the separated couples and their children in the contemporary world. He has a daughter, who stays with her grandmother in London. Whenever he sees a small girl in the street and whenever he thinks of her, he recalls at once his daughter and seems to suffer profoundly from the view that he is unable to fulfil his proper parental responsibility for her and be a good father, a good model for her emotional and social development as in a stable family.

  13. Novel Antimicrobial Organic Thermal Stabilizer and Co-Stabilizer for Rigid PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia A. Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Biologically active N-benzoyl-4-(N-maleimido-phenylhydrazide (BMPH was synthesized and its structure was confirmed by elemental analysis and various spectral tools. It was examined as a thermal stabilizer and co-stabilizer for rigid poly (vinyl chloride at 180 °C in air. Blending BMPH with reference samples in different ratios greatly lengthens the thermal stability value and improves the extent of discoloration of PVC. TGA confirmed the improved stability of PVC in presence of the investigated organic stabilizer. GPC measurements were done to investigate the changes occurred in the molecular masses of the degraded samples of blank PVC and PVC in presence of the novel stabilizer. BMPH showed good antimicrobial activity towards two kinds of bacteria and two kinds of fungi.

  14. Antibacterial activity of copper-containing clinoptilolite/PVC composites toward clinical isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Jelena K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The multidrug resistant bacteria Acinetobacter baumannii cause serious hospital infections. Commercial poly(vinyl chloride (PVC used for endotracheal tubes was modified in order to obtain the composite with antibacterial effect towards clinical isolate of A. baumannii ST145. The composites were prepared by addition of different amounts of copper-containing zeolite tuff (CuZ and by successive impregnation with D-Tyrosine (D-Tyr solution. The composites which were obtained by addition of CuZ (CuZ-PVC only did not exhibit antibacterial effect. The impregnation of the CuZ-PVC by D-Tyr resulted in an antibacterial effect which is explained by a synergistic effect of CuZ and D-Tyr. Rheological tests confirmed that the modification of PVC by CuZ does not affect its processability and reformability. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172018

  15. Investigation of Ice-PVC separation under Flexural Loading using FEM Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Xue

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the FEM technique applied in the study of ice separation over a polyvinyl chloride (PVC surface. A two layer model of ice and PVC is analysed theoretically using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and the rule of mixtures. The physical samples are prepared by freezing ice over the PVC surfaces. The samples are tested experimentally in a four-point loading setup. The experimental results contain strain data gathered through a data acquisition system using the LabView software. The data is collected at the rate of 1 kHz per load step. A model is also coded in MATLAB® and simulated using the finite element method (FEM in ANSYS® Multiphysics. The FEM model of the ice and PVC sample is built using solid elements. The mesh is tested for sensitively. A good agreement is found between the theoretical, experimental and numerical simulation results.

  16. EPA announces additional groundwater investigation at Delaware City PVC Superfund site

    Science.gov (United States)

    PHILADELPHIA (Oct. 15, 2015) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced a new investigation to determine the nature and extent of groundwater contamination at the Delaware City PVC Superfund site in New Castle County.

  17. Effects of Sulfate, Chloride, and Bicarbonate on Iron Stability in a PVC-U Drinking Pipe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiaying Wang; Tao Tao; Hexiang Yan

    2017-01-01

    ...) drinking pipes employed in this research. In this paper, sulfate, chloride, and bicarbonate, as well as synthesized models, were chosen to investigate the iron stability on the inner wall of PVC-U drinking pipes...

  18. Study on workers exposed to cadmium in alkaline storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, O.Y.; Tan, K.T.; Kwok, S.F.; Chio, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    The extent of cadmium exposure was studied in a cadmium-nickel battery factory and 8 PVC factories using cadmium stabilisers in the compounding of PVC. A total of 101 cadmium-exposed workers and 21 control subjects matched by sex, age, ethnic group and smoking history was investigated. Blood and urine cadmium levels were considerably elevated in the battery workers but were not raised in the PVC workers. These findings were consistent with the results of cadmium-in-air assessments. Among the female battery workers, urine cadmium excretion increased significantly with employment time. There was good correlation between blood and urine cadmium levels among the female subjects. A significant association between blood cadmium levels and prevalence of chest pain was also noted among the females. No low molecular weight proteinuria was detected, but two female battery workers had slight albuminuria and one male PVC worker had glucosuria but had abnormal GTT results.

  19. Photostabilizing Efficiency of PVC in the Presence of Schiff Bases as Photostabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Yousif

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The photostabilization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC films by Schiff bases was investigated. Polyvinyl chloride films containing 0.5 wt % Schiff bases were produced using the same casting method as that used for additive-free PVC films from tetrahydrofuran (THF solvent. The photostabilization activities of these compounds were determined by monitoring the carbonyl, polyene and hydroxyl indices with irradiation time. The changes in viscosity average molecular weight of PVC with irradiation time were also monitored using THF as a solvent. The quantum yield of chain scission (Φcs for the studied complexes in PVC was estimated to range between 4.72 and 8.99 × 10−8. According to the experimental results, several mechanisms were suggested, depending on the structure of the additive. Ultra violet (UV absorption, peroxide decomposition and radical scavenging were suggested as the photostabilizing mechanisms.

  20. CHEMICALLY MODIFIED FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS - POTENTIOMETRIC AG+ SELECTIVITY OF PVC MEMBRANES BASED ON MACROCYCLIC THIOETHERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRZOZKA, Z; COBBEN, PLHM; REINHOUDT, DN; EDEMA, JJH; KELLOGG, RM

    1993-01-01

    A chemically modified field-effect transistor (CHEMFET) with satisfactory Ag+ selectivity is described. The potentiometric Ag+ selectivities of CHEMFETs with plasticized PVC membranes based on macrocyclic thioethers have been determined. All the macrocyclic thioethers tested showed silver response

  1. Migration from PVC cling films compared with their field of application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lillemark, L.; Lund, L.

    1997-01-01

    Samples of PVC cling films were taken at importers, wholesalers and retail shops, and their overall migration to the alternative food simulant iso-octane was measured, after establishment of a correlation between overall migration to olive oil at 40 degrees C in 10 days and to iso-octane in 2 h....... Results of the migration testing were compared with the recommended and/or actual use of the PVC film and the labelling discussed in relation to the relevant EEC directives on food contact plastics. The correct labelling of plasticized PVC film intended for use in retail packaging is important to avoid...... of DEHA to non-fatty foods defined as the food simulant water was at or below 0.1 mg/dm(2) in all PVC-films....

  2. ELECTROCHEMICAL OXIDATION OF ETHANOL USING Ni-Co-PVC COMPOSITE ELECTRODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyanto Riyanto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The morphological characteristics and electrochemical behavior of nickel metal foil (Ni, nickel-polyvinyl chloride (Ni-PVC and nickel-cobalt-polyvinyl chloride (Ni-Co-PVC electrodes in alkaline solution has been investigated. The morphological characteristics of the electrode surface were studied using SEM and EDS, while the electrochemical behavior of the electrodes was studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV. It was found that composite electrodes (Ni-PVC and Ni-Co-PVC have a porous, irregular and rough surface. In situ studies using electrochemical technique using those three electrodes exhibited electrochemical activity for redox system, as well as selectivity in the electrooxidation of ethanol to acetic acid. The studies also found that an electrokinetics and electrocatalytic activity behaviors of the electrodes prepared were Ni metal foil

  3. Ultra-short pulse delivery at high average power with low-loss hollow core fibers coupled to TRUMPF's TruMicro laser platforms for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, S.; Pricking, S.; Overbuschmann, J.; Nutsch, S.; Kleinbauer, J.; Gebs, R.; Tan, C.; Scelle, R.; Kahmann, M.; Budnicki, A.; Sutter, D. H.; Killi, A.

    2017-02-01

    Multi-megawatt ultrafast laser systems at micrometer wavelength are commonly used for material processing applications, including ablation, cutting and drilling of various materials or cleaving of display glass with excellent quality. There is a need for flexible and efficient beam guidance, avoiding free space propagation of light between the laser head and the processing unit. Solid core step index fibers are only feasible for delivering laser pulses with peak powers in the kW-regime due to the optical damage threshold in bulk silica. In contrast, hollow core fibers are capable of guiding ultra-short laser pulses with orders of magnitude higher peak powers. This is possible since a micro-structured cladding confines the light within the hollow core and therefore minimizes the spatial overlap between silica and the electro-magnetic field. We report on recent results of single-mode ultra-short pulse delivery over several meters in a lowloss hollow core fiber packaged with industrial connectors. TRUMPF's ultrafast TruMicro laser platforms equipped with advanced temperature control and precisely engineered opto-mechanical components provide excellent position and pointing stability. They are thus perfectly suited for passive coupling of ultra-short laser pulses into hollow core fibers. Neither active beam launching components nor beam trackers are necessary for a reliable beam delivery in a space and cost saving packaging. Long term tests with weeks of stable operation, excellent beam quality and an overall transmission efficiency of above 85 percent even at high average power confirm the reliability for industrial applications.

  4. Particle-vibration coupling: Recent advances in microscopic calculations with the Skyrme Hamiltonian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colò, G., E-mail: gianluca.colo@mi.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); Baldo, M. [Sez. di Catania, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) (Italy); Bortignon, P. F.; Rizzo, D.; Bocchi, G. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    In this contribution, we report some recent progress in our understanding of particle-vibration coupling (PVC) in nuclei. In particular, we first review the formal development that has allowed some of us to deduce the PVC equations within the Green’s functionmethod. Applications are then discussed, both in the case of single-particle states and giant resonances in magic nuclei. We also present a new model that extends the PVC ansatz and is meant to account for the complete low-lying spectra of odd nuclei.

  5. Mecanismos de degradação e estabilização térmica do PVC: a review Mechanisms of PVC thermal degradation and stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rodolfo Jr.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma revisão sobre o tema degradação térmica e estabilização do PVC. Os principais mecanismos de degradação desta resina são apresentados e correlacionados com os defeitos estruturais presentes no polímero, bem como os princípios de estabilização.This paper presents a review of PVC thermal degradation and stabilization. The main degradation mechanisms for this resin are shown and correlated to structural defects present in the polymer, as well the stabilization principles

  6. Study on the recycling of waste PVC compounds from electrical wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman Jr, Celso, E-mail: romancelso@gmail.com; Zattera, Ademir José, E-mail: romancelso@gmail.com [Center for Exact Sciences and Technology (CCET), University of Caxias do Sul (UCS), Caxias do Sul-RS (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    The good mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) make it a polymer used in many applications, among which is the coating of wires and cables. The processing of PVC for this application is made using the extrusion process. The PVC waste resulting from extrusion can be recycled or placed on landfills. The objective of this work is to develop recycling methods to decrease the amount of PVC stored in landfills. This work evaluated the influence of successive processing of PVC on the final properties of the obtained compound, which will be used in the process of coating wire and cable by extrusion. The mechanical properties of the electrical wires were assessed according to the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT NBR 6251). Tests of tensile strength, elongation at break, before and after thermal aging in an oven with air circulation for a period of 168 hours at 100 °C were performed. The degradation of the PVC compound was carried out through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and mechanical properties evaluation. The results showed that the compound can be reprocessed five times keeping the minimum requirements of the ABNT NBR 6251 Standard. Reprocessing was stopped upon color changing (yellowing) of the compound. Yellowing is a characteristic degradation behavior by dehydrochlorination of PVC. FTIR analysis showed changes at 1600 cm{sup −1}, 1430 cm{sup −1}, 685 cm{sup −1} and 614 cm{sup −1} bands. The performance of the PVC compound for coating electrical wire and cable was fair, meeting the requirements of the ABNT NBR 6251 Standard even after five reprocessing cycles.

  7. Study on the recycling of waste PVC compounds from electrical wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Celso, Jr.; Zattera, Ademir José

    2014-05-01

    The good mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) make it a polymer used in many applications, among which is the coating of wires and cables. The processing of PVC for this application is made using the extrusion process. The PVC waste resulting from extrusion can be recycled or placed on landfills. The objective of this work is to develop recycling methods to decrease the amount of PVC stored in landfills. This work evaluated the influence of successive processing of PVC on the final properties of the obtained compound, which will be used in the process of coating wire and cable by extrusion. The mechanical properties of the electrical wires were assessed according to the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT NBR 6251). Tests of tensile strength, elongation at break, before and after thermal aging in an oven with air circulation for a period of 168 hours at 100 °C were performed. The degradation of the PVC compound was carried out through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and mechanical properties evaluation. The results showed that the compound can be reprocessed five times keeping the minimum requirements of the ABNT NBR 6251 Standard. Reprocessing was stopped upon color changing (yellowing) of the compound. Yellowing is a characteristic degradation behavior by dehydrochlorination of PVC. FTIR analysis showed changes at 1600 cm-1, 1430 cm-1, 685 cm-1 and 614 cm-1 bands. The performance of the PVC compound for coating electrical wire and cable was fair, meeting the requirements of the ABNT NBR 6251 Standard even after five reprocessing cycles.

  8. Setup time reduction in pvc boots production through smed technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Herculano da Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The competition imposed by the market requires of the organizations the continuous improvement of its processes, products and offered services, with lower production costs. This article addresses this issue describing the resulting improvements from the implementation of Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED in the process of exchange the mold of the injection machine of PVC during the boots manufacturing. The case study was conducted in a large company of footwear, located in the state of Paraiba. In order to find the best alternative to the problem of the setup of the molds, were used the SMED and the methodology for problem resolution, and then was implemented the solution that generated greater productivity for the company. Among the improvements made, we should emphasize the reduction of inactive time of 11.56 minutes to 5 minutes, reducing the time needed for the adjustments of the molds with the implementation of guides for centering and shims to standardize the heights of the molds.

  9. Biodegradation of blend films PVA/PVC, PVA/PCL in soil and soil with landfill leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Campos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biodegradation of blends films of poly(vinyl alcohol/poly(vinyl chloride (PVA/PVC and poly(vinyl alcohol/poly(caprolactone (PVA/PCL blends films prepared with dimethylformamide under a variety of conditions by respirometry, spectrophotometry (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and contact angle. The films were buried in the garden soil and in the soil mixed with the landfill leachate for 120 days at 28ºC. Significant levels of biodegradation were achieved in fairly short incubation times in the soil. The results indicated that PVA was the most biodegradable film in the soil and in the soil with the leachate.

  10. I-TiO2/PVC film with highly photocatalytic antibacterial activity under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weihua; Ning, Shangbo; Lin, Qianying; Zhang, Hualei; Zhou, Tanghua; Lin, Huaxiang; Long, Jinlin; Lin, Qun; Wang, Xuxu

    2016-08-01

    Iodine-modified TiO2(I-TiO2) film were coated on medical-grade PVC material by impregnation-deposition method and subsequently characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, AFM, DRS and XPS. The photocatalytic anti-bacterial activity of I-TiO2/PVC was investigated both by in vitro anti-bacterial experiments and by clinical study. The results revealed that I-TiO2/PVC exhibit excellent photocatalytic antibacterial activity, which can destroy the propagation of the Escherichia coli and cause the deactivation and death of most E. coli bacteria within 30min visible light illumination. Clinical study on animals showed that I-TiO2 coated on PVC decrease the formation of biofilm on PVC surface in the mechanical ventilation. Furthermore, I-TiO2/PVC can effectively reduce inflammation of tracheal tissue of bam suckling pig and prevents the occurrence of VAP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Estado de mistura e dispersão da fase borrachosa em blendas PVC/NBR Phase separation and rubber phase dispersion in PVC/NBR blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio R. Passador

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Termoplásticos modificados com elastômeros têm despertado grande interesse de pesquisadores e de indústrias devido à atraente relação custo/benefício e a possibilidade de aumento significativo da tenacidade sob impacto de polímeros frágeis com a incorporação de uma fase borrachosa dispersa. Este artigo mostra a relação entre o estado de mistura e a dispersão da fase borrachosa em blendas de poli (cloreto de vinila (PVC com borracha nitrílica (NBR. O estado de mistura de blendas poliméricas é um fator muito importante a ser considerado no desenvolvimento destes tipos de materiais, uma vez que determina o nível de mistura molecular das blendas. A característica estrutural do PVC é responsável pela morfologia das blendas PVC/NBR, sendo que há uma otimização de propriedades mecânicas quando as partículas de borracha formam a morfologia "pseudo-network", ou seja, quando as partículas de borracha estão randomicamente dispersas entre as partículas primárias do PVC.Thermoplastics modified with elastomers have attracted great interest of researchers and industries due to the low cost/benefit relationship and the possibility of significant increase in the toughness of brittle polymers through the incorporation of a dispersed rubber phase. This article shows the relationship between the interaction between phases and rubber phase dispersion in poly (vinyl chloride/nitrile rubber blends. The interaction between components in polymer blends is an important factor to be considered in the development of this kind of materials because it determines the level of the mixture at the molecular level. The particulate nature of PVC and the degree of nitrile groups in the NBR are responsible to the PVC/NBR blends morphologies leading to an optimization of the mechanical properties when the rubber particles form a pseudo-network morphology with the rubber particles randomly dispersed in between the PVC primary particles.

  12. Studies on the preparation of multi-monomer grafted PP by one-step extrusion and the blends with PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, a novel grafted polypropylene (PP was prepared by one step free-radical melt grafting way in a single-screw extruder. The results were shown that the addition of St to the melt-grafting system as a comonomer could significantly enhance MMA grafting degree onto PP and reduce the degradation of PP matrix by means of FTIR and MFR test, respectively. Then, the extruded multi-monomer grafted PP, as a component, directly blend with poly (vinyl chloride (PVC, named as gPP/PVC. The corresponding improved compatibility was examined. Comparison with pure PP/PVC blends, due to the addition of gPP, the tensile strengths of gPP/PVC blends increased significantly and the impact strengths were unchanged as those of pure PP/PVC blends. The DSC results also suggested that the compatibility of PP/PVC blends were improved largely.

  13. Nanocompósitos de Poli(Cloreto de Vinila (PVC/argilas organofílicas Poly(Vinyl Chloride (PVC/organoclay nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Souza

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O interesse pelo desenvolvimento de nanocompósitos com matrizes poliméricas aumentou significativamente nos últimos anos, levando a uma grande quantidade de trabalhos publicados e de grupos de pesquisa e desenvolvimento interessados e trabalhando nesta importante área. Em geral, os materiais inorgânicos não apresentam uma boa interação com polímeros orgânicos, o que é desejável para obter um bom estado de dispersão no sistema e otimização de desempenho. Em função desta característica dos sistemas polímeros orgânicos/materiais inorgânicos como argila, tem-se buscado uma solução para este problema através de tratamentos prévios de superfícies das argilas com modificadores orgânicos. Os nanocompósitos poliméricos utilizando argila usualmente apresentam propriedades mecânicas e térmicas bastante atrativas e superiores aos compósitos convencionais, bem como valores reduzidos de permeabilidade, melhor resistência química a solventes e maior retardância a chama. Nas últimas décadas, nanocompósitos de policloreto de vinila (PVC também têm sido preparados através de intercalação no estado fundido e apresentam resultados interessantes mas ainda com possibilidades de melhoria em função do potencial do material e de estudos similares com outras matrizes termoplásticas. O PVC é um material muito mais versátil e devido à sua necessidade de formulação mediante a incorporação de aditivos, o PVC pode ter suas características alteradas dentro de um amplo espectro de propriedades em função da aplicação final e características finais desejadas. Entretanto, devido a suas desvantagens inerentes, tais como baixa resistência à fratura, baixa estabilidade térmica e produção de fumaça escura durante sua combustão, o PVC e seus compósitos estão sujeitos a algumas limitações em certas aplicações. Dessa forma, o desenvolvimento de nanocompósitos poliméricos é uma alternativa promissora para tentar

  14. Estudo das propriedades mecânicas de um composto de PVC modificado com fibras de bananeira Study of the mechanical properties of PVC/banana fiber composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palova S. Balzer

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram avaliadas as propriedades de compósitos de poli (cloreto de vinila - PVC rígido com adição de fibras de bananeira. As fibras foram extraídas do pseudocaule da bananeira e incorporadas nas proporções de 5, 10 e 20% em volume em um composto de PVC rígido pelo processo de extrusão. Para a obtenção dos corpos de prova utilizados na caracterização das formulações foi utilizado o processo de injeção. A utilização de fibras extraídas do pseudocaule da bananeira, tratadas manualmente em um processo simples desenvolvido na SOCIESC, mostra-se como alternativa viável na forma de fibra de reforço para a produção de compósitos de PVC rígido, tendo mostrado aumento da resistência à tração, discreta redução no alongamento na ruptura e aumento da resistência ao impacto, bem como redução, mesmo que discreta, no peso específico do compósito resultante, potencializando a obtenção de componentes com melhor desempenho mecânico e menor peso.Mechanical properties (tensile and impact resistance, specific weight and phase morphology of PVC/banana tree fiber composites were evaluated in this paper. The fibers were extracted from de pseudostem of the banana tree and mixed with a rigid PVC compound in the proportions of 5, 10 and 20% in volume by the extrusion process. Specimens were obtained by injection molding. The composites showed improvement of the impact and tensile properties, reduction of the specific weight, making possible the production of final products.

  15. Covalent immobilization of lipase, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase & horseradish peroxidase onto plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC strip & its application in serum triglyceride determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives:Reusable biostrip consisting enzymes immobilized onto alkylamine glass beads affixed on plasticized PVC strip for determination of triglyceride (TG suffers from high cost of beads and their detachments during washings for reuse, leading to loss of activity. The purpose of this study was to develop a cheaper and stable biostrip for investigation of TG levels in serum. Methods: A reusable enzyme-strip was prepared for TG determination by co-immobilizing lipase, glycerol kinase (GK, glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO and peroxidase (HRP directly onto plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC strip through glutaraldehyde coupling. The method was evaluated by studying its recovery, precision and reusability. Results: The enzyme-strip showed optimum activity at pH 7.0, 35 o C and a linear relationship between its activity and triolein concentration in the range 0.1 to 15 mM. The strip was used for determination of serum TG. The detection limit of the method was 0.1 mM. Analytical recovery of added triolein was 96 per cent. Within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV were 2.2 and 3.7 per cent, respectively. A good correlation (r=0.99 was found between TG values by standard enzymic colrimetric method employing free enzymes and the present method. The strip lost 50 per cent of its initial activity after its 200 uses during the span of 100 days, when stored at 4 o C. Interpretation & conclusions: The nitrating acidic treatment of plasticized PVC strip led to glutaraldehyde coupling of four enzymes used for enzymic colourimetric determination of serum TG. The strip provided 200 reuses of enzymes with only 50 per cent loss of its initial activity. The method could be used for preparation of other enzyme strips also.

  16. Penelitian pengaruh waktu penekanan dan tekanan terhadap daya rekat lem sintesis untuk kulit sol, kulit boks, dan pvc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarso Hs

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Glue is valuable substance for sealing two things (compact thing. The research uses synthetic, and the adhesive strength reaches for sole leather, PVC to sole leather at the pressure of 30 bars, pressure duration 6 minutes (5,22 kg/10 cm2, and 5,68 kg/ 10 cm2, for PVC to PVC, box leather tp PVC at the pressure of 20 bars and pressure duration 6 minutes (5,98 kg/10 cm2 and 7,12 kg/10 cm2, whereas for box leather to sole leather at the pressure of 30 bars, pressure duration 9 minutes (4,36 Kg/10 cm2.

  17. Pengujian Subtitusi CaCO3 Taiwan Dengan CaCO3 Produk Lokal Untuk Industri Berbahan Baku PVC

    OpenAIRE

    Ardjo, Anwar Sukito; Rofarsyam, Rofarsyam

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports an experiment to produce polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using local (from Gunung Kidul) and imported (from Taiwan) CaCO3. The laboratory test shows that PVC produced using Taiwanese CaCO3 is superior over that using local CaCO3 in terms of its flexibity. Hence, it is not recommended to use local CaCO3 producing PVC-based products that requires high flexibility such as water pipe, cable isolator. On the other hand, the local PVC may be used to produce, for instance, blinds and c...

  18. A novel sheet actuator using plasticized PVC gel and flexible electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Hashimoto, Minoru

    2017-04-01

    The plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gel-based soft actuator exhibits a fast response in air, large deformation, and low power consumption under an electrical field, so it shows great potential for use as a new type of soft actuator. In our previous study, we have developed a multilayered expansion and contraction-type actuator using PVC gel and stainless mesh electrodes. However, the actuator using rigid metal electrodes bring challenges of a notable weight and size, a limitation in flexibility and performance. In this study, to develop an actuator with higher performance and flexibility, we proposed a novel sheet actuator using PVC gel and flexible electrodes. We explain the driving mechanism of the proposed sheet actuator and investigate the basic characteristics of the actuators with different content of plasticizer and membrane thickness. Besides, we conducted a comparison experiment between the proposed PVC gel sheet actuator and the traditional dielectric elastomer actuator, founding that, the PVC gel sheet actuator had a positive potential to be driven at a lower DC field to get a bigger deformation and a faster response than those of the traditional dielectric elastomer actuator. And we discussed the difference between the two types of actuators with a theoretical model, finding a good agreement with the experimental results.

  19. Effects of silica content on the formation and morphology of ENR/PVC/Silica composites beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurul Amni; Tahiruddin, Nordiana Suhada Mohmad; Othaman, Rizafizah

    2017-05-01

    The effects of silica content in preparing silica-filled epoxidized natural rubber/polyvinyl chloride (ENR/PVC) beads were investigated. ENR/PVC matrix blend used was of composition 60% (ENR50) and 40% (PVC) by weight. The matrix blend was then dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) by sol-gel technique prior to addition of silica fume as filler at varying amounts up to 25 wt% of the matrix mass. The composites beads were formed via phase inversion method by dropping the polymeric solution into a non-solvent. The size and shape were improved by adding in an increased amount of silica. Morphological studies showed distinct features of beads' surface in terms of homogeneity of silica particle distribution and presence of agglomerations and voids within the ENR/PVC matrix. Formation of silica network was apparent on the bead at 25 wt% silica content. The bead formation was found to be significantly affected by the silica loading in the ENR/PVC solution.

  20. Change Spectroscopic, thermal and mechanical studies of PU/PVC blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hezma, A.M. [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, Giza (Egypt); Elashmawi, I.S. [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, Giza (Egypt); Physic Department, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Al-Ula (Saudi Arabia); Rajeh, A., E-mail: a.rajeh88@yahoo.com [Physic Department, Faculty of Science, Amran University, Sa' dah (Yemen); Physics Department, Faculty of science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Kamal, Mustafa [Physics Department, Faculty of science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Blends of polyurethane (PU) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with different concentrations were prepared by casting method. The effects of PU on PVC blends was examined by Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR), Ultra-violet visible studies (UV/VIS.), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric (TGA), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and mechanical properties (stress–strain curve). The interaction between PU and PVC was examined by FT-IR through the absorbance of the N–H groups and was correlated to mechanical/thermal properties. Ultra-violet visible said that optical energy gap decrease with increasing concentration of PU. Differential scanning calorimetry results was observed a single glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) for blends this confirming existence miscibility within the blends. The causes for best thermal stability of some blends may be described by measurements of interactions between C=O groups of PU and the α-hydrogen of PVC or a dipole–dipole –C=O..Cl–C– interactions. Significant alterations in FTIR, X-ray and DSC examination shows an interactions between blends had good miscibility. X-ray shows some alterations in the intensity with additional PU. PU change the mechanical behavior of PVC through of the blends. When polyurethane content increase causes polyvinyl chloride tensile strength decreases and elongation at break increase.

  1. Comparative studies of neodymium (III)-selective PVC membrane sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vinod K., E-mail: vinodfcy@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India); Goyal, Rajendra N.; Sharma, Ram A. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India)

    2009-08-04

    Sensors based on two neutral ionophores, N,N'-bis((1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methylene)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine (L{sub 1}) and 3,3'-(cyclohexane-1,2-diylbis(azan-1-yl-1-ylidene) bis(methan-1-yl-1-ylidene)bis(5-hydroxymethyl)pyridine-2-ol) (L{sub 2}) are described for quantification of neodymium (III). Effect of various plasticizers; 2-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE), dibutyl butylphosphonate (DBBP), tri-n-butyl phosphates (TBP), dioctylpthalate (DOP) and chloronapthalen (CN) and anion excluder, sodiumtetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been studied. The membrane composition of PVC:o-NPOE:ionophore (L{sub 1}):NaTPB (w/w; mg) of 150:300:5:5 exhibited best performance. The sensor with ionophore (L{sub 1}) exhibits significantly enhanced selectivity towards neodymium (III) in the concentration range 5.0 x 10{sup -7} to 1.0 x 10{sup -2} M with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10{sup -7} M and a Nernstian compliance (19.8 {+-} 0.3 mV decade{sup -1} of activity) within pH range 4.0-8.0. The response time of sensor was found as 10 s. The influence of the membrane composition and possible interfering ions has also been investigated on the response properties of the electrode. The fast and stable response, good reproducibility and long-term stability of the sensor are observed. The sensor has been found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media up to 20% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol or acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 3 months. The selectivity coefficients determined by using fixed interference method (FIM) indicate high selectivity for neodymium. The proposed electrode shows fairly good discrimination of neodymium (III) from other cations. The application of prepared sensor has been demonstrated in the determination of neodymium (III) in spiked water samples.

  2. Study of Rigid Cross-Linked PVC Foams with Heat Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhui Zhao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Three heat resistant cross-linked PVC foam plastics were prepared and their performances were compared with universal cross-linked PVC structural foam. The results show that these three heat resistant foams have higher glass transition temperatures (close to 100 °C than universal structural foam (83.2 °C. Compared with the universal structural foam, the three heat resistant foams show much higher decomposition temperature and better chemical stability due to the crosslinking of PVC macromolecular chains. The heat distortion temperature (HDT values of the three heat resistant foam plastics are just a little higher than that of universal structural foam. The three heat resistant foam plastics have good dimensional stability at 140 °C, and when used as core material can closely adhere to the face plates in medium temperature curing processes. Compared with universal structural foam, the three heat resistant foam plastics have slightly better mechanical properties.

  3. Model fire tests on polyphosphazene rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/nitrile rubber foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widenor, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    A video tape record of model room fire tests was shown, comparing polyphosphazene (P-N) rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/nitrile rubber closed-cell foams as interior finish thermal insulation under conditions directly translatable to an actual fire situation. Flashover did not occur with the P-N foam and only moderate amounts of low density smoke were formed, whereas with the PVC/nitrile foam, flashover occurred quickly and large volumes of high density smoke were emitted. The P-N foam was produced in a pilot plant under carefully controlled conditions. The PVC/nitrile foam was a commercial product. A major phase of the overall program involved fire tests on P-N open-cell foam cushioning.

  4. COMPORTAMIENTO DE UN CEMENTO ASFÁLTICO MODIFICADO CON UN DESECHO DE PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Alberto Reyes Lizcano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades físicas y reológicas a altas temperaturas de servicio de un cemento asfáltico (CA modificado con un desecho de policloruro de vinilo (PVC fueron evaluadas y son presentadas en el artículo. Adicionalmente se presenta la influencia del tiempo de mezcla del CA con el PVC y el envejecimiento a corto plazo. Un incremento notable en la rigidez y la resistencia a fluir se reporta cuando se adiciona el desecho de PVC a un CA 80-100. De la misma forma, se reporta un incremento en la temperatura máxima de operación en servicio del ligante modificado.

  5. [Cytotoxicity of PVC tubes sterilized in ethylene oxide after gamma radiation exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Rafael Queiroz; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Ikeda, Tamiko Ichikawa; Gonçalves, Cláudia Regina; Cruz, Aurea Silveira

    2013-04-01

    Do materials sterilized using gamma rays become toxic when re-sterilized in ethylene oxide? This question guided the objective of this study, which was to investigate the potential cytotoxic effect of PVC sterilized by gamma radiation and re-sterilized with EO by the agar diffusion method in cell cultures. Nine PVC tubes were subjected to gamma radiation sterilization and were re-sterilized in EO. The tubes were divided into a total of 81 units of analysis that were tested so as to represent the internal and external surfaces and mass of each tube. It was concluded that the PVC materials sterilized in gamma radiation and re-sterilized in EO are not cytotoxic.

  6. Dosimetry of the JS-6500 industrial irradiator for the irradiation of the PVC graduated flasks; Dosimetria del irradiador industrial JS-6500 para la irradiacion de probetas de PVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda F, A.; Carrasco A, H.; Martinez P, M.E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The dosimetry of the JS-6500 AECL irradiator was realized, outside of the industrial transportation rails to know the dose distribution, as well as its dose speed. This one with the intention of exposing to gamma radiation; plastified PVC graduated flasks and evaluating their interweavement or degradation or both. This study of dosimetry was carried out by means of a theoretical and experimental evaluation in air atmosphere. The results allow to know the irradiation conditions of the PVC graduated flasks as well as those results prove that has not a significant difference among the obtained result as theoretical as experimentally due to that the obtained result in the theoretical evaluation is 2.62 KGy/h and the result for the case of the experimental evaluation is 2.74 KGy/h. (Author)

  7. Producción y modelamiento de gliceril-ésteres como plastificantes para PVC / Production et modelisation de glycerol-esters comme plastifiants pour le PVC

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Palacios, Oscar Yesid

    2011-01-01

    El aumento en la producción mundial de glicerina, debido al crecimiento en el uso de biodiesel, y la tendencia a reemplazar los plastificantes derivados del anhídrido ftálico en la industria del PVC, por la toxicidad de dichas sustancias, motivaron la investigación de la plastificación del PVC con gliceril-ésteres derivados de ácidos carboxílicos de cadena corta (C3 - C8) y aromáticos. En este estudio se aplicó una metodología de diseño de producto para abordar la solución a las problemáticas...

  8. MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE MODIFIED RICE HUSK FILLED PVC COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Navin Chand; Bhajan Das Jhod

    2008-01-01

    Unmodified and modified rice husk powder filled PVC composites were prepared having different amounts of rice husk powder. Mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of these composites were determined. The tensile strength of rice husk powder PVC composites having 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 weight percent of rice husk powder was found to be 33.9, 19.4, 18.1, 14.6, and 9.5 MPa, respectively. Adding of maleic anhydride- modified rice husk powder improved the tensile strength of rice husk powder...

  9. Research on the property improvement of PVC using red mud in industrial waste residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaopeng; Li, Xingang; Shuai, Songxian

    2015-07-01

    Red mud is a red solid power waste that is discharged in the aluminium refinery industry during production. It is a strong alkali and can be categorized as polluting industrial residue. How to make comprehensive use of red mud has become a worldwide issue. In this paper, we put red mud into PVC (polyvinyl chloride polymer), taking advantage of the complicated chemical properties of red mud derived from the Bayer process. The results are compared with silica fume, coal ash and calcium carbonate under the same experimental conditions, which shows that improvement of PVC plastication can be achieved by adding red mud.

  10. Excellent impact performance of PVC pipeline materials in gas distribution networks after many years of service (CD-rom)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Roy; Hermkens, R.M.J.; Wolters, Mannes; Weller, J.; Warnet, Laurent; Beckervordersandforth, C.; Verberg, G.H.B.; Kramer, M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been about fifty years ago since the first unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (uPVC) pipes were installed for use in gas distribution purposes. Currently, about 22,500 km of uPVC is still in use in the Dutch gas distribution network. The pipes were originally designed for a lifetime of 50

  11. Diazepam sorption to PVC- and non-PVC-based tubes in administration sets with quantitative determination using a high-performance liquid chromatographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Su-Eon; You, Siwon; Jeon, Seungho; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2016-06-15

    Diazepam is highly sorbed to the plastic materials of administration sets for intravenous infusion. This can be detrimental as it should be delivered to the patient at the administered amount for efficacy and safety. We report here the sorption levels of diazepam onto various types of tubes in administration sets. The tube materials of the administration sets included polyvinylchloride (PVC) and the non-PVC materials such as polyurethane (PU) and polyolefin (PO) were used. Two conditions of diazepam administered in preclinical and clinical settings were tested using an infusion pump. Injections were prepared by diluting diazepam to 20mg/500mL and 10mg/100mL in 5% dextrose. Diluted diazepam solutions at the concentrations of 10mg/100mL and 20mg/500mL were separately delivered through 1m of tubing at 1mL/min for 1.05 and 4.05h. Samples were analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. PVC- and PU-based tubes showed higher sorption of diazepam than did PO-based tubes. PO-based tubes delivered more than 90% of the administered diazepam. The results showed that PO-based tubes of administration sets have a promising potential to deliver hydrophobic drugs like diazepam with minimal sorption levels. In addition, the tube materials in administration sets may be one of the critical factors to ensure drug efficacy and safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal stability of formulations of PVC irradiated with {gamma} of {sup 60}; Estabilidad termica de formulaciones de PVC irradiadas con {gamma} de {sup 60} Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez P, M.E.; Carrasco A, H. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: memp@nuclear.inin.mx; Castaneda F, A.; Benavides C, R.; Garcia R, S.P. [CIQA, 25100 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The industry of cables and wires frequently use cable isolations with base of formulations of PVC, in those that stabilizer has usually been used with the help of heavy metals, as the lead, which is toxic. To solve the problem, from the 2002 one has come studying in combined form in the National Institute of Nuclear Research ININ and the Center of Investigation in Applied Chemistry CIQA, the modifications induced by the radiation in formulations with the help of vinyl poly chloride PVC. In these formulations, prepared with cross linking agent, plastifying industrial grade, stuff and non toxic stabilizers of calcium estearate and zinc industrial grade, it is sought to replace the stabilizer of Pb. For this were irradiated it test tubes of PVC with gamma radiation of cobalt 60 to three different dose in atmospheres of air and argon. Later it was determined their thermal stability at different times of heating and it was measured the Young modulus by means of thermo mechanical analysis. Those results obtained together with other techniques of characterization suggest that the irradiated proposed formulation can substitute the one stabilized with lead. (Author)

  13. A short-range gradient-corrected spin density functional in combination with long-range coupled-cluster methods: Application to alkali-metal rare-gas dimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goll, Erich [Institut fuer Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany)], E-mail: goll@theochem.uni-stuttgart.de; Werner, Hans-Joachim [Institut fuer Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Stoll, Hermann [Institut fuer Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Leininger, Thierry [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, UMR 5626 du CNRS, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Gori-Giorgi, Paola [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique, CNRS UMR7616, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris (France); Savin, Andreas [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique, CNRS UMR7616, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris (France)

    2006-10-26

    We extend our recently published short-range gradient-corrected density functional from the closed-shell to Open-shell case, combine it with long-range coupled-cluster methods (CCSD, CCSD(T)), and apply it to the weakly bound alkali-metal rare-gas dimers AmRg (Am = Li-Cs; Rg = Ne-Xe). The results are shown to be superior, with medium-size basis sets, to pure DFT and pure coupled-cluster calculations.

  14. Tratamento químico superficial e metalização de ABS, PVC e blendas de PVC/ABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kurek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Visando à substituição do ABS em peças cromadas, amostras de PVC e blendas de PVC/ABS, na razão mássica de 20/80, 40/60 e 60/40, foram submetidas ao pré-tratamento em solução sulfocrômica sob diferentes condições de concentração, tempo e temperatura e sendo em seguida cromadas. As modificações na superfície das peças após o condicionamento foram analisadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, microscopia de força atômica e rugosidade. A qualidade da deposição metálica foi avaliada por inspeção visual e teste de adesão. Os resultados mostraram que, aumentando a concentração de PVC nas peças necessitou-se de condições operacionais mais agressivas, tais como maiores temperaturas de banho, tempo de imersão e concentração de solução sulfocrômica para que ocorresse a adesão da camada metálica. De todas as condições testadas com a solução condicionante sulfocrômica no tratamento das peças de PVC e blendas PVC/ABS de 20/80 e 40/60, a concentração de 350 g/L de ácido crômico e 400 g/L de ácido sulfúrico, temperatura de 70°C e tempo de imersão de 15 minutos, ocasionou deposição do metal em toda a superfície das peças, as quais foram aprovadas nos testes de adesão e corrosão.

  15. Photoetching of Immobilized TiO2-ENR50-PVC Composite for Improved Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nawi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercially acquired TiO2 photocatalyst (99% anatase powder was mixed with epoxidized natural rubber-50 (ENR50/polyvinyl chloride (PVC blend by ultrasonication and immobilized onto glass plates as TiO2-ENR50-PVC composite via a dip-coating method. Photoetching of the immobilized TiO2-ENR50-PVC composite was investigated under the irradiation of a 45 W compact fluorescent lamp and characterized by chemical oxygen demand (COD analysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX spectrometry, thermogravimetry analysis (TGA, and fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The BET surface area of the photoetched TiO2 composite was observed to be larger than the original TiO2 powder due to the systematic removal of ENR50 while PVC was retained within the composite. It also exhibited better photocatalytic efficiency than the TiO2 powder in a slurry mode and was highly reproducible and reusable. More than 98% of MB removal was consistently achieved for 10 repeated runs of the photo-etched photocatalyst system. About 93% of the 20 mg L−1 MB was mineralized over a period of 480 min. The presence of SO42−, NO3−, and Cl− anions was detected in the mineralized solution where the solution pH was reduced from 7 to 4.

  16. Monitoring a PVC batch process with multivariate statistical process control charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tates, A. A.; Louwerse, D. J.; Smilde, A. K.; Koot, G. L. M.; Berndt, H.

    1999-01-01

    Multivariate statistical process control charts (MSPC charts) are developed for the industrial batch production process of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). With these MSPC charts different types of abnormal batch behavior were detected on-line. With batch contribution plots, the probable causes of these

  17. Low frequency dielectric dispersion study of PVC-PPy blends in dilute solution of different solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepika; Tripathi, Deepti

    2017-05-01

    In present study,the effect of adding Polypyrrole (PPy), a conductive polymer, on the dielectric and electrical behavior of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in dilute solution of moderate polar solvent Tetrahydrofuran (THF) and polar solvent M-Cresol at low frequency is investigated. The blend of PVC with PPy forms a colloidal solution in both the solvents. The dielectric dispersion study of PVC-PPy blends in THF and M-Cresol has been carried out in the frequency range of 20Hz to 2MHz at temperature of 303 K. The influence of solvent on dielectric and electrical parameters such as dielectric constant [ɛ*(ω)], loss tangent (tan δ) and ac conductivity (σac) of PVC - PPy solutions is studied. At low frequencies, electrode polarization seems to have dominant effect on the complex dielectric constant. The values of relaxation time corresponding to this phenomena is also reported. Dielectric dispersion studies show that the solvent environment plays significant role in governing segmental motion of polymer chain in solution.

  18. Construction and demolition waste as a source of PVC for recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes, Sabrina Moretto Darbello; Mancini, Sandro Donnini; Rodolfo, Antonio; Keiroglo, Raquel Carramillo

    2012-02-01

    Construction and demolition waste can contain considerable amounts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). This paper describes a study of the recycling of PVC pipes collected from such waste materials. In a sorting facility for the specific disposal of construction and demolition waste, PVC was found to represent one-third of the plastics separated by workers. Pipes were sorted carefully to preclude any possible contamination by poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) found in the waste. The material was ground into two distinct particle sizes (final mesh of 12.7 and 8 mm), washed, dried and recycled. The average formulation of the pipes was determined based on ash content tests and used in the fabrication of a similar compound made mainly of virgin PVC. Samples of recycled pipes and of compound based on virgin material were subjected to tensile and impact tests and provided very similar results. These results are a good indication of the application potential of the recycled material and of the fact that longer grinding to obtain finer particles is not necessarily beneficial.

  19. Leaching of lead from new unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes into drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Lin, Yi-Pin

    2015-06-01

    Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes have been used in the premise plumbing system due to their high strength, long-term durability, and low cost. uPVC pipes, however, may contain lead due to the use of lead compounds as the stabilizer during the manufacturing process. The release of lead from three locally purchased uPVC pipes was investigated in this study. The effects of various water quality parameters including pH value, temperature, and type of disinfectant on the rate of lead release were examined. The elemental mapping obtained using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) confirmed the presence of lead on the inner surfaces of the uPVC pipes and their surface lead weight percentages were determined. The leachable lead concentration for each pipe was determined using high strength acidic EDTA solutions (pH 4, EDTA = 100 mg/L). Lead leaching experiments using tap water and reconstituted tape water under static conditions showed that the rate of lead release increased with the decreasing pH value and increasing temperature. In the presence of monochloramine, lead release was faster than that in the presence of free chlorine.

  20. Determination of mechanical properties of PVC foam using a modified Arcan fixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taher, Siavash Talebi; Thomsen, Ole Thybo; M Dulieu-Barton, Janice

    2012-01-01

    compression to shear bidirectional loading conditions that is not possible with conventional Arcan fixtures. The tensile and shear behaviour to failure of a cross-linked Divinycell H100 PVC foam core material are studied using digital image correlation (DIC). A detailed investigation of the parasitic effects...

  1. Investigation of PVC physical ageing in field test specimens using ultrasonic and dielectric measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demcenko, A.; Ravanan, M.; Visser, Roy; Loendersloot, Richard; Akkerman, Remko

    2013-01-01

    Physical ageing in PVC is studied using two techniques: a) non-linear ultrasonic measurements based on the non-collinear wave interaction theory and b) dielectric measurements. The ultrasonic measurement results are compared with dielectric measurement results. The comparison shows that the used

  2. Effect of complexing salt on conductivity of PVC/PEO polymer blend ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-02-28

    ehylene oxide) (PEO) and different lithium salts (LiClO4, LiBF4 and LiCF3SO3) were prepared by the solution casting technique. The effect of complexing salt on the ionic conductivity of the PVC/PEO host polymer is discussed.

  3. PVC gel soft actuator-based wearable assist wear for hip joint support during walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Hashimoto, Minoru

    2017-12-01

    Plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gel and mesh electrode-based soft actuators have considerable potential to provide new types of artificial muscle, exhibiting similar responsiveness to biological muscle in air, >10% deformation, >90 kPa output stress, variable stiffness, long cycle life (>5 million cycles), and low power consumption. We have designed and fabricated a prototype of walking assist wear using the PVC gel actuator in previous study. The system has several advantages compared with traditional motor-based exoskeletons, including lower weight and power consumption, and no requirement for rigid external structures that constrain the wearer’s joints. In this study, we designed and established a control and power system to making the whole system portable and wearable outdoors. And we designed two control strategies based on the characteristics of the assist wear and the biological kinematics. In a preliminary experimental evaluation, a hemiparetic stroke patient performed a 10 m to-and-fro straight line walking task with and without assist wear on the affected side. We found that the assist wear enabled natural movement, increasing step length and decreasing muscular activity during straight line walking. We demonstrated that the assistance effect could be adjusted by controlling the on-off time of the PVC gel soft actuators. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed system and suggest the feasibility of PVC gel soft actuators for developing practical soft wearable assistive devices, informing the development of future wearable robots and the other soft actuator technologies for human movement assistance and rehabilitation.

  4. Characterization of All Solid State Hydrogen Ion Selective Electrode Based on PVC-SR Hybrid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Bo Shim

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen ion selective membranes formulated with 3140 RTV silicone rubber (SR in PVC were studied to extend the life time of solid state ion sensors through improved membrane adhesion. All solid state hydrogen ion selective electrodes were prepared by incorporation of tridodecyl amine (TDDA as an ionophore, potassium tetrakis[3.5-bis(p-chlorophenylborate (KTpClPB as a lipophilic additive, bis(2-ethylhexyladipate (DOA as a plasticizer. Their linear dynamic range was pH 2.0-11.0 and showed the near Nernstian slope of 55.1±0.2 mV/pH (r=0.999. The ifluences from alkali and alkaline earth metal ions were studied for the response of the final ISE membrane composition. Impedance spectroscopic data showed that the resistance was increased by increasing SR content in PVC. Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM image showed clear differences according to the SR compositions in PVC. Life time of the all solid state membrane electrode was extended to about 2 months by preparing the membrane with PVC and SR. The standard reference material from NIST (2181 HEPES Free acid and 2182 NaHEPESate was tested for the ISE and it gave good result.

  5. The behaviour of polyaniline-coated PVC membrane based on 7, 16 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyaniline(PANI) chemically coated on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane based on a neutral carrier 7 ... membrane; hydrogen ion-selective electrode. 1. .... vacuum distillation. Redistilled water and analytical- reagent grade reagents were used throughout. High-. Scheme 1. Polyaniline (emeraldine) salt exists in acidic.

  6. Enhanced Design of a Soft Thin-Film Vibrotactile Actuator Based on PVC Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Hyeong Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated a soft thin-film vibrotactile actuator, which can be easily inserted into wearable devices, based on an electroactive PVC gel. One of the most important factors in fabricating a soft and thin vibrotactile actuator is to create vibrational force strong enough to stimulate human skin in a wide frequency range. To achieve this, we investigate the working principle of the PVC gel and suggest a new structure in which most of electric energy contributes to the deformation of the PVC gel. Due to this structure, the vibrational amplitude of the proposed PVC gel actuator could considerably increase (0.816 g (g = 9.8 m/s2 at resonant frequency. The vibrotactile amplitude is proportional to the amount of input voltage. It increased from 0.05 g up to 0.416 g with increasing applied voltages from 200 V to 1 kV at 1 Hz. The experimental results show that the proposed actuator can create a variety of haptic sensations.

  7. Influence of physical aging on impact embrittlement of uPVC pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Roy; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Wolters, Mannes; Warnet, Laurent; Govaert, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    Most failures of unplasticised poly(vinyl chloride) (uPVC) pipes used in the Dutch gas distribution network originate from third party damage. Brittle pipes should therefore be replaced to ensure safe operation of the network. In this study, the relation between physical aging and embrittlement of

  8. Preparation of modified clay with benzethonium or cetylpyridinium chloride and evaluation of their interactions with PVC;Preparacao de argilas modificadas com cloreto de benzetonio ou cetilpiridineo e avaliacao da interacao destas com o PVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resende, Daniel K.; Dornelas, Camila B.; Moreira, Leonardo A.; Gomes, Ailton S.; Tavares, Maria I.B., E-mail: dkresende@ima.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Profa. Eloisa Mano; Cabral, Lucio M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Industrial Farmaceutica; Simeoni, Luiz A. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Lab. de Farmacologia Molecular

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work was the preparation of modified clays with benzethonium or cetylpyridinium to obtain organophilic silicates with good stability and evaluate the possible use of them for the preparation of nanocomposites of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The reactions of modification of clays and the PVC were prepared by solution intercalation. The new clays were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The reactions of clays with PVC were assessed by Low-field NMR, through the determination of proton spin lattice relaxation time. The stability of new organophilic clays and their reactions with PVC were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). High stability was observed for organophilic clays prepared. The degradation of PVC materials obtained with the organophilic clay began at temperatures above 200 deg C. If it is considered that the temperatures normally used in the processing of PVC are between 140 deg C to 180 deg C, the observed results may indicate the possibility of the use of clays for preparation of nanomaterials with PVC. (author)

  9. Stabilizing effect of epoxidized sunflower oil as a secondary stabilizer for Ca/Hg stabilized PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated triglyceride oil sunflower was epoxidized and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Epoxidized sunflower oil (ESO was used as an organic thermal co-stabilizer for rigid poly(vinyl chloride (PVC in the presence of tricalcium dicitrate (Ca3(C6H5O72 and mercury (II acetate (Hg(CH3COO2. The thermo-oxidative degradation of PVC was studied in the presence of these ternary stabilizer systems at 170, 180, 190 and 200°C in N2 atmosphere. The effects of metal carboxylate combination Ca/Hg in the absence and in the presence of epoxidized sunflower oil on static heat treatment of PVC have been studied. The formation of polyene sequences was investigated by UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy and by comparing viscosity data obtained in the presence and in the absence of the additives. It was found that the additives retard the rate of degradation and reduce the extent of polymer chain scission associated with the thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride. Synergistic effects were found when stabilizer was blended in 50:50 weight ratios with either. It was found that ESO exerted a stabilizing effect on the degradation of PVC. The activation energy for degraded PVC in absence of stabilizers was 38.6 kJ•mol–1 and in the presence of Ca/Hg and Ca/Hg/ESO were 53.3 and 64.7 kJ•mol–1 respectively. In order of compare the efficiency of the epoxidized sunflower oil with these metal soap stabilizers, thermal stabilities were evaluated on the basis of evolved hydrogen chloride determined by conductometry technique and degree of discoloration are discussed.

  10. The 1st EMBO workshop on PVC bacteria-Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae superphylum: exceptions to the bacterial definition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Damien P; Jogler, Christian; Fuerst, John A

    2013-10-01

    The PVC superphylum is a phylogenetically supported collection of various related bacterial phyla that comprise unusual characteristics and traits. The 'PVC' abbreviation derives from Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Chlamydiae as members of this superphylum, while additional bacterial phyla are related. There has recently been increasing and exciting interest in the cell biology, physiology and ecology of members of this superphylum, including evolutionary implications of the complex cell organization of some species. It is timely that international researchers in the PVC superphylum field met to discuss these developments. The first meeting entirely dedicated to those bacteria, the EMBO workshop "PVC superphylum: Exceptions to the bacterial definition" was held at the Heidelberg University to catalyze the formation of a vital scientific community supporting PVC-bacterial research. More than 45 investigators from more than 20 countries (PIs, senior scientists and students) attended the meeting and produced a great starting point for future collaborative research. This Special Issue will focus on the EMBO-PVC meeting. This Perspective briefly summarizes the history of PVC-research, focusing on the key findings and provides a brief summary of the meeting with a focus on the major questions that arose during discussion and that might influence the research in the years to come.

  11. Degradação biológica do PVC em aterro sanitário e avaliação microbiológica Biological degradation of PVC in landfill and microbiological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. C. Grisa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O poli(cloreto de vinila (PVC é um dos polímeros utilizado no campo das embalagens e no setor calçadista, e, em função da sua aplicação diversificada, apresenta elevados percentuais em aterros domésticos e industriais. É um polímero amorfo podendo apresentar diferentes teores de plastificante e outros aditivos responsáveis pela sua estabilização, os quais podem influenciar no tempo de vida útil e nas propriedades do produto final. Este trabalho apresenta o estudo da degradação química e biológica de filmes de poli(cloreto de vinila flexível (PVC-f, no aterro sanitário São Giácomo, na cidade de Caxias do Sul/RS, antes e após 330 dias de disposição. As amostras de PVC-f antes e após a disposição no aterro sanitário foram avaliadas por análise térmica (TGA, estrutural (FT-IR e morfológica (MEV e MO. Observou-se que as amostras de PVC-f dispostas no aterro sanitário (PVC-fa, apresentam um único evento de perda de massa, em relação ao PVC-f não degradado ou virgem (PVC-fv, além de um maior % de perda de massa e de mudanças estruturais. Nas amostras de PVC-fa foram observadas modificações morfológicas importantes para descrever os fenômenos de degradação como erosão da superfície, bioerosão, que propiciaram a ação das leveduras, bactérias e fungos presentes no meio no polímero aterrado.The poly (vinyl chloride (PVC is one of the polymers used in the field of packing materials and footwear sector, and due its diversified applications, it has presented in a high percentage of domestic and industrial landfills It is an amorphous polymer and may present different levels of plasticizer and other additives responsible for its stabilization, which can influence the lifetime and the properties of the final product. This work presents the study of the chemical and biological degradation of poly (vinyl chloride flexible (PVC-f films, at São Giácomo landfill, in Caxias do Sul city after 330 days of

  12. Evaluation of the influence of water and oil derivatives absorption on PVC pipes; Avaliacao da influencia da absorcao de agua e de derivados de petroleo em tubulacoes de PVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpio, D.C.F. del; D' Almeida, J.R.M., E-mail: dalmeida@puc-rio.b [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    PVC is the only polymer of large consume that is not totally obtained from petroleum, since it contains 57% of chlorine. As chlorine containing materials are resistant to bacteria rich environments, such as buried pipes, PVC is being used for fluid transportation, principally water, but it can also be considered as an alternative material for the transportation of other fluids. This work analyzes the aging behavior of PVC exposed to water, ethanol and diesel oil, using TGA, DSC, FT-IR and DR-X techniques. The results showed that the chemical structure of PVC is not affected by exposure to water and ethanol. For these fluids a dipolar interaction could be occurring, increasing at the beginning of the absorption process, the polymer thermal stability. The diesel oil caused plasticization, with reduction of the Tg since the beginning of the aging process. (author)

  13. Application of N-Quinoline-2-carboxamido-8-aminoquinoline in Fabrication of a Ho(III-PVC Membrane Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Zamani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The N-quinoline-2-carboxamido-8-aminoquinoline (QCA was used as a suitable ion carrier in the construction of a Ho(III PVC-based membrane sensor. This sensor demonstrated good selectivity and sensitivity towards the holmium ion for a broad variety of cations, including alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The proposed electrode exhibits a linear dynamic range between 1.0×10-6 and 1.0×10-2 M, with a near Nernstian slope of 20.4±0.3 mV per decade and a detection limit of 4.2×10-7 M. The best performance was obtained with a membrane composition of 30% poly(vinyl chloride, 56% nitrobenzene, 2% sodium tetraphenyl borate, 10% oleic acid and 2% QCA. The potentiometric response of the constructed electrode is pH independent in the range of 2.4-7.4. The sensor possesses the advantages of short conditioning time, fast response time (∼ 5 s and especially, good selectivity towards transition and heavy metal and some mono, di and trivalent cations. The Ho3+ sensor was successfully applied as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Ho(III ions with EDTA. The electrode was also used for the determination of Ho3+ ions in mixtures of different ions and the determination of the fluoride ion in mouth wash solutions.

  14. Study on HCl emission behavior during pyrolysis of demolition wood with PVC and municipal solid waste for clean hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidetoshi Kuramochi; Wei Wu; Katsuya Kawamoto [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    In this study, first, HCl emission during the pyrolysis of demolition wood containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) converted from municipal wastes was measured with a laboratory scale cylindrical batch reactor. The difference in the HCl emission behavior between both feedstocks was discussed. In the case of the demolition wood with PVC, the effects of wood composition on HCl emission were investigated by not only measuring the HCl emission during the co-pyrolysis of the primary constituents of wood (cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin) with PVC film but also by conducting thermogravimetric analysis of the constituents. Finally, the reduction of HCl emission due to blending demolition wood and PVC film with a K-rich biomass was experimentally evaluated as a method for reducing the HCl emission. (authors)

  15. The influence of soil and landfill leachate microorganisms in the degradation of PVC/PCL films cast from DMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Campos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While the use of plastics continues to increase in our daily lives in a growing range products, these materials are very persistent in the environment. The blending of aliphatic polyesters with other thermoplastic polymers is a profitable way of producing materials with changed physical properties and biodegradability, which can facilitate microbial adhesion to the polymer matrix and help to reduce (post-consumer degradation time of these materials in landfills. This study was an investigation of the biodegradation of films of blends of poly(vinyl chloride (PVC and poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL by soil microorganisms and leachate, by means of respirometry, infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR, differential calorimetry scanning (DSC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, contact angle and weight loss. The results showed that in the soil, the films suffered oxidative biodegradation. The PCL promoted degradation of the PVC in the film of PVC/PCL and the PVC inhibited the rapid degradation of the PCL.

  16. Utilization of Agrowaste Polymers in PVC/NBR Alloys: Tensile, Thermal, and Morphological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl chloride/nitrile butadiene rubber (PVC/NBR alloys were melt-mixed using a Brabender Plasticorder at 180∘C and 50 rpm rotor speed. Alloys obtained by melt mixing from PVC and NBR were formulated with wood-flour- (WF- based olive residue, a natural byproduct from olive oil extraction industry. WF was progressively increased from 0 to 30 phr. The effects of WF loadings on the tensile properties of the fabricated samples were inspected. The torque rheometry, which is an indirect indication of the melt strength, is reported. The pattern of water uptake for the composites was checked as a function WF loading. The fracture mode and the quality of bonding of the alloy with and without filler are studied using electron scanning microscope (SEM.

  17. Viability of use of PVC tubes in solar collectors: an analysis of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Luiz Guillherme Meira de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the inherent degradations of PVC tubes due to the thermal effect and ultraviolet solar radiation. The approach relates its causes and its effect of use of the PVC tubes as elements to absorption, forming a coil, in solar collectors for water heating. It is demonstrated that such degradations can be burst through the use of an outflow and an appropriate regimen of work, as well as of a protective layer for the tubes, in this case black ink used to magnify its absorption. The results of the properties of tubes that had been exposed to the degradation effect for up to five years are presented. The viability of use of this type of collector is demonstrated through comparative analysis of tubes exposed and not exposed to the sun, concluding for the low cost, easy assembly and maintenance of the system.

  18. Effect analysis of material properties of picosecond laser ablation for ABS/PVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y. H.; Ho, C. Y.; Chiou, Y. J.

    2017-06-01

    This paper analytically investigates the picosecond laser ablation of ABS/PVC. Laser-pulsed ablation is a wellestablished tool for polymer. However the ablation mechanism of laser processing for polymer has not been thoroughly understood yet. This study utilized a thermal transport model to analyze the relationship between the ablation rate and laser fluences. This model considered the energy balance at the decomposition interface and Arrhenius law as the ablation mechanisms. The calculated variation of the ablation rate with the logarithm of the laser fluence agrees with the measured data. It is also validated in this work that the variation of the ablation rate with the logarithm of the laser fluence obeys Beer's law for low laser fluences. The effects of material properties and processing parameters on the ablation depth per pulse are also discussed for picosecond laser processing of ABS/PVC.

  19. PVC extrusion development and production for the NOvA neutrino experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, R. L.; Grudzinski, J. J.; Phan-Budd, S.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Fagan, J. E.; Grozis, C.; Kephart, K. M.

    2017-07-01

    We have produced large and highly-reflective open-cell PVC extrusions for the NOvA neutrino oscillation experiment. The extrusions were sealed, instrumented, assembled into self-supporting detector blocks, and filled with liquid scintillator. Each Far Detector block stands 15.7 m high, is 15.7 m wide and 2.1 m thick. More than 22,000 extrusions were produced with high dimensional tolerance and robust mechanical strength. This paper provides an overview of the NOvA Far Detector, describes the preparation of the custom PVC powder, and the making of the extrusions. Quality control was a key element in the production and is described in detail.

  20. Evaluation of dosimetric characteristics of graphene oxide/PVC nanocomposite for gamma radiation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizi, Shahzad; Malekie, Shahryar; Ziaie, Farhood [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Radiation Application Research School; Rahighi, Reza; Tayyebi, Ahmad [Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physics

    2017-04-01

    Graphene oxide-polyvinyl chloride composite was prepared using tetrahydrofuran solvent-assisted dispersion of characterized nano flakes of graphene oxide in polymer matrix. Electrical percolation threshold of GO/PVC nanocomposite was determined via a finite element simulation method with a 2D model and compared with experimental results. A conductive cell with two silver coated walls was designed and fabricated for exploring dosimetric properties of the composite. Some characteristics of the new nanocomposite such as linearity of dose response, repeatability, sensitivity and angular dependence are investigated. According to 2D proposed method, obtained data associated to electrical conductivity of the GO/polymer composite for PVC matrix plotted in different GO weight percentages and had good compatibility (validity) with experimental data. The dose response is linear in the 17-51 mGy dose range and it can be introduced for gamma radiation dosimetry in diagnostic activities.

  1. Analysis of Polyadipate Ester Content in PVC Plastics by Means of FT-Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    2006-01-01

    Plasticizers are needed in flexible PVC (PolyVinylChloride) products. There is serious concern that commonly used phthalate esters may harm life reproduction systems. To avoid the problems, instead adipate di-esters (AEs) of C8 to C10 alcohols are used as higher prized alternatives; e.g. di-2......-ethylhexyl adipate or DEHA [103-23-1], also known as Adimoll or di-octyl adipate, DOA. A widely used plasticizer in food (cling) films is DEHA, often in combination with polymers, epoxidized soya-bean oil, etcetera. DEHA also occurs in children toys. We have previously shown that the presence of phthalate...... esters in PVC can be rapidly analyzed by Fourier transform (FT-) Raman spectroscopy excited with a 1064 nm laser. Here in this project we report a similar study. The aim was to find out whether FT-Raman spectroscopy can be used to determine the presence of adipate esters (AEs) as plasticizers...

  2. Mechanical behavior of styrene grafted PVC films by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Jessica R.; Moura, Eduardo; Somessari, Elisabeth S.R.; Silveira, Carlos G.; Paes, Helio A.; Souza, Carlos A.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Geraldo, Aurea B.C., E-mail: ageraldo@ipen.br, E-mail: jmanzoli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a technological and low cost polymer, however it presents high sensitivity to high energy irradiation because of the weakness of carbon-chloride bond face to carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds. Grafting is a type of co-polymerization process that can allow it an increase of mechanical characteristics. The aim of this work is to evaluate the mechanical properties of styrene grafted PVC by electron beam irradiation using mutual and pre-irradiation methods to verify the mechanical resistance changes of obtained product whether grafting process is applied from non-irradiated or from pre-irradiated substrates. The irradiation procedures were performed in atmosphere air or inert atmosphere and the irradiation conditions comprised doses from 10 kGy to 100 kGy and dose rates of 2.2 kGy/s and 22.4 kGy/s. The styrene grafted samples were analyzed by gravimetry to determinate the grafting yield; the final values have been averaged from a series of three measurements. The Mid-A TR-FTIR was the spectrophotometer technique used for qualitative/semi-quantitative analysis of grafted samples. The Young's module and tensile strength of pre-irradiated and grafted PVC samples at both methods were measured at a Lloyd LXR tensile tester at a cross-head speed of 10.00 mm/min. We observed the decrease of Young's module and tensile strength with the increase of absorbed dose at pre-irradiated PVC samples. These mechanical parameters results are discussed. (author)

  3. Speed of Sound versus Temperature Using PVC Pipes Open at Both Ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the speed of sound in air as a function of temperature using a simple and inexpensive apparatus. For this experiment it is essential that the appropriate end corrections be taken into account. In a recent paper the end corrections for 2-in i.d. (5.04-cm) PVC pipes open at both ends were investigated. The air column…

  4. Finite Element Analysis of PVC window profile &aluminium window profile with and without thermal break

    OpenAIRE

    ENG. Mohammad Buhemdi

    2016-01-01

    Examine a thermal analysis .Numerous analogies exist between thermal and structuralanalysis for PVC window profile &aluminium window profile with and without thermalbreak ,Finite Element Analysis, commonly called FEA, is a method of numerical analysis. FEA isused for solving problems in many engineering disciplines such as machine design,acoustics, electromagnetism, soil mechanics, fluid dynamics, and many others. Inmathematical terms, FEA is a numerical technique used for solving...

  5. Polymer Composites Based on Plasticized PVC and Vulcanized Nitrile Rubber Waste Powder for Irrigation Pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Daniela Stelescu

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the technique of production and characterization of polymer composites based on plasticized PVC and rubber powder from vulcanized nitrile rubber waste. The new polymer composites have lower hardness, higher elongation at break, a better tensile strength, and better ozone resistance, and the blend suitable for irrigations pipes for agricultural use was selected. The selected polymer composites have a good behavior under accelerated aging, repeated flexion at room temperature...

  6. Production of pre-basic potato seed by polyvinyl chloride PVC: articulate gutters hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of more efficient and productive systems for pre-basic seed potato production would improve the quality of the propagative material used by the potato growers, directly affecting the crop yields. A two-year experiment was carried out to evaluate the potato pre-basic seed production by two types of hydroponic systems (fibrocement tiles and articulated PVC gutters, two cultivars (`Baronesa` and `Eliza` and two types of propagative material (plants coming from in vitro culture and minitubers. The PVC gutters system was highly efficient. When using minitubers, this system reached multiplication rates up to 74 tubers per plant. Minitubers were more productive than in vitro plants, independent of cultivar and hydroponic system utilized.Um experimento realizado por dois anos consecutivos avaliou a produção de sementes pré-básicas de batata por meio de sistemas de cultivo hidropônico. O trabalho testou a combinação de dois sistemas de cultivo (telha de fibrocimento e calhas de PVC articuladas, duas cultivares (Baronesa e Eliza e dois tipos de material propagativo (plântulas oriundas do cultivo in vitro e minitubérculos. O sistema de calhas de PVC foi altamente eficiente. Quando foi utilizado minitubérculos, este sistema alcançou taxas de multiplicação de até 74 tubérculos por planta. De modo geral, o uso de minitubérculos como material propagativo apresentou os melhores resultados de produtividade quando comparada ao material in vitro, independentemente da cultivar e sistemas hidropônicos utilizados.

  7. THE STUDY OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PLASTISOLS BASED EMULSION PVC FILLED WITH CHALK GIDROFOBIZIROVANNYM

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    V. A. Sedykh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Baby toys are made using the centrifugal molding plastisol based emulsion of polyvinyl chloride plasticized with dioctylphthalate. To reduce cost and decrease biotelemetry the dioctylphthalate on the surface of the product domestic toys than toys produced in China, there was a necessity of introduction of the filler is chalk from different manufacturers. By using a Brookfield vis-cometer PV-D was studied rheology of filled hydrophobized chalk PVC plastisols in storage conditions for up to 72 hours at temperatures of 14-20°C. It was found that the flow plastisols consistent with pseudo-plastic fluids. Given the flow rates of emulsion PVC plastisols filled to 35 % of the mass. hydrophobized chalk. The influence of the content of the plasticizer dioctylphthalate in a narrow interval (37,0 - 41,4 % of the mass. on the viscosity of polymer pastes and the kinetics of its changes during storage. Revealed a linear dependence of the viscosity of the filled hydrophobized chalk plastisols on the speed of rotation of the spindle of the viscometer and during storage. Given the rate of expansion changes the viscosity of the plastisols of the speed of rotation of the spindle of the viscometer, the rate of change in viscosity and calculation of the initial viscosity. Determined the stability of the dispersion hydrophobized chalk in a colloidal solution of PVC in dioctylphthalate during storage. We determined the variation of the content of chalk (ash with top and bottom layers plastisols height 8 cm after 24 hours storage. It is proved that the temperature of the preparation and storage of polymer pastes were determining factors in the regulation of such technological properties of PVC plastisols in the presence hydrophobized chalkas viscosity, stability of the dispersion of chalk and, consequently, the efficiency of distribution plastisols in the form of a centrifugal molding.

  8. Desenvolvimento de PVC reforçado com fibras de vidro longas para fabricação de produtos moldados Long glass fiber reinforcement of PVC molding compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro H. Grizzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi desenvolvido um método para reforçar PVC rígido com fibras de vidro longas através da incorporação pelo processo de recobrimento da fibra contínua com um composto de PVC plastificado. Posteriormente o filamento foi picotado para a formação de grânulos, com fibras de vidro já incorporadas, que foram misturados mecanicamente ao PVC rígido granulado para alimentação direta por moldagem. A moldagem por injeção direta foi realizada com sucesso não sendo necessário a compostagem prévia, o que foi considerado conveniente, pois reduziu as etapas de processamento da resina de PVC e que proporcionou, possivelmente, redução de custos, redução da degradação do comprimento médio das fibras de vidro e diminuição da possibilidade de degradação da resina de PVC. O reforçamento do PVC rígido com 20% em massa de fibras de vidro longas de comprimento inicial entre 13 e 14 mm resultou em adequadas propriedades mecânicas, bem superiores ao PVC rígido não reforçado. Os módulos (tração e flexão e a resistência ao impacto Charpy praticamente dobraram, mesmo com os compósitos apresentando grande quantidade de plastificante em sua formulação, que possibilita ao PVC ser utilizado em outras aplicações não antes possíveis como em peças técnicas de engenharia.In this paper, a method to reinforce rigid PVC with long glass fibers (LGF was developed through the incorporation of continuous glass fibers, as rovings, with plasticized vinyl matrix prepared by the wire coating technique. The plasticized vinyl rovings were pelletized. The pellets (13-14 mm were then blended to a granulated rigid PVC formulation and directly injection molded as testing specimens. The direct injection molding, eliminating the preliminary melt-compounding process, was achieved successfully, which was considered convenient because it reduced the number of processing steps, which allowed cutting expenses, reduced the deterioration of the

  9. Experimental study of bubbling fluidised bed co-combustion of Spanish lignite with PVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Sanchez; L. Armesto; E. Ruiz; J. Otero [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain). Fossil Fuels Department

    2005-07-01

    This work presents preliminary results obtained in the co-combustion of subbituminous coal from Puertollano (Spain) and recycled PVC. Pilot scale cocombustion tests have been carried out in a 0,5 MWth Bubbling Fluidised Bed Combustor (BFBC). The effects of temperature, in the range from 800 to 880{sup o}C, and PVC content (5-10% w/w) are studied. Gas monitoring programme has taken into account major gas components and pollutants as well as isokinetic sampling for the collection of PCDD/F according to standard methods. Ashes have been characterised using ASTM standard methods. Results have been analysed in terms of combustion efficiency, major pollutants emission and PCDD/Fs formation, both in the flue gas and in the fly ash. Results show that the addition of PVC to coal leads to low combustion efficiency. Fuel composition and operating conditions affect PCDD/Fs release. Distribution of PCDD/Fs in flue gas and in fly ash shows a dominance of lower chlorinated homologues. 11 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. PVC flooring is related to human uptake of phthalates in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstedt, F; Jönsson, B A G; Bornehag, C-G

    2013-02-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring material contains phthalates, and it has been shown that such materials are important sources for phthalates in indoor dust. Phthalates are suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Consecutive infants between 2 and 6 months old and their mothers were invited. A questionnaire about indoor environmental factors and family lifestyle was used. Urinary metabolites of the phthalates diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), and dietylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were measured in the urine of the children. Of 209 invited children, 110 (52%) participated. Urine samples were obtained from 83 of these. Urine levels of the BBzP metabolite monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) was significantly higher in infants with PVC flooring in their bedrooms (P flooring material may increase the human uptake of phthalates in infants. Urinary levels of phthalate metabolites during early life are associated with the use of PVC flooring in the bedroom, body area, and the use of infant formula. This study shows that the uptake of phthalates is not only related to oral uptake from, for example, food but also to environmental factors such as building materials. This new information should be considered when designing indoor environment, especially for children. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Mechanical, Spectroscopic and Micro-structural Characterization of Banana Particulate Reinforced PVC Composite as Piping Material

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    B. Dan-asabe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A banana particulate reinforced polyvinyl chloride (PVC composite was developed with considerabley low cost materials having an overall light-weight and good mechanical properties for potential application as piping material. The specimen composite material was produced with the banana (stem particulate as reinforcement using compression molding. Results showed that density and elastic Modulus of the composite decreases and increases respectively with increasing weight fraction of the particulate reinforcement. The tensile strength increased to a maximum of 42 MPa and then decreased steadily. The composition with optimum mechanical property (42 MPa was determined at 8, 62 and 30 % formulation of banana stem particulates (reinforcement, PVC (matrix and Kankara clay (filler respectively with corresponding percentage water absorption of 0.79 %, Young’s Modulus of 1.3 GPa, flexural strength of 92 MPa and density of 1.24 g/cm3. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR analysis of the constituents showed identical bands within the range 4000–1000 cm-1 with renown research work. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM result showed fairly uniform distribution of constituents’ phases. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF confirms the X-ray diffraction (XRD result of the presence of minerals of kaolinite, quartz, rutile and illite in the kaolin clay. Comparison with conventional piping materials showed the composite offered a price savings per meter length of 84 % and 25 % when compared with carbon steel and PVC material.

  12. Diffusion of trichloroethylene through the threaded joints of PVC (polyvinylchloride) pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerome, K.M. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1990-12-01

    The data engineers and scientists use to determine if the groundwater supply is contaminated are derived from analysis of samples taken largely from monitoring wells. For these data to be reliable several factors must be considered. One factor is the integrity of the monitoring well. In this project, emphasis has been placed on the potential impact on water quality caused by diffusion across the threaded joints of PVC pipe. In this study, the diffusion of trichloroethylene across several common types of threaded joints (i.e., square flush, modified ACME, modified ACME stub, and ACME) has been measured. Samples were obtained from the water inside the pipe sections and analyzed for trichloroethylene by gas chromatography. Breakthrough occurs within days of the samples being placed in the baths. The softened PVC joints of the pipes in the pure trichloroethylene split before the first sample interval of 1.5 weeks. The data show great variability in casting joints from the same manufacturer, and indicate a need for increased precision in the manufacturing of the PVC pipe joints. A one-dimensional diffusion model is used to determine an equivalent gap size through which the diffusion occurs. Flow rates through the threaded joints are calculated by using the equivalent gap width and a formula for flow through a rectangular duct running full. Comparison of the results of the gap size calculations and of the flow rates is presented. 20 refs., 13 figs. 11 tabs.

  13. Karakteristik sifat mekanik, ketahanan api dan pembakaran, dan morfologi nanokomposit campuran PVC dan LDPE

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    Arum Yuniari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of addition of low density polyethylene (LDPE and flame retardant on mechanical properties, resistant to fire and burning and morphology from the mixture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC, LDPE, flame retardant, and nanoprecipitated calcium carbonate (NPCC as filler. The materials were mixed in laboplastomill at 215 ºC, torque speed 50 rpm, for 10 minutes. Nanocomposite was prepared by PVC/LDPE variations of 100/15; 100/20; 100/25; and 100/30 phr and flame retardant variations of 30 and 35 phr. The results showed that the hihger of LDPE in nanocomposite increased the hardness and impact resistance, however, it decreased the tensile strength, elongation at break, and density. Addition of flame retardant to the nanocomposites showed good resistance to fire and burning, and optimum mechanical properties were found in using of 35 phr flame retardant.The morphology of the nanocomposite, were observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM confirmed that homogeneous mixture of LDPE dispersed in the PVC matrix.

  14. Short-term mobility and the risk of HIV infection among married couples in the fishing communities along Lake Victoria, Kenya.

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    Zachary A Kwena

    Full Text Available Mobility has long been associated with high HIV prevalence. We sought to assess sex differences in the relationship between mobility and risk for HIV infection among married couples in the fishing communities.We conducted 1090 gender-matched interviews and rapid HIV testing with 545 couples proportionally representing all the different sizes of the fish-landing beaches in Kisumu County. We contacted a random sample of fishermen as our index participants and asked them to enroll in the study together with their spouses. The consenting couples were separated into different private rooms for concurrent interviews and thereafter reunited for couple rapid HIV counselling and testing. In addition to socio-economic and behavioural data, we collected information on overnight travels and divided couples in 4 groups as follows both partners not mobile, both partners mobile, only woman mobile, and only man mobile. Other than descriptive statistics, we used X(2 and U tests to compare groups of variables and multivariate logistic regression to measure association between mobility and HIV infection.We found significant differences in the number of trips women travelled in the preceding month (mean 4.6, SD 7.1 compared to men (mean 3.3, SD 4.9; p<0.01 and when the women did travel, they were more likely to spend more days away from home than their male partners (mean 5.2 [SD 7.2] versus 3.4 SD 5.6; p = 0.01. With an HIV prevalence of 22.7% in women compared to 20.9% among men, mobile women who had non-mobile spouses had 2.1 times the likelihood of HIV infection compared to individuals in couples where both partners were non-mobile.The mobility of fishermen's spouses is associated with HIV infection that is not evident among fishermen themselves. Therefore, interventions in this community could be a combination of sex-specific programming that targets women and combined programming for couples.

  15. Ultrasonic-promoted rapid preparation of PVC/TiO2-BSA nanocomposites: Characterization and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Shamsaddinimotlagh, Sima

    2018-03-01

    In the present project in order to prevent agglomeration and better dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) in the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix, initially, the surface of TiO2 NPs was covered by bovine serum albumin protein (BSA) via sonication method. Then, the TiO2-BSA powders were embedded into the PVC matrix using ultrasonic irradiations. With mechanical and magnetic stirring homogenous mixture was not obtained. So sonication process was very essential and vital. Physical, chemical and structural properties of the samples were investigated with various tools. Morphology studies showed the well distribution of spherical TiO2 NPs in the PVC matrix. TGA analysis showed that nanocomposites (NCs) have higher thermal stability than the pristine polymer. The photocatalytic activity tests by destroying the methylene blue dye on the pristine TiO2 NPs, TiO2-BSA NPs and PVC/TiO2-BSA NC 6 wt% were examined. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NPs was reduced in the presence of BSA and PVC. It can be concluded that the TiO2-BSA NPs and PVC/TiO2-BSA NC 6 wt% have UV shielding properties and can protect film from degradation by UV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. One step phase separation process to fabricate superhydrophobic PVC films and its corrosion prevention for AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Na; Li, Jicheng; Bai, Ningning; Xu, Lan; Li, Qing, E-mail: liqingswu@163.com

    2016-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Independent superhydrophobic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film was prepared by phase separation process. • The superhydrophobic PVC film showed excellent stability in acid, alkali and salt corrosive solutions. • This film was prepared on magnesium surface protecting it from corrosion. • This method was simple and universal. - Abstract: A one step, simple fabrication method to prepare independent superhydrophobic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coating is reported in this paper. The rough surface structure and low surface energy could be simply obtained only by a phase separation process. The independent PVC superhydrophobic film was also applied on AZ91D magnesium alloy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water contact angle measurements, electrochemical test and adhesion tests have been performed to characterize the surface morphology, wettability, anti-corrosion and adhesion strength of independent PVC film and superhydrophobic magnesium alloy respectively. The results indicated that whether it was the PVC film or superhydrophobic magnesium, they show static contact angles higher than 150°, excellent anti-corrosion effect and adhesion strength. We believed that the presented method could provide a straightforward and simple route to fabricate low-cost and anti-corrosion coating on various substrate materials. Moreover, this one step process may find potential application in the field of industry because of its simplicity and universality.

  17. N-Epoxypropyl poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) covalently and non-covalently coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes for PVC reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fangwei; Qu, Rongjun; Jia, Xinhua; Sun, Changmei; Sun, Hushan; An, Kai; Mu, Yinglei; Ji, Chunnuan; Yin, Ping; Zhang, Ying

    2017-09-01

    Poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA) coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PPTA-MWNTs) showed an enhancement effect on the yield strength and Young's modulus of PVC composite films, but no improvement in toughness. In this paper, MWNTs were covalently and non-covalently coated by N-epoxypropyl PPTA (PPTA-ECH) to prepare PPTA-ECH-MWNTs-NH2-x and PPTA-ECH-MWNTs-x, which were used as additives to reinforce PVC composite films. It was found that the maximum yield strength, Young's modulus, and toughness of PPTA-ECH-MWNTs-NH2-x/PVC composite films increased by 227.84%, 201.56%, and 589.96%, respectively, in comparison to pure PVC, while those of PPTA-ECH-MWNTs-x/PVC composite films increased by 215.08%, 153.13%, and 540.81%, respectively. The maximum yield strength, maximum Young's modulus, and maximum toughness of both PPTA-ECH-MWNTs-NH2-x/PVC and PPTA-ECH-MWNTs-x/PVC showed significant improvement as compared to PPTA-MWNTs/PVC composite film and PPTA-MWNTs-NH2/PVC. This indicates that N-epoxypropyl PPTA covalently and non-covalently coated MWNTs are promising additives for reinforcing PVC.

  18. Armazenamento de atemoias (Annona squamosa x Annona cherimola recobertas com filme PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A atemoia, assim como todos os frutos climatéricos, apresenta uma elevada perecibilidade, tornando-se importante a adoção de técnicas pós-colheita. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o armazenamento de atemoias recobertas com filme PVC. Os frutos utilizados foram da variedade ‘Gefner’ apresentando-se em estado de maturação verde-maduro. Estes foram transferidos para o laboratório de Química de Alimentos do IFCE, submetidos à higienização e divididos nos devidos tratamentos. O primeiro tratamento constou no armazenamento de cinco frutos em bandejas de isopor recobertos com filme PVC. O segundo, do recobrimento individual dos frutos em filme PVC, sendo estes acondicionados em bandejas de isopor e os frutos do controle. Estes foram armazenados durante 8 dias. O delineamento utilizado foi o DIC em esquema fatorial 3x4 com quatro repetições de cinco frutos por parcela. A cada tempo de armazenamento foram avaliadas: perda de massa, sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, Ratio, pH e índice de rachaduras. O uso de filme plástico reduz a perda de massa, porém retarda o amadurecimento de frutos de atemoia. As rachaduras estão diretamente associadas ao amadurecimento dos frutos, ao aumento dos teores de sólidos solúveis e possivelmente a cultivar avaliada. Storage of atemoyas (Annona squamosa x Annona cherimola covered with PVC filmAbstract: The atemoya, as well as all climacteric fruits, is highly perishable, becoming important to adopt post-harvest techniques. This work aimed to evaluate the atemoyas storage covered with plastic wrap. The fruits used were of the variety 'Gefner' presenting itself in a state of green-mature aging. These were transferred to the Food Chemistry Lab IFCE submitted to cleaning and divided in appropriate treatments. The first treatment consisted in five fruit storage in styrofoam trays covered with plastic wrap. The second, the individual coating of the fruits in PVC film, which are packed in

  19. Processing of nanocomposites EVA/PVC/MMT in twin-screw extruder; Processamento de nanocompositos EVA/PVC/MMT em extrusora dupla rosca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehlen, A.; Barbutti Filho, W.R.; Francisquetti, E.L.; Andrade, M.Z.; Zattera, A.J., E-mail: ajzatter@ucs.b [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS), RS (Brazil). Lab. de Polimeros

    2010-07-01

    Polymeric nanocomposites have some superior properties when compared to conventional polymer composites and is one of the most promising fields in the nanotechnology research. In a EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) /PVC (poly vinyl chloride) matrix was incorporated different types of montmorillonite clays (an inorganic (Na{sup +}) and two organic modified (15A and 30B nanoclays). The mixtures were processed in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder at processing speeds of 200 and 400 rpm. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shown that the inorganic and organic modified clays promoted a shift to higher temperatures in the degradation temperature., X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) shows a possible intercalation with the 15A clay, exfoliation with the 30B clay and formation of clusters in the Na{sup +} clay. For all clays studied, the increase in shear rate does not promote significant changes. (author)

  20. Effect of Sb2O3 Modified by Various Surface Active Agents on Flame Retardant Properties of PVC Composite

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    XU Jian-lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sb2O3 powders were prepared by high energy ball milling using polyethyleneglycol-6000,sodium dodecyl sulfate and OP-10 to modify the surface properties of the powder. The influence of Sb2O3 powders modified by various surface active agents on flame retardant properties of PVC composite materials was studied. The phase composition, morphology and the average particle size of the powders were characterized by XRD and TEM. The particle distribution and flame retardant properties of Sb2O3/PVC composite materials were studied by EDS, limiting oxygen index instrument and vertical burning test. The results show that nanometer Sb2O3 has good dispersion in the PVC matrix because of the higher space steric effect of organic film on the surface of nanometer Sb2O3 when polyethyleneglycol-6000 was used as the surface active agent. While the content of nanometer Sb2O3 is 1.26% in the PVC composite material, the oxygen index of the composite material is 27.1% and the composite material reaches fire retardant grade. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate and OP-10 as surface dispersants, the surface of Sb2O3 powders can not be coated completely. The particle size of Sb2O3 powders are 100nm and 150nm, respectively, The Sb2O3 powders have poor dispersion in the PVC matrix, and even some agglomerating phenomena took place. The oxygen index of Sb2O3/PVC composite materials are 24.7% and 25.3%, respectively, containing 1.26% Sb2O3 powders in Sb2O3/PVC composite material. The materials don't achieve flame retardant level.

  1. Vida útil e metabolismo de carboidratos em raízes de mandioquinha-salsa sob refrigeração e filme de PVC Shelf life and carbohydrate metabolism of arracacha roots stored under refrigeration and PVC film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene Antonio Ribeiro

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da temperatura de armazenamento e do uso do filme de cloreto de polivinila (PVC sobre a perda de matéria fresca e água, incidência de danos causados por frio e metabolismo pós-colheita dos carboidratos, em raízes tuberosas de mandioquinha-salsa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza. O filme de PVC reduziu a perda de matéria fresca e manteve o teor de água das raízes, durante o armazenamento por 60 dias a 5 e 10ºC. Os danos causados por frio foram inibidos nas raízes embaladas em filme de PCV, em ambas as temperaturas de armazenamento. As baixas temperaturas induziram o acúmulo de açúcares solúveis e a degradação de amido e, para as raízes armazenadas sem PVC, o aumento do conteúdo dos açúcares solúveis foi transiente e a taxa de degradação de amido foi superior à das raízes armazenadas com PVC.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the storage temperature and stretch polyvinylchloride (PVC film on the loss of fresh weight and water, on the development of chilling injury symptoms, and on the postharvest metabolism of carbohydrates, in arracacha tuber roots (Arracacia xanthorrhiza. The PVC film reduced the fresh weight loss and kept water content in the roots during 60-day storage period at 5 and 10ºC. PVC film in both storage temperatures inhibited the development of external and internal chilling injury symptoms. The low temperatures induced the increase of soluble sugar content and decrease of starch concentration, where the increase in soluble sugar was transient in roots stored without PVC film, and the rate of starch degradation was higher compared to the roots stored with PVC.

  2. Extrusão de compósitos de PP com fibras curtas de coco: efeito da temperatura e agentes de acoplamento Extrusion of PP composites with short coir fibers: effect of temperature and coupling agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelise F. Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Compósitos de PP com fibras curtas de coco foram preparados em extrusora, com dois perfis de temperatura, visando avaliar o efeito compatibilizante de PP modificado com vinilalcoxisilano e com anidrido maleico. Foi verificado que os dois agentes de acoplamento melhoraram o módulo elástico, a tensão máxima e a resistência à absorção de água quando os materiais foram processados utilizando-se um perfil de temperaturas mais elevadas. A morfologia dos compósitos também ficou mais homogênea na presença dos agentes de acoplamento, especialmente naqueles processados na temperatura mais alta. Esses resultados indicam que a temperatura é uma variável fundamental no estabelecimento das interações envolvendo os processos de compatibilização.PP composites filled with coir short fibers were prepared in an extruder using two temperature profiles. The objective was to evaluate the compatibilizing effect of PP modified with vinylsilane and with maleic anhydride. Both coupling agents improved elastic modulus, tensile strength and water absorption resistance when the materials were processed at the highest temperature profile. The composite morphology was more homogeneous in the presence of the coupling agents, mainly in the composites processed at the highest temperatures. These results indicate that temperature is a key variable for the establishment of the interactions involved in the coupling processes.

  3. PVC flooring at home and development of asthma among young children in Sweden, a 10-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, H; Jönsson, B A; Larsson, M; Nånberg, E; Bornehag, C-G

    2014-06-01

    The incidence of asthma and allergy has increased throughout the developed world over the past decades. During the same period of time, the use of industrial chemicals such as phthalates, commonly used as plasticizers in polyvinylchloride (PVC) flooring material, has increased. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PVC flooring in the home of children in the age of 1-5 years is associated with the development of asthma in 5- and 10-year follow-up investigations (n = 3228). Dampness in Buildings and Health Study (DBH Study) commenced in 2000 in Värmland, Sweden. The current analyses included subjects who answered all baseline and follow-up questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were applied to questionnaire results. Children who had PVC floorings in the bedroom at baseline were more likely to develop doctor-diagnosed asthma during the following 10-year period when compared with children living without. There were indications that PVC flooring in the parents' bedrooms was strongly associated with the new cases of doctor-diagnosed asthma when compared with child's bedroom. Our results suggest that PVC flooring exposure during pregnancy could be a critical period in the development of asthma in children at a later time; prenatal exposure and measurements of phthalate metabolites should be included in the future. This study has found that PVC flooring material in early life was related to incidence of asthma during the following 10 years when compared with other flooring materials and especially when comparing with wood flooring type.The study has further indicated that PVC flooring in the parents’ bedroom (proxy for prenatal exposure) was more associated with the development of asthma than PVC in the child’s bedroom was. Our results suggest that PVC flooring exposure during pregnancy could be a critical period in the development of asthma in children at a later time. In future prospective cohort study, prenatal exposure and measurements of

  4. Statistical Modelling of Print half-tone mottle in PET-G and PVC Shrink Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay V Joshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available PVC and PET-G (Glycol modified polyethylene terephthalate have the highest consumption in the shrink sleeve market due to its high shrink abilities and cost effectiveness. The reproductions of fine tone details on these films are challenging as the occurrence of graininess and image-noise results in print defect such as print half-tone mottle. The presence of print half-tone mottle is visually disturbing leading to wastage of ink, substrate and time. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of gravure process parameters viz. ink viscosity, press speed, impression hardness and line screen and develop statistical model for print half-tone mottle in shrink films. The base line for print half-tone mottle was determined by conducting production runs on press with a defined set of process parameters and the target was set to minimize it from the baseline. The half-tone area was scanned and processed through SFDA algorithm to calculate print half-tone mottle. The design of experiments (DOE was generated for above-mentioned process parameters and was analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA to find the significant factor affecting the print half-tone mottle. The analysis revealed line screen, viscosity and hardness as significant factors in minimizing print half-tone mottle. The results showed minimization of print half-tone mottle by 28% for both PVC and PET-G films. Furthermore, regression model was developed and validated for print half-tone mottle and a correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.8696 and 0.879 was achieved for PET-G and PVC respectively. The proposed model is helpful in determining the impact of gravure process parameters and prediction of print half-tone mottle in shrink films.

  5. Treatment of invasive fungal infections: stability of voriconazole infusion solutions in PVC bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa I.H. Adams

    Full Text Available Voriconazole is a novel broad-spectrum antifungal drug, employed in the treatment of invasive fungal infections, and represents an alternative to amphotericin B treatment. The manufacturer recommends that any unused reconstituted product should be stored at 2ºC to 8ºC, for no more than 24 h, but no recommendations about i.v. infusion solutions are given. Previous works have reported on the stability of voriconazole in polyolefin bags and just one in 5% dextrose polyvinyl chloride (PVC bags, at a 4 mg.mL-1 concentration. In this work, the stability of voriconazole as an i.v. infusion solution in 0.9% sodium chloride and in 5% dextrose, in PVC bags, at 0.5 mg.mL-1, stored at 4 ºC and at room temperature, protected from light, was evaluated. These infusion solutions were analyzed for a 21-day period. Chemical stability was evaluated by HPLC assay. Visual inspection was performed and pH of the solutions was measured. No color change or precipitation in the solutions was observed. The drug content remained above 90% for 11 days in 0.9% sodium chloride and for 9 days in 5% dextrose solutions. The i.v. infusion solutions stored at room temperature were not stable. At room temperature, the voriconazole content dropped down to 88.3 and 86.6%, in 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose solutions, respectively, two days after admixture. Assays performed at the end of the study suggest the sorption of voriconazole by the PVC bags. The results of this study allow cost-effective batch production in the hospital pharmacy.

  6. PEMBUATAN DAN KARAKTERISASI MEMBRAN SELULOSA ASETAT-PVC DARI ECENG GONDOK (Eichhornia crassipes UNTUK ADSORPSI LOGAM TEMBAGA (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazaratun Thaiyibah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian tentang isolasi selulosa dari eceng gondok (Eichhornia crassipes melalui proses ekstraksi sokletasi, delignifikasi dan bleaching, dilanjutkan dengan sintesis asetilasi dengan memasukkan gugus asetat ke dalam gugus fungsi selulosa hasil isolasi telah dilakukan. Membran selulosa asetat-PVC dibuat dengan mencampurkan selulosa asetat dengan polivinilklorida (PVC sebagai matriks yang terlebih dahulu dilarutkan dengan pelarut tetrahidrofuran (THF, kemudian ditambahkan dioktilftalat (DOP sebagai pemlastis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa eceng gondok dapat dimanfaatkan menjadi membran selulosa asetat-PVC dengan komposisi optimum pada perbandingan selulosa asetat : PVC : DOP yaitu 6:3:1. Hasil analisis FT-IR menunjukkan adanya interaksi antar ion Cu2+ dengan membran dilihat dari penurunan intensitas serapan sebelum dan sesudah didop yaitu 78.564 % menjadi 66.857 %  pada gugus C=O dari selulosa asetat. Hal ini diperkuat dengan analisis SEM yang menunjukkan morfologi permukaan membran yang porinya diduga terisi oleh ion logam Cu2+.   Kata Kunci : Eceng gondok, Membran selulosa asetat-PVC, Tembaga (II

  7. Flexural Properties of PVC/Bamboo Composites under Static and Dynamic-Thermal Conditions: Effects of Composition and Water Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahril Anuar Bahari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl chloride (PVC/bamboo composites have been prepared and assessed for their use in interior and exterior load-bearing applications. PVC composites were formed by compounding PVC with different bamboo particle sizes and loadings. The mechanical properties of these composites were determined at both ambient and elevated temperatures and after long-term water soaking. Analysis revealed that bamboo incorporation improved the PVC composite flexural modulus which was also observed with dynamic mechanical-thermal analysis on heating composites to ca. 70°C. Addition of 25% and 50% bamboo particles increases flexural modulus by 80% with dependency on whether fine (<75 μm or coarse (<1 mm particles were used. On water soaking to saturation, composites had water weight uptakes of 10%, with reduced flexural properties obtained for all water-soaked composites. Nonetheless, the results of this study show that PVC/bamboo composites achieve the minimum flexural performance of ASTM D 6662, indicating potential for their use in exterior applications.

  8. ARMAZENAMENTO DE BANANA ‘PRATA CATARINA’ SOB TEMPERATURA AMBIENTE RECOBERTAS COM FÉCULA DE MANDIOCA E PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIOGENES HENRIQUE ABRANTES SARMENTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at evaluating the postharvest shelf life of banana Prata Catarina coated with cassava starch or PVC films, were harvested bunches of bananas in the physiological maturity stage. The fruits were packed in boxes and transported to the Food Chemistry Lab of the Federal Institute of Ceará, Campus of Limoeiro do Norte for 10 days at room temperature (27.5 °C and RH 62.5%. The design used was a complete-ly randomized one in 3 x 5 factorial scheme, which the first factor was treatment (control, cassava starch 3% and PVC film, and the second period of storage (0, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days with four replications of four fruits per plots (clusters. The use of PVC film and cassava starch 3%, influenced the physical and physicochemical char-acteristics evaluated, except for firmness and soluble solids of the „Prata Catarina‟ banana stored under ambient conditions. The use of PVC film was effective in maintaining the external appearance and reduced weight loss. However, the application of cassava starch 3%, was not effective in reducing weight loss, maintained the fruits with good appearance till the end of storage. The „Prata Catarina‟ bananas control had a shelf life of 8 days, while the bananas coated with cassava starch and PVC had a shelf life of 10 days stored at ambi-ent conditions.

  9. A numerical investigation into the behaviour of cracks in uPVC pipes under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    D.Ing. This study is a numerical investigation into the behaviour of cracks in uPVC pipes under pressure. This study is a continuation of a Masters dissertation which showed that leakage exponents vary significantly from the theoretical orifice exponent of 0.5 for cracks in pipes for different materials. This study looks at the behaviour of cracks in more detail and specifically with regard to the parameters of the pipe and crack. Using Finite Element Analysis the relationship between the ...

  10. A creep apparatus to explore the quenching and ageing phenomena of PVC films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. H. D.; Mcgarry, F. J.

    1991-01-01

    A creep apparatus has been constructed for an in situ determination of length and length change. Using this apparatus, the creep behavior of PVC thin films associated with quenching and aging was studied. The more severe the quench through the glass transition temperature, the greater is the instantaneous elastic deformation and the subsequent creep behavior. As aging proceeds, the quenched films gradually lose the ductility incurred by quenching. These results agree well with the well-known phenomena of physical aging. Thus, the changes reflecting molecular mobilities due to quenching and aging can be properly monitored by such a creep apparatus.

  11. Treatment of PVC using an alternative low energy ion bombardment procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Elidiane C., E-mail: elidiane@sorocaba.unesp.br [Laboratorio de Plasmas Tecnologicos, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus Experimental de Sorocaba, Av. Tres de Marco, 511 Alto da Boa Vista, 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Santos, Nazir M. dos; Bortoleto, Jose Roberto R.; Durrant, Steven F. [Laboratorio de Plasmas Tecnologicos, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus Experimental de Sorocaba, Av. Tres de Marco, 511 Alto da Boa Vista, 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Schreiner, Wido H. [Laboratorio de Interfaces e Filmes Finos, Universidade Federal de Parana (UFPR), C.P. 19044, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Honda, Roberto Y. [Laboratorio de Plasmas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, 12516-410, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Cassia C Rangel, Rita de; Cruz, Nilson C. [Laboratorio de Plasmas Tecnologicos, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus Experimental de Sorocaba, Av. Tres de Marco, 511 Alto da Boa Vista, 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    In many applications, polymers have progressively substituted traditional materials such as ceramics, glasses, and metals. Nevertheless, the use of polymeric materials is still limited by their surface properties. Frequently, selective modifications are necessary to suit the surface to a given application. Amongst the most common treatments, plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) has attracted the attention of many researchers owing to its versatility and practicality. This method, however, requires a power supply to provide high voltage (tens of kV) negative pulses, with a controlled duty cycle, width and frequency. Owing to this, the implementation of PIII on the industrial scale can become economically inviable. In this work, an alternative plasma treatment that enables low energy ion bombardment without the need of a high voltage pulse generator is presented. To evaluate the efficiency of the treatment of polymers, polyvinylchloride, PVC, specimens were exposed to 5 Pa argon plasmas for 3600 s, at excitation powers, P, of between 10 and 125 W. Through contact angle and atomic force microscopy data, the influence of P on the wettability, surface free energy and roughness of the samples was studied. Surface chemical composition was measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS. To evaluate the effect of aging under atmospheric conditions, contact angle and XPS measurements were performed one and 1334 days after the treatment. The plasma potential and ion density around the driven electrode were determined from Langmuir probe measurements while the self-bias potential was derived with the aid of an oscilloscope. From these data it was possible to estimate the mean energy of ions bombarding the PVC surface. Chlorine, carbon and oxygen contamination were detected on the surface of the as-received PVC. Upon exposure to the plasma, the proportion of chlorine was observed to decrease while that of oxygen increased. Consequently, the wettability and surface energy

  12. SELECTED PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED COMPOSITES TYPE OF POROUS PVC-METAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Tor-Świątek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents studies of selected physical and mechanical properties of hybrid materials type of polymer-metal. In the frame of this work modification of PVC with the iron and copper powder in amount of 0, 1.5 and 3% and blowing agent in amount of 0, 0.5, 1% was done. Extrudates in a form of pipe were tested to determine density, porosity, maximum tensile stress, stress at break, modulus of elasticity and elongation with break. The samples were also observed in a microscope. The studies have shown significant influence of the added components on the properties tested.

  13. Aging and characterization of PVC compound used as flat-panel of a low cost solar collector; Envelhecimento e caracterizacao de compostos de PVC usado em placas de coletores solares de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Bruna R.; Pinto, Tatiana T.; Bartoli, Julio R. [Depto. de Tecnologia de Polimeros, Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica/Universidade Estadual de Campinas. FEQ/UNICAMP, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: bartoli@feq.unicamp.br; Fernandes, Elizabeth G. [Tezca P and D Celulas Solares (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Regardless the excellent amount of solar irradiation in Brazil, the development and production of solar water heating systems did not reach the low-income families yet. The relatively high cost of conventional solar water heaters is still the main reason to prevent it. The development of a low cost solar water heater (around US$ 200), easy technology, was the scope of previous work. All-plastic solar collector prototypes were developed using unplasticized Poly (vinyl chloride) ceiling panels and tubes, commodities from building engineering. Nevertheless, the main thermal and photo degradation mechanisms for PVC are well known; the unusual application of PVC as solar collector materials should need a specific investigation on environmental aging. This work presents a study on outdoor aging and characterization of PVC flat-plate absorber of solar collectors after 5 years on use. (author)

  14. Armazenamento de frutos de quiabo embalados com filme de PVC em condição ambiente Shelf life of four cultivars of okra covered with PVC film at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner F da Mota

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do filme de PVC durante o armazenamento, em condição ambiente, de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo para consumo in natura. O experimento foi organizado segundo delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas um fatorial 2x4, ou seja, embalagens sem e com PVC e quatro cultivares (Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David, Mammoth Spinless, e nas subparcelas os seis períodos de amostragem com quatro blocos. As características avaliadas foram: massa fresca, teor relativo de água, teor de vitamina C, teor de clorofila total e análise visual do escurecimento. O uso do PVC proporcionou menor perda de massa fresca e maior teor relativo de água ao longo do armazenamento para todas as cultivares estudadas em relação às não embaladas com o filme. As menores perdas de massa fresca foram verificadas nas cvs. Amarelinho e Star of David sem e com PVC, respectivamente. Os frutos das cvs. Red Velvet e Star of David, embalados com PVC, apresentaram menores perdas no teor de vitamina C. Foi observado que a cv. Mammoth Spinless manteve maior teor de clorofila. Observou-se, de maneira geral, maior incidência de escurecimento nos frutos armazenados sem PVC. Verificou-se que de toda as cultivares estudadas o que manifestou melhor conservação com relação ao escurecimento foi o Red Velvet.The present work evaluated the influence of PVC film on the postharvest shelf life of four cultivars of okra stored at room temperature. The experiment was arranged in random blocks, in sub split parcels, where the parcels were a factorial 2x4, with and without PVC film and the cvs. Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless, and the subparcels the six sample time with four blocks. The characteristics evaluated were: percentage of weight loss, relative water content, total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a and b, content of vitamin C, visual

  15. Análise do processo de gelificação de resinas e compostos de PVC suspensão Analisys of the gelation process of suspension PVC resins and compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana P. D. Alves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca analisar a relação existente entre o grau de gelificação de compostos de PVC rígido (U-PVC durante seu processamento e as propriedades mecânicas finais dos produtos obtidos através do processo de extrusão de tubos. Para tanto, a morfologia das resinas de PVC é analisada a fim de se entender seu desenvolvimento ao longo da extrusão e entender sua influência na gelificação já que o desempenho do produto dependerá dessa influência. O desenvolvimento morfológico, devido às condições de processamento e ambiente termo-mecânico, bem como alguns testes como microscopia eletrônica de varredura para monitorar esse desenvolvimento são descritos. O grau de gelificação e sua quantificação são analisados utilizando reometrias de torque, rotacional e capilar, utilizando análises térmicas (DSC e utilizando imersão em solvente (cloreto de metileno.This paper analyses the relation between the degree of gelation of rigid unplasticised PVC compounds (U-PVC and the mechanical properties of final products made of them. The morphology of PVC resins is analyzed in order to understand its development during the extrusion process and the influence in the gelation process, once the performance of the final product depends of it. The morphological development, the processing conditions, the thermal-mechanical environment and some techniques for its determination, such as scanning electron microscopy, are described. The degree of gelation and its quantification are determined using torque, rotational and capillary rheometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and solvent immersion (dichloromethane.

  16. Nanocompósitos de PVC com argila organicamente modificada: efeitos do processamento e do método de incorporação da argila PVC/organically modified montmorillonite nanocomposites: effects of processing and clay incorporation methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rodolfo Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocompósitos de poli(cloreto de vinila (PVC flexível com argila organicamente modificada (O-MMT foram preparados utilizando-se diferentes metodologias de produção, de forma a estudar seus efeitos sobre o grau de intercalação/esfoliação da argila. A morfologia dos nanocompósitos obtidos foi avaliada através de difratometria de raios X (DRX e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET. Foram também avaliadas propriedades de tração e estabilidade térmica estática das formulações preparadas. Nanocompósitos de microestrutura híbrida intercalada/parcialmente esfoliada foram obtidos, independentemente do composto de PVC ter sido processado a partir do pó ou granulado (extrudado previamente, e do método de incorporação da O-MMT à resina de PVC (diretamente no misturador intensivo ou pré-esfoliada em DIDP/OSE a quente. Os plastificantes, presentes na formulação do composto de PVC flexível, exerceram um papel importante no processo de intercalação e esfoliação da argila, facilitando a formação dos nanocompósitos.Nanocomposites of poly(vinyl chloride (PVC and an organically modified montmorillonite (O-MMT were prepared using different production approaches to assess possible effects on the degree of clay intercalation/exfoliation. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied using X ray diffratometry and transmission electron microscopy. Tensile properties and static thermal stability were also evaluated. Hybrid intercalated/partially exfoliated nanocomposites were obtained, regardless of whether the PVC compound was processed from the powder (dry blend or granulated (extruded samples, or of the methodology used for incorporation of O-MMT into the PVC compound (directly in the intensive mixer or pre-exfoliated in a hot mixture of DIDP/ESO. The plasticizers, present in the flexible PVC compound, exerted an important role in the process of intercalation and exfoliation of the clay, helping the formation of the

  17. Biosynthesis of optically pure chiral alcohols by a substrate coupled and biphasic system with a short-chain dehydrogenase from Streptomyces griseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhuotao; Ma, Hongmin; Li, Qing; Pu, Lingling; Cao, Yang; Qu, Xudong; Zhu, Chenjie; Ying, Hanjie

    2016-11-01

    The increasing demand for biocatalysts in synthesizing enantiomerically pure chiral alcohols results from the outstanding characteristics of enzymes in reaction, economic, ecological issues. Many carbonyl reductases for producing chiral alcohols have been reported but there is still a lack of good catalytic efficacies. Herein, five carbonyl reductases from different Streptomyces were discovered by the strategy of genome mining. These reductases were overexpressed, and we chose SgCR for further study as it owned better enzyme activity. This protein was purified to apparent homogeneity, and its amino acid sequence was analyzed in comparison with that of the reported SDRs. The biocatalytic properties of SgCR were investigated, and this enzyme was confirmed to have the ability to convert various prochiral ketones into highly optically active alcohols. SgCR exhibited the highest activity towards ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE) and the corresponding product ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate ((S)-CHBE) was obtained with high yield and excellent e.e. value by optimizing the biphasic system. Eventually, using isopropanol as the co-substrate for NADH recycling in the substrate-coupled reaction, the yield and enantioselectivity of (S)-CHBE were obtained at the values of 90% and 99%, respectively. These results indicate that SgCR is a promising boicatalyst for the synthesis of chiral alcohols in industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Production of Laccase by Cochliobolus sp. Isolated from Plastic Dumped Soils and Their Ability to Degrade Low Molecular Weight PVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, Tirupati; Viswanath, Buddolla; Sri Lakshmi, Akula; SaiGopal, D V R

    2016-01-01

    One of the utmost man-made problems faced today has been the ever-increasing plastic waste filling the world. It accounts for an estimated 20-30% (by volume) of municipal solid waste in landfill sites worldwide. Research on plastic biodegradation has been steadily growing over the past four decades. Several fungi have been identified that produce enzymes capable of plastic degradation in various laboratory conditions. This paper presents a study that determined the ability of fungi to degrade low molecular weight polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by the enzyme laccase. We have isolated a fungal species, Cochliobolus sp., from plastic dumped soils and they were cultured on Czapek Dox Agar slants at 30°C. The effectiveness of this fungal species on the degradation of commercial low molecular weight polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was studied under laboratory conditions. Significant differences were observed from the FTIR, GC-MS, and SEM results in between control and Cochliobolus sp. treated PVC.

  19. Rheological Studies of PMMA–PVC Based Polymer Blend Electrolytes with LiTFSI as Doping Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Chiam–Wen; Durairaj, R.; Ramesh, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this research, two systems are studied. In the first system, the ratio of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) is varied, whereas in the second system, the composition of PMMA–PVC polymer blends is varied with dopant salt, lithium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) with a fixed ratio of 70 wt% of PMMA to 30 wt% of PVC. Oscillation tests such as amplitude sweep and frequency sweep are discussed in order to study the viscoelastic properties of samples. Elastic properties are much higher than viscous properties within the range in the amplitude sweep and oscillatory shear sweep studies. The crossover of and is absent. Linear viscoelastic (LVE) range was further determined in order to perform the frequency sweep. However, the absence of viscous behavior in the frequency sweep indicates the solid-like characteristic within the frequency regime. The viscosity of all samples is found to decrease as shear rate increases. PMID:25051241

  20. Production of Laccase by Cochliobolus sp. Isolated from Plastic Dumped Soils and Their Ability to Degrade Low Molecular Weight PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirupati Sumathi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the utmost man-made problems faced today has been the ever-increasing plastic waste filling the world. It accounts for an estimated 20–30% (by volume of municipal solid waste in landfill sites worldwide. Research on plastic biodegradation has been steadily growing over the past four decades. Several fungi have been identified that produce enzymes capable of plastic degradation in various laboratory conditions. This paper presents a study that determined the ability of fungi to degrade low molecular weight polyvinyl chloride (PVC by the enzyme laccase. We have isolated a fungal species, Cochliobolus sp., from plastic dumped soils and they were cultured on Czapek Dox Agar slants at 30°C. The effectiveness of this fungal species on the degradation of commercial low molecular weight polyvinyl chloride (PVC was studied under laboratory conditions. Significant differences were observed from the FTIR, GC-MS, and SEM results in between control and Cochliobolus sp. treated PVC.

  1. Rheological studies of PMMA-PVC based polymer blend electrolytes with LiTFSI as doping salt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiam-Wen Liew

    Full Text Available In this research, two systems are studied. In the first system, the ratio of poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA and poly (vinyl chloride (PVC is varied, whereas in the second system, the composition of PMMA-PVC polymer blends is varied with dopant salt, lithium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide (LiTFSI with a fixed ratio of 70 wt% of PMMA to 30 wt% of PVC. Oscillation tests such as amplitude sweep and frequency sweep are discussed in order to study the viscoelastic properties of samples. Elastic properties are much higher than viscous properties within the range in the amplitude sweep and oscillatory shear sweep studies. The crossover of G' and G'' is absent. Linear viscoelastic (LVE range was further determined in order to perform the frequency sweep. However, the absence of viscous behavior in the frequency sweep indicates the solid-like characteristic within the frequency regime. The viscosity of all samples is found to decrease as shear rate increases.

  2. Effects of Sulfate, Chloride, and Bicarbonate on Iron Stability in a PVC-U Drinking Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe iron stability in plastic pipes and to ensure the drinking water security, the influence factors and rules for iron adsorption and release were studied, dependent on the Unplasticized poly (vinyl chloride (PVC-U drinking pipes employed in this research. In this paper, sulfate, chloride, and bicarbonate, as well as synthesized models, were chosen to investigate the iron stability on the inner wall of PVC-U drinking pipes. The existence of the three kinds of anions could significantly affect the process of iron adsorption, and a positive association was found between the level of anion concentration and the adsorption rate. However, the scaling formed on the inner surface of the pipes would be released into the water under certain conditions. The Larson Index (LI, used for a synthetic consideration of anion effects on iron stability, was selected to investigate the iron release under multi-factor conditions. Moreover, a well fitted linear model was established to gain a better understanding of iron release under multi-factor conditions. The simulation results demonstrated that the linear model was better fitted than the LI model for the prediction of iron release.

  3. Study on emission of decomposed chemicals of esters contained in PVC flooring and adhesive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chino, Satoko; Ataka, Yuji [R and D Center, Yoshino Gypsum Co., Ltd., 2-1-1 Kohoku, Adachi-ku, Tokyo, 123-0872 (Japan); Kato, Shinsuke; Seo, Janghoo [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    2-Ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) is sometimes detected in indoor air at relatively high concentrations. The emission mechanism for 2E1H is considered to be that moisture with a high pH in concrete slabs and self-leveling sub-flooring material reacts with di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring and compounds containing the 2-ethyl-1-hexyl group in the adhesive. 2E1H is considered to be one of the causes of odor in indoor air and sick building syndrome, so it is important to clarify the 2E1H emission mechanism for IAQ. However, there are few reports on any experimentation into 2E1H emission by chemical reaction involving building materials. In this study, PVC floorings are attached using various adhesives to a self-leveling sub-flooring material that contains water, and their 2E1H emission rates are measured. Furthermore, the components of the adhesives are determined using chemical analysis. It is found that 2E1H emission rates from the floor are affected by the type of adhesive used. On the other hand, some components in the adhesives may suppress the hydrolysis of esters. The hydrolysis of polymers and residual monomers in the adhesive causes 2E1H emission from the adhesive. (author)

  4. Effects of Sulfate, Chloride, and Bicarbonate on Iron Stability in a PVC-U Drinking Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaying; Tao, Tao; Yan, Hexiang

    2017-06-19

    In order to describe iron stability in plastic pipes and to ensure the drinking water security, the influence factors and rules for iron adsorption and release were studied, dependent on the Unplasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) drinking pipes employed in this research. In this paper, sulfate, chloride, and bicarbonate, as well as synthesized models, were chosen to investigate the iron stability on the inner wall of PVC-U drinking pipes. The existence of the three kinds of anions could significantly affect the process of iron adsorption, and a positive association was found between the level of anion concentration and the adsorption rate. However, the scaling formed on the inner surface of the pipes would be released into the water under certain conditions. The Larson Index (LI), used for a synthetic consideration of anion effects on iron stability, was selected to investigate the iron release under multi-factor conditions. Moreover, a well fitted linear model was established to gain a better understanding of iron release under multi-factor conditions. The simulation results demonstrated that the linear model was better fitted than the LI model for the prediction of iron release.

  5. Development of novel textile and yarn actuators using plasticized PVC gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, A.; Hashimoto, M.

    2017-04-01

    Soft actuators based on polymers are expected to be used for power sources to drive wearable robots which required in a wide range of fields such as medical, care and welfare, because they are light weight, flexible and quiet. Plasticized PVC gel which has a large deformation by applying a voltage and high driving stability in the atmosphere is considered as a suitable candidate material for development of soft actuator. Then, we proposed two kinds of novel flexible actuators constructed like yarn and textile by using plasticized PVC gel to develop soft actuator to realize a higher flexibility and low-voltage driving. In this study, we prepared prototypes of these actuators and clarify their characteristic. In addition, we considered the deformation model from its characteristics and geometric calculation. When a voltage was applied to their actuators, textile type actuator was contracted, while the twisted yarn type actuator was expanded. The deformation behavior of the proposed actuators could be found at a low voltage of 200V, the contraction strain of the textile actuator was about 27 %, and the expanding ratio of the yarn actuator was 0.4 %. Maximum contraction strain of textile actuator and expansion ratio of yarn actuator was 53% and 1.4% at 600 V, respectively. The calculation results from the proposed model were in roughly agreement with the experimental values. It indicated that deformation behavior of these actuators could estimate from models.

  6. Application of water flowing PVC pipe and EPS foam bead as insulation for wall panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Umi Nadiah; Nor, Norazman Mohamad; Yusuf, Mohammed Alias; Othman, Maidiana; Yahya, Muhamad Azani

    2018-02-01

    Malaysia located in tropical climate which have a typical temperature range between 21 °C to 36 °C. Due to this, air-conditioning system for buildings become a necessity to provide comfort to occupants. In order to reduce the energy consumption of the air-conditioning system, the transmission of heat from outdoor to indoor space should be kept as minimum as possible. This article discuss about a technology to resist heat transfer through concrete wall panel using a hybrid method. In this research, PVC pipe was embedded at the center of concrete wall panel while the EPS foam beads were added about 1% of the cement content in the concrete mix forming the outer layer of the wall panel. Water is regulated in the PVC pipe from the rainwater harvesting system. The aim of this study is to minimize heat transfer from the external environment into the building. Internal building temperature which indicated in BS EN ISO 7730 or ASHRAE Standard 55 where the comfort indoor thermal is below 25°C during the daytime. Study observed that the internal surface temperature of heat resistance wall panel is up to 3°C lower than control wall panel. Therefore, we can conclude that application of heat resistance wall panel can lead to lower interior building temperature.

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on the mechanical properties of PVC/ZnO polymer nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al Naim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC based nanocomposite with different weight ratios of Zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles is prepared by using a gel-like technique. The weight-ratio of ZnO nanoparticles, in a range of 2.5–10 wt%, is used to prepare nanocomposites' in the tetrahydrofuran (THF solvent. The as-prepared samples are exposed to gamma (γ radiation at different doses in a range of 5–40 kGy. The mechanical properties of irradiated samples are compared to that of unirradiated samples. For unirradiated samples, the elasticity is found to increase with the addition of ZnO nanoparticles. However, the plastic region of the stress-strain curve gets slightly affected on increasing the concentration of ZnO. Additionally, the elastic modulus is noticed to drop exponentially with ZnO concentration. For pure PVC, a slight dependence of stress-strain curves on the gamma irradiation doses has also been detected. Further, the gamma irradiation dose results in a detectable decrease of elastic modulus for pure and low weight-ratio ZnO nanoparticles. However, the irradiation dose does not have any effect on the elastic modulus for the 10 wt %, which is the highest weight ratio used in this study.

  8. Distribution of Heat Stabilizers in Plasticized PVC-Based Biomedical Devices: Temperature and Time Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Maria Bodecchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic polymers can be viewed as a dynamic framework in which additives allocation is strongly dependent on the system' chemistry. Considering the complexity of the distribution phenomena that may occur in plastics obtained by blending polymeric resins with different additives, this work constitutes an attempt to the description of the behavior of PVC heat stabilizers (calcium and zinc carboxylates, as regard temperature and time. Thanks to the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, it is possible to observe a first decreasing trend of the additives related IR-bands as a function of the increasing temperature and the higher the temperature the faster the decrease of the heat stabilizers intensities bands is, with respect to time. Additives distribution in not sterilized, sterilized, aged not sterilized and aged sterilized materials have been investigated to determine their behavior with respect to temperature, from 30 to 120°C, and time. A simulated supplementary aging process equivalent to 9 months aging was carried out on aged not sterilized and aged sterilized materials to gain more data on the transport/reaction phenomena these additives in the plastic material. Experimental evidences allow hypothesizing that reaction and redistribution phenomena probably concur to determine the additives allocation in PVC as a function of temperature and time.

  9. Formation of monomer residues in PS, PC, PA-6 and PVC upon γ-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Park, Gun; Yong Cho, Seung; Hoon Jeon, Dae; Shin Kwak, In; Ho Lee, Kwang; Park, H. J.

    2006-09-01

    Food packaging polymers, polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), polyamide-6 (PA-6), and polyvinylchloride (PVC), were irradiated with dose in the range 5-200 kGy. The quantities of corresponding monomer residues (styrene monomer, bisphenol-A, ɛ-caprolactam, vinyl chloride) released from target materials were analyzed using a SIM mode of GC/MSD. Styrene monomer in PS showed a slight increase from 740 to 777 ppm at 5-30 kGy and then decreased as the dose increased from 30 to 200 kGy. Bisphenol-A in PC was dose independent at the low doses, 5, 10 and 30 kGy, but its level increased from 173 to 473 ppm at 30 kGy and thereafter remained unchanged through 200 kGy. ɛ-Caprolactam in PA-6 was also dose independent, in the range of 5-200 kGy, but its level (122-164 ppm) was found to be higher than those (71 ppm) of non-irradiated sample. As for PVC, the quantity of vinyl chloride tended to increase from 8 to 18 ppm at 5-200 kGy.

  10. Formation of monomer residues in PS, PC, PA-6 and PVC upon {gamma}-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young Park, Gun [Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, 1.5-Ka, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yong Cho, Seung [Functional Food Research Center, College of Life Sciences, Korea University, 1.5-Ka, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hoon Jeon, Dae [Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, 1.5-Ka, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Food Packaging Division, Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA), 5 Nokbun-Dong, Eunpyung-Ku, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Shin Kwak, In [Food Packaging Division, Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA), 5 Nokbun-Dong, Eunpyung-Ku, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Ho Lee, Kwang [Food Packaging Division, Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA), 5 Nokbun-Dong, Eunpyung-Ku, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Park, H.J. [Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, 1.5-Ka, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Packaging Science, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634-0370 (United States)]. E-mail: hjpark@korea.ac.kr

    2006-09-15

    Food packaging polymers, polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), polyamide-6 (PA-6), and polyvinylchloride (PVC), were irradiated with dose in the range 5-200 kGy. The quantities of corresponding monomer residues (styrene monomer, bisphenol-A, {epsilon}-caprolactam, vinyl chloride) released from target materials were analyzed using a SIM mode of GC/MSD. Styrene monomer in PS showed a slight increase from 740 to 777 ppm at 5-30 kGy and then decreased as the dose increased from 30 to 200 kGy. Bisphenol-A in PC was dose independent at the low doses, 5, 10 and 30 kGy, but its level increased from 173 to 473 ppm at 30 kGy and thereafter remained unchanged through 200 kGy. {epsilon}-Caprolactam in PA-6 was also dose independent, in the range of 5-200 kGy, but its level (122-164 ppm) was found to be higher than those (71 ppm) of non-irradiated sample. As for PVC, the quantity of vinyl chloride tended to increase from 8 to 18 ppm at 5-200 kGy.

  11. On the Surface Free Energy of PVC/EVA Polymer Blends: Comparison of Different Calculation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski; Hardy; Saramago

    1998-12-01

    The surface free energy of polymeric films of polyvinylchloride (PVC) + poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate) (EVA) blends was calculated using the van Oss treatment (Lifshitz and electron donor-electron acceptor components of surface free energy) and the Owens-Wendt treatment (dispersive and nondispersive components of surface free energy). Surface free energy results were found to be greatly dependent on the calculation method and on the number of standard liquids used for contact angle measurements. The nondispersive/donor-acceptor surface free energy component and the total surface free energy of polymeric films were always higher when the van Oss treatment was used compared to the Owens-Wendt treatment. Conversely, both methods led to similar apolar/Lifshitz components. All the calculation methods were in good agreement for the surface free energy of PVC; however, a discrepancy between the methods arose as EVA content in the blends increased. It seems that there is not yet a definite solution for the calculation of solid surface free energy. Further developments of existing models are needed in order to gain consistency when calculating this important physicochemical quantity. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  12. Ionophore-based potentiometric PVC membrane sensors for determination of phenobarbitone in pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrabiah Haitham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication and development of two polyvinyl chloride (PVC membrane sensors for assaying phenobarbitone sodium are described. Sensors 1 and 2 were fabricated utilizing β- or γ-cyclodextrin as ionophore in the presence of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride as a membrane additive, and PVC and dioctyl phthalate as plasticizer. The analytical parameters of both sensors were evaluated according to the IUPAC guidelines. The proposed sensors showed rapid, stable anionic response (-59.1 and -62.0 mV per decade over a relatively wide phenobarbitone concentration range (5.0 × 10-6-1 × 10-2 and 8 × 10-6-1 × 10-2 mol L-1 in the pH range of 9-11. The limit of detection was 3.5 × 10-6 and 7.0 × 10-6 mol L-1 for sensors 1 and 2, respectively. The fabricated sensors showed high selectivity for phenobarbitone over the investigated foreign species. An average recovery of 2.54 μg mL-1 phenobarbitone sodium was 97.4 and 101.1 %, while the mean relative standard deviation was 3.0 and 2.1 %, for sensors 1 and 2, respectively. The results acquired for determination of phenobarbitone in its dosage forms utilizing the proposed sensors are in good agreement with those obtained by the British Pharmacopoeial method.

  13. THERMOACOUSTIC REFRIGERATOR SYSTEM PERFORMANCE USING THE PVC (POLYVINYL CHLORIDE STACK BY POWER INPUT VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Kharismawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The thermoacoustic refrigerator is an innovative alternative and did not use substances that had a negative impact on the environment such as freon, but using air as the working substance. The materials used the refrigerator were easily obtained and the construction components were simple so that made this refrigerator was cheap, easy to make and easy to maintain. Stack was used in the thermoacoustic refrigerator system used PVC (Polyvinyl chloride which is parallel cylindrical shape and diameter (1.50 ± 0.05 mm and length of 8 cm. Variations of loudspeaker input power that used were 20 watt, 30 watt, 40 watt, 50 watt and 60 watt. Variations of the input power that used to determine the effect of loudspeaker input power to decreasing temperature in the operating of the thermoacoustic refrigerator system using  PVC stack. From the result, loudspeaker input power influenced on the decreasing temperature that was 6.0 °C for 20 watts, 6.7 °C for 30 watts, 7.2 °C for 40 watts, 8.0 °C for 50 watts and 9.0 °C for 60 watts. From these results indicated optimum decreasing temperature depended on the amount of loudspeaker power that was directly proportional to the decreasing temperature obtained.

  14. Sifat elektrik dan termal nanokomposit poly(vinyl chloride (PVC/low density polyethylene (LDPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Yuniari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious problems encountered in poly(vinyl chloride (PVC processing is due to low thermal stability of the PVC. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of LDPE and flame retardant on to the electrical and thermal nanocomposites properties The nanocomposites were prepared using a laboplastomill with (15; 20; 25 and 30 phr LDPE and (30 and 35 phr flame retardant at 215 ºC and 50 rpm rotor speed. The thermal properties of nanocomposite was evaluated by TGA/DTA and DSC, electrical properties was evaluated by volume resistivity. Thermal analysis results revealed that decomposition of nanocomposites occured at 280 ºC. DSC results show that crystalisation temperatur (Tc at 250 ºC, melting temperature (Tm at 260 ºC and glass temperature (Tg at 60 ºC. The IR spectra of nanocomposites showed that there was absorption at 1579 cm-1 formed polyene (C=C. The electrical testing of nanocomposites fullfill the quality requirements of SNI 04-6504-2001 Lampu swaballast untuk pelayanan umum-persyaratan keselamatan ≥ 4 MΩ..

  15. SInC: an accurate and fast error-model based simulator for SNPs, Indels and CNVs coupled with a read generator for short-read sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnaik, Swetansu; Gupta, Saurabh; Rao, Arjun A; Panda, Binay

    2014-02-05

    The rapid advancements in the field of genome sequencing are aiding our understanding on many biological systems. In the last five years, computational biologists and bioinformatics specialists have come up with newer, better and more efficient tools towards the discovery, analysis and interpretation of different genomic variants from high-throughput sequencing data. Availability of reliable simulated dataset is essential and is the first step towards testing any newly developed analytical tools for variant discovery. Although there are tools currently available that can simulate variants, none present the possibility of simulating all the three major types of variations (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, Insertions and Deletions and Copy Number Variations) and can generate reads taking a realistic error-model into consideration. Therefore, an efficient simulator and read generator is needed that can simulate variants taking the error rates of true biological samples into consideration. We report SInC (Snp, Indel and Cnv) an open-source variant simulator and read generator capable of simulating all the three common types of biological variants taking into account a distribution of base quality score from a most commonly used next-generation sequencing instrument from Illumina. SInC is capable of generating single- and paired-end reads with user-defined insert size and with high efficiency compared to the other existing tools. SInC, due to its multi-threaded capability during read generation, has a low time footprint. SInC is currently optimised to work in limited infrastructure setup and can efficiently exploit the commonly used quad-core desktop architecture to simulate short sequence reads with deep coverage for large genomes. We have come up with a user-friendly multi-variant simulator and read-generator tools called SInC. SInC can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/sincsimulator.

  16. Specific migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) from plasticized PVC film: results from an enforcement campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Breindahl, T.

    1998-01-01

    A control campaign on the correct labelling of plasticited PVC film according to current legislation on food contact materials has been performed Analytical methods based on the isotope dilution technique were developed. For enforcement purposes, the films were exposed to the official food simulant...... could be determined by CC-MS without further clean-zip. A good consistency between results from the two different methods was obtained During the campaign, 49 samples of PVC films, the majority intended for use in retail shops, were sampled from importers and wholesalers by the Municipal Food Control...

  17. Determination of the Composition and Quantity of Phthalate Ester Additives in PVC Children's Toys. Greenpeace Research Laboratories Technical Note 06/97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Ruth; Labounskaia, Irina; Santillo, David; Johnston, Paul; Siddorn, John; Stephenson, Angela

    Polyvinyl chloride (vinyl or PVC) is widely used in toys and other children's products. This study, conducted by Greenpeace, examined the composition and quantity of phthalate ester additives in children's PVC toys, used to give the toys added flexibility. Drawn from 17 countries, a total of 71 toys designed to be chewed by babies and young…

  18. Fast speciation of mercury in seawater by short-column high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma spectrometry after on-line cation exchange column preconcentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiao-Yu; Gong, Di-Rong; Han, Yi; Wei, Chao; Duan, Tai-Cheng; Chen, Hang-Ting

    2012-01-15

    A simple and fast method for trace speciation analysis of mercury (Hg(2+)), methylmercury (MeHg(+)) and ethylmercury (EtHg(+)) in seawater has been developed by short-column high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) after on-line cation-exchange column (CEC) preconcentration. The analytes were firstly adsorbed on the CEC without any extraneous reagent, and then were eluted rapidly (within seconds) and completely with a very low concentration of l-cysteine solution, which provides the conveniency for the on-line coupling of the preconcentration method and detection technique. To our best knowledge, it is for the first time to employ the CEC preconcentration technique to trap all of the three mercury species simultaneously at their positive charged status for the purpose of speciation analysis. Under the optimized conditions, a very high preconcentration factor up to 1250 has been obtained with 30mL sample solution, which leads to the very low detection limits of 0.042ngL(-1) for Hg(2+), 0.016ngL(-1) for MeHg(+) and 0.008ngL(-1) for EtHg(+) (as Hg), respectively. With the established method, three seawater samples were also analyzed, and all the three mercury species have been found in each sample, albeit at a very low concentration. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Viscoelastic, Spectroscopic and Microscopic Study of the Photo Irradiation Effect on the Stability of PVC in the Presence of Sulfamethoxazole Schiff’s Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Yousif

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The photostabilization of poly(vinyl chloride (PVC films having five Schiff’s bases derived from sulphamethoxazole has been investigated. The casting method was used to produce PVC films containing sulphamethoxazoles (0.5% by weight, in tetrahydrofuran. The photostabilization activities of five additives were determined by monitoring the hydroxyl, polyene and carbonyl indices with irradiation time. In addition, the quantum yield of the chain scission (Φcs and the changes in viscosity average molecular weight of PVC films containing Schiff’s basses were evaluated with irradiation time. The rate of photostabilization for PVC films in the presence of five Schiff’s base additives was found to be the highest in the case of 2-hydroxybenzylidene derivative and the lowest in the unsubstituted benzylidene derivative. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the photostabilization of PVC in the presence of Schiff’s bases that mainly act as UV absorbers and radical scavengers for photostabilizers.

  20. A PVC-foam material model based on a thermodynamically elasto-plastic-damage framework exhibiting failure and crushing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    A well known foam for naval sandwiches is PVC (polyvinyl chloride) foam. This foam exhibits elasto-damage behavior under tension and elasto-plastic behavior under compression. A proper material model is required for the prediction of the failure and post-failure behavior of these sandwiches during

  1. The influence of temperature on the emission of volatile organic compounds from PVC flooring, carpet, and paint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, J.F. van der; Hoogeveen, A.W.; Wouda, P.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the emission rate of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from four indoor materials was investigated in a small dynamic test chamber. The materials investigated were two carpets, a PVC flooring and a paint; the temperature range investigated was 23-50°C. The general

  2. High efficiency chlorine removal from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pyrolysis with a gas-liquid fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, G; Chen, D; Yin, L; Wang, Z; Zhao, L; Wang, J Y

    2014-06-01

    In this research a gas-liquid fluidized bed reactor was developed for removing chlorine (Cl) from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to favor its pyrolysis treatment. In order to efficiently remove Cl within a limited time before extensive generation of hydrocarbon products, the gas-liquid fluidized bed reactor was running at 280-320 °C, where hot N2 was used as fluidizing gas to fluidize the molten polymer, letting the molten polymer contact well with N2 to release Cl in form of HCl. Experimental results showed that dechlorination efficiency is mainly temperature dependent and 300 °C is a proper reaction temperature for efficient dechlorination within a limited time duration and for prevention of extensive pyrolysis; under this temperature 99.5% of Cl removal efficiency can be obtained within reaction time around 1 min after melting is completed as the flow rate of N2 gas was set around 0.47-0.85 Nm(3) kg(-1) for the molten PVC. Larger N2 flow rate and additives in PVC would enhance HCl release but did not change the final dechlorination efficiency; and excessive N2 flow rate should be avoided for prevention of polymer entrainment. HCl is emitted from PVC granules or scraps at the mean time they started to melt and the melting stage should be taken into consideration when design the gas-liquid fluidized bed reactor for dechlorination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Laboratory Experimental Study: An FBG-PVC Tube Integrated Device for Monitoring the Slip Surface of Landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Shaojie; Chen, Jiang; Teng, Pengxiao; Wei, Fangqiang; Chen, Qiao

    2017-10-30

    A new detection device was designed by integrating fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tube in order to monitor the slip surface of a landslide. Using this new FBG-based device, a corresponding slope model with a pre-set slip surface was designed, and seven tests with different soil properties were carried out in laboratory conditions. The FBG sensing fibers were fixed on the PVC tube to measure strain distributions of PVC tube at different elevation. Test results indicated that the PVC tube could keep deformation compatible with soil mass. The new device was able to monitor slip surface location before sliding occurrence, and the location of monitored slip surface was about 1-2 cm above the pre-set slip surface, which basically agreed with presupposition results. The monitoring results are expected to be used to pre-estimate landslide volume and provide a beneficial option for evaluating the potential impact of landslides on shipping safety in the Three Gorges area.

  4. Experimental and theoretical evaluation of the reactions leading to formation of internal double bonds in suspension PVC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purmova, Jindra; Pauwels, Kim F. D.; Agostini, Michela; Bruinsma, Maarten; Vorenkamp, Eltio J.; Schouten, Arend J.; Coote, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    The number of internal double bonds in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) samples was studied as a function of molecular weight at various monomer conversions. These defect structures were found to exhibit end-group-like characteristics: their concentration per chain was largely constant as a function of

  5. Degradation of PVC/HC blends. II. Terrestrial plant growth test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Mihaela; Agafiţei, Gabriela-Elena; Profire, Lenuţa; Vasile, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    The behavior at degradation by soil burial of some plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based blends with a variable content of hydrolyzed collagen (HC) has been followed. The modifications induced in the environment by the polymer systems (pH variation, physiologic state of the plants, assimilatory pigments) were studied. Using the growth test of the terrestrial plants, we followed the development of Triticum (wheat), Helianthus annus minimus (little sunflower), Pisum sativum (pea), and Vicia X hybrida hort, during a vegetation cycle. After the harvest, for each plant, the quantities of chlorophyll and carotenoidic pigments and of trace- and macroelements were determined. It was proved that, in the presence of polymer blends, the plants do not suffer morphological and physiological modifications, the products released in the culture soil being not toxic for the plants growth.

  6. Coated limestone as a filler for the production of PVC-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Slavica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of laboratory investigations of the possibility to obtain coated limestone for the production of PVC-products are presented in this paper. Limestone from the "Venčac" deposit (Aranđelovac, Serbia and Montenegro was used as the raw material. The investigations were carried out in two phases: obtaining the coated limestone and determination of the degree of coating. The results of the investigations showed that successful coating of the surface of the limestone particles with Ca-stearate (Ca-stearate content 3% was achieved in a vibro mill with rings and the obtained degree of coating was higher than 95%. The coating degree was determined in transmitted light by a polarization microscope applying the immersion method (water immersion.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties of PVC Polymer under Different Heating and Cooling Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkawt Rostam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to a widely increasing usage of polymers in various industrial applications, there should be a continuous need in doing research investigations for better understanding of their properties. These applications require the usage of the polymer in different working environments subjecting the material to various temperature ranges. In this paper, an experimental investigation of mechanical properties of polyvinyl chloride (PVC polymer under heating and cooling conditions is presented. For this purpose standard samples are prepared and tested in laboratory using universal material testing apparatus. The samples are tested under different conditions including the room temperature environment, cooling in a refrigerator, and heating at different heating temperatures. It is observed that the strength of the tested samples decreases with the increasing of heating temperature and accordingly the material becomes softer. Meanwhile the cooling environments give a clear increasing to the strength of the material.

  8. Evaluation of Voids on Shrink PVC Film by Varying Gravure Process Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Vijay Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravure is one of the widely used processes for printing on shrink films, the reason being its consistency for longer runs. However, printing these shrink films comes with new challenges. The presence of gels, black specks and other contaminations in these films do not allow the surrounding area to print resulting in print void. The occurrence of this defect in a considerable amount or size on the area of interest leads to the rejection of printed stock that involves wastage of inks, solvents and time. The research involves the investigation of the effect of gravure process variables on minimization of print voids in Shrink PVC film. The gravure process variables viz. viscosity, pressure, speed and hardness were identified for laser engraved cylinder. It was found that Hardness had a significant impact on minimizing the voids while Viscosity-Hardness interaction was important. The results showed reduction in void area with lower viscosity, higher pressure, lower speed and higher hardness.

  9. Rheology of PVC Plastisol: Formation of Immobilized Layer in Pseudoplastic Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, N.; Harrell, E. R.

    2001-06-01

    Hoffman in the early 1970s examined mechanism of dilatancy and fracture of plastisol under high-shear conditions. The samples were monodispersed spherical particles of PVC. He discovered formation of immobilized layer in the pseudoplastic flow preceding dilatancy and subsequent destruction of the layer at the fracture. However, his analysis was focused primarily on the mechanism of the fracture, and the mechanism of pseudoplastic flow remains unexplored. The present work begins with analyses of Hoffman's data to show that pseudoplastic flow, i.e., the decrease of viscosity with the increase of shear rate, is a result of the development of the immobilized layer and creation of a mobile layer of low-viscosity fluid. Hoffman took the mobile layer to consist of pure plasticizer. The present work shows that the mobile layer contains PVC particles. The thickness of mobile layer decreases (and the thickness of immobilized layer increases) with the increase of shear rate. The particle concentration and hence viscosity of the mobile layer decrease with the increase of shear rate. Similar analyses of our dynamic viscosity-frequency relationship show that (1) the pseudoplastic behavior is a result of formation of immobilized layer, which grows thicker with the increasing frequency, and (2) the mobile layer contains dispersed particles, the concentration of which decreases with increasing frequency. (3) A presence of coarse particles results in a tighter packing of the immobilized layer and lower viscosity of the mobile layer for a given volume fraction of particles. This explains why the presence and the amount of the coarse particles are important parameters in plastisol formulation. The elastic modulus-frequency relationship is also interpreted with the development of the immobilized layer, giving strain amplification. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. Software package to automate the design and production of translucent building structures made of pvc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Irina Yur’evna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of the design and production of translucent building structures made of PVC. The analysis of the automation systems of this process currently existing on the market is carried out, their advantages and disadvantages are identified. Basing on this analysis, a set of requirements for automation systems for the design and production of translucent building structures made of PVC is formulated; the basic entities are involved in those business processes. The necessary functions for the main application and for dealers’ application are specified. The main application is based on technological platform 1C: Enterprise 8.2. The dealers’ module is .NET application and is developed with the use of Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server because these software products have client versions free for end users (.NET Framework 4.0 Client Profile and Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Express. The features of the developed software complex implementation are described; the relevant charts are given. The scheme of system deployment and protocols of data exchange between 1C server, 1C client and dealer is presented. Also the functions supported by 1C module and .NET module are described. The article describes the content of class library developed for .NET module. The specification of integration of the two applications in a single software package is given. The features of the GUI organization are described; the corresponding screenshots are given. The possible ways of further development of the described software complex are presented and a conclusion about its competitiveness and expediency of new researches is made.

  11. Preparation and characterization of polymer nanocomposites based on PVDF/PVC doped with graphene nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Elashmawi

    Full Text Available Novel nanocomposites based on PVDF/PVC blend containing graphene oxide nanoparticles (GO were prepare using sonicator. IR analysis revealed that the addition of GO prompts a crystal transformation of α-phase of PVDF. The change of the structural before and after adding GO to PVDF/PVC were studied by X-ray diffraction. A decrease in activation energy gap from UV data was observed with increasing GO content, implying a variation of reactivity as a result of reaction extent. The variation of ε′ with frequency is nearly the same as that of ε″. At higher frequencies, the decrease of both ε′ and ε″ becomes nearly constant. The dispersion at lower frequencies ε′ of ε′ polarization is of Maxwell–Wagner interfacial polarization but at higher frequencies, it levels off. The behavior of conductivity (σAC tends to acquire constant values approaching it DC values. The values of σAC was increased after doped GO with exponential increase after the critical value of frequency. All nanocomposites behaved the same fashion revealing that a higher number of polarons were getting added to conducting pool in composites as graphene content was increased. Conduction mechanism appeared to be getting expedited with increasing frequency due to fact that increase in frequency enhances polaron hopping frequency. Keywords: Nanocomposites, Graphene oxide, FT-IR, X-ray, AC conductivity

  12. Quality control in the recycling stream of PVC cable waste by hyperspectral imaging analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Valentina; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Rem, Peter

    2005-05-01

    In recent years recycling is gaining a key role in the manufacturing industry. The use of recycled materials in the production of new goods has the double advantage of saving energy and natural resources, moreover from an economic point of view, recycled materials are in general cheaper than the virgin ones. Despite of these environmental and economic strengths, the use of recycled sources is still low compared to the raw materials consumption, indeed in Europe only 10% of the market is covered by recycled products. One of the reasons of this reticence in the use of secondary sources is the lack of an accurate quality certification system. The inputs of a recycled process are not always the same, which means that also the output of a particular process can vary depending on the initial composition of the treated material. Usually if a continuous quality control system is not present at the end of the process the quality of the output material is assessed on the minimum certified characteristics. Solving this issue is crucial to expand the possible applications of recycled materials and to assign a price based on the real characteristic of the material. The possibility of applying a quality control system based on a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology working in the near infrared (NIR) range to the output of a separation process of PVC cable wastes is explored in this paper. The analysed material was a residue fraction of a traditional separation process further treated by magnetic density separation. Results show as PVC, PE, rubber and copper particles can be identified and classified adopting the NIR-HSI approach.

  13. Potentiometric determination of ketotifen fumarate in pharmaceutical preparations and urine using carbon paste and PVC membrane selective electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frag, Eman Y Z; Mohamed, Gehad G; Khalil, Mohamed M; Hwehy, Mohammad M A

    2011-01-01

    This study compares between unmodified carbon paste (CPE; the paste has no ion pair) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane selective electrodes that were used in potentiometric determination of ketotifen fumarate (KTF), where sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) was used as titrant. The performance characteristics of these sensors were evaluated according to IUPAC recommendations which reveal a fast, stable, and linear response for KTF over the concentration range of 10(-7) to 10(-2) mol L(-1). The electrodes show Nernstian slope value of 52.51 ± 0.20 and 51.51 ± 0.25 mV decade(-1) for CPE and PVC membrane electrodes at 30°C, respectively. The potential is nearly stable over the pH range 3.0-6.0 and 2.0-7.0 for CPE and PVC membrane electrodes, respectively. Selectivity coefficient values towards different inorganic cations, sugars, and amino acids reflect high selectivity of the prepared electrodes. The electrodes responses at different temperatures were also studied, and long operational lifetime of 12 and 5 weeks for CPE and PVC membrane electrodes, respectively, were found. These are used for determination of ketotifen fumarate using potentiometric titration, calibration, and standard addition methods in pure samples, its pharmaceutical preparations (Zaditen tablets), and biological fluid (urine). The direct potentiometric determination of KTF using the proposed sensors gave recoveries % of 98.97 ± 0.53 and 98.62 ± 0.74 with RSD 1.42 and 0.63% for CPE and PVC membrane selective electrodes, respectively. Validation of the method shows suitability of the proposed sensors for use in quality control assessment of KTF. The obtained results were in a good agreement with those obtained using the reported spectrophotometric method.

  14. Potentiometric Determination of Ketotifen Fumarate in Pharmaceutical Preparations and Urine Using Carbon Paste and PVC Membrane Selective Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Y. Z. Frag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares between unmodified carbon paste (CPE; the paste has no ion pair and polyvinyl chloride (PVC membrane selective electrodes that were used in potentiometric determination of ketotifen fumarate (KTF, where sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB was used as titrant. The performance characteristics of these sensors were evaluated according to IUPAC recommendations which reveal a fast, stable, and linear response for KTF over the concentration range of 10−7 to 10−2 mol L−1. The electrodes show Nernstian slope value of 52.51±0.20 and 51.51±0.25 mV decade−1 for CPE and PVC membrane electrodes at 30∘C, respectively. The potential is nearly stable over the pH range 3.0–6.0 and 2.0–7.0 for CPE and PVC membrane electrodes, respectively. Selectivity coefficient values towards different inorganic cations, sugars, and amino acids reflect high selectivity of the prepared electrodes. The electrodes responses at different temperatures were also studied, and long operational lifetime of 12 and 5 weeks for CPE and PVC membrane electrodes, respectively, were found. These are used for determination of ketotifen fumarate using potentiometric titration, calibration, and standard addition methods in pure samples, its pharmaceutical preparations (Zaditen tablets, and biological fluid (urine. The direct potentiometric determination of KTF using the proposed sensors gave recoveries % of 98.97±0.53 and 98.62±0.74 with RSD 1.42 and 0.63% for CPE and PVC membrane selective electrodes, respectively. Validation of the method shows suitability of the proposed sensors for use in quality control assessment of KTF. The obtained results were in a good agreement with those obtained using the reported spectrophotometric method.

  15. Estudo do uso de plastificantes de fontes renovável em composições de PVC Study of the use of plasticizer from renewable sources in PVC compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Madaleno

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polímeros sintéticos são largamente utilizados em diversos produtos devido às suas propriedades físicas, químicas e facilidade de transformação. O poli(cloreto de vinila, conhecido como PVC, é um dos polímeros mais versáteis desenvolvidos pelo homem, de grande utilidade para a sociedade moderna. Suas aplicações incluem: janelas, calhas de chuva, revestimentos de paredes, portas, papel de parede, mangueiras, brinquedos, calçados, bolsas de sangue e tubos para condução de água. Em todas estas aplicações são utilizados aditivos junto à resina de PVC, sendo que um dos aditivos mais utilizados é o plastificante. Este estudo apresenta a análise comparativa de formulações flexíveis de PVC, baseada em dois plastificantes de origem renovável (óleo vegetal modificado - OVM e óleo vegetal modificado e epoxidado - OVME, e também dois plastificantes petroquímicos convencionais, di(2-etilhexil ftalato - (DEHP ou DOP e di(2-etilhexil adipato - (DEHA ou DOA. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre as propriedades mecânicas das formulações. Os diferentes plastificantes demonstram influenciar na dureza e resistência química das formulações, sendo que o grupo epóxi e a maior massa molar no plastificante vegetal apresentam maior compatibilidade com a resina de PVC. A análise de MEV apresenta uma provável exudação do plastificante OVM da matriz do PVC.Synthetic polymers have been widely used in manufactured products because of their physical and chemical properties and low cost of production. Poly(vinyl chloride, called PVC, is a versatile, inexpensive plastic whose use has become pervasive in modern society. Its applications include window frames, rain gutters, wall paneling, doors, wallpapers, flooring, garden furniture, toys, blood bags and pipes. In all of these applications additives are used, with plasticizers being among the most important. This work shows a comparative study among distinct

  16. Discoloration of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tape as a proxy for water-table depth in peatlands: validation and assessment of seasonal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Robert K.; Hotchkiss, Sara C.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    Summary: 1. Discoloration of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tape has been used in peatland ecological and hydrological studies as an inexpensive way to monitor changes in water-table depth and reducing conditions. 2. We investigated the relationship between depth of PVC tape discoloration and measured water-table depth at monthly time steps during the growing season within nine kettle peatlands of northern Wisconsin. Our specific objectives were to: (1) determine if PVC discoloration is an accurate method of inferring water-table depth in Sphagnum-dominated kettle peatlands of the region; (2) assess seasonal variability in the accuracy of the method; and (3) determine if systematic differences in accuracy occurred among microhabitats, PVC tape colour and peatlands. 3. Our results indicated that PVC tape discoloration can be used to describe gradients of water-table depth in kettle peatlands. However, accuracy differed among the peatlands studied, and was systematically biased in early spring and late summer/autumn. Regardless of the month when the tape was installed, the highest elevations of PVC tape discoloration showed the strongest correlation with midsummer (around July) water-table depth and average water-table depth during the growing season. 4. The PVC tape discoloration method should be used cautiously when precise estimates are needed of seasonal changes in the water-table.

  17. MEASUREMENT AND MODELLING OF SORPTION EQUILIBRIUM CURVE OF WATER ON PA6, PP, HDPE AND PVC BY USING FLORY-HUGGINS MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suherman Suherman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of water on granular polyamide-6 (PA6, granular polypropylene (PP, and powdery high density polyethylene (HDPE and powdery polyvinyl chloride (PVC were measured using a gravimetric method in a magnetic suspension balance (MSB. The Flory-Huggins model was successfully applied on the sorption equilibrium curve of all investigated polymers. The influence of temperature is low. The value of Flory-Huggins parameters(c of PA6, PVC, PP and HDPE were 1.8, 5.8, 6.3, and 8.1, respectively. The water in PA6 is mainly bound moisture, while in PP, HDPE and PVC it is mainly surface moisture.

  18. Sifat fisika dan analisis gugus fungsi karet seal o-ring dari bahan termoplastik elastomer nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) dan polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

    OpenAIRE

    Arum Yuniari; Nursamsi Sarengat

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the physical properties and functional groups on O-ring rubber seals made of thermoplastic elastomers blend NBR and PVC. Composition of the NBR / PVC were successively varied : 90/10; 85/15; 80/20; 75/25; 70/30 and 65/35 phr. Mixing process between NBR/PVC with additive used a two roll mill within a temperature of 60º - 80 ºC, the vulcanization process used a hydraulic press at a temperature of 170 oC and pressure of 150 kg/cm2. The...

  19. Sifat Fisika Dan Analisis Gugus Fungsi Karet Seal O-ring Dari Bahan Termoplastik Elastomer Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) Dan Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

    OpenAIRE

    Yuniari, Arum; Sarengat, Nursamsi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the physical properties and functionalgroups on O-ring rubber seals made of thermoplastic elastomers blend NBR and PVC.Composition of the NBR / PVC were successively varied : 90/10; 85/15; 80/20; 75/25; 70/30 and65/35 phr. Mixing process between NBR/PVC with additive used a two roll mill within atemperature of 60º - 80 ºC, the vulcanization process used a hydraulic press at a temperature of170 oC and pressure of 150 kg/cm2. The physical properties...

  20. PVC--as flooring material--and its association with incident asthma in a Swedish child cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, M; Hägerhed-Engman, L; Kolarik, B; James, P; Lundin, F; Janson, S; Sundell, J; Bornehag, C G

    2010-12-01

    The Dampness in Buildings and Health study (DBH) started in the year 2000 in Värmland, Sweden, with a baseline questionnaire sent to all children (n = 14,077) aged 1-6. Five years later, a follow-up questionnaire was sent to the children who were 1-3 years at baseline. A total of 4779 children participated in both the baseline and the follow-up studies and constitute the study population in this cohort study. The aim of this study was to examine the association between exposure to PVC-flooring in the child's and parent's bedroom in homes of children aged 1-3 and the incidence of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema during the following 5-year period. Adjusted analyses showed that the incidence of asthma among children was associated with PVC-flooring in the child's bedroom (AOR 1.52; 95% CI 0.99-2.35) and in the parent's bedroom (1.46; 0.96-2.23). The found risks were on borderline of significance and should therefore be interpreted with caution. There was further a positive relationship between the number of rooms with PVC-flooring and the cumulative incidence of asthma. PVC-flooring was found to be a stronger risk factor for incident asthma in multifamily homes when compared with single-family houses and in smoking families compared with non-smoking families and in women. These longitudinal data from the DBH study found an association between the presence of PVC-flooring in the home and incident asthma in children. However, earlier results from the DBH study have shown that PVC-flooring is one important source for phthalates in indoor dust, and exposure to such phthalates was found to be associated with asthma and allergy among children. This emphasizes the need for prospective studies that focus on the importance of prenatal and neonatal exposure to phthalates in the development of asthma and allergy in children. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Comparative study of three different kinds of geo membranes (PVC-P, HDPE, EPDM) used in the waterproofing of reservoirs; Estudio comparativo de tres geomembranas de distinta naturaleza (PVC-P, PEAD, EPDM) empleadas en la impermeabilizacion de balsas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Fernandez, M.; Castillo Rubi, F.; Soriano Carrillo, J.; Noval Arango, A. M.; Touze-Foltz, N.; Pargada Iglesias, L.; Rico Arnaiz, G.; Aguilar gonzalez, E.

    2014-02-01

    This work describes the long-term behaviour of three kinds of geo membranes which are constituted by plasticised poly vinyl chloride (PVC-P), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and terpolymer rubber of ethylene-propylene-dienic monomer (EPDM) used as the waterproofing system of the reservoirs Los Llanos de Mesa, San Isidro and El Golfo, respectively. Characteristics of the three original geo membranes and their behaviour along time are presented. Thicknesses, content and nature of the plasticizers ( in PVC-P), tensile properties dynamic and static puncture, fold ability at low temperature, shore hardness, tear resistance and carbon black ( in HDPE), joint strength (shear and peeling test) and microscopy, both optical and electronic scanning tests were carried out. Results obtained conclude with a long-term durability of geo membranes, independently of their macromolecular nature. These characteristics were determined by advanced analytical techniques in PVC-P samples, such as fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Gas Chromatography (GC) and Mass Spectrometry (MS). Spectrometry (MS). (Author)

  2. Resistance of particleboard panels made of agricultural residues and bonded with synthetic resins or PVC plastic to wood-rotting fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divino Eterno Teixeira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the resistance of three types of particleboard panel to biodeterioration, two of which bonded with synthetic resins and one bonded with PVC plastic. Composite panels were made using sugar cane straw particles as raw material which were bonded together with urea-formaldehyde (UF, tannin-formaldehyde (TANI and PVC plastic (PVC resins. Decay tests were performed following procedures outlined in the ASTM D2017-81/1994 standard, whereby sample specimens were subjected to attack by white rot fungus Trametes versicolor and brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum using pine (Pinus sp. and embaúba (Cecropia sp. as reference timber. Panels bonded with PVC resin were rated ‘resistant’ to attack by both fungi while those bonded with UF and TANI resins were rated ‘slightly resistant’ to their attack.

  3. Fatigue characterization of Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) foam core sandwich composite using the G-control method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manca, Marcello; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results from cyclic crack propagation tests performed on sandwich specimens with glass/epoxy face sheets and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) foam cores using the G-controlled cyclic energy release rate (ΔG) test procedure. The face material was tested in tension...... analysis was used to determine the mode-mixity of the crack loading. Experimental crack growth cyclic tests were carried out on pre-cracked mixed-mode bending sandwich specimens with H45, H100 and H160 PVC foam cores under two mode-mixities (mode I and mode II dominant). Post-mortem analysis was performed...... on tested specimens, highlighting the influence of mode mixity and foam density on the crack path. Crack propagation diagrams showing da/dN versus ΔG curves were obtained to establish the Paris-Erdogan relation for each material combination tested at the two mode-mixities. Results showed constant crack...

  4. Bæredygtig erhvervsudvikling. Et debatoplæg om grøn erhvervspolitik med baggrund i historien om PVC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, V.; Ring, P.; Eriksen, H.

    De danske erfaringer med regulering af PVC diskuteres som et eksempel på virkemidler i grøn erhvervspolitik. Publikationen er udaerbejdet af IDA's ad hoc arbejdsgruppe for bæredygtig udvikling.......De danske erfaringer med regulering af PVC diskuteres som et eksempel på virkemidler i grøn erhvervspolitik. Publikationen er udaerbejdet af IDA's ad hoc arbejdsgruppe for bæredygtig udvikling....

  5. PCDD/PCDF emissions from co-combustion of coal and PVC in a bubbling fluidised bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Sanchez-Hervas; L. Armesto; E. Ruiz-Martinez; J. Otero-Ruiz; M. Pandelova; K.W. Schramm [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain). Fossil Fuels Department

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports on the results obtained in the study of the co-combustion of PVC with hard coal from South Africa in a 0,5 MWth Bubbling Fluidised Bed Boiler. The research has included the study of the effect of combustion temperature, fluidisation velocity and PVC content. The addition of urea to the raw fuel, as a dioxin-preventing compound has also been evaluated. Results have been analysed in terms of combustion efficiency, major pollutants emission (NOx, CO), and PCDD/Fs formation in the flue gas and in the fly ash. Under the experimental conditions tested, co-combustion of coal and PVC has proved to be feasible from the combustion efficiency and emission of PCDD/Fs points of view, whose levels remained below limits set by existing legislation on persistent organic pollutants. The addition of solid urea to the fuel blend reduces the amount of chlorinated compounds emitted. However, it has a negative impact on nitrogen pollutants formation. 19 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Effects of TiO{sub 2} addition on ionic conductivity of PVC/PEMA blend based composite polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subban, R. H. Y. [Institute of Science Universiti Teknologi MARA 40450 Shah Alam Selangor Malaysia (Malaysia); Facultyof Applied Sciences Universiti Teknologi MARA40450 Shah Alam Selangor Malaysia (Malaysia); Sukri, Nursyazwani [Facultyof Applied Sciences Universiti Teknologi MARA40450 Shah Alam Selangor Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-08-28

    PVC/PEMA blend based polymer electrolytes with lithium bistrifluoromethane sulfonimide (LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}) and PVC/PEMA/(LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} films were prepared by solution cast technique. The sample containing 35 wt. % LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2} exhibited the highest conductivity of 1.75 × 10{sup −5} Scm{sup −1}. The conductivity of the sample increased to 2.12 × 10{sup −5} Scm{sup −1} and 4.61 × 10{sup −5} Scm{sup −1} when 4 wt. % and 10 wt. % of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) was added to the sample at 65 wt. % PVC/PEMA-35 wt. % LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2} composition respectively. The low increase in conductivity is attributed to two competing factors: increase in crystallinity as accounted by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and decrease in glass transition temperature as accounted by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  7. PVC cling film in contact with cheese: health aspects related to global migration and specific migration of DEHA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Naamansen, Ebbe Tubæk; Nielsen, Preben Aagård

    1995-01-01

    Following exposure to the food simulant olive oil for 10 days at 5, 20 or 40 degrees C a global migration ranging from 20 to 30 mg/dm(2) was detected from a common 'low migration' PVC film plasticized with a mixture of di-(ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) and a polymeric plasticizer. In a laboratory...... experiment samples of cheese of the types most commonly consumed in Denmark were wrapped in this 'low migration' PVC film using a procedure simulating the actual pattern of use in retail shops. After a storage time of 2 h at 5 degrees C the level of DEHA was 45 mg/kg of cheese, which after 10 days increased...... to 150 mg DEHA per kg of cheese, corresponding to an estimated specific migration of 12 mg DEHA/dm(2) of cheese surface. Based on statistics on dietary habits it is concluded that the retail packaging of small portions of cheese even in a 'low migration' PVC cling film may lead to consumer intakes...

  8. Electrical and spectroscopic characterization of polyaniline-polyvinyl chloride (PANI-PVC) blends doped with sodium thiosulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameen, Sadia [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi 110025 (India); Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Ali, Vazid; Zulfequar, M. [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi 110025 (India); Mazharul Haq, M. [Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Husain, M. [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi 110025 (India)], E-mail: mush_reslab@rediffmail.com

    2008-08-01

    Polyaniline is doped with sodium thiosulphate in aqueous tetrahydrofuran (THF) and the blended films have been prepared by changing the amount of doped polyaniline (PANI) in the fixed amount of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The electrical conductivity of various samples of polyaniline-polyvinyl chloride (PANI-PVC) blends has been studied to see the effect of dopant in the temperature range 300-400 K. Mott's parameters are used to explain the conduction mechanism. Different parameters such as pre-exponential factor ({sigma}{sub 0}), activation energy ({delta}E) and T{sub 0} have also been calculated to see the effect of chemical doping. The crystallinity of the blends is explained on the basis of T{sub 0}. The calculated values of T{sub 0} show that crystallinity increases with an increase of doped PANI in PANI-PVC blends. Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is done to explore the nature and interaction of dopant into the polymeric chain.

  9. Immobilization of Ionophore and Surface Characterization Studies of the Titanium(III Ion in a PVC-Membrane Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Rezayi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel ionophores comprising various hydroxide and amine structures were immobilized onto poly(vinyl chloride (PVC matrices, and these were examined to determine Ti(III selectivity. To predict the selectivity of Ti(III, a PVC membrane was used to investigate the binding of Ti(III to c-methylcalix[4]resorcinarene (CMCR. The study showed that the chelating ligand, CMCR, was coordinated selectively to Ti(III at eight coordination sites involving the oxygen atoms at the interface of the membrane/solution. The membrane was prepared, based on CMCR as an ionophore, sodium tetrakis(4-fluorophenyl borate (NaTFPB as a lipophilic ionic additive, and dioctylphthalate (DOP as a plasticizer. The immobilization of the ionophore and surface characterization studies revealed that the performance of CMCR-immobilized PVC was equivalent to that of mobile ionophores in supported liquid membranes (SLMs. The strengths of the ion-ionophore (CMCR-Ti(OH(OH252+ interactions and the role of ionophores on membranes were studied via UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and and X-ray diffraction (XRD.

  10. Stress transfer in microdroplet tensile test: PVC-coated and uncoated Kevlar-29 single fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenkun, Lei; Quan, Wang; Yilan, Kang; Wei, Qiu; Xuemin, Pan

    2010-11-01

    The single fiber/microdroplet tensile test is applied for evaluating the interfacial mechanics between a fiber and a resin substrate. It is used to investigate the influence of a polymer coating on a Kevlar-29 fiber surface, specifically the stress transfer between the fiber and epoxy resin in a microdroplet. Unlike usual tests, this new test ensures a symmetrical axial stress on the embedded fiber and reduces the stress singularity that appears at the embedded fiber entry. Using a homemade loading device, symmetrical tensile tests are performed on a Kevlar-29 fiber with or without polyvinylchloride (PVC) coating, the surface of which is in contact with two epoxy resin microdroplets during curing. Raman spectra on the embedded fiber are recorded by micro-Raman Spectroscopy under different strain levels. Then they are transformed to the distributions of fiber axis stress based on the relationship between stress and Raman shift. The Raman results reveal that the fiber axial stresses increase with the applied loads, and the antisymmetric interfacial shear stresses, obtained by a straightforward balance of shear-to-axial forces argument, lead to the appearance of shear stress concentrations at a distance to the embedded fiber entry. The load is transferred from the outer fiber to the embedded fiber in the epoxy microdroplet. As is observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), the existence of a flexible polymer coating on the fiber surface reduces the stress transfer efficiency.

  11. Co-occurrence of invasive Cuban Treefrogs and native treefrogs in PVC pipe refugia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Laura M.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Rice, Kenneth G.; Percival, H. Franklin

    2013-01-01

    The Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) was first introduced to Florida at Key West. Since this introduction, Cuban Treefrogs have spread to Miami and are now established throughout most of peninsular Florida. Cuban Treefrogs can become very abundant in areas they colonize. Several reasons contribute to their success, including a generalist diet, high fecundity and the ability to reproduce year-round, and use of disturbed or human-modified habitats. Scientists and managers are concerned that Cuban Treefrogs may contribute to the decline of native treefrogs. Cuban Treefrogs may exclude native treefrogs through both competition and predation. Because the evidence from our study and others suggests that Green and Squirrel Treefrogs do not alter their behavior to avoid Cuban Treefrogs, there is cause for concern that sampling with PVC pipes may increase the vulnerability of the native species to predation. This possibility needs further research, including whether other species of native treefrogs sympatric to where Cuban Treefrogs have invaded are also naïve to the possible threat posed by these frogs, and also if native treefrogs eventually learn to avoid Cuban Treefrogs.

  12. PAN-Immobilized PVC-NPOE Membrane for Environmentally Friendly Sensing of Cd(II Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moersilah Moersilah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, cheap and environmentally friendly analytical method of Cd(II in the aqueous system has been developed by immobilization of 1-(2-pyridilazo-2-naphtol (PAN in poly vinyl chloride (PVC matrix and nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE as a plasticizer. Upon contact with Cd(II in solution, the color of sensor membrane changes from dark yellow to dark red, which is due to the formation of Cd(II–PAN complex. The best sensing results were obtained at pH 8.0 and λmax 558 nm. The dimension of the proposed sensor membrane was 0.8 cm x 2 cm with a thickness of 0.05 mm, the volume of sample was 2 mL with the Cd(II concentration range of  0 – 1.2 ppm. The limit of detection of the method was found to be 0.432 + 0.104 ppm, which was reversible. The proposed methods have been applied in the determination of Cd(II in water samples after addition of internal standard.

  13. PVC-based synthetic leather to provide more comfortable and sustainable vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, I.; Santos, J.; Abreu, MJ; Miranda, T.; Carneiro, N.; Soares, GMB

    2017-10-01

    Consumers are increasingly demanding the interior of cars to be comfortable even in the case of more economic commercial segments. Thus, the development of materials with thermoregulation properties has assumed renewed interest for these particular applications. An attempt has been made to prepare a multilayer PVC-based synthetic leather with paraffinic PCMs to be applied on a car seat. The thermal behaviour of the material was analysed using Alambeta apparatus, a thermo-camera and a thermal manikin. The results obtained show that the synthetic leather with incorporated PCMs gives cooler feeling and has higher reaction times regarding environmental temperature variations than the material without PCMs incorporation. Globally, the new designed material allowed greater thermal comfort to the cars´ inhabitants. In addition, the material quality was evaluated according to the standard of the customer, BMW 9,210,275; Edition / Version 4, 2010-10-01 revealing that the material meets all the requirements under test, except for the performance in terms of flexibility.

  14. Blendas PVC/NBR por processamento reativo I: desenvolvimento do processo de vulcanização Dinâmica in situ PVC/NBR blends by reactive processing I: in situ dynamic vulcanization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio R. Passador

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulcanização dinâmica é o processo de vulcanização de um elastômero durante a mistura no estado fundido com um termoplástico, que resulta em uma classe de materiais denominada termoplásticos vulcanizados. Neste trabalho, um novo tipo de termoplástico vulcanizado foi obtido por vulcanização dinâmica in situ da blenda PVC/NBR, utilizando-se um sistema de cura a base de enxofre (S e combinação dos aceleradores 2,2-ditiomercaptobenzotiazol (MBTS e dissulfeto de tetrametiltiuram (TMTD. As blendas PVC/NBR (90/10, 80/20 e 70/30% em massa foram processadas em um reômetro de torque Haake (Rheomix 600 a 160 °C com rotação de 60 rpm. As blendas obtidas por processamento reativo foram caracterizadas por calorimetria diferencial de varredura (DSC para determinação do grau de cura. Observou-se aumento no grau de cura das blendas com o tempo de mistura sendo o sistema de cura considerado eficiente.Dynamic vulcanization is a process of vulcanization of an elastomer during melt mixing with a thermoplastic wich results in material called thermoplastic vulcanizates or TPVs. In this study, a new kind of TPV was obtained by in situ dynamic curing of poly(vinyl chloride (PVC/nitrile rubber (NBR blends. The crosslinking of PVC/NBR blends was accomplished using sulphur (S/tetramethylthiuram disulphide (TMTD and mercaptobenzthiazyl disulphide (MBTS curative system during the reactive processing. The blends of PVC/NBR at the ratio of 90/10; 80/20 and 70/30 wt. (% were melt mixed using a Haake Rheomix 600 at 160 °C and rotor speed of 60 rpm. The curing behavior of NBR was investigated by a Monsanto Rheometer and the degree of cure was calculated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC for different mixing times. It was observed that the degree of cure increases with the mixing time and the crosslinking system used in this work was considered efficient.

  15. Ultrasonic-assisted biosurface modification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with Thiamine and its influence on the properties of PVC/Tm-MWCNTs nanocomposite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Abdolmaleki, Amir; Azimi, Faezeh

    2017-11-01

    The present paper represents a simple and efficient technique via ultrasonic irradiation, which utilized for chemical treatment of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) with Thiamine (Tm). Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based nanocomposites (NC)s were prepared by the incorporation of various amounts of modified MWCNTs (4, 8, and 12wt%) within the PVC matrix by blending solution and ultrasonic distribution methods. The morphological, chemical structure and thermal stability of the PVC/Tm-MWCNT NCs were identified via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The obtained results of thermal behavior indicated the high thermal stability of PVC/Tm-MWCNT NCs in comparison with the pure PVC via presenting diverse quantities of Tm-MWCNTs. In addition, the mechanical behavior of the PVC/Tm-MWCNT NCs films was examined and the results exhibited that mechanical properties of fabricated NCs were improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sustainable and Selective Separation of PVC and ABS from a WEEE Plastic Mixture Using Microwave and/or Mild-Heat Treatment with Froth Flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Truc, Nguyen Thi; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2016-10-04

    This study reports simple, selective, and sustainable separation of chlorinated plastic (polyvinyl chloride, PVC) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) containing brominated flame retardants (BFRs) from mixed waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) plastics using microwave and/or mild-heat treatment. Microwave treatment after plastic coating with powdered activated carbon (PAC) selectively increased the hydrophilicity of the PVC surface, which facilitated PVC separation (100% recovery and purity) from the WEEE plastic mixture under the optimum flotation conditions. A further mild-heat treatment for 100 s facilitated selective separation with the highest recovery and purity (100%) of PAC-coated ABS containing BFRs from the remaining plastic mixture due to selective formation of a twisted structure with a lower density than water and the untreated ABS. Mild-heat treatment only of PAC-coated WEEE plastic mixture resulted in successful recovery of (100%) the ABS and PVC. However, the recovered PVC had slightly reduced purity (96.8%) as compared to that obtained using the combined heat and microwave treatments. The combination of both treatments with flotation facilitated selective and sustainable separation of PVC and ABS from WEEE plastics to improve their recycling quality.

  17. Short tunnels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1965-01-01

    Before dealing with the question of lighting short tunnels, it is necessary define what is meant by a tunnel and when it should be called 'short'. Confined to motorized road traffic the following is the most apt definition of a tunnel: every form of roofing-over a road section, irrespective of it

  18. Mycelial fungi completely remediate di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, the hazardous plasticizer in PVC blood storage bag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep, S. [Enzyme Technology Laboratory, Biotechnology Division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala 673 635 (India); Benjamin, Sailas, E-mail: sailasben@yahoo.co.in [Enzyme Technology Laboratory, Biotechnology Division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala 673 635 (India)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three novel phthalate utilizing fungi: A. parasiticus, F. subglutinans and P. funiculosum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fungi utilize DEHP in PVC plastics in situ, in simple mineral salt medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Employing these fungi, a batch process can remediate phthalates in plastics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phthalate-free PVC can be recycled afresh. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mineral salt and phthalate remediated into fungal biomass. - Abstract: This pioneering work describes how simply, inexpensively and efficiently novel fungi utilize the alarming plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) blended in PVC blood storage bags (BB). In order to quantify total DEHP (33.5%, w/w) present in BB, it was extracted using n-hexane and confirmed by GC-MS. Three mycelial fungi, viz., Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium subglutinans and Penicillium funiculosum isolated in our laboratory form heavily plastics-contaminated soil - either singly or in consortium - completely consumed intact DEHP physically bound to BB by static submerged growth (28 Degree-Sign C) in simple basal salt medium (BSM). A two-stage cultivation strategy was adopted for the complete removal of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, almost 70% DEHP contained in the BB was consumed in 2 weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass ({approx}0.15-0.35 g/g BB; OD {approx}7 at 600 nm) and a sharp declining (3.3) of initial pH (7.2). Spent BSM was replaced at this stagnant growth state (low pH), thus in the second stage, remaining DEHP bound to BB utilized completely (over 99%). Furthermore, A. parasiticus and F. subglutinans also grew well on scrapes of PVC water pipes in BSM. F. subglutinans was as efficient independently as consortium in completely utilizing the DEHP bound to BB, and these fungi offer great potentials for the inexpensive and eco-friendly bioremediation of phthalates in medical and allied PVC wastes on a large

  19. Influência do tipo de agente de partição da borracha nitrílica na obtenção de blendas PVC/NBR Influence of the partitioning agent on the preparation of PVC/NBR Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio R. Passador

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Borrachas nitrílicas para utilização em misturas com PVC são fornecidas em forma de pó, que são recobertas com um agente de partição para evitar compactação do produto no transporte e armazenamento, além de garantir alta fluidez e livre escoamento. Neste trabalho, buscou-se estudar a influência do tipo de agente de partição da borracha nitrílica (resina de PVC e CaCO3 na obtenção de blendas PVC/NBR. As propriedades mecânicas das blendas foram avaliadas por ensaios de tração, rasgo e dureza. As blendas com NBR com agente de partição de PVC apresentaram maior tensão na ruptura e módulo elástico que as blendas em que utilizaram NBR com agente de partição de CaCO3. A morfologia foi avaliada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura sendo bastante afetada pelo tipo de agente de partição.Nitrile rubbers used in mixture with PVC resin are supplied in powder. This kind of nitrile rubber has a partitioning agent to avoid agglomeration in the particles during the transport and storage. In this study, the influence of the partitioning agent on the preparation of PVC/NBR blends was investigated. The mechanical properties of the blends were evaluated by tensile properties, tear strength and hardness. The PVC/NBR blends with partitioning agent of PVC showed an increase in the tensile stress and Young's modulus compared to the PVC/NBR blends with partitioning agent of CaCO3. The morphology of the blends examined by scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the influence of the partitioning agent.

  20. Study on plasma pre-functionalized PVC film grafted with TiO2/PVP to improve blood compatible and antibacterial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, Arjunan; Shanmugavelayutham, Gurusamy; Serra Rodríguez, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Research into the design of new biopolymers/polymer functionalized with nanoparticles is of tremendous interest to the medical sector, particularly with regard to blood-contacting devices. In this present study, a steady blood compatible and active antibacterial coating was fabricated by the grafting of titanium dioxide (TiO2)/polyvinylpyyrolidone (PVP) onto a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film surface via the direct-current glow discharge plasma method. To enhance the chemical interaction between TiO2/PVP and PVC, the surfaces of the PVC films were functionalized by different plasmas (air, argon, and oxygen) before coating. In this study, the plasma parameters were varied, such as treatment time of about 5-20 min for a constant power of 100 W, potential 300 V, and a constant gas pressure of 2 Pa for air, argon, and oxygen gas environment. Then, the different plasma treatments on the PVC films, TiO2/PVP were grafted using a simple dip-coating method. In addition, the TiO2/PVP-grafted PVC films were characterized by contact angle, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscope, and x-ray photo electron spectroscopy. Importantly, TiO2/PVP is grafted onto the PVC surface due to the plasma-based retained functionality and demonstrates adhesive efficiency, which was observed by XPS. The bio-stability of the TiO2/PVP-modified PVC film was evaluated by in vitro platelet activation analysis and protein adsorption analysis. Then, the antibacterial properties were evaluated by the agar diffusion method against Escherichia coli. The result reveals that the grafting of TiO2/PVP was slightly higher for the 15 min oxygen plasma-functionalized PVC, which significantly decreases the platelet adhesion and protein adsorption. Moreover, the antibacterial properties of the 15 min oxygen plasma-functionalized PVC with TiO2/PVP-grafted film is also greatly improved compared with an air- and argon-functionalized surface

  1. PVC Based Selective Sensors for Ni2+ Ions Using Carboxylated and Methylated Porphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Bhatnagar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly vinylchloride (PVC based membranes of 4,4',4'',4'''-21H,23H-porphine–5,10,15,20 –tetrayl tetrakis (benzoic acid (TBAP and 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octamethyl - 21H, 23H-porphine (OMP were prepared using dibutyl phthalate (DBP, dioctylphthalate (DOP, dibutyl(butylphosphonate (DBBP and 1-chloronaphthalene (CN as plastcizing solvent mediators and sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB as an anion excluder for Ni2+ selective sensors. TBAP based membrane exhibits linearity over a wide concentration range 2.0x10-6–1.0x10-1M (0.12 – 5.8x103ppm with a slope of 29.6 mV/decade of activity while OMP based membrane showed linear potential response in the concentration range 1.0x10-5 –1.0x 10-1M (0.60 – 5.8x103ppm with a Nernstian slope of 29.0 mV/decade of activity. The electrode assembly works between pH 2.0 – 7.0, exhibits a fast response time of 10-15s and performed satisfactorily over a period of six months with good reproducibility. Excellent selectivity of the order of 10-3 over a number of cations and quantitative determination of Ni2+ in effluents discharged from electroplating industry demonstrates the utility of the proposed sensor. The electrode assembly was also used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Ni2+ with EDTA.

  2. ESPC Coupled Global Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    spatially variable and realistic sea ice albedo . The coupled system has been used to a short hindcast for 2013 similar to the SEARCH results with...and thus affect stress calculations. COAMPS/NCOM/SWAN are still being used as a proxy here for NAVGEM/HYCOM/WW3, as the coupling infrastructure in

  3. Citotoxicidade de tubos de PVC esterilizados em óxido de etileno após exposição à radiação gama Citotoxicidad de tubos de PVC esterilizados en óxido de etileno luego de exposición a la radiación gamma Cytotoxicity of PVC tubes sterilized in ethylene oxide after gamma radiation exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Queiroz de Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Materiais esterilizados em raios gama, ao serem re-esterilizados em óxido de etileno (EO, formam substâncias tóxicas? Esta questão norteou o objetivo deste estudo, que foi investigar o potencial efeito citotóxico do PVC esterilizado em radiação gama e re-esterilizado em EO pelo método da difusão em ágar em culturas celulares. Nove tubos de PVC foram submetidos à esterilização em radiação gama e re-esterilizados em EO. Os tubos foram divididos em um total de 81 unidades de análise, que foram testadas de forma a representar as superfícies internas, externas e massa de cada tubo. Concluiu-se que os materiais de PVC esterilizados em Radiação Gama e consecutivamente re-esterilizados em EO não são citotóxicos.Los materiales esterilizados con rayos gama, al ser re-esterilizados en óxido de etileno (EO, ¿forman substancias tóxicas? Esta pregunta orientó el objetivo del presente estudio, que fue investigar el potencial efecto citotóxico del PVC esterilizado en radiación gamma y re-esterilizado en EO por el método de difusión en agar en cultivos celulares. Nueve tubos de PVC fueron sometidos a esterilización por radiación gamma y re-esterilizados en EO. Se les aplicaron en total 81 unidades de análisis, las cuales fueron testeadas de manera tal de representar las superficies internas, externas y la masa de cada tubo. Se concluyó en que los materiales de PVC esterilizados con Radiación Gamma y, posteriormente, con EO, no son citotóxicos.Do materials sterilized using gamma rays become toxic when re-sterilized in ethylene oxide? This question guided the objective of this study, which was to investigate the potential cytotoxic effect of PVC sterilized by gamma radiation and re-sterilized with EO by the agar diffusion method in cell cultures. Nine PVC tubes were subjected to gamma radiation sterilization and were re-sterilized in EO. The tubes were divided into a total of 81 units of analysis that were tested so as to

  4. Evaluation of the use of plastic film of polyvinyl chloride (PVC in the storage of carrots Avaliação do uso de filme plástico de policloreto de vinila (PVC no armazenamento de cenouras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Yamamoto Reghin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In carrot roots, reducing the percentage of mass and the occurrence of diseases are the leading causes of post-harvest losses during storage and marketing. Also, budding and rooting are indicated as the possible effect on the use of modified atmosphere in root vegetables and tubers. This study was conducted to compare forms of packaging and storage time on weight loss, percentage of sprouted roots and concentration of ? carotene in three carrot cultivars. The carrots were placed in shallow trays of polystyrene and wrapped with PVC film, and put two roots per tray, or in bulk. Then, the roots were stored in the dark at ambient conditions for 20 days Carrots stored with plastic film (PVC remained commercially viable for up to 12 days. When stored in bulk showed weight loss of more than 5% in 4 days, which is not feasible to trade. The content of carotenoids was constant throughout the storage period for the in three cultivars.Em raízes de cenoura, a redução da porcentagem de massa e a ocorrência de doenças são as principais causas de perda pós-colheita durante o armazenamento e a comercialização. Também, a brotação e o enraizamento são apontados como os possíveis prejuízos ao uso da atmosfera modificada em hortaliças de raízes e tubérculos. O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar formas de embalagem e tempo de armazenamento sobre a perda de massa, porcentagem de raízes brotadas e concentração de ? caroteno em três cultivares de cenoura. As cenouras foram acondicionadas em bandejas rasas de poliestireno e embaladas com filme plástico de PVC, sendo acondicionadas duas raízes por bandeja, ou a granel. Em seguida, as raízes foram armazenadas no escuro em condições ambiente durante 20 dias As cenouras armazenadas com filme plástico de (PVC mantiveram-se viáveis comercialmente por até 12 dias. Quando armazenadas à granel apresentaram perda de peso superior a 5% em 4 dias, não sendo viável para o com

  5. PVC esaslı CTP kesme atığı dolgulu malzemelerin termal özelliklerinin incelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Özüyağlı

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, PVC üretiminde kullanılan CaCO3 dolgu malzemesi yerine, sanayi atığı kullanılması sonucu termal özelliklerdeki değişim araştırılmıştır. Kullanılan sanayi atığı CTP boru üretiminden sulu kesim sırasında çıkmakta ve SiO2, cam elyaf ve polyester reçine içermektedir. Sulu çamur halinde filtre presten çıkan atık fabrikadan alındıktan sonra kurutma ve eleme işlemleri uygulanarak toz formuna getirilmiştir. Numuneler PVC, CTP atık tozu ve prosese yardımcı maddeler mikserde karıştırılarak ekstrüzyon yöntemi ile profil şeklinde üretilmiştir. Atık toz PVC’ye oranla ağırlıkça %5-%70 oranlarında dolgu malzemesi olarak kullanılmıştır. Kalsit (CaCO3 katkılı ve katkısız PVC numuneleri de benzer proses parametreleri kullanılarak üretilmiştir. Üretilen numuneler, seramik krozeler kullanılarak DTA-TG analizleri yapılmıştır.

  6. Mycelial fungi completely remediate di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, the hazardous plasticizer in PVC blood storage bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, S; Benjamin, Sailas

    2012-10-15

    This pioneering work describes how simply, inexpensively and efficiently novel fungi utilize the alarming plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) blended in PVC blood storage bags (BB). In order to quantify total DEHP (33.5%, w/w) present in BB, it was extracted using n-hexane and confirmed by GC-MS. Three mycelial fungi, viz., Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium subglutinans and Penicillium funiculosum isolated in our laboratory form heavily plastics-contaminated soil - either singly or in consortium - completely consumed intact DEHP physically bound to BB by static submerged growth (28 °C) in simple basal salt medium (BSM). A two-stage cultivation strategy was adopted for the complete removal of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, almost 70% DEHP contained in the BB was consumed in 2 weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass (~0.15-0.35 g/g BB; OD ~7 at 600 nm) and a sharp declining (3.3) of initial pH (7.2). Spent BSM was replaced at this stagnant growth state (low pH), thus in the second stage, remaining DEHP bound to BB utilized completely (over 99%). Furthermore, A. parasiticus and F. subglutinans also grew well on scrapes of PVC water pipes in BSM. F. subglutinans was as efficient independently as consortium in completely utilizing the DEHP bound to BB, and these fungi offer great potentials for the inexpensive and eco-friendly bioremediation of phthalates in medical and allied PVC wastes on a large scale through a batch process in alleviating the plactics waste management issue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of genome content evolution in pvc bacterial super-phylum: assessment of candidate genes associated with cellular organization and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamneva, Olga K; Knight, Stormy J; Liberles, David A; Ward, Naomi L

    2012-01-01

    The Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae (PVC) super-phylum contains bacteria with either complex cellular organization or simple cell structure; it also includes organisms of different lifestyles (pathogens, mutualists, commensal, and free-living). Genome content evolution of this group has not been studied in a systematic fashion, which would reveal genes underlying the emergence of PVC-specific phenotypes. Here, we analyzed the evolutionary dynamics of 26 PVC genomes and several outgroup species. We inferred HGT, duplications, and losses by reconciliation of 27,123 gene trees with the species phylogeny. We showed that genome expansion and contraction have driven evolution within Planctomycetes and Chlamydiae, respectively, and balanced each other in Verrucomicrobia and Lentisphaerae. We also found that for a large number of genes in PVC genomes the most similar sequences are present in Acidobacteria, suggesting past and/or current ecological interaction between organisms from these groups. We also found evidence of shared ancestry between carbohydrate degradation genes in the mucin-degrading human intestinal commensal Akkermansia muciniphila and sequences from Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes, suggesting that glycoside hydrolases are transferred laterally between gut microbes and that the process of carbohydrate degradation is crucial for microbial survival within the human digestive system. Further, we identified a highly conserved genetic module preferentially present in compartmentalized PVC species and possibly associated with the complex cell plan in these organisms. This conserved machinery is likely to be membrane targeted and involved in electron transport, although its exact function is unknown. These genes represent good candidates for future functional studies.

  8. Effects of UV-accelerated weathering and natural weathering conditions on anti-fungal efficacy of wood/PVC composites doped with propylene glycol-based HPQM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Srimalanon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the mechanical, physical and weathering properties and anti-fungal efficacy of polyvinyl chloride(PVC and wood flour/polyvinyl chloride composites(WPVC. 2-hydroxypropyl-3-piperazinyl-quinoline carboxylic acid methacrylate (HPQM in propylene glycol was used as an anti-fungal agent. Propylene glycol-based HPQM was doped in neat PVC and in WPVC containing 50 and 100 pph wood (WPVC-50 and WPVC-100. The flexural properties of PVC decreased when propylene glycol-based HPQM was added. However, adding this component did not affect the flexural properties of WPVC. Fungal growth inhibition test and dry weight technique were used for evaluation of anti-fungal effectiveness. Aspergillus niger was used as a testing fungus. Adding propylene glycol-based HPQM to WPVC-100 led to the most effective anti-fungal performance. Wood flour acted as an anti-fungal promoter for the WPVC composites. The optimal dosages of propylene glycol-based HPQM in PVC, WPVC-50, and WPVC-100 were 50000, 15000, and 10000 ppm, respectively. UV-accelerated weathering aging and natural weathering conditions were found to affect the flexural properties of PVC and WPVC. The change in the anti-microbial performance of WPVC under natural weathering were slower than those under UV-accelerated weathering aging. The anti-microbial evaluation indicated that the samples doped with less than 20000 ppm propylene glycol-based HPQM had a more pronounced effect than the ones doped with higher dosages.

  9. Application of N-Quinoline-2-carboxamido-8-aminoquinoline in Fabrication of a Ho(III)-PVC Membrane Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Ali Zamani; Samaneh Langroodi; Soraia Meghdadi

    2011-01-01

    The N-quinoline-2-carboxamido-8-aminoquinoline (QCA) was used as a suitable ion carrier in the construction of a Ho(III) PVC-based membrane sensor. This sensor demonstrated good selectivity and sensitivity towards the holmium ion for a broad variety of cations, including alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The proposed electrode exhibits a linear dynamic range between 1.0×10-6 and 1.0×10-2 M, with a near Nernstian slope of 20.4±0.3 mV per decade and a detection limit of 4...

  10. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... et al., 1999). The assay represents a rapid, inexpensive and simple bioassay for testing plant extracts bioactivity which in most cases correlates reasonably well with cytotoxic and anti-tumor properties. The brine shrimp lethality assay is based on the ability of the extract to show lethality in laboratory. Short Communication ...

  11. Short Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioline

    Short Report. Waiting time among acute abdominal emergencies in a Nigerian teaching hospital: causes of delay and consequences. N .Mbah, W. Ek. Opara and N. P. Agwu ... admitted with acute surgical abdomen are most commonly due to financial difficulties. ... private, general and primary health institutions within.

  12. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Health Research Bulletin (2005), Vol. 7, No. 2. SHORT COMMUNICATION. Palliative care in Tanzania: a needs assessment study of family caregivers in urban setting. T. NGOMA. Ocean Road Cancer Institute, PO. Box 3592 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania;. Email: ngoma@uccmail.co.tz. Tanzania, with a population of ...

  13. Short communications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-23

    May 23, 2015 ... the majority of birds in one image (Fig. 2). Figure 2. Partial stack of 100+ Levant Sparrowhawks over the Mara North Conservancy, 23 February 2014. Photo: M. Mockler. Short communications. 33. Figure 1. Photographs confirming the identification of Levant Sparrowhawk. Accipiter brevipes. Photos: M.

  14. Short Comm.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E-LIBRARY

    economic stability. Industrialization according to Britannica Encyclopedia is, “The process of converting to a socio-economic or development in which industry is ... and even secondary schools. Furthermore, disciplines such as Library and Information Science have over the years been. Short Comm. Information Impact:.

  15. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (2011), 19(2): 304-307. ISSN 0794-5698. Short Communication. Lead and Cadmium Levels of Five Commonly and Widely Consumed Leafy Vegetables in. Kano State, Nigeria. *M.I. Mohammed and ... the agreed international requirements. This is particularly important for farm ...

  16. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  17. Preparação de argilas organofílicas para o desenvolvimento de nanocompósitos a partir de compostos de PVC plastificado

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Andrade Souza

    2009-01-01

    Nanocompósitos de PVC Plastificado / argila organofílica apresentam um grande potencial para melhorar a resistência térmica bem como a sua retardância de chamas. Entretanto, um grande problema encontrado na produção de nanocompósitos de PVC é a decomposição de sais orgânicos convencionais incorporados na argila que podem catalisar a degradação do PVC e levar a deterioração das propriedades mecânicas, ópticas e térmicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi preparar argilas organofílicas utilizando m...

  18. Isolation and molecular identification of landfill bacteria capable of growing on di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and deteriorating PVC materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Isomar; Hwang, Sangchul; Montalvo-Rodriguez, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Waste materials containing Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a suspected endocrine disruptor and reasonably anticipated human carcinogen, are typically disposed of in landfills. Despite this, very few studies had been conducted to isolate and identify DEHP-degrading bacteria in landfill leachate. Therefore, this study was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteria in landfill leachate growing on DEHP as the sole carbon source and deteriorating PVC materials. Four strains LHM1, LHM2, LHM3 and LHM4, not previously reported as DEHP-degraders, were identified via 16S rRNA gene sequence. Gram-positive strains LHM1 and LHM2 had a greater than 97% similarity with Chryseomicrobium imtechense MW 10(T) and Lysinibacillus fusiformis NBRC 15717(T), respectively. Gram-negative strains LHM3 and LHM4 were related to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus DSM 30006(T) (90.7% similarity) and Stenotrophomonas pavanii ICB 89(T) (96.0% similarity), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis also corroborated these similarities of strains LHM1 and LHM2 to the corresponding bacteria species. Strains LHM2 and LHM4 grew faster than strains LHM1 and LHM3 in the enrichment where DEHP was the sole carbon source. When augmented to the reactors with PVC shower curtains containing DEHP, strains LHM1 and LHM2 developed greater optical densities in the solution phase and thicker biofilm on the surfaces of the shower curtains.

  19. Avaliação e caracterização de tubos fabricados com PVC reciclado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos G. Pennafort Jr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram caracterizados dois polímeros utilizados na fabricação de tubos de PVC, tendo como diferencial o uso de resina de policloreto de vinila virgem e reciclada. O uso da resina reciclada, derivada do reprocessamento de resíduos aterrados (sanitários ou industriais, foi avaliado com o objetivo de compará-la a produtos fabricados com resina virgem, os quais foram submetidos aos ensaios de Fluorescência de Raios X (FRX, Difração de Raios X (DRX e resistência à tração e alongamento. Os resultados demonstraram que houve alteração estatisticamente significativa, conforme ANOVA (5%, nas características mecânicas do produto final, tendo os tubos fabricados com PVC reciclado apresentado uma resistência mecânica menor que os fabricados com resina virgem, além da presença de metais pesados como Pb (chumbo e Cd (cádmio.

  20. Electrochemical methods for the determination of the diffusion coefficient of ionophores and ionophore-ion complexes in plasticized PVC membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, Sándor; Zook, Justin M; Lindner, Erno; Tóth, Klára; Gyurcsányi, Róbert E

    2008-05-01

    The diffusion coefficients of active components in ion-selective membranes have a decisive influence on the life-time and detection limit of the respective ion-selective electrodes, as well as influencing the rate of polarization and relaxation processes of electrically perturbed ion sensors. Therefore, the rational design of mass transport controlled ion-selective electrodes with sub-nanomolar detection limits requires reliable data on the diffusion coefficients. We have implemented electrochemical methods for the quantitative assessment of both the diffusion coefficients of free ionophores and ion-ionophore complexes. The diffusion coefficients of the pH-sensitive chromoionophore ETH 5294 and the calcium-selective ionophore ETH 5234 were determined in plasticized PVC membranes with different PVC to plasticizer ratios. The diffusion coefficient of the free chromoionophore determined by a chronoamperometric method was validated with optical methods for a variety of membrane compositions. The calcium-selective ionophore ETH 5234 was used as a model compound to assess the diffusion coefficient of the ion-ionophore complex calculated from the time required for the complexes to cross a freshly prepared membrane during potentiometric ion-breakthrough experiments. The difference between the diffusion coefficients of the free ionophore ETH 5234 and the ion-ionophore complex was found to be significant and correlated well with the geometry of the respective species.

  1. Selective sequential separation of ABS/HIPS and PVC from automobile and electronic waste shredder residue by hybrid nano-Fe/Ca/CaO assisted ozonisation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Lee, Byoung Ho; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Simion, Cristian

    2017-02-01

    The separation of plastics containing brominated flame retardants (BFR) like (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) from automobile and electronic waste shredder residue (ASR/ESR) are a major concern for thermal recycling. In laboratory scale tests using a hybrid nano-Fe/Ca/CaO assisted ozonation treatment has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of ABS/HIPS and PVC plastics, enhancing ABS wettability and thereby promoting its separation from ASR/ESR by means of froth flotation. The water contact angles, of ABS/HIPS and PVC decreased, about 18.7°, 18.3°, and 17.9° in ASR and about 21.2°, 20.7°, and 20.0° in ESR respectively. SEM-EDS, FT-IR, and XPS analyses demonstrated a marked decrease in [Cl] and a significant increase in the number of hydrophilic groups, such as CO, CO, and (CO)O, on the PVC or ABS surface. Under froth flotation conditions at 50rpm, about 99.1% of combined fraction of ABS/HIPS in ASR samples and 99.6% of ABS/HIPS in ESR samples were separated as settled fraction. After separation, the purity of the recovered combined ABS/HIPS fraction was 96.5% and 97.6% in ASR and ESR samples respectively. Furthermore, at 150rpm a 100% PVC separation in the settled fraction, with 98% and 99% purity in ASR and ESR plastics, respectively. Total recovery of non-ABS/HIPS and PVC plastics reached nearly 100% in the floating fraction. Further, this process improved the quality of recycled ASR/ESR plastics by removing surface contaminants or impurities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Entrepreneurial Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Van Praag, Mirjam; Thompson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We study possible motivations for co-entreprenurial couples to start up a joint firm, using a sample of 1,069 Danish couples that established a joint enterprise between 2001 and 2010. We compare their pre-entry characteristics, firm performance and post-dissolution private and financial outcomes...... with a selected set of comparable firms and couples. We find evidence that couples often establish a business together because one spouse – most commonly the female – has limited outside opportunities in the labor market. However, the financial benefits for each of the spouses, and especially the female...

  3. Effect of Sb2O3 Modified by Various Surface Active Agents on Flame Retardant Properties of PVC Composite

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jian-Lin; ZHOU Sheng-gang; Niu, Lei; Yang, Wen-Long; Wang, Cheng-Cheng; Wen, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Sb2O3 powders were prepared by high energy ball milling using polyethyleneglycol-6000,sodium dodecyl sulfate and OP-10 to modify the surface properties of the powder. The influence of Sb2O3 powders modified by various surface active agents on flame retardant properties of PVC composite materials was studied. The phase composition, morphology and the average particle size of the powders were characterized by XRD and TEM. The particle distribution and flame retardant properties of Sb2O3/PVC com...

  4. Resistance of different materials used in sewers systems:Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP) and High density polyethylene (HDPE), to sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate attack.

    OpenAIRE

    LASFAR Sara; MOUALLIF Ilias

    2014-01-01

    The behaviour of PVC, PP and HDPE used in sewer systems exposed to acid and sulfate solutions was investigated at 25°C and 40°C. Gravimetric characterization proves that PVC has a fickian behavior. It shows also, that PP has a non-fickian behavior, characterized by a rapid acceleration of water absorption, and the HDPE has a fickian behavior at 25°C, while it has a non-fickian behavior at 40°C, characterized by a weight loss after a certain aging period. The prolongation of th...

  5. Short Stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Boye Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie

    2016-01-01

    -scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below...... clinical cut-off values (-2 SDS for GHD and TS; -2.5 SDS for SGA) based on national growth references and WHO growth standards/references were compared for children aged ....0001), TS (21%; PSGA (32%; P

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis of 4ZnO·B2O3·H2O/RGO hybrid material and its flame retardant behavior in flexible PVC and magnesium hydroxide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhifan; Wu, Weihong; Zhang, Mengjiao; Qu, Jiamin; Shi, Lin; Qu, Hongqiang; Xu, Jianzhong

    2017-12-01

    As a novel and efficient halogen-free composite flame retardant, zinc borate (4ZnO·B2O3·H2O)/reduction graphene oxide (RGO) hybrid material (ZB/RGO) was designed and synthesized using a facile route involving nano-engineering. The unique structure and composition of ZB/RGO were efficaciously confirmed by XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, and TG. The incorporation of 7.71 wt% ZB/RGO could significantly enhance the synergistic effect with Mg(OH)2 (MH) when mixed with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as a flame retardant and smoke suppressant, as evaluated by limited oxygen index (LOI), microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC), and a cone calorimetry test (CCT) and compared with PVC, PVC/ZB, PVC/MH, and PVC/ZB/MH blends. The PVC/ZB/RGO/MH formulation could achieve an LOI value of 29.5% (24% higher than neat PVC). More importantly, the heat release rate (HRR), peak heat release rate (PHRR), smoke production rate (SPR), perk smoke production rate (PSPR), total smoke production (TSP), and mass amount loss (MAL) were considerably reduced in CCT, especially the PHRR, TSP, and MAL values for PVC/ZB/RGO/MH blends were reduced to 35%, 34%, and 15%, respectively. This study showed that the design of the novel material might provide a reference for the future development of halogen-free flame retardants consisting of inorganic salt and carbon material, which exhibit excellent flame retardant and smoke suppressant behavior.

  7. Blendas PVC/NBR por processamento reativo II: caracterização físico-mecânica e morfológica PVC/NBR blends by reactive processing II: physical-mechanical and morphological characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio R. Passador

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulcanização dinâmica é o processo de vulcanização de um elastômero durante a mistura no estado fundido com um termoplástico. Por este processo, o elastômero adquire resistência mecânica através do aumento do módulo de elasticidade, dureza, resistência à fadiga e abrasão. Neste trabalho, buscou-se avaliar as propriedades físico-mecânicas e as características morfológicas de blendas poliméricas constituídas de Poli(cloreto de Vinila e borracha nitrílica, PVC/NBR, obtidas por processamento reativo. A vulcanização dinâmica melhorou o desempenho mecânico destas blendas, notadamente pelo aumento da rigidez desses sistemas, sendo obtido um aumento de 205% no módulo elástico de blendas vulcanizadas com 10% em massa de NBR em comparação com blendas convencionais. Através de análises de MEV, revelou-se uma morfologia bifásica, sendo que a formação de ligações cruzadas deve ocorrer preferencialmente no interior das partículas do elastômero, contribuindo para o aumento na resistência mecânica final das blendas obtidas por processamento reativo.Dynamic vulcanization is a process of vulcanization of an elastomer during melt mixing with a thermoplastic. This process increases the mechanical resistance of elastomers through the increase of elastic modulus, hardness and abrasion/fatigue resistance. In this study, it was evaluated the physical-mechanical and morphological behaviors of the PVC/NBR blends obtained by reactive processing. The dynamic vulcanized blends have a better performance compared to the similar conventional ones. It was observed an increase of 205% in the elastic modulus to the dynamic vulcanized blend PVC/NBR (90/10 compared with the conventional blends. The morphology of the blends examined by scanning electron microscopy evidenced the crosslinking formation only in the elastomeric phase. The vulcanized rubber particles are responsible by the increase of stiffness and consequently displayed better

  8. Short esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunio, Nicholas R; Dolan, James P; Hunter, John G

    2015-06-01

    In the presence of long-standing and severe gastroesophageal reflux disease, patients can develop various complications, including a shortened esophagus. Standard preoperative testing in these patients should include endoscopy, esophagography, and manometry, whereas the objective diagnosis of a short esophagus must be made intraoperatively following adequate mediastinal mobilization. If left untreated, it is a contributing factor to the high recurrence rate following fundoplications or repair of large hiatal hernias. A laparoscopic Collis gastroplasty combined with an antireflux procedure offers safe and effective therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Controle Sanitário de Filmes Flexíveis de PVC Comercializados no Estado do Rio de Janeiro | Sanitary Control of Flexible PVC films Commercialized in the State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Silvestre Bazilio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas trinta e sete amostras de filme flexível de PVC quanto à migração específica dos plastificantes ftalato de di-(2-etil-hexila – DEHP (Nº CAS 117-81-7 e adipato de di-(2-etil-hexila – DEHA (Nº CAS 103-23-1 da embalagem para alimentos gordurosos, utilizando-se simulante. A Resolução nº 17, de 17 de março de 2008, publicada pela ANVISA, estabelece limite de migração específica para DEHP de 1,5 mg kg-1 do simulante e para o DEHA em 18 mg kg-1 do simulante. O teste de migração foi realizado por meio do contato entre 1 dm2 do filme de PVC e 100 mL de simulante de alimento, solução de etanol a 95% (v/v, por 48 h a 20ºC. As migrações dos plastificantes DEHP e DEHA foram determinadas por cromatografia a gás com detecção por ionização em chama e coluna de sílica fundida recoberta internamente com fase estacionária constituída de 5% fenilmetilsilicone. As amostras apresentaram resultados para a migração específica de DEHP entre não detectável (< 0,35 mg kg-1 e 304 mg kg-1 de simulante de alimentos e entre não detectável (< 2,23 mg kg-1 e 231 mg kg-1 de simulante de alimentos para o DEHA. Dentre as amostras ensaiadas, 95% apresentaram resultado insatisfatório para pelo menos um dos plastificantes. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- In total, 37 samples of flexible PVC films were analyzed for specific migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and di-(2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA from packaging to fatty foods, using simulant. The Resolution n. 17, of March 17, 2008, published by ANVISA, establishes specific migration limits for DEHP in 1.5 mg kg−1 of simulant and for DEHA in 18 mg kg−1 of simulant. The migration test was performed through contact between a 1-dm2 PVC film cutout and 100 mL of food simulant, ethanol 95% (v/v, for 48 h at 20ºC. The migrations of DEHP and DEHA were determined by gas chromatography with a flame ionization

  10. Fiber optically coupled radioluminescence detectors: A short review of key strengths and weaknesses of BCF-60 and Al2O3:C scintillating-material based systems in radiotherapy dosimetry applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buranurak, Siritorn; Andersen, Claus E.

    2017-01-01

    time resolution. In particular, the all-optical nature of these detectors is an advantage for in vivo measurements due to the absence of high voltage supply or electrical wire that could cause harm to the patient or disturb the treatment. Basically, fiber-coupled luminescence detector systems function...

  11. Entrepreneurial Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Van Praag, Mirjam; Thompson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    a labor market position for (female) spouses with limited alternative opportunities. This decision has positive effects: the financial benefits for each of the spouses, and especially the fe-male, are larger in co-entrepreneurial firms, both during the life of the business and post-dissolution. This also......We study motivations for and outcomes of couples starting up a joint firm, using a sample of 1,069 Danish couples that established a joint enterprise between 2001 and 2010, while comparing them to a set of comparable firms and couples. The main motivation for joint entrepreneurship is to create...

  12. A MIXTURE OF ORGANOTINS FOUND IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) PIPE IS NOT IMMUNOTOXIC TO SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS WHEN GIVEN IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organotin compounds used in PVC pipe production are of concern to the U.S. EPA because they leach from supply pipes into drinking water and are reported multisystem toxicants. We assessed immune functions in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to the mixture of organotins used in P...

  13. Infrared studies of PVC-based electrolytes incorporated with lithium triflate and 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate as ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkepeli, Nik A. S. Nik; Winie, Tan; Subban, R. H. Y.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (BMIMCF3SO3) is employed as ionic liquid in PVC-based polymer electrolyte system with lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3) as doping salt. The samples in film form were prepared by quantitatively varying the concentration of BMIMCF3SO3 to a fixed ratio of PVC-LiCF3SO3 using solution cast technique. The highest room temperature ionic conductivity of 1.120 × 10-7 Scm-1 was exhibited by PVC-LiCF3SO3-BMIMCF3SO3 containing 3 wt. % BMIMCF3SO3. FTIR spectra of the polymer electrolytes were examined to study the complexation of the PVC-based polymer electrolytes. Intensity of free ions, ion pairs, and ion aggregates were obtained from FTIR deconvolution in an attempt to correlate with ionic conductivity results. The intensity of free ions was found to be high for sample with 3 wt. % BMIMCF3SO3.

  14. Effect of the modification of the polymer-rich phase composition on the formation of structural defects in radical suspension PVC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purmova, Jindra

    2007-01-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is one of the most successful modern synthetic materials., but its serious disadvantage is its low thermal stability. This obstacle has been overcome for a long time by the addition of stabilizing agents mostly containing heavy metals. Nowadays, the use of these materials

  15. Preparation of Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) Material and its Application to Electrochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue in Sodium Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Prawidha, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode in sodium chloride have been done. The aim of this work was to degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC). Carbon chitosan composite electrode was preparing by Carbon and Chitosan powder and PVC in 4 mL tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent and swirled flatly to homogeneous followed by drying in an oven at 100 °C for 3 h. The mixture was placed in stainless steel mould and pressed at 10 ton/cm2. Sodium chloride was used electrolyte solution. The effects of the current and electrolysis time were investigated using spectrophotometer UV-Visible. The experimental results showed that the carbon-chitosan composite electrode have higher effect in the electrochemical degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Based on UV-visible spectra analysis shows current and electrolysis time has high effect to degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Chitosan and polyvinyl chloride can strengthen the bond between the carbons so that the material has the high stability and conductivity. As conclusions is Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode have a high electrochemical activity for degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride.

  16. Entrepreneurial Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Van Praag, Mirjam; Thompson, Peter

    with a selected set of comparable firms and couples. We find evidence that couples often establish a business together because one spouse - most commonly the female - has limited outside opportunities in the labor market. However, the financial benefits for each of the spouses, and especially the female......We study possible motivations for co-entrepenurial couples to start up a joint firm, us-ing a sample of 1,069 Danish couples that established a joint enterprise between 2001 and 2010. We compare their pre-entry characteristics, firm performance and post-dissolution private and financial outcomes......, are larger in co-entrepreneurial firms, both during the life of the business and post-dissolution. The start-up of co-entrepreneurial firms seems therefore a sound in-vestment in the human capital of both spouses as well as in the reduction of income inequality in the household. We find no evidence of non...

  17. Entrepreneurial Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Van Praag, Mirjam; Thompson, Peter

    with a selected set of comparable firms and couples. We find evidence that couples often establish a business together because one spouse – most commonly the female – has limited outside opportunities in the labor market. However, the financial benefits for each of the spouses, and especially the female......We study possible motivations for co-entrepenurial couples to start up a joint firm, using a sample of 1,069 Danish couples that established a joint enterprise between 2001 and 2010. We compare their pre-entry characteristics, firm performance and postdissolution private and financial outcomes......, are larger in co-entrepreneurial firms, both during the life of the business and post-dissolution. The start-up of co-entrepreneurial firms seems therefore a sound investment in the human capital of both spouses as well as in the reduction of income inequality in the household. We find no evidence of non...

  18. Safety and effectiveness evaluation of a domestic peritoneal dialysis fluid packed in non-PVC bags: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianhui; Cao, Xueying; Lin, Hongli; Ni, Zhaohui; He, Yani; Chen, Menghua; Zheng, Hongguang; Chen, Xiangmei

    2015-12-29

    Peritoneal dialysis is an important type of renal replacement therapy for uremic patients. In peritoneal dialysis, fluids fill in and flow out of the abdominal cavity three to five times per day. Usually, the fluid is packed in a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bag. Safety concerns have arisen over di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, which is essential in the formation of PVC materials. In 2011, the National Development and Reform Commission of China released a catalog of industrial structural adjustments, mandating the elimination of PVC bags for intravenous infusion and food containers. Although bags for peritoneal dialysis fluid were not included in the elimination list, several manufacturers began to develop new materials for fluid bags. HUAREN peritoneal dialysis fluid consists of the same electrolytes and buffer agent as in Baxter fluid, but is packed in bags that do not contain PVC. This multicenter randomized controlled trial was designed to compare peritoneal dialysis fluid packed in non-PVC-containing and PVC-containing bags. Further, the study sought to determine the proper dose of peritoneal dialysis fluid and the actual survival rates of Chinese patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The study participants are adults undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for 30 days to 6 months. All eligible patients are randomized (1:1) to peritoneal dialysis with Baxter and HUAREN dialysis fluids (initial dose, 6 l/day), with dosages adjusted according to a unified protocol. The primary outcomes are the 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year overall survival rates. Secondary outcome measures include technique survival rates, reductions in estimated glomerular filtration rate, nutritional status, quality of life, cardiovascular events, medical costs and drop-out rates. Safety outcome measures include adverse events, changes in vital signs and laboratory parameters, peritonitis, allergies, and quality of products. This study is the first to evaluate the long-term safety and

  19. Electrochemistry Study on PVC-LiClO4 Polymer Electrolyte Supported by Bengkulu Natural Bentonite for Lithium Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghufira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research bentonite was used as filler to produce polymer electrolyte (PVCLiClO4. Some weight variation of bentonite have been made by addition, such as 0% wt/wt; 5% wt/wt ; 10% wt/wt ; 15% wt/wt ; 20% wt/wt ; and 25% wt/wt of bentonite to the mixture of 0,5 gramof PVC and 0,125 gram of LiClO4. Ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte was tested using impedance spectroscopy. The result of the research was showed that a mixture of PVCBentonite(10% wt/wt-LiClO4 gives the highest ionic conductivity (4,86 x 10-3 S.Cm-1. This result indicated that the presence of natural bentonite can be used as a filler in the current composite polymer electrolyte and can increase the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte.

  20. Empirical Study on Sustainable Opportunities Recognition. A Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC Joinery Industry Analysis Using Augmented Sustainable Development Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard-Gabriel Ceptureanu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes factors influencing recognition of sustainable opportunities by using an augmented sustainability process model. The conceptual model used two main factors, Knowledge and Motivation, and one moderating variable, Social embeddedness. We investigated entrepreneurs from PVC joinery industry and concluded that while market orientation and sustainable entrepreneurial orientation definitely and positively influence sustainable opportunity recognition, others variables like knowledge of the natural/communal environment, awareness of sustainable development or focus on success have less support. Among all variables analyzed, perception of the threat of the natural/communal environment and altruism toward others have the poorest impact on opportunity recognition. Finally, we concluded that social embeddedness has a moderating effect on sustainable opportunity recognition, even though the results were mixed.

  1. Model-based performance and energy analyses of reverse osmosis to reuse wastewater in a PVC production site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kang; Fiedler, Thorsten; Blanco, Laura; Geissen, Sven-Uwe; Zander, Simon; Prieto, David; Blanco, Angeles; Negro, Carlos; Swinnen, Nathalie

    2017-11-10

    A pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) followed behind a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was developed for the desalination to reuse wastewater in a PVC production site. The solution-diffusion-film model (SDFM) based on the solution-diffusion model (SDM) and the film theory was proposed to describe rejections of electrolyte mixtures in the MBR effluent which consists of dominant ions (Na+ and Cl-) and several trace ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and SO42-). The universal global optimisation method was used to estimate the ion permeability coefficients (B) and mass transfer coefficients (K) in SDFM. Then, the membrane performance was evaluated based on the estimated parameters which demonstrated that the theoretical simulations were in line with the experimental results for the dominant ions. Moreover, an energy analysis model with the consideration of limitation imposed by the thermodynamic restriction was proposed to analyse the specific energy consumption of the pilot-scale RO system in various scenarios.

  2. COMPORTAMIENTO DE UNA MEZCLA DENSA DE ASFALTO EN CALIENTE MODIFICADA CON DESECHO DE POLICLORURO DE VINILO (PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexander Rondón Quintana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo la tecnología de los asfaltos modificados ha sido una técnicaampliamente utilizada para mejorar las características que presentan las mezclasasfálticas convencionales cuando experimentan niveles elevados de tránsito ygradientes de temperatura. Por lo general lo que se busca con este tipo detecnología es mejorar algunas de las propiedades mecánicas y reológicas de losasfaltos y las mezclas asfálticas convencionales tales como la susceptibilidad térmica, la rigidez, y la resistencia al envejecimiento, a las deformaciones plásticas ya la fatiga. El artículo presenta los resultados experimentales de ensayar una mezcla asfáltica densa en caliente modificada con desecho de policloruro de vinilo (el cual se denominará en el presente trabajo PVC. Para la evaluación del comportamiento de las mezclas asfálticas convencionales y modificadas se realizaron ensayos Marshall, módulo dinámico y deformación permanente. Para el cemento asfáltico (CA con y sin aditivo se realizaron ensayos de caracterización de asfaltos como penetración, punto de ablandamiento y viscosidad. La modificación de las mezclas se realizó por vía húmeda y seca. Adicionando desecho de PVC al cemento asfáltico y a las mezclas, se obtiene un material más rígido con mayor resistencia a la penetración y menor susceptibilidad térmica a fluir.

  3. A novel EIS field effect structures coated with TESUD-PPy-PVC-dibromoaza[7]helicene matrix for potassium ions detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tounsi, Moncef, E-mail: tounsi1981@live.fr [Laboratoire des Interfaces et des Matériaux Avancés (LIMA), Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir (Tunisia); Université de Lyon, Institut de Sciences Analytiques (ISA) – UMR 5280, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Ben Braiek, Mourad [Laboratoire de Synthèse Organique Asymétrique et Catalyse Homogène, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement, 5019, Monastir (Tunisia); Barhoumi, Houcine [Laboratoire des Interfaces et des Matériaux Avancés (LIMA), Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir (Tunisia); Baraket, Abdoullatif; Lee, Michael; Zine, Nadia [Université de Lyon, Institut de Sciences Analytiques (ISA) – UMR 5280, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Maaref, Abderrazak [Laboratoire des Interfaces et des Matériaux Avancés (LIMA), Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir (Tunisia); Errachid, Abdelhamid, E-mail: abdelhamid.errachid-el-salhi@univ-lyon1.fr [Université de Lyon, Institut de Sciences Analytiques (ISA) – UMR 5280, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we describe the development of new Aza[7]helicene-containing PVC-based membranes for the K{sup +} ions quantification. Here, silicon nitride-based structures (Si-p/SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) were developed and the surface was activated, functionalized with an aldehyde–silane (11-(Triethoxysilyl)undecanal (TESUD)), functionalized with polypyrrole (PPy), and coated with the polyvinylchloride (PVC)-membrane containing the Aza[7]helicene as ionophore. All stages of functionalization process have been thoroughly studied by contact angle measurements (CAMs) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The developed ion-selective electrode (ISE) was then applied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for the detection of potassium ions. A linear range was observed between 1.0 × 10{sup −8} M to 1.0 × 10{sup −3} M and a detection limit of 1.0 × 10{sup −8} M was observed. The EIS results have showed a good sensitivity to potassium ion using this novel technique. The target helicene exhibited good solubility and excellent thermal stability with a high decomposition temperature (Td > 300 °C) and it indicates that helicene may be a promising material as ionophore for ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) elaboration. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of a new derivatives of Aza[7]helicenes • Manufacture of PPy structures on the SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} surface using the TESUD as cross linking agent. • The PPy fabricated microstructures can be used as support matrix in biosensing. • Impedimetric K{sup +}-ISEs was developed by using dibromoaza[7]helicene as ionophore for K{sup +} ions determination.

  4. Sensory aspects and water quality impacts of chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water in contact with HDPE and cPVC pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Timothy H; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2007-02-01

    Pipes constructed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (cPVC) are commonly used in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. In this comprehensive investigation, the effects on odor, organic chemical release, trihalomethane (THM) formation, free chlorine demand and monochloramine demand were determined for water exposed to HDPE and cPVC pipes. The study was conducted in accordance with the Utility Quick Test (UQT), a migration/leaching protocol for analysis of materials in contact with drinking water. The sensory panel consistently attributed a weak to moderate intensity of a "waxy/plastic/citrus" odor to the water from the HDPE pipes but not the cPVC-contacted water samples. The odor intensity generated by the HDPE pipe remained relatively constant for multiple water flushes, and the odor descriptors were affected by disinfectant type. Water samples stored in both types of pipe showed a significant increase in the leaching of organic compounds when compared to glass controls, with HDPE producing 0.14 microgTOC/cm(2) pipe surface, which was significantly greater than the TOC release from cPVC. Water stored in both types of pipe showed disinfectant demands of 0.1-0.9 microg disinfectant/cm(2) pipe surface, with HDPE exerting more demand than cPVC. No THMs were detected in chlorinated water exposed to the pipes. The results demonstrate the impact that synthetic plumbing materials can have on sensory and chemical water quality, as well as the significant variations in drinking water quality generated from different materials.

  5. Direct short-term cytotoxic effects of BIBR 1532 on acute promyelocytic leukemia cells through induction of p21 coupled with downregulation of c-Myc and hTERT transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashash, D; Ghaffari, S H; Zaker, F; Hezave, K; Kazerani, M; Ghavamzadeh, A; Alimoghaddam, K; Mosavi, S A; Gharehbaghian, A; Vossough, P

    2012-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by specific t(15;17), distinct morphologic picture, and clinical coagulopathy that contribute to the morbidity and mortality of the disease. This study aims to investigate the effects of antitelomerase compound BIBR1532 on APL cells (NB4). BIBR 1532 exerts a direct short-term growth suppressive effect in a concentration-dependent manner probably through downregulation of c-Myc and hTERT expression. Our results also suggest that induction of p21 and subsequent disturbance of Bax/Bcl-2 balanced ratio as well as decreased telomerase activity may be rational mechanisms for the potent/direct short-term cytotoxicity of high doses of BIBR1532 against NB4 cells.

  6. A microscopic approach based on particle-vibration coupling: application to charge-exchange transitions and multiplets in odd nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colò Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we shall describe a formalism that goes beyond the simple time-dependent mean field and is based on particle-vibration coupling (PVC. Such a formalism has been developed with the idea of being self-consistent. It makes use of Skyrme effective forces, and has been used for several applications. We will focus on charge-exchange transitions, namely we will show that our model describes well both the Gamow-Teller giant resonance width, and the low-lying transitions associated with β-decay. In this latter case, including PVC produces a significant improvement of the half-lives obtained at mean-field level, and leads to a good agreement with experimental data. We will end by discussing particle-phonon multiplets in odd nuclei.

  7. Fiber optically coupled radioluminescence detectors: A short review of key strengths and weaknesses of BCF-60 and Al2O3:C scintillating-material based systems in radiotherapy dosimetry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranurak, S.; Andersen, C. E.

    2017-06-01

    Radiotherapy technologies have improved for several decades aiming to effectively destroy cancerous tissues without overdosing surrounding healthy tissues. In order to fulfil this requirement, accurate and precise dosimetry systems play an important role. Throughout the years, ionization chambers have been used as a standard detector for basic linear accelerator calibrations and reference dosimetry in hospitals. However, they are not ideal for all treatment modalities: and limitations and difficulties have been reported in case of (i) small treatment fields, (ii) strong magnetic field used in the new hybrid MRI LINAC/cobalt systems, and (iii) in vivo measurements due to safety-issues related to the high operating voltage. Fiber optically coupled luminescence detectors provide a promising supplement to ionization chambers by offering the capability of real-time in vivo dose monitoring with high time resolution. In particular, the all-optical nature of these detectors is an advantage for in vivo measurements due to the absence of high voltage supply or electrical wire that could cause harm to the patient or disturb the treatment. Basically, fiber-coupled luminescence detector systems function by radiation-induced generation of radioluminescence from a sub-mm size organic/inorganic phosphor. A thin optical fiber cable is used for guiding the radioluminescence to a photomultiplier tube or similar sensitive light detection systems. The measured light intensity is proportional to dose rate. Throughout the years, developments and research of the fiber detector systems have undergone in several groups worldwide. In this article, the in-house developed fiber detector systems based on two luminescence phosphors of (i) BCF-60 polystyrene-based organic plastic scintillator and (ii) carbon-doped aluminum oxide crystal (Al2O3:C) are reviewed with comparison to the same material-based systems reported in the literature. The potential use of these detectors for reference

  8. Preparation and characterization of PVC/PMMA blend polymer electrolytes complexed with LiN(C2F5SO22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimma Elizabeth R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of polymer blend electrolytes comprising Poly(vinyl chloride (PVC and Poly(methyl methacrylate(PMMA and plasticized with a combination of ethylene carbonate (EC and propylene carbonate (PC for different lithium imide salt, LiN(C2F5SO32 , concentrations were prepared using the solution casting technique. The films were subjected to a. c. impedance measurements as a function of temperature ranging from -30 °C to 70 °C. The variation of ionic conductivity as a function of temperature and PVC content in the blend was analysed. The role of PMMA in the phenomena occurring at the interface between the plasticized polymer electrolyte and lithium electrode was also studied. The cast films were also subjected to TG/DTA and FT-IR studies which are discussed.

  9. HCl emission during co-pyrolysis of demolition wood with a small amount of PVC film and the effect of wood constituents on HCl emission reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidetoshi Kuramochi; Daisuke Nakajima; Sumio Goto; Kazutoshi Sugita; Wei Wu; Katsuya Kawamoto [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Ibaraki (Japan). Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management

    2008-10-15

    In this study, HCl emission during the co-pyrolysis of demolition wood and a small amount of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film (the Cl content of which ranged from 0.5% to 6% by weight) in an N{sub 2} atmosphere at elevated temperatures of up to 600{sup o}C was measured using a laboratory-scale cylindrical batch reactor. In the pyrolysis experiments, HCl emission was reduced by the presence of wood. The effect of the primary constituents of wood (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) on HCl emission was investigated by not only measuring HCl emission and Cl distribution to various phases during the co-pyrolysis of each constituent with PVC film but also by conducting thermogravimetric analysis of the constituents. This investigation first revealed that hemicellulose significantly reduced HCl emission by fixing most of the Cl molecules in a sample into pyrolyzed residue. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The individual and cumulative effect of brominated flame retardant and polyvinylchloride (PVC) on thermal degradation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brebu, Mihai; Bhaskar, Thallada; Murai, Kazuya; Muto, Akinori; Sakata, Yusaku; Uddin, Md Azhar

    2004-08-01

    Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymers without and with a polybrominated epoxy type flame retardant were thermally degraded at 450 degrees C alone (10 g) and mixed with polyvinylchloride (PVC) (8 g/2 g). Gaseous and liquid products of degradation were analysed by various gas chromatographic methods (GC with TCD, FID, AED, MSD) in order to determine the individual and cumulative effect of bromine and chlorine on the quality and quantity of degradation compounds. It was found that nitrogen, chlorine, bromine and oxygen are present as organic compounds in liquid products, their quantity depends on the pyrolysed polymer or polymer mixture. Bromophenol and dibromophenols were the main brominated compounds that come from the flame retardant. 1-Chloroethylbenzene was the main chlorine compound observed in liquid products. It was also determined that interactions appear at high temperatures during decomposition between the flame retardant, PVC and the ABS copolymer.

  11. Desarrollo de la competencia argumentativa a través de la toma de decisiones en el abordaje de la cuestión sociocientífica "uso y comercialización del PVC"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lady Carolina Achury; Jenny Alvarez Hoyos

    2015-01-01

    ... y comercialización del Policloruro de Vinilo (PVC). En un primer momento se analizan las ideas previas de los estudiantes frente a los polímeros, específicamente el PVC, con el objetivo de establecer algunos parámetros que permitan mejorar la secuencia a implementar. Posteriormente se presentan los resultados obtenidos en las actividades planteadas de la secuencia, analizando el nivel de argumentación en la toma de decisiones que presentan los estudiantes.

  12. Citotoxicidade de tubos de PVC esterilizados em óxido de etileno após exposição à radiação gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Queiroz de Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Materiais esterilizados em raios gama, ao serem re-esterilizados em óxido de etileno (EO, formam substâncias tóxicas? Esta questão norteou o objetivo deste estudo, que foi investigar o potencial efeito citotóxico do PVC esterilizado em radiação gama e re-esterilizado em EO pelo método da difusão em ágar em culturas celulares. Nove tubos de PVC foram submetidos à esterilização em radiação gama e re-esterilizados em EO. Os tubos foram divididos em um total de 81 unidades de análise, que foram testadas de forma a representar as superfícies internas, externas e massa de cada tubo. Concluiu-se que os materiais de PVC esterilizados em Radiação Gama e consecutivamente re-esterilizados em EO não são citotóxicos.

  13. Citotoxicidade de tubos de PVC esterilizados em óxido de etileno após exposição à radiação gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Queiroz de Souza

    Full Text Available Materiais esterilizados em raios gama, ao serem re-esterilizados em óxido de etileno (EO, formam substâncias tóxicas? Esta questão norteou o objetivo deste estudo, que foi investigar o potencial efeito citotóxico do PVC esterilizado em radiação gama e re-esterilizado em EO pelo método da difusão em ágar em culturas celulares. Nove tubos de PVC foram submetidos à esterilização em radiação gama e re-esterilizados em EO. Os tubos foram divididos em um total de 81 unidades de análise, que foram testadas de forma a representar as superfícies internas, externas e massa de cada tubo. Concluiu-se que os materiais de PVC esterilizados em Radiação Gama e consecutivamente re-esterilizados em EO não são citotóxicos.

  14. Degradation mechanism and kinetic model for photocatalytic oxidation of PVC-ZnO composite film in presence of a sensitizing dye and UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, Sampa [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)], E-mail: sampac@vsnl.net; Chaudhuri, Basab [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)], E-mail: basabc@vsnl.net; Bhattacharjee, Sekhar [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)], E-mail: sekharbhatta@rediffmail.com; Das, Paramita [Department of Polymer Science and Technology, University of Calcutta (India)], E-mail: mitaa_das@yahoo.com; Dutta, Binay Kanti [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Technologi PETRONAS (Malaysia)], E-mail: binaydutta@petronas.com.my

    2008-06-15

    White or plastic pollution has become a serious concern to the environmentalists for the last few years. Degradation of waste plastics in conventional incinerators leads to emission of carcinogenic dioxins to the atmosphere. In this work, an attempt has been made for the photocatalytic degradation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using ZnO as semi-conductor catalyst in the form of PVC-ZnO composite film. The surface morphology as well as the FTIR spectroscopy of the irradiated film has been critically examined. The degradation was measured by weight loss data and was found to follow a pseudo-first order rate equation. The various parameters studied were loading of the semi-conductor, intensity of UV radiation and presence of Eosin Y as a sensitizing dye. It was observed that dye-sensitization enhanced degradation of PVC to a large extent. A possible mechanism has been suggested and the corresponding rate equation has been modeled for the dye-sensitized rate of degradation. The model has been validated by the experimental data.

  15. Adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to untreated and oxygen-plasma treated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) from endotracheal intubation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandafillu, K; Balazs, D J; Aronsson, B-O; Descouts, P; Tu Quoc, P; van Delden, C; Mathieu, H J; Harms, H

    2003-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia is a life threatening complication in mechanically ventilated patients that requires the ability of the bacteria to adhere to, and colonize the endotracheal intubation device. New strategies to prevent or reduce these nosocomial infections are greatly needed. We report here the study of a set of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, together with specific mutants, regarding their adhesion on native and chemically modified poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) surfaces from endotracheal intubation devices. The adhesion of the different strains to untreated PVC varied widely, correlating with several physico-chemical characteristics known to influence the attachment of bacteria to inert surfaces. The adhesion patterns were compared to the calculations obtained with the DLVO theory of colloidal stability. These results illustrate the importance of testing different clinical isolates when investigating bacterial adhesion. Oxygen plasma treatment of the PVC pieces yielded a hydrophilic surface and reduced the number of adhering bacteria by as much as 70%. This reduction is however unlikely to be sufficient to prevent P. aeruginosa colonization of endotracheal intubation devices. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. Equilibrium and kinetic modeling of iron adsorption and the effect by chloride, sulfate, and hydroxyl: evaluation of PVC-U drinking pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia -Ying; Li, Shu-Ping; Xin, Kun-Lun; Tao, Tao

    2016-12-01

    The update of pipeline was quick over the last few years and the plastic pipes were widely used in the drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs), especially in the small-diameter pipes. In this study, the iron adsorptive characteristics and the affecting factors in unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) pipe were investigated. Results showed that the average amount of iron in the 10-year-old PVC-U pipe's interior surface was 2.80 wt% which was almost 187 times larger than that in a new one. Goethite (α-FeOOH) and magnetite (Fe3O4) were the major iron compounds in the scales which covered on the old pipes' interior surface and showed loose and porous images under a scanning electron microscope. Moreover, the influence of the iron concentration on the adsorption amount and rate was discussed. The adsorption amount was significantly influenced by iron concentration, but similar adsorption rate was discovered. Notably, iron was quantitatively adsorbed by PVC-U pipe during the experimental period in accordance with the pseudo second order kinetic model. Meanwhile, regression model and response surface methodology were used to analyze the regular of iron adsorption in different concentrations of chloride (Cl(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and hydroxyl (OH(-)). It can be concluded that Cl(-) and OH(-) showed the strong ability of iron adsorption which were larger than SO4(2-).

  17. Sifat fisika dan analisis gugus fungsi karet seal o-ring dari bahan termoplastik elastomer nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR dan polyvinyl chloride (PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Yuniari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the physical properties and functional groups on O-ring rubber seals made of thermoplastic elastomers blend NBR and PVC. Composition of the NBR / PVC were successively varied : 90/10; 85/15; 80/20; 75/25; 70/30 and 65/35 phr. Mixing process between NBR/PVC with additive used a two roll mill within a temperature of 60º - 80 ºC, the vulcanization process used a hydraulic press at a temperature of 170 oC and pressure of 150 kg/cm2. The physical properties were evaluated including tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness, before and after aging, hardness after immersion in isooctane and swelling while analysis of functional groups was also carried out by method of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR. The result of the best vulcanized was characterized by tensile strength 188.93 kg/cm2, the change of tensile strength after aging 2.50%, elongation at break of 400%, the change of elongation at break after aging was 12.5%, hardness 75 shore A, the change of hardness after aging 0%, the change of hardness after immersion in isooctane 1.3%, swelling 0.8% and functional group of vulcanisate was indicated by new peak (OH at wave band of 3468 cm-1. Those formula met the requirements of the technical specifications of ASTM D 2000 seal O-ring.

  18. Thiocyanate ion-selective PVC membrane electrode based on N,N'-ethylene-bis(4-methylsalicylidineiminato)nickel(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloum Ardakani, M; Jamshidpour, M; Naeimi, H; Moradi, L

    2006-09-01

    A highly selective poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane electrode based on an N,N'-ethylene-bis(4-methyl-salicylidineiminato) nickel(II) [Ni(EBMSI)] complex as a carrier for a thiocyanate-selective electrode is reported. The influences of the membrane composition, pH and possible interfering anions were investigated based on the response properties of the electrode. The electrode exhibited a good Nernstian slope of -58.9 +/- 0.7 mV decade(-1), over a wide pH range of 3.5 - 8.5 and a linear range of 1.0 x 10(-6) - 1.0 x 10(-1) M for thiocyanate. The detection limit of electrode was 3.1 x 10(-7) M SCN(-). The selectivity coefficients determined by a fixed interference method (FIM) indicate that a good discriminating ability towards the SCN- ion compared to other anions. The proposed sensor had a fast response time of about 5 - 15 s and could be used for at least 3 months without any considerable divergence in the potential. It was applied as an indicator electrode in the titration of thiocyanate with Ag+ and in the potentiometric determination of thiocyanate in saliva and urine samples.

  19. Experimental, Theoretical and Numerical Investigation of the Flexural Behaviour of the Composite Sandwich Panels with PVC Foam Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, A.; Shankar, K.; Morozov, E. V.

    2014-08-01

    This study presents the main results of an experimental, theoretical and numerical investigation on the flexural behaviour and failure mode of composite sandwich panels primarily developed for marine applications. The face sheets of the sandwich panels are made up of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP), while polyvinylchloride (PVC) foam was used as core material. Four-point bending test was carried out to investigate the flexural behaviour of the sandwich panel under quasi static load. The finite element (FE) analysis taking into account the cohesive nature of the skin-core interaction as well as the geometry and materials nonlinearity was performed, while a classical beam theory was used to estimate the flexural response. Although the FE results accurately represented the initial and post yield flexural response, the theoretical one restricted to the initial response of the sandwich panel due to the linearity assumptions. Core shear failure associate with skin-core debonding close to the loading points was the dominant failure mode observed experimentally and validated numerically and theoretically.

  20. PVC-membrane potentiometric sensors based on a recently synthesized Schiff base for Fe(III ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yousef Ebrahimipur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A potentiometric iron sensor based on the use 3-(2-diethylamino-ethylimino-1,3-dihydro-indol-2-one (DEDIO as an ionophore in poly(vinyl chloride (PVC matrix, is reported. The plasticized membrane sensor exhibits a Nernstian response for Fe(III ions over a wide concentration range (2.0 × 10-6 - 5.0 × 10-2 M with a super Nernstian slope of 26(plus or minus 1 mV per decade. It has a fast response time of less than 12 s and can be used for ten weeks without any considerable divergences in its potentials the electrode can be used in the pH range 4.5-8.0. The proposed sensor shows fairly good discriminating ability towards Fe(III ion in comparison with a large number of alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The sensor was used as indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of Fe(III ions vs. EDTA.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i1.7

  1. Hall devices based on transfer print of CVD graphene onto 75 μm-thick PVC film via lamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkaya, Ugur; Oral, Ahmet

    Having high mobility even for low density of charge carriers and large tensile strength, graphene is a favorable material for the fabrication of flexible Hall sensors. Laminating graphene obtained on 20 μm-thick Cu foil via atmospheric-pressure CVD with 75 μm-thick PVC film, we developed a simple and low-cost scheme for manufacturing graphene-based flexible Hall devices, without resorting to metallization techniques such as evaporation or sputtering. Instead of these techniques, electrical contacts are provided by the pieces of copper foils preserved during the chemical etching with an aqueous solution of ferric chloride. By using this scheme, we manufactured 95 μm-thick flexible Hall sensors with resistances and Hall coefficients of the order of 1 k Ω and 100 Ω/T. Moreover, we made Hall devices by iterating our manufacture scheme multiple times, thereby forming few- or multi-layer graphene and hence we were able to both observe the dependence of the characteristics of the Hall sensors upon the number of graphene layers and characterize the resulting graphene structures. The fabrication and the characterization of the 95 μm-thick flexible Hall sensors, and the characterization of the multi-layer graphene will be presented.

  2. Fabrication of copper-selective PVC membrane electrode based on newly synthesized copper complex of Schiff base as carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulekh Chandra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The newly synthesized copper(II complex of Schiff base p-hydroxyacetophenone semicarbazone was explored as neutral ionophore for the fabrication of poly(vinylchloride (PVC based membrane electrode selective to Cu(II ions. The electrode shows a Nernstian slope of 29.8 ± 0.3 mV/decade with improved linear range of 1.8 × 10−7 to 1.0 × 10−1 M, comparatively lower detection limit 5.7 × 10−8 M between pH range of 2.0–8.0, giving a relatively fast response within 5s and can be used for at least 16 weeks without any divergence in potential. The selectivity coefficient was calculated using the fixed interference method (FIM. The electrode can also be used in partially non-aqueous media having up to 25% (v/v methanol, ethanol or acetone content with no significant change in the value of slope or working concentration range. It was successfully applied for the direct determination of copper content in water and tea samples with satisfactory results. The electrode has been used in the potentiometric titration of Cu2+ with EDTA.

  3. Immobilization of tris(2 pyridyl methylamine in a PVC-Membrane Sensor and Characterization of the Membrane Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezayi Majid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the increasing industrial use of titanium compounds, its determination is the subject of considerable efforts. The ionophore or membrane active recognition is the most important component of any polymeric membrane sensor. The sensor’s response depends on the ionophore and bonding between the ionophore and the target ion. Ionophores with molecule-sized dimensions containing cavities or semi-cavities can surround the target ion. The bond between the ionophore and target ion gives different selectivity and sensitivity toward the other ions. Therefore, ionophores with different binding strengths can be used in the sensor. Results In the present work, poly (vinyl chloride (PVC based membrane incorporating tris (2 pyridyl methylamine (tpm as an ionophore has been prepared and explored as a titanium(III selective sensor. Conclusions The strengths of the ion–ionophore (Ti(OH2+-tpm interactions and the role of ionophore on membrane were tested by various techniques such as elemental analysis, UV–vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD. All data approved the successful incorporation of organic group via covalent bond.

  4. Higher moisture content is associated with greater emissions of DEHP from PVC wallpaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Liu, Yu-Chun; Lee, Chia-Wei; Lee, Ching-Chang; Su, Huey-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Water damage and moisture in buildings may become more prevalent due to the increasing frequency of extreme precipitation and flooding events resulting from climate change. However, the effects of moisture levels on phthalate emissions from building materials are still underreported. This study aims to evaluate the effect of moisture content (MC) on the level of di-(2ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) emitted from plastic wallpaper (0.22wt% DEHP) within 15 days in a closed chamber. A scenario of short-term exposure to DEHP in buildings suffering from water damage was simulated. Experiments, controlled at 100% relative humidity (RH) of air and 28°C, were conducted under the following three conditions: (I) without wallpaper (control chamber), (II) dry wallpaper (MC at 3.57%) and (III) damp wallpaper (MC at 52.31%). Air and dust samples were collected at the elapsed time of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 13 and 15 days, and the wipe sample was collected on the last day. Higher DEHP concentrations were found to be emitted into the air and adsorbed on the dust for wallpapers with higher MC%. DEHP levels in the air exhibited an increasing trend with the length of the experiment. Overall, it was found that approximately 35.31% more total DEHP mass was released into the air, dust and wipe samples from damp wallpapers compared to dry wallpapers. It is concluded that DEHP emissions from plastic materials are affected by the inner moisture percentage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Slc5a8, a Na+-coupled high-affinity transporter for short-chain fatty acids, is a conditional tumour suppressor in colon that protects against colitis and colon cancer under low-fibre dietary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Ashish; Sivaprakasam, Sathish; Bhutia, Yangzom D; Boettger, Thomas; Singh, Nagendra; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2015-07-15

    Mammalian colon harbours trillions of bacteria under physiological conditions; this symbiosis is made possible because of a tolerized response from the mucosal immune system. The mechanisms underlying this tolerogenic phenomenon remain poorly understood. In the present study we show that Slc5a8 (solute carrier gene family 5a, member 8), a Na(+)-coupled high-affinity transporter in colon for the bacterial fermentation product butyrate, plays a critical role in this process. Among various immune cells in colon, dendritic cells (DCs) are unique not only in their accessibility to luminal contents but also in their ability to induce tolerogenic phenotype in T-cells. We found that DCs exposed to butyrate express the immunosuppressive enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A2 (Aldh1A2), promote conversion of naive T-cells into immunosuppressive forkhead box P3(+) (FoxP3(+)) Tregs (regulatory T-cells) and suppress conversion of naive T-cells into pro-inflammatory interferon (IFN)-γ-producing cells. Slc5a8-null DCs do not induce IDO1 and Aldh1A2 and do not generate Tregs or suppress IFN-γ-producing T-cells in response to butyrate. We also provide in vivo evidence for an obligatory role for Slc5a8 in suppression of IFN-γ-producing T-cells. Furthermore, Slc5a8 protects against colitis and colon cancer under conditions of low-fibre intake but not when dietary fibre intake is optimal. This agrees with the high-affinity nature of the transporter to mediate butyrate entry into cells. We conclude that Slc5a8 is an obligatory link between dietary fibre and mucosal immune system via the bacterial metabolite butyrate and that this transporter is a conditional tumour suppressor in colon linked to dietary fibre content. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  6. Estudo do efeito da incorporação de plastificante de fonte renovável em compostos de PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derval dos Santos Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O acúmulo de resíduos poliméricos tem crescido nos últimos anos e os subsolos dos lixões já estão saturados com resíduos plásticos. Isso possivelmente se deve à elevada produção de resíduos sólidos de plásticos (cerca de 25 mil t/dia em 2008, segundo a Lei de Resíduos. Em vista disso, este trabalho apresenta uma análise comparativa do estudo do potencial de (biodegradação de compostos de PVC utilizando um plastificante de origem vegetal renovável (PFR com estrutura de éster de milho com massa molar 296,5 g.mol- 1 e dois plastificantes sintéticos, ftalato de dioctila (DOP e adipato de dioctila (DOA, buscando inovar na obtenção de um composto de PVC com um plastificante de fonte renovável. Os resultados de FTIR evidenciaram maior interação do PFR com a resina de PVC para o teor de 30 phr, e para o teor de 40 phr observou-se que os plastificantes DOP e PFR apresentaram os mesmos valores de variação da banda atática. Já os ensaios mecânicos reforçaram os resultados de FTIR com maior compatibilidade para as composições contendo PFR. Uma maior estabilidade térmica no composto de PVC foi observada por TGA para a amostra contendo 40 phr de DOA, o que foi confirmado por RMN, e para a amostra com PFR nos teores de 30 e 40 phr. Por fim, uma perda significativa de massa foi observada nos ensaios de resistência à extração por solvente para os compostos contendo DOA, sendo que a amostra com 30 phr mostrou menor valor de extração. A biodegradação em solo simulado mostrou maior perda de massa para as amostras plastificadas com DOA (40phr e PFR (40phr. Isso indica que é viável usar plastificante de fonte renovável nos compostos de PVC, devido à compatibilidade deste com esta resina.

  7. Biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de caprinos e ovinos em reator contínuo de PVC flexível Anaerobic digestion of goat and sheep wastes in a continuous reactor of flexible PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo G. de Quadros

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A escassez de fontes energéticas e as altas taxas de mortalidade do rebanho são dois grandes problemas para os agricultores familiares no semiárido brasileiro. De setembro de 2006 a abril de 2007 um reator contínuo com gasômetro em PVC flexível, com 33 m³ de volume, instalado na Estação Experimental da EBDA, Jaguarari, Estado da Bahia, foi monitorado quanto aos parâmetros bioquímicos, microbiológicos e parasitários do afluente e efluente, sendo avaliadas a produção e a composição do biogás, além da utilização do biofertilizante em capim-elefante. Com o manejo adequado, o poder poluente dos dejetos foi reduzido significativamente. Microbiologicamente, a eficiência de remoção de coliformes totais e fecais se manteve acima de 98% enquanto os ovos dos principais endoparasitos foram eliminados com o tratamento. A produção de biogás foi de 0,061 m³ kg-1 de esterco. Basicamente, o biogás apresentou, em sua composição, 58 e 34% de metano e gás carbônico, respectivamente. O biofertilizante (pH 7,5 foi uma boa fonte de nutrientes, sobretudo de nitrogênio (64 g 100L-1, 80% na forma amoniacal e potássio (214 g 100L-1, aumentando a produção de forragem sem alterações significativas na composição bromatológica, digestibilidade "in vitro" da matéria seca e teor de minerais.The scarcity of energy resources and the high livestock mortality rates are perpetual problems for small farmers of the Brazilian semi-arid region. From September 2006 to April 2007 a continuous reactor, of 33 m³ with gasometer in PVC flexible film, was installed at the EBDA Experimental Station, Jaguarari, Bahia State and the affluent and effluent biochemical, microbiological, and parasitological characteristics were monitored, the biogas production and composition being evaluated, as well as the use of the biofertilizer in elephant grass. With adequate management, the pollution power of residues reduced significantly. Microbiologically, the

  8. Simultaneous determination of acrylamide, asparagine and glucose in food using short chain methyl imidazolium ionic liquid based ultrasonic assisted extraction coupled with analyte focusing by ionic liquid micelle collapse capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hady, Deia; Albishri, Hassan M

    2015-12-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a known lethal neurotoxin and carcinogen. AA is formed in foods during the browning process by the Maillard reaction of glucose (GL) with asparagine (AS). For the first time, the simultaneous online preconcentration and separation of AA, AS and GL using analyte focusing by ionic liquid micelle collapse capillary electrophoresis (AFILMC) was presented. Samples were prepared in a 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (BMIMBr) micellar matrix with a conductivity 4 times greater than that of the running buffer (12.5 mmol L(-1) phosphate buffer at pH 8.5). Samples were hydrodynamically injected into a fused silica capillary at 25.0 mbar for 25.0 s. Separations were performed by applying a voltage of 25.0 kV and a detection at 200.0 nm. To sufficiently reduce BMIMBr adsorption on the interior surface of capillary, an appropriate rinsing procedure by hydrochloric acid and water was optimized. AFILMC measurements of analytes within the concentration range of 0.05-10.0 μmol L(-1) achieved adequate reproducibility and accuracy with RSD 1.14-3.42% (n=15) and recovery 98.0-110.0%, respectively. Limits of detections were 0.71 ng g(-1) AA, 1.06 ng g(-1) AS and 27.02 ng g(-1) GL with linearity ranged between 2.2 and 1800 ng g(-1). The coupling of AFILMC with IL based ultrasonic assisted extraction (ILUAE) was successfully applied to the efficient extraction and determination of AA, AS and GL in bread samples. The structure of ILs has significant effects on the extraction efficiency of analytes. The optimal extraction efficiency (97.8%) was achieved by an aqueous extraction with 4:14 ratio of sample: 3.0 mol L(-1) BMIMBr followed by sonication at 35 °C. The proposed combination of ILUAE and AFILMC was simple, ecofriendly, reliable and inexpensive to analyze a toxic compound and its precursors in bread which is applicable to food safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of extensional cyclic strain on the mechanical and physico-mechanical properties of PVC-NBR/graphite composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The variation of electrical resistivity as will as the mechanical properties of PVC (polyvinylchloride-NBR (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber based conductive composites filled with different concentrations of graphite were studied. These samples were studied as function of the constant deformation fatigue test. When the specimen was subjected to a large number of rapidly repeating strain cycles, and different strain amplitudes, the conductivity, σ(T, shows an initial rapid fall followed by dynamic equilibrium. Increasing the number of cycles and strain amplitudes, the conductivity remains almost constant over the temperature range 30–140°C. The equilibrium state between destruction and reconstruction of graphite particles has been detected for all strains of certain values of strain cycles (1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 cycles for 30% strain amplitude. A preliminary study was done to optimize the possibility to use Conductive Polymer Composites (CPC as a strain sensor and to evaluate its performance by an intrinsic physico-mechanical modification measurement. The electromechanical characterization was performed to demonstrate the adaptability and the correct functioning of the sensor as a strain gauge on the fabric. The coefficient of strain sensitivity (K was measured for 50 phr graphite/PVCNBR vulcanized at 3000 number of strain cycles and 30% strain amplitude. There was a broad maximum of K, with a peak value of 82, which was much higher, compared to conventional wire resistors. A slight hysteresis was observed at unloading due to plasticity of the matrix. A good correlation exists between mechanical and electrical response to the strain sensitivity. Mechanical reinforcement was in accordance with the Quemada equation [1] and Guth model [2] attested to good particle-matrix adhesion. It was found that the viscous component of deformation gradually disappeared and the hardening occurred with increasing strain cycles. The modulus, fracture

  10. Europium (III) PVC membrane sensor based on N-pyridine-2-carboxamido-8-aminoquinoline as a sensing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali, E-mail: haszamani@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Quchan branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kamjoo, Rahman [Department of Applied Chemistry, Quchan branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadhosseini, Majid [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zaferoni, Mojdeh; Rafati, Zynab [Department of Applied Chemistry, Quchan branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridbod, Farnoush [Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Meghdadi, Soraia [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-01

    Conductometric study in acetonitrile solution shows the selectivity of PCQ toward europium ion. Therefore, a new europium PVC membrane electrode was prepared based on N-pyridine-2-carboxamido-8-aminoquinoline (PCQ) as an ion carrier. The electrode has a wide concentration range from 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} and 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1}, Nernstian slope of 19.8 {+-} 0.3 mV per decade and a detection limit of 6.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1}. The potentiometric response is pH independent in the range of 2.4-7.4. The proposed sensor has a relatively fast response time less than 10 s and it can be used for at least 2 months without any considerable divergence in its potentials. The proposed electrode revealed good selectivity toward europium ion in comparison with variety of other metal ions. The practical utility of the electrodes has been demonstrated by their use as indicator electrodes in the potentiometric titration of Eu{sup 3+} ions with EDTA and for determination of Eu{sup 3+} ion concentration in mixtures of two and three different ions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new ion carrier is introduced to preparation of a selective sensor for Eu{sup 3+} ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This technique is very simple and it's not necessary to use sophisticated equipment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The novelty of this work is the high affinity of the ionophore toward the Eu{sup 3+} ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensor is superior to the formerly reported Eu{sup 3+} sensors in terms of selectivity.

  11. Reticulação de plastissóis de PVC utilizando resina epóxi polifuncional: síntese e caracterização Crosslinking of PVC plastisols using a polyfunctional epoxy resin: synthesis and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ívi Martins de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastissois reticulados de PVC foram obtidos por meio de espalmagem, na presença de uma resina epóxi polifuncional tipo tetraglicidilmetilenodianilina (TGMDA. A presença de um amino acelerador, baseado numa poliaminoamida comercial, mostrou-se imprescindível para a ocorrência de reticulação das cadeias do PVC. Resultados de grau de reticulação mostraram que só houve formação de gel nas amostras onde o amino acelerador foi utilizado concomitantemente com a resina epóxi, evidenciando uma sinergia entre ambos. Apesar dos resultados de módulo de Young sugerirem a formação de uma rede tridimensional entre as moléculas do PVC e a resina epóxi, a comprovação de uma reação química de reticulação entre o PVC e a resina epóxi não foi possível, devido ao grande numero de moléculas presentes na formulação final. Entretanto, a evidência de que a reticulação de fato ocorreu poderá vir de estudos mais detalhados e o uso de outras técnicas de caracterização complementares, já iniciados.PVC plastisols, crosslinked in the presence of a polyfunctional epoxy resin, were obtained via spread coating. It was possible to infer that the presence of an amine type accelerator, at least in the conditions used in this study, proved to be essential for crosslinking. The results of reticulation degree showed that gel formation only happened in samples where the amine type accelerator has been used concomitantly with the epoxy resin. The results of Young’s modulus seem to confirm the hypothesis of formation of a three dimensional network between the molecules of PVC and epoxy resin, but it was not possible to confirm a chemical reaction between these two polymers because of the large number of molecules present in the formulation. Evidence that crosslinking actually occurred may come from more detailed studies and the use of complementary characterization techniques, which are underway.

  12. Complicações determinadas por placas de cloreto de polivinila (PVC na estabilização da porção cervical caudal da coluna vertebral de cães Complications determined by polyvinylchloride (PVC plates in the stabilization of caudal cervical vertebral column of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 10 cães com peso médio de 14,6kg, as vértebras cervicais 5 e 6 foram cirurgicamente desestabilizadas através da secção do disco intervertebral e, em seguida, estabilizadas com placas ortopédicas confeccionadas com PVC de 2mm de espessura, para após 180 dias, proceder-se ao estudo histológico do tecido ósseo e conjuntivo circunvizinho. Constatou-se que o PVC causou alterações ósseas que podem ter favorecido o afrouxamento dos parafusos e a falha do implante. O material induziu ainda à formação de granuloma de corpo estranho e a reações inflamatórias locais que podem ter causado degradação do material implantado. Assim, placas de PVC, apesar de proporcionarem estabilidade e alinhamento da coluna vertebral, não satisfazem a maioria das propriedades necessárias a um biomaterial, não sendo recomendadaa a sua utilização em ortopedia veterinária.In ten dogs with an average mean weight of 14,6 kg, the cervical vertebra 5 and 6 were destabilized and fixed with plates of 2mm of thickness. The purpose of this work was to verify the effect of orthopedic PVC plates on the internal stabilization of the caudal cervical spine of dogs by studying the occurrence of alterations in the bone tissue and fibrous tissue adjacent to the plate after 180 days of permanence of the material in the dogs' organism. PVC causes progressive bone alterations, which, in the long term, could promote the loosening of the screws and failure of the implant. It also induces the formation of foreign body granuloma and inflammatory reactions which could cause degradation of the implant. Thus, PVC plates do not satisfy the majority of properties required of a biomaterial, its use not being recommended in veterinary orthopedics.

  13. Uso de películas de fécula de mandioca e pvc na conservação pós-colheita de pimentão Use cassava starch films and pvc on post-harvest conservation of bell pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Toews Doll Hojo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Os produtos hortícolas apresentam vida útil pós-colheita limitada, devido às reações bioquímicas de natureza catabólica, que aumentam com a senescência, causando a morte dos tecidos. Avaliou-se o uso de películas de fécula de mandioca e PVC na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de pimentões (Capsicum annuum L. armazenados em condições ambiente. Pimentões cv. Ikeda foram submetidos a 4 tratamentos: PVC, biofilmes nas concentrações de 3,5%, 4% e 4,5% de fécula de mandioca. Como testemunha foram utilizados frutos sem recobrimento de filme. As análises químicas foram realizadas a cada 2 dias, durante 8 dias de armazenamento, sendo avaliados a perda de massa, firmeza, acidez titulável (AT, pH, sólidos solúveis (SS, pectina total e pectina solúvel, coloração da casca e clorofila. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial com 25 tratamentos, 3 repetições e 2 frutos por parcela. Em todos os tratamentos, a firmeza e o pH diminuíram, enquanto a AT e os SS aumentaram no final do período de armazenamento em condições ambiente. Os tratamentos utilizados não ocasionaram alterações significativas no teor de pectina total durante o período de armazenamento, entretanto, menor teor de pectina solúvel foi observado nos frutos envoltos em PVC. Os frutos recobertos com biofilmes a 4 e 4,5% de fécula de mandioca apresentaram descamação da película a partir do sexto dia de armazenamento. A aplicação de PVC foi efetiva na manutenção da qualidade de pimentões cv. Ikeda, armazenados em condições ambiente por 8 dias.Horticultural products present limited post-harvest life due to catabolic biochemical reactions, which increase with age. The use of cassava starch films and PVC on the maintenance of post-harvest quality of bell peppers cv. Ikeda stored at room temperature was evaluated. The bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L. were submitted to 4 modified atmospheres: PVC, edible coatings at

  14. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  15. Atividade antioxidante, composição química e conservação do maracujá-amarelo embalado com filme PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Copello Rotili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características químicas e a conservação do maracujá-amarelo embalado com filme de PVC durante o armazenamento refrigerado a 5 ºC. Atividade antioxidante (DPPH e TEAC, compostos fenólicos totais, β-caroteno e ácido ascórbico do suco do fruto foram os parâmetros químicos avaliados. As estimativas de perda de massa, enrugamento, cor e sintomas de patógenos foram utilizadas no estudo de conservação. As avaliações foram realizadas em intervalos de 10 dias, durante 40 dias. De acordo com os resultados, o teor de fenólicos totais aumentou durante o armazenamento, com variações entre 20,10 e 21,29 mg EAG 100 mL-1. O conteúdo de ácido ascórbico aumentou até o 20º dia de armazenamento (33,58 mg 100 mL-1, mas seguiu com decréscimos até o 40º dia (21,67 mg 100 mL-1. Independentemente do uso de PVC, o conteúdo de β-caroteno não variou durante o armazenamento. As atividades antioxidantes DPPH e TEAC do suco diminuíram durante o armazenamento. Não foram encontradas correlações positivas entre as atividades DPPH e TEAC e o teor de fenólicos totais, sugerindo que este último não contribui para a atividade antioxidante do suco do maracujá. O uso da embalagem de PVC não influenciou positivamente a atividade antioxidante e os teores de fenólicos totais e ácido ascórbico do suco do maracujá-amarelo durante seu armazenamento. A embalagem de PVC não inibiu sintomas de desenvolvimento de patógenos por até 30 dias de armazenamento, a 5 ºC, mas reduziu a perda de massa fresca e o enrugamento do fruto, proporcionando condições ótimas de comercialização por até 20 dias.

  16. The influence of the thermo-phono-insulating glazing structure configuration of some PVC profile windows on the airborne sound insulation – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cristina ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available After conducting laboratory acoustic measurements of airborne sound insulation for several windows with the same type of PVC profiles, equipped with different types of phono- and thermal - insulating glazings, the influence of the window’s glazed part (glass structure configuration on airborne sound insulation was analyzed. The configuration of the structure’s glazed part requires its composition of glass sheets with different thicknesses or intermediate layers of air with different thicknesses. This configuration has an important influence on the acoustic response of windows, namely on the index of air noise sound insulation, Rw, and on the behavior of the entire measurement frequency range.

  17. Ingeniería básica de una planta de producción de policloruro de vinilo (PVC) granular

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán Domínguez, Cristóbal

    2016-01-01

    En el presente proyecto se lleva a cabo la ingeniería básica de una planta de producción de policloruro de vinilo (PVC) granular a partir de cloro y etileno como materias primas. Esta planta posee una capacidad de producción anual de 55.000 toneladas al año. El complejo industrial en el cual transcurre este proceso consta de dos plantas de fabricación distintas: la de cloruro de vinilo (CVM) y posteriormente la del propio policloruro de vinilo. En la primera de ellas tien...

  18. Preparação de argila modificada com cloreto de cetilpiridíneo e avaliação da interação desta com o PVC Preparation of modified clay with cetylpyridinium chloride and evaluation of their interaction with PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel K. Resende

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi preparada uma argila modificada com cloreto de cetilpiridíneo a partir da argila sódica por troca de cátions em solução. Foi avaliada a quantidade de agente de modificação em relação à argila sódica e o tempo reacional. Os materiais obtidos foram caracterizados por difração de raio X (XRD, análise termogravimétrica (TGA e ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN de baixo campo. Após a caracterização foi confirmada a modificação da argila e, também, foi verificado que o produto obtido pode ser empregado na preparação de nanocompósitos de PVC, considerando que o início da degradação do material preparado ocorreu em temperatura superior às comumente utilizadas no processamento do polímero. A adição da argila modificada apresentou uma dispersão adequada no PVC e manteve o início da degradação do material em temperatura compatível com o processamento do polímero, gerando um nanocompósito com parte esfoliada e intercalada.A modified silicate with cetylpyridinium was prepared from sodium clay with cation exchange in solution. The amount of modification agent for clay and the reaction time were evaluated. The materials produced were characterized using X ray diffraction (XRD, termogravimetric analysis (TGA and low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. The formation of new organic clay was confirmed, which was introduced in PVC for the formation of nanocomposites. The beginning of degradation of the new clay occurred at temperatures higher than commonly used in the processing of PVC. The nanocomposites were partially exfoliated and partially intercalated.

  19. A multilingual programming model for coupled systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, E. T.; Larson, J. W.; Norris, B.; Tobis, M.; Steder, M.; Jacob, R. L.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Wisconsin; Univ. of Chicago; The Australian National Univ.

    2008-01-01

    Multiphysics and multiscale simulation systems share a common software requirement-infrastructure to implement data exchanges between their constituent parts-often called the coupling problem. On distributed-memory parallel platforms, the coupling problem is complicated by the need to describe, transfer, and transform distributed data, known as the parallel coupling problem. Parallel coupling is emerging as a new grand challenge in computational science as scientists attempt to build multiscale and multiphysics systems on parallel platforms. An additional coupling problem in these systems is language interoperability between their constituent codes. We have created a multilingual parallel coupling programming model based on a successful open-source parallel coupling library, the Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT). This programming model's capabilities reach beyond MCT's native Fortran implementation to include bindings for the C++ and Python programming languages. We describe the method used to generate the interlanguage bindings. This approach enables an object-based programming model for implementing parallel couplings in non-Fortran coupled systems and in systems with language heterogeneity. We describe the C++ and Python versions of the MCT programming model and provide short examples. We report preliminary performance results for the MCT interpolation benchmark. We describe a major Python application that uses the MCT Python bindings, a Python implementation of the control and coupling infrastructure for the community climate system model. We conclude with a discussion of the significance of this work to productivity computing in multidisciplinary computational science.

  20. Environmental monitoring of complex hydrocarbon mixtures in water and soil samples after solid phase microextraction using PVC/MWCNTs nanocomposite fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Amir Abbas; Biparva, Pourya; Gheshlaghi, Mohammad; Farhadi, Khalil; Gheshlaghi, Ali

    2013-11-01

    A novel nanocomposite based on incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was prepared. Proposed nanocomposite was coated on stainless steel wire by deep coating. Composition of nanocomposite was optimized based on results of morphological studies using scanning electron microscopy. The best composition (83% MWCNTs:17% PVC) was applied as a solid phase microextraction fiber. Complex mixture of aromatic (BTEX) and aliphatic hydrocarbons (C5-C34) were selected as model analytes, and performance of proposed fiber in extraction of the studied compounds from water and soil samples was evaluated. Analytical merits of the method for water samples (LODs=0.10-1.10 ng L(-1), r(2)=0.9940-0.9994) and for soil samples (LODs=0.10-0.77 ng kg(-1), r(2)=0.9946-0.9994) showed excellent characteristics of it in ultra trace determination of petroleum type environmental pollutants. Finally, the method was used for determination of target analytes in river water, industrial effluent and soil samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of preparation methods of mixed calcium and zinc thermal stabilizers derived from dimer fatty acid and tung-oil based C22 triacid on properties of PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium and zinc salts of dimer fatty acids (DFA-Ca and DFA-Zn were synthesized using direct neutralization and metathesis technologies, respectively. The adduct of maleic anhydride and methyl eleostearate (MAME was also converted to the corresponding zinc soap (C22TA-Zn and calcium soap (C22TA-Ca by the two different synthetic routes. Mixed Ca/Zn salts between DFA-Ca and DFA-Zn, and between C22TA-Zn and C22TA-Ca were used as thermal stabilizers for poly(vinyl chloride (PVC. The PVC thermal stability was determined using Congo red test, discoloration test, torque rheological analysis and TGA. Dynamic mechanical properties were also tested. Results indicated that the DFA-Ca/DFA-Zn thermal stabilizer from direct neutralization technology was found to be superior to that of the metathesis product. The C22TA-Ca/C22TA-Zn thermal stabilizer from direct neutralization method had overall superior thermal stability, and displayed modulus and glass transition comparable to that of metathesis product. Direct neutralization method was more excellent and convenient than metathesis technology.

  2. Evaluación de las Propiedades Mecánicas de una Mezcla Densa en Caliente Modificada con un Desecho de PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Rondón-Quintana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo evaluó en laboratorio, la resistencia mecánica bajo carga monotónica, el módulo resiliente y la resistencia a la deformación permanente que experimenta una mezcla asfáltica cuando se modifica con un desecho de policloruro de vinilo (PVC por vía húmeda. Adicionalmente, fue evaluada durante 21 meses, la influencia del medio ambiente de la ciudad de Bogotá D.C. sobre las propiedades mecánicas de la mezcla modificada. De los resultados obtenidos se concluye que la resistencia mecánica de la mezcla asfáltica modificada es superior en comparación con la convencional. La tendencia general de las mezclas con el tiempo de exposición al medio ambiente de Bogotá D.C. es experimentar un aumento en los valores de rigidez debido principalmente a procesos de endurecimiento por envejecimiento del ligante asfáltico. Sin embargo, para el caso de las mezclas fabricadas con CA 60-70 y modificadas con PVC en los primeros 15 meses de exposición, la rigidez disminuye por efecto de micro-fisuración térmica.

  3. Using PVC ion-selective electrodes for the potentiometric flow injection analysis of distigmine in its pharmaceutical formulation and biological fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry M. Issa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction and electrochemical response characteristics of poly(vinylchloride (PVC membrane selective electrodes for the determination of distigmine (Ds are described. The sensing membrane comprised an ion-pair based on distigmine phosphomolybdate (Ds-PM, distigmine phosphotungstate (Ds-PT, distigmine silicomolybdate (Ds-SM, distigmine silicotungstate (Ds-ST, distigmine tetraphenylborate (Ds-TPB, and distigmine reineckate (Ds-Rein in a plasticized PVC matrix with dioctylphthalate (DOP. The influence of membrane composition on the electrodes’ response was studied. The electrodes showed a fast, stable and Nernstian response over a wide distigmine concentration range 5.0 × 10−7–1 × 10−2 mol L−1 with a slope of ∼30.5 ± 1.0 mV dec−1. The response is independent of the pH of test solution within the range 3.8–10.5. The life span of the electrodes extends to at least 2 months without any considerable divergence in potential and has a fast response time of <15 s. The electrodes showed good selectivity towards distigmine with respect to large numbers of ions in batch and FIA systems. The electrodes have been applied to the determination of distigmine in pure solution, pharmaceutical compound and human urine. The dissolution profile for Ubretid tablets (5 mg/tablet was studied.

  4. Predatory Short Selling

    OpenAIRE

    Markus K Brunnermeier; Martin Oehmke

    2013-01-01

    Financial institutions may be vulnerable to predatory short selling. When the stock of a financial institution is shorted aggressively, leverage constraints imposed by short-term creditors can force the institution to liquidate long-term investments at fire sale prices. For financial institutions that are sufficiently close to their leverage constraints, predatory short selling equilibria co-exist with no-liquidation equilibria (the vulnerability region) or may even be the unique equilibrium ...

  5. Over short selling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.

    2012-01-01

    Short selling heeft een ietwat dubieuze reputatie. ‘Aandelen verkopen die je niet hebt’, dat wekt al de suggestie dat er iets niet in de haak is. Verschillende toezichthouders en regelgevers leggen snel verbanden tussen short selling en marktmisbruik. ‘Short is moord’ was zelfs de kop boven een

  6. Natural short sleeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep - natural short sleeper ... 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. Short sleepers sleep less than 75% of what is normal for ... T, Lauderdale DS. Trends in the prevalence of short sleepers in the USA: 1975-2006. Sleep. 2010;33(1):37-45. PMID: 20120619 www. ...

  7. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  8. Thermal-structural Analysis and Fatigue Life Evaluation of a Parallel Slide Gate Valve in Accordance with ASME B and PVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Han, Jeong Sam [Andong Nat’l Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of); Jae Seung Choi [Key Valve Technologies Ltd., Siheung (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    A parallel slide gate valve (PSGV) is located between the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and the steam turbine in a combined cycle power plant (CCPP). It is used to control the flow of steam and runs with repetitive operations such as startups, load changes, and shutdowns during its operation period. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the fatigue damage and the structural integrity under a large compressive thermal stress due to the temperature difference through the valve wall thickness during the startup operations. In this paper, the thermal-structural analysis and the fatigue life evaluation of a 16-inch PSGV, which is installed on the HP steam line, is performed according to the fatigue life assessment method described in the ASME B and PVC VIII-2; the method uses the equivalent stress from the elastic stress analysis.

  9. Cu2O thin film for photoelectrochemical solar cell (PESC) of ITO/Cu2O/PVC-LiClO4/graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halin, D. S. C.; Talib, I. A.; Daud, A. R.; Hamid, M. A. A.

    2017-04-01

    Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) thin films were successfully grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass by sol-gel spin coating using diethanolamine (DEA) as a solubility agent. The films were annealed at 350°C in 5% H2 + 95% N2 atmosphere. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Based on the FESEM micrograph of the obtained film, the film shows better coverage with the four sided pyramidal shape grain size is 108 nm. The prepared Cu2O thin film was used as an active electrode for photoelectrochemical cell (PESC) of ITO/Cu2O/PVC-LiClO4/graphite. The photoelectrochemical cell was tested using current-voltage characteristic under light illumination of 100 mW/cm2.

  10. Dimensionamento do lote no MRP com sequenciamento de itens: aplicação em uma empresa de fabricação de PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Oliveira Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the many challenges faced by any organization is how to plan production, which, if done incorrectly, can result in machines lying idle during the production process. Previous studies that have investigated the effect of sizing in MRP batches did not consider the sequencing of items. This study investigates the effects of variations in the lot size on MRP and its effect on machine idle time during the production process of a company in the PVC industry. With the change of batch rule from lot-for-lot (L4L to fixed quantity (EOQ, the company achieved a significant reduction in machine idle time. The results show the importance of considering the sequencing of the components on the study of the MRP and its impact on machine idle time. We concluded that the sequence of items in the production process should be considered when lot-sizing decisions for MRP are made.

  11. THE EVALUATION OF POSSIBILITY OF NORMAL OPERATION OF CABLES BASED ON TWISTED PAIRS WITH PVC JACKET UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF HIGH HUMIDITY AND TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Bezprozvannych

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of cables for structured cabling systems based on twisted pairs for shipbuilding is carried out in two main directions: increasing the fire safety of cables and increasing the long-term permissible operating temperature by using new, more heat-resistant, electrical insulating materials. Purpose. Substantiation of the possibility of unshielded cables on the basis of unshielded twisted pairs with thermoplastic polyethylene insulation in PVC protective jacket in conditions of high humidity and high operating temperatures on the basis of the results of accelerated aging. Methodology. The cycle of aging under conditions of increased humidity is performed for 336 hours. Then the sample was under natural drying conditions for 1440 hours. Thermal aging in a thermostat at 90 °C was carried out in two stages: first – for 206 hours, the second – for 260 hours. In the initial state and after accelerated aging, measurements of the capacitance and tangent of the dielectric loss angle of all the insulating gaps at frequencies of 100 Hz, 1 and 10 kHz were performed. Results. According to the results of accelerated aging under conditions of high humidity and temperature, it is established that the design of an unshielded cable based on unshielded twisted pairs with thermoplastic polyethylene insulation in a protective coating based on PVC-plastic is resistant to external influencing factors. Practical value. The prolonged holding at temperature of 90 °C is equivalent to operation at temperature of 40 °C for 6.8 years. At higher operating temperatures, the lifetime of the cable is significantly reduced.

  12. Potentiometric Sensors for Pr(III Based on N-N᾽o-Phenylene-bis(salicylideneimine Using Epoxy Resin and PVC as Binding Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sharma Harish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Praseodymium(III ion selective electrodes have been prepared using N-N᾽o-phenylene-bis(salicylideneimine as a suitable electro-active material. Several membranes comprising of varying compositions of electro-active material with epoxy resin and polyvinylchloride (PVC as binding materials were prepared. However the one with composition 50% Schiff᾽s base and 50% binder was found to exhibit best performance. The sensor with epoxy resin as binder presents a linear dynamic range of 1.0×10-6 to 1.0×10-1 M with a Nernstian slope of 19.9 mV/decade. The sensor has a quick response time. (less than 10 s. The reproducibility of the electrode is about 6 months without any considerable, noticeable potential divergence. The sensor is effective in pH range of 3.00-8.62. In case of PVC as binding material; the results are compared for same composition of electro-active material. The sensor presents a linear dynamic range of 1.0×10-6 to 1.0×10-1 M with a slope of 14.0 mV/decade. The response time of the sensor is found to be 20s with a reproducibility of 4 months. The sensor is effective in pH range of 2.97-8.90. Effect of internal solution was studied and both the electrodes could satisfactorily be used in partially non-aqueous medium. Selectivity coefficients for both the electrodes have been determined by FIM (fixed interference method with respect to many rare earth metal ions, alkali & alkaline earth metal ions and some transition metal ions. Both the electrodes were successfully employed as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Pr(III ions with oxalic acid and EDTA.

  13. Rapid communication: Transverse spin with coupled plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Samyobrata; Gopal, A. V.; Gupta, S. Dutta

    2017-08-01

    We study theoretically the transverse spin associated with the eigenmodes of a thin metal film embedded in a dielectric. We show that the transverse spin has a direct dependence on the nature and strength of the coupling leading to two distinct branches for the long- and short-range modes. We show that the short-range mode exhibits larger extraordinary spin because of its more `structured' nature due to higher decay in propagation. In contrast to some of the earlier studies, calculations are performed retaining the full lossy character of the metal. In the limit of vanishing losses, we present analytical results for the extraordinary spin for both the coupled modes. The results can have direct implications for enhancing the elusive transverse spin exploiting the coupled plasmon structures.

  14. Hydromechanical coupling in geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Earth's porous crust and the fluids within it are intimately linked through their mechanical effects on each other. This paper presents an overview of such "hydromechanical" coupling and examines current understanding of its role in geologic processes. An outline of the theory of hydromechanics and rheological models for geologic deformation is included to place various analytical approaches in proper context and to provide an introduction to this broad topic for nonspecialists. Effects of hydromechanical coupling are ubiquitous in geology, and can be local and short-lived or regional and very long-lived. Phenomena such as deposition and erosion, tectonism, seismicity, earth tides, and barometric loading produce strains that tend to alter fluid pressure. Resulting pressure perturbations can be dramatic, and many so-called "anomalous" pressures appear to have been created in this manner. The effects of fluid pressure on crustal mechanics are also profound. Geologic media deform and fail largely in response to effective stress, or total stress minus fluid pressure. As a result, fluid pressures control compaction, decompaction, and other types of deformation, as well as jointing, shear failure, and shear slippage, including events that generate earthquakes. By controlling deformation and failure, fluid pressures also regulate states of stress in the upper crust. Advances in the last 80 years, including theories of consolidation, transient groundwater flow, and poroelasticity, have been synthesized into a reasonably complete conceptual framework for understanding and describing hydromechanical coupling. Full coupling in two or three dimensions is described using force balance equations for deformation coupled with a mass conservation equation for fluid flow. Fully coupled analyses allow hypothesis testing and conceptual model development. However, rigorous application of full coupling is often difficult because (1) the rheological behavior of geologic media is complex

  15. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital short QT syndrome (SQTS is characterised by extremely short QT intervals, typically with QTc less than 330 ms and a propensity for life threatening ventricular arrhythmias and atrial fibrillation. The QT interval in SQTS does not change significantly with heart rate and the T waves have a narrow base and high voltage, similar to those in hyperkalemia.

  16. Idiopathic short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaški Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a complex process and the basic characteristic of child- hood growth monitoring provides insight into the physiological and pathological events in the body. Statistically, the short stature means departure from the values of height for age and sex (in a particular environment, which is below -2 standard deviation score, or less than -2 standard deviation, i.e. below the third percentile. Advances in molecular genetics have contributed to the improvement of diagnostics in endocrinology. Analysis of patients’ genotypes should not be performed before taking a classical history, detailed clinical examination and appropriate tests. In patients with idiopathic short stature specific causes are excluded, such as growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, short stature due to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, dysmorphology syndromes and chronic childhood diseases. The exclusion of abovementioned conditions leaves a large number of children with short stature whose etiology includes patients with genetic short stature or familial short stature and those who are low in relation to genetic potential, and who could also have some unrecognized endocrine defect. Idiopathic short stature represents a short stature of unknown cause of heterogeneous etiology, and is characterized by a normal response of growth hormone during stimulation tests (>10 ng/ml or 20 mJ/l, without other disorders, of normal body mass and length at birth. In idiopathic short stature standard deviation score rates <-2.25 (-2 to -3 or <1.2 percentile. These are also criteria for the initiation of growth hormone therapy. In children with short stature there is also the presence of psychological and social suffering. Goals of treatment with growth hormone involve achieving normal height and normal growth rate during childhood.

  17. Imaging in short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  18. Short pulse laser systems for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Kunal

    2017-01-01

    This book presents practical information on the clinical applications of short pulse laser systems and the techniques for optimizing these applications in a manner that will be relevant to a broad audience, including engineering and medical students as well as researchers, clinicians, and technicians. Short pulse laser systems are useful for both subsurface tissue imaging and laser induced thermal therapy (LITT), which hold great promise in cancer diagnostics and treatment. Such laser systems may be used alone or in combination with optically active nanoparticles specifically administered to the tissues of interest for enhanced contrast in imaging and precise heating during LITT. Mathematical and computational models of short pulse laser-tissue interactions that consider the transient radiative transport equation coupled with a bio-heat equation considering the initial transients of laser heating were developed to analyze the laser-tissue interaction during imaging and therapy. Experiments were first performe...

  19. A short note on short pants

    OpenAIRE

    Parlier, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    It is a theorem of Bers that any closed hyperbolic surface admits a pants decomposition consisting of curves of bounded length where the bound only depends on the topology of the surface. The question of the quantification of the optimal constants has been well studied and the best upper bounds to date are linear in genus, a theorem of Buser and Sepp\\"al\\"a. The goal of this note is to give a short proof of an linear upper bound which slightly improves the best known bounds.

  20. Electromagnetic clutches and couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Vorob'Yeva, T M; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic Clutches and Couplings contains a detailed description of U.S.S.R. electromagnetic friction clutches, magnetic couplings, and magnetic particle couplings. This book is divided into four chapters. The first chapter discusses the design and construction of magnetic (solenoid-operated) couplings, which are very quick-acting devices and used in low power high-speed servo-systems. Chapter 2 describes the possible fields of application, design, construction, and utilization of magnetic particle couplings. The aspects of construction, design, and utilization of induction clutches (sli

  1. [Enhanced prenatal HIV couple oriented counselling session and couple communication about HIV (ANRS 12127 Prenahtest Trial)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazy, M; Orne-Gliemann, J; Balestre, E; Miric, M; Darak, S; Butsashvili, M; Tchendjou, P; Dabis, F; Desgrées du Loû, A

    2013-08-01

    The Prenahtest study investigated the efficacy of a couple-oriented HIV counselling session (COC) in encouraging couple HIV counselling and testing, and improving intra-couple communication about sexual and reproductive health. We report here on the effect of COC on intra-couple communication about HIV. Within this 4-country trial (India, Georgia, Dominican Republic and Cameroon), 484 to 491 pregnant women per site were recruited and individually randomized to receive either the COC intervention, enhanced counselling with role playing, or standard post-test HIV counselling. Women were interviewed at recruitment, before HIV testing (T0), and 2 to 8 weeks after post-test HIV counselling (T1). Four dichotomous variables documented intra-couple communication about HIV at T1: 1) discussion about HIV, 2) discussion about condom use, 3) suggesting HIV testing and 4) suggesting couple HIV counselling to the partner. An intra-couple HIV communication index was created: low degree of communication ("yes" response to zero or one of the four variables), intermediate degree of communication ("yes" to two or three variables) or high degree of communication ("yes" to the four variables). To estimate the impact of COC on the intra-couple HIV communication index, multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. One thousand six hundred and seven women were included in the analysis of whom 54 (3.4%) were HIV-infected (49 in Cameroon). In the four countries, the counselling group was associated with intra-couple HIV communication (P≤0.03): women allocated to the COC group were significantly more likely to report high or intermediate degrees of intra-couple communication about HIV (versus low degree of communication) than women allocated to standard counselling. COC improved short-term communication about HIV within couples in different sociocultural contexts, a positive finding for a couple approach to HIV prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Crotti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Short QT Syndrome is a recently described new genetic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT interval, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This autosomal dominant syndrome can afflict infants, children, or young adults; often a remarkable family background of cardiac sudden death is elucidated. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, with atrial fibrillation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. Gain of function mutations in three genes encoding K+ channels have been identified, explaining the abbreviated repolarization seen in this condition: KCNH2 for Ikr (SQT1, KCNQ1 for Iks (SQT2 and KCNJ2 for Ik1 (SQT3. The currently suggested therapeutic strategy is an ICD implantation, although many concerns exist for asymptomatic patients, especially in pediatric age. Pharmacological treatment is still under evaluation; quinidine has shown to prolong QT and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, but awaits additional confirmatory clinical data.

  3. Proyecto de factibilidad para la creación de una empresa productora y comercializadora de ventanas fabricadas con perfiles en base a poli cloruro de vinilo (PVC) ubicada en el parque industrial de Carcelén en la ciudad de Quito.

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Toapanta, Edison Leonardo; Salgado Ortega, Christian Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In its extension has established the commercial, technical, organizational and financial feasibility of the project for production and marketing of PVC windows in the city of Quito, for as soon as there is a significant unmet demand for these products and the product has competitive advantages with respect to the substitutes; in the middle is possible provided with the material, human and technical resources to produce the windows in PVC; it may be legally the company that would manage the pr...

  4. Short wavelength FELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  5. SHORT PULSE STRETCHER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branum, D.R.; Cummins, W.F.

    1962-12-01

    >A short pulse stretching circuit capable of stretching a short puise to enable it to be displayed on a relatively slow sweeping oscilloscope is described. Moreover, the duration of the pulse is increased by charging a capacitor through a diode and thereafter discharging the capacitor at such time as is desired. In the circuit the trigger pulse alone passes through a delay line, whereas the main signal passes through the diode only, and results in over-all circuit losses which are proportional to the low losses of the diode only. (AEC)

  6. International Migration of Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Junge, Martin; Munk, Martin D.; Nikolka, Till; Poutvaara, Panu

    2017-01-01

    We analyze emigration and return decisions of Danish couples. Our main questions are how emigration and return migration decisions depend on education, earnings, and the number and age of children. We use register data on full population from 1982 to 2006, focusing on opposite-gender couples in which the female is aged 23 to 37, and the male 25 to 39. We find that power couples in which both are highly educated are most likely to emigrate, but also most likely to return. Couples in which only...

  7. A ROIC for Mn(TPP)Cl-DOP-THF-Polyhema PVC membrane modified n-channel Si3N4 ISFET sensitive to histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samah, N L M A; Lee, Khuan Y; Sulaiman, S A; Jarmin, R

    2017-07-01

    Intolerance of histamine could lead to scombroid poisoning with fatal consequences. Current detection methods for histamine are wet laboratory techniques which employ expensive equipment that depends on skills of seasoned technicians and produces delayed test analysis result. Previous works from our group has established that ISFETs can be adapted for detecting histamine with the use of a novel membrane. However, work to integrate ISFETs with a readout interfacing circuit (ROIC) circuit to display the histamine concentration has not been reported so far. This paper concerns the development of a ROIC specifically to integrate with a Mn(TPP)Cl-DOP-THF-Polyhema PVC membrane modified n-channel Si3N4 ISFET to display the histamine concentration. It embodies the design of constant voltage constant current (CVCC) circuit, amplification circuit and micro-controller based display circuit. A DC millivolt source is used to substitute the membrane modified ISFET as preliminary work. Input is histamine concentration corresponding to the safety level designated by the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA). Results show the CVCC circuit makes the output follows the input and keeps VDS constant. The amplification circuit amplifies the output from the CVCC circuit to the range 2.406-4.888V to integrate with the microcontroller, which is programmed to classify and display the histamine safety level and its corresponding voltage on a LCD panel. The ROIC could be used to produce direct output voltages corresponding to histamine concentrations, for in-situ applications.

  8. Experimental investigation on the large-area fabrication of micro-pyramid arrays by roll-to-roll hot embossing on PVC film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yujun; Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin; Lin, Zhongqin

    2014-04-01

    Large-area polymeric components with micro-pyramids have been widely applied in the fields of optics, optoelectronics, biology and chemistry, etc. Roll-to-roll (R2R) hot embossing is regarded as a promising approach to fulfil high throughput fabrication of patterned polymeric films. In this study, an R2R hot embossing system has been developed in-house and effective and continuous production of the polymeric component with micro-pyramids is demonstrated by R2R hot embossing. The influence of processing parameters has been firstly investigated by using the one-variable-at-a-time method. Afterwards, a series of experiments based on the central composite design approach have been conducted for the analysis of variance and the establishment of empirical models of the R2R hot embossing process. As a result, a 90 mm × 90 mm PVC sample with a feature height of 65 µm was successfully fabricated and the height consistency reached 94.5%. Additionally, a process window with a mold temperature of 150-160 °C, an applied force of 18-25 kgf and a feeding speed of 0.3-0.5 m min-1, was established to achieve 100% passable micro-pyramid arrays. The processing rules and the concrete ranges of parameter values can guide the process production of large-area micro-pyramids.

  9. Experimental and simulation of split semi-torus key in PVC foam core to improve the debonding resistance of composite sandwich panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliyana, M.; Santhana Krishnan, R.

    2018-02-01

    The sandwich composite panels consisting of facesheet and core material are used as a primary structural member for aerospace, civil and marine areas due to its high stiffness to weight ratio. But the debonding nature of facesheet from the foam core under shear loading conditions leads to failure of the composite structure. To inhibit the debonding, an innovative methodology of introducing semi-torus key is used in the present study. The polyvinyl chloride foam core(PVC) is grooved and filled with semi-torus shaped chopped strand prepregs which are sandwiched between alternate layers of woven roven(WR) and chopped strand mat(CSM) skins by vacuum infusion process. The sandwich panel manufactured with semi-torus keys is evaluated regarding experimental and numerical simulations under shear loading conditions. The present innovative concept delays the debonding between face-sheet and foam core with enhancement the shear load carrying capability as the initial stiffness is higher than the conventional model. Also, the shear behaviour of the proposed concept is in good agreement with experimental results. The split semi-torus keys sustain the shear failure resulting in resistance to debonding capability.

  10. Flotation separation of PET from a PET, PVC and PS mixture by the hydrofilization of the PET surface in NaOH solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Kozáková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Recycling is the most effective method of waste minimization created by the human activity. The idea of waste re-use as a result of environmental, social and economical factors is becoming very relevant in the last decades. The portion of plastics in the municipal waste is growing year by year as also is its use in the wrapping industry. A condition for recycling technologies is the input of highly pure plastics (without undesirable admixtures suitable for recycling. Various separation technologies can be used which provide separation of particular components of plastic waste and contaminants. Flotation is one of the separation methods used especially for the ore beneficiation but recently is widely also used for the separation of various types of waste. Plastics, which are not possible to be separated by gravitational methods (because they have almost the same density, PET from beverage bottles, PVC from bottles and foils and PS from beverage beakers, were studied. By changing the surface properties of PET from naturally hydrophobic to hydrophilic by the adjustment in a NaOH solution, PET with the recovery of up to 99 % in the non-foamy product and with the product purity of up to 98 % was acquired by the flotation.

  11. Materials based on carbon-filled porous layers of PVC cyclam derivatives cross-linked with the surfaces of asbestos fabric fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzivadze, A. Yu.; Fridman, A. Ya.; Morozova, E. M.; Sokolova, N. P.; Voloshchuk, A. M.; Petukhova, G. A.; Bardishev, I. I.; Gorbunov, A. M.; Novikov, A. K.; Polyakova, I. Ya.; Titova, V. N.; Yavich, A. A.; Petrova, N. V.

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of bilayer materials with porous upper layers composed of PVC hydroxyethylcyclam derivatives filled with carbon and a layer consisting of hydroxyethylcyclam, cross-linked via Si-O-C groups with the silica chains of a developed surface of asbestos fabric, is described. The aza-crown groups in these materials are bound with aqua complexes of H2SO4 or NaOH. The structure of the materials is examined, their adsorption characteristics are determined, and the rate of motion of H+ or OH- ions in electrochemical bridges is measured, while the formation of H2 and O2 in their cathodic and anodic polarization is determined as a function of voltage. It is shown that the upper layer of these materials is adsorption-active and electronand H+- or OH-- conductive, while the bottom layer is only H+- or OH-- conductive; through it, the upper layer is supplied with the H+ or OH- ions needed for the regeneration of the aqua complexes broken down to H2 and O2 on carbon particles.

  12. Physico-chemical and chemical quality of acerola fruit clones coated with PVC film and conserved under refrigeration / Qualidade físico-química e química de frutos de clones de aceroleira recobertos com filme de PVC e conservados por refrigeração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Machado de Souza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the physical, physicochemical and chemical changes in fruits of clones of acerola coated with PVC film and conserved under refrigeration. The clones BRS 235 (Apodi, BRS 236 (Cereja, BRS 237 (Roxinha, BRS 238 (Frutacor, II 47/1 and BRS 152 (Sertaneja had been harvested in the stage of commercial maturation. The fruits had been washed in chlorinated water, packed in expanded polystyrene trays, covered with film PVC and stored (10ºC during 12 days, with withdrawals of samples at the beginning of the experiment and to each three days. They had been evaluated: coloration, soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble solids:titratable acidity relation, pH, soluble sugars, vitamin C, anthocyanins, weight lost, firmness and carotenoids. The experiment was carried through in experimental delineation completely randomized in factorial design (clones x time, with 3 repetitions (trays with 100g of fruits. Between the clones studied the II47/1 if it detached for the relative stability of the color, angle hue, and of anthocyanins, being more attractive for the consumer in the time of the purchase. However the clones Roxinha and Sertaneja had presented superior soluble solids:titratable acidity between the others in the end of the experiment, interesting characteristic for the flavor.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar as mudanças físicas, físico-químicas e químicas em frutos de clonesde aceroleira recobertos com filme de PVC e conservados sob refrigeração. Os clones 235 (Apodi, BRS 236 (Cereja, BRS 237 (Roxinha, BRS 238 (Frutacor, II 47/1 e BRS 152 (Sertaneja foram colhidos no estádio de maturação comercial. Os frutos foram lavados em água clorada, embalados em bandejas de poliestireno expandido cobertos com filme PVC e armazenados (10ºC durante 12 dias, com retiradas de amostras no início do experimento e a cada três dias. Foram avaliados: coloração, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável, relação sólidos sol

  13. Research Short report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    knowledge and best practice were evaluated at the participating facilities, both pre and post intervention. Results. Most survey respondents (239/271; 88.2%) practised in rural districts and reportedly received infrequent (either annual or no) in-service training in IPC (138/271; 51%). The IPC education intervention (five short ...

  14. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with obesity hypoventilation syndrome also have sleep apnea. Deconditioning If you are not active or do not exer- cise regularly, as a result of being out of shape and experiencing muscle fatigue, you may develop shortness of breath with physical exertion beyond your customary activity such as when ...

  15. SHORT RIB POLYDACTYLY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Moinfar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Short rib polydactyly syndrome (SRPS is a very rare congenital anomaly that is classified into four subtypes. It is an autosomal recessive inherited disease. We report a case of this syndrome without a previous family history of congenital defects.

  16. SHORT COMMUNICATION POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: omotayosharafdeen@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN MUNICIPAL WASTE ASHES. FROM THREE WASTE DUMPS IN LAGOS, NIGERIA. O.S. Amuda* and F.E. Adelowo-Imeokparia. Environmental/Analytical Chemistry Unit, ...

  17. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Antzelevitch

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Long QT intervals in the ECG have long been associated with sudden cardiac death. The congenital long QT syndrome was first described in individuals with structurally normal hearts in 1957.1 Little was known about the significance of a short QT interval. In 1993, after analyzing 6693 consecutive Holter recordings Algra et al concluded that an increased risk of sudden death was present not only in patients with long QT interval, but also in patients with short QT interval (<400 ms.2 Because this was a retrospective analysis, further evaluation of the data was not possible. It was not until 2000 that a short-QT syndrome (SQTS was proposed as a new inherited clinical syndrome by Gussak et al.3 The initial report was of two siblings and their mother all of whom displayed persistently short QT interval. The youngest was a 17 year old female presenting with several episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation requiring electrical cardioversion.3 Her QT interval measured 280 msec at a heart rate of 69. Her 21 year old brother displayed a QT interval of 272 msec at a heart rate of 58, whereas the 51 year old mother showed a QT of 260 msec at a heart rate of 74. The authors also noted similar ECG findings in another unrelated 37 year old patient associated with sudden cardiac death.

  18. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  19. Phase interaction of short vector solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aseeva, N.V., E-mail: naseeva@hse.ru [Higher School of Economics, Faculty of Business Informatics and Applied Mathematics, State University, Bolshaya Pecherskaya 25/12, 603155 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Gromov, E.M.; Tyutin, V.V. [Higher School of Economics, Faculty of Business Informatics and Applied Mathematics, State University, Bolshaya Pecherskaya 25/12, 603155 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-16

    An interaction of vector solitons in the frame of coupled third-order nonlinear Schrödinger equations taking into account third-order linear dispersion, nonlinear dispersion, and cross-phase modulation terms is considered. Phase nature of the solitons' interaction is shown. In particular, dependence of solitons' trajectories on initial distance between solitons is shown. Conditions of reflection and propagation of solitons through each other are obtained. -- Highlights: ► Short vector soliton's interaction in the frame of CTNSE without SRS is studied. ► Analytical and numerical approaches are considered. ► Phase effects lead to short vector soliton's interaction character change.

  20. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-30

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale.

  1. Molecular structure stability of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs): Evidence from lattice compatibility and Simha-Somcynsky theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumak, A.; Boubaker, K.; Petkova, P.; Yahsi, U.

    2015-10-01

    In is known that short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are highly complex technical mixtures of polychlorinated n-alkanes with single chlorine content. Due to their physical properties (viscosity, flame resistance) they are used in many different applications, such as lubricant additives, metal processing, leather fat-liquoring, plastics softening, PVC plasticizing and flame retardants in paints, adhesives and sealants. SCCPs are studied here in terms of processing-linked molecular structure stability, under Simha and Somcynsky-EOS theory calculations and elements from Simha-Somcynsky-related Lattice Compatibility Theory. Analyses were carried out on 1-chloropropane, 2-chloropropane, 1-chlorobutane, 2-chlorobutane, 1-chloro 2-methylane, and 2-chloro 2-methylane as (SCCPs) universal representatives. This paper gives evidence to this stability and reviews the current state of knowledge and highlights the need for further research in order to improve future (SCCPs) monitoring efforts.

  2. Depression: The Differing Narratives of Couples in Couple Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, Eija-Liisa; Aaltonen, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    How does the spouse of a person with depression take part in constructing narratives of depression in couple therapy? In this study we examined couples' ways of co-constructing narratives of depression in couple therapy. Three couple therapy processes were chosen for the study, one spouse in each couple having been referred to an outpatient clinic…

  3. Multilingual interfaces for parallel coupling in multiphysics and multiscale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, E. T.; Larson, J. W.; Norris, B.; Jacob, R. L.; Tobis, M.; Steder, M.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Wisconsin; Australian National Univ.; Univ. of Chicago

    2007-01-01

    Multiphysics and multiscale simulation systems are emerging as a new grand challenge in computational science, largely because of increased computing power provided by the distributed-memory parallel programming model on commodity clusters. These systems often present a parallel coupling problem in their intercomponent data exchanges. Another potential problem in these coupled systems is language interoperability between their various constituent codes. In anticipation of combined parallel coupling/language interoperability challenges, we have created a set of interlanguage bindings for a successful parallel coupling library, the Model Coupling Toolkit. We describe the method used for automatically generating the bindings using the Babel language interoperability tool, and illustrate with short examples how MCT can be used from the C++ and Python languages. We report preliminary performance reports for the MCT interpolation benchmark. We conclude with a discussion of the significance of this work to the rapid prototyping of large parallel coupled systems.

  4. Viscoelastic properties of short aramid fibres-reinforced rubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadatshirazi, S.; Talma, Auke; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Among short fiber-reinforced composites, those with rubber matrices have gained great importance due to the advantages they have in processing and low cost, coupled with high strength. These composites combine the elastic behavior of rubbers with strength and stiffness of fibers. Reinforcement with

  5. PVC membrane ion-selective electrodes for the determination of Hyoscyamine in pure solution and in pharmaceutical preparations under batch and flow modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Sayed S; Issa, Yousry M; Mutair, Ali A

    2005-09-01

    New PVC membrane electrodes selective for the determination of hyoscyamine ion (Hy(+)) based on hyoscyamine tetraphenylborate (Hy-TPB) or hyoscyamine phosphotungstate (Hy-PT) ion-exchangers as electroactive materials are described. The electrodes show a linear response for Hy(+) over the concentration range of 1.00 x 10(-5) to 1.26 x 10(-2) mol L(-1) and 1.00 x 10(-4) to 1.00 x 10(-2) mol L(-1) in case of Hy-TPB electrode applying batch and flow injection analysis (FIA), respectively, and 1.00 x 10(-5) to 4.52 x 10(-3) mol L(-1) and 6.31 x 10(-5) to 1.00 x 10(-2) mol L(-1) in case of Hy-PT electrode for batch and FIA, respectively. The lower detection limits are 3.90 x 10(-6) and 4.51 x 10(-6) at 25 degrees C for Hy-TPB and Hy-PT electrodes, respectively. The electrodes posses near Nernstian slopes of 56.5 and 57.8 mV/decade for Hy-TPB and Hy-PT electrodes, respectively, and a fast potential response of amino acids and the components, other than hyoscyamine, of the mixed drugs investigated show negligible interference. The electrodes have been applied to the potentiometric determination of hyoscyamine in pure solution and in pharmaceutical preparations under batch and FIA conditions and as end point indicator electrode for the determination of hyoscyanine using potentiometric titration. For the concentrations (1.08 x 10(-5) mol L(-1) to 3.16 x 10(-3) mol L(-1)) an average recovery of 99.95% with relative standard deviation of 0.63% has been achieved. The effect of temperature on the electrodes was also studied.

  6. Novel PVC-membrane potentiometric sensors based on a recently synthesized sulfur-containing macrocyclic diamide for Cd2+ ion. Application to flow-injection potentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Dezaki, Abbas Shirmardi; Akhond, Morteza; Sharghi, Hashem; Paziraee, Zahra; Alizadeh, Kamal

    2009-12-30

    A new sulfur-containing macrocyclic diamide, 1,15-diaza-3,4,12,13-dibenzo-5,11-dithia-8-oxa-1,15-(2,6-pyrido)cyclooctadecan-2,14-dione, L, was synthesized, characterized and used as an active component for fabrication of PVC-based polymeric membrane (PME), coated graphite (CGE) and coated silver wire electrodes (CWE) for sensing Cd(2+) ion. The electrodes exhibited linear Nernstian responses to Cd(2+) ion in the concentration range of 3.3 x 10(-6) to 3.3 x 10(-1)M (for PME, LOD=1.2 x 10(-6)M), 2.0 x 10(-7) to 3.3 x 10(-1)M (for CWE, LOD=1.3 x 10(-7)M) and 1.6 x 10(-8) to 1.3 x 10(-1)M (for CGE, LOD=1.0 x 10(-8)M). The CGE was used as a proper detection system in flow-injection potentiometry (FIP) with a linear Nernstian range of 3.2 x 10(-8) to 1.4 x 10(-1)M (LOD=1.3 x 10(-8)M). The optimum pH range was 3.5-7.6. The electrodes revealed fairly good discriminating ability towards Cd(2+) in comparison with a large number of alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The electrodes found to be chemically inert, showing a fast response time of <5s, and could be used practically over a period of about 2-3 months. The practical utility of the proposed system has also been reported.

  7. Influence of temperature on the emission of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from PVC flooring in the emission cell FLEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Per Axel; Liu, Zhe; Kofoed-Sørensen, Vivi; Little, John; Wolkoff, Peder

    2012-01-17

    Emissions of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from one type of polyvinylchloride (PVC) flooring with approximately 13% (w/w) DEHP as plasticizer were measured in the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC). The gas-phase concentrations of DEHP versus time were measured at air flow rate of 450 mL·min(-1) and five different temperatures: 23 °C, 35 °C, 47 °C, 55 °C, and 61 °C. The experiments were terminated two weeks to three months after steady-state was reached and the interior surface of the FLECs was rinsed with methanol to determine the surface concentration of DEHP. The most important findings are (1) DEHP steady-state concentrations increased greatly with increasing temperature (0.9 ± 0.1 μg·m(-3), 10 ± 1 μg·m(-3), 38 ± 1 μg·m(-3), 91 ± 4 μg·m(-3), and 198 ± 5 μg·m(-3), respectively), (2) adsorption to the chamber walls decreased greatly with increasing temperature (measured partition coefficient between FLEC air and interior surface are: 640 ± 146 m, 97 ± 20 m, 21 ± 5 m, 11 ± 2 m, and 2 ± 1 m, respectively), (3) gas-phase DEHP concentration in equilibrium with the vinyl flooring surface is close to the vapor pressure of pure DEHP, and (4) with an increase of temperature in a home from 23 to 35 °C, the amount of DEHP in the gas- and particle-phase combined is predicted to increase almost 10-fold. The amount in the gas-phase increases by a factor of 24 with a corresponding decrease in the amount on the airborne particles.

  8. Axial Rod Coupling Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, David R

    2003-01-01

    .... The axial rod and coupling has been designed to withstand external survival loads ( 8.3 kN (1,870 lb) for Ring 5), and to maintain its length to within 7 microns after disassembly and reassembly...

  9. Coupling in the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfand, N.M.

    1994-12-01

    The performance of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at the commencement of run Ib was far below expectations. After a frustrating period of several months, a low-{beta} quad downstream of the interaction point at B0 was found to be rolled. This rolled quadrupole coupled the horizontal and vertical motion of the Tevatron beams. It also made matching the beam from the Main Ring to the Tevatron impossible, resulting in emittance blow up on injection. The net result of the roll was a significant reduction in the Tevatron luminosity. When the roll in the quadrupole was corrected the performance of the Tevatron improved dramatically. This note will discuss the experimental data indicating the presence of coupling and subsequent calculations which show how coupling an affect the luminosity. It is not intended to exhaust a discussion of coupling, which hopefully will be understood well enough to be discussed in a subsequent note.

  10. Triple gauge boson couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Gounaris, George J; Zeppenfeld, Dieter; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Arhrib, A; Bella, G; Berends, F A; Bilenky, S M; Blondel, A; Busenitz, J K; Choudhury, D; Clarke, P; Conboy, J E; Diehl, M; Fassouliotis, D; Frère, J M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Gibbs, M; Grünewald, M W; Hansen, J B; Hartmann, C; Jin, B N; Jousset, J; Kalinowski, Jan; Kocian, M L; Lahanas, Athanasios B; Layssac, J; Lieb, E H; Markou, C; Matteuzzi, C; Mättig, P; Moreno, J M; Moultaka, G; Nippe, A; Orloff, J; Papadopoulos, C G; Paschalis, J; Petridou, C; Phillips, H; Podlyski, F; Pohl, M; Renard, F M; Rossignol, J M; Rylko, R; Sekulin, R L; Van Sighem, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Skillman, A; Spanos, V C; Tonazzo, A; Tytgat, M H G; Tzamarias, S; Verzegnassi, Claudio; Vlachos, N D; Zevgolatakos, E

    1996-01-01

    We present the results obtained by the "Triple Gauge Couplings" working group during the LEP2 Workshop (1994-1995). The report concentrates on the measurement of WW\\gamma and WWZ couplings in e^-e^+\\to W^-W^+ or, more generally, four-fermion production at LEP2. In addition the detection of new interactions in the bosonic sector via other production channels is discussed.

  11. Short QT syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenzo Gaita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The short QT syndrome (SQTS is a recently described genetic arrhythmogenic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT intervals on surface electrocardiogram (ECG and a high incidence of sudden death (SD during life, including the first months of life. The inheritance of SQTS is autosomal dominant, with genetic heterogeneity. Gain-of-function mutations in 3 genes encoding potassium channels have been associated to the disease: KCNH2 encoding IKr (SQT1, KCNQ1 encoding IKs (SQT2, and KCNJ2 encoding IK1 (SQT3. Loss-of-function mutations in 3 genes encoding the cardiac L-type calcium channel, CACNA1C, CACNB2b and CACNA2D1 may underlie a mixed phenotype of Brugada pattern ECG (or non-specific repolarization changes in case of CACNA2D1 and shorter than normal QT intervals. Clinical presentation is often severe, as cardiac arrest represents the first clinical presentation in most subjects. Moreover, often a noticeable family history of cardiac SD is present. Atrial fibrillation may be observed, also in young individuals. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, and atrial and ventricular fibrillation are easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. The outcome of patients with SQTS becomes relatively safe when they are identified and treated. Currently, the suggested therapeutic strategy is an implantable cardioverter- defibrillator (ICD in patients with personal history of aborted SD or syncope. In asymptomatic adult patients from highly symptomatic families and in newborn children pharmacological treatment with hydroquinidine, which has been shown to prolong the QT interval and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, may be proposed.

  12. Scottish Short Stone Rows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

  13. Short bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2012-02-01

    The short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a state of malabsorption following intestinal resection where there is less than 200 cm of intestinal length. The management of short bowel syndrome can be challenging and is best managed by a specialised multidisciplinary team. A good understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of resection of different portions of the small intestine is necessary to anticipate and prevent, where possible, consequences of SBS. Nutrient absorption and fluid and electrolyte management in the initial stages are critical to stabilisation of the patient and to facilitate the process of adaptation. Pharmacological adjuncts to promote adaptation are in the early stages of development. Primary restoration of bowel continuity, if possible, is the principle mode of surgical treatment. Surgical procedures to increase the surface area of the small intestine or improve its function may be of benefit in experienced hands, particularly in the paediatric population. Intestinal transplant is indicated at present for patients who have failed to tolerate long-term parenteral nutrition but with increasing experience, there may be a potentially expanded role for its use in the future.

  14. Monitoramento in situ e em tempo real de variáveis morfológicas do poli(cloreto de vinila usando espectroscopia NIR Monitoring in situ and in real time the morphological variables of pvc using NIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. de Faria Jr.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho ilustra o uso de espectroscopia do infravermelho próximo (NIRS para fins de monitoramento da polimerização em suspensão de cloreto de vinila em tempo real. Resultados inéditos mostraram que é possível acompanhar a evolução de importantes propriedades morfológicas de resinas de PVC [poli(cloreto de vinila], como por exemplo, BD (densidade aparente, CPA (absorção de plastificante a frio, DTP (distribuição de tamanho de partículas e Dp (diâmetro de partícula. Mostrou-se também, pela primeira vez, que é possível analisar quantitativamente, com o auxílio da sonda NIRS in situ, a estrutura morfológica da partícula de PVC. Com a possibilidade de predizer a evolução dinâmica dos parâmetros morfológicos em tempo real, mostrou-se que é possível injetar dispersantes e variar a velocidade de agitação durante a reação para fins de controle das variáveis BD, CPA e DTP do PVC, até que o ponto de identificação da partícula seja atingido. Por meio do monitoramento e da estratégia de controle proposta, é possível antecipar fugas de temperatura no reator, aumentar a segurança do processo, diminuir o tempo de desenvolvimento de resinas com características morfológicas diferenciadas, evitando perdas de margem oriundas da venda de produtos fora de especificação, e otimizar os recursos para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos.This work illustrates the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS for monitoring of the suspension polymerization of vinyl chloride in real time. Obtained results showed that it is possible to track in situ and in real time important morphological properties of PVC resins, such as BD (bulk density, CPA (cold plasticizer absorption, PSD (particle size distribution and Dp (average particle diameter. It was also shown for the first time that it is possible to analyze quantitatively, with the help of in situ NIRS probe, the morphological structure of the PVC particles. As a consequence, it

  15. Short fiber reinforced thermoplastic blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malchev, P.G.

    2008-01-01

    The present thesis investigates the potential of short fiber reinforced thermoplastic blends, a combination of an immiscible polymer blend and a short fiber reinforced composite, to integrate the easy processing solutions available for short fiber reinforced composites with the high mechanical

  16. Short duration gamma ray bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. After a short review of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), we discuss the physical implications of strong statistical correlations seen among some of the parameters of short duration bursts (90 < 2 s). Finally, we conclude with a brief sketch of a new unified model for long and short GRBs.

  17. Short Lumber: Concept and Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1993-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate short length lumber (less than 8 feet long) utilization opportunities within the furniture and cabinet industries. If such a high-value market for short length lumber could be developed, the profit potential for many sawmills would increase and the forest resource management options in many areas would expand. Short...

  18. Oxytocin: a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Levay

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is traditionally associated with parturition and lactation. The similarity in oxytocin plasma levels in males and females implies a wider physiological role for the hormone. Oxytocin would now appear to be involved not only in milk ejection, but also in the production of milk. The hormone has further been shown to play a paracrine role in menstruation and to be of importance for normal fertilisation. Several endocrine modulatory as well as neurotransmitter effects have also been reported for oxytocin. The discovery of the role of oxytocin in central nervous system processes such as pain, anxiety, memory and learning has stimuluted a search for possible therapeutic applications of oxytocin in cases such as chronic pain and Alzheimer’s disease. A short review is presented of some of the biochemical and physiological aspects underlying the functions and possible therapeutic applications of oxytocin.

  19. with short selling season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutaz Khouja

    2005-01-01

    deciding on the production levels for a product that has a very short selling season. The firm has a full period to produce and meet a lumpy demand which occurs at the end of the period. The product is no longer demanded after the end of the period. A constant production rate which minimizes average unit cost may increase holding costs. Varying the production rate at discrete points in time may increase production costs but may also decrease holding costs. In addition, allowing changes in the production rate enables the incorporation of forecast revisions into the production plan. Therefore, the best production plan depends on the flexibility of the production system and on the holding cost. In this paper, we formulate and solve a model of this production planning problem. Two models are developed to deal with two types of the average unit cost function. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the results of the model.

  20. Short apraxia screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiguarda, Ramon; Clarens, Florencia; Amengual, Alejandra; Drucaroff, Lucas; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Limb apraxia comprises many different and common disorders, which are largely unrecognized essentially because there is no easy-to-use screening test sensitive enough to identify all types of limb praxis deficits. We evaluated 70 right-handed patients with limb apraxia due to a single focal lesion of the left hemisphere and 40 normal controls, using a new apraxia screening test. The test covered 12 items including: intransitive gestures, transitive gestures elicited under verbal, visual, and tactile modalities, imitation of meaningful and meaningless postures and movements, and a multiple object test. Interrater reliability was maximum for a cutoff of >2 positive items identifying apraxia on the short battery (Cohen's kappa .918, p 3 items (Cohen's kappa .768, p 2 was higher, indicating greater apraxia diagnosis agreement between raters at this cutoff value. The screening test proved to have high specificity and sensitivity to diagnose every type of upper limb praxis deficit, thus showing advantages over previously published tests.

  1. Plastik Enjeksiyon Kalıplarında PVC (Polivinil Klorür ve PC (Polikarbonat İçin En Uygun Kalıp Çeliği Seçimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Veli DÖNDÜREN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With each passing day, the use of plastics in the life of human beings with a further increase of the field, the plastics gligibly small. In this study, PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride and PC (Poindustry has evolved to the present day. Because of increased demand and competition, plastics technology continues to evolve rapidly. Work on the plastic technology to further grow while maintaining its position in the industry in our country are continuing. In these studies reinforced plastics, heat, temperature, pressure such variables has been working on. But

  2. Antenna-coupled arrays of voltage-biased superconducting bolometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Michael J.; Lee, Adrian T.; Richards, P.L.; Schwan, D.; Skidmore, J.T.; Smith, A.D.; Spieler, H.; Yoon, Jongsoo

    2001-07-23

    We report on the development of antenna-coupled Voltage-biased Superconducting Bolometers (VSBs) which use Transition-edge Sensors (TES). Antenna coupling can greatly simplify the fabrication of large multi-frequency bolometer arrays compared to horn-coupled techniques. This simplification can make it practical to implement 1000+ element arrays that fill the focal plane of mm/sub-mm wave telescopes. We have designed a prototype device with a double-slot dipole antenna, integrated band-defining filters, and a membrane-suspended bolometer. A test chip has been constructed and will be tested shortly.

  3. Long-Term Performance of the Laguna de Barlovento Reservoir Water-Proofing using a PVC-P Geo membrane; Impermeabilizacion de la balsa de la Laguna de Barlovento con geomembrana de PVC-P: evolucion a lo largo del tiempo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Fernandez, M.; Leiro Lopez, A.; Soriano Carrillo, J.; Crespo Mucientes, M.; Zornberg, J.; Aguilar Gonzalez, E.; Rico Arnaiz, G.; Pargada Iglesias, L.

    2014-02-01

    The Laguna de Barlovento reservoir was one of the most important European hydraulic projects at the time of its construction because of its high capacity and challenging location. At the time, the designers decided to waterproof this reservoirs with a geo membrane of plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-P). This paper documents the initial characteristics of the geo membrane and its performance since its installation until 2010. The material characterization includes a comprehensive testing program, the results of which are presented. They include quantification of the geo membrane thickness, amount and nature of plasticizers, tensile properties, fold ability under low temperatures, dynamic impact resistance, puncture resistance, welding strength (both in the manufacturing facility and in the field), as well as the use of techniques involving optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, advanced analytical techniques, such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Gas Chromatography (GC) and Mass spectrometry (MS), were used in order to identify the plasticizers used in the geo membrane formulation. Fold ability tests were found to provide early indication of degradation. Results from reflection optical and electron scanning microscopy showed that, after 19 nineteen years of installation, the geo membrane remains in good conditions, particularly on the non-exposed side. (Author)

  4. Coupling in reflector arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1968-01-01

    In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present communic......In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present...

  5. International Migration of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Martin; Munk, Martin D.; Nikolka, Till

    2018-01-01

    Migrant self-selection is important to labor markets and public finances in both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts that the probabil......Migrant self-selection is important to labor markets and public finances in both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts...

  6. Reinforcement of tire tread and radiator hose rubbers with short aramid fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirazi, Morteza; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Short fiber reinforced rubber composites have gained great importance due to their advantages in processing and low cost, coupled with high strength. Reinforcement with short fibers offers attractive features such as design flexibility, high modulus, tear strength, etc. The degree of reinforcement

  7. Generic flux coupling analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Reimers (Arne); Y. Goldstein; A. Bockmayr

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractFlux coupling analysis (FCA) has become a useful tool for aiding metabolic reconstructions and guiding genetic manipulations. Originally, it was introduced for constraint-based models of metabolic networks that are based on the steady-state assumption. Recently, we have shown that the

  8. HIV-discordant couples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Winnie

    2006-06-02

    Jun 2, 2006 ... and Gynecology have noted that assisted reproductive technologies should not be withheld from HIV-infected infertile couples merely on the grounds of HIV serostatus.26. However, ethical controversies in this area remain. Adequate preconception counselling to establish the stability of the discordant ...

  9. Anomalous top magnetic couplings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-09

    Nov 9, 2012 ... Corresponding author. E-mail: remartinezm@unal.edu.co. Abstract. The real and imaginary parts of the one-loop electroweak contributions to the left and right tensorial anomalous couplings of the tbW vertex in the Standard Model (SM) are computed. Keywords. Top; anomalous. PACS Nos 14.65.Ha; 12.15 ...

  10. Conversation, coupling and complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Abney, Drew; Bahrami, Bahador

    We investigate the linguistic co-construction of interpersonal synergies. By applying a measure of coupling between complex systems to an experimentally elicited corpus of joint decision dialogues, we show that interlocutors’ linguistic behavior displays increasing signature of multi-scale coupli...

  11. Generic flux coupling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Arne C; Goldstein, Yaron; Bockmayr, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Flux coupling analysis (FCA) has become a useful tool for aiding metabolic reconstructions and guiding genetic manipulations. Originally, it was introduced for constraint-based models of metabolic networks that are based on the steady-state assumption. Recently, we have shown that the steady-state assumption can be replaced by a weaker lattice-theoretic property related to the supports of metabolic fluxes. In this paper, we further extend our approach and develop an efficient algorithm for generic flux coupling analysis that works with any kind of qualitative pathway model. We illustrate our method by thermodynamic flux coupling analysis (tFCA), which allows studying steady-state metabolic models with loop-law thermodynamic constraints. These models do not satisfy the lattice-theoretic properties required in our previous work. For a selection of genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions, we discuss both theoretically and practically, how thermodynamic constraints strengthen the coupling results that can be obtained with classical FCA. A prototype implementation of tFCA is available at http://hoverboard.io/L4FC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. SIMULATE-3 K coupled code applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, Christian [Studsvik Scandpower AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Grandi, Gerardo; Judd, Jerry [Studsvik Scandpower Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-07-15

    This paper describes the coupled code system TRACE/SIMULATE-3 K/VIPRE and the application of this code system to the OECD PWR Main Steam Line Break. A short description is given for the application of the coupled system to analyze DNBR and the flexibility the system creates for the user. This includes the possibility to compare and evaluate the result with the TRACE/SIMULATE-3K (S3K) coupled code, the S3K standalone code (core calculation) as well as performing single-channel calculations with S3K and VIPRE. This is the typical separate-effect-analyses required for advanced calculations in order to develop methodologies to be used for safety analyses in general. The models and methods of the code systems are presented. The outline represents the analysis approach starting with the coupled code system, reactor and core model calculation (TRACE/S3K). This is followed by a more detailed core evaluation (S3K standalone) and finally a very detailed thermal-hydraulic investigation of the hot pin condition (VIPRE).

  13. Efficient Sonogashira and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... deposited on nafion-graphene. They showed excellent catalytic activity towards Sonogashira and Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. Benzenediazonium salts were used as alternative to aromatic halide. The developed protocol offers recyclability, easy workups with short reaction time and good-to-excellent product ...

  14. PVC Orientado: avaliação de processo de orientação e das propriedades mecânicas em função da razão de estiramento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Albuquerque Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo avalia o efeito da "orientação molecular" nas propriedades mecânicas do PVC Rígido. Introduz-se o tema associando-o à aplicação do PVC Orientado em sistemas de tubulações, considerando a importância do nível de gelificação na qualidade desses produtos. É descrito e testado um método experimental de orientação mono-axial em um extrudado e materiais com diferentes razões de estiramento são produzidos para avaliação de propriedades mecânicas. Aumentando a razão de estiramento, há ganhos principalmente no limite de resistência à tração, além do módulo elástico sob tração e tenacidade. Por outro lado, a deformação na ruptura é reduzida.

  15. Warthog: Coupling Status Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Shane W. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reardon, Bradley T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The Warthog code was developed to couple codes that are developed in both the Multi-Physics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and SHARP from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The initial phase of this work, focused on coupling the neutronics code PROTEUS with the fuel performance code BISON. The main technical challenge involves mapping the power density solution determined by PROTEUS to the fuel in BISON. This presents a challenge since PROTEUS uses the MOAB mesh format, but BISON, like all other MOOSE codes, uses the libMesh format. When coupling the different codes, one must consider that Warthog is a light-weight MOOSE-based program that uses the Data Transfer Kit (DTK) to transfer data between the various mesh types. Users set up inputs for the codes they want to run, and then Warthog transfers the data between them. Currently Warthog supports XSProc from SCALE or the Sub-Group Application Programming Interface (SGAPI) in PROTEUS for generating cross sections. It supports arbitrary geometries using PROTEUS and BISON. DTK will transfer power densities and temperatures between the codes where the domains overlap. In the past fiscal year (FY), much work has gone into demonstrating two-way coupling for simple pin cells of various materials. XSProc was used to calculate the cross sections, which were then passed to PROTEUS in an external file. PROTEUS calculates the fission/power density, and Warthog uses DTK to pass this information to BISON, where it is used as the heat source. BISON then calculates the temperature profile of the pin cell and sends it back to XSProc to obtain the temperature corrected cross sections. This process is repeated until the convergence criteria (tolerance on BISON solve, or number of time steps) is reached. Models have been constructed and run for both uranium oxide and uranium silicide fuels. These models demonstrate a clear difference in power shape that is not accounted for in a

  16. Effect of Group Cognitive Behavioral Couples Therapy on Couple Burnout and Divorce Tendency in Couples

    OpenAIRE

    M Mohammadi; R Sheykh Hadi Siruii; A Garafar; K Zahrakar; M Shakarami; R Davarniya

    2017-01-01

    Background & aim: Couple burnout is one of the phenomena which involve many couples, it is among the main causes of emotional divorce, and without proper management and treatment, and it can lay the ground for formal divorce among couples. Cognitive behavioral couple therapy is one of the existing approaches in the couple therapy field, the efficiency of which has been established for resolving many marital problems. The present study was designed by the aim of investigating the effect of gro...

  17. Combined search for Lorentz violation in short-range gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Cheng-Gang; Tan, Wen-Hai; Yang, Shan-Qing; Luo, Jun; Tobar, Michael Edmund; Bailey, Quentin G; Long, J C; Weisman, E; Xu, Rui; Kostelecky, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Short-range experiments testing the gravitational inverse-square law at the submillimeter scale offer uniquely sensitive probes of Lorentz invariance. A combined analysis of results from the short-range gravity experiments HUST-2015, HUST-2011, IU-2012, and IU-2002 permits the first independent measurements of the 14 nonrelativistic coefficients for Lorentz violation in the pure-gravity sector at the level of $10^{-9}$ m$^2$, improving by an order of magnitude the sensitivity to numerous types of Lorentz violation involving quadratic curvature derivatives and curvature couplings.

  18. Hard probes of short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Arrington, D. W. Higinbotham, G. Rosner, M. Sargsian

    2012-10-01

    The strong interaction of nucleons at short distances leads to a high-momentum component to the nuclear wave function, associated with short-range correlations between nucleons. These short-range, high-momentum structures in nuclei are one of the least well understood aspects of nuclear matter, relating to strength outside of the typical mean-field approaches to calculating the structure of nuclei. While it is difficult to study these short-range components, significant progress has been made over the last decade in determining how to cleanly isolate short-range correlations in nuclei. We have moved from asking if such structures exist, to mapping out their strength in nuclei and studying their microscopic structure. A combination of several different measurements, made possible by high-luminosity and high-energy accelerators, coupled with an improved understanding of the reaction mechanism issues involved in studying these structures, has led to significant progress, and provided significant new information on the nature of these small, highly-excited structures in nuclei. We review the general issues related to short-range correlations, survey recent experiments aimed at probing these short-range structures, and lay out future possibilities to further these studies.

  19. Newnes short wave listening handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pritchard, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Short Wave Listening Handbook is a guide for starting up in short wave listening (SWL). The book is comprised of 15 chapters that discuss the basics and fundamental concepts of short wave radio listening. The coverage of the text includes electrical principles; types of signals that can be heard in the radio spectrum; and using computers in SWL. The book also covers SWL equipment, such as receivers, converters, and circuits. The text will be of great use to individuals who want to get into short wave listening.

  20. Decreasing Divorce in Army Couples: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial using PREP for Strong Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Scott M; Allen, Elizabeth S; Markman, Howard J; Rhoades, Galena K; Prentice, Donnella L

    2010-04-01

    Findings from a large, randomized controlled trial of couple education are presented in this brief report. Married Army couples were assigned to either PREP for Strong Bonds (n = 248) delivered by Army chaplains or to a no-treatment control group (n = 228). One year after the intervention, couples who received PREP for Strong Bonds had 1/3 the rate of divorce of the control group. Specifically, 6.20% of the control group divorced while 2.03% of the intervention group divorced. These findings suggest that couple education can reduce the risk of divorce, at least in the short run with military couples.

  1. Decreasing Divorce in Army Couples: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial using PREP for Strong Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Scott M.; Allen, Elizabeth S.; Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Prentice, Donnella L.

    2010-01-01

    Findings from a large, randomized controlled trial of couple education are presented in this brief report. Married Army couples were assigned to either PREP for Strong Bonds (n = 248) delivered by Army chaplains or to a no-treatment control group (n = 228). One year after the intervention, couples who received PREP for Strong Bonds had 1/3 the rate of divorce of the control group. Specifically, 6.20% of the control group divorced while 2.03% of the intervention group divorced. These findings suggest that couple education can reduce the risk of divorce, at least in the short run with military couples. PMID:20634994

  2. Generic flux coupling analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reimers, Arne; Goldstein, Y.; Bockmayr, A.

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractFlux coupling analysis (FCA) has become a useful tool for aiding metabolic reconstructions and guiding genetic manipulations. Originally, it was introduced for constraint-based models of metabolic networks that are based on the steady-state assumption. Recently, we have shown that the steady-state assumption can be replaced by a weaker lattice-theoretic property related to the supports of metabolic fluxes. In this paper, we further extend our approach and develop an efficient algo...

  3. Replacement of unobservable coupling DoFs in substructure decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrogio, Walter; Fregolent, Annalisa

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, suitable criteria are sought for an optimal replacement of unobservable coupling DoFs when performing substructure decoupling, that is the identification of a dynamic model of a substructure embedded in a known structure. The need arises since coupling DoFs are often difficult to observe, either because they cannot be easily accessed or because they include rotational DoFs. The substitution must be carried out both to preserve the information that would be lost when some coupling DoFs are not taken into account, and to avoid or minimize ill-conditioning problems. As shown in previous papers, coupling DoFs can be effectively replaced by internal DoFs for the sake of substructure decoupling. Furthermore, criteria for an appropriate selection of the internal DoFs used to replace unobservable coupling DoFs are sketched, which involve either the Frequency Response Function (FRF) or the transmissibility between internal and coupling DoFs. Here, previously introduced FRF and transmissibility criteria are combined with the condition number of the interface flexibility matrix to develop a procedure to optimally replace some coupling DoFs with a subset of internal DoFs. The procedure is tested using both simulated and experimental data of a tree structure (known structure), made by a cantilever beam with two offset short arms, coupled to another beam (structure to be identified).

  4. Coupling reduction between dipole antenna elements by using a planar meta-surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saenz, Elena; Ederra, Inigo; Gonzalo, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    The mutual coupling between dipole antenna array elements using a planar meta-surface as superstrate is experimentally investigated. The meta-surface is based on grids of short metal strips and continuous wires. A comparison between the mutual coupling when the dipoles are radiating in free space...

  5. Constructing the crystal ball: how to get reliable prognostic information for the management of subfertile couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eekelen, R.; van Geloven, N.; van Wely, M.; McLernon, D. J.; Eijkemans, M. J.; Repping, S.; Steyerberg, E. W.; Mol, B. W.; Bhattacharya, S.; van der Veen, F.

    2017-01-01

    Couples in whom the results of an initial fertility workup fail to identify the presence of any obvious barriers to conception are diagnosed with unexplained subfertility. Couples who have tried to conceive for a relatively short time have a good chance of natural conception and thus may not benefit

  6. Constructing the crystal ball : how to get reliable prognostic information for the management of subfertile couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eekelen, R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413646610; van Geloven, N.; Wely, M.; McLernon, D J; Eijkemans, M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156353253; Repping, S.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Mol, Ben W.; Bhattacharya, S.; van der Veen, F

    2017-01-01

    Couples in whom the results of an initial fertility workup fail to identify the presence of any obvious barriers to conception are diagnosed with unexplained subfertility. Couples who have tried to conceive for a relatively short time have a good chance of natural conception and thus may not benefit

  7. Coupling of smooth particle hydrodynamics with PRONTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attaway, S.W.; Heinstein, M.W.; Mello, F.J.; Swegle, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    A gridless numerical technique called smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) has been coupled to the transient dynamics finite element code, PRONTO. In this paper, a new weighted residual derivation for the SPH method will be presented, and the methods used to embed SPH within PRONTO will be outlined. Example SPH-PRONTO calculations will also be presented. One major difficulty associated with the Lagrangian finite element method is modeling materials with no shear strength; for example, gases, fluids and explosive bi-products. Typically these materials can be modeled for only a short time with a Lagrangian finite element code. Large distortions cause tangling of the mesh, which will eventually lead to numerical difficulties such as negative element area or ``bow tie`` elements. Remeshing will allow the problem to continue for a short while, but the large distortions can prevent a complete analysis. Smooth particle hydrodynamics is a gridless Lagrangian technique. Requiring no mesh, SPH has the potential to model material fracture, large shear flows, and penetration. SPH computes the strain rate and the stress divergence based on the nearest neighbors of a particle, which are determined using an efficient particle sorting technique. Embedding the SPH method within PRONTO allows part of the problem to be modeled with quadrilateral finite elements while other parts are modeled with the gridless SPH method. SPH elements are coupled to the quadrilateral elements through a contact like algorithm.

  8. Effect of Group Cognitive Behavioral Couples Therapy on Couple Burnout and Divorce Tendency in Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Couple burnout is one of the phenomena which involve many couples, it is among the main causes of emotional divorce, and without proper management and treatment, and it can lay the ground for formal divorce among couples. Cognitive behavioral couple therapy is one of the existing approaches in the couple therapy field, the efficiency of which has been established for resolving many marital problems. The present study was designed by the aim of investigating the effect of group cognitive behavioral couple therapy on couple burnout and divorce tendency in couples.   Methods: The present research was of applied research type. The research method was semi-empirical with a pretest-posttest with control group design. The research population included all the couples with marital conflict and problems who, after a recall announcement of the researcher, visited the counseling and psychological services center located in Gorgan city in 2014. By using the available sampling method, 20 couples were selected among the volunteer and qualified couples for the research, and they were assigned into experiment and control groups (10 couples per group by random assignment. In the present research, the Pines burnout questionnaire (1996 and divorce tendency scale of Rouswelt, Johnson, and Mouro (1986 were used for gathering the data. After taking the pretest, the group cognitive behavioral couple therapy based on the couple therapy model of Baucom  and colleagues (2008 was held in 10 2-hour weekly sessions for the experiment group couples, while the control group couples received no intervention. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics method and multivariate covariance analysis (MANCOVA in SPSS v.20. Results: The multivariate covariance analysis results for couple burnout (F= 28.80 and divorce tendency (F= 51.25 suggested that there was a significant difference between the couples of experiment and control groups (P< 0

  9. Identification of Directional Couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.

    An important piece of information, which can be extracted from parameters of empirical models, is quantitative characteristics of couplings between processes under study. The problem of coupling detection is encountered in multiple fields including physics (Bezruchko et al., 2003), geophysics (Maraun and Kurths, 2005; Mokhov and Smirnov, 2006, 2008; Mosedale et al., 2006; Palus and Novotna, 2006; Verdes, 2005; Wang et al., 2004), cardiology (Rosenblum et al., 2002; Palus and Stefanovska, 2003) and neurophysiology (Arnhold et al., 1999; Brea et al., 2006; Faes et al., 2008; Friston et al., 2003; Kreuz et al., 2007; Kiemel et al., 2003; Le Van Quyen et al., 1999; Mormann et al., 2000; Osterhage et al., 2007; Pereda et al., 2005; Prusseit and Lehnertz, 2008; Smirnov et al., 2005; Romano et al., 2007; Schelter et al., 2006; Schiff et al., 1996; Sitnikova et al., 2008; Smirnov et al., 2008, Staniek and Lehnertz, 2008; Tass, 1999; Tass et al., 2003). Numerous investigations are devoted to synchronisation, which is an effect of interaction between non-linear oscillatory systems (see, e.g., Balanov et al., 2008; Boccaletti et al., 2002; Hramov and Koronovskii, 2004; Kreuz et al., 2007; Maraun and Kurths, 2005; Mormann et al., 2000; Mosekilde et al., 2002; Osipov et al., 2007; Palus and Novotna, 2006; Pikovsky et al., 2001; Prokhorov et al., 2003; Tass et al., 2003). In the last decade, more careful attention is paid to directional coupling analysis. Such characteristics might help, e.g., to localise an epileptic focus (a pathologic area) in the brain from electroencephalogram (EEG) or magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings: hypothetically, an increasing influence of an epileptic focus on adjacent areas leads to the seizure onset for some kinds of epilepsy.

  10. İyonofor Olarak Bir Kaliks[4]aren Türevinin Kullanıldığı İyodür-Seçici PVC Membran Elektrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğçe GÖVER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, iyonofor olarak 5,11,17,23-tetra(tert-bütil-25,26,27,28-tetra(4-propilimidazol asetamit-kaliks[4]aren bileşiğinin kullanıldığı iyodür-seçici yeni bir polivinil klorür (PVC membran elektrot hazırlandı. İyodür –seçici membranın hazırlanmasında kullanılan PVC, o-nitrofeniloktileter (o-NPOE; plastikleştirici ve iyonoforun oranı değiştirilerek, optimum membran bileşimi %2 iyonofor, %29,7 PVC, %68,3 o-NPOE olarak bulundu. pH 4,0'de elektrodun doğrusal çalışma aralığının ve eğiminin sırasıyla 1,0x10-5 – 1,0x10-2 M ve 52,1± 2,6 mV/pI olduğu belirlendi. Önerilen elektrodun oldukça kısa bir cevap süresine (5-10 s ve 5 ay’dan daha uzun bir ömre sahip olduğu gözlendi. Elektrot diğer anyonlar varlığında I->Salisilat > ClO4- > NO3- > SCN- ≈ Benzoat> NO2- > Br- > Cl- > F- > Sitrat > HCOO- sırasında bir seçicilik gösterdi. Ayrıca, önerilen elektrot, gümüş nitrat ile iyodürün çöktürme titrasyonunda indikatör elektrot olarak başarılı bir şekilde kullanıldı.

  11. Short-term impact of atmospheric pollution on fecundability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Rémy; Bottagisi, Sébastien; Solansky, Ivo; Lepeule, Johanna; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Sram, Radim

    2013-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported associations between air pollution levels and semen characteristics, which might in turn affect a couple's ability to achieve a live birth. Our aim was to characterize short-term effects of atmospheric pollutants on fecundability (the month-specific probability of pregnancy among noncontracepting couples). For a cohort of births between 1994 and 1999 in Teplice (Czech Republic), we averaged fine particulate matter (PM2.5), carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide levels estimated from a central measurement site over the 60-day period before the end of the first month of unprotected intercourse. We estimated changes in the probability of occurrence of a pregnancy during the first month of unprotected intercourse associated with exposure, using binomial regression and adjusting for maternal behaviors and time trends. Among the 1,916 recruited couples, 486 (25%) conceived during the first month of unprotected intercourse. Each increase of 10 µg/m in PM2.5 levels was associated with an adjusted decrease in fecundability of 22% (95% confidence interval = 6%-35%). NO2 levels were also associated with decreased fecundability. There was no evidence of adverse effects with the other pollutants considered. Biases related to pregnancy planning or temporal trends in air pollution were unlikely to explain the observed associations. In this polluted area, we highlighted short-term decreases in a couple's ability to conceive in association with PM2.5 and NO2 levels assessed in a central monitoring station.

  12. Effects of lorazepam on short latency afferent inhibition and short latency intracortical inhibition in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, V; Oliviero, A; Saturno, E; Dileone, M; Pilato, F; Nardone, R; Ranieri, F; Musumeci, G; Fiorilla, T; Tonali, P

    2005-04-15

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that the GABAergic system modulates acetylcholine release and, through GABA(A) receptors, tonically inhibits cholinergic activity. Little is known about the effects of GABA on the cholinergic activity in the human central nervous system. In vivo evaluation of some cholinergic circuits of the human brain has recently been introduced using a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol based on coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with TMS of the motor cortex. Peripheral nerve inputs have an inhibitory effect on motor cortex excitability at short intervals (short latency afferent inhibition, SAI). We investigated whether GABA(A) activity enhancement by lorazepam modifies SAI. We also evaluated the effects produced by lorazepam on a different TMS protocol of cortical inhibition, the short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), which is believed to be directly related to GABA(A) activity. In 10 healthy volunteers, the effects of lorazepam were compared with those produced by quetiapine, a psychotropic drug with sedative effects with no appreciable affinity at cholinergic muscarinic and benzodiazepine receptors, and with those of a placebo using a randomized double-blind study design. Administration of lorazepam produced a significant increase in SICI (F(3,9) = 3.19, P = 0.039). In contrast to SICI, SAI was significantly reduced by lorazepam (F(3,9) = 9.39, P = 0.0002). Our findings demonstrate that GABA(A) activity enhancement determines a suppression of SAI and an increase of SICI.

  13. Utilização de filmes plásticos e comestíveis na conservação pós-colheita de melão amarelo Utilization of PVC film and edible films to extend the postharvest conservation of yellow melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrício F Batista

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo prolongar a vida pós-colheita de melões do tipo amarelo cv. AF-682, por meio da atmosfera modificada obtida com filme plástico de PVC e filmes comestíveis à base de cera de carnaúba (50% e fécula de mandioca (1, 2 e 3%. Para o revestimento dos frutos com embalagem plástica utilizou-se filme de PVC com 10 mm de espessura, aderente e esticável, colocado em camada única, na superfície de cada fruto. Após serem revestidos pelos filmes os frutos foram armazenados em temperatura ambiente de 29± 2ºC e 64±1% UR por 20 dias, sendo em intervalos de cinco dias submetidos às avaliações: massa individual, firmeza da polpa, teor de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável e pH. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições em esquema fatorial 6x4, sendo 6 tratamentos de conservação e 4 períodos de armazenamento. Nenhum dos tratamentos avaliados é recomendável para aumentar a conservação pós-colheita de melão amarelo. Os frutos revestidos com fécula de mandioca a 3% e filme de PVC apresentaram processo iniciais característicos de fermentação e podridão a partir de 15 dias de armazenamento em temperatura ambiente.This work aimed to extend the postharvest life of yellow melons cv. AF-682 through modified atmosphere techniques obtained with PVC film and edible films such as carnauba wax (50% and cassava starch (1, 2 and 3%. Fruits were wrapped with one layer of adherent and stretchable PVC film with 10 mm width. After covering, fruits were stored at 29± 2ºC and 64±1% UR for 20 days. At a 5-day interval, fruits were evaluated for individual weight, pulp firmness, total soluble solids content, titratable acidity and pH. The trial was carried out in a complete randomized design, with six replications in a factorial scheme 6x4, with six treatments and four storage periods. The use of PVC film and edible films are not recommended to extend postharvest conservation of

  14. Fluid coupling in a discrete model of cochlear mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen J; Lineton, Ben; Ni, Guangjian

    2011-09-01

    A discrete model of cochlear mechanics is introduced that includes a full, three-dimensional, description of fluid coupling. This formulation allows the fluid coupling and basilar membrane dynamics to be analyzed separately and then coupled together with a simple piece of linear algebra. The fluid coupling is initially analyzed using a wavenumber formulation and is separated into one component due to one-dimensional fluid coupling and one comprising all the other contributions. Using the theory of acoustic waves in a duct, however, these two components of the pressure can also be associated with a far field, due to the plane wave, and a near field, due to the evanescent, higher order, modes. The near field components are then seen as one of a number of sources of additional longitudinal coupling in the cochlea. The effects of non-uniformity and asymmetry in the fluid chamber areas can also be taken into account, to predict both the pressure difference between the chambers and the mean pressure. This allows the calculation, for example, of the effect of a short cochlear implant on the coupled response of the cochlea. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  15. Short bowel syndrome in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matarese, Laura E; Jeppesen, Palle B; O'Keefe, Stephen J D

    2014-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a heterogeneous disorder with broad variation in disease severity arising from different types of intestinal resection. The spectrum of malabsorption ranges from intestinal insufficiency to intestinal failure. Individualized patient strategies involving modifications...

  16. Palliative care - shortness of breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000471.htm Palliative care - shortness of breath To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Palliative care is a holistic approach to care that focuses ...

  17. Rapid automated method for on-site determination of sulfadiazine in fish farming: a stainless steel veterinary syringe coated with a selective membrane of PVC serving as a potentiometric detector in a flow-injection-analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, S A A; Amorim, L R; Heitor, A H; Montenegro, M C B S M; Barbosa, J; Sá, L C; Sales, M G F

    2011-12-01

    Sulfadiazine is an antibiotic of the sulfonamide group and is used as a veterinary drug in fish farming. Monitoring it in the tanks is fundamental to control the applied doses and avoid environmental dissemination. Pursuing this goal, we included a novel potentiometric design in a flow-injection assembly. The electrode body was a stainless steel needle veterinary syringe of 0.8-mm inner diameter. A selective membrane of PVC acted as a sensory surface. Its composition, the length of the electrode, and other flow variables were optimized. The best performance was obtained for sensors of 1.5-cm length and a membrane composition of 33% PVC, 66% o-nitrophenyloctyl ether, 1% ion exchanger, and a small amount of a cationic additive. It exhibited Nernstian slopes of 61.0 mV decade(-1) down to 1.0 × 10(-5) mol L(-1), with a limit of detection of 3.1 × 10(-6) mol L(-1) in flowing media. All necessary pH/ionic strength adjustments were performed online by merging the sample plug with a buffer carrier of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid, pH 4.9. The sensor exhibited the advantages of a fast response time (less than 15 s), long operational lifetime (60 days), and good selectivity for chloride, nitrite, acetate, tartrate, citrate, and ascorbate. The flow setup was successfully applied to the analysis of aquaculture waters. The analytical results were validated against those obtained with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry procedures. The sampling rate was about 84 samples per hour and recoveries ranged from 95.9 to 106.9%.

  18. Uranium Adsorbent Fibers Prepared by Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) from Poly(vinyl chloride)- co -chlorinated Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC- co -CPVC) Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Suree; Yue, Yanfeng; Kuo, Li-Jung; Mehio, Nada; Li, Meijun; Gill, Gary; Tsouris, Costas; Mayes, Richard T.; Saito, Tomonori; Dai, Sheng

    2016-04-20

    The need to secure future supplies of energy attracts researchers in several countries to a vast resource of nuclear energy fuel: uranium in seawater (estimated at 4.5 billion tons in seawater). In this study, we developed effective adsorbent fibers for the recovery of uranium from seawater via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from a poly- (vinyl chloride)-co-chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-co-CPVC) fiber. ATRP was employed in the surface graft polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and tert-butyl acrylate (tBA), precursors for uranium-interacting functional groups, from PVC-co-CPVC fiber. The [tBA]/[AN] was systematically varied to identify the optimal ratio between hydrophilic groups (from tBA) and uranyl-binding ligands (from AN). The best performing adsorbent fiber, the one with the optimal [tBA]/[AN] ratio and a high degree of grafting (1390%), demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities that are significantly greater than those of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) reference fiber in natural seawater tests (2.42-3.24 g/kg in 42 days of seawater exposure and 5.22 g/kg in 49 days of seawater exposure, versus 1.66 g/kg in 42 days of seawater exposure and 1.71 g/kg in 49 days of seawater exposure for JAEA). Adsorption of other metal ions from seawater and their corresponding kinetics were also studied. The grafting of alternative monomers for the recovery of uranium from seawater is now under development by this versatile technique of ATRP.

  19. Cyclization of short DNA fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Pui-Man; Zhen, Yi

    2017-09-01

    From the per unit length free energy for DNA under tension, we have calculated an effective contour length dependent persistence length for short DNA. This effective persistence length results from the enhanced fluctuations in short DNA. It decreases for shorter DNA, making shorter DNA more flexible. The results of the J-factor calculated using this effective persistence length are in good agreement with experimental data.

  20. COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL

    KAUST Repository

    LORZ, ALEXANDER

    2010-06-01

    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria. The presented model consist of a parabolicparabolic chemotaxis system for the oxygen concentration and the bacteria density coupled to an incompressible Stokes equation for the fluid driven by a gravitational force of the heavier bacteria. We show local existence of weak solutions in a bounded domain in d, d = 2, 3 with no-flux boundary condition and in 2 in the case of inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions for the oxygen. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  1. Structural Coupling and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    formations. After presenting the two theories the article put forward Twitter as an example making it possible to compare the two theories. Hereby the article also provides two analysis of how Twitter changes the communication milieu of modern society. In systems theory media can be seen as the mechanisms...... and translations the social medium of Twitter opens for. The second, but most prioritized, aim of the paper is to present, compare and discuss the two theories: How do they understand what becomes visible in their different optics, which observations become possible in the one or the other – and is it possible...... creating networks consisting in both humans and non-humans. Then the two appearing frameworks are used to observe Twitter and discuss which structural couplings and translations are made possible by this medium. In the end of the paper the two theories are discussed and compared....

  2. Coupled Double Quantum Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élder Mantovani Lopes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The progress of the semiconductor growth techniques allows the opportunity to produce new semiconductors devices that may contribute to the development of the nanotechnology. The fabrication of semiconductor heterostructures with high quality allows the obtaining of new effects based on the quantum properties of those systems, which have stimulated great technological interest, especially on the optoelectronic and telecommunications fields. In this work some basic concepts related to one of those heterostructures are discussed: the Coupled Double Quantum Well (CDQW. The deduction of the expression for the determination of the energy levels in CDQWs is presented in details. The results obtained through this expression are compared with experimental results obtained through photoluminescence (PL measurements, complementing the work.

  3. The Couples' Illness Communication Scale (CICS): development and evaluation of a brief measure assessing illness-related couple communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden-Close, Emily; Moss-Morris, Rona; Dennison, Laura; Bayne, Louise; Gidron, Yori

    2010-09-01

    When one member of a couple has a chronic illness, communication about the illness is important for both patient and partner well-being. This study aimed to develop and test a brief self-report measure of illness-related couple communication. A combination of correlations and multiple regression were used to assess the internal consistency and validity of the Couples' Illness Communication Scale (CICS). A scale to provide insight into both patient and partner illness communication was developed. The CICS was then tested on patients with ovarian cancer (N=123) and their partners (N=101), as well as patients with early stage multiple sclerosis (MS) who had stable partnerships (N=64). The CICS demonstrated good acceptability, internal consistency, convergent validity (correlations with general couple communication and marital adjustment), construct validity (correlations with intrusive thoughts, social/family well-being, emotional impact of the illness, and psychological distress), and test-retest reliability. The CICS meets the majority of psychometric criteria for assessment measures in both a life-threatening illness (ovarian cancer) and a chronic progressive disease (MS). Further research is required to understand its suitability for use in other populations. Adoption of the CICS into couple-related research will improve understanding of the role of illness-related communication in adjustment to illness. Use of this short, simple tool in a clinical setting can provide a springboard for addressing difficulties with illness-related couple communication and could aid decision making for referrals to couple counselling.

  4. Collective modes of coupled phase oscillators with delayed coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Ares, Saúl; Morelli, Luis G.; Jörg, David J.; Andrew C. Oates; Jülicher, Frank

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of delayed coupling on timing and pattern formation in spatially extended systems of dynamic oscillators. Starting from a discrete lattice of coupled oscillators, we derive a generic continuum theory for collective modes of long wavelength. We use this approach to study spatial phase profiles of cellular oscillators in the segmentation clock, a dynamic patterning system of vertebrate embryos. Collective wave patterns result from the interplay of coupling delays and moving...

  5. Gay and lesbian couples in Italy: comparisons with heterosexual couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Paolo; Dèttore, Davide; Lasagni, Irene; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina

    2014-12-01

    Assessing couple relationships across diverse languages and cultures has important implications for both clinical intervention and prevention. This is especially true for nontraditional relationships potentially subject to various expressions of negative societal evaluation or bias. Few empirically validated measures of relationship functioning have been developed for cross-cultural applications, and none have been examined for their psychometric sufficiency for evaluating same-sex couples across different languages and cultures. The current study examined the psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory - Revised (MSI-R), a 150-item 13-scale measure of couple relationship functioning, for its use in assessing the intimate relationships of gay and lesbian couples in Italy. Results for these couples were compared to data from heterosexual married and unmarried cohabiting couples from the same geographical region, as well as to previously published data for gay, lesbian, and unmarried heterosexual couples from the United States. Findings suggest that, despite unique societal pressures confronting Italian same-sex couples, these relationships appear resilient and fare well both overall and in specific domains of functioning compared to heterosexual couples both in Italy and the United States. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  6. Coupled Analysis for Cylindrical Rotor Type Switched Reluctance Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Jun; Higuchi, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Takashi; Hashiguchi, Shigenori; Shigematsu, Kouichi

    In previous papers, we proposed the Cylindrical Rotor Type Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM), in which q-axis short-circuited windings were wound around the q-axis iron poles of the rotor and the stator windings were excited by the usual pulse current. It is confirmed experimentally that the short-circuited windings reduced the q-axis leakage flux and caused additional torque generation. In this paper we describe characteristic analysis of the new type SRM using the circuit simulation considering all the inductances coupled with the FEM analysis.

  7. Expression of the short chain fatty acid receptor GPR41/FFAR3 in autonomic and somatic sensory ganglia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Mark Klitgaard; Egerod, K L; Christiansen, S H

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41) also called free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFAR3) is a Gαi-coupled receptor activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) mainly produced from dietary complex carbohydrate fibers in the large intestine as products of fermentation by microbiota. FFAR3 is expressed...

  8. Cleaved-Coupled Nanowire Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    fabricated with micrometer -scale gaps (26, 27). This Fig. 1. Single-frequency lasing in 9-μm (4:3) cleaved-coupled nanowires. (A) SEM images showing the...modulation of modes observed in cleaved-coupled nanowire lasers can be predicted using transfer matrix methods. Although the Vernier effect provides an...Following the Vernier effect, coupled nanowires with integer ratios would produce the free spectral range of the shorter nanowire. The lasing spectra

  9. Gestural coupling and social cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, John; Krueger, Joel William

    2012-01-01

    Social cognition researchers have become increasingly interested in the ways that behavioral, physiological, and neural coupling facilitate social interaction and interpersonal understanding. We distinguish two ways of conceptualizing the role of such coupling processes in social cognition: strong...... and interpersonal understanding. We conclude that investigations of coupling processes within social interaction should inform rather than marginalize or eliminate investigation of higher-level individual cognition...... and moderate interactionism. According to strong interactionism (SI), low-level coupling processes are alternatives to higher-level individual cognitive processes; the former at least sometimes render the latter superfluous. Moderate interactionism (MI) on the other hand, is an integrative approach. Its...

  10. Cosmological tests of coupled Galileons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brax, Philippe; Burrage, Clare; Davis, Anne-Christine; Gubitosi, Giulia

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the cosmological properties of Galileon models which admit Minkowski space as a stable solution in vacuum. This is motivated by stable, positive tension brane world constructions that give rise to Galileons. We include both conformal and disformal couplings to matter and focus on constraints on the theory that arise because of these couplings. The disformal coupling to baryonic matter is extremely constrained by astrophysical and particle physics effects. The disformal coupling to photons induces a cosmological variation of the speed of light and therefore distorsions of the Cosmic Microwave Background spectrum which are known to be very small. The conformal coupling to baryons leads to a variation of particle masses since Big Bang Nucleosynthesis which is also tightly constrained. We consider the background cosmology of Galileon models coupled to Cold Dark Matter (CDM), photons and baryons and impose that the speed of light and particle masses respect the observational bounds on cosmological time scales. We find that requiring that the equation of state for the Galileon models must be close to -1 now restricts severely their parameter space and can only be achieved with a combination of the conformal and disformal couplings. This leads to large variations of particle masses and the speed of light which are not compatible with observations. As a result, we find that cosmological Galileon models are viable dark energy theories coupled to dark matter but their couplings, both disformal and conformal, to baryons and photons must be heavily suppressed making them only sensitive to CDM.

  11. The novel as short story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Schlueter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent history, the novel has been thought of and defined primarily as a long prose narrative. However, this has not been the case historically, as the original meaning of "novel" was for "a piece of news" or "a short story or novella." Returning to this original definition, I propose a new way of viewing the work known contemporarily as the novel as a collection, or sequence, of united short stories rather than a single indivisible work, with the component short stories or novellas comprising the sequence renamed as "novels." A brief examination of several classic works traditionally considered novels serves to illustrate how this change in definition will affect reading.

  12. Short Communication Effects of short chain fatty acid (SCFA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing the diet of breeder hens with a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) premix, containing 509 g fatty acid salts/kg of which 285 g were calcium butyrate, on their eggshell characteristics and the hatching percentage of the eggs. One thousand six hundred 66-week old ...

  13. Microtubule dynamics: Caps, catastrophes, and coupled hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, H.; Holy, T.E.; Leibler, S.

    1996-01-01

    and probability distributions relating to available experimental data are derived. Caps are found to be short and the total rate of hydrolysis at a microtubule end is found to be dynamically coupled to growth. The so-called catastrophe rate is a simple function of the microtubule growth rare and fits experimental...... data. A constant nonzero catastrophe rare, identical for both microtubule ends, is predicted at large growth rates. The delay time for dilution-induced catastrophes is stochastic with a simple distribution that fits the experimental one and, like the experimental one, does not depend on the rate...... description of several apparently contradictory experimental data. Experimental results for the catastrophe rate at different concentrations of magnesium ions and of microtubule associated proteins are discussed in terms of the model. Feasible experiments are suggested that can provide decisive tests...

  14. Infrared Thermography of Thermomechanical Couplings in Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, M. P.; Parganin, D.; Loizeau, J.

    The present paper aims to illustrate three advantages of infrared thermography as a non destructive, real-time and non-contact technique to mechanically characterise solid materials. It permits observation of the macrostructural aspects of. thermoplasticity describing damage and failure processes in diverse and various engineering materials and their components subjected to monotonous, cyclic or vibratory loading. It usefully suggests the definition of a threshold of acceptable damage TAD for materials related to sport equipment such as leather shoe, leather-like composites or sail synthetics. Particularly in case of metallic products or automotive components subjected to fatigue loading, this newly proposed method could evaluate in a non-destructive manner the fatigue limit FL in a very short time compared to traditional fatigue testing techniques that are much more time-consuming and excessively expensive. In addition owing to the thermomechanical coupling, infrared thermography readily describes the damage location, the dissipative regime and the evolution of structural failure.

  15. Chaos a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Chaos: A Very Short Introduction shows that we all have an intuitive understanding of chaotic systems. It uses accessible maths and physics (replacing complex equations with simple examples like pendulums, railway lines, and tossing coins) to explain the theory, and points to numerous examples in philosophy and literature (Edgar Allen Poe, Chang-Tzu, and Arthur Conan Doyle) that illuminate the problems. The beauty of fractal patterns and their relation to chaos, as well as the history of chaos, and its uses in the real world and implications for the philosophy of science are all discussed in this Very Short Introduction.

  16. Beware Postpartum Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Guleser; Ipekci, Afsin; Gulen, Bedia; Ikizceli, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is one of the potentially life-threatening complications of pregnancy. We report a case of a 36-year-old female patient who presented with shortness of breath, swelling of feet after giving birth to triplets, and her tests revealed that left ventricle is dilated with its diameter on the borderline and she had EF 35% with advanced systolic dysfunction. Anterior wall and septum were severely hypokinetic. In the presence of these findings, the patient was evaluated as PPCM. PPCM must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with shortness of breath and swelling of feet, which are also common in pregnancy. PMID:26649031

  17. Short-range fundamental forces

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, I; Buchner, M; Fedorov, V V; Hoedl, S; Lambrecht, A; Nesvizhevsky, V V; Pignol, G; Protasov, K V; Reynaud, S; Sobolev, Yu

    2011-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces, 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Differe nt experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experim ents. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments.

  18. Prospects for coupled modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, D.

    2012-07-01

    Clay-based buffer and tunnel backfill materials are important barriers in the KBS- 3 repository concept for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. Significant changes can be expected to occur to the properties and behaviour of buffer and backfill, especially during re-saturation and through the thermal period. Reactions will occur in response to thermal and chemical gradients, induced by the thermal output of the spent fuel and at interfaces between different barrier materials, such as cement/clay, steel/clay etc. Processes of ion exchange, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and swelling can lead to significant re-distribution of mass and evolution of physical properties so that reliable predictive modelling of future behaviour and properties must be made. This report evaluates the current status of modelling of buffer and backfill evolution and tries to assess the potential future capabilities in the short- to medium-term (5-10 years) in a number of technical areas: (1) Non-isothermal (T-H-M-C-B) modelling and the potential for cementation, (2) The consistency of models, (3) Swelling pressure, (4) Cement-bentonite interactions, (5) Iron-bentonite interactions, (6) Mechanical (shear) behavior, and (7) Bentonite erosion.

  19. Modeling of short fiber reinforced injection moulded composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, A.; Aswini, N.; Dandekar, C. R.; Makhe, S.

    2012-09-01

    A micromechanics based finite element model (FEM) is developed to facilitate the design of a new production quality fiber reinforced plastic injection molded part. The composite part under study is composed of a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) matrix reinforced with 30% by volume fraction of short carbon fibers. The constitutive material models are obtained by using micromechanics based homogenization theories. The analysis is carried out by successfully coupling two commercial codes, Moldflow and ANSYS. Moldflow software is used to predict the fiber orientation by considering the flow kinetics and molding parameters. Material models are inputted into the commercial software ANSYS as per the predicted fiber orientation and the structural analysis is carried out. Thus in the present approach a coupling between two commercial codes namely Moldflow and ANSYS has been established to enable the analysis of the short fiber reinforced injection moulded composite parts. The load-deflection curve is obtained based on three constitutive material model namely an isotropy, transversely isotropy and orthotropy. Average values of the predicted quantities are compared to experimental results, obtaining a good correlation. In this manner, the coupled Moldflow-ANSYS model successfully predicts the load deflection curve of a composite injection molded part.

  20. Slot-Coupled Barbel Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Lüthje; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    A novel slot-coupled barbel antenna is designed and analyzed. A sensitivity analysis performed in order to improve the bandwidth, while the center frequency is kept constant.......A novel slot-coupled barbel antenna is designed and analyzed. A sensitivity analysis performed in order to improve the bandwidth, while the center frequency is kept constant....