WorldWideScience

Sample records for short annulate lamellae

  1. Annulate lamellae in phloem cells of virus-infected Sonchus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, M P; Hoefert, L L

    1977-07-01

    The occurrence of annulate lamellae (AL) in differentiating phloem of Sonchus oleraceus (Compositae) singly infected with sowthistle yellow vein virus (SYVV) and doubly infected with a combination of SYVV and beet yellow stunt virus is documented by electron microscopy. Cell types in which AL were found were immature sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells. AL were found only in cells that also contained SYVV particles although a direct association between the virus and AL was not apparent. The substructure of the AL and the relationships between the AL and the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum are similar to those reported in other descriptions of this organelle in the literature. This report appears to be the first one concerning the association of AL with a plant virus disease.

  2. 38 CFR 3.207 - Void or annulled marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Void or annulled marriage... Void or annulled marriage. Proof that a marriage was void or has been annulled should consist of: (a... marriage void, together with such other evidence as may be required for a determination. (b) Annulled. A...

  3. Arranged marriages annulled by law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H

    1996-06-01

    The arranged marriages of 210 young people in Yongle Town in Zunyi County of Guizhou Province were dissolved in 1995. The proportion of child betrothals, which generally happens among close relatives, is as high as 85% in the town. Some engagements, known as fetus betrothals or belt betrothals, are arranged before the children are born or while they are still infants strapped (belted) to their mothers. Dissemination of information from the Constitution, the Marriage Law, and the Regulations on the Registration of Marriage concerning marriage, healthier births, and good upbringing of children, and other information on reproductive health, has shown young people that they have the freedom to love and marry of their own free will, that their marriage is protected by law, and that consanguineous marriage is harmful to the health of future generations. Some convinced their parents that their arranged marriages should be annulled.

  4. Effect of surface roughness on drying speed of drying lamellas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lamellas, which are defined as top layers of multilayer parquet and favourable to wood veneer can be dried in jet ventilated automatic veneer roller dryer due to short drying period. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of surface roughness on the drying speed of the veneer roller dryer. Quercus spp.

  5. In vivo photoacoustic tumor tomography using a quinoline-annulated porphyrin as NIR molecular contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Michael; Erfanzadeh, Mohsen; Zhou, Feifei; Zhu, Hua; Bornhütter, Tobias; Röder, Beate; Zhu, Quing; Brückner, Christian

    2017-01-25

    The synthesis and photophysical properties of a tetra-PEG-modified and freely water-soluble quinoline-annulated porphyrin are described. We previously demonstrated the ability of quinoline-annulated porphyrins to act as an in vitro NIR photoacoustic imaging (PAI) contrast agent. The solubility of the quinoline-annulated porphyrin derivative in serum now allowed the assessment of the efficacy of the PEGylated derivative as an in vivo NIR contrast agent for the PAI of an implanted tumor in a mouse model. A multi-fold contrast enhancement when compared to the benchmark dye ICG could be shown, a finding that could be traced to its photophysical properties (short triplet lifetimes, low fluorescence and singlet oxygen sensitization quantum yields). A NIR excitation wavelength of 790 nm could be used, fully taking advantage of the optical window of tissue. Rapid renal clearance of the dye was observed. Its straight-forward synthesis, optical properties with the possibility for further optical fine-tuning, nontoxicity, favorable elimination rates, and contrast enhancement make this a promising PAI contrast agent. The ability to conjugate the PAI chromophore with a fluorescent tag using a facile and general conjugation strategy was also demonstrated.

  6. Zirconacyclopentadiene-annulated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiel, Gavin R.; Ziegler, Micah S.; Tilley, T. Don

    2017-01-01

    Syntheses of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and graphene nanostructures demand methods that are capable of selectively and efficiently fusing large numbers of aromatic rings, yet such methods remain scarce. Herein, we report a new approach that is based on the quantitative intramolecular reductive cyclization of an oligo(diyne) with a low-valent zirconocene reagent, which gives a PAH with one or more annulated zirconacyclopentadienes (ZrPAHs). The efficiency of this process is demonstrated by a high-yielding fivefold intramolecular coupling to form a helical ZrPAH with 16 fused rings (from a precursor with no fused rings). Several other PAH topologies are also reported. Protodemetalation of the ZrPAHs allowed full characterization (including by X-ray crystallography) of PAHs containing one or more appended dienes with the ortho-quinodimethane (o-QDM) structure, which are usually too reactive for isolation and are potentially valuable for the fusion of additional rings by Diels-Alder reactions. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Zirconacyclopentadiene-annulated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, Gavin R.; Ziegler, Micah S.; Tilley, T. Don [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-18

    Syntheses of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and graphene nanostructures demand methods that are capable of selectively and efficiently fusing large numbers of aromatic rings, yet such methods remain scarce. Herein, we report a new approach that is based on the quantitative intramolecular reductive cyclization of an oligo(diyne) with a low-valent zirconocene reagent, which gives a PAH with one or more annulated zirconacyclopentadienes (ZrPAHs). The efficiency of this process is demonstrated by a high-yielding fivefold intramolecular coupling to form a helical ZrPAH with 16 fused rings (from a precursor with no fused rings). Several other PAH topologies are also reported. Protodemetalation of the ZrPAHs allowed full characterization (including by X-ray crystallography) of PAHs containing one or more appended dienes with the ortho-quinodimethane (o-QDM) structure, which are usually too reactive for isolation and are potentially valuable for the fusion of additional rings by Diels-Alder reactions. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Modelling the acoustical response of lossy lamella-crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Johan; Mortensen, N. Asger; Willatzen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The sound propagation properties of lossy lamella-crystals are analysed theoretically utilizing a rig- orous wave expansion formalism and an effective medium approach. We investigate both sup- ported and free-standing crystal slab structures and predict high absorption for a broad range...... of frequencies. A detailed derivation of the formalism is presented, and we show how the results obtained in the subwavelength and superwavelength regimes qualitatively can be reproduced by homogenizing the lamella-crystals. We come to the conclusion that treating this structure within the metamaterial limit...... only makes sense if the crystal filling fraction is sufficiently large to satisfy an effective medium approach....

  9. Problems of lamella flanges in steel bridge construction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křístek, V.; Škaloud, Miroslav; Urushadze, Shota; Kunrt, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2016), s. 11-15 ISSN 2217-8139 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : bridges * lamella flanges * repeated loading * breathing * limit states Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering http://scindeks-clanci.ceon.rs/data/pdf/0543-0798/2016/0543-07981601011K.pdf

  10. Effects of drying methods of lamellas used in multilayer parquet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flat sawn green lamellas with 5 and 2 mm thicknesses, which were cut away from Iroko lumber by means of thin cutting frame saw, were dried with 3 different drying methods such as drying in lumber drying kiln, jet ventilated automatic veneer roller dryer and veneer press dryer. Effect of drying temperature on surface ...

  11. Surface ultrastructure of the gill filaments and the secondary lamellae of the catfish, Rita rita, and the carp, Cirrhinus mrigala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Usha; Mittal, Swati; Mittal, Ajay Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Surface ultrastructures of gill filaments and secondary lamellae of Rita rita and Cirrhinus mrigala, inhabiting different ecological habitat, were investigated to unravel adaptive modifications. R. rita is a sluggish, bottom dwelling carnivorous catfish, which inhabits regions of river with accumulations of dirty water. It retains its viability for long time if taken out of water. C. mrigala is an active bottom dwelling Indian major carp, which lives in relatively clean water and dies shortly after taken out of water. In R. rita, gill septa between gill filaments are reduced. Microridges on epithelial cells covering gill filaments are often continuous and arranged concentrically. Secondary lamellae are extensive. The epithelium appears corrugated, show irregular elevations and shallow depressions, and microridges on epithelial cells appear fragmented. In C. mrigala, in contrast, the gill septa are extensive. Microridges on epithelial cells covering gill filaments are fragmented. Secondary lamellae are less extensive. The epithelium appears smooth and microridges on epithelial cells are relatively inconspicuous. These differences have been considered adaptive modification in relation to habit and ecological niches inhabited by two fish species. Presence of mucous goblet cells on gill filaments is discussed in relation to their functions including precipitation of the sediments and preventing clogging of gill filaments. Infrequent mucous goblet cells in the epithelium of secondary lamellae in two fish species are considered an adaptation, minimizing thickness of the epithelium to reduce barrier between blood and water for favoring gasses exchange with increased efficiency. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Proficient synthesis of bioactive annulated pyrimidine derivatives: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal R. Bhat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Syntheses of bioactive annulated pyrimidine derivatives are the most significant tasks in N-heterocyclic chemistry because these compounds have proved to be very attractive and useful for the design of new molecular frameworks of potential drugs with varying pharmacological activities. This review paper summarizes the one-pot multicomponent synthesis of annulated nitrogen- and oxygen-containing heterocycles, such as pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidines, pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines and pyrido[2,3-d;5-6-d]dipyrimidines. The synthetic procedure is based on the chemistry of the domino Knoevenagel-Michael addition mechanism. Keywords: Pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidines, Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines, Pyrido[2,3-d;5-6-d]dipyrimidines, Barbituric acid/Thio-barbituric acid, Aromatic aldehydes, 6-aminouracil

  13. Rhodium-catalyzed annulation of arenes with alkynes through weak chelation-assisted C-H activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yudong; Li, Kaizhi; Cheng, Yangyang; Wan, Danyang; Li, Mingliang; You, Jingsong

    2016-02-18

    The purpose of this article is to give a brief review of weak chelation-assistance as a powerful means for the rhodium-catalyzed annulation of arenes with alkynes. The use of commonly occurring functional groups (e.g., ketones, aldehydes, carboxylic acids and alcohols) as the directing groups enriches the versatility of auxiliary ligands and extends the scope of products. This short article offers an overview on emerging procedures, highlights their advantages and limitations, and covers the latest progress in the rapid synthesis of organic functional materials and natural products.

  14. Columnar Self-Assembly of Electron-Deficient Dendronized Bay-Annulated Perylene Bisimides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Shankar Rao, Doddamane S; Prasad, S Krishna; Achalkumar, Ammathnadu S

    2018-03-07

    Three new heteroatom bay-annulated perylene bisimides (PBIs) have been synthesized by microwave-assisted synthesis in excellent yield. N-annulated and S-annulated perylene bisimides exhibited columnar hexagonal phase, whereas Se-annulated perylene bisimide exhibited low temperature columnar oblique phase in addition to the high temperature columnar hexagonal phase. The cup shaped bay-annulated PBIs pack into columns with enhanced intermolecular interactions. In comparison to PBI, these molecules exhibited lower melting and clearing temperature, with good solubility. A small red shift in the absorption was seen in the case of N-annulated PBI, whereas S- and Se-annulated PBIs exhibited blue-shifted absorption spectra. Bay-annulation increased the HOMO and LUMO levels of the N-annulated perylene bisimide, whereas a slight increase in the LUMO level and a decrease in the HOMO levels were observed in the case of S- and Se-annulated perylene bisimides, in comparison to the simple perylene bisimide. The band gaps of PBI and PBI-N were almost same, whereas an increase in the band gaps were observed in the case of S- and Se-annulated PBIs. The tendency to freeze in the ordered glassy columnar phase for PBI-N and PBI-S will help to overcome the charge traps due to crystallization, which are detrimental to one-dimensional charge carrier mobility. These solution processable electron deficient columnar semiconductors possessing good thermal stability may form an easily accessible promising class of n-type materials. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Regioselective annulation of nitrosopyridine with alkynes: straightforward synthesis of N-oxide-imidazopyridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Srimanta; Narayan, Rishikesh; Golz, Christopher; Strohmann, Carsten; Antonchick, Andrey P

    2015-04-11

    We have developed a novel method for the regioselective annulation of 2-nitrosopyridines with variably substituted alkynes under mild reaction conditions. This approach allows the annulation of alkynes with 2-nitrosopyridines under reagent- and catalyst-free reaction conditions. The developed method shows excellent functional group tolerance and provides easy access to N-oxide-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines.

  16. N -annulated perylene-based push-pull-type sensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Qingbiao; Wang, Xingzhu; Fan, Li; Zheng, Bin; Zeng, Wangdong; Luo, Jie; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Wang, Qing; Wu, Jishan

    2015-01-01

    Alkoxy-wrapped N-annulated perylene (NP) was synthesized and used as a rigid and coplanar π-linker for three push-pull type metal-free sensitizers QB1-QB3. Their optical and electrochemical properties were tuned by varying the structure of acceptor. These new dyes were applied in Co(II)/(III) based dye-sensitized solar cells, and power conversion efficiency up to 6.95% was achieved, indicating that NP could be used as a new building block for the design of high-performance sensitizers in the future.

  17. N -annulated perylene-based push-pull-type sensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Qingbiao

    2015-02-06

    Alkoxy-wrapped N-annulated perylene (NP) was synthesized and used as a rigid and coplanar π-linker for three push-pull type metal-free sensitizers QB1-QB3. Their optical and electrochemical properties were tuned by varying the structure of acceptor. These new dyes were applied in Co(II)/(III) based dye-sensitized solar cells, and power conversion efficiency up to 6.95% was achieved, indicating that NP could be used as a new building block for the design of high-performance sensitizers in the future.

  18. Extraordinary absorption of sound in porous lamella-crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Johan; Romero-García, V.; Picó, R.

    2014-01-01

    . Experimental measurements show that strong all-angle sound absorption with almost zero reflectance takes place for a frequency range exceeding two octaves. We demonstrate that lowering the crystal filling fraction increases the wave interaction time and is responsible for the enhancement of intrinsic material......We present the design of a structured material supporting complete absorption of sound with a broadband response and functional for any direction of incident radiation. The structure which is fabricated out of porous lamellas is arranged into a low-density crystal and backed by a reflecting support...

  19. Exsolution lamellae in volcanic pyroxene; Single phenocryst thermometry for long-lived magmatic reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    I Made, R.; Herrin, J. S.; Tay, Y. Y.; Costa Rodriguez, F.

    2017-12-01

    Comprehensive understanding of the relevant timescales of thermal and chemical evolution of magma below the active volcanoes can help us to better anticipate volcanic eruptions and their likely precursor signals. In recent years, several lines of thermochronological inquiry have converged on a realization that, within many volcanic systems, magmas experience prolonged periods of relatively low-temperature storage prior to eruption during short duration transient events. This prolonged storage at low magmatic temperatures can result in series of solid state phase transformations within minerals, producing a petrologic record of their thermal history. In this example, we observed pigeonite exsolution lamellae in augite phenocrysts from the 2011 eruption of Cordon Caulle volcano, Chile. The small size of these features ( 70nm width and bear exsolution textures and apply this knowledge to understanding the thermal conditions of magma storage in long-lived volcanic reservoirs.

  20. Dynamics of interacting edge defects in copolymer lamellae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; McGraw, Joshua D.; Rowe, Ian D. W.

    2011-03-01

    It is known that terraces at the interface of lamella forming diblock copolymers do not make discontinuous jumps in height. Rather, their profiles are smoothly varying. The width of the transition region between two lamellar heights is typically several hundreds of nanometres, resulting from a balance between surface tension, chain stretching penalties, and the enthalpy of mixing. What is less well known in these systems is what happens when two transition regions approach one another. In this study, we show that time dependent experimental data of interacting copolymer lamellar edges is consistent with a model that assumes a repulsion between adjacent edges. The range of the interaction between edge defects is consistent with the profile width of noninteracting diblock terraces. Financial support from NSERC of Canada is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. Evaporation-driven clustering of microscale pillars and lamellae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae-Hong; Kim, Jungchul; Kim, Ho-Young, E-mail: hyk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    As a liquid film covering an array of micro- or nanoscale pillars or lamellae evaporates, its meniscus pulls the elastic patterns together because of capillary effects, leading to clustering of the slender microstructures. While this elastocapillary coalescence may imply various useful applications, it is detrimental to a semiconductor manufacturing process called the spin drying, where a liquid film rinses patterned wafers until drying. To understand the transient mechanism underlying such self-organization during and after liquid evaporation, we visualize the clustering dynamics of polymer micropatterns. Our visualization experiments reveal that the patterns clumped during liquid evaporation can be re-separated when completely dried in some cases. This restoration behavior is explained by considering adhesion energy of the patterns as well as capillary forces, which leads to a regime map to predict whether permanent stiction would occur. This work does not only extend our understanding of micropattern stiction, but also suggests a novel path to control and prevent pattern clustering.

  2. Action for declaration of annulment of reactor construction permit dismissed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Higher Administrative Court of Rheinland Pfalz has confirmed two decisions by the Koblenz Administrative Court dismissing an actions to declare the annulment of the partial construction permit issued for the Muelheim-Kaerlich reactor. Appeal was not admitted. The plaintiffs, who are under age and were represented by their father, are permanently resident in Schleswig-Holstein, at about 470 km from the site and have a further residence in Mainz, about 60 km away from the site. They plead to have a legitimate interest in the declaration of nullity on the grounds of the uncertainty created in legal matters by the delivery of the permit and its being unconstitutional as well as for ideological and religious reasons. The ruling deals also with the importance of the distance from the site of a nuclear reactor, which is considered to be such as to exclude the 'necessary spatial relation'. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Radical-mediated annulation reactions. A versatile strategy for the preparation of a series of carbocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, M P; Chen, J; Rheault, T R

    2001-11-15

    [reaction--see text] A series of novel 6-endo [4 + 2] and 7-endo [5 + 2] radical-mediated annulation reactions are described. These annulation sequences involve an intermolecular radical addition followed by intramolecular trapping with an allyltin moiety incorporated into the radical precursor fragment. This methodology allows for access to functionalized 6- and 7-membered carbocycles as well as bicyclic compounds with good to excellent levels of stereocontrol.

  4. N-annulated perylene fused porphyrins with enhanced near-IR absorption and emission

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun

    2010-09-17

    N-Annulated perylene fused porphyrins 1 and 2 were synthesized by oxidative dehydrogenation using a Sc(OTf)3/DDQ system. These newly synthesized hybrid molecules are highly soluble in organic solvents and exhibit remarkably intense near-IR absorption, as well as detectable photoluminescence quantum yields, all of which are comparable to or even exceed those of either meso-β doubly linked porphyrin dimer/trimer or bis/tri-N-annulated rylenes. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Femtosecond laser cutting of multiple thin corneal stromal lamellae for endothelial bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aurélien; He, Zhiguo; Forest, Fabien; Gauthier, Anne-Sophie; Peocʼh, Michel; Dumollard, Jean-Marc; Acquart, Sophie; Montard, Romain; Delbosc, Bernard; Gain, Philippe; Thuret, Gilles

    2015-02-01

    To assess the feasibility of cutting multiple thin stromal lamellae in human donor corneas using a commercial femtosecond laser (FSL) to provide cell carriers for future endothelial graft bioengineering. Eight edematous organ-cultured corneas not suitable for grafting for endothelial reasons were mounted on a Ziemer anterior chamber and cut with a Z6 FSL with 6 successive parallel cuts, from depth to surface. Target thickness of each lamella ranged from 100 to 150 μm depending on initial corneal thickness. Thickness was measured using anterior segment optical coherence tomography before and after cutting on mounted corneas, and on each stromal lamella after detachment. Scanning electron microscopy observation was performed on 4 lamellae and histological cross sections on 1 cornea before detachment. A median of 5 (minimum 3, maximum 7) lamellae was obtained per cornea. All lamellae still attached were the most posterior ones, suggesting that FSL was less efficient because of light scattering by edematous stroma. Cut precision and postdetachment swelling were correlated with anterior-posterior position within the cornea. Median lamella thickness was 127 μm (56-222 μm) before detachment and 196 μm (80-304 μm) after detachment. Surface state was consistent with previously reported FSL lamellar cuts during Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. Up to 7 thin lamellae can be cut in stored corneas with an FSL. This method, once optimized primarily by using deswelled, more transparent corneas, could prove effective for recycling unsuitable donor corneas in corneal bioengineering processes.

  6. Tailoring Colors by O Annulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletić, Tanja; Fermi, Andrea; Orfanos, Ioannis; Avramopoulos, Aggelos; De Leo, Federica; Demitri, Nicola; Bergamini, Giacomo; Ceroni, Paola; Papadopoulos, Manthos G; Couris, Stelios; Bonifazi, Davide

    2017-02-16

    The synthesis of O-doped polyaromatic hydro- carbons in which two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sub units are bridged through one or two O atoms has been achieved. This includes high-yield ring-closure key steps that, depending on the reaction conditions, result in the formation of furanyl or pyranopyranyl linkages through intramolecular C-O bond formation. Comprehensive photophysical measurements in solution showed that these compounds have exceptionally high emission yields and tunable absorption properties throughout the UV/Vis spectral region. Electrochemical investigations showed that in all cases O annulation increases the electron-donor capabilities by raising the HOMO energy level, whereas the LUMO energy level is less affected. Moreover, third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) measurements on solutions or thin films containing the dyes showed very good values of the second hyperpolarizability. Importantly, poly(methyl methacrylate) films containing the pyranopyranyl derivatives exhibited weak linear absorption and NLO absorption compared to the nonlinearity and NLO refraction, respectively, and thus revealed them to be exceptional organic materials for photonic devices. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  7. Ultrastructural relationships between the receptor nerve fiber and surrounding lamellae in Krause end-bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spassova, I

    1981-01-01

    The ultrastructural relationship between the receptor nerve fiber and the surrounding lamellae in Krause end-bulbs was discussed. Many sites of specialized junctions of symmetrical or asymmetrical type along the receptor nerve fiber and the surrounding lamellae were found. In addition, in close vicinity to them, spine-like digitations of the receptor nerve fiber, filled mainly with small clear vesicles, were observed. Mitochondrion-like cholinesterase-positive structures bulging in some cytoplasmic lamellae were also found. It is suggested that a functional link might exist between the specialized junctions, digitations and mitochrondrion-like structures in the transformation of external mechanical stimuli into nerve impulses.

  8. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  9. Redox-Neutral Rhodium-Catalyzed [4+1] Annulation through Formal Dehydrogenative Vinylidene Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Song, Shengjin; Wang, Cheng-Qiang; Feng, Chao; Loh, Teck-Peng

    2017-01-10

    A synthetic protocol for the expedient construction of 5-methylene-1H-pyrrol-2(5H)-one derivatives through rhodium-catalyzed [4+1] annulation with gem-difluoroacrylate as the C 1 component was reported. By taking advantage of the twofold C-F bond cleavage occurring during the annulation, this reaction not only allows the synthesis of these heterocyclic compounds under overall oxidant-free conditions but also renders the transformation stereospecific. The very mild reaction conditions employed ensure compatibility with a wide variety of synthetically useful functional groups. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Annulation of β-naphthols and 4-hydroxycoumarins with vinylsulfonium salts: synthesis of dihydrofuran derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Cong; Tong, Lang; Du, Zhi-Bo; Mao, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Xue-Jing; Zou, Yong; Yan, Ming

    2018-04-18

    A new synthetic approach to dihydrofuran derivatives via the annulation reaction of β-naphthols and 4-hydroxycoumarins with vinylsulfonium salts has been developed. A variety of dihydrofuran derivatives were prepared in moderate to good yields under mild conditions. The products could be readily transformed to the corresponding furans via the dehydrogenation with DDQ.

  11. Synthesis of Quinolines through Three-Component Cascade Annulation of Aryl Diazonium Salts, Nitriles, and Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Xu, Qian; Shen, Sheng; Yu, Shouyun

    2017-01-06

    An efficient and rapid synthesis of multiply substituted quinolines is described. This method is enabled by a three-component cascade annulation of readily available aryl diazonium salts, nitriles, and alkynes. This reaction is catalyst- and additive-free. Various aryl diazonium salts, nitriles, and alkynes can participate in this transformation, and the yields are up to 83%.

  12. N-annulated perylene fused porphyrins with enhanced near-IR absorption and emission

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Guan, Zhenping; Xu, Qinghua; Wu, Jishan

    2010-01-01

    -IR absorption, as well as detectable photoluminescence quantum yields, all of which are comparable to or even exceed those of either meso-β doubly linked porphyrin dimer/trimer or bis/tri-N-annulated rylenes. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. Synthesis of tetrahydrokhusitone. Annulation of the cyclohexane ring by free radical and carbanionic sequence of reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZIVORAD CEKOVIC

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of norcadinane sesquiterpene tetrahydrokhusitone 1 has been achieved by a new method for annulation of cyclohexane ring involving a sequence of free radical d-alkylation of the non-activated carbon atom and intramolecular carbanionic alkylation. (–-Menthol was used as the starting compound.

  14. Enantioselective [3+3] atroposelective annulation catalyzed by N-heterocyclic carbenes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Changgui; Guo, Donghui; Munkerup, Kristin; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Li, Fangyi; Wang, Jian

    2018-01-01

    on the transition-metal-catalyzed transformations. Here, we report the enantioselective NHC-catalyzed (NHC: N-heterocyclic carbenes) atroposelective annulation of cyclic 1,3-diones with ynals. In the presence of NHC precatalyst, base, Lewis acid and oxidant, a

  15. Combining silver- and organocatalysis: an enantioselective sequential catalytic approach towards pyrano-annulated pyrazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Daniel; Chauhan, Pankaj; Deckers, Kristina; Mizutani, Yusuke; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2015-02-11

    A one-pot asymmetric Michael addition/hydroalkoxylation sequence, catalyzed by a sequential catalytic system consisting of a squaramide and a silver salt, provides a new series of chiral pyrano-annulated pyrazole derivatives in excellent yields (up to 95%) and high enantioselectivities (up to 97% ee).

  16. Rhodium Catalyzed Annulation of N-Benzoylsulfonamide with Isocyanide via C-H Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chen; Xie, Weiqing; Falck, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Isocyanide insertion: the first rhodium-catalyzed annulation of N-benzoylsulfonamide incorporating with isocyanide via C-H activation is described. The transformation is broadly compatible with N-benzoylsulfonamides bearing various electron-properties as well as isocyanides. From practical point of view, this methodology provides the most straightforward approach to a series of 3-(imino)isoindolinones. PMID:21972033

  17. A nano lamella NbTi–NiTi composite with high strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jiang [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Copper and Tungsten Materials, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); Institute of Applied Physics of Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing and Department of Materials Science and engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Jiang, Daqiang [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing and Department of Materials Science and engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, WA 6009 (Australia); Hao, Shijie; Yu, Cun; Zhang, Junsong [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing and Department of Materials Science and engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Ren, Yang [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Lu, Deping; Xie, Shifang [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Copper and Tungsten Materials, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); Institute of Applied Physics of Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); Cui, Lishan, E-mail: lishancui63@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing and Department of Materials Science and engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China)

    2015-05-01

    A hypereutectic Nb{sub 60}Ti{sub 24}Ni{sub 16} (at%) alloy was prepared by vacuum induction melting, and a nano lamellae NbTi–NiTi composite was obtained by hot-forging and wire-drawing of the ingot. Microscopic analysis showed that NbTi and NiTi nano lamellae distributed alternatively in the composite, and aligned along the wire axial direction, with a high volume fraction (~70%) of NbTi nano lamellae. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that stress induced martensitic transformation occurred upon loading, which would effectively weaken the stress concentration at the interface and avoid the introduction of defects into the nano reinforced phase. Then the embedded NbTi nano lamellae exhibited a high elastic strain up to 2.72%, 1.5 times as high as that of the Nb nanowires embedded in a conventional plastic matrix, and the corresponding stress carried by NbTi was evaluated as 2.53 GPa. The high volume fraction of NbTi nano lamellae improved the translation of high strength from the nano reinforced phase into bulk properties of the composite, with a platform stress of ~1.7 GPa and a fracture strength of ~1.9 GPa.

  18. Rh-Catalyzed Annulations of N-Methoxybenzamides and Ketenimines: Sterically and Electronically Controlled Synthesis of Isoquinolinones and Isoindolinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaorong; Zhang, Zhiyin; Zhao, Hongyang; Lu, Ping; Wang, Yanguang

    2017-04-07

    Rhodium-catalyzed C-H activation/annulation reactions of ketenimines with N-methoxybenzamides are reported. The outcome of reactions is dependent on the structure of ketenimines. The β-alkyl-substituted ketenimines furnish 3-iminoisoquinolin-1(2H)-ones in a formal [4 + 2] annulation manner, while the β-ester substituted ketenimines afford 3-aminoisoindolin-1-ones in a formal [4 + 1] annulation manner. The synthesized [4 + 2] products undergo an intramolecular Cu-catalyzed C-N coupling to be converted to benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-b]isoquinolin-11-ones, which can be directly prepared from ketenimines and N-methoxybenzamides by a one-pot Rh-catalyzed annulation/Cu-catalyzed C-N coupling sequence.

  19. [Evaluation of Articles 33 and 59, of the Code of Deontology of Doctors in Catalonia (2005), judicially annulled].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo Chao, Eliseo

    2009-01-01

    At the end of the year 2004, the Autonomous Conseil of the Medical School in Catalonia (Spain) approved its Deontology Code. The articles 33 and 59 were then judicially resorted by more than one hundred doctors in Catalonia; nowadays those articles themselves have been annulled by judicial sentence. This research aims to accomplish a valuation ethical and deontological of the annulled articles, according to the statutes.

  20. Higher acid-chlorite reactivity of cell corner middle lamella lignin in black spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2007-01-01

    To determine if there was a delignification behavior difference between secondary wall (S2) and middle lamella (cell corner or CC) lignin, black spruce cross-sections were acid-chlorite delignified and the tissue was evaluated in-situ by Raman imaging. Lignin concentration in S2 and CC was determined in numerous latewood cell areas in the two hour delignified cross...

  1. David Lynchi lamella / Slavoj Žižek ; tõlkinud Hasso Krull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Žižek, Slavoj, 1949-

    1996-01-01

    Režissöör ja tema filmide psühhoanalüütiline analüüs, tõlge kogumikust "Reading Seminar XI. Lacan's Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis", 1995. Lisad : tõlkija seletab sõna "lamella" tähenduse, Aare Ermeli koostatud režissööri filmograafia (mittetäielik)

  2. First detection of lamella-gyroid-cylinder phase transition of neat polyethylene-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymers on the basis of synchrotron WAXD/SAXS and infrared/Raman spectral measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiyu, Cao; Tashiro, Kohji; Hanesaka, Makoto; Takeda, Shinichi; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Sono; Takata, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    The phase transition behaviour of polyethylene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PE-b-PEO) diblock copolymer with relatively short chain lengths has been studied on the basis of temperature dependent infrared and Raman spectral measurements and synchrotron WAXD/SAXS simultaneous measurements, from which the concrete structural changes were deduced successfully from the various levels of molecular chain conformation, chain packing mode and higher-order structure. The higher-order structure has been found to transform between lamella, perforated lamella, gyroid, cylinder and sphere structures. The inner structural changes occurring in the polyethylene and poly(ethylene oxide) parts have been related with these morphological changes. The morphological transition from lamella to gyroid occurs with keeping the crystalline state of polyethylene parts. This apparently curious transition can be interpreted reasonably by assuming the thermally-activated chain motion in the crystal lattice, which may play an important role as a trigger to induce the morphological change from lamella to gyroid. This idea was supported by the measurement of half-width of Raman anti-symmetric CH 2 stretching band sensitive to the thermal mobility of alkyl chains.

  3. N-Annulated Perylene as a Donor in Cyclopentadithiophene Based Sensitizers: The Effect of Linking Mode

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Jie; Wang, Xingzhu; Fan, Li; Li, Gongqiang; Qi, Qingbiao; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Tam, Teck Lip Dexter; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Qing; Wu, Jishan

    2015-01-01

    Two types of cyclopentadithiophene dyes with different linking modes with an N-annulated perylene (NP) donor were designed and synthesized. These new dyes were applied in Co(II)/(III) based dye-sensitized solar cells and an efficiency up to 7.8% could be obtained for peri-NP linked CPD-1. The effect of the linking mode on the material properties and device performance was discussed.

  4. N-Annulated Perylene as a Donor in Cyclopentadithiophene Based Sensitizers: The Effect of Linking Mode

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Jie

    2015-11-24

    Two types of cyclopentadithiophene dyes with different linking modes with an N-annulated perylene (NP) donor were designed and synthesized. These new dyes were applied in Co(II)/(III) based dye-sensitized solar cells and an efficiency up to 7.8% could be obtained for peri-NP linked CPD-1. The effect of the linking mode on the material properties and device performance was discussed.

  5. Divergent Reactivity of Rhodium(I) Carbenes Derived from Indole Annulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxun; Li, Hui; Song, Wangze; Tseng, Po-Sen; Liu, Lingyan; Guzei, Ilia A; Tang, Weiping

    2015-10-26

    Rhodium(I) carbenes were generated from propargylic alcohol derivatives as the result of a dehydrative indole annulation. Depending on the choice of the electron-withdrawing group on the aniline nitrogen nucleophile, either a cyclopropanation product or dimerization product was obtained chemoselectively. Intramolecular hydroamidation occurred for the same type of propargylic alcohol derivatives when other transition-metal catalysts were employed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Benzo[b]fluorenes via indanone dianion annulation: a short synthesis of prekinamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Vladimir B; Zhao, Zhufeng; Guo, Lei

    2007-03-29

    [structure: see text]. A rapid construction of benzo[b]fluorenones via reaction of 1-indanone dianions with phthalate diesters is described. Its utility is illustrated with a concise synthesis of prekinamycin.

  7. Analysis of low-energy and high-frequency femtosecond laser for the construction of deep anterior donor corneal lamellae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Victor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and reliability of a low-energy femtosecond laser with a high repetition rate for construction of deep anterior donor corneal lamellae. Methods: This was a prospective laboratory investigation. Twenty-five human corneal buttons were femtosecond laser cut to create thick anterior lamellae (diameter, 10mm; thickness, 500µm. The laser cuts were made using an LDV® femtosecond laser in a Ziemer® anterior chamber. To obtain a better edge, the lamellae were trephined with an 8mm trephine (Katena®. The central corneal thickness and the anterior lamellae were measured using a Mitutoyo® thickness gauge with an accuracy of 0.001mm. Results: The central thickness of the 25 corneas ranged from 500 to 705µm (mean, 584 ± 51µm. The thickness of the anterior lamellae ranged from 420 to 480µm (mean, 455 ± 12.7µm. The anterior lamellae diameters were 7.90 ± 0.1mm, and all laser cuts were round. The lamellar interfaces appeared regular by surgical microscopy. There were no cases of inter-lamellar adhesion. Conclusion: The LDV® femtosecond laser appears to be a safe and reliable instrument for cutting deep anterior lamellae from donor corneoscleral buttons. Minimal variation in donor lamellar depth with the laser will be useful for creating donor corneal tissue for deeper anterior lamellar keratoplasty or endothelial keratoplasty surgery or both from a single donor cornea.

  8. Lithographically-generated 3D lamella layers and their structural color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sichao; Chen, Yifang; Lu, Bingrui; Liu, Jianpeng; Shao, Jinhai; Xu, Chen

    2016-04-01

    Inspired by the structural color from the multilayer nanophotonic structures in Morpho butterfly wing scales, 3D lamellae layers in dielectric polymers (polymethyl methacrylate, PMMA) with n ~ 1.5 were designed and fabricated by standard top-down electron beam lithography with one-step exposure followed by an alternating development/dissolution process of PMMA/LOR (lift-off resist) multilayers. This work offers direct proof of the structural blue/green color via lithographically-replicated PMMA/air multilayers, analogous to those in real Morpho butterfly wings. The success of nanolithography in this work for the 3D lamellae structures in dielectric polymers not only enables us to gain deeper insight into the mysterious blue color of the Morpho butterfly wings, but also breaks through the bottleneck in technical development toward broad applications in gas/liquid sensors, 3D meta-materials, coloring media, and infrared imaging devices, etc.

  9. Design of a lamella settler for biomass recycling in continuous ethanol fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabera, J; Iznaola, M A

    1989-04-20

    The design and application of a settler to a continuous fermentation process with yeast recycle were studied. The compact lamella-type settler was chosen to avoid large volumes associated with conventional settling tanks. A rationale of the design method is covered. The sedimentation area was determined by classical batch settling rate tests and sedimentation capacity calculation. Limitations on the residence time of the microorganisms in the settler, rather than sludge thickening considerations, was the approach employed for volume calculation. Fermentation rate tests with yeast after different sedimentation periods were carried out to define a suitable residence time. Continuous cell recycle fermentation runs, performed with the old and new sedimentation devices, show that lamella settler improves biomass recycling efficiency, being the process able to operate at higher sugar concentrations and faster dilution rates.

  10. A task for laser cutting of lamellae with TruLaser 1030

    OpenAIRE

    Lazov, Lyubomir; Deneva, Hristina; Narica, Pavels

    2015-01-01

    The growing development of manufacturing, automotive, aerospace and other sectors in the industry generates the necessity to continuously expanding on modifications of electrical machinery and equipments which are used in them, as well as to improve their performance and reliability. The report presents some results from a study to the process of laser cutting through melting on lamellae for rotor and stator packages by using the laser system TruLaser 1030. Some functional dependencies are of...

  11. Non-cooperative immobilization of residual water bound in lyophilized photosynthetic lamellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harańczyk, Hubert; Baran, Ewelina; Nowak, Piotr; Florek-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Leja, Anna; Zalitacz, Dorota; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2015-12-01

    This study applied 1H-NMR in time and in frequency domain measurements to monitor the changes that occur in bound water dynamics at decreased temperature and with increased hydration level in lyophilizates of native wheat photosynthetic lamellae and in photosynthetic lamellae reconstituted from lyophilizate. Proton relaxometry (measured as free induction decay = FID) distinguishes a Gaussian component S within the NMR signal (o). This comes from protons of the solid matrix of the lamellae and consists of (i) an exponentially decaying contribution L1 from mobile membrane protons, presumably from lipids, and from water that is tightly bound to the membrane surface and thus restricted in mobility; and (ii) an exponentially decaying component L2 from more mobile, loosely bound water pool. Both proton relaxometry data and proton spectroscopy show that dry lyophilizate incubated in dry air, i.e., at a relative humidity (p/p0) of 0% reveals a relatively high hydration level. The observed liquid signal most likely originates from mobile membrane protons and a tightly bound water fraction that is sealed in pores of dry lyophilizate and thus restricted in mobility. The estimations suggest that the amount of sealed water does not exceed the value characteristic for the main hydration shell of a phospholipid. Proton spectra collected for dry lyophilizate of photosynthetic lamellae show a continuous decrease in the liquid signal component without a distinct freezing transition when it is cooled down to -60ºC, which is significantly lower than the homogeneous ice nucleation temperature [Bronshteyn, V.L. et al. Biophys. J. 65 (1993) 1853].

  12. A Simple Thermoplastic Substrate Containing Hierarchical Silica Lamellae for High-Molecular-Weight DNA Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Yi; Burke, Jeffrey M; Gleitsman, Kristin; Friedrich, Sarah M; Liu, Kelvin J; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2016-12-01

    An inexpensive, magnetic thermoplastic nanomaterial is developed utilizing a hierarchical layering of micro- and nanoscale silica lamellae to create a high-surface-area and low-shear substrate capable of capturing vast amounts of ultrahigh-molecular-weight DNA. Extraction is performed via a simple 45 min process and is capable of achieving binding capacities up to 1 000 000 times greater than silica microparticles. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Novel in-situ lamella fabrication technique for in-situ TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, Megan; Daly, Dermot; Rummel, Andreas; McCarthy, Eoin K; McAuley, Cathal; Nicolosi, Valeria

    2018-03-29

    In-situ transmission electron microscopy is rapidly emerging as the premier technique for characterising materials in a dynamic state on the atomic scale. The most important aspect of in-situ studies is specimen preparation. Specimens must be electron transparent and representative of the material in its operational state, amongst others. Here, a novel fabrication technique for the facile preparation of lamellae for in-situ transmission electron microscopy experimentation using focused ion beam milling is developed. This method involves the use of rotating microgrippers during the lift-out procedure, as opposed to the traditional micromanipulator needle and platinum weld. Using rotating grippers, and a unique adhesive substance, lamellae are mounted onto a MEMS device for in-situ TEM annealing experiments. We demonstrate how this technique can be used to avoid platinum deposition as well as minimising damage to the MEMS device during the thinning process. Our technique is both a cost effective and readily implementable alternative to the current generation of preparation methods for in-situ liquid, electrical, mechanical and thermal experimentation within the TEM as well as traditional cross-sectional lamella preparation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Innovative use of lamella clarifiers for central stormwater treatment in separate sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Gebhard

    2014-01-01

    Lamella settlers have been used in the past few years for the sedimentation of particles in wastewater and stormwater applications. A new and very innovative approach for the treatment of stormwater flows is proposed which extends the portfolio of solutions beyond traditional settling tanks. Surface runoff is stored in a sewer or a basin and finally treated in a small but continuously operated lamella clarifier. The low throughput flow will yield good treatment efficiency at a small footprint. The possibilities of using existing storage volume in a storm sewer, as well as the structural flexibility of the arrangement are decisive benefits. As a large operational advantage, the lamellae may be cleaned mechanically, e.g. by pivoting under water. Finally, the flow and the sludge which will be sent to the downstream treatment plant will be minimized. A new comparative simulation method is proposed in order to assess an equivalent degree of stormwater treatment, either by achieving an equal annual volume of treated stormwater or, more directly, an equal amount of spilled pollutant load. The new solution is compared with a traditional settling tank according to current German design rules. Additionally, a case study from a real installation will be presented.

  15. Cohesion between two clay lamellae: From Primitive Model to Full Molecular Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier, Benoit; Vandamme, Matthieu; Pellenq, Roland; Van Damme, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The objective of this work is to investigate the range of validity of various models to describe accurately the cohesion between two charged clay lamellae. These models, in order of increasing complexity, are the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, the primitive model, the explicit solvent primitive model and the full molecular model. We aim at providing a clear picture of which physical mechanisms play a significant role for various interlayer spacings, surface charges and cationic charges. The up-scaling of the mechanical properties starting from the lamellar microstructure of a smectite is usually performed within the framework of the DLVO theory. In this case, the interaction between two charged lamellae with cations between them is the sum of the repulsive double layer electrostatic interaction and of the attractive Van der Waals interaction. However, the Primitive Model shows that concentration fluctuations of counter-ions can generate a strongly attractive ionic correlation force. The Primitive Model is a Monte-Carlo simulation of hydrated counter-ions between two infinite charges surfaces and the water is implicitly modeled by scaling all electrostatic interactions by the dielectric permittivity of bulk water. Nevertheless, for very small inter-layer spacings (1 nm), molecular simulations and experiments show that water is organized in a layered structure and does not behave like bulk water. Therefore, we investigate the role of the solvent in the cohesion of clay lamellae. For this purpose, we use a modified version of the original Primitive Model in which the solvent is modeled by point-dipoles: This model is called the Explicit Solvent Primitive Model. We consider four different systems: A Na + -montmorillonite, a Ca 2+ -montmorillonite, a Na + -vermiculite, a Ca 2+ -vermiculite. The vermiculite layers are twice as charged as the montmorillonite layers. We use a full molecular model as a

  16. Steelhead Kelt Reconditioning and Reproductive Success, 2008 Annul Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, Douglas R. [Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission

    2009-04-02

    Iteroparity, the ability to repeat spawn, is a natural life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Current rates of observed steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss iteroparity rates in the Columbia River Basin are severely depressed due to anthropogenic development which includes operation of the hydropower system and other habitat degradations. Artificial reconditioning, which is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and redevelop mature gonads, is evaluated in this study as method to restore depressed steelhead populations. To test the efficacy of steelhead kelt reconditioning as a management and recovery tool different scenarios were investigated ranging from very low intensity (collect and transport fish) to high intensity (collect and feed fish in captivity until rematuration). Examinations of gamete and progeny viability were performed for first-time spawners and reconditioned kelt steelhead. We have continued to examine reproductive success of reconditioned kelt steelhead in Omak Creek using microsatellite loci to perform parentage analysis on juvenile O. mykiss . The groundwork has also begun on developing a genetic analysis of the Yakima subbasin in order to determine steelhead kelt contribution by utilizing parentage analysis on a larger scale. A research and study plan has been developed cooperatively with the University of Idaho to determine the feasibility of steelhead kelt reconditioning program in the Snake River Basin. Analysis of management scenarios indicated that while no-term and short-term reconditioned kelts continue to perform well outmigrating to the ocean but returns from these groups have been low ranging from 0-12% during 2002-2008. Survival (56%) of fish in the long-term treatment in 2008 was the highest we have observed in this project. Analyzing the three different management scenarios within the Yakima River subbasin

  17. Isomeric N-Annulated Perylene Diimide Dimers for Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zetong; Fu, Huiting; Meng, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Sun, Yanming; Wang, Zhaohui

    2018-04-16

    Two isomeric N-annulated perylene diimide dimers, namely, p-BDNP and m-BDNP were designed and synthesized via geometric tuning. The distinct molecular geometry and packing arrangements of isomers with almost identical optical and electrochemical properties rendered us an in-depth understanding of the molecular structure-aggregation state-photovoltaic performance relationship. Blended with the commercially available donor PCE-10, p-BDNP and m-BDNP showed distinct differences in photovoltaic performance with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 5.01 % and 4.15 %, respectively. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Enantioselective Access to Spirocyclic Sultams by Chiral Cp(x) -Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed Annulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Manh V; Cramer, Nicolai

    2016-02-12

    Chiral spirocyclic sultams are a valuable compound class in organic and medicinal chemistry. A rapid entry to this structural motif involves a [3+2] annulation of an N-sulfonyl ketimine and an alkyne. Although the directing-group properties of the imino group for C-H activation have been exploited, the developments of related asymmetric variants have remained very challenging. The use of rhodium(III) complexes equipped with a suitable atropchiral cyclopentadienyl ligand, in conjunction with a carboxylic acid additive, enables an enantioselective and high yielding access to such spirocyclic sultams. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Lewis acid catalyzed [3 + 2] annulation of ketenimines with donor-acceptor cyclopropanes: an approach to 2-alkylidenepyrrolidine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajarin, Mateo; Egea, Adrian; Orenes, Raul-Angel; Vidal, Angel

    2016-11-02

    The [3 + 2] annulation reaction of C,C,N-trisubstituted ketenimines with donor-acceptor cyclopropanes bearing aryl, styryl and vinyl substituents at the C2 position, triggered by the Lewis acid Sc(OTf) 3 , supplies highly substituted pyrrolidines. Activated cyclopropanes fused to naphthalene and [1]benzopyrane nuclei are also suitable substrates in similar transformations, yielding partially saturated benz[g]indoles and [1]benzopyran[4,3-b]pyrroles. An intramolecular version of this ketenimine/cyclopropane [3 + 2] annulation has also been developed leading to the pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoindole framework.

  20. Mathematical model of human osteon and its validation by nanomechanical testing of bone lamella

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korsa, R.; Lukeš, J.; Šepitka, J.; Kytýř, Daniel; Mareš, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 17, SUPP. 1 (2014), s. 24-25 ISSN 1025-5842. [Congress of the Societe-de-Biomecanique /39./. Valenciennes, 27.08.2014-29.08.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/2305 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : osteon * lamella * micromechanics * elastic constants * nanoindentation Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 1.770, year: 2014 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10255842.2014.931078#.VBq66E0cRaQ

  1. Breakdown of middle lamella pectin by (●) OH during rapid abscission in Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoshiya; Koibuchi, Mizuki; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Ueda, Junichi; Uheda, Eiji

    2015-08-01

    Azolla, a small water fern, abscises its roots and branches within 30 min upon treatment with various stresses. This study was conducted to test whether, in the rapid abscission that occurs in Azolla, breakdown of wall components of abscission zone cells by (●) OH is involved. Experimentally generated (●) OH caused the rapid separation of abscission zone cells from detached roots and the rapid shedding of roots from whole plants. Electron microscopic observations revealed that (●) OH rapidly and selectively dissolved a well-developed middle lamella between abscission zone cells and resultantly caused rapid cell separation and shedding. Treatment of abscission zones of Impatiens leaf petiole with (●) OH also accelerated the separation of abscission zone cells. However, compared with that of Azolla roots, accelerative effects in Impatiens were weak. A large amount of (●) OH was cytochemically detected in abscission zone cells both of Azolla roots and of Impatiens leaf petioles. These results suggest that (●) OH is involved in the cell separation process not only in the rapid abscission in Azolla but also in the abscission of Impatiens. However, for rapid abscission to occur, a well-developed middle lamella, a unique structure, which is sensitive to the attack of (●) OH, might be needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Neutron production in the interaction of electrons with a dispersing lamella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto B, T. G.; Baltazar R, A.; Medina C, D.; Vega C, H. R.

    2017-10-01

    When a Linac for radiotherapy operates with acceleration voltages greater than 8 MV, neutrons are produced as secondary radiation. They deposit an undesirable and not negligible dose in the patient. Depending on the type of tumor, its location in the body and the characteristics of the patient, cancer treatment with a Linac is done with photon or electron beams, which produce neutrons through reactions (γ, n) and e, e n) respectively. Because the effective section of the reaction (n, γ) is 137 times greater than the reaction (e, e n), most studies have focused on photo neutrons. When a Linac operates with electron beams, the beam that leaves the magnetic baffle is incised in the dispersion foil in order to cause quasi-elastic interactions and expand the spatial distribution of the electrons; in their interaction with the lamella the electrons produce photons and these in turn produce neutrons. Due to the radiobiological efficiency of neutrons and the ways in which they interact with matter, is important to determine the neutrons production in Linacs operating in electron mode. The objective of this work is to determine the characteristics of photons and neutrons that occur when a beam of mono-energetic electrons of 2 mm in diameter (pencil beam) is made to impinge on a tungsten lamella of 1 cm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick located in the center of a 10 cm thick tungsten shell, used to represent the accelerator head. The study was carried out using the Monte Carlo method with the MCNP6 code for electron beams of 12 and 18 MeV. The spectra of photons and neutrons were estimated in 6 point detectors, four were placed in different points equidistant from the center of the lamella and the other two were located at 50 cm and 1 m from the electron beam, simulating the totally closed head. In this work it was found that when a Linac operates with an electron beam of 12 or 18 MeV there is neutron production mainly in the head and in the direction of the beam. (Author)

  3. Electrooxidative Ruthenium-Catalyzed C-H/O-H Annulation by Weak O-Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Youai; Tian, Cong; Massignan, Leonardo; Rogge, Torben; Ackermann, Lutz

    2018-05-14

    Electrocatalysis has been identified as a powerful strategy for organometallic catalysis, and yet electrocatalytic C-H activation is restricted to strongly N-coordinating directing groups. The first example of electrocatalytic C-H activation by weak O-coordination is presented, in which a versatile ruthenium(II) carboxylate catalyst enables electrooxidative C-H/O-H functionalization for alkyne annulations in the absence of metal oxidants; thereby exploiting sustainable electricity as the sole oxidant. Mechanistic insights provide strong support for a facile organometallic C-H ruthenation and an effective electrochemical reoxidation of the key ruthenium(0) intermediate. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Enantioselective [3+3] atroposelective annulation catalyzed by N-heterocyclic carbenes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Changgui

    2018-02-05

    Axially chiral molecules are among the most valuable substrates in organic synthesis. They are typically used as chiral ligands or catalysts in asymmetric reactions. Recent progress for the construction of these chiral molecules is mainly focused on the transition-metal-catalyzed transformations. Here, we report the enantioselective NHC-catalyzed (NHC: N-heterocyclic carbenes) atroposelective annulation of cyclic 1,3-diones with ynals. In the presence of NHC precatalyst, base, Lewis acid and oxidant, a catalytic C–C bond formation occurs, providing axially chiral α-pyrone−aryls in moderate to good yields and with high enantioselectivities. Control experiments indicated that alkynyl acyl azoliums, acting as active intermediates, are employed to atroposelectively assemble chiral biaryls and such a methodology may be creatively applied to other useful NHC-catalyzed asymmetric transformations.

  5. In situ X-ray polymerization: from swollen lamellae to polymer-surfactant complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agzenai, Yahya; Lindman, Björn; Alfredsson, Viveka; Topgaard, Daniel; Renamayor, Carmen S; Pacios, Isabel E

    2014-01-30

    The influence of the monomer diallyldimethylammonium chloride (D) on the lamellar liquid crystal formed by the anionic surfactant aerosol OT (AOT) and water is investigated, determining the lamellar spacings by SAXS and the quadrupolar splittings by deuterium NMR, as a function of the D or AOT concentrations. The cationic monomer D induces a destabilization of the AOT lamellar structure such that, at a critical concentration higher than 5 wt %, macroscopic phase separation takes place. When the monomer, which is dissolved in the AOT lamellae, is polymerized in situ by X-ray initiation, a new collapsed lamellar phase appears, corresponding to the complexation of the surfactant with the resulting polymer. A theoretical model is employed to analyze the variation of the interactions between the AOT bilayers and the stability of the lamellar structure.

  6. Synthesis of isochromene-type scaffolds via single-flask Diels-Alder-[4 + 2]-annulation sequence of a silyl-substituted diene with menadione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihoon; Panek, James S

    2014-06-20

    A sequential Diels-Alder reaction/silicon-directed [4 + 2]-annulation was developed to assemble hydroisochromene-type ring systems from menadione 2. In the first step, a Diels-Alder of the 1-silyl-substituted butadiene 1 with 2 furnished an intermediate cyclic allylsilane. Subsequently, TMSOTf promoted a [4 + 2]-annulation through trapping of an oxonium, generated by condensation between an aldehyde and the TBS protected alcohol resulted in the formation of a cis-fused hydroisochromene 13.

  7. Fabricating interstitial-free steel with simultaneous high strength and good ductility with homogeneous layer and lamella structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Zhen-Zhe; Wang, Yuhui

    2017-01-01

    to cold rolled one) and a uniform elongation around 17% can be realized. Microstructural observation by electron back-scatter diffraction revealed a characteristic hierarchical layer + heterogeneous lamella structure, namely L2 structure. The reasons for the good mechanical properties were discussed....

  8. Hornet cuticle - a composite structure comprised of a series of duplex lamellae attenuating toward the interior of the body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishay, JS; Kirshboim, S; Steinberg, D; Kalicharan, D; Jongebloed, WL

    Our study deals with the ultramicroscopic structure of the yellow pigmented cuticular stripes on the abdomen of the oriental hornet Vespa orientalis (Hymenoptera, Vespinae). The abdominal cuticle is composed of numerous (more than 25) lamellae which progressively attenuate as one proceeds from the

  9. Two dynamic morphotypes of sarcoma cells, asymmetric stellate and triangle with leading lamella, are related to malignancy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorná, Eva; Zicha, D.; Chaloupková, Alena; Matoušková, Eva; Veselý, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2003), s. 33-49 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/99/0368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : morphotypes * stellate * lamella Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.527, year: 2003

  10. Stepwise Swelling of a Thin Film of Lamellae-Forming Poly(styrene-b-butadiene) in Cyclohexane Vapor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di, Zhenyu; Posselt, Dorthe; Smilgies, Detlef-M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the swelling of a thin film of lamellae-forming poly(styrene-b-butadiene) in cyclohexane vapor. The vapor pressure and thus the degree of swelling of the film are increased in a stepwise manner using a custom-built sample cell. The resulting structural changes during and after each...

  11. [1+1+3] Annulation of Diazoenals and Vinyl Azides: Direct Synthesis of Functionalized 1-Pyrrolines through Olefination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchupalli, Vinaykumar; Katukojvala, Sreenivas

    2018-05-04

    A dirhodium carboxylate catalyzed [1+1+3] annulation reaction of diazoenals and vinyl azides that gives synthetically important enal-functionalized 1-pyrroline derivatives was developed. The reaction involves a novel rhodium-catalyzed olefination of diazoenals with vinyl azides via electrophilic enal carbenoids, resulting in a new class of enal acrylates. The annulation reaction was used for the direct synthesis of valuable deuterated 1-pyrrolines. Structural diversification of the enal-functionalized 1-pyrrolines resulted in the biologically important pyrrolidine-fused oxaziridine, amino acid derivatives, and a 6-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane motif present in polycyclic alkaloids. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Cobalt-mediated [3 + 2]-annulation reaction of alkenes with alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones and imines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Jennifer M; Toste, F Dean; Bergman, Robert G

    2009-08-20

    The utility of cobalt dinitrosyl complexes for the [3 + 2] annulation of alkenes with unsaturated enones and ketimines has been demonstrated. Reaction of a series of cobalt dinitrosyl/alkene adducts with conjugate acceptors in the presence of Sc(OTf)(3)/LHMDS formed two new C-C bonds at the carbons alpha to the nitrosyl groups of the substrate, leading to unusual tri- and tetracycles. Retrocycloaddition of these products in the presence of norbornadiene yielded functionalized tetrasubstituted bicyclic olefins.

  13. Formation of benzo[f]-1-indanone frameworks by regulable intramolecular annulations of gem-dialkylthio trienynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhongxue; Liu, Ying; Barry, Badru-Deen; Liao, Peiqiu; Bi, Xihe

    2015-02-20

    An atom-economic route to benzo[f]-1-indanone frameworks has been developed starting from the readily available gem-dialkylthio trienynes by intramolecular annulations. The chemoselectivity of the intramolecular cyclizations can be regulated by both the base and the type of gas atmosphere used in the reaction, thus allowing the divergent synthesis of the corresponding functionalized benzo[f]-1-indanones in good to excellent yields.

  14. Bay-annulated indigo (BAI) as an excellent electron accepting building block for high performance organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; He, Bo; Pun, Andrew

    2015-11-24

    A novel electron acceptor based on bay-annulated indigo (BAI) was synthesized and used for the preparation of a series of high performance donor-acceptor small molecules and polymers. The resulting materials possess low-lying LUMO energy level and small HOMO-LUMO gaps, while their films exhibited high crystallinity upon thermal treatment, commensurate with high field effect mobilities and ambipolar transfer characteristics.

  15. I. The synthesis and characterization of annulated uranocenes. II. The variable temperature 1H NMR of uranocenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    A general synthetic route to alkyl annulated cyclooctatetraene dianions and the corresponding annulated uranocenes has been developed. Dideprotonation of bicyclooctatrienes, resulting from reaction of cyclooctatetraene dianion with l,n-dialkylbromides or methanesulfonates, affords alkyl annulated cyclooctatetraene dianions in moderate yields. Dicyclopenteno-, bisdimethylcyclopenteno- and dicyclohexenouranocene were prepared from the corresponding cyclooctatetraene dianions and UCl 4 . The structures of dicyclobuteno- and dicyclopentenouranocene were elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and the effects of annulation on the uranocene skeleton are discussed. Attempted synthesis of benzocyclooctatetraene and a benzannulated uranocene is reported. The variable temperature 1 H NMR spectrum of uranocene has been reinvestigated from -100 to 100 0 C. The isotropic shift was found to be linear in T -1 with an extrapolated intercept of 0 at T -1 = 0. Variable temperature 1 H NMR spectra, from -80 to 70 0 C, of 17 substituted uranocenes are reported. The energy barrier to ring rotation in 1,1', 4,4'-tetra-t-butyl-uranocene was determined to be 8.24 +- 0.5 kcal/mole while the barrier in the corresponding 1,1', 3,3'-tetra-t-butylferrocene was determined to be 13.1 kcal/mole. Alkyl substitution is shown to have little effect on the electronic and magnetic properties of the uranocene skeleton, and thus alkyl substituted uranocenes are treated as having effective axial symmetry in analysis of the observed isotropic shifts. Using diannulated uranocenes as model systems an analysis of the contact and pseudocontact components of the observed isotropic shifts in uranocene and alkyl substituted uranocenes is presented

  16. Origin of spinel lamella and/or inclusions in olivine of harzburgite form the Pauza ultramafic rocks from the Kurdistan region, northeastern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Y.; Maekawa, H.; Karim, K.

    2009-04-01

    Exsolution lamellae and octahedral inclusions of chromian spinel occur in olivine of harzburgite of the Pauza ultramafic rocks, Kurdistan region, northeastern Iraq. The lamella is up to 80μm long and up to 50 μm wide. The lamellae and octahedral inclusions of chromian spinel are distributed heterogeneously in the host olivine crystal. They are depleted in Al2O3 relative to the subhedral spinel grains in the matrix and spinel lamella in orthopyroxene. Olivine (Fo92 - 93) with spinel lamellae occurs as fine-grained crystals around orthopyroxene, whereas olivine (Fo90-91) free from spinel is found in matrix. Based on back-scattered images analyses, enrichments of both Cr # and Fe+3 in the chromian spinel lamella in olivine (replacive olivine) relative to that in adjacent orthopyroxene. As well as the compositions of chromian spinel lamellae host olivine are more Mg-rich than the matrix olivine. Furthermore the restriction of olivine with spinel lamellae and octahedral inclusions on around orthopyroxene, and the similarity of spinel lamella orientations in both olivine and adjacent orthopyroxene. This study concludes that the spinel inclusions in olivine are remnant (inherited from former orthopyroxene) spinel exsolution lamella in orthopyroxene, that has been formed in upper mantle conditions ( T = 1200 °C, P = 2.5 GPa ). Replacive olivine are formed by reaction of ascending silica poor melt and orthopyroxene in harzburgite as pressure decrease the solubility of silica-rich phase (orthopyroxene) in the system increase, therefore ascending melt dissolve pyroxene with spinel exsolution lamella and precipitate replacive olivine with spinel inclusions. We can conclude that the olivines with spinel lamella are not necessary to be original and presenting ultrahigh-pressure and/or ultra deep-mantle conditions as previously concluded. It has been formed by melting of orthopyroxene (orthopyroxene with spinel exsolution lamella = olivine with spinel lamellae and octahedral

  17. Improved ductility of a transformation-induced-plasticity steel by nanoscale austenite lamellae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Y.F., E-mail: shenyf@smm.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (MOE), School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Liu, Y.D. [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (MOE), School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Sun, X. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Wang, Y.D.; Zuo, L. [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (MOE), School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Center for Structural and Functional Materials, Institute for Materials Research and Innovation, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70504 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    TRIP (transformation-induced-plasticity) steel with a chemical composition of 0.19C–0.30Si–1.76Mn–1.52Al (weight percentage, wt%) have been treated by intercritical annealing and austempering process. The microstructures of the obtained samples consist of the ferrite, the bainite and the retained austenite phase. The volume fractions of the bainite and the retained austenite gradually increase with increasing the temperature of the intercritical annealing. Consequently, significantly different mechanical properties have been observed. The sample annealed at 820 °C (for 120 s) and partitioned at 400 °C (for 300 s) has the best combination of ultimate tensile strength (UTS, ∼682 MPa) and elongation to failure (∼70%) with about 26% of bainitic ferrite plates and 17% retained austenite in its microstructure. The retained austenite has a lamella morphology with 100‒300 nm in thickness and 2‒5 µm in length. On the contrary, the sample annealed at the same temperature without the partitioning process yields much lower UTS and elongation to failure.

  18. Nanofabrication and coloration study of artificial Morpho butterfly wings with aligned lamellae layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sichao; Chen, Yifang

    2015-11-18

    The bright and iridescent blue color from Morpho butterfly wings has attracted worldwide attentions to explore its mysterious nature for long time. Although the physics of structural color by the nanophotonic structures built on the wing scales has been well established, replications of the wing structure by standard top-down lithography still remains a challenge. This paper reports a technical breakthrough to mimic the blue color of Morpho butterfly wings, by developing a novel nanofabrication process, based on electron beam lithography combined with alternate PMMA/LOR development/dissolution, for photonic structures with aligned lamellae multilayers in colorless polymers. The relationship between the coloration and geometric dimensions as well as shapes is systematically analyzed by solving Maxwell's Equations with a finite domain time difference simulator. Careful characterization of the mimicked blue by spectral measurements under both normal and oblique angles are carried out. Structural color in blue reflected by the fabricated wing scales, is demonstrated and further extended to green as an application exercise of the new technique. The effects of the regularity in the replicas on coloration are analyzed. In principle, this approach establishes a starting point for mimicking structural colors beyond the blue in Morpho butterfly wings.

  19. Crack detection in oak flooring lamellae using ultrasound-excited thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlberg, Tobias; Thurley, Matthew; Popovic, Djordje; Hagman, Olle

    2018-01-01

    Today, a large number of people are manually grading and detecting defects in wooden lamellae in the parquet flooring industry. This paper investigates the possibility of using the ensemble methods random forests and boosting to automatically detect cracks using ultrasound-excited thermography and a variety of predictor variables. When friction occurs in thin cracks, they become warm and thus visible to a thermographic camera. Several image processing techniques have been used to suppress the noise and enhance probable cracks in the images. The most successful predictor variables captured the upper part of the heat distribution, such as the maximum temperature, kurtosis and percentile values 92-100 of the edge pixels. The texture in the images was captured by Completed Local Binary Pattern histograms and cracks were also segmented by background suppression and thresholding. The classification accuracy was significantly improved from previous research through added image processing, introduction of more predictors, and by using automated machine learning. The best ensemble methods reach an average classification accuracy of 0.8, which is very close to the authors' own manual attempt at separating the images (0.83).

  20. Nanofabrication and coloration study of artificial Morpho butterfly wings with aligned lamellae layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sichao; Chen, Yifang

    2015-11-01

    The bright and iridescent blue color from Morpho butterfly wings has attracted worldwide attentions to explore its mysterious nature for long time. Although the physics of structural color by the nanophotonic structures built on the wing scales has been well established, replications of the wing structure by standard top-down lithography still remains a challenge. This paper reports a technical breakthrough to mimic the blue color of Morpho butterfly wings, by developing a novel nanofabrication process, based on electron beam lithography combined with alternate PMMA/LOR development/dissolution, for photonic structures with aligned lamellae multilayers in colorless polymers. The relationship between the coloration and geometric dimensions as well as shapes is systematically analyzed by solving Maxwell’s Equations with a finite domain time difference simulator. Careful characterization of the mimicked blue by spectral measurements under both normal and oblique angles are carried out. Structural color in blue reflected by the fabricated wing scales, is demonstrated and further extended to green as an application exercise of the new technique. The effects of the regularity in the replicas on coloration are analyzed. In principle, this approach establishes a starting point for mimicking structural colors beyond the blue in Morpho butterfly wings.

  1. Relation Between the Molopo Farms and Bushveld Complexes: An Analysis of Pyroxene Exsolution Lamellae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, I.; Feineman, M. D.; Nyblade, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Molopo Farms Complex (MFC) is a layered igneous intrusion in Botswana, considered to be related to the nearby South African Bushveld Complex (BC) due to their similarities. The BC has been researched in depth for its economic deposits of platinum group elements (PGEs), while the under-researched MFC has no PGEs and is under 200 m of sediment. This study aims to increase knowledge about the MFC regarding the theory that the BC and MFC come from the same parental magma body by showing similar cooling history in the exsolution of pyroxenes. Using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) paired with an energy-dispersive detector (EDS), thin sections of pyroxenes with exsolution lamellae from both complexes were observed in terms of chemical composition and microtextures. MFC pyroxenes were then compared to literature data of BC pyroxenes. The pyroxenes are closely related, indicating that the MFC and the BC cooled at a similar rate and come from the same parental magma body. Further research can expand on these findings to prove that the MFC and BC are from the same magma.

  2. Total synthesis of complestatin: development of a Pd(0)-mediated indole annulation for macrocyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Hiroyuki; Breazzano, Steven P; Garfunkle, Joie; Kimball, F Scott; Trzupek, John D; Boger, Dale L

    2010-06-09

    Full details of the initial development and continued examination of a powerful intramolecular palladium(0)-mediated indole annulation for macrocyclization closure of the strained 16-membered biaryl ring system found in complestatin (1, chloropeptin II) and the definition of factors impacting its intrinsic atropodiastereoselectivity are described. Its examination and use in an alternative, second-generation total synthesis of complestatin are detailed in which the order of the macrocyclization reactions was reversed from our first-generation total synthesis. In this approach and with the ABCD biaryl ether ring system in place, the key Larock cyclization was conducted with substrate 36 (containing four phenols, five secondary amides, one carbamate, and four labile aryl chlorides) and provided the product 37 (56%) exclusively as a single atropisomer (>20:1, detection limits) possessing the natural (R)-configuration. In this instance, the complexity of the substrate and the reverse macrocyclization order did not diminish the atropodiastereoselectivity; rather, it provided an improvement over the 4:1 selectivity that was observed with the analogous substrate used to provide the isolated DEF ring system in our first-generation approach. Just as significant, the atroposelectivity represents a complete reversal of the diasteroselectivity observed with analogous macrocyclizations conducted using a Suzuki biaryl coupling.

  3. Thermally Induced Denitrogenative Annulation for the Synthesis of Dihydroquinolinimines and Chroman-4-imines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Hung; Chen, Ying-Yu; Rajagopal, Basker; Tu, Hsiu-Chung; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Wang, Sheng-Fu; Liang, Chien-Fu; Tyan, Yu-Chang; Lin, Po-Chiao

    2016-03-04

    A rapid growth in synthetic methods for the preparation of diverse organic molecules using N-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles is of great interest in organic synthesis. Transition metals are generally used to activate the α-imino diazo intermediates. Metal-free methods have not been studied in detail, but can be a good complement to transition metal catalysis in the mild reaction conditions. We herein report a novel method for the preparation of 2,3-dihydroquinolin-4-imine and chroman-4-imine analogs from their corresponding N-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles in the absence of metal catalysts. To achieve intramolecular annulation, the introduction of an electron-donating group is required at the meta position of N-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazole methyl anilines. The inclusion of tailored substituents on the aniline moieties and nitrogen atoms enhances the nucleophilicity of the phenyl π-electrons, thus allowing them to undergo a Friedel-Crafts-type reaction with the highly electrophilic ketenimines. This metal-free method was carefully optimized to generate a variety of dihydroquinolin-4-imines and chroman-4-imines in moderate-to-good yields. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. From pirazoloquinolines to annulated azulene dyes: UV-VIS spectroscopy and quantum chemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasiorski, P.; Danel, K.S.; Matusiewicz, M.; Uchacz, T.; Kityk, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    Paper reports UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence spectra of 6-R derivatives (R=CH 3 , O-CH 3 , C(C 6 H 5 ) 3 , C 6 H 5 -N-C 10 H 7 ) of 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline, belonging to pyrazoloquinoline (PQ) family, likewise its regioisomeric products 10-R derivatives of 6-phenyl-6H-5,6,7-triazadibenzo[f,h]naphtho[3,2,1-cd]azulene representing cyclized seven-membered annulated azulene (AA) dyes. Cyclization of PQs into AAs is accompanied by a significant red shift of the first optical absorption band. This finding agrees with the results of quantum-chemical calculations performed by means of the semiempirical method PM3. As the solvent polarity rises all the dyes exhibit a blue shift of the first absorption band and a red shift of the fluorescence band. Such opposite trends in solvatochromic behavior have been reproduced within the semiempirical calculations in combination with the Lippert-Mataga dielectric polarization model. Depending on solvent polarity AA dyes emit light in the green, green-yellow or orange range of the visible spectrum what may be of interest for potential luminescent or electroluminescent applications.

  5. Nano-indentation creep properties of the S2 cell wall lamina and compound corner middle lamella [abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Jakes; Charles R. Frihart; James F. Beecher; Donald S. Stone

    2010-01-01

    Bulk wood properties are derived from an ensemble of processes taking place at the micron-scale, and at this level the properties differ dramatically in going from cell wall layers to the middle lamella. To better understand the properties of these micron-scaled regions of wood, we have developed a unique set of nano-indentation tools that allow us to measure local...

  6. Effect of amorphous lamella on the crack propagation behavior of crystalline Mg/amorphous Mg-Al nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai-Yang, Song; Yu-Long, Li

    2016-02-01

    The effects of amorphous lamella on the crack propagation behavior in crystalline/amorphous (C/A) Mg/Mg-Al nanocomposites under tensile loading are investigated using the molecular dynamics simulation method. The sample with an initial crack of orientation [0001] is considered here. For the nano-monocrystal Mg, the crack growth exhibits brittle cleavage. However, for the C/A Mg/Mg-Al nanocomposites, the ‘double hump’ behavior can be observed in all the stress-strain curves regardless of the amorphous lamella thickness. The results indicate that the amorphous lamella plays a critical role in the crack deformation, and it can effectively resist the crack propagation. The above mentioned crack deformation behaviors are also disclosed and analyzed in the present work. The results here provide a strategy for designing the high-performance hexagonal-close-packed metal and alloy materials. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11372256 and 11572259), the 111 Project (Grant No. B07050), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. NCET-12-1046), and the Program for New Scientific and Technological Star of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2012KJXX-39).

  7. Formation process of lamella structures by deformation in an Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T.; Kajiwara, S.; Tomota, Y.

    1995-01-01

    For Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni shape memory alloys, it was previously found by HREM study that the formation of the nanometric lamella structures consisting of f.c.c. and h.c.p. phase is very important to exhibit good shape memory effect. In the present work, the formation process of such lamella structures has been studied in detail. The results are as follows. The transformation is initiated by random formation of extremely thin martensite plates with 1-2 nm width and then these plates are clustered and some of them coalesce to form thicker martensite plates with increasing deformation. The clustered regions are 400-600 nm wide and will correspond to the above mentioned lamella structures. These clustered regions are considered also to correspond to the thinnest martensite plate observable with optical microscope. In the optical microscopic scale, the thin martenite plates with the smallest width are formed rather uniformly in an austenite grain, and with further increasing deformation, they are clustered and coalesce into thicker plates with 3-8 μm width. (orig.)

  8. Metal concentrations in selected tissues and main prey species of the annulated sea snake (Hydrophis cyanocinctus) in the Hara Protected Area, northeastern coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie-Atagholipour, Mohsen; Riyahi-Bakhtiari, Alireza; Sajjadi, Mirmasoud; Yap, Chee Kong; Ghaffari, Sanaz; Ebrahimi-Sirizi, Zohreh; Ghezellou, Parviz

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first detailed ecotoxicological study of the annulated sea snake, Hydrophis cyanocinctus. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, nickel and vanadium were evaluated in muscle, liver, kidney, skin and blood of the annulated sea snake (H. cyanocinctus) and in the whole bodies of its main prey species (Periophthalmus waltoni and Boleophthalmus dussumieri) in the Hara Protected Area, the Persian Gulf. The mean concentrations of lead and vanadium were highest in the kidney, which identified the kidney as a target organ for metals in sea snakes as it is in other reptilian groups. Mean concentrations of cadmium and nickel were highest in the liver and skin, respectively. Mean cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in the liver compared to prey species, which indicated that prey items may be a source of cadmium for the annulated sea snake in the study area. Data presented here may be considered as a baseline for further ecotoxicological studies in sea snakes.

  9. Cobalt-Mediated [3+2]-Annulation Reaction of Alkenes with α,β-Unsaturated Ketones and Imines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Jennifer M.; Toste, F. Dean; Bergman, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    The utility of cobalt dinitrosyl complexes for the [3+2] annulation of alkenes with unsaturated enones and ketimines has been demonstrated. Reaction of a series of cobalt dinitrosyl/alkene adducts with conjugate acceptors in the presence of Sc(OTf)3/LHMDS formed two new C-C bonds at the carbons α to the nitrosyl groups of the substrate, leading to unusual tri- and tetracycles. Retrocycloaddition of these products in the presence of norbornadiene yielded functionalized tetrasubstituted bicyclic olefins. PMID:19639989

  10. Stereodivergent Synthesis of N-Heterocycles by Catalyst-Controlled, Activity-Directed Tandem Annulation of Diazo Compounds with Amino Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Zhu, Chenghao; Min, Junxiang; Peng, Shiyong; Xu, Guangyang; Sun, Jiangtao

    2015-10-26

    A stereodivergent synthesis of five-membered N-heterocycles, such as 2,3-dihydropyrroles, and 2-methylene and 3-methylene pyrrolidines, has been developed through a tandem annulation of amino alkynes with diazo compounds and involves the trapping of in situ formed intermediates. Mechanistic investigations indicate that the copper-catalyzed tandem annulations proceed by allenoate formation and subsequent intramolecular hydroamination. In contrast, the rhodium-catalyzed protocol features a carbenoid insertion into the NH bond and subsequent Conia-ene cyclization. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Natural Disaster as a Reason to Annul the Nuclear Liability: From National and International Law’s Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taufiq, D.

    2016-01-01

    One serious issue that deserves more attention from Indonesia before constructing its first NPP, regarding its ''ring of fire'' geological position, is the natural disaster as a reason to annul the nuclear liability. Article 32 of Act No 10 Year 1997 on Nuclear Energy stipulates that ''nuclear installation operator shall not be responsible for the damage caused by a nuclear accident that occurred as a direct impact of a domestic or international armed conflict or natural disaster that exceeded the design limits and acceptance criteria set by the regulatory body.'' In its explanation natural disaster includes earthquakes. This article adopts the provision of article IV paragraph 3b 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage. But, in 1997 Amendment Protocol, this provision has been deleted. Natural disasters often referred to as an ''act of god'' because it occurs outside the control of the human. Nevertheless, not all natural disasters could cause the operator to annul its civil liability. The most important question is: ''has the operator taken all necessary preventive actions to prevent accidents, before and during the natural disaster?''

  12. Rh-Catalyzed annulations of N-methoxybenzamides with ketenimines: synthesis of 3-aminoisoindolinones and 3-diarylmethyleneisoindolinones with strong aggregation induced emission properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaorong; Peng, Zhixing; Zhao, Hongyang; Zhang, Zhiyin; Lu, Ping; Wang, Yanguang

    2016-08-23

    Rhodium-catalyzed C-H activation/annulation reactions of ketenimines with N-methoxybenzamides furnished 3-aminoisoindolin-1-ones and 3-(diarylmethylene)isoindolin-1-ones. The synthesized 3-(diarylmethylene)isoindolin-1-ones exhibited aggregation induced emissions in aqueous tetrahydrofuran solution and strong green-yellow emissions in solids.

  13. Annulation of phenols with methylbutenol over MOFs: The role of catalyst structure and acid strength in producing 2,2-dimethylbenzopyran derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shamzhy, Mariya; Opanasenko, Maksym; Garcia, H.; Čejka, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 202, JAN 2015 (2015), s. 297-302 ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07101S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : metal -organic frameworks * acid ity * annulation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.349, year: 2015

  14. A facile synthesis of substituted 2-alkylquinolines through [3+3] annulation between 3-ethoxycyclobutanones and aromatic amines at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Gang; Sun, Xiuyun; Xia, Qian; Rao, Yu

    2011-11-04

    An efficient single-step approach toward the synthesis of 2-alkylquinolines is described. Through a Lewis acid mediated [3+3] annulation reaction between 3-ethoxycyclobutanones and aromatic amines, a variety of multisubstituted 2-alkylquinoline derivatives were prepared regioselectively at room temperature. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Pyridine synthesis by reactions of allyl amines and alkynes proceeding through a Cu(OAc)2 oxidation and Rh(III)-catalyzed N-annulation sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Su; Park, Jung-Woo; Jun, Chul-Ho

    2012-11-28

    A new methodology has been developed for the synthesis of pyridines from allyl amines and alkynes, which involves sequential Cu(II)-promoted dehydrogenation of the allylamine and Rh(III)-catalyzed N-annulation of the resulting α,β-unsaturated imine and alkyne.

  16. Stepwise swelling of a thin film of lamellae-forming poly(styrene-b- butadiene) in cyclohexane vapor

    KAUST Repository

    Di, Zhenyu; Posselt, Dorthe; Smilgies, Detlef Matthias; Li, Ruipeng; Rauscher, Markus; Potemkin, Igor I.; Papadakis, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the swelling of a thin film of lamellae-forming poly(styrene-b-butadiene) in cyclohexane vapor. The vapor pressure and thus the degree of swelling of the film are increased in a stepwise manner using a custom-built sample cell. The resulting structural changes during and after each step were followed in situ using time-resolved grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). During the first step, the lamellar thickness increases strongly, before it decreases again. At the same time, the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the diffuse Bragg reflection along the film normal has a sharp maximum. These observations point to the formation of new lamellae. During the subsequent swelling steps, the lamellar thickness overshoots only weakly. The behavior thus resembles qualitatively our previous results on a similar thin film during swelling in saturated vapor of cyclohexane; however, it deviates from earlier theoretical predictions. We propose a theory that is quantitatively correct for the description of the dependence of the lamellar thickness on the polymer volume fraction in the late stage of the swelling steps. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Stepwise swelling of a thin film of lamellae-forming poly(styrene-b- butadiene) in cyclohexane vapor

    KAUST Repository

    Di, Zhenyu

    2012-06-26

    We investigated the swelling of a thin film of lamellae-forming poly(styrene-b-butadiene) in cyclohexane vapor. The vapor pressure and thus the degree of swelling of the film are increased in a stepwise manner using a custom-built sample cell. The resulting structural changes during and after each step were followed in situ using time-resolved grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). During the first step, the lamellar thickness increases strongly, before it decreases again. At the same time, the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the diffuse Bragg reflection along the film normal has a sharp maximum. These observations point to the formation of new lamellae. During the subsequent swelling steps, the lamellar thickness overshoots only weakly. The behavior thus resembles qualitatively our previous results on a similar thin film during swelling in saturated vapor of cyclohexane; however, it deviates from earlier theoretical predictions. We propose a theory that is quantitatively correct for the description of the dependence of the lamellar thickness on the polymer volume fraction in the late stage of the swelling steps. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. The Effects of Cation Ratios on Root Lamella Suberization in Rice (Oryza sativa L. with Contrasting Salt Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Momayezi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is an important produced cereal in the world. We evaluated the effect of salt compositions including NaCl and Na2SO4 on suberin lamellae as a major barrier to radial ion and water movements in two rice genotypes representing contrasting salt tolerance levels under salinity stress. Two rice genotypes, Fajr as salt tolerant and Khazar as salt sensitive, were transplanted in sand culture under glasshouse condition. Rice seedlings were treated with five salt compositions including NaCl, Na2SO4, 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 molar ratios for 40 days. It was proven that suberin lamellae in endodermis of root cell wall were thickened with Na2SO4 treatment. The results demonstrated that the number of passage cells was higher in Fajr genotype than that in Khazar genotype under saline condition. Calcium concentration in root tissue decreased as the SO42- concentration in root media increased. It can be concluded that Fajr genotype is able to keep some passage cells open to maintain Ca2+ uptake. The Ca2+/Na+ ratio in shoot tissue can be also a reliable index for the early recognition of salt stress in these rice genotypes.

  19. Synthesis of new annulated pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives using organo catalyst (DABCO in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal R. Bhat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A selective method for the synthesis of annulated pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidines has been developed. It was shown that base catalysis is more efficient in this reaction, rather than acid catalysis as it is believed that 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO is N-type base catalyst used for the synthesis of pyrano[2,3-d]pyramidine derivatives via one-pot three component condensation reactions of various aromatic aldehydes, active methylene compounds and barbituric acid in aqueous ethanol carried at normal temperature. The potential application of DABCO in organic synthesis increasing rapidly because of its reaction simplicity, less pollution, and minimum reaction time, high yields of the biological active products, uses less toxic solvents and low cost chemicals.

  20. Pd-catalyzed aerobic oxidative annulation of cyclohexanones and 2-aminophenyl ketones: A direct approach to acridines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wanlu; Li, Xiaowei; Wang, Longfei; Chen, Yong; Wu, Yanchao

    2017-08-01

    An efficient aerobic oxidative annulation of cyclohexanones and 2-aminophenyl ketones approach to substituted acridines, a structural motif for a large number of pharmaceuticals and functional materials is described. The key feature of this method is the use of oxygen as the sole oxidant and Pd catalyst, which resulting in the high regioselectivity with unsymmetrical meta-substituted cyclohexanones. The electron gap of the global redox condensation process is filled and the reaction efficiency is significantly promoted by O2 as a redox moderator. This protocol possesses many advantages such as using O2 as a cheap and nonhazardous oxidant, high regioselectivity and water as the only by-product, which meet the principle of green chemistry.

  1. Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed [3+2]/[5+2] Annulation of 4-Aryl 1,2,3-Triazoles with Internal Alkynes through Dual C(sp2)-H Functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Zhou, Ming-Bo; Ouyang, Xuan-Hui; Pi, Rui; Song, Ren-Jie; Li, Jin-Heng

    2015-05-26

    A rhodium(III)-catalyzed [3+2]/[5+2] annulation of 4-aryl 1-tosyl-1,2,3-triazoles with internal alkynes is presented. This transformation provides straightforward access to indeno[1,7-cd]azepine architectures through a sequence involving the formation of a rhodium(III) azavinyl carbene, dual C(sp(2))-H functionalization, and [3+2]/[5+2] annulation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Direct assembly of in situ templated CdSe quantum dots via crystalline lamellae structure of polyamide 66

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheval, Nicolas; Brooks, Richard [University of Nottingham, Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, Faculty of Engineering (United Kingdom); Fahmi, Amir, E-mail: Amir.Fahmi@hochschule-Rhein-waal.de [Rhein-Waal University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Technology and Bionics (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    A simple concept is proposed for templating in situ synthesised CdSe quantum dots (QDs) into an organised nano-pattern using the crystalline lamellae structure of polyamide 66 (PA66). The morphology obtained for PA66 and the hybrid material on Si/SiO{sub x} solid substrate was characterised by means of atomic force microscope. Controlling the PA66 concentration in solution and the organic-inorganic interactions are found to be the keys factors to direct the assembly of CdSe QDs along the PA66 linear crystalline structure. This simple approach could be opened a new avenue for a large spectrum of innovative high-tech applications.

  3. Large-visual-angle microstructure inspired from quantitative design of Morpho butterflies' lamellae deviation using the FDTD/PSO method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanlin; Zhang, Wang; Chen, Weixin; Gu, Jiajun; Liu, Qinglei; Deng, Tao; Zhang, Di

    2013-01-15

    The wide angular range of the treelike structure in Morpho butterfly scales was investigated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)/particle-swarm-optimization (PSO) analysis. Using the FDTD method, different parameters in the Morpho butterflies' treelike structure were studied and their contributions to the angular dependence were analyzed. Then a wide angular range was realized by the PSO method from quantitatively designing the lamellae deviation (Δy), which was a crucial parameter with angular range. The field map of the wide-range reflection in a large area was given to confirm the wide angular range. The tristimulus values and corresponding color coordinates for various viewing directions were calculated to confirm the blue color in different observation angles. The wide angular range realized by the FDTD/PSO method will assist us in understanding the scientific principles involved and also in designing artificial optical materials.

  4. A phosphine mediated sequential annulation process of 2-tosylaminochalcones with MBH carbonates to construct functionalized aza-benzobicyclo[4.3.0] derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinglong; Zhu, Yannan; Jin, Hongxing; Huang, You

    2017-04-04

    A novel phosphine mediated sequential annulation process to construct functionalized aza-benzobicyclo[4.3.0] derivatives has been developed involving a one-pot sequential catalytic and stoichiometric process, which generates a series of benzobicyclo[4.3.0] compounds containing one quaternary center with up to 94% yield and 20 : 1 dr value. In this reaction, MBH carbonates act as 1,2,3-C 3 synthons.

  5. Nucleation and thickening of shear bands in nano-scale twin/matrix lamellae of a Cu-Al alloy processed by dynamic plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, C.S.; Tao, N.R.; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2010-01-01

    dislocation structure (DDS) into a nano-sized (sub)grain structure (NGS). On the two sides of a core region, two transition layers (TRLs) exist where the T/M lamellae experienced much less shear strain. The interface boundaries separating the core region and the TRLs are characterized by very large shear...

  6. Small-angle neutron scattering study of the ultrastructure of chloroplast thylakoid membranes - Periodicity and structural flexibility of the stroma lamellae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posselt, Dorthe; Nagy, Gergely; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J. K.

    2012-01-01

    The multilamellar organization of freshly isolated spinach and pea chloroplast thylakoid membranes was studied using small-angle neutron scattering. A broad peak at similar to 0.02 angstrom(-1) is ascribed to diffraction from domains of ordered, unappressed stroma lamellae, revealing a repeat dis...

  7. PRACTICAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE CLAIM FOR THE ANNULMENT OF THE RESOLUTIONS OF THE GENERAL MEETING OF SHAREHOLDERS, FROM A SUBSTANTIAL AND PROCEDURAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana - Mihaela CATEA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief analysis of the legal framework regarding the procedural and substantial dispositions governing the claim for the annulment of the resolutions of the general meeting of shareholders. The main objective is to render a practical tool both to stakeholders and third parties who are interested in the legal means available for blocking the implementation of any measures which are contrary to the company’s interest. Further to the amendments brought through the New Civil Procedural Code, the claim for annulment of the resolutions of the general assembly must be analyzed from a procedural point of view, as well as from a substantial standpoint. The shareholders must be aware of the grounds for challenging a general assembly's resolution to properly safeguard their rights. One common issue which is invoked as grounds for annulment is the abuse of majority of the majority shareholder. However, the difficulty of alleging such a reason is left to practitioners. Therefore, its application, although not wide, is highly imaginative.

  8. Expression of beta-keratin mRNAs and proline uptake in epidermal cells of growing scales and pad lamellae of gecko lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo; Toni, Mattia; Valle, Luisa Dalla

    2007-01-01

    Beta-keratins form a large part of the proteins contained in the hard beta layer of reptilian scales. The expression of genes encoding glycine–proline-rich beta-keratins in normal and regenerating epidermis of two species of gecko lizards has been studied by in situ hybridization. The probes localize mRNAs in differentiating oberhautchen and beta cells of growing scales and in modified scales, termed pad lamellae, on the digits of gecko lizards. In situ localization at the ultrastructural level shows clusters of gold particles in the cytoplasm among beta-keratin filaments of oberhautchen and beta cells. They are also present in the differentiating elongation or setae of oberhautchen cells present in pad lamellae. Setae allow geckos to adhere and climb vertical surfaces. Oberhautchen and beta cells also incorporate tritiated proline. The fine localization of the beta-keratin mRNAs and the uptake of proline confirms the biomolecular data that identified glycine–proline-rich beta-keratin in differentiating beta cells of gecko epidermis. The present study also shows the presence of differentiating and metabolically active cells in both inner and outer oberhautchen/beta cells at the base of the outer setae localized at the tip of pad lamellae. The addition of new beta and alpha cells to the corneous layer near the tip of the outer setae explains the anterior movement of the setae along the apical free-margin of pad lamellae. The rapid replacement of setae ensures the continuous usage of the gecko's adhesive devices, the pad lamellae, during most of their active life. PMID:17553098

  9. N-Annulated perylene substituted zinc–porphyrins with different linking modes and electron acceptors for dye sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Jie

    2016-05-03

    Three new N-annulated perylene (NP) substituted porphyrin dyes WW-7-WW-9 with different linking modes and accepting groups were synthesized and applied in Co(ii)/(iii) based dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The bay-linked porphyrins WW-7 and WW-8 exhibited moderate power conversion efficiency (PCE = 4.4% and 4.8%, respectively), while the peri-linked porphyrin dye WW-9 showed a PCE up to 9.2% which is slightly lower than that of our reference dye WW-6. Detailed physical measurements (optical and electrochemical), DFT calculations, and photovoltaic characterizations were performed to understand how the structural changes affect their light-harvesting ability, molecular orbital profile, energy level alignment, and eventually the photovoltaic performance. It turned out that the lower efficiencies of the cells based on WW-7 and WW-8 could be ascribed to the weak π-conjugation between the bay-substituted NP and phenylethynyl substituted porphyrin unit. The introduction of a benzothiadiazole acceptor at the anchoring group has induced a significant red shift of the IPCE action spectra of WW-8 and WW-9, by about 90 nm and 50 nm as compared to that of WW-7 and WW-6, respectively. However, less efficient electron injection was observed. Our studies gave some insight into the important role of electronic interactions between different components when one designs a dye for high-efficiency DSCs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  10. Mechanism and Regioselectivity of Rh(III)-Catalyzed Intermolecular Annulation of Aryl-Substituted Diazenecarboxylates and Alkenes: DFT Insights

    KAUST Repository

    Ajitha, Manjaly John

    2016-02-05

    The mechanism of Rh-catalyzed intermolecular annulation of aryl-substituted diazenecarboxylates and alkenes was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) (PCM-M062X/6-311+G(d,p)//M062X/6-31G(d)). The acetate ligand (OAc)-assisted C-H activation via the formation of a five-membered rhodacycle (I-TS1; ΔG‡ = 19.4 kcal/mol) is more favorable compared to that via a four-membered intermediate (II-TS1; ΔG‡ = 27.8 kcal/mol). Our results also revealed that the seven-membered intermediate (I-3, ΔGrel = -6.8 kcal/mol) formed after the alkene insertion could undergo a coordination switch with the adjacent nitrogen atom (via TScs; ΔG‡ = 16.5 kcal/mol) to produce a thermodynamically stable six-membered intermediate (II-3, ΔGrel = -10.4 kcal/mol), eventually leading to a cyclization process followed by a barrierless ligand-assisted protonation to yield the final product. The β-hydride elimination product was found to be kinetically and thermodynamically undesirable. The rate-determining step is identified as the initial C-H activation, consistent with the previous kinetic studies. Notably, DFT studies offered important insights on the ability of the substrate (diazene carboxylate) to promote the switchable coordination site selectivity during the reaction to achieve a lower energy pathway. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  11. C-H Activation and Alkyne Annulation via Automatic or Intrinsic Directing Groups: Towards High Step Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liyao; Hua, Ruimao

    2018-06-01

    Direct transformation of carbon-hydrogen bond (C-H) has emerged to be a trend for construction of molecules from building blocks with no or less prefunctionalization, leading high atom and step economy. Directing group (DG) strategy is widely used to achieve higher reactivity and selectivity, but additional steps are usually needed for installation and/or cleavage of DGs, limiting step economy of the overall transformation. To meet this challenge, we proposed a concept of automatic DG (DG auto ), which is auto-installed and/or auto-cleavable. Multifunctional oxime and hydrazone DG auto were designed for C-H activation and alkyne annulation to furnish diverse nitrogen-containing heterocycles. Imidazole was employed as an intrinsic DG (DG in ) to synthesize ring-fused and π-extended functional molecules. The alkyne group in the substrates can also be served as DG in for ortho-C-H activation to afford carbocycles. In this account, we intend to give a review of our progress in this area and brief introduction of other related advances on C-H functionalization using DG auto or DG in strategies. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. An Analysis of the Constitutional Court Ruling on the Annulment of the Provisions on Coastal Water Concessions (HP-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riza Damanik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available After the annulment of the Coastal Water Concessions (HP-3 in 16 June 2011, traditional fisher folk organization leaders found a great fighting spirit to further follow-up the Constitutional Court Ruling to support their daily lives. For those who are being “evicted” from their living space (the coastal waters, they want to reclaim their rights through constitutional ways. Likewise, those who (feel to have lost their existence as Indonesian traditional fisher folk are impatient to find out whether there is a breakthrough in the Constitutional Court Ruling that can restore the fisher folk’s family way of life. The ruling itself was complex and not easy to understand: 169 pages, with complex writing systematic and typical legal language. For this reason, the analysis of the Constitutional Court Ruling regarding the Judicial Review on Law No. 27 of 2007 on the Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands was necessary in order to provide a simpler representation of the Constitutional Court Ruling, and one that is expected to trigger a constructive discussion to implement the favorable parts of the decree for the greatest welfare of the people.

  13. N-Annulated perylene substituted zinc–porphyrins with different linking modes and electron acceptors for dye sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Jie; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Qi, Qingbiao; Dong, Shaoqiang; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Peng; Wu, Jishan

    2016-01-01

    Three new N-annulated perylene (NP) substituted porphyrin dyes WW-7-WW-9 with different linking modes and accepting groups were synthesized and applied in Co(ii)/(iii) based dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The bay-linked porphyrins WW-7 and WW-8 exhibited moderate power conversion efficiency (PCE = 4.4% and 4.8%, respectively), while the peri-linked porphyrin dye WW-9 showed a PCE up to 9.2% which is slightly lower than that of our reference dye WW-6. Detailed physical measurements (optical and electrochemical), DFT calculations, and photovoltaic characterizations were performed to understand how the structural changes affect their light-harvesting ability, molecular orbital profile, energy level alignment, and eventually the photovoltaic performance. It turned out that the lower efficiencies of the cells based on WW-7 and WW-8 could be ascribed to the weak π-conjugation between the bay-substituted NP and phenylethynyl substituted porphyrin unit. The introduction of a benzothiadiazole acceptor at the anchoring group has induced a significant red shift of the IPCE action spectra of WW-8 and WW-9, by about 90 nm and 50 nm as compared to that of WW-7 and WW-6, respectively. However, less efficient electron injection was observed. Our studies gave some insight into the important role of electronic interactions between different components when one designs a dye for high-efficiency DSCs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  14. Pyrroloindolone synthesis via a Cp*Co(III)-catalyzed redox-neutral directed C-H alkenylation/annulation sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemoto, Hideya; Yoshino, Tatsuhiko; Sakata, Ken; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Kanai, Motomu

    2014-04-09

    A unique synthetic utility of a Cp*Co(III) catalyst in comparison with related Cp*Rh(III) catalysts is described. A C2-selective indole alkenylation/annulation sequence proceeded smoothly with catalytic amount of a [Cp*Co(III)(C6H6)](PF6)2 complex and KOAc. Intramolecular addition of an alkenyl-Cp*Co species to a carbamoyl moiety gave pyrroloindolones in 58-89% yield in one pot. Clear difference was observed between the catalytic activity of the Cp*Co(III) complex and those of Cp*Rh(III) complexes, highlighting the unique nucleophilic activity of the organocobalt species. The Cp*Co(III) catalysis was also suitable for simple alkenylation process of N-carbamoyl indoles, and broad range of alkynes, including terminal alkynes, were applicable to give C2-alkenylated indoles in 50-99% yield. Mechanistic studies on C-H activation step under Cp*Co(III) catalysis with the aid of an acetate unit as well as evaluation of the difference between organo-Co(III) species and organo-Rh(III) species are also described.

  15. Jurisprudential aspects regarding the action in annulment of the debtor’s patrimonial transfers, the debtor being in insolvency procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela MIFF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to present relevant aspects from the jurisprudential solutions of the High Court of Cassation and Justice in matters of the action in annulment of the patrimonial transfers of the debtor in insolvency procedure and of other judicial actions introduced by the procedure bodies or, by case, the participants to the procedure who are enabled to use the measures prescribed by the law for the purpose of restoring the debtor’s patrimony. The jurisprudential solutions adopted under the incidence of the former Law no.85/2006 on the insolvency procedure represent, in present, under diverse aspects, elements of continuity with the principles and rules established by the new law in this matter. Law no.85/2014 on the prevention insolvency procedures and of insolvency establishes the legal frame for the exertion of the measures having as purpose the restoration, in the debtor’s patrimony, of certain assets, transferred by the debtor to the fraud of the creditors’ interests, or of their value, in the scope of covering the passive part to satisfy the creditors’ interests. The new law continues the tradition of the former regulations in this matter but, also, brings some novelty elements such as the decrease or, in some cases, the increase of the duration of certain terms that the exertion of the mentioned judicial actions or their object refer to or the completion of the category of the persons entitled to introduce the mentioned judicial actions with the creditor who holds more than 50% of the value of the claims enlisted in the amount of claims.

  16. DFT/TDDFT study on the electronic structure and spectral properties in annulated analogue of phenyl heteroazulene derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasiorski, P.; Danel, K.S.; Matusiewicz, M.; Uchacz, T.; Kuźnik, W.; Piatek, Ł.; Kityk, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cyclic voltammetry study of heteroazulene derivative PTNA. ► DFT/TDDFT/PCM calculations of molecular geometry and electronic states in PTNA. ► TDDFT/PCM calculations of the absorption and fluorescence spectra in PTNA. ► Comparison between TDDFT/PCM calculated and measured optical spectra. - Abstract: Paper reports the DFT/TDDFT study on the electronic structure and spectral properties of the seven-membered annulated heteroazulene derivative 6-phenyl-6H-5,6,7-triazadibenzo[f,h]naphtho[3,2,1-cd]azulene (PTNA) by means of polarizable continuum model (PCM) and Lippert–Mataga–Onsager reaction field (LM-ORF) model at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. The results of calculations are compared with the measured optical absorption and fluorescence spectra as well as with the cyclic voltammetry data. The DFT/TDDFT methods exhibit rather good quantitative agreement regarding the spectral position of the first absorption band; the discrepancy between the experiment and theory is less than 0.1 eV. As for the fluorescence emission the TDDFT calculations underestimate the transition energy of about 0.45 eV. The discrepancy should be attributed to insufficient accuracy of the TDDFT optimization in the excited state. In the polar solvent environment, all the TDDFT/PCM approaches give the bathochromic (red) shift for the fluorescence emission and the hypsochromic (blue) shift for the optical absorption in accordance with the experimental observation. As for the fluorescence emission fairly good agreement with the experiment provides the hybrid approach being the combination of the TDDFT/PCM optimization with the semiempirical electronic structure calculations by PM3 method and solvation LM-ORF model predicting the emission energy in different solvents with the accuracy better than 0.06 eV.

  17. Sea Unsea - Lamella Flock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin; Riiber, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    their impact on architecture and on other disciplines. The book includes a series of ambitious design projects to illustrate the potential of these processes for architecture. In so doing it seeks to provide a critical framework for an experimental movement in architectural design at a crucial moment in its...

  18. A Unique (3+2) Annulation Reaction between Meldrum's Acid and Nitrones: Mechanistic Insight by ESI-IMS-MS and DFT Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lespes, Nicolas; Pair, Etienne; Maganga, Clisy; Bretier, Marie; Tognetti, Vincent; Joubert, Laurent; Levacher, Vincent; Hubert-Roux, Marie; Afonso, Carlos; Loutelier-Bourhis, Corinne; Brière, Jean-François

    2018-03-15

    The fragile intermediates of the domino process leading to an isoxazolidin-5-one, triggered by unique reactivity between Meldrum's acid and an N-benzyl nitrone in the presence of a Brønsted base, were determined thanks to the softness and accuracy of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled to ion mobility spectrometry (ESI-IMS-MS). The combined DFT study shed light on the overall organocatalytic sequence that starts with a stepwise (3+2) annulation reaction that is followed by a decarboxylative protonation sequence encompassing a stereoselective pathway issue. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. 1,4-Iron Migration for Expedient Allene Annulations through Iron-Catalyzed C-H/N-H/C-O/C-H Functionalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jiayu; Müller, Thomas; Oliveira, João C A; Ackermann, Lutz

    2018-06-25

    C-H activation bears great potential for enabling sustainable molecular syntheses in a step- and atom-economical manner, with major advances having been realized with precious 4d and 5d transition metals. In contrast, we employed earth abundant, nontoxic iron catalysts for versatile allene annulations through a unique C-H/N-H/C-O/C-H functionalization sequence. The powerful iron catalysis occurred under external-oxidant-free conditions even at room temperature, while detailed mechanistic studies revealed an unprecedented 1,4-iron migration regime for facile C-H activations. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. N -annulated perylene as an efficient electron donor for porphyrin-based dyes: Enhanced light-harvesting ability and high-efficiency Co(II/III)-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Jie

    2014-01-08

    Porphyrin-based dyes recently have become good candidates for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). However, the bottleneck is how to further improve their light-harvesting ability. In this work, N-annulated perylene (NP) was used to functionalize the Zn-porphyrin, and four "push-pull"-type NP-substituted and fused porphyrin dyes with intense absorption in the visible and even in the near-infrared (NIR) region were synthesized. Co(II/III)-based DSC device characterizations revealed that dyes WW-5 and WW-6, in which an ethynylene spacer is incorporated between the NP and porphyrin core, showed pantochromatic photon-to-current conversion efficiency action spectra in the visible and NIR region, with a further red-shift of about 90 and 60 nm, respectively, compared to the benchmark molecule YD2-o-C8. As a result, the short-circuit current density was largely increased, and the devices displayed power conversion efficiencies as high as 10.3% and 10.5%, respectively, which is comparable to that of the YD2-o-C8 cell (η = 10.5%) under the same conditions. On the other hand, the dye WW-3 in which the NP unit is directly attached to the porphyrin core showed a moderate power conversion efficiency (η = 5.6%) due to the inefficient π-conjugation, and the NP-fused dye WW-4 exhibited even poorer performance due to its low-lying LUMO energy level and nondisjointed HOMO/LUMO profile. Our detailed physical measurements (optical and electrochemical), density functional theory calculations, and photovoltaic characterizations disclosed that the energy level alignment, the molecular orbital profile, and dye aggregation all played very important roles on the interface electron transfer and charge recombination kinetics. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. Indium-Catalyzed Annulation of o-Acylanilines with Alkoxyheteroarenes: Synthesis of Heteroaryl[b]quinolines and Subsequent Transformation to Cryptolepine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyohei Yonekura

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We disclose herein the first synthetic method that is capable of offering heteroaryl[b]quinolines (HA[b]Qs with structural diversity, which include tricyclic and tetracyclic structures with (benzothienyl, (benzofuranyl, and indolyl rings. The target HA[b]Q is addressed by the annulation of o-acylanilines and MeO–heteroarenes with the aid of an indium Lewis acid that effectively works to make two different types of the N–C and C–C bonds in one batch. A series of indolo[3,2-b]quinolines prepared here can be subsequently transformed to structurally unprecedented cryptolepine derivatives. Mechanistic studies showed that the N–C bond formation is followed by the C–C bond formation. The indium-catalyzed annulation reaction thus starts with the nucleophilic attack of the NH2 group of o-acylanilines to the MeO-connected carbon atom of the heteroaryl ring in an SNAr fashion, and thereby the N–C bond is formed. The resulting intermediate then cyclizes to make the C–C bond through the nucleophilic attack of the heteroaryl-ring-based carbon atom to the carbonyl carbon atom, providing the HA[b]Q after aromatizing dehydration.

  2. N -annulated perylene as an efficient electron donor for porphyrin-based dyes: Enhanced light-harvesting ability and high-efficiency Co(II/III)-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Jie; Xu, Mingfei; Li, Renzhi; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Jiang, Changyun; Qi, Qingbiao; Zeng, Wangdong; Zhang, Jie; Chi, Chunyan; Wang, Peng; Wu, Jishan

    2014-01-01

    Porphyrin-based dyes recently have become good candidates for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). However, the bottleneck is how to further improve their light-harvesting ability. In this work, N-annulated perylene (NP) was used to functionalize

  3. Bisindeno-annulated pentacenes with exceptionally high photo-stability and ordered molecular packing: Simple synthesis by a regio-selective Scholl reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Naibi Lakshminarayana, Arun; Chang, Jingjing; Luo, Jie; Zheng, Bin; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Chi, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    Bisindeno-annulated pentacenes 3a and 3b were synthesized by a simple regio-selective, FeCl3-mediated Scholl reaction from the corresponding 6,13-diaryl pentacene precursors. The fusion of two indeno-units dramatically changes the electronic properties and chemical reactivity of pentacene and the obtained compounds exhibited exceptionally high photo-stability in the solution, with a half-life time of 11.2 (3a) and 32.0 (3b) days under ambient light and air conditions. Ordered molecular packing with a small π-π stacking distance was observed in the single crystals of 3a and 3b. Our research provides a promising strategy to access stable higher order acenes with controlled molecular order. This journal is

  4. Exceedingly facile one-pot protocols to the synthesis of pyrimido annulated analogues of carbazolo condensed azepinones and their evaluation for analgesic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Agrawal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Extremely simple protocols based on the reactivity of corresponding oxoketenedithioacetal (4, 2-(dimethylaminomethylene ketone (5, β-oxoenolether (6 and α,β-unsaturated ketone (7 derivatives of 7-ethyl-3, 4-dihydroazepino[3,2-b]carbazol-2,5(1H,7H-dione (3 have been developed to provide an easy access to their pyrimido annulated analogues (8-15 of medicinal interest. The key compound 3 from which, the synthesis proceeded has been realized in two steps from the commercial 3-amino-9-ethyl carbazole (1 on its reaction in the first step with ethyl succinyl chloride followed by cyclocondensation of the resulting ester 2 with PPA. The selected synthesized compounds were screened for in-vivo analgesic activity using acetic acid induced writhing model in mice. Among them, compound 13was found to be most active and found comparable to standard aspirin.

  5. Neutron production in the interaction of electrons with a dispersing lamella; Produccion de neutrones en la interaccion de electrones con una laminilla dispersora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto B, T. G.; Baltazar R, A.; Medina C, D.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: tzinnia.soto@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2017-10-15

    When a Linac for radiotherapy operates with acceleration voltages greater than 8 MV, neutrons are produced as secondary radiation. They deposit an undesirable and not negligible dose in the patient. Depending on the type of tumor, its location in the body and the characteristics of the patient, cancer treatment with a Linac is done with photon or electron beams, which produce neutrons through reactions (γ, n) and e, e n) respectively. Because the effective section of the reaction (n, γ) is 137 times greater than the reaction (e, e n), most studies have focused on photo neutrons. When a Linac operates with electron beams, the beam that leaves the magnetic baffle is incised in the dispersion foil in order to cause quasi-elastic interactions and expand the spatial distribution of the electrons; in their interaction with the lamella the electrons produce photons and these in turn produce neutrons. Due to the radiobiological efficiency of neutrons and the ways in which they interact with matter, is important to determine the neutrons production in Linacs operating in electron mode. The objective of this work is to determine the characteristics of photons and neutrons that occur when a beam of mono-energetic electrons of 2 mm in diameter (pencil beam) is made to impinge on a tungsten lamella of 1 cm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick located in the center of a 10 cm thick tungsten shell, used to represent the accelerator head. The study was carried out using the Monte Carlo method with the MCNP6 code for electron beams of 12 and 18 MeV. The spectra of photons and neutrons were estimated in 6 point detectors, four were placed in different points equidistant from the center of the lamella and the other two were located at 50 cm and 1 m from the electron beam, simulating the totally closed head. In this work it was found that when a Linac operates with an electron beam of 12 or 18 MeV there is neutron production mainly in the head and in the direction of the beam. (Author)

  6. Presumed Multiple Metasomatism underneath the Colorado Plateau; Decoding from Chemistry and Inclusion/Lamella Mineralogy of Diverse Garnets from the Garnet Ridge, Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y.; Ogasawara, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Various garnets containing the information on mantle petrology and related metasomatism occur at the Garnet Ridge, Colorado Plateau. The origins of garnets range from deep mantle to shallow continental crust. These garnets were delivered by kimberlitic diatreme of 30 Ma (Smith et al. 2004). We have classified the garnets into 10 groups (A to J, see figure) by naked eye observation, major chemistry, minor Na-Ti-P, inclusion/lamella mineralogy. Among them, groups A to D are of mantle origin, E to G of subducted oceanic crust origin, and H to J of continental crust origin. We summarized results as in the followings. A: Cr and pyrope-rich garnet has Cr2O3(0.8-6.3 wt.%) and inclusions of Ol, Cpx, Opx, Ti-Chu/Chn and carbonates, indicating carbonated garnet lherzolites as host. Cr contents negatively correlates with Na-Ti-P contents and occurrence of exsolved Rt, Ilm and crichtonite. This indicates Cr-rich end-member is the most "primitive" mantle garnet before metasomatism. B: Pyrope-rich reddish brown garnet of peridotitic origins was subdivided into 4 subgroups (B1 to B4, see figure). Compositional range in Ca-Mg-Fe triangle expands to Fe-rich side from group A. Exsolved Na-bearing amphibole and inclusions of Ap, carbonates and fluid were identified. These indicate metasomatism of group A. C: Garnet megacryst is coarse-grained garnet (2-10 cm across) with crystal faces. This garnet has wide chemical variation plotted in the center area of Ca-Mg-Fe triangle. D: Garnet aggregate has similar chemistry of group C and is composed of several grains. Grain boundaries of garnet were recognized by Rt, Ilm and other minerals and oscillatory zonings of Ca, Mg, Fe and Na-Ti-P. Fluid inclusions of groups C and D suggest these garnets might crystalized from fluid. E: Garnet in eclogite and F: Garnet in metasomatized eclogite are xenolith samples (the Fallaron Plate origin?). Aggregate of Zo+Ab contained in group E indicates decomposed precursor lawsonite inclusion. G: Quartz

  7. Super-Robust Polylactide Barrier Films by Building Densely Oriented Lamellae Incorporated with Ductile in Situ Nanofibrils of Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng-Yang; Huang, Hua-Dong; Ji, Xu; Yan, Ding-Xiang; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Remarkable combination of excellent gas barrier performance, high strength, and toughness was realized in polylactide (PLA) composite films by constructing the supernetworks of oriented and pyknotic crystals with the assistance of ductile in situ nanofibrils of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT). On the basis that the permeation of gas molecules through polymer materials with anisotropic structure would be more frustrated, we believe that oriented crystalline textures cooperating with inerratic amorphism can be favorable for the enhancement of gas barrier property. By taking full advantage of intensively elongational flow field, the dispersed phase of PBAT in situ forms into nanofibrils, and simultaneously sufficient row-nuclei for PLA are induced. After appropriate thermal treatment with the acceleration effect of PBAT on PLA crystallization, oriented lamellae of PLA tend to be more perfect in a preferential direction and constitute into a kind of network interconnecting with each other. At the same time, the molecular chains between lamellae tend to be more extended. This unique structure manifests superior ability in ameliorating the performance of PLA film. The oxygen permeability coefficient can be achieved as low as 2 × 10(-15) cm(3) cm cm(-2) s(-1) Pa(-1), combining with the high strength, modulus, and ductility (104.5 MPa, 3484 MPa, and 110.6%, respectively). The methodology proposed in this work presents an industrially scalable processing method to fabricate super-robust PLA barrier films. It would indeed push the usability of biopolymers forward, and certainly prompt wider application of biodegradable polymers in the fields of environmental protection such as food packaging, medical packaging, and biodegradable mulch.

  8. Short philtrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm Short philtrum To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A short philtrum is a shorter than normal distance between ...

  9. Dual overcharge protection and solid electrolyte interphase-improving action in Li-ion cells containing a bis-annulated dialkoxyarene electrolyte additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Zhang, Shuo; Hu, Bin; Liao, Chen; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Zhang, Lu

    2018-02-01

    1,4-Dialkoxybenzene additives are commonly used as redox active shuttles in lithium-ion batteries in order to prevent runaway oxidation of electrolyte when overcharge conditions set in. During this action the shuttle molecule goes through a futile cycle, becoming oxidized at the cathode and reduced at the anode. Minimizing parasitic reactions in all states of charge is paramount for sustained protective action. Here we demonstrate that recently developed bis-annulated 9,10-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-1,4:5,8-dimethano-anthracene shuttle molecule (that yields exceptionally stable radical cations) survives over 120 cycles of overcharge abuse with 100% overcharge ratio at C/5 rate. Equally remarkably, in the presence of this additive the cell impedance becomes significantly lower compared to the control cells without the additive; this decrease is observed during the formation, normal cycling, and even under overcharge conditions. This unusual dual action has not been observed in other redox shuttle systems, and it presents considerable practical interest.

  10. N-Annulated perylene-substituted and fused porphyrin dimers with intense near-infrared one-photon and two-photon absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Jie

    2015-01-21

    Fusion of two N-annulated perylene (NP) units with a fused porphyrin dimer along the S0-S1 electronic transition moment axis has resulted in new near-infrared (NIR) dyes 1a/1b with very intense absorption (ε>1.3×105M-1cm-1) beyond 1250nm. Both compounds displayed moderate NIR fluorescence with fluorescence quantum yields of 4.4×10-6 and 6.0×10-6 for 1a and 1b, respectively. The NP-substituted porphyrin dimers 2a/2b have also been obtained by controlled oxidative coupling and cyclodehydrogenation, and they showed superimposed absorptions of the fused porphyrin dimer and the NP chromophore. The excited-state dynamics of all of these compounds have been studied by femtosecond transient absorption measurements, which revealed porphyrin dimer-like behaviour. These new chromophores also exhibited good nonlinear optical susceptibility with large two-photon absorption cross-sections in the NIR region due to extended π-conjugation. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations have been performed to aid our understanding of their electronic structures and absorption spectra.

  11. Stability, occurence and step morphology of polymorphs and polytypes of stearic acid. II. Mono-lamella step morphology and composite polymorphic/polytypic transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaoka, Kimio; Kobayashi, Masamichi; Okada, Masakazu; Sato, Kiyotaka

    1988-02-01

    Surface step morphology of three structural modifications of stearic acid, B(mon), B(orth II) and C(mon), was observed by replica method (TEM). The characteristic simple and interlaced patterns were observed for monoclinic and pseudo-orthorhombic polytypes, respectively. The observation on the C crystals which were transformed from B(orth II) or B(mon) enabled to detect two different modes of lattice displacement involved in composite polymorphic-polytypic transformations from B to C. B(mon) → C(mon) was found to be caused by a collective inclination of the molecules within the lamellar plane followed by the deformation of the subcell of the aliphatic chain, keeping the symmetry-axis unchanged. In contrast, B(orth II) → C(mon) occurs via an alternate rotation of the long-chain molecules in the adjacent lamellae around the c-axis of B(orth II) prototype, keeping the subcell arrangements unchanged. This means that the polytypic structure of a double-layer type was not preserved during the composite B(orth II) → C(mon) transformation. This peculiarity was discussed in terms of the interlamellar instability of a postulated double-layered polytype of the C polymorph.

  12. Investigations on the formation of frost on lamella heat-exchangers used in heat pumps; LOREF: Luftkuehler-Optimierung mit Reduktion von Eis- und Frostbildung. Untersuchung der Frostbildung fuer Lamellenluftkuehler von Waermepumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahinagic, R.; Imholz, M.; Berlinger, L.; Huber, H.; Hilfiker, K. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Architektur (HTA) Lucerne, Institut fuer Produktentwicklung, Thermische Verfahren und Anlagen (TVA), Horw (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive final report presents the results of the LOREF project carried out at the University of Applied Science in Horw, Switzerland, on the formation of frost on lamella air-coolers used in heat pumps. The report presents the results of extensive tests on the formation of frost on the lamella of the heat exchangers used in air-water heat pumps. The mathematical relationships and the theory behind the formation of frost on cooled surfaces are discussed in detail. The results of numerical simulations and practical tests are presented. The practical tests involved the observation of ice and frost formation on various surface forms. The results of the physical tests and observations are quoted in detail. The mathematical modelling method used and the associated results are discussed. The report is rounded off with an appendix containing tables, diagrams and photos.

  13. Immunolocalization of keratin-associated beta-proteins (beta-keratins) in pad lamellae of geckos suggest that glycine-cysteine-rich proteins contribute to their flexibility and adhesiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2013-03-01

    The epidermis of digital pads in geckos comprises superficial microornamentation from the oberhautchen layer that form long setae allowing these lizards to climb vertical surfaces. The beta-layer is reduced in pad lamellae but persists up to the apical free margin. Setae are made of different proteins including keratin-associated beta-proteins, formerly indicated as beta-keratins. In order to identify specific setal proteins the present ultrastructural study on geckos pad lamellae analyzes the immunolocalization of three beta-proteins previously found in the epidermis and adhesive setae of the green anolis. A protein rich in glycine but poor in cysteine (HgG5-like) is absent or masked in gecko pad lamellae. Another protein rich in glycine and cysteine (HgGC3-like) is weakly present in setae, oberhautchen and beta-layer. A glycine and cysteine medium rich beta-protein (HgGC10-like) is present in the lower part of the beta-layer but is absent in the oberhautchen, setae, and mesos layer. The latter two proteins may form intermolecular bonds that contribute to the flexibility of the corneous material sustaining the setae. The pliable alpha-layer present beneath the thin beta-layer and in the hinge region of the pad lamellae also contains HgGC10-like proteins. Based on the possibility that some HgGC3-like or other cys-rich beta-proteins are charged in the setae it is suggested that their charges influence the mechanism of adhesion increasing the induction of dipoles on the substrate and enhancing attractive van der Waals forces. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Consecutive thiophene-annulation approach to π-extended thienoacene-based organic semiconductors with [1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (BTBT) substructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takamichi; Nishimura, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Doi, Iori; Miyazaki, Eigo; Osaka, Itaru; Takimiya, Kazuo

    2013-09-18

    We describe a new synthetic route to the [1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (BTBT) substructure featuring two consecutive thiophene-annulation reactions from o-ethynyl-thioanisole substrates and arylsulfenyl chloride reagents that can be easily derived from arylthiols. The method is particularly suitable for the synthesis of unsymmetrical derivatives, e.g., [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]naphtho[2,3-b]thiophene, [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]anthra[2,3-b]thiophene, and naphtho[3,2-b]thieno[3,2-b]anthra[2,3-b]thiophene, a selenium-containing derivative, [1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzoselenophene. It also allows us to access largely π-extended derivatives with two BTBT substructures, e.g., bis[1]benzothieno[2,3-d:2',3'-d']benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene and bis[1]benzothieno[2,3-d:2',3'-d']naphtho[2,3-b:6,7-b']dithiophene (BBTNDT). It should be emphasized that these new BTBT derivatives are otherwise difficult to be synthesized. In addition, since various substrates and reagents, o-ethynyl-thioanisoles and arylthiols, respectively, can be combined, the method can be regarded as a versatile tool for the development of thienoacene-based organic semiconductors in this class. Among the newly synthesized materials, highly π-extended BBTNDT afforded very high mobility (>5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) in its vapor-deposited organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), which is among the highest for unsubstituted acene- or thienoacenes-based organic semiconductors. In fact, the structural analyses of BBTNDT both in the single crystal and thin-film state indicated that an interactive two-dimensional molecular array is realized in the solid state, which rationalize the higher carrier mobility in the BBTNDT-based OFETs.

  15. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  16. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF P.T. KAYE

    . SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...

  17. Short Stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Boye Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie

    2016-01-01

    -scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below......The use of appropriate growth standards/references is of significant clinical importance in assessing the height of children with short stature as it may determine eligibility for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of using World Health Organization (WHO) instead...... of national growth standards/references on height assessment in short children. Data were collected from routine clinical practice (1998-2014) from nine European countries that have available national growth references and were enrolled in NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (NCT00960128), a large...

  18. Short Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds...

  19. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  20. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: vani_chem@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.

  2. Short communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Vonk, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy veal calves (4-6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  3. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Short Communication. QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural ...

  4. FIB preparation of a NiO Wedge-Lamella and STEM X-ray microanalysis for the determination of the experimental k(O-Ni) Cliff-Lorimer coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armigliato, Aldo; Frabboni, Stefano; Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Rosa, Rodolfo

    2013-02-01

    A method for the fabrication of a wedge-shaped thin NiO lamella by focused ion beam is reported. The starting sample is an oxidized bulk single crystalline, oriented, Ni commercial standard. The lamella is employed for the determination, by analytical electron microscopy at 200 kV of the experimental k(O-Ni) Cliff-Lorimer (G. Cliff & G.W. Lorimer, J Microsc 103, 203-207, 1975) coefficient, according to the extrapolation method by Van Cappellen (E. Van Cappellen, Microsc Microstruct Microanal 1, 1-22, 1990). The result thus obtained is compared to the theoretical k(O-Ni) values either implemented into the commercial software for X-ray microanalysis quantification of the scanning transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry equipment or calculated by the Monte Carlo method. Significant differences among the three values are found. This confirms that for a reliable quantification of binary alloys containing light elements, the choice of the Cliff-Lorimer coefficients is crucial and experimental values are recommended.

  5. Rhodium(III)-catalyzed [3+2] annulation of 5-aryl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrroles with internal alkynes through C(sp²)-H/alkene functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming-Bo; Pi, Rui; Hu, Ming; Yang, Yuan; Song, Ren-Jie; Xia, Yuanzhi; Li, Jin-Heng

    2014-10-13

    This study describes a new rhodium(III)-catalyzed [3+2] annulation of 5-aryl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrroles with internal alkynes using a Cu(OAc)2 oxidant for building a spirocyclic ring system, which includes the functionalization of an aryl C(sp(2))-H bond and addition/protonolysis of an alkene C=C bond. This method is applicable to a wide range of 5-aryl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrroles and internal alkynes, and results in the assembly of the spiro[indene-1,2'-pyrrolidine] architectures in good yields with excellent regioselectivities. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Spherical LDH-Ag°-montmorillonite heterocoagulated system with a pH-dependent sol-gel structure for controlled accessibility of AgNPs immobilized on the clay lamellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deák, Ágota; Janovák, László; Tallósy, Szabolcs Péter; Bitó, Tamás; Sebők, Dániel; Buzás, Norbert; Pálinkó, István; Dékány, Imre

    2015-02-17

    Aqueous suspensions of spherical ZnMgAl-layered double hydroxides [LDH(sph)] and antibacterial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) deposited on the lamellae of montmorillonite were used for the synthesis of composites, which behave like coherent gels at low pH (≲4.5) and incoherent sols at higher pH (≳4.5). The composition of the composite was chosen as LDH(sph)/Ag°-montm. = 25:75 wt % in order to ensure a sol-gel transition that can also be characterized by viscometry. This pH-sensitive heterocoagulated system consisting of oppositely charged colloid particles was suitable for the release of antimicrobial AgNPs immobilized on the clay lamellae via a pH-controlled gel-sol transition. The heterocoagulation process was also characterized by surface charge titration measurements. Spherical LDH/Ag°-montmorillonite composite samples were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The morphological properties of the composites were studied, and the presence of the heterocoagulated structure was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The nanoscale structure of the LDH(sph)-Ag°-montmorillonite composite obtained was also verified by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and the rheological characteristics were studied at various pH values. The viscosity and yield value of the composite decreased by an order of magnitude upon increasing the pH from 3.0 to 5.5. The sol-gel transition of the composite suspension was reversible in the previously mentioned pH range.

  7. Synthesis of novel chromeno-annulated cis-fused pyrano[3,4-c]benzopyran and naphtho pyran derivatives via domino aldol-type/hetero Diels-Alder reaction and their cytotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madda, Jyothi; Venkatesham, Akkaladevi; Naveen Kumar, Bejjanki; Nagaiah, Kommu; Sujitha, Pombala; Ganesh Kumar, C; Rao, Tadikamalla Prabhakar; Jagadeesh Babu, Nanubolu

    2014-09-15

    New chromeno-annulated cis-fused pyrano[3,4-c]benzopyran and naphtho pyran derivatives have been synthesized by domino aldol-type reaction/hetero Diels-Alder reaction generated from o-quinone methide in situ from 7-O-prenyl derivatives of 8-formyl-2,3-disubstituted chromenones with resorcinols/naphthols in the presence of 20 mol% ethylenediamine diacetate (EDDA), triethylamine (2 mL) as co-catalyst in CH3CN under reflux conditions in good yields. The structures were established based on spectroscopic data, and further confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The results showed that compounds 4h and 4j exhibited very potent cytotoxicity against human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Compound 4h displayed good inhibitory activity against both breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Further, the compound 4i exhibited good cytotoxicity against only MDA-MB-231, and compound 4j showed promising activity against human lung cancer cell line, A549 with IC50 value of 2.53±0.07 μM, which was comparable to the standard doxorubicin (IC50=1.21±0.1 μM). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Natural short sleeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep - natural short sleeper ... 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. Short sleepers sleep less than 75% of what is normal for their age. Natural short sleepers are different from people who chronically do ...

  9. Simulation study of the effect of molar mass dispersity on domain interfacial roughness in lamellae forming block copolymers for directed self-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Andrew J; Lawson, Richard A; Nation, Benjamin D; Ludovice, Peter J; Henderson, Clifford L

    2015-01-01

    A coarse-grained molecular dynamics model was used to study the thin film self-assembly and resulting pattern properties of block copolymer (BCP) systems with various molar mass dispersities. Diblock copolymers (i.e. A–b–B type) were simulated in an aligned lamellar state, which is one of the most common patterns of potential use for integrated circuit fabrication via directed self-assembly of BCPs. Effects of the molar mass dispersity (Ð) on feature pitch and interfacial roughness, which are critical lithographic parameters that have a direct impact on integrated circuit performance, were simulated. It was found that for a realistic distribution of polymer molecular weights, modeled by a Wesslau distribution, both line edge roughness (LER) and line width roughness (LWR) increase approximately linearly with increasing Ð, up to ∼45% of the monodisperse value at Ð = 1.5. Mechanisms of compensation for increased A–A and B–B roughness were considered. It was found that long and short chain positions were not correlated, and that long chains were significantly deformed in shape. The increase in LWR was due to the increase in LER and a constant correlation between the line edges. Unaligned systems show a correlation between domain width and local molecular weight, while systems aligned on an alternating pattern of A and B lines did not show any correlation. When the volume fraction of individual chains was allowed to vary, similar results were found when considering the Ð of the block as opposed to the Ð of the entire system. (paper)

  10. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with air (called pneumotho- rax), it will hinder expansion of the lung, resulting in shortness of ... of Chest Physi- cians. Shortness of Breath: Patient Education. http: / / www. onebreath. org/ document. doc? id= 113. ...

  11. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  12. "Fate: The short film"

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Quintana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    "Fate: The Short Film" is a four minute short film which reflects the idea that nobody can escape from the fate. It has a good picture and sound quality with an understandable message for all public and with the collaboration of actors, filmmaker, stylist, script advisor and media technician.

  13. [Shunt and short circuit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Abundis, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Shunt and short circuit are antonyms. In French, the term shunt has been adopted to denote the alternative pathway of blood flow. However, in French, as well as in Spanish, the word short circuit (court-circuit and cortocircuito) is synonymous with shunt, giving rise to a linguistic and scientific inconsistency. Scientific because shunt and short circuit made reference to a phenomenon that occurs in the field of the physics. Because shunt and short circuit are antonyms, it is necessary to clarify that shunt is an alternative pathway of flow from a net of high resistance to a net of low resistance, maintaining the stream. Short circuit is the interruption of the flow, because a high resistance impeaches the flood. This concept is applied to electrical and cardiovascular physiology, as well as to the metabolic pathways.

  14. Idiopathic short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaški Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a complex process and the basic characteristic of child- hood growth monitoring provides insight into the physiological and pathological events in the body. Statistically, the short stature means departure from the values of height for age and sex (in a particular environment, which is below -2 standard deviation score, or less than -2 standard deviation, i.e. below the third percentile. Advances in molecular genetics have contributed to the improvement of diagnostics in endocrinology. Analysis of patients’ genotypes should not be performed before taking a classical history, detailed clinical examination and appropriate tests. In patients with idiopathic short stature specific causes are excluded, such as growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, short stature due to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, dysmorphology syndromes and chronic childhood diseases. The exclusion of abovementioned conditions leaves a large number of children with short stature whose etiology includes patients with genetic short stature or familial short stature and those who are low in relation to genetic potential, and who could also have some unrecognized endocrine defect. Idiopathic short stature represents a short stature of unknown cause of heterogeneous etiology, and is characterized by a normal response of growth hormone during stimulation tests (>10 ng/ml or 20 mJ/l, without other disorders, of normal body mass and length at birth. In idiopathic short stature standard deviation score rates <-2.25 (-2 to -3 or <1.2 percentile. These are also criteria for the initiation of growth hormone therapy. In children with short stature there is also the presence of psychological and social suffering. Goals of treatment with growth hormone involve achieving normal height and normal growth rate during childhood.

  15. Imaging in short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2012-09-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  16. Imaging in short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  17. Adjustment of milling plants to changed fuel qualities, Increase of performance of the mills MPS {sup registered} 180 at GK Kiel by means of an exchange of wing separators against lamellae separators; Anpassung von Mahlanlagen an veraenderte Brennstoffqualitaeten. Leistungssteigerung der Muehlen MPS {sup registered} 180 im GK Kiel durch den Austausch der Fluegelsichter gegen Lamellensichter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, Axel [Gemeinschaftskraftwerk Kiel GmbH, Kiel (Germany); Krause, Thomas [Hitachi Power Europe GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Hufmann, Theo [E.ON Engineering GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    By means of heat and power generation, the municipal power station Kiel at the east bank of the Kieler Foerde has the possibility of uncoupling a thermal performance of up to 295 MW into the district heating grid of public utilities Kiel. The necessary conversion of the fuel required an increase of the performance of the mill in order to be able to grind the larger fuel flow during continuous boiler performance. For this, in the first step the exchange of the wing separators against lamella separators was selected. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on an adjustment of the crushing mills at changing fuel qualities.

  18. Enantioselective solvent-free Robinson annulation reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    solvents to effect an asymmetric synthesis is an important step forward towards ... In continuation of our preliminary communication 2, we wish to ..... formation of chiral enamine 74 from the reaction of S-proline with pro-R carbonyl group.

  19. Short bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, L.G.J.B.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of short bowel syndrome. When approximately 1 m or less small bowel is retained after extensive resection, a condition called short bowel syndrome is present. Since the advent of parenteral nutrition, the prognosis of patients with a very short bowel has dramatically improved. Patients with 40 to 100 cm remaining jejunum and/or ileum can generally be maintained with oral nutrition due to increased absorption of the small bowel remnant as result of intestinal adaptation. This study reports clinical, biochemical and nutritional aspects of short bowel patients on oral or parenteral nutrition, emphasizing data on absorption of various nutrients and on bone metabolism. Furthermore, some technical apsects concerning long-term parenteral nutrition are discussed. (Auth.)

  20. Catapults fall short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    In reply to the news story "UK Catapults fall short, claims review of technology centres", which describes an independent review that criticized the management of the UK's network of technology innovation centres.

  1. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    1984-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  2. Imaging in short stature

    OpenAIRE

    Vikas Chaudhary; Shahina Bano

    2012-01-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions ...

  3. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)

  4. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented

  5. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Crotti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Short QT Syndrome is a recently described new genetic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT interval, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This autosomal dominant syndrome can afflict infants, children, or young adults; often a remarkable family background of cardiac sudden death is elucidated. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, with atrial fibrillation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. Gain of function mutations in three genes encoding K+ channels have been identified, explaining the abbreviated repolarization seen in this condition: KCNH2 for Ikr (SQT1, KCNQ1 for Iks (SQT2 and KCNJ2 for Ik1 (SQT3. The currently suggested therapeutic strategy is an ICD implantation, although many concerns exist for asymptomatic patients, especially in pediatric age. Pharmacological treatment is still under evaluation; quinidine has shown to prolong QT and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, but awaits additional confirmatory clinical data.

  6. Short notice inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouchkarev, V.

    1998-01-01

    For 30 years the IAEA safeguards system have evolved and have been strengthened by the regular introduction of new methods and techniques, improving both its effectiveness and efficiency. The member States of the IAEA have indicated their willingness to accept new obligations and associated technical measure that greatly strengthen the nuclear safeguards system. One element of this is the extent to which the IAEA inspectors have physical access to relevant locations for the purpose of providing independent verification of the exclusively peaceful intent of a State nuclear program. The Protocol to Safeguards granted new legal authority with respect to information on, and short notice inspector access to, all buildings on a nuclear site and administrative agreements that improve the process of designating inspectors and IAEA access to modern means of communication. This report is a short description of unannounced or short notice inspections as measures on which the new strengthened and cost efficient system will be based

  7. Detecting short circuits during assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Detector circuit identifies shorts between bus bars of electronic equipment being wired. Detector sounds alarm and indicates which planes are shorted. Power and ground bus bars are scanned continuously until short circuit occurs.

  8. Short wavelength FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs

  9. Short wavelength FELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Antzelevitch

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Long QT intervals in the ECG have long been associated with sudden cardiac death. The congenital long QT syndrome was first described in individuals with structurally normal hearts in 1957.1 Little was known about the significance of a short QT interval. In 1993, after analyzing 6693 consecutive Holter recordings Algra et al concluded that an increased risk of sudden death was present not only in patients with long QT interval, but also in patients with short QT interval (<400 ms.2 Because this was a retrospective analysis, further evaluation of the data was not possible. It was not until 2000 that a short-QT syndrome (SQTS was proposed as a new inherited clinical syndrome by Gussak et al.3 The initial report was of two siblings and their mother all of whom displayed persistently short QT interval. The youngest was a 17 year old female presenting with several episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation requiring electrical cardioversion.3 Her QT interval measured 280 msec at a heart rate of 69. Her 21 year old brother displayed a QT interval of 272 msec at a heart rate of 58, whereas the 51 year old mother showed a QT of 260 msec at a heart rate of 74. The authors also noted similar ECG findings in another unrelated 37 year old patient associated with sudden cardiac death.

  11. SHORT COMMUNICATION POTENTIOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. POTENTIOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF K+ IONS USING A K+-SELECTIVE. ELECTRODE WITH MACROCYCLIC LIQUID MEMBRANE. Cezar Spinu*, Marian Isvoranu, Maria Pleniceanu and Cristian Tigae. Faculty of Chemistry, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza 13, Craiova, Romania. (Received ...

  12. Biorefineries: A Short Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemann, Kurt; Tippkötter, Nils

    2018-04-13

    The terms bioeconomy and biorefineries are used for a variety of processes and developments. This short introduction is intended to provide a delimitation and clarification of the terminology as well as a classification of current biorefinery concepts. The basic process diagrams of the most important biorefinery types are shown.

  13. Short pulse neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2016-08-02

    Short pulse neutron generators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the short pulse neutron generator includes a Blumlein structure. The Blumlein structure includes a first conductive plate, a second conductive plate, a third conductive plate, at least one of an inductor or a resistor, a switch, and a dielectric material. The first conductive plate is positioned relative to the second conductive plate such that a gap separates these plates. A vacuum chamber is positioned in the gap, and an ion source is positioned to emit ions in the vacuum chamber. The third conductive plate is electrically grounded, and the switch is operable to electrically connect and disconnect the second conductive plate and the third conductive plate. The at least one of the resistor or the inductor is coupled to the first conductive plate and the second conductive plate.

  14. Short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulouse, G.

    This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.

  15. Avaliação de defeitos no processo de fabricação de lamelas para pisos de madeira engenheirados com uso de ferramentas de controle de qualidade Evaluation of the production process of lamella for engineered wood floor using quality control instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Coletti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os defeitos das lamelas são responsáveis em grande parte pelo retrabalho, perdas e diminuição da qualidade do piso acabado. Esses defeitos geram aumento de custos de produção sendo um fator muito importante para o processo de fabricação de pisos de madeira. Este trabalho tem por objetivos classificar e quantificar os defeitos ocorrentes na produção de lamelas, buscar causas, propor soluções e melhorias através da aplicação de ferramentas de qualidade como: “Brainstorming", “ Diagrama de Pareto", “Diagrama de Ishikawa" e 5W2H . Foram amostrados 1598,47 m² de lamelas das seguintes espécies: Muiracatiara (Astronium lecointei Ducke, amendoim (Pterogyne nitens Tul, cabreúva (Myroxylon Balsamum Harms e timborana (Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens Miq com as seguintes dimensões: espessuras (2,5mm e 3,5mm, larguras (76,2mm, 82,5mm e 127mm, comprimentos (450mm a 1.200mm. O defeito mais freqüente encontrado na produção de lamelas foi a marca de serra (31%, seguido de corte da madeira feito pelo fornecedor (23% e falta de instrução de trabalho (15%. As principais causas dos defeitos de marca de serra são devidas aos problemas de manutenção de serras da empresa fornecedora de madeira.Lamella defects are responsible in large part for rework losses and decrease in the quality of the finished floor. These defects increase costs, a very important factor in the process wood floor production. This work aimed to quantify and classify the common defects occurring in the lamella production, find out causes and propose solutions and improvements using the tools “Brainstorming", “Pareto Diagram", “Ishibawa Diagram", and 5W2H. 1598,47 square meters of lamella of the species Muiracatiara (Astronium lecointei Ducke, Amendoim (Pterogyne nitens Tul, Cabreúva (Myroxylon Balsamum Harms and Timborana (Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens Miq were sampled with the following dimensions: thickness (2.5mm and 3.5mm, width (76,2mm, 82,5mm and 127mm, lenght

  16. Short QT syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenzo Gaita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The short QT syndrome (SQTS is a recently described genetic arrhythmogenic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT intervals on surface electrocardiogram (ECG and a high incidence of sudden death (SD during life, including the first months of life. The inheritance of SQTS is autosomal dominant, with genetic heterogeneity. Gain-of-function mutations in 3 genes encoding potassium channels have been associated to the disease: KCNH2 encoding IKr (SQT1, KCNQ1 encoding IKs (SQT2, and KCNJ2 encoding IK1 (SQT3. Loss-of-function mutations in 3 genes encoding the cardiac L-type calcium channel, CACNA1C, CACNB2b and CACNA2D1 may underlie a mixed phenotype of Brugada pattern ECG (or non-specific repolarization changes in case of CACNA2D1 and shorter than normal QT intervals. Clinical presentation is often severe, as cardiac arrest represents the first clinical presentation in most subjects. Moreover, often a noticeable family history of cardiac SD is present. Atrial fibrillation may be observed, also in young individuals. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, and atrial and ventricular fibrillation are easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. The outcome of patients with SQTS becomes relatively safe when they are identified and treated. Currently, the suggested therapeutic strategy is an implantable cardioverter- defibrillator (ICD in patients with personal history of aborted SD or syncope. In asymptomatic adult patients from highly symptomatic families and in newborn children pharmacological treatment with hydroquinidine, which has been shown to prolong the QT interval and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, may be proposed.

  17. Cleófilas and La Llorona: Latin Heroines Against Patriarchal Marginalisation in ‘El arroyo de la Llorona’, a Short Story by Sandra Cisneros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis fernando Gómez R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the short story ‘El arroyo de la Llorona’ by female Mexican-American writer Sandra Cisneros. In it the main character, Cleófilas, is subject to social, emotional and economic dependence on her husband, according to the cultural constructs on female identity that are still relevant in Latin-American patriarchal societies. Due to her circumstances of complete marginalisation and domestic violence, Cleófilas chooses to avoid reality, and this avoidance not only costs her mental well-being,but also annuls her will to make changes to her suffocating life. Oppressed by a patriarchal system,Cleófilas develops an unusual interest in the Llorona legend and, through the remembrance of this myth, these two female figures become symbols of resistance and liberation. In the story, the Llorona ceases to be the denigrated woman tradition has always made her out to be, and becomes the image of a contemporary heroine capable of challenging radical patriarchal norms.

  18. Short bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2012-02-01

    The short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a state of malabsorption following intestinal resection where there is less than 200 cm of intestinal length. The management of short bowel syndrome can be challenging and is best managed by a specialised multidisciplinary team. A good understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of resection of different portions of the small intestine is necessary to anticipate and prevent, where possible, consequences of SBS. Nutrient absorption and fluid and electrolyte management in the initial stages are critical to stabilisation of the patient and to facilitate the process of adaptation. Pharmacological adjuncts to promote adaptation are in the early stages of development. Primary restoration of bowel continuity, if possible, is the principle mode of surgical treatment. Surgical procedures to increase the surface area of the small intestine or improve its function may be of benefit in experienced hands, particularly in the paediatric population. Intestinal transplant is indicated at present for patients who have failed to tolerate long-term parenteral nutrition but with increasing experience, there may be a potentially expanded role for its use in the future.

  19. Cell short circuit, preshort signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, C.

    1980-01-01

    Short-circuit events observed in ground test simulations of DSCS-3 battery in-orbit operations are analyzed. Voltage signatures appearing in the data preceding the short-circuit event are evaluated. The ground test simulation is briefly described along with performance during reconditioning discharges. Results suggest that a characteristic signature develops prior to a shorting event.

  20. Newnes short wave listening handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pritchard, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Short Wave Listening Handbook is a guide for starting up in short wave listening (SWL). The book is comprised of 15 chapters that discuss the basics and fundamental concepts of short wave radio listening. The coverage of the text includes electrical principles; types of signals that can be heard in the radio spectrum; and using computers in SWL. The book also covers SWL equipment, such as receivers, converters, and circuits. The text will be of great use to individuals who want to get into short wave listening.

  1. Short-circuit impedance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2003-01-01

    Methods for estimating the short-circuit impedance in the power grid are investigated for various voltage levels and situations. The short-circuit impedance is measured, preferably from naturally occurring load changes in the grid, and it is shown that such a measurement system faces different...

  2. Superconducting cyclotron magnet coil short

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, M.L.; Blosser, H.G.; Clark, D.J.; Launer, H.; Lawton, D.; Miller, P.; Resmini, F.

    1982-01-01

    In February 1981, a short circuit appeared in the superconducting coil of the K500 cyclotron. The short is resistive in character and therefore has no effect on steady state operation of the magnet. The resistance of the short varies, sometimes being below threshold of detection as a heat load on the cooling system and sometimes being significant. The resistance under certain conditions shows approximately cyclic phenomena with time constants in the range of seconds and other approximately cyclic phenomena which correlate with gross operating parameters of the magnet (shifting current from one coil to another at high field and lowering and raising the liquid helium level). A number of diagnostic studies of the short have been made, using 1) an array of flux sensing loops to sense the magnetic effect of the short, 2) voltage comparisons between upper and lower sections of the coil, 3) comparisons of forces in the nine member coil support system and 4) the effect of the short on the thermal charactersitics of the coil. Insulation failure or a metal chip shorting out turns have been explored in some detail but a convincing determination of the exact cause of the short may never be available, (even the extreme step of unwinding the coil having a significant probability that an imperfection with the observed characteristics would pass unnoticed). Analysis of the characteristics of the short indicated that the most serious consequence would be failure of the coils mechanical support system in the event that the magnet was quickly discharged, as in a dump or quench. To deal with this hazard, the support system has been modified by installing solid supports which prevent the coil from moving by an amount sufficient to damage the support system. We have also reexamined the data and calculations used in the original coil design and have made some additional measurements of the properties of the materials (yield strength, friction coefficient, Young's modulus) used in the

  3. Shorts due to diagnostic leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.F.; Lubell, M.S.; Pillsbury, R.D.; Shen, S.S.; Thome, R.J.; Walstrom, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The superconducting toroidal field coils that are being tested in the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) are heavily instrumented. General Electric coil, a lead wire of an internal sensor became shorted across an estimated three or four turns of the pancake winding. This short occurred during the final stages of the winding fabrication and was not accessible for repair. Resistance, voltage gradient, and transient voltage decay measurements were performed to characterize the short and the magnetic damping of the large steel bobbin and outer structural ring. The 32-gage wire causing the short was estimated to be about 10 cm long, with a resistance of 55 mΩ. As a safety measure, we decided to burn out the shorted wire at room temperature before installing the coil in LCTF. Tests were made to determine the energy needed to vaporize a small wire. Computer calculations indicated that within the voltage limits set for the coil, it was not feasible to burn out the wire by rapidly dumping the coil from a low-current dc charge-up. We accomplished the burnout by applying 800 V at 3.25 A, and 60 Hz for about 1 s. Transient voltage decay measurements made after the burnout and compared with those made before the attempt confirmed that the short had indeed been opened

  4. The novel as short story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Schlueter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent history, the novel has been thought of and defined primarily as a long prose narrative. However, this has not been the case historically, as the original meaning of "novel" was for "a piece of news" or "a short story or novella." Returning to this original definition, I propose a new way of viewing the work known contemporarily as the novel as a collection, or sequence, of united short stories rather than a single indivisible work, with the component short stories or novellas comprising the sequence renamed as "novels." A brief examination of several classic works traditionally considered novels serves to illustrate how this change in definition will affect reading.

  5. Infantile Short Bowel Syndrome: short and long term evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Olieman (Joanne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractInfantile short bowel syndrome is a condition which is characterized by malabsorption of nutrients, as a result of congenital intestinal shortening or massive small bowel resection. Survival rates have improved over the years, but morbidity remains high and clinical management of these

  6. Solar Shading System Based on Daylight Directing Glass Lamellas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Santos, Inês; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    The overheating problems in office buildings must be solved with efficient solar shadings in order to reduce the energy demand for cooling and ventilation. At the same time the solar shading should not reduce the daylight level in the building on overcast days because it would result in a lower...

  7. Short-range fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Baessler, S.; Buchner, M.; Fedorov, V.V.; Hoedl, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces; 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments

  8. 3-D observations of short fatigue crack interaction with la2mellar and duplex microstructures in a two-phase titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birosca, S.; Buffiere, J.Y.; Karadge, M.; Preuss, M.

    2011-01-01

    In situ observations of short crack growth in powder-processed Ti-6246 have been undertaken using synchrotron X-ray microtomography to investigate crack tip interaction with microstructure. Together with post-mortem analysis using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), it was possible to identify a number of microstructural features that affect crack propagation rates by causing crack bifurcation, crack bridging and crack deflection. Three samples with different microstructures were tested in this way: lamellar, duplex and a heterogeneous microstructure that showed regions of lamellar and duplex microstructure. The in situ fatigue experiments were carried out with a maximum stress of 410 MPa and R = 0.1. The three microstructures showed significantly different short crack propagation rates, with the lamellar microstructure displaying the fastest and the duplex microstructure the slowest rate. It was found that the lamellar microstructure develops a deeper crack than the duplex microstructure that is related to significant crack bifurcation taking place near the surface region in the lamellar but not duplex microstructure. It was also found that a columnar lamellar microstructure creates a relatively smooth crack front while a basket-weave-type microstructure forces the crack tip to undulate on the lath width scale. Crack bridging of the fine lamellar region of the duplex microstructure was observed, which seems to hinder significant crack bifurcation to occur, but still provides improved crack growth resistance that explains the low crack propagation rate. In the third microstructure the crack tended to grow slightly asymmetrically due to the heterogeneous nature of the microstructure, resulting in the intermediate growth rate. EBSD grain orientation and Schmid factor analysis of regions including the crack revealed that the crack path is strongly influenced by the crystallographic orientation of the α lamellae and grains. While in the lamellar microstructure

  9. Astronomical Spectroscopy A Short History

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 5. Astronomical Spectroscopy A Short History. J C Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 3 Issue 5 May 1998 pp 24-29. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/05/0024-0029 ...

  10. A Short Term Analogue Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan

    1992-01-01

    A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...

  11. Towards short wavelengths FELs workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.

    1993-01-01

    This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FELs offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FELs will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program

  12. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND REPORTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    1976). Among raptors there are those species where only the female incubates, those where the male may also incubate for short to longer periods, and those in which females and males equally share the incubation (Newton 1979). It is well known that both sexes incubate the clutch in vultures, both in the wild (Mundy et al.

  13. Towards short wavelengths FELs workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.

    1993-11-01

    This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FEL's offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FEL's will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program.

  14. Short-term flow induced crystallization in isotactic polypropylene : how short is short?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Z.; Balzano, L.; Portale, G.; Peters, G.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The so-called "short-term flow" protocol is widely applied in experimental flow-induced crystallization studies on polymers in order to separate the nucleation and subsequent growth processes [Liedauer et al. Int. Polym. Proc. 1993, 8, 236–244]. The basis of this protocol is the assumption that

  15. Complexity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, John H

    2014-01-01

    The importance of complexity is well-captured by Hawking's comment: "Complexity is the science of the 21st century". From the movement of flocks of birds to the Internet, environmental sustainability, and market regulation, the study and understanding of complex non-linear systems has become highly influential over the last 30 years. In this Very Short Introduction, one of the leading figures in the field, John Holland, introduces the key elements and conceptual framework of complexity. From complex physical systems such as fluid flow and the difficulties of predicting weather, to complex adaptive systems such as the highly diverse and interdependent ecosystems of rainforests, he combines simple, well-known examples - Adam Smith's pin factory, Darwin's comet orchid, and Simon's 'watchmaker' - with an account of the approaches, involving agents and urn models, taken by complexity theory. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost eve...

  16. Review of short wavelength lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references

  17. Optimal short-sighted rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha eBourgeois-Gironde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the relevance of methodological transfers from behavioral ecology to experimental economics with respect to the elicitation of intertemporal preferences. More precisely our discussion will stem from the analysis of Stephens and Anderson’s (2001 seminal article. In their study with blue jays they document that foraging behavior typically implements short sighted choice rules which are beneficial in the long-run. Such long term profitability of short-sighted behavior cannot be evidenced when using a self-control paradigm (one which contrasts in a binary way sooner smaller and later larger payoffs but becomes apparent when ecological patch-paradigms (replicating economic situations in which the main trade-off consists in staying on a food patch or leaving for another patch are implemented. We transfer this methodology in view of contrasting foraging strategies and self-control in human intertemporal choices.

  18. Review of short wavelength lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1985-03-18

    There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references.

  19. Statistical inference a short course

    CERN Document Server

    Panik, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    A concise, easily accessible introduction to descriptive and inferential techniques Statistical Inference: A Short Course offers a concise presentation of the essentials of basic statistics for readers seeking to acquire a working knowledge of statistical concepts, measures, and procedures. The author conducts tests on the assumption of randomness and normality, provides nonparametric methods when parametric approaches might not work. The book also explores how to determine a confidence interval for a population median while also providing coverage of ratio estimation, randomness, and causal

  20. Short-range communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  1. Short Stature Diagnosis and Referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Maghnie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The “360° GH in Europe” meeting, which examined various aspects of GH diseases, was held in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 2016. The Merck KGaA (Germany funded meeting comprised three sessions entitled “Short Stature Diagnosis and Referral,” “Optimizing Patient Management,” and “Managing Transition.” Each session had three speaker presentations, followed by a discussion period, and is reported as a manuscript, authored by the speakers. The first session examined current processes of diagnosis and referral by endocrine specialists for pediatric patients with short stature. Requirements for referral vary widely, by country and by patient characteristics such as age. A balance must be made to ensure eligible patients get referred while healthcare systems are not over-burdened by excessive referrals. Late referral and diagnosis of non-GH deficiency conditions can result in increased morbidity and mortality. The consequent delays in making a diagnosis may compromise the effectiveness of GH treatment. Algorithms for growth monitoring and evaluation of skeletal disproportions can improve identification of non-GH deficiency conditions. Performance and validation of guidelines for diagnosis of GH deficiency have not been sufficiently tested. Provocative tests for investigation of GH deficiency remain equivocal, with insufficient information on variations due to patient characteristics, and cutoff values for definition differ not only by country but also by the assay used. When referring and diagnosing causes of short stature in pediatric patients, clinicians need to rely on many factors, but the most essential is clinical experience.

  2. Relativity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Stannard, F Russell

    2008-01-01

    Relativity: A Very Short Introduction makes the theory of relativity understandable and accessible. 100 years ago, Einstein's theory of relativity shattered the world of physics. Our comforting Newtonian ideas of space and time were replaced by bizarre and counterintuitive conclusions: if you move at high speed, time slows down, space squashes up and you get heavier; travel fast enough and you could weigh as much as a jumbo jet, be squashed thinner than a CD without feeling a thing - and live forever. And that was just the special theory. With the general theory came even stranger ideas of curved space-time, which changed our understanding of gravity and the cosmos.

  3. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  4. Nothing a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Frank

    2009-01-01

    What is 'nothing'? What remains when you take all the matter away? Can empty space - a void - exist? This Very Short Introduction explores the science and the history of the elusive void: from Aristotle who insisted that the vacuum was impossible, via the theories of Newton and Einstein, to our very latest discoveries and why they can tell us extraordinary things about the cosmos. Frank Close tells the story of how scientists have explored the elusive void, and the rich discoveries that they have made there. He takes the reader on a lively and accessible history through ancient ideas and cultural superstitions to the frontiers of current research

  5. Superconductivity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Superconductivity is one of the most exciting areas of research in physics today. Outlining the history of its discovery, and the race to understand its many mysterious and counter-intuitive phenomena, this Very Short Introduction explains in accessible terms the theories that have been developed, and how they have influenced other areas of science, including the Higgs boson of particle physics and ideas about the early Universe. It is an engaging and informative accountof a fascinating scientific detective story, and an intelligible insight into some deep and beautiful ideas of physics

  6. Planets a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rothery, David A

    2010-01-01

    Planets: A Very Short Introduction demonstrates the excitement, uncertainties, and challenges faced by planetary scientists, and provides an overview of our Solar System and its origins, nature, and evolution. Terrestrial planets, giant planets, dwarf planets and various other objects such as satellites (moons), asteroids, trans-Neptunian objects, and exoplanets are discussed. Our knowledge about planets has advanced over the centuries, and has expanded at a rapidly growing rate in recent years. Controversial issues are outlined, such as What qualifies as a planet? What conditions are required for a planetary body to be potentially inhabited by life? Why does Pluto no longer have planet status? And Is there life on other planets?

  7. Galaxies a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2008-01-01

    Galaxies: A Very Short Introduction explores the building blocks of the Universe. Standing like islands in space, each is made up of many hundreds of millions of stars in which the chemical elements are made, around which planets form, and where on at least one of those planets intelligent life has emerged. Our own galaxy, the Milky Way, is just one of several hundred million other galaxies. Yet it was only in the 1920s that we realised that there is more to the Universe. Since then, many exciting discoveries have been made about our own galaxy and about those beyond.

  8. Radioactivity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tuniz, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity: A Very Short Introduction explains radioactivity and discusses its fundamental role in nature. Radioactivity remains misunderstood and feared perhaps because nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses, and can undoubtedly do great harm if appropriate precautions are not taken. Radioactivity in the stars and in the Earth and its wide range of applications in biomedicine, science, industry, agriculture are described, as well as the mechanisms of nuclear fission and fusion, and the harnessing of nuclear power. The issues surrounding safety and security and the increasing concerns about nuclear terrorism are also considered.

  9. Short recovery time NMR probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramia, M.E.; Martin, C.A.; Jeandrevin, S.

    2011-01-01

    A NMR probe for low frequency and short recovery time is presented in this work. The probe contains the tuning circuit, diode expanders and quarter wavelength networks to protect the receiver from both the amplifier noise and the coil ringing following the transmitter power pulse. It also possesses a coil damper which is activated by of non active components. The probe performance shows a recovery time of about of 15μs a sensitive Q factor reduction and an increase of the signal to noise ratio of about 68% during the reception at a work frequency of 2 MHz. (author)

  10. Moons a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rothery, David A

    2015-01-01

    Moons: A Very Short Introduction introduces the reader to the varied and fascinating moons of our Solar System. Beginning with the early discoveries of Galileo and others, it describes their variety of mostly mythological names, and the early use of Jupiter’s moons to establish position at sea and to estimate the speed of light. It discusses the structure, formation, and profound influence of our Moon, those of the other planets, and ends with the recent discovery of moons orbiting asteroids, whilst looking forward to the possibility of discovering microbial life beyond Earth and of finding moons of exoplanets in planetary systems far beyond our own.

  11. Magnetism a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Magnetism: A Very Short Introduction explains the mysteries and importance of magnetism. For centuries magnetism has been used for various exploits: as a great healer, a navigation aid through compasses, and through motors, generators, and turbines it has given us power. Our understanding of electricity and magnetism, from the work of Galvani, Ampère, Faraday, and Tesla is explored, and how Maxwell and Faraday's work led to the unification of electricity and magnetism is explained. With a discussion of the relationship between magnetism and relativity, quantum magnetism, and its impact on computers and information storage, how magnetism has changed our fundamental understanding of the Universe is shown.

  12. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. Isotopes a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ellam, Rob

    2016-01-01

    An isotope is a variant form of a chemical element, containing a different number of neutrons in its nucleus. Most elements exist as several isotopes. Many are stable while others are radioactive, and some may only exist fleetingly before decaying into other elements. In this Very Short Introduction, Rob Ellam explains how isotopes have proved enormously important across all the sciences and in archaeology. Radioactive isotopes may be familiar from their use in nuclear weapons, nuclear power, and in medicine, as well as in carbon dating. They have been central to establishing the age of the Earth and the origins of the solar system. Combining previous and new research, Ellam provides an overview of the nature of stable and radioactive isotopes, and considers their wide range of modern applications. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subjec...

  14. Ebola Virus Inactivation by Detergents Is Annulled in Serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, Jeroen J. A.; Tintu, Andrei; Russcher, Henk; Fraaij, Pieter L. A.; Reusken, Chantal B. E. M.; Rijken, Mikel; van Hellemond, Jaap J.; van Genderen, Perry J. J.; Koelewijn, Rob; de Jong, Menno D.; Haddock, Elaine; Fischer, Robert J.; Munster, Vincent J.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of blood samples from hemorrhagic fever virus (HFV)-infected patients with 0.1% detergents has been recommended for virus inactivation and subsequent safe laboratory testing. However, data on virus inactivation by this procedure are lacking. Here we show the effect of this procedure on

  15. Lattelecom "deal of century" on verge of annulment

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Läti majandusministri kohusetäitja Gaidis Berzins teatas Lattelecomi juhatuse esimehele Nils Melngailisele, et tema töölepingut ei pikendata. Asjaolu pidurdab Lattelecomi erastamist investeerimisfirmale Blackstone Group ja Lattelecomi töötajatele

  16. Economic impact analysis of short line railroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This research project assesses the economic role and impact of short line railroads in the state of Louisiana. While relatively small in : scope, with 11 operators and approximately 500 miles of track, short line railroads play a significant role in ...

  17. Short Pulse Laser Applications Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Town, R.J.; Clark, D.S.; Kemp, A.J.; Lasinski, B.F.; Tabak, M.

    2008-01-01

    We are applying our recently developed, LDRD-funded computational simulation tool to optimize and develop applications of Fast Ignition (FI) for stockpile stewardship. This report summarizes the work performed during a one-year exploratory research LDRD to develop FI point designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These results were sufficiently encouraging to propose successfully a strategic initiative LDRD to design and perform the definitive FI experiment on the NIF. Ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will begin in 2010 using the central hot spot (CHS) approach, which relies on the simultaneous compression and ignition of a spherical fuel capsule. Unlike this approach, the fast ignition (FI) method separates fuel compression from the ignition phase. In the compression phase, a laser such as NIF is used to implode a shell either directly, or by x rays generated from the hohlraum wall, to form a compact dense (∼300 g/cm 3 ) fuel mass with an areal density of ∼3.0 g/cm 2 . To ignite such a fuel assembly requires depositing ∼20kJ into a ∼35 (micro)m spot delivered in a short time compared to the fuel disassembly time (∼20ps). This energy is delivered during the ignition phase by relativistic electrons generated by the interaction of an ultra-short high-intensity laser. The main advantages of FI over the CHS approach are higher gain, a lower ignition threshold, and a relaxation of the stringent symmetry requirements required by the CHS approach. There is worldwide interest in FI and its associated science. Major experimental facilities are being constructed which will enable 'proof of principle' tests of FI in integrated subignition experiments, most notably the OMEGA-EP facility at the University of Rochester's Laboratory of Laser Energetics and the FIREX facility at Osaka University in Japan. Also, scientists in the European Union have recently proposed the construction of a new FI facility, called HiPER, designed to

  18. Coulomb repulsion in short polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzy, Amir; Assaf, Khaleel I; Zhang, Shuai; Jacob, Maik H; Nau, Werner M

    2015-01-08

    Coulomb repulsion between like-charged side chains is presently viewed as a major force that impacts the biological activity of intrinsically disordered polypeptides (IDPs) by determining their spatial dimensions. We investigated short synthetic models of IDPs, purely composed of ionizable amino acid residues and therefore expected to display an extreme structural and dynamic response to pH variation. Two synergistic, custom-made, time-resolved fluorescence methods were applied in tandem to study the structure and dynamics of the acidic and basic hexapeptides Asp6, Glu6, Arg6, Lys6, and His6 between pH 1 and 12. (i) End-to-end distances were obtained from the short-distance Förster resonance energy transfer (sdFRET) from N-terminal 5-fluoro-l-tryptophan (FTrp) to C-terminal Dbo. (ii) End-to-end collision rates were obtained for the same peptides from the collision-induced fluorescence quenching (CIFQ) of Dbo by FTrp. Unexpectedly, the very high increase of charge density at elevated pH had no dynamical or conformational consequence in the anionic chains, neither in the absence nor in the presence of salt, in conflict with the common view and in partial conflict with accompanying molecular dynamics simulations. In contrast, the cationic peptides responded to ionization but with surprising patterns that mirrored the rich individual characteristics of each side chain type. The contrasting results had to be interpreted, by considering salt screening experiments, N-terminal acetylation, and simulations, in terms of an interplay of local dielectric constant and peptide-length dependent side chain charge-charge repulsion, side chain functional group solvation, N-terminal and side chain charge-charge repulsion, and side chain-side chain as well as side chain-backbone interactions. The common picture that emerged is that Coulomb repulsion between water-solvated side chains is efficiently quenched in short peptides as long as side chains are not in direct contact with each

  19. 46 CFR 15.725 - Sailing short.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sailing short. 15.725 Section 15.725 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.725 Sailing short. Whenever a vessel is deprived of the service of a... vessel is sufficiently manned for the voyage. A report of sailing short must be filed in writing with the...

  20. Copernicus a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Gingerich, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) was the astronomer whose shocking vision of a sun-centered universe turned out to be the essential blueprint for a physical understanding of celestial motions. Copernicus: A Very Short Introduction offers a fascinating portrayal of the man who launched the modern vision of the universe. It sets Copernicus in the context of a rapidly changing world, where the recent invention of printing with movable type not only made sources more readily available to him, but also fueled Martin Luther’s transformation of the religious landscape. Copernicus’s heliocentric revolution is revealed as an aesthetic achievement not dictated by observational “proofs,” but another new way of looking at the ancient cosmos.

  1. Infinity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Infinity is an intriguing topic, with connections to religion, philosophy, metaphysics, logic, and physics as well as mathematics. Its history goes back to ancient times, with especially important contributions from Euclid, Aristotle, Eudoxus, and Archimedes. The infinitely large (infinite) is intimately related to the infinitely small (infinitesimal). Cosmologists consider sweeping questions about whether space and time are infinite. Philosophers and mathematicians ranging from Zeno to Russell have posed numerous paradoxes about infinity and infinitesimals. Many vital areas of mathematics rest upon some version of infinity. The most obvious, and the first context in which major new techniques depended on formulating infinite processes, is calculus. But there are many others, for example Fourier analysis and fractals. In this Very Short Introduction, Ian Stewart discusses infinity in mathematics while also drawing in the various other aspects of infinity and explaining some of the major problems and insights ...

  2. Downlink Transmission of Short Packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    Cellular wireless systems rely on frame-based transmissions. The frame design is conventionally based on heuristics, consisting of a frame header and a data part. The frame header contains control information that provides pointers to the messages within the data part. In this paper, we revisit...... the principles of frame design and show the impact of the new design in scenarios that feature short data packets, which are central to various 5G and Internet of Things applications. We~treat framing for downlink transmission in an AWGN broadcast channel with $K$ users, where the sizes of the messages....... This requires changes in the way control information is sent, and it requires that the users need to spend power decoding other messages, thereby increasing the average power consumption. We~show that the common heuristic design is only one point on a curve that represents the tradeoff between latency and power...

  3. Shapeable short circuit resistant capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ralph S.; Myers, John D.; Baney, William J.

    2015-10-06

    A ceramic short circuit resistant capacitor that is bendable and/or shapeable to provide a multiple layer capacitor that is extremely compact and amenable to desirable geometries. The capacitor that exhibits a benign failure mode in which a multitude of discrete failure events result in a gradual loss of capacitance. Each event is a localized event in which localized heating causes an adjacent portion of one or both of the electrodes to vaporize, physically cleaning away electrode material from the failure site. A first metal electrode, a second metal electrode, and a ceramic dielectric layer between the electrodes are thin enough to be formed in a serpentine-arrangement with gaps between the first electrode and the second electrode that allow venting of vaporized electrode material in the event of a benign failure.

  4. Astrophysics a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Binney, James

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysics is the physics of the stars, and more widely the physics of the Universe. It enables us to understand the structure and evolution of planetary systems, stars, galaxies, interstellar gas, and the cosmos as a whole. In this Very Short Introduction, the leading astrophysicist James Binney shows how the field of astrophysics has expanded rapidly in the past century, with vast quantities of data gathered by telescopes exploiting all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, combined with the rapid advance of computing power, which has allowed increasingly effective mathematical modelling. He illustrates how the application of fundamental principles of physics - the consideration of energy and mass, and momentum - and the two pillars of relativity and quantum mechanics, has provided insights into phenomena ranging from rapidly spinning millisecond pulsars to the collision of giant spiral galaxies. This is a clear, rigorous introduction to astrophysics for those keen to cut their teeth on a conceptual trea...

  5. Short Course in the Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Falana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, it has become evident that the microbiome is an important environmental factor that affects many physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and differentiation, behaviour, immune function and metabolism. More importantly, it may contribute to a wide variety of diseases, including cancer, inflammatory diseases, metabolic diseases and responses to pathogens. We expect that international, integrative and interdisciplinary translational research teams, along with the emergence of FDA-approved platforms, will set the framework for microbiome-based therapeutics and diagnostics. We recognize that the microbiome ecosystem offers new promise for personalized/precision medicine and targeted treatment for a variety of diseases. The short course was held as a four-session webinar series in April 2015, taught by pioneers and experts in the microbiome ecosystem, covering a broad range of topics from the healthy microbiome to the effects of an altered microbiome from neonates to adults and the long term effects as it is related to disease, from asthma to cancer. We have learned to appreciate how beneficial our microbes are in breaking down our food, fighting off infections and nurturing our immune system, and this information provides us with ideas as to how we can manipulate our microbiome to prevent certain diseases. However, given the variety of applications, there are scientific challenges, though there are very promising areas in reference to the clinical benefits of understanding more about our microbiome, whether in our gut or on our skin: the outlook is bright. A summary of the short course is presented as a meeting dispatch.

  6. TECHNICAL AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF SHORT SELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu BORES

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing insight into some of the implication of short selling for markets, investors as well as regulators. Findings show that capital flows are adversely affected by strict regulation and bans of short sales, while market liquidity, and bid-ask spread can be improved by allowing short selling. Additionally portfolios that incorporate short selling strategies can have lower volatility in returns. The informational content of short sales can provide important feedback for informed investors and lead to better price discovery.

  7. Intestino Corto Short bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Matilde Socarrás Suárez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El intestino corto está asociado a pérdida o disfunción del intestino delgado por resección del mismo, que causa diarreas, tránsito intestinal acelerado, malabsorción intestinal, y eventualmente la pérdida de peso y el desgaste muscular. El objetivo de este trabajo fue actualizar el conocimiento acerca de este síndrome. Se realiza una revisión del tema de intestino corto donde se refiere a su definición, causas fundamentales frecuentes e infrecuentes en el niño y en el adulto, cómo se adapta el intestino a la resección de diferentes extensiones, las funciones del íleon terminal. Se hacen una valoración clínica inicial, con el interrogatorio médico, revisión minuciosa de la historia clínica para cuantificar la capacidad de absorción. Se habla de los síntomas y signos de deficiencia nutricional. Se explican las estrategias del tratamiento, que tienen 3 etapas de evolución clínica. Se concluye que se indica la dietoterapia adecuada según el estado nutricional del paciente y la resección intestinal realizada, evitando las complicaciones para lograr una calidad máxima de vidaShort bowel is associated with loss or dysfunction of the small bowel due to its resection, which causes diarrheas, accelerated intestinal transit, intestinal malabsorption and, eventually, weight loss ansd muscular waste. The objective of this paper was to update knowledge about this syndrome. A review of the short intestine topic is made, making reference to its definition, common and uncommon main cuases in the child and adult, how the bowel adapts itslef to resection of different extensions, and the functions of the terminal ileum. An initial clinical assessment is made with the medical questionnaire and a detailed review of the medical history to quantify the absorption capacity. The symptoms and signs of nutritional deficiency are dealt with. The strategies of the treatment consisting of 3 stages of clinical evolution are explained. It is concluded

  8. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  9. Gravity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Clifton, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Gravity is one of the four fundamental interactions that exist in nature. It also has the distinction of being the oldest, weakest, and most difficult force to quantize. Understanding gravity is not only essential for understanding the motion of objects on Earth, but also the motion of all celestial objects, and even the expansion of the Universe itself. It was the study of gravity that led Einstein to his profound realizations about the nature of space and time. Gravity is not only universal, it is also essential for understanding the behavior of the Universe, and all astrophysical bodies within it. In this Very Short Introduction Timothy Clifton looks at the development of our understanding of gravity since the early observations of Kepler and Newtonian theory. He discusses Einstein's theory of gravity, which now supplants Newton's, showing how it allows us to understand why the frequency of light changes as it passes through a gravitational field, why GPS satellites need their clocks corrected as they orbi...

  10. Light a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Walmsley, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Light enables us to see the world around us. Our sense of sight provides us with direct information about space and time, the physical arrangement of the world, and how it changes. This almost universal shared sensation of vision has led to a fascination with the nature and properties of light across the ages. But the light we see is just a small part of the whole spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, ranging from radio waves to gamma rays. In this Very Short Introduction Ian Walmsley discusses early attempts to explain light, and the development of apparently opposing particulate and wave theories by scientists such as Isaac Newton and Christiaan Huygens. He shows how light was recognized as an electromagnetic wave in the 19th century, and the development of the quantum mechanics view of wave-particle duality in the 20th century. He also describes the many applications of light, domestic and scientific, such as microwaves, DVDs, and lasers. We now use the whole range of electromagnetic radiation to peer bot...

  11. A short history of insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberemok Volodymyr Volodymyrovych

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This review contains a brief history of the use of insecticides. The peculiarities, main advantages, and disadvantages of some modern insecticides are described. The names of the discoverers of some of the most popular insecticide preparations on the world market, are listed. The tendencies to find new insecticides to control the quantity of phytophagous insects are discussed. Special attention is paid to the perspective of creating preparations based on nucleic acids, in particular DNA insecticides. The use of insect-specific, short single-stranded DNA fragments as DNA insecticides, is paving the way in the field of “intellectual” insecticides that “think” before they act. It is worth noting, though, that in the near future, the quantity of produced insecticides will increase due to the challenges associated with food production for a rapidly growing population. It is concluded, that an agreeable interaction of scientists and manufacturers of insecticides should lead to the selection of the most optimal solutions for insect pest control, which would be safe, affordable, and effective at the same time.

  12. Short- circuit tests of circuit breakers

    OpenAIRE

    Chorovský, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with short-circuit tests of low voltage electrical devices. In the first part of this paper, there are described basic types of short- circuit tests and their principles. Direct and indirect (synthetic) tests with more details are described in the second part. Each test and principles are explained separately. Oscilogram is obtained from short-circuit tests of circuit breakers at laboratory. The aim of this research work is to propose a test circuit for performing indirect test.

  13. Short-Selling, Leverage and Systemic Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Pais, Amelia; Stork, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    During the Global Financial Crisis, regulators imposed short-selling bans to protect financial institutions. The rationale behind the bans was that “bear raids”, driven by short-sellers, would increase the individual and systemic risk of financial institutions, especially for institutions with high leverage. This study uses Extreme Value Theory to estimate the effect of short-selling on financial institutions’ individual and systemic risks in France, Italy and Spain; it also analyses the rela...

  14. Chaos: A Very Short Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klages, R [School of Mathematical Sciences, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-20

    field. I feel that occasionally the book is also getting a bit too intricate for the complete layman, and experts may not agree on all details of the more conceptual discussions. Altogether I thoroughly enjoyed reading this book. It was a happy companion while travelling and a nice bedtime literature. It is furthermore an excellent reminder of the 'big picture' underlying nonlinear science as it applies to the real world. I will gladly recommend this book as background literature for students in my introductory course on dynamical systems. However, the book will be of interest to anyone who is looking for a very short account on fundamental problems and principles in modern nonlinear science. (book review)

  15. Chaos: A Very Short Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klages, R

    2007-01-01

    is also getting a bit too intricate for the complete layman, and experts may not agree on all details of the more conceptual discussions. Altogether I thoroughly enjoyed reading this book. It was a happy companion while travelling and a nice bedtime literature. It is furthermore an excellent reminder of the 'big picture' underlying nonlinear science as it applies to the real world. I will gladly recommend this book as background literature for students in my introductory course on dynamical systems. However, the book will be of interest to anyone who is looking for a very short account on fundamental problems and principles in modern nonlinear science. (book review)

  16. Three short distance structures from quantum algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, A.

    1997-01-01

    Known results are reviewed and new results are given on three types of short distance structures of observables which typically appear in studies of quantum group related algebras. In particular, one of the short distance structures is shown to suggest a new mechanism for the introduction of internal symmetries

  17. The Demonstration of Short-Term Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolicoeur, Pierre; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    1998-01-01

    Results of seven experiments involving 112 college students or staff using a dual-task approach provide evidence that encoding information into short-term memory involves a distinct process termed short-term consolidation (STC). Results suggest that STC has limited capacity and that it requires central processing mechanisms. (SLD)

  18. 31 CFR 505.01 - Short title.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short title. 505.01 Section 505.01 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... CERTAIN MERCHANDISE BETWEEN FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 505.01 Short title. The regulations in this part may be...

  19. 33 CFR 401.1 - Short title.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short title. 401.1 Section 401.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations § 401.1 Short title. These regulations may be cited as the...

  20. 18 CFR 415.1 - Short title.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short title. 415.1 Section 415.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Generally § 415.1 Short title. This part shall be known...

  1. Magnetic short range order in Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child, H.R.

    1976-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering has been used to investigate magnetic short range order in Gd for 80 0 K 0 K. Short range order exists throughout this range from well below T/sub C/ = 291 0 K to well above it and can be reasonably well described by an anisotropic Orstein-Zernike form for chi

  2. Hypogonadotrophic short statured with anosmia: kallmann's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarique, S.; Abaidullah, S.; Cheema, T.M.; Iqbal, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Short stature with loss of secondary sex characters can occur due to genetic disorders. One of them is Kallmann's syndrome. The condition has been noted to be present in families. It is associated with anosmia and hypogonadism. We are presenting a case of young boy who was short statured and had anosmia with multiple hormonal deficiencies. (author)

  3. The Short Circuit Model of Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueers, Nancy M.

    The name "short circuit" has been given to this model because, in many ways, it adequately describes what happens bioelectrically in the brain. The "short-circuiting" factors include linguistic, sociocultural, attitudinal and motivational, neurological, perceptual, and cognitive factors. Research is reviewed on ways in which each one affects any…

  4. Short-Term Intercultural Psychotherapy: Ethnographic Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical…

  5. Worst Asymmetrical Short-Circuit Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holmstrøm, O; Grastrup, L

    2010-01-01

    In a typical power plant, the production scenario and the short-circuit time were found for the worst asymmetrical short-circuit current. Then, a sensitivity analysis on the missing generator values was realized in order to minimize the uncertainty of the results. Afterward the worst asymmetrical...

  6. Assembling the LHC short straight sections

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The building where the short straight sections are being assembled, was often called ‘Lego Land’ by the workers because of the wide variety of sets of magnets and cryostats. Short straight sections contain magnets for manipulating the beam inside cryostats with liquid helium to keep the magnets at a cool 1.9 K (-271.3°C).

  7. Thoughts on Selecting a Short Story Anthology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, Loren

    2003-01-01

    Shares with beginning teachers advice about choosing a short story anthology and shows how a text can shape an instructor's approach to teaching short fiction. Discusses three main considerations: the students; the teacher; and the text. Identifies the author's favorite anthology and outlines nine reasons why it is a favorite. Lists five…

  8. Short-sale Constraints and Credit Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venter, Gyuri

    ), creditors with high private signals are more lenient to roll over debt, and a bank with lower asset quality remains solvent. This leads to higher allocative efficiency in the real economy. My result thus implies that the decrease in average informativeness due to short-sale constraints can be more than......This paper studies how short-sale constraints affect the informational efficiency of market prices and the link between prices and economic activity. I show that under short-sale constraints security prices contain less information. However, short-sale constraints increase the informativeness...... the price of an asset the bank holds. I show that short-selling constraints in the financial market lead to the revival of self-fulfilling beliefs about the beliefs and actions of others, and create multiple equilibria. In the equilibrium where agents rely more on public information (i.e., the price...

  9. Short circuit in deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samura, Kazuhiro; Miyagi, Yasushi; Okamoto, Tsuyoshi; Hayami, Takehito; Kishimoto, Junji; Katano, Mitsuo; Kamikaseda, Kazufumi

    2012-11-01

    The authors undertook this study to investigate the incidence, cause, and clinical influence of short circuits in patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS). After the incidental identification of a short circuit during routine follow-up, the authors initiated a policy at their institution of routinely evaluating both therapeutic impedance and system impendence at every outpatient DBS follow-up visit, irrespective of the presence of symptoms suggesting possible system malfunction. This study represents a report of their findings after 1 year of this policy. Implanted DBS leads exhibiting short circuits were identified in 7 patients (8.9% of the patients seen for outpatient follow-up examinations during the 12-month study period). The mean duration from DBS lead implantation to the discovery of the short circuit was 64.7 months. The symptoms revealing short circuits included the wearing off of therapeutic effect, apraxia of eyelid opening, or dysarthria in 6 patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and dystonia deterioration in 1 patient with generalized dystonia. All DBS leads with short circuits had been anchored to the cranium using titanium miniplates. Altering electrode settings resulted in clinical improvement in the 2 PD cases in which patients had specific symptoms of short circuits (2.5%) but not in the other 4 cases. The patient with dystonia underwent repositioning and replacement of a lead because the previous lead was located too anteriorly, but did not experience symptom improvement. In contrast to the sudden loss of clinical efficacy of DBS caused by an open circuit, short circuits may arise due to a gradual decrease in impedance, causing the insidious development of neurological symptoms via limited or extended potential fields as well as shortened battery longevity. The incidence of short circuits in DBS may be higher than previously thought, especially in cases in which DBS leads are anchored with miniplates. The circuit impedance of DBS

  10. Short term memory in echo state networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeger, H.

    2001-01-01

    The report investigates the short-term memory capacity of echo state recurrent neural networks. A quantitative measure MC of short-term memory capacity is introduced. The main result is that MC 5 N for networks with linear Output units and i.i.d. input, where N is network size. Conditions under which these maximal memory capacities are realized are described. Several theoretical and practical examples demonstrate how the short-term memory capacities of echo state networks can be exploited for...

  11. Practical applications of short-lived radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-01-15

    The advantages of the use of short-lived radioisotopes in agriculture, food industry and medicine as well as some industrial uses are discussed. Methods for isotope production in small research reactors and laboratories are presented

  12. SPS, preassembly of short straight sections

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Short straight sections were preassembled with their vacuum chambers, ready for installation in the SPS. Here we see two, containing sextupoles for chromaticity adjustment. See also 7501017, 7501018, and Annual Report 1976, p.174.

  13. SPS, short straight section with sextupole

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    Short straight sections were preassembled with their vacuum chambers, ready for installation in the SPS. This one contains a sextupole for chromaticity adjustment. See also 7501017, 7501009X, and Annual Report 1974, p.174.

  14. Short-distance structure of instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlitz, R.D.; Creamer, D.B.

    The short distance structure of a quark propagator in an instanton background field is analyzed. This analysis describes the influence of instantons upon physical processes such as electron-position annihilation and the deep inelastic scattering of leptons from hadrons

  15. Minimalism in the modern short story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Razi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Short story has recently become the focus of attention in the late decades in Iran. The expanding value of writing short story is actually a reasonable outcome of the dominance of minimalism- a movement which is based upon simplicity and shortness. Minimalist writers, leaving out redundant features of narration, mainly focus on essentialities through applying a variety of techniques such as cuttings from the interesting moments of real life, evading introduction, applying inter-referents, choice of words, short stanzas and sentences and so on. Looking upon critic’s opinion about such a tendency over the past and present, this article will come up with a brief explanation of the properties of such stories. Finally a sample story “candles will never go dead” will be analyzed and discussed in the lights of such techniques.

  16. Giant pubertal prolactinoma: Complete resolution following short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-06

    Apr 6, 2016 ... disappeared in a short time with cabergoline treatment. Key words: ... Hyperprolactinemia may cause impotence and hypogonadism in adult men, and rarely ... safe treatment method for male patients with giant prolactinoma.

  17. Short Communication: Gender Bias and Stigmatization against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Gender Bias and Stigmatization against Women Living with ... In Ethiopia, HIV/AIDS is highly stigmatized due to the fact that sexual ... bias, socio-economic situations and traditional beliefs contribute, individually and in ...

  18. A Novel Method for Short Distance Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.G.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Oller, J.C.; Arce, P.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C.F.; Garcia, C.F.; Rodigrido, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    A new, accurate and un expensive device for measuring short distances, intended for monitoring in LHC experiments is presented. Data taken with a very simple prototype are shown and performance is extracted. (Author) 4 refs

  19. Modern treatment of short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle B

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency approved the glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue, teduglutide, for the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS), and this review describes the physiological basis for its clinical use.......Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency approved the glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue, teduglutide, for the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS), and this review describes the physiological basis for its clinical use....

  20. Operator expansion at short distance in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubschmid, W [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Mallik, S [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Kernphysik

    1982-11-01

    We present a method of calculating coefficients of gluon operators in the operator product expansion of two-point functions at short distance. It is based on a short-distance expansion of the singular part of the quark propagator in the gluon field, the latter being treated as external. We verify in full generality that the spin zero, gluon operator of dimension six does not contribute to the two-point functions of quark bilinears.

  1. Fund managers’ contracts and short-termism

    OpenAIRE

    Casamatta, Catherine; Pouget, Sébastien

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the problem faced by long-term investors who have to delegate the management of their money to professional fund managers. Investors can earn profits if fund managers collect long-term information. We investigate to what extent the delegation of fund management prevents long-term information acquisition, inducing short-termism. We also study the design of long-term fund managers' compensation contracts. Absent moral hazard, short-termism arises only because of the cost...

  2. Fast Weight Long Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, T. Anderson; Sridhar, Sharath Nittur; Wang, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Associative memory using fast weights is a short-term memory mechanism that substantially improves the memory capacity and time scale of recurrent neural networks (RNNs). As recent studies introduced fast weights only to regular RNNs, it is unknown whether fast weight memory is beneficial to gated RNNs. In this work, we report a significant synergy between long short-term memory (LSTM) networks and fast weight associative memories. We show that this combination, in learning associative retrie...

  3. Regional variation in short distance homogamy

    OpenAIRE

    Haandrikman, Karen; van Wissen, Leo

    2011-01-01

    A third of all Dutch cohabiters choose a partner from the same municipality, so-called short distance homogamy. This article analyses the regional variation in this phenomenon, and it explains this variation in terms of geographical, socioeconomic, demographic and cultural determinants. Population register data on all new cohabiters in 2004 were used. Regression methods were employed to explain spatial patterns. Regional variation in short distance homogamy is largely explained by geographica...

  4. Observations of short gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Derek B; Roming, Peter W A

    2007-05-15

    We review recent observations of short-hard gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows. The launch and successful ongoing operations of the Swift satellite, along with several localizations from the High-Energy Transient Explorer mission, have provoked a revolution in short-burst studies: first, by quickly providing high-quality positions to observers; and second, via rapid and sustained observations from the Swift satellite itself. We make a complete accounting of Swift-era short-burst localizations and proposed host galaxies, and discuss the implications of these observations for the distances, energetics and environments of short bursts, and the nature of their progenitors. We then review the physical modelling of short-burst afterglows: while the simplest afterglow models are inadequate to explain the observations, there have been several notable successes. Finally, we address the case of an unusual burst that threatens to upset the simple picture in which long bursts are due to the deaths of massive stars, and short bursts to compact-object merger events.

  5. Short-term memory across eye blinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of eye blinks on short-term memory was examined in two experiments. On each trial, participants viewed an initial display of coloured, oriented lines, then after a retention interval they viewed a test display that was either identical or different by one feature. Participants kept their eyes open throughout the retention interval on some blocks of trials, whereas on others they made a single eye blink. Accuracy was measured as a function of the number of items in the display to determine the capacity of short-term memory on blink and no-blink trials. In separate blocks of trials participants were instructed to remember colour only, orientation only, or both colour and orientation. Eye blinks reduced short-term memory capacity by approximately 0.6-0.8 items for both feature and conjunction stimuli. A third, control, experiment showed that a button press during the retention interval had no effect on short-term memory capacity, indicating that the effect of an eye blink was not due to general motoric dual-task interference. Eye blinks might instead reduce short-term memory capacity by interfering with attention-based rehearsal processes.

  6. Short Implants: New Horizon in Implant Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neha; Gulati, Manisha; Garg, Meenu; Pathak, Chetan

    2016-09-01

    The choice of implant length is an essential factor in deciding the survival rates of these implants and the overall success of the prosthesis. Placing an implant in the posterior part of the maxilla and mandible has always been very critical due to poor bone quality and quantity. Long implants can be placed in association with complex surgical procedures such as sinus lift and bone augmentation. These techniques are associated with higher cost, increased treatment time and greater morbidity. Hence, there is need for a less invasive treatment option in areas of poor bone quantity and quality. Data related to survival rates of short implants, their design and prosthetic considerations has been compiled and structured in this manuscript with emphasis on the indications, advantages of short implants and critical biomechanical factors to be taken into consideration when choosing to place them. Studies have shown that comparable success rates can be achieved with short implants as those with long implants by decreasing the lateral forces to the prosthesis, eliminating cantilevers, increasing implant surface area and improving implant to abutment connection. Short implants can be considered as an effective treatment alternative in resorbed ridges. Short implants can be considered as a viable treatment option in atrophic ridge cases in order to avoid complex surgical procedures required to place long implants. With improvement in the implant surface geometry and surface texture, there is an increase in the bone implant contact area which provides a good primary stability during osseo-integration.

  7. SITE WIDE SHORT CIRCUIT STUDY ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARRATT, R.T.

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Energy requested that Fluor Hanford develop a plan to update the electrical distribution studies for FH managed facilities. Toward this end, an assessment of FH's nuclear facilities was performed to determine whether a current short circuit study of the facility electrical distribution system exists, and the status of such study. This report presents the methodology and results of that assessment. The assessment identified 29 relevant facilities. Of these, a short circuit study could not be identified for 15 facilities. A short circuit study was found to exist for fourteen facilities, however, of these 14, four were not released into a controlled document system, and two were not performed for the entire electrical distribution system. It is recommended that for four of the facilities no further action is required based upon the limited nature of the existing electrical system, or as in the case of PFP, the status of the existing short circuit study was determined adequate. For the majority of the facilities without a short circuit study, it is recommended that one is performed, and released into a controlled document system. Two facilities require further evaluation due to missing or conflicting documentation. For the remainder of the facilities, the recommendations are to review and revise as appropriate the existing study, and release into a controlled document system. A summation of the recommendations is presented

  8. Nutritive support in short Bowel syndrome (sbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Dušica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Short bowel syndrome most commonly result after bowel resection for necrosis of the bowel. It may be caused by arterial or venous thrombosis, volvolus and in children, necrotizing enterocolitis. The other causes are Crohn,s disease intestinal atresia. The factors influencing the risk on short bowel syndrome are the remaining length of the small bowel, the age of onset, the length of the colon, the presence or absence of the ileo-coecal valve and the time after resection. Besides nutritional deficiencies there some other consequences of extensive resections of the small intestine (gastric acid hypersecretion, d-lactic acidosis, nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, which must be diagnosed, treated, and if possible, prevented. With current therapy most patients with short bowel have normal body mass index and good quality of life.

  9. Short pulse laser systems for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Kunal

    2017-01-01

    This book presents practical information on the clinical applications of short pulse laser systems and the techniques for optimizing these applications in a manner that will be relevant to a broad audience, including engineering and medical students as well as researchers, clinicians, and technicians. Short pulse laser systems are useful for both subsurface tissue imaging and laser induced thermal therapy (LITT), which hold great promise in cancer diagnostics and treatment. Such laser systems may be used alone or in combination with optically active nanoparticles specifically administered to the tissues of interest for enhanced contrast in imaging and precise heating during LITT. Mathematical and computational models of short pulse laser-tissue interactions that consider the transient radiative transport equation coupled with a bio-heat equation considering the initial transients of laser heating were developed to analyze the laser-tissue interaction during imaging and therapy. Experiments were first performe...

  10. Short-termism in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Therese

    2016-01-01

    The 2007–08 global financial crisis gave rise to an extensive debate in the United States (US) on short-termism and its influence on agency relationships, incentives, and fiduciary duties. This debate and the consecutive legal creativity of US policymakers display spillover effects and constitute...... an influential source of inspiration for politicians and lawmakers in foreign jurisdictions. The European Commission currently proposes to amend the Shareholder Rights Directive (2007/36/EC) to counterbalance the financial sector’s alleged triumph over industry. The initiative is motivated primarily...... that the short-termism concept, despite its contemporary authority in the post-financial crisis era on both sides of the Atlantic, is misguided, and even more so in the European context. The Article concludes that the proposed amendments should not be expected to solve short-termism problems or alter...

  11. Estimating the short-circuit impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1997-01-01

    A method for establishing a complex value of the short-circuit impedance from naturally occurring variations in voltage and current is discussed. It is the symmetrical three phase impedance at the fundamental grid frequency there is looked for. The positive sequence components in voltage...... and current are derived each period, and the short-circuit impedance is estimated from variations in these components created by load changes in the grid. Due to the noisy and dynamic grid with high harmonic distortion it is necessary to threat the calculated values statistical. This is done recursively...... through a RLS-algorithm. The algorithms have been tested and implemented on a PC at a 132 kV substation supplying a rolling mill. Knowing the short-circuit impedance gives the rolling mill an opportunity to adjust the arc furnace operation to keep flicker below a certain level. Therefore, the PC performs...

  12. Radiation degradation of short-cotton linters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zue Teh; Zhou Rui Min

    1984-01-01

    Radiation degradation of short-cotton linters has been studied by using X-ray diffraction, an infrared spectrometer and a viscosimeter. Average molecular weight and crystallinity of short-cotton linters and the change of reducing sugar in γ-radiation degradation were examined. It was found that cellulosic saccharification in hydrolysis was enhanced with preirradiation of linter. This probably resulted from the radiation induced change of cellulosic structure. Sensitizers to promote radiation degradation effect were investigated. Carbon tetrachloride has been found to be effective. (author)

  13. Heating Augmentation for Short Hypersonic Protuberances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Ali R.; Wood, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Computational aeroheating analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter plug repair models are validated against data collected in the Calspan University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) 48 inch shock tunnel. The comparison shows that the average difference between computed heat transfer results and the data is about 9.5%. Using CFD and Wind Tunnel (WT) data, an empirical correlation for estimating heating augmentation on short hypersonic protuberances (k/delta less than 0.3) is proposed. This proposed correlation is compared with several computed flight simulation cases and good agreement is achieved. Accordingly, this correlation is proposed for further investigation on other short hypersonic protuberances for estimating heating augmentation.

  14. libgapmis: extending short-read alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachiotis, Nikolaos; Berger, Simon; Flouri, Tomáš; Pissis, Solon P; Stamatakis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of short-read alignment programmes have been published recently to tackle the problem of mapping millions of short reads to a reference genome, focusing on different aspects of the procedure such as time and memory efficiency, sensitivity, and accuracy. These tools allow for a small number of mismatches in the alignment; however, their ability to allow for gaps varies greatly, with many performing poorly or not allowing them at all. The seed-and-extend strategy is applied in most short-read alignment programmes. After aligning a substring of the reference sequence against the high-quality prefix of a short read--the seed--an important problem is to find the best possible alignment between a substring of the reference sequence succeeding and the remaining suffix of low quality of the read--extend. The fact that the reads are rather short and that the gap occurrence frequency observed in various studies is rather low suggest that aligning (parts of) those reads with a single gap is in fact desirable. In this article, we present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. Apart from the standard CPU version, it includes ultrafast SSE- and GPU-based implementations. libgapmis is based on an algorithm computing a modified version of the traditional dynamic-programming matrix for sequence alignment. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the functions of the CPU version provided in this library accelerate the computations by a factor of 20 compared to other programmes. The analogous SSE- and GPU-based implementations accelerate the computations by a factor of 6 and 11, respectively, compared to the CPU version. The library also provides the user the flexibility to split the read into fragments, based on the observed gap occurrence frequency and the length of the read, thereby allowing for a variable, but bounded, number of gaps in the alignment. We present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. We

  15. Electron dynamics inside short-coherence systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Giulio; Bordone, Paolo; Jacoboni, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    We present theoretical results on electron dynamics inside nanometric systems, where the coherence of the electron ensemble is maintained in a very short region. The contacts are supposed to spoil such a coherence, therefore the interference processes between the carrier wavefunction and the internal potential profile can be affected by the proximity of the contacts. The problem has been analysed by using the Wigner-function formalism. For very short devices, transport properties, such as tunnelling through potential barriers, are significantly influenced by the distance between the contacts

  16. Short-range correlations with pseudopotentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1976-01-01

    Short-range correlations in nuclei are considered on an unitary-model operator approach. Short-range pseudopotentials have been added to achieve healing in the correlated wave functions. With the introduction of the pseudopotentials, correlated basis wave functions are constructed. The matrix element for effective interaction in nuclei is developed. The required pseudopotentials have been calculated for the Hamda-Johnston, Yale and Reid potentials and for the nuclear nucleon-nucleon potential A calculated by us according to meson exchange between nucleons. (Osman, A.)

  17. Short wavelength sources and atoms and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.T.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of ionizing radiation with atoms and ions is a key fundamental process. Experimental progress has depended in particular on the development of short wavelength light sources. Laser-plasma and synchrotron sources have been exploited for several decades and most recently the development of short wavelength Free Electron Laser (FEL) sources is revolutionizing the field. This paper introduces laser plasma and synchrotron sources through examples of their use in studies of the interaction of ionizing radiation with atoms and ions, ranging from few-electron atomic and ionic systems to the many-electron high atomic number actinides. The new FEL source (FLASH) at DESY is introduced. (author)

  18. Certain features of FELs with short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    The report is devoted to physics of free electron lasers operating in the short-wave domain where the bunch length could be less than the undulator length in the proper frame. Then the current component of the signal is locked within the bunch as in a cavity, while the electromagnetic component propagates freely. In contrast with gyrotrons where this regime can be of interest only for wavelengths comparable with the bunch length, we consider short waves in a bunch of arbitrary profile. Both amplification of an external harmonic signal and SASE regime, i.e. selective amplification of proper noises, are investigated

  19. Women stereotypes in Shi Zhecun's short stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenmeier, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the representation of women in two 1933 short story collections by Shi Zhecun: An Evening of Spring Rain and Exemplary Conduct of Virtuous Women. It discusses how the New Woman image was a site of contestation in Republican China, and argues that Shi Zhecun’s short stories contain four basic stereotypes: the enigmatic woman, the estranged wife, the prostitute, and the inhibited woman. Using these narratives of women and how they were perceived by men, Shi Zhecun deconstructed the New Woman image by subverting the various ways modernity was projected onto women.

  20. Cinematic diamonds : narrative storytelling strategies in short fiction film

    OpenAIRE

    Cantell, Saara (kirjoittaja); Jeremiah, Fleur (kääntäjä)

    2012-01-01

    Saara Cantell proposes and discusses alternative ways of approaching short film. This book emphasizes short film as an independent and challenging cinematic art form of its own right. The "mystery" of short film is approached by examining the aesthetics of other short forms, The structural parallels between e.g. jokes and short films, as well as narrative strategies found in poetry, offer meaningful references. The research consists of both the analysis of selected short films and the five sh...

  1. The Long and the Short of It: The Use of Short Films in the German Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, John

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the benefits of using short film in the German classroom at the secondary or post-secondary level. The article addresses a number of characteristics of short films that lend themselves well to the classroom, including their abbreviated length, artistic innovation, and compact storytelling. In addition to discussing specific…

  2. Transient nanobubbles in short-time electrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svetovoy, Vitaly; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2013-01-01

    Water electrolysis in a microsystem is observed and analyzed on a short-time scale of ∼10 μs. The very unusual properties of the process are stressed. An extremely high current density is observed because the process is not limited by the diffusion of electroactive species. The high current is

  3. Compression of Short Text on Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, S.; Gühmann, C.; Fitzek, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The paper details a scheme for lossless compression of a short data series larger than 50 bytes. The method uses arithmetic coding and context modelling with a low-complexity data model. A data model that takes 32 kBytes of RAM already cuts the data size in half. The compression scheme just takes...

  4. Visual Short-Term Memory Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 letters has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez...

  5. Short-timescale variability in cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, F.A.; Mason, K.O.

    1982-01-01

    Rapid variability, including flickering and pulsations, has been detected in cataclysmic binaries at optical and x-ray frequencies. In the case of the novalike variable TT Arietis, simultaneous observations reveal that the x-ray and optical flickering activity is strongly correlated, while short period pulsations are observed that occur at the same frequencies in both wavelength bands

  6. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND REPORTS Record of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    50. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND. REPORTS. Record of Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus from Mukundara Hills Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan,. India. Sailaja Nayak1*, Sunny Shah2 and Jimmy Borah2 .... Prey status and abundance in Mukundara Hills Tiger. Reserve. Technical Report, WWF-India. Rao, J.P. ...

  7. The short circuit instability in protoplanetary disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubbard, A.; McNally, C.P.; Mac Low, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a magneto-hydrodynamic instability which occurs, among other locations, in the inner, hot regions of protoplanetary disks, and which alters the way in which resistive dissipation of magnetic energy into heat proceeds. This instability can be likened to both an electrical short circui...

  8. Wheat shorts in diets of gestating swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L G; King, G L

    1981-03-01

    Sixty-four gilts were assigned to be bred at first or third observed estrus and fed gestation diets of pelleted wheat shorts with a free choice mineral-vitamin supplement or fortified corn-soybean meal. Only the dietary effects are included in this report. The gilts were fed their respective diets starting at 25 days after insemination. The experiment continued through three gestation-lactation cycles. Females fed the wheat shorts received less digestible energy during gestation and weighed less at day 109 of gestation and days 1, 7 and 21 of lactation in each of the three gestation-lactation periods. Females fed wheat shorts had lighter pigs at birth, weaned more pigs per litter in each parity and returned to estrus more slowly after weaning than females fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Results of a metabolism trial conducted with 12 barrows revealed that wheat shorts contained approximately 2.93 kcal digestible energy/kg dry matter and had an apparent protein digestibility of 72%, compared with values of 4.0 kcal and 86%, respectively, for the corn-soybean meal diets.

  9. Blacks in Pop Music: A Short Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickelman, Melinda

    1991-01-01

    A short history of black pop music includes artists who have changed pop music or culture and highlights from the 1920s into the 1980s, from Fats Waller to Michael Jackson. In black pop music, there is a direct line of influence from the sharecropper to the current Top 40. (SLD)

  10. Short Historical Fiction To Get Children Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of short historical fiction and picture books for readers in grades K-8. Includes a list of selected Caldecott and Newbery winners with historical themes or backgrounds and a list of activity books featuring Spanish exploration in Mexico, Roman art and fashion, medieval Europe, and cowboys. (PEN)

  11. Cryptanalysis of 'less short' RSA secret exponents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, E.R.; Tilborg, van H.C.A.

    1997-01-01

    In some applications of RSA, it is desirable to have a short secret exponent d. Wiener [6], describes a technique to use continued fractions (CF) in a cryptanalytic attack on an RSA cryptosystem having a ‘short’ secret exponent. Let n=p¿·¿q be the modulus of the system. In the typical case that

  12. Introduction to impedance for short relativistic bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, P.L.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of impedance to calculate the wake field forces left behind by a short bunch which travels at relativistic speed through a structure with discontinuities. We will try to be as intuitive as possible and leave the more rigorous derivations to the second paper on this subject by J. Wang

  13. A Short Introduction to Kolmogorov Complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannen, Volker

    2010-01-01

    This is a short introduction to Kolmogorov complexity and information theory. The interested reader is referred to the literature, especially the textbooks [CT91] and [LV97] which cover the elds of information theory and Kolmogorov complexity in depth and with all the necessary rigor.

  14. Reading Abilities and Strategies: A Short Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…

  15. Thermoelectric neutron dosimetry: a short introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, F.; Meier, R.; Debrue, J.; Leonard, F.; Schubert, W.

    1977-01-01

    The paper gives a short introduction and state-of-the-art account of an unconventional, non destructive neutron dosimetry method based on monitoring the neutron fluence dependent changes of the thermoelectric properties of base metals and alloys. The basic principles are exposed and illustrated with experimental data obtained during an exploratory irradiation in the BR2 reactor

  16. Textbook Error: Short Circuiting on Electrochemical Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonicamp, Judith M.; Clark, Roy W.

    2007-01-01

    Short circuiting an electrochemical cell is an unreported but persistent error in the electrochemistry textbooks. It is suggested that diagrams depicting a cell delivering usable current to a load be postponed, the theory of open-circuit galvanic cells is explained, the voltages from the tables of standard reduction potentials is calculated and…

  17. A Long Look at the Short Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Franklin, Jr.

    1971-01-01

    The history of the short film and the single concept film loop is presented. Lists fourteen reasons why it may be necessary to make and use a film loop. Film loop projectors are analyzed according to present features and deficiencies with predictions on future improvements. (DS)

  18. Short range order of selenite glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neov, S.; Gerasimova, I.; Yordanov, S.; Lakov, L.; Mikula, Pavol; Lukáš, Petr

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (1999), s. 111-112 ISSN 0031-9090 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Keywords : short range * selenite glasses Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.822, year: 1999

  19. Asian Short Fiction. Asian Studies Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Susan

    This curriculum outline introduces the components of a course which explores the genre of short novels, including works by twentieth-century Japanese and Chinese authors. First, the catalogue course description and required texts are presented, highlighting the instructor's historical introduction to the development of Western, Japanese, and…

  20. Short GRB afterglows observed with GROND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Klose, S.; Rossi, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on follow-up observations of 20 short-duration gamma-ray bursts (T90 < 2s) performed in g′r′i′z′JHK s with the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Near-Infrared Detector (GROND) between mid-2007 and the end of 2010. This is the most homogeneous and comprehensive data set on GRB afterglow observatio...

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION High prevalence of Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    Volume 20, Number 1, January 2018. 1. SHORT COMMUNICATION ... This study was designed to establish the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among HIV infected populations. ... The prevalence of P. falciparum was high among HIV seropositive individuals in the Lake Victoria Zone, which calls for additional ...

  2. Teaching Hemingway's "The Short Happy Life."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    Considers many ways to teach Hemingway's "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber." Explores the ironic implications of Macomber's experience and compares it with the experience of Sammy in another initiation story, John Updike's "A&P." Describes how he leads the discussion about this story, and ends the discussion by…

  3. SHORT COMMUNICATION CONVENIENT AND MILD SYNTHESIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: naeimi@kashanu.ac.ir. SHORT COMMUNICATION. CONVENIENT AND MILD SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF. SOME NEW SCHIFF BASES. Hossein Naeimi* and Zahra Sadat Nazifi. Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan,. Kashan, 87317 ...

  4. Regional variation in short distance homogamy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haandrikman, K.; van Wissen, L.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A third of all Dutch cohabiters choose a partner from the same municipality, so-called short distance homogamy. This article analyses the regional variation in this phenomenon, and it explains this variation in terms of geographical, socioeconomic, demographic and cultural determinants. Population

  5. Heterogeneity in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample comprises 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales - durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals - for EE bursts are factors of approx 2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts - the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width - continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/XRT. The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (approx 6 X 10(exp -10) erg / sq cm/ s) is approx > 20 x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (approx 60,000 s) is approx 30 x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into more dense environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently p()wers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  6. HETEROGENEITY IN SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels, Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample is comprised of 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales-durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals-for EE bursts are factors of ∼2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts-the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width-continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition, we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/X-Ray Telescope (XRT). The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (∼6x10 -10 erg cm -2 s -1 ) is ∼>20x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (∼60,000 s) is ∼30x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into denser environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently powers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  7. Etiology of short stature in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, M.; Afzal, M.; Ali, S.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the causes of short stature in children with special emphasis on growth hormone deficiency. Two hundred and fourteen children (140 boys and 74 girls), ranging from 02 to 15 years presenting with short stature were studied. Height and weight were plotted on appropriate growth charts and centiles determined. Relevant hematological and biochemical investigations including thyroid profile were done. Bone age was determined in all cases. Growth hormone axis was investigated after excluding other causes. Karyotyping was done in selected cases. Data was analyzed by SPSS 10.0 by descriptive statistics. Mean values were compared using t-test. In this study, the five most common etiological factors in order of frequency were Constitutional Growth Delay (CGD), Familial Short Stature (FSS), malnutrition, coeliac disease and Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD). In 37.4% of patients, the study revealed normal variants of growth - CGD, FSS or combination of both, 46.7% cases had nonendocrinological and 15.9% had endocrinological etiology. CGD (22.1%) in males and FSS (27%) in females were the most common etiology. GHD was found in 6.1% children and it comprised 38.2% of all endocrinological causes. Children with height falling below 0.4th centile were more likely to have a pathological short stature (79.2%) compared to 39.3% whose height was below 3rd centile but above 0.4th centile (p<0.05). CGD and FSS are most common causes of short stature in boys and girls respectively, whereas, GHD is a relatively uncommon etiology. (author)

  8. Growing up with short stature : Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-van Balen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Growing up with short stature. Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment To enhance height in children with short stature, growth hormone (GH) can be used. In short children without a detectable pathology underlying their short stature, there is no medical rationale for growth hormone

  9. Short sales, differences of opinion and fundamental value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Porras Prado, M.; Ling, D.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the role of short sale constraints in explaining the variation in premiums to Net Asset Value (NAV) in REIT pricing. We use proprietary information on short sales between June 2006 and September 2008 to examine how short sales and short sale constraints affect the variation in

  10. Modular Short Form Videos for Library Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Craig

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Brief Expensive software isn’t necessary to create effective tutorials. Quick, unedited tutorials created on social media, such as on Instagram or Snapchat, may be more effective. These short form videos (SFVs combine the advantages of animated GIFs with the advantages of screencasts: modularity, repetition of steps, and animated visuals supported by pertinent audio. SFVs are cheap (or free and easy to make with materials libraries already possess, such as Internet access, computers, and smartphones. They are easily replaceable if the subject changes. The short form forces librarians to get right to the point. Finally, SFVs are easily disseminated on social media and have the potential to go viral.

  11. Field Optimization for short Period Undulators

    CERN Document Server

    Peiffer, P; Rossmanith, R; Schoerling, D

    2011-01-01

    Undulators dedicated to low energy electron beams, like Laser Wakefield Accelerators, require very short period lengths to achieve X-ray emission. However, at these short period length (LambdaU ~ 5 mm) it becomes difficult to reach magnetic field amplitudes that lead to a K parameter of >1, which is generally desired. Room temperature permanent magnets and even superconductive undulators using Nb-Ti as conductor material have proven insufficient to achieve the desired field amplitudes. The superconductor Nb$_{3}$Sn has the theoretical potential to achieve the desired fields. However, up to now it is limited by several technological challenges to much lower field values than theoretically predicted. An alternative idea for higher fields is to manufacture the poles of the undulator body from Holmium instead of iron or to use Nb-Ti wires with a higher superconductor/copper ratio. The advantages and challenges of the different options are compared in this contribution.

  12. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  13. Integrable discretizations of the short pulse equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Baofeng; Maruno, Ken-ichi; Ohta, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose integrable semi-discrete and full-discrete analogues of the short pulse (SP) equation. The key construction is the bilinear form and determinant structure of solutions of the SP equation. We also give the determinant formulas of N-soliton solutions of the semi-discrete and full-discrete analogues of the SP equations, from which the multi-loop and multi-breather solutions can be generated. In the continuous limit, the full-discrete SP equation converges to the semi-discrete SP equation, and then to the continuous SP equation. Based on the semi-discrete SP equation, an integrable numerical scheme, i.e. a self-adaptive moving mesh scheme, is proposed and used for the numerical computation of the short pulse equation.

  14. Public perceptions of short rotation coppice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, R.

    1993-01-01

    The ''Wood as a Fuel'' programme - which funded the research covered in this report - is one of the renewable energy development programmes managed by ETSU (the Energy Technology Support Unit) for the Department of Trade and Industry. This national programme is developing the production and use of fuel wood from two main sources - forestry residues and short rotation coppice. Wood fuel from short rotation coppice offers the greater potential - energy equivalent to 10 mtce (million tonnes of coal equivalent) could be produced annually from 1 million hectares of land. This programme is now well established, with ten trial coppice sites in operation, plus some 40 others. A number of successfully willow and poplar clones have been selected for different soil conditions, and machinery for planting and harvesting has been developed. Local consortia of farmers and users are being established to provide long-term markets for the wood fuel produced. (author)

  15. Lethal neonatal short-limbed dwarfism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Yim, Chung Ik; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1986-01-01

    We have detailed our experiences on 6 cases of neonatal lethal short-limbed dwarfism and reviewed the articles. They include, achondrogenesis, thanatophoric dysplasia, asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia, osteogenesis imperfect a congenita, and hypophosphatasia lethals. Five babies were born alive but died soon after birth and one was a stillbirth. The main cause of failure to thrive was respiratory insufficiency. Each case was having quite characteristic radiologic findings, even if the general appearances were similar to the achondroplasts clinically. Precise diagnosis is very important for genetic counselling of the parents and alarm to them the possibility of bone dysplasias to the next offsprings. For this purpose, the radiologists play major role for the correct diagnosis. We stress that when the baby is born with short-limbed dwarfism, whole body radiogram should be taken including lateral view and postmortem radiogram is also very precious.

  16. Lethal neonatal short-limbed dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Yim, Chung Ik; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    We have detailed our experiences on 6 cases of neonatal lethal short-limbed dwarfism and reviewed the articles. They include, achondrogenesis, thanatophoric dysplasia, asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia, osteogenesis imperfect a congenita, and hypophosphatasia lethals. Five babies were born alive but died soon after birth and one was a stillbirth. The main cause of failure to thrive was respiratory insufficiency. Each case was having quite characteristic radiologic findings, even if the general appearances were similar to the achondroplasts clinically. Precise diagnosis is very important for genetic counselling of the parents and alarm to them the possibility of bone dysplasias to the next offsprings. For this purpose, the radiologists play major role for the correct diagnosis. We stress that when the baby is born with short-limbed dwarfism, whole body radiogram should be taken including lateral view and postmortem radiogram is also very precious.

  17. Familial short fifth metacarpals and insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyari, Muwafag; Hamamy, Hanan; Barham, Muries; Ajlouni, Kamel; Al-Hadidy, Azmy

    2006-01-01

    Very few reports on the phenotype of short fifth metacarpals have been published in the medical literature. We report a Jordanian family in which three sisters aged 15, 13 and 8 years revealed bilateral shortening of the fifth fingers and radiological shortening of the fifth metacarpals. The father had unilateral short fifth metacarpal. The elder two sisters, their father as well as their brother and another sister manifested insulin resistance. Spherocytosis was diagnosed in one of the girls and her father. The parents are non-consanguineous. This constellation of findings has not been previously reported and could point to the presence of two disorders segregating in the family or to a novel syndrome with autosomal dominant inheritance and variable expressivity. (orig.)

  18. Ultra-Wideband, Short Pulse Electromagnetics 9

    CERN Document Server

    Rachidi, Farhad; Kaelin, Armin; Sabath, Frank; UWB SP 9

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB), short-pulse (SP) electromagnetics are now being used for an increasingly wide variety of applications, including collision avoidance radar, concealed object detection, and communications. Notable progress in UWB and SP technologies has been achieved by investigations of their theoretical bases and improvements in solid-state manufacturing, computers, and digitizers. UWB radar systems are also being used for mine clearing, oil pipeline inspections, archeology, geology, and electronic effects testing. Ultra-wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 9 presents selected papers of deep technical content and high scientific quality from the UWB-SP9 Conference, which was held from July 21-25, 2008, in Lausanne, Switzerland. The wide-ranging coverage includes contributions on electromagnetic theory, time-domain computational techniques, modeling, antennas, pulsed-power, UWB interactions, radar systems, UWB communications, and broadband systems and components. This book serves as a state-of-the-art r...

  19. Magnetic short-range order in Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child, H.R.

    1978-01-01

    The magnetic short-range order in a ferromagnetic, isotopically enriched 160 Gd metal single crystal has been investigated by quasielastic scattering of 81-meV neutrons. Since Gd behaves as an S-state ion in the metal, little anisotropy is expected in its magnetic behavior. However, the data show that there is anisotropic short-range order present over a large temperature interval both above and below T/sub C/. The data have been analyzed in terms of an Ornstein-Zernike Lorentzian form with anisotropic correlation ranges. These correlation ranges as deduced from the observed data behave normally above T/sub C/ but seem to remain constant over a fairly large interval below T/sub C/ before becoming unobservable at lower temperatures. These observations suggest that the magnetic ordering in Gd may be a more complicated phenomenon than first believed

  20. A short proof of increased parabolic regularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Pankavich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a short proof of the increased regularity obtained by solutions to uniformly parabolic partial differential equations. Though this setting is fairly introductory, our new method of proof, which uses a priori estimates and an inductive method, can be extended to prove analogous results for problems with time-dependent coefficients, advection-diffusion or reaction diffusion equations, and nonlinear PDEs even when other tools, such as semigroup methods or the use of explicit fundamental solutions, are unavailable.

  1. Long life of a short film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, R V

    2000-01-01

    What follows is an account of my personal experiences as an independent Indian film director who had the fortune to make the country's first openly gay film, the short BOMgAY That said, I would like this essay to be accepted as, rather than a critical appraisal of Indian cinema, a humbly autobiographical account of one individual caught in the hectic throes of political (and cinematic) visibility.

  2. Molecular beam epitaxy a short history

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W

    2015-01-01

    This volume describes the development of molecular beam epitaxy from its origins in the 1960s through to the present day. It begins with a short historical account of other methods of crystal growth, both bulk and epitaxial, to set the subject in context, emphasising the wide range of semiconductor materials employed. This is followed by an introduction to molecular beams and their use in the Stern-Gerlach experiment and the development of the microwave MASER.

  3. Automatic location of short circuit faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hakola, T.; Antila, E. [ABB Power Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaenen, M. [North-Carelian Power Company (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this presentation, the automatic location of short circuit faults on medium voltage distribution lines, based on the integration of computer systems of medium voltage distribution network automation is discussed. First the distribution data management systems and their interface with the substation telecontrol, or SCADA systems, is studied. Then the integration of substation telecontrol system and computerised relay protection is discussed. Finally, the implementation of the fault location system is presented and the practical experience with the system is discussed

  4. Short-term Memory of Deep RNN

    OpenAIRE

    Gallicchio, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    The extension of deep learning towards temporal data processing is gaining an increasing research interest. In this paper we investigate the properties of state dynamics developed in successive levels of deep recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in terms of short-term memory abilities. Our results reveal interesting insights that shed light on the nature of layering as a factor of RNN design. Noticeably, higher layers in a hierarchically organized RNN architecture results to be inherently biased ...

  5. Pulse pile-up. I: Short pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1990-07-01

    The search for rare large pulses against an intense background of smaller ones involves consideration of pulse pile-up. Approximate methods are presented, based on ruin theory, by which the probability of such pile-up may be estimated for pulses of arbitrary form and of arbitrary pulse-height distribution. These methods are checked against cases for which exact solutions are available. The present paper is concerned chiefly with short pulses of finite total duration. (Author) (5 refs., 24 figs.)

  6. Optical Detection in Ultrafast Short Wavelength Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullagar, Wilfred K.; Hall, Chris J.

    2010-01-01

    A new approach to coherent detection of ionising radiation is briefly motivated and recounted. The approach involves optical scattering of coherent light fields by colour centres in transparent solids. It has significant potential for diffractive imaging applications that require high detection dynamic range from pulsed high brilliance short wavelength sources. It also motivates new incarnations of Bragg's X-ray microscope for pump-probe studies of ultrafast molecular structure-dynamics.

  7. Southern hemisphere searches for short period pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchester, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    Two searches of the southern sky for short period pulsars are briefly described. The first, made using the 64-m telescope at Parkes, is sensitive to pulsars with periods greater than about 10 ms and the second, made using the Molonglo radio telescope, has sensitivity down to periods of about 1.5 ms. Four pulsars were found in the Parkes survey and none in the Molonglo survey, although analysis of the latter is as yet incomplete. 10 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  8. Short wavelength striations on expanding plasma clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.; Gary, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    The growth and evolution of short wavelength (< ion gyroradius) flute modes on a plasma expanding across an ambient magnetic field have been actively studied in recent years, both by means of experiments in the laboratory as well as in space and through numerical simulations. We review the relevant observations and simulations results, discuss the instability mechanism and related linear theory, and describe recent work to bring experiments and theory into better agreement. 30 refs., 6 figs

  9. Automatic location of short circuit faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hakola, T; Antila, E [ABB Power Oy (Finland); Seppaenen, M [North-Carelian Power Company (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In this chapter, the automatic location of short circuit faults on medium voltage distribution lines, based on the integration of computer systems of medium voltage distribution network automation is discussed. First the distribution data management systems and their interface with the substation telecontrol, or SCADA systems, is studied. Then the integration of substation telecontrol system and computerized relay protection is discussed. Finally, the implementation of the fault location system is presented and the practical experience with the system is discussed

  10. Short-term LNG-markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldegard, Tom; Lund, Arne-Christian; Miltersen, Kristian; Rud, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The global Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) industry has experienced substantial growth in the past decades. In the traditional trade patterns of LNG the product has typically been handled within a dedicated chain of plants and vessels fully committed by long term contracts or common ownership, providing risk sharing of large investments in a non-liquid market. Increasing gas prices and substantial cost reductions in all parts of the LNG chain have made LNG projects viable even if only part of the capacity is secured by long-term contracts, opening for more flexible trade of the remainder. Increasing gas demand, especially in power generation, combined with cost reductions in the cost of LNG terminals, open new markets for LNG. For the LNG supplier, the flexibility of shifting volumes between regions represents an additional value. International trade in LNG has been increasing, now accounting for more than one fifth of the world's cross-border gas trade. Despite traditional vertical chain bonds, increased flexibility has contributed in fact to an increasing LNG spot trade, representing 8% of global trade in 2002. The focus of this paper is on the development of global short-term LNG markets, and their role with respect to efficiency and security of supply in European gas markets. Arbitrage opportunities arising from price differences between regional markets (such as North America versus Europe) are important impetuses for flexible short-term trade. However, the short-term LNG trade may suffer from problems related to market access, e.g. limited access to terminals and regulatory issues, as well as rigidities connected to vertical binding within the LNG chain. Important issues related to the role of short-term LNG-trade in the European gas market are: Competition, flexibility in meeting peak demand, security of supply and consequences of differences in pricing policies (oil-linked prices in Europe and spot market prices in North America). (Author)

  11. Mechanised harvesting of short-rotation coppices

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbeveren, Stefan P.P.; Spinelli, Raffaele; Eisenbies, Mark; Schweier, Janine; Mola-Yudego, Blas; Magagnotti, Natascia; Acuna, Mauricio; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Short-rotation coppice (SRC) is an important source of woody biomass for bioenergy. Despite the research carried out on several aspects of SRC production, many uncertainties create barriers to farmers establishing SRC plantations. One of the key economic sources of uncertainty is harvesting methods and costs; more specifically, the performance of contemporary machine methods is reviewed. We collected data from 25 literature references, describing 166 field trials. Three harvesting s...

  12. Brownian motion in short range random potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.H.; Romero, A.H.; Sancho, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    A numerical study of Brownian motion of noninteracting particles in random potentials is presented. The dynamics are modeled by Langevin equations in the high friction limit. The random potentials are Gaussian distributed and short ranged. The simulations are performed in one and two dimensions. Different dynamical regimes are found and explained. Effective subdiffusive exponents are obtained and commented on. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  13. Hedge Ratios for short and leveraged ETFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Schubert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs exist for stock-, bond- and commodity markets. In most cases the underlying of an ETF is an index. Fund management today uses the active and passive way to construct a portfolio. ETFs can be used for passive portfolio management. Then ETFs with positive leverage factors are preferred. In the frame of active portfolio also the ETFs with negative leverage factors can be applied for the hedge or cross hedge of a portfolio. These hedging possibilities will be analyzed in this paper. Short ETFs exist with different leverage factors. In Europe, the leverage factors 1 (e.g. ShortDAX ETF and 2 (e.g. DJ STOXX 600 Double Short are offered while in the financial markets of the United States factors from 1 to 4 can be found. To investigate the effect of the different leverage factors and other parameters Monte Carlo Simulation was used. The results show e.g. that higher leverage factors achieve higher profits as well as losses. In the case, that a bearish market is supposed, minimizing the variance of the hedge seem not to be until to get better hedging results, due to a very skewed return distribution of the hedge. The risk measure target-shortfall-probability confirms the use of the standard hedge weightings which depend only on the leverage factor. This characteristic remains, when a portfolio has to be hedged instead of the underlying index of the short ETF. For portfolios which have a low correlation with the index return should not be used high leverage factors for hedging, due to the higher volatility and target-shortfall-probability.

  14. A short-term neural network memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R.J.T.; Wong, W.S.

    1988-12-01

    Neural network memories with storage prescriptions based on Hebb's rule are known to collapse as more words are stored. By requiring that the most recently stored word be remembered precisely, a new simple short-term neutral network memory is obtained and its steady state capacity analyzed and simulated. Comparisons are drawn with Hopfield's method, the delta method of Widrow and Hoff, and the revised marginalist model of Mezard, Nadal, and Toulouse.

  15. Automatic location of short circuit faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hakola, T; Antila, E [ABB Power Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaenen, M [North-Carelian Power Company (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In this presentation, the automatic location of short circuit faults on medium voltage distribution lines, based on the integration of computer systems of medium voltage distribution network automation is discussed. First the distribution data management systems and their interface with the substation telecontrol, or SCADA systems, is studied. Then the integration of substation telecontrol system and computerised relay protection is discussed. Finally, the implementation of the fault location system is presented and the practical experience with the system is discussed

  16. A short course in sustainable product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.

    2005-01-01

    This short course in sustainable product development models, methods and mindsets is designed to fit into the Unical course on Engineering Design Methods. Three modules (called “seminars”) will guide you through . The demands for sustainable development . Professional methods for analysing and ch...... and changing products’ environmental profiles . A new approach to product service system development, where the physical product becomes an incidental aspect in the final offering to the customer...

  17. Short term depression unmasks the ghost frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeerd V Olde Scheper

    Full Text Available Short Term Plasticity (STP has been shown to exist extensively in synapses throughout the brain. Its function is more or less clear in the sense that it alters the probability of synaptic transmission at short time scales. However, it is still unclear what effect STP has on the dynamics of neural networks. We show, using a novel dynamic STP model, that Short Term Depression (STD can affect the phase of frequency coded input such that small networks can perform temporal signal summation and determination with high accuracy. We show that this property of STD can readily solve the problem of the ghost frequency, the perceived pitch of a harmonic complex in absence of the base frequency. Additionally, we demonstrate that this property can explain dynamics in larger networks. By means of two models, one of chopper neurons in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus and one of a cortical microcircuit with inhibitory Martinotti neurons, it is shown that the dynamics in these microcircuits can reliably be reproduced using STP. Our model of STP gives important insights into the potential roles of STP in self-regulation of cortical activity and long-range afferent input in neuronal microcircuits.

  18. Ultra-short silicon MMI duplexer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Huaxiang; Huang, Yawen; Wang, Xingjun; Zhou, Zhiping

    2012-11-01

    The fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) systems are growing fast these days, where two different wavelengths are used for upstream and downstream traffic, typically 1310nm and 1490nm. The duplexers are the key elements to separate these wavelengths into different path in central offices (CO) and optical network unit (ONU) in passive optical network (PON). Multimode interference (MMI) has some benefits to be a duplexer including large fabrication tolerance, low-temperature dependence, and low-polarization dependence, but its size is too large to integrate in conventional case. Based on the silicon photonics platform, ultra-short silicon MMI duplexer was demonstrated to separate the 1310nm and 1490nm lights. By studying the theory of self-image phenomena in MMI, the first order images are adopted in order to keep the device short. A cascaded MMI structure was investigated to implement the wavelength splitting, where both the light of 1310nm and 1490nm was input from the same port, and the 1490nm light was coupling cross the first MMI and output at the cross-port in the device while the 1310nm light was coupling through the first and second MMI and output at the bar-port in the device. The experiment was carried on with the SOI wafer of 340nm top silicon. The cascaded MMI was investigated to fold the length of the duplexer as short as 117μm with the extinct ratio over 10dB.

  19. The Long and the Short of It

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-Ray bursts, the extreme explosions that mark the birth of black holes, come in two flavors, long bursts lasting a few seconds or more, and short bursts lasting for less than a second. The mechanisms giving rise to these two types of bursts were, for a long time, unknown to astronomers. But a series of breakthroughs starting with BeppoSAX, HETE, and Swift gave astronomers some clues and confidence about the nature of long and short bursts. Long bursts mark the collapse of a young, extremely massive star into a black hole; short bursts mark the formation of a black hole by a merger of neutron stars (or perhaps a neutron star with a black hole to form a larger black hole). But a new observation has clouded this clear dichotomy. The picture above is an X-ray image of a gamma-ray burst, GRB 060614, taken by Swift's X-ray Telescope. This burst lasted more than 100 seconds, clearly showing that it's a long burst. But follow-up observations of the burst did not show the tell-tale signatures of a supernova explosion which should be produced by the collapse of a large star. Furthermore this burst occurred in a galaxy which has very few extremely massive stars. Does this hybrid burst represent an entirely new mechanism behind these titanic explosions? The hunt is on.

  20. Short-film Festival at the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Get out your diaries and prepare to be star-struck as the Globe of Science and Innovation meets the silver screen! The CERN "Open Your Eyes Films" film-making club is organising a festival of short films entitled CinéGlobe from Thursday 8 to Saturday 10 November. On the Thursday and Friday, you’ll be able to watch 47 short films free of charge in the Globe of Science and Innovation at various times of the day. The short films to be screened come from 21 different countries and have been selected from among 1400 entrees! All film genres will be represented : comedy, drama, animation, documentaries, experimental films, etc. Members of the public will even be able to vote for their favourite film: the audience’s favourite will be awarded a "Coup de coeur" award. An awards ceremony to honour the films that have received most votes will be held on Friday evening in the Globe of Science and Innovation. The Golden CinéGlobe for bes...

  1. Modeling Timbre Similarity of Short Music Clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, Kai; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence from a number of recent studies that most listeners are able to extract information related to song identity, emotion, or genre from music excerpts with durations in the range of tenths of seconds. Because of these very short durations, timbre as a multifaceted auditory attribute appears as a plausible candidate for the type of features that listeners make use of when processing short music excerpts. However, the importance of timbre in listening tasks that involve short excerpts has not yet been demonstrated empirically. Hence, the goal of this study was to develop a method that allows to explore to what degree similarity judgments of short music clips can be modeled with low-level acoustic features related to timbre. We utilized the similarity data from two large samples of participants: Sample I was obtained via an online survey, used 16 clips of 400 ms length, and contained responses of 137,339 participants. Sample II was collected in a lab environment, used 16 clips of 800 ms length, and contained responses from 648 participants. Our model used two sets of audio features which included commonly used timbre descriptors and the well-known Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients as well as their temporal derivates. In order to predict pairwise similarities, the resulting distances between clips in terms of their audio features were used as predictor variables with partial least-squares regression. We found that a sparse selection of three to seven features from both descriptor sets-mainly encoding the coarse shape of the spectrum as well as spectrotemporal variability-best predicted similarities across the two sets of sounds. Notably, the inclusion of non-acoustic predictors of musical genre and record release date allowed much better generalization performance and explained up to 50% of shared variance ( R 2 ) between observations and model predictions. Overall, the results of this study empirically demonstrate that both acoustic features related

  2. Are short implants in the mandible safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Henrique Gonçalves Motta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the importance of bioengineering and the improvement in surgical techniques demonstrated by the rates attained of the prevalence of successful placement of dental implants in the posterior region of the mandible, in D3 bone quality in patients between the ages of 52 and 60 years, with dentures fixed on 8.5 mm implants. Methods: The statistical data for this retrospective study were collected at the Post-Graduation Center of the Integrated Dentistry Center, Faculty of Sarandi / Academy of Dentistry - Rio de Janeiro, at the CLIVO clinic, from among a total of 2.294 implants placed in the mandible, in the period from 1999 to 2007. There was a total of 1.056 short implants, of a length shorter than or equal to 10 mm, among which 20 implants were randomly chosen and analyzed. Results: The data were treated statistically and comparison of these data was consubstantiated in constructive data analysis by means of Statistical Pattern Recognition Methods for each variable under study. A success rate of 85% was obtained, and the need to take certain care when indicating the use of short implants was verified. Conclusion: Bioengineering and the development of present day surgical techniques have optimized the use of short implants, with the aim of avoiding advanced surgeries. To compensate the smaller size, there are some factors that must be observed, such as: Bone quality, crown/implant ratio, number and diameter of implants, macroscopic and microscopic geometry of the implants, magnitude of mesial occlusal forces.

  3. A short textbook of colloid chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jirgensons, B

    1962-01-01

    A Short Textbook of Colloid Chemistry, Second Revised Edition details the factual aspect of colloid chemistry that includes the basic facts, established empirical and mathematical relationships, and practical applications. The chapters of the title are organized into two parts. In the first part, the text discusses the general concepts of colloid chemistry, such as the history and scope, basic terms, and basic methods in experiment with colloids. Part Two covers the technical aspect of colloid chemistry, such as the optical properties, electrical properties, and viscosity. The book will be of

  4. Monitoring method of short-emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasanov, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Radioprospecting is the initial stage of radioelectronic warfare and its main purpose is destination of the radio signal, determination of its parameters, to detect the content of broadcasts, as well as detection the locating of devices emitting radio signal. In all cases, the probability of signal interception is basically determined by the specified parameters of signals intelligence. The increase in speed is accompanied by a decrease in resolution and vice versa. This paper discusses the method of monitoring the short-term radio emissions, which adapts to the electromagnetic environment

  5. Short period tidal variations of earth rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, C. F.; Williams, J. G.; Parke, M. E.; Dickey, J. O.

    1981-01-01

    It is explained that the tidal deformation of the earth's polar moment of inertia by the moon and sun cause periodic variations in rotation. The short period oscillations give rise to a meter-sized, diurnal signature in the lunar laser ranging data obtained at McDonald Observatory. A solution is given for the scale parameter k/C at fortnightly and monthly tidal frequencies. The results are compared with those obtained by other investigators and with a theoretical estimate which includes the effect of oceans and a decoupled fluid core.

  6. Spectrum of short bowel syndrome in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle B

    2014-01-01

    to diminished health-related quality of life because of its many physical and psychological effects on patients. SBS is associated with decreased survival; risk factors for SBS-related mortality include very short remnant small bowel, end-jejunal remnant anatomy, and arterial mesenteric infarction as primary...... severity and resection type; thus, each patient should be individually managed. This review discusses the spectrum of disease in patients with SBS and presents common complications encountered by these patients to highlight the importance of individualized management and treatment....

  7. Longitudinal Diagnostics for Short Electron Beam Bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, H.; /SLAC

    2010-06-11

    Single-pass free electron lasers require high peak currents from ultra-short electron bunches to reach saturation and an accurate measurement of bunch length and longitudinal bunch profile is necessary to control the bunch compression process from low to high beam energy. The various state-of-the-art diagnostics methods from ps to fs time scales using coherent radiation detection, RF deflection, and other techniques are presented. The use of linear accelerators as drivers for free electron lasers (FEL) and the advent of single-pass (SASE) FELs has driven the development of a wide range of diagnostic techniques for measuring the length and longitudinal distribution of short and ultra-short electron bunches. For SASE FELs the radiation power and the length of the undulator needed to achieve saturation depend strongly on the charge density of the electron beam. In the case of X-ray FELs, this requires the accelerator to produce ultra-high brightness beams with micron size transverse normalized emittances and peak currents of several kA through several stages of magnetic bunch compression. Different longitudinal diagnostics are employed to measure the peak current and bunch profile along these stages. The measurement techniques can be distinguished into different classes. Coherent methods detect the light emitted from the beam by some coherent radiation process (spectroscopic measurement), or directly measure the Coulomb field traveling with the beam (electro-optic). Phase space manipulation techniques map the time coordinate onto a transverse dimension and then use conventional transverse beam diagnostics (transverse deflector, rf zero-phasing). Further methods measure the profile or duration of an incoherent light pulse emitted by the bunch at wavelengths much shorted than the bunch length (streak camera, fluctuation technique) or modulate the electron beam at an optical wavelength and then generate a narrow bandwidth radiation pulse with the longitudinal profile of

  8. Black holes a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Black holes are a constant source of fascination to many due to their mysterious nature. Black Holes: A Very Short Introduction addresses a variety of questions, including what a black hole actually is, how they are characterized and discovered, and what would happen if you came too close to one. It explains how black holes form and grow—by stealing material that belongs to stars—as well as how many there may be in the Universe. It also explores the large black holes found in the centres of galaxies, and how black holes power quasars and lie behind other spectacular phenomena in the cosmos.

  9. Short radiological emergency response training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.D.; Greenhouse, N.A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents an outline of a radiological emergency response training program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the health physics and safety training staff. This course is given to groups from local, county, state, and federal agencies and industrial organizations. It is normally three days in length, although the structure is flexible to accommodate individual needs and prior training. An important feature of the course is an emergency exercise utilizing a short lived radionuclide to better simulate real accident conditions. Groups are encouraged to use their own instruments to gain better familiarity with their operating characteristics under field conditions. Immediately following the exercise, a critical review of the students' performance is conducted

  10. The Reformation: A Very Short Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    TKACHENKO, Rostislav

    2017-01-01

    A small, relatively recent, and well-written book by Peter Marshall belongs tothe well-known Oxford series called “Very Short Introductions.” It is an informativeand analytical introduction to the history, culture, politics, and theology of theReformation that took place in sixteenth-century Europe. The Reformation is anacademic research-based book that is nevertheless very accessible to a wide audience. It is part of the larger company of historical and cultural mini-handbooks such as, The M...

  11. Antimalarial Activity of Ultra-Short Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Yolanda Rios

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-short peptides 1-9 were designed and synthesized with phenylalanine, ornithine and proline amino acid residues and their effect on antimalarial activity was analyzed. On the basis of the IC50 data for these compounds, the effects of nature, polarity, and amino acid sequence on Plasmodium berghei schizont cultures were analyzed too. Tetrapeptides Phe-Orn-Phe-Orn (4 and Lys-Phe-Phe-Orn (5 showed a very important activity with IC50 values of 3.31 and 2.57 μM, respectively. These two tetrapeptides are candidates for subsequent in vivo assays and SARS investigations.

  12. Implementation of short-term prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landberg, L; Joensen, A; Giebel, G [and others

    1999-03-01

    This paper will giver a general overview of the results from a EU JOULE funded project (`Implementing short-term prediction at utilities`, JOR3-CT95-0008). Reference will be given to specialised papers where applicable. The goal of the project was to implement wind farm power output prediction systems in operational environments at a number of utilities in Europe. Two models were developed, one by Risoe and one by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Both prediction models used HIRLAM predictions from the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). (au) EFP-94; EU-JOULE. 11 refs.

  13. Neutrino physics with short baseline experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, E.D.

    2006-01-01

    Neutrino physics with low- to medium-energy beams has progressed steadily over the last several years. Neutrino oscillation searches at short baseline (defined as 2 - -> 0.1eV 2 . One positive signal, from the LSND collaboration, exists and is being tested by the MiniBooNE experiment. Neutrino cross-section measurements are being made by MiniBooNE and K2K, which will be important for reducing systematic errors in present and future oscillation measurements. In the near future, dedicated cross- section experiments will begin operating at Fermilab. (author)

  14. Short-cavity squeezing in barium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, D. M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P. J.; Mcclelland, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system.

  15. Colliding droplets: a short film presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    A series of experiments were performed in which liquid droplets were caused to collide. Impact velocities to several meters per second and droplet diameters up to 600 micrometers were used. The impact parameters in the collisions vary from zero to greater than the sum of the droplet radii. Photographs of the collisions were taken with a high speed framing camera in order to study the impacts and subsequent behavior of the droplets. The experiments will be discussed and a short movie film presentation of some of the impacts will be shown

  16. Is visual short-term memory depthful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Adam; Lei, Quan

    2014-03-01

    Does visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on depth, as it might be if information was stored in more than one depth layer? Depth is critical in natural viewing and might be expected to affect retention, but whether this is so is currently unknown. Cued partial reports of letter arrays (Sperling, 1960) were measured up to 700 ms after display termination. Adding stereoscopic depth hardly affected VSTM capacity or decay inferred from total errors. The pattern of transposition errors (letters reported from an uncued row) was almost independent of depth and cue delay. We conclude that VSTM is effectively two-dimensional. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The short straight sections for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergot, J.B.; Coussy, E.; Dambre, P.; Ollivier, Y.; Reynet, D.; Vincent, D.; Rohmig, P.

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 a close collaboration between CERN, CEA and CNRS has been established for the design, proto-typing and follow-up of industrial series production of a sub-assembly of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In this frame, the design office of IPN's Accelerator R and D group has in charge one of these contracts concerning the 386 Short Straight Sections (SSS) and particularly: - the cryostat design; - the study of procedures and tool assembly; - the construction of two prototypes during the year 1999; - the industrialization and the production follow-up for the series SSS. This collaboration will last until the year 2004. (authors)

  18. Cephalobellus lobulata n. sp. (Oxyurida:Thelastomatidae a parasite of Neocurtilla claraziana Saussure (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camino Nora B

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cephalobellus lobulata n. sp. (Oxyurida: Thelastomatidae a parasite of the mole cricket Neocurtilla claraziana Saussure (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae found in Argentina is described and illustrated. It is characterized by a short buccal cavity armed with three teeth, a striated cuticle with the first annule wide with four lobes and the second annule divided in twelve lobes. The male have three pairs of preanal papillae and two pairs of postanal papillae.

  19. Cephalobellus lobulata n. sp. (Oxyurida:Thelastomatidae) A parasite of Neocurtilla claraziana Saussure (Orthoptera: gryllotalpidae) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino, N B; Reboredo, G R

    2000-01-01

    Cephalobellus lobulata n. sp. (Oxyurida: Thelastomatidae) a parasite of the mole cricket Neocurtilla claraziana Saussure (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) found in Argentina is described and illustrated. It is characterized by a short buccal cavity armed with three teeth, a striated cuticle with the first annule wide with four lobes and the second annule divided in twelve lobes. The male have three pairs of preanal papillae and two pairs of postanal papillae.

  20. Plat du jour – Short Films!

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2014-01-01

    Next week, take a break from the cafeteria and have a ciné-lunch at the Globe!   How about if, for a change, you forgot your lunch meeting and went to the movies with your colleagues (or that person that you always wanted to ask out) right here on the CERN site? CERN will be hosting the next CineGlobe International Film Festival from 18 to 23 March in the Globe of Science and Innovation, with the theme "Beyond the Frontier". The 4th annual festival will see 66 short films "inspired by science" in competition, including fiction films as well as documentaries. From Tuesday 18 to Friday 21, special lunch sessions will take place from 12.30 p.m. to 1.30 p.m. Food will be available for purchase at the “Café Cinéma” tent next to the Globe. Special evenings: While the short film screenings are the heart of the festival, each year CineGlobe also organises compelling special events every night, from feature fil...

  1. PTSD-8: A Short PTSD Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask; Palic, Sabina; Mackrill, Thomas

    2010-09-28

    Traumatic events pose great challenges on mental health services in scarcity of specialist trauma clinicians and services. Simple short screening instruments for detecting adverse psychological responses are needed. Several brief screening instruments have been developed. However, some are limited, especially in relation to reflecting the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. Recently, several studies have challenged pre-existing ideas about PTSD's latent structure. Factor analytic research currently supports two four factor models. One particular model contains a dysphoria factor which has been associated with depression and anxiety. The symptoms in this factor have been hailed as less specific to PTSD. The scope of this article is therefore to present a short screening instrument, based on this research; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) - 8 items. The PTSD-8 is shown to have good psychometric properties in three independent samples of whiplash patients (n=1710), rape victims (n=305), and disaster victims (n=516). Good test-rest reliability is also shown in a pilot study of young adults from families with alcohol problems (n=56).

  2. Capillary condensation of short-chain molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, Paweł; Pizio, Orest; Sokolowski, Stefan

    2005-05-15

    A density-functional study of capillary condensation of fluids of short-chain molecules confined to slitlike pores is presented. The molecules are modeled as freely jointed tangent spherical segments with a hard core and with short-range attractive interaction between all the segments. We investigate how the critical parameters of capillary condensation of the fluid change when the pore width decreases and eventually becomes smaller than the nominal linear dimension of the single-chain molecule. We find that the dependence of critical parameters for a fluid of dimers and of tetramers on pore width is similar to that of the monomer fluid. On the other hand, for a fluid of chains consisting of a larger number of segments we observe an inversion effect. Namely, the critical temperature of capillary condensation decreases with increasing pore width for a certain interval of values of the pore width. This anomalous behavior is also influenced by the interaction between molecules and pore walls. We attribute this behavior to the effect of conformational changes of molecules upon confinement.

  3. Narrow resonances and short-range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelman, Boris A.

    2009-01-01

    Narrow resonances in systems with short-range interactions are discussed in an effective field theory (EFT) framework. An effective Lagrangian is formulated in the form of a combined expansion in powers of a momentum Q 0 | 0 --a resonance peak energy. At leading order in the combined expansion, a two-body scattering amplitude is the sum of a smooth background term of order Q 0 and a Breit-Wigner term of order Q 2 (δε) -1 which becomes dominant for δε 3 . Such an EFT is applicable to systems in which short-distance dynamics generates a low-lying quasistationary state. The EFT is generalized to describe a narrow low-lying resonance in a system of charged particles. It is shown that in the case of Coulomb repulsion, a two-body scattering amplitude at leading order in a combined expansion is the sum of a Coulomb-modified background term and a Breit-Wigner amplitude with parameters renormalized by Coulomb interactions.

  4. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  5. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  6. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Measuring Short-term Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Brochure provides and overview of the analysis and results. Readers interested in an in-depth discussion of methodology are referred to the MOSES Working Paper.

  9. Developing Short Films of Geoscience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.; Harrild, M.; Kienenberger, D.; Salganek, M.

    2015-12-01

    In today's prevalence of social media and networking, video products are becoming increasingly more useful to communicate research quickly and effectively to a diverse audience, including outreach activities as well as within the research community and to funding agencies. Due to the observational nature of geoscience, researchers often take photos and video footage to document fieldwork or to record laboratory experiments. Here we present how researchers can become more effective storytellers by collaborating with filmmakers to produce short documentary films of their research. We will focus on the use of traditional high-definition (HD) camcorders and HD DSLR cameras to record the scientific story while our research topic focuses on the use of remote sensing techniques, specifically thermal infrared imaging that is often used to analyze time varying natural processes such as volcanic hazards. By capturing the story in the thermal infrared wavelength range, in addition to traditional red-green-blue (RGB) color space, the audience is able to experience the world differently. We will develop a short film specifically designed using thermal infrared cameras that illustrates how visual storytellers can use these new tools to capture unique and important aspects of their research, convey their passion for earth systems science, as well as engage and captive the viewer.

  10. Short wavelength FELs using the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R.

    1993-08-01

    Recent technological developments have opened the possibility to construct a device which we call a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS); a fourth generation light source, with brightness, coherence, and peak power far exceeding other sources. Operating on the principle of the free electron laser (FEL), the LCLS would extend the range of FEL operation to much aborter wavelength than the 240 mn that has so far been reached. We report the results of studies of the use of the SLAC linac to drive an LCLS at wavelengths from about 3-100 nm initially and possibly even shorter wavelengths in the future. Lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a low emittance, high peak current, high energy electron beam through a long undulator. Most present FELs use an optical cavity to build up the intensity of the light to achieve lasing action in a low gain oscillator configuration. By eliminating the optical cavity, which is difficult to make at short wavelengths, laser action can be extended to shorter wavelengths by Self-Amplified-Spontaneous-Emission (SASE), or by harmonic generation from a longer wavelength seed laser. Short wavelength, single pass lasers have been extensively studied at several laboratories and at recent workshops

  11. Validating a Cantonese short version of the Zarit Burden Interview (CZBI-Short) for dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jennifer Yee-Man; Ho, Andy Hau-Yan; Luo, Hao; Wong, Gloria Hoi-Yan; Lau, Bobo Hi-Po; Lum, Terry Yat-Sang; Cheung, Karen Siu-Lan

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to develop and validate a Cantonese short version of the Zarit Burden Interview (CZBI-Short) for Hong Kong Chinese dementia caregivers. The 12-item Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) was translated into spoken Cantonese and back-translated by two bilingual research assistants and face validated by a panel of experts. Five hundred Chinese dementia caregivers showing signs of stress reported their burden using the translated ZBI and rated their depressive symptoms, overall health, and care recipients' physical functioning and behavioral problems. The factor structure of the translated scale was identified using principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis; internal consistency and item-total correlations were assessed; and concurrent validity was tested by correlating the ZBI with depressive symptoms, self-rated health, and care recipients' physical functioning and behavioral problems. The principal component analysis resulted in 11 items loading on a three-factor model comprised role strain, self-criticism, and negative emotion, which accounted for 59% of the variance. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the three-factor model (CZBI-Short) that explained 61% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha (0.84) and item-total correlations (rho = 0.39-0.71) indicated CZBI-Short had good reliability. CZBI-Short showed correlations with depressive symptoms (r = 0.50), self-rated health (r = -0.26) and care recipients' physical functioning (r = 0.18-0.26) and disruptive behaviors (r = 0.36). The 12-item CZBI-Short is a concise, reliable, and valid instrument to assess burden in Chinese dementia caregivers in clinical and social care settings.

  12. The short short story as a teaching resource for the acquisition of grammar in SFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Nayra Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we intend to make a reflection on the introduction of target language literature in foreign language classrooms. We will analyze the use of short-short stories as a didactic resource in Spanish as Foreign Language classrooms. To this end, we will research different teaching methodologies that have been implemented and investigate the validity of this genre as a suitable material for teaching grammar. We will make an approximation to Focus on Form as an effective approach, which integrates grammar teaching within a communicative context.

  13. ECONOMIC IMPACT ANALYSIS OF GDOT’S SHORT LINE RAILROADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Short line railroads are critical to Georgias transportation infrastructure and support the efficient movement of goods into and out of the State. Twenty-nine short line railroads operate in Georgia, six of which operate either partially or totall...

  14. Evaluation of Short Term Memory Span Function In Children

    OpenAIRE

    Barış ERGÜL; Arzu ALTIN YAVUZ; Ebru GÜNDOĞAN AŞIK

    2016-01-01

    Although details of the information encoded in the short-term memory where it is stored temporarily be recorded in the working memory in the next stage. Repeating the information mentally makes it remain in memory for a long time. Studies investigating the relationship between short-term memory and reading skills that are carried out to examine the relationship between short-term memory processes and reading comprehension. In this study information coming to short-term memory and the factors ...

  15. Tester Detects Steady-Short Or Intermittent-Open Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bobby L.

    1990-01-01

    Momentary open circuits or steady short circuits trigger buzzer. Simple, portable, lightweight testing circuit sounds long-duration alarm when it detects steady short circuit or momentary open circuit in coaxial cable or other two-conductor transmission line. Tester sensitive to discontinuities lasting 10 microseconds or longer. Used extensively for detecting intermittent open shorts in accelerometer and extensometer cables. Also used as ordinary buzzer-type continuity checker to detect steady short or open circuits.

  16. Synchronous Condenser Allocation for Improving System Short Circuit Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Jundi; Yang, Guangya; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2018-01-01

    With converter-based renewable energy sources increasingly integrated into power systems and conventional power plants gradually phased out, future power systems will experience reduced short circuit strength. The deployment of synchronous condensers can serve as a potential solution. This paper...... presents an optimal synchronous condenser allocation method for improving system short circuit ratio at converter point of common coupling using a modified short circuit analysis approach. The total cost of installing new synchronous condensers is minimized while the system short circuit ratios...

  17. Teaching English Using Local Culture Content Short Story

    OpenAIRE

    Sanda, Silfi

    2009-01-01

    This paper is mainly about the use of local culture content short story in developing students' English proficiency and some activities that can be employed for this purpose. The local culture exposed in the short story is the traditional woven clothes of Palembang, Songket in term of process and product. The short story used in this topic is Cek Ipah "The Palembang Songket Weaver". This short story is authors' original work telling about everyday live of palembang songket weaver which covers...

  18. Numerical challenges of short range wake field calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Thomas; Gjonaj, Erion; Weiland, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF)

    2011-07-01

    For present and future accelerator projects with ultra short bunches the accurate and reliable calculation of short range wake fields is an important issue. However, the numerical calculation of short range wake fields is a numerical challenging task. The presentation gives an overview over the numerical challenges and techniques for short range wake field calculations. Finally, some simulation results obtained by the program PBCI developed at the TU Darmstadt are presented.

  19. Sorting signed permutations by short operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Gustavo Rodrigues; Lee, Orlando; Dias, Zanoni

    2015-01-01

    During evolution, global mutations may alter the order and the orientation of the genes in a genome. Such mutations are referred to as rearrangement events, or simply operations. In unichromosomal genomes, the most common operations are reversals, which are responsible for reversing the order and orientation of a sequence of genes, and transpositions, which are responsible for switching the location of two contiguous portions of a genome. The problem of computing the minimum sequence of operations that transforms one genome into another - which is equivalent to the problem of sorting a permutation into the identity permutation - is a well-studied problem that finds application in comparative genomics. There are a number of works concerning this problem in the literature, but they generally do not take into account the length of the operations (i.e. the number of genes affected by the operations). Since it has been observed that short operations are prevalent in the evolution of some species, algorithms that efficiently solve this problem in the special case of short operations are of interest. In this paper, we investigate the problem of sorting a signed permutation by short operations. More precisely, we study four flavors of this problem: (i) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals of length at most 2; (ii) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals of length at most 3; (iii) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals and transpositions of length at most 2; and (iv) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals and transpositions of length at most 3. We present polynomial-time solutions for problems (i) and (iii), a 5-approximation for problem (ii), and a 3-approximation for problem (iv). Moreover, we show that the expected approximation ratio of the 5-approximation algorithm is not greater than 3 for random signed permutations with more than 12 elements. Finally, we present experimental results that show

  20. Ultrastructure of spermatogenesis in the sea star, Asterina minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, A

    1988-02-01

    The ultrastructural features of spermatogenesis were investigated in the hermaphroditic sea star Asterina minor. The primordial germ cells in the genital rachis contain small clusters of electron-dense material (nuage material) and a stack of annulate lamellae. They also have a flagellum and basal body complex situated close to the Golgi complex. After the development of the genital rachis into the ovotestis, spermatogenic cells increase in number and differentiation begins. Nuage material is observed in spermatogonia, but it gradually disappears in spermatocytes. The annulate lamellae do not exist beyond the early spermatogonial stage. By contrast, a flagellum and basal body complex are found throughout spermatogenesis. The Golgi-derived proacrosomal vesicles appear in the spermatocyte and coalesce to form an acrosomal vesicle in the early spermatid. The process of acrosome formation is as follows: (1) a lamella of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) continuous with the outer nuclear membrane encloses the posterior portion of the acrosomal vesicle; (2) the vesicle attaches to the cell membrane with its anterior portion; (3) periacrosomal material accumulates in the space between the acrosomal vesicle and the ER; (4) the nucleus proper changes its features to surround the acrosome; (5) amorphous, electron-dense material is deposited under the electron-dense disk; and (6) the nucleus forms a hollow opposite the electron-dense material.

  1. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  2. Validity of Two WPPSI Short Forms in Outpatient Clinic Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jack P.; Atkinson, David

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the validity of subtest short forms for the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence in an outpatient population of 116 children. Data showed that the short forms underestimated actual level of intelligence and supported use of a short form only as a brief screening device. (LLL)

  3. 30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit and lightning protection. 56... Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and lightning. ...

  4. 30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit and lightning protection. 57... MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and lightning. ...

  5. 26 CFR 1.6655-5 - Short taxable year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1.6655-5 Short taxable... beginning with its initial short taxable year to the time it files its tax return for its initial short...

  6. Low frequency interference between short synchrotron radiation sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Méot

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed analytical formalism describing low frequency far-field synchrotron radiation (SR is applied to the calculation of spectral angular radiation densities from interfering short sources (edge, short magnet. This is illustrated by analytical calculation of synchrotron radiation from various assemblies of short dipoles, including an “isolated” highest density infrared SR source.

  7. Short Term Airing by Natural Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Perino, M.

    2010-01-01

    The need to improve the energy efficiency of buildings requires new and more efficient ventilation systems. It has been demonstrated that innovative operating concepts that make use of natural ventilation seem to be more appreciated by occupants. Among the available ventilation strategies...... that are currently available, buoyancy driven, single-sided natural ventilation has proved to be very effective and can provide high air change rates for temperature and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) control. However, to promote a wider distribution of these systems an improvement in the knowledge of their working...... airflow rate, ventilation efficiency, thermal comfort and dynamic temperature conditions. A suitable laboratory test rig was developed to perform extensive experimental analyses of the phenomenon under controlled and repeatable conditions. The results showed that short-term window airing is very effective...

  8. [Flexor tendon repair: a short story].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutet, F; Corcella, D; Forli, A; Mesquida, V

    2014-12-01

    This short story of flexor tendon repair aims to illustrate hesitations and wanderings of this surgery. Obviously tendon repair was very early considered, but it developed and diffused rather lately. It became a routine practice only in 20th century. This was due on the one hand, in Occident, to the Galen's dogmatic interdiction, on the other hand, to the repair difficulties of this paradoxical structure. Actually tendon is made of fibroblasts and collagen (sticky substances), and then its only goal is to move. According to this necessity, whatever the used techniques are, gliding is the final purpose. Technical evolutions are illustrated by historical contributions to flexor tendon surgery of several "giants" of hand surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of short-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Chiri

    1976-01-01

    Recently short life nuclides have come to be utilized increasingly as diagnostic radioisotopes, and Tc-99m (half-life; 6.05 hours) and Ga-67 (half-life 7.79 hours) are replacing the most nuclides fomerly used in vivo test. Such development of radioactive products inevitably causes the rapid increase of their wastes. At present, the radioactive wastes produced by hospitals and university laboratories in Japan are collected by the Japan Radioisotope Association, and treated by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. These wastes are divided into combustibles and incombustibles to store in the store house in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The present law in Japan contains the contradiction which treats the matter with one several millionth of radioactivity after decay same as the original radioactive matter. Thus solid must be stored permanently, while gas and liquid can be discharged after dilution. (Kobatake, H.)

  10. Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Crooker, P P; Armstead, R L; Blau, J

    2004-01-01

    Conventional free electron laser (FEL) oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. A new FEL interaction is described and analyzed with a Rayleigh length that is only one tenth the undulator length, or less. The effect of mirror vibration and positioning are more critical in the short Rayleigh length design, but we find that they are still within normal design tolerances.

  11. Separation of short-lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Tadaharu; Ohyoshi, Emiko; Ohyoshi, Akira; Kiso, Yoshiyuki; Shinagawa, Mutsuaki.

    1976-01-01

    A rbief review is presented on the various methods of separation available for both gaseous and liquid states, for the separation of short-lived fission products formed by binary fission of neutron irradiated uranium. The means available for gaseous state are the hot atom reaction, the hydride method and on-line mass separation. For liquid state, use can be made of precipitation, ionic or atomic exchange, solvent extraction and paper electrophoresis. Particular reference is made to electrophoretic separation of ions produced by fission in aqueous solution of uranium. The principle of electrophoretic separation and the procedures for separating the element of interest from the other fission products are outlined, with reference made to the results obtained with the method by the present authors. The elements in question are alkalines, alkaline earths, rare earths, halogens, selenium and

  12. Using Short Videos to Teach Research Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Created with support from the National Science Foundation, EthicsCORE (www.natonalethicscenter.org) is an online resource center for ethics in science and engineering. Among the resources, EthicsCORE hosts short video vignettes produced at the University of Nebraska - Lincoln that dramatize problems in the responsible conduct of research, such as peer review of journal submissions, and mentoring relationships between faculty and graduate students. I will use one of the video vignettes in an interactive pedagogical demonstration. After showing the video, I will ask participants to engage in a think-pair-share activity on the professional obligations of researchers. During the sharing phase, participants will supply the reasons for these obligations.

  13. Deterministic nonlinear systems a short course

    CERN Document Server

    Anishchenko, Vadim S; Strelkova, Galina I

    2014-01-01

    This text is a short yet complete course on nonlinear dynamics of deterministic systems. Conceived as a modular set of 15 concise lectures it reflects the many years of teaching experience by the authors. The lectures treat in turn the fundamental aspects of the theory of dynamical systems, aspects of stability and bifurcations, the theory of deterministic chaos and attractor dimensions, as well as the elements of the theory of Poincare recurrences.Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the generation of periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic self-sustained oscillations and to the issue of synchronization in such systems.  This book is aimed at graduate students and non-specialist researchers with a background in physics, applied mathematics and engineering wishing to enter this exciting field of research.

  14. Short-term forecasting of internal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frees, E W

    1993-11-01

    A new methodological approach to the forecasting of short-term trends in internal migration in the United States is introduced. "Panel-data (or longitudinal-data) models are used to represent the relationship between destination-specific out-migration and several explanatory variables. The introduction of this methodology into the migration literature is possible because of some new and improved databases developed by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.... Data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis are used to investigate the incorporation of exogenous factors as variables in the model." The exogenous factors considered include employment and unemployment, income, population size of state, and distance between states. The author concludes that "when one...includes additional parameters that are estimable in longitudinal-data models, it turns out that there is little additional information in the exogenous factors that is useful for forecasting." excerpt

  15. Economics of solar energy: Short term costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, H.

    The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

  16. Origin of Short-Perihelion Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliyev, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    New regularities for short-perihelion comets are found. Distant nodes of cometary orbits of Kreutz family are concentrated in a plane with ascending node 76 and inclination 267 at the distance from 2 up to 3 a.u. and in a very narrow interval of longitudes. There is a correlation dependence between q and cos I concerning the found plane (coefficient of correlation 0.41). Similar results are received regarding to cometary families of Meyer, Kracht and Marsden. Distant nodes of these comets are concentrated close three planes (their parameters are discussed in the article) and at distances 1.4; 0.5; 6 a.u. accordingly. It is concluded that these comet groups were formed as a result of collision of parent bodies with meteoric streams. One more group, consisting of 7 comets is identified. 5 comet pairs are selected among sungrazers.

  17. Nonlocality and short-range wetting phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, A O; Romero-Enrique, J M; Lazarides, A

    2004-08-20

    We propose a nonlocal interfacial model for 3D short-range wetting at planar and nonplanar walls. The model is characterized by a binding-potential functional depending only on the bulk Ornstein-Zernike correlation function, which arises from different classes of tubelike fluctuations that connect the interface and the substrate. The theory provides a physical explanation for the origin of the effective position-dependent stiffness and binding potential in approximate local theories and also obeys the necessary classical wedge covariance relationship between wetting and wedge filling. Renormalization group and computer simulation studies reveal the strong nonperturbative influence of nonlocality at critical wetting, throwing light on long-standing theoretical problems regarding the order of the phase transition.

  18. Nonlocality and Short-Range Wetting Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, A. O.; Romero-Enrique, J. M.; Lazarides, A.

    2004-08-01

    We propose a nonlocal interfacial model for 3D short-range wetting at planar and nonplanar walls. The model is characterized by a binding-potential functional depending only on the bulk Ornstein-Zernike correlation function, which arises from different classes of tubelike fluctuations that connect the interface and the substrate. The theory provides a physical explanation for the origin of the effective position-dependent stiffness and binding potential in approximate local theories and also obeys the necessary classical wedge covariance relationship between wetting and wedge filling. Renormalization group and computer simulation studies reveal the strong nonperturbative influence of nonlocality at critical wetting, throwing light on long-standing theoretical problems regarding the order of the phase transition.

  19. Short course review and the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corden, Pierce S. [Center for Science, Technology and Security Policy, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC 20005 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    The presentations at the short course that were the basis of the present Proceedings covered many critical issues related to the objective of eliminating nuclear weapons as a means of ensuring global security and stability. This paper is based on the concluding talk, which briefly reviewed the course, offered a net assessment of where the project of elimination - a policy objective for nearly all the world's states - stands, and discussed some of the factors that need to be dealt with in achieving a nuclear weapon free world. These include understanding what 'proliferation' means and how it has changed over time, how the spread of nuclear weapons has proceeded over time, both 'vertical' in numbers and 'horizontal' to additional countries, what way the 'vector' of reversing proliferation is pointing, and the roles of nuclear energy and international governance.

  20. Nanowire failure: long = brittle and short = ductile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoxuan; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Jhon, Mark H; Gao, Huajian; Srolovitz, David J

    2012-02-08

    Experimental studies of the tensile behavior of metallic nanowires show a wide range of failure modes, ranging from ductile necking to brittle/localized shear failure-often in the same diameter wires. We performed large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of copper nanowires with a range of nanowire lengths and provide unequivocal evidence for a transition in nanowire failure mode with change in nanowire length. Short nanowires fail via a ductile mode with serrated stress-strain curves, while long wires exhibit extreme shear localization and abrupt failure. We developed a simple model for predicting the critical nanowire length for this failure mode transition and showed that it is in excellent agreement with both the simulation results and the extant experimental data. The present results provide a new paradigm for the design of nanoscale mechanical systems that demarcates graceful and catastrophic failure. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  1. Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Sean; Bhike, Megha; Howell, Calvin; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tornow, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Fission yields of the short lived isomers 134mTe (T1 / 2 = 162 ns) and 136mXe (T1 / 2 = 2 . 95 μs) were measured for 235U and 238U. The isomers were detected by the γ rays associated with the decay of the isomeric states using high-purity germanium detectors. Fission was induced using both monoenergetic γ rays and neutrons. At TUNL's High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HI γS), γ rays of 9 and 11 MeV were produced . Monoenergetic 8 MeV neutrons were produced at TUNL's tandem accelerator laboratory. Both beams were pulsed to allow for precise time-gated spectroscopy of both prompt and delayed γ rays following fission. This technique offers a non-destructive probe of special nuclear materials that is sensitive to the isotopic identity of the fissile material.

  2. Short-term plasticity in auditory cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Belliveau, John W; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko

    2007-12-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that auditory system short-term plasticity can enable several perceptual and cognitive functions that have been previously considered as relatively distinct phenomena. Here we review recent findings suggesting that auditory stimulation, auditory selective attention and cross-modal effects of visual stimulation each cause transient excitatory and (surround) inhibitory modulations in the auditory cortex. These modulations might adaptively tune hierarchically organized sound feature maps of the auditory cortex (e.g. tonotopy), thus filtering relevant sounds during rapidly changing environmental and task demands. This could support auditory sensory memory, pre-attentive detection of sound novelty, enhanced perception during selective attention, influence of visual processing on auditory perception and longer-term plastic changes associated with perceptual learning.

  3. Short range order in liquid pnictides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, M; Makov, G; Yahel, E; Greenberg, Y

    2013-01-01

    Liquid pnictides have anomalous physical properties and complex radial distribution functions. The quasi-crystalline model of liquid structure is applied to interpret the three-dimensional structure of liquid pnictides. It is shown that all the column V elements can be characterized by a short range order lattice symmetry similar to that of the underlying solid, the A7 structure, which originates from a Peierls distorted simple cubic lattice. The evolution of the liquid structure down the column as well as its temperature and pressure dependence is interpreted by means of the effect of thermodynamic parameters on the Peierls distortion. Surprisingly, it is found that the Peierls effect increases with temperature and the nearest neighbour distances exhibit negative thermal expansion. (paper)

  4. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T 1 and T 2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T 1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T 2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially

  5. Robust Short-Lag Spatial Coherence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Arun Asokan; Tran, Trac Duy; Bell, Muyinatu A Lediju

    2018-03-01

    Short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging displays the spatial coherence between backscattered ultrasound echoes instead of their signal amplitudes and is more robust to noise and clutter artifacts when compared with traditional delay-and-sum (DAS) B-mode imaging. However, SLSC imaging does not consider the content of images formed with different lags, and thus does not exploit the differences in tissue texture at each short-lag value. Our proposed method improves SLSC imaging by weighting the addition of lag values (i.e., M-weighting) and by applying robust principal component analysis (RPCA) to search for a low-dimensional subspace for projecting coherence images created with different lag values. The RPCA-based projections are considered to be denoised versions of the originals that are then weighted and added across lags to yield a final robust SLSC (R-SLSC) image. Our approach was tested on simulation, phantom, and in vivo liver data. Relative to DAS B-mode images, the mean contrast, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) improvements with R-SLSC images are 21.22 dB, 2.54, and 2.36, respectively, when averaged over simulated, phantom, and in vivo data and over all lags considered, which corresponds to mean improvements of 96.4%, 121.2%, and 120.5%, respectively. When compared with SLSC images, the corresponding mean improvements with R-SLSC images were 7.38 dB, 1.52, and 1.30, respectively (i.e., mean improvements of 14.5%, 50.5%, and 43.2%, respectively). Results show great promise for smoothing out the tissue texture of SLSC images and enhancing anechoic or hypoechoic target visibility at higher lag values, which could be useful in clinical tasks such as breast cyst visualization, liver vessel tracking, and obese patient imaging.

  6. Why do short term workers have high mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    or violence, the rate ratios for short term employment were 2.30 (95% Cl 1.74-3.06) and 1.86 (95% Cl 1.35-2.56), respectively. An unhealthy lifestyle may also be a determinant of short term employment. While it is possible in principle to adjust for lifestyle factors if proper data are collected, the health......Increased mortality is often reported among workers in short term employment. This may indicate either a health-related selection process or the presence of different lifestyle or social conditions among short term workers. The authors studied these two aspects of short term employment among 16...

  7. Preferred Hosts for Short-Period Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to learn more about how planets form around their host stars, a team of scientists has analyzed the population of Kepler-discovered exoplanet candidates, looking for trends in where theyre found.Planetary OccurrenceSince its launch in 2009, Kepler has found thousands of candidate exoplanets around a variety of star types. Especially intriguing is the large population of super-Earths and mini-Neptunes planets with masses between that of Earth and Neptune that have short orbital periods. How did they come to exist so close to their host star? Did they form in situ, or migrate inwards, or some combination of both processes?To constrain these formation mechanisms, a team of scientists led by Gijs Mulders (University of Arizona and NASAs NExSS coalition) analyzed the population of Kepler planet candidates that have orbital periods between 2 and 50 days.Mulders and collaborators used statistical reconstructions to find the average number of planets, within this orbital range, around each star in the Kepler field. They then determined how this planet occurrence rate changed for different spectral types and therefore the masses of the host stars: do low-mass M-dwarf stars host more or fewer planets than higher-mass, main-sequence F, G, or K stars?Challenging ModelsAuthors estimates for the occurrence rate for short-period planets of different radii around M-dwarfs (purple) and around F, G, and K-type stars (blue). [Mulders et al. 2015]The team found that M dwarfs, compared to F, G, or K stars, host about half as many large planets with orbital periods of P 50 days. But, surprisingly, they host significantly more small planets, racking up an average of 3.5 times the number of planets in the size range of 12.8 Earth-radii.Could it be that M dwarfs have a lower total mass of planets, but that mass is distributed into more, smaller planets? Apparently not: the authors show that the mass of heavy elements trapped in short-orbital-period planets is higher for M

  8. "Short Courses Shouldn't Be Short-Lived!" Enhancing Longer-Term Impact of Short English as a Foreign Language INSET Initiatives in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chunmei; He, Chuanjun

    2015-01-01

    Short in-service teacher development (INSET) programmes have been globally used as a form of teacher development, but their impact has been under question. This study sought to examine teacher participants' perceptions of short INSET programmes to come up with better solutions to enhancing their effect on teachers' professional learning. A…

  9. LS1 Report: short-circuit tests

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    As the LS1 draws to an end, teams move from installation projects to a phase of intense testing. Among these are the so-called 'short-circuit tests'. Currently under way at Point 7, these tests verify the cables, the interlocks, the energy extraction systems, the power converters that provide current to the superconducting magnets and the cooling system.   Thermal camera images taken during tests at point 4 (IP4). Before putting beam into the LHC, all of the machine's hardware components need to be put to the test. Out of these, the most complicated are the superconducting circuits, which have a myriad of different failure modes with interlock and control systems. While these will be tested at cold - during powering tests to be done in August - work can still be done beforehand. "While the circuits in the magnets themselves cannot be tested at warm, what we can do is verify the power converter and the circuits right up to the place the cables go into the magn...

  10. Retroactive signaling in short signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques-Alexandre Sepulchre

    Full Text Available In biochemical signaling pathways without explicit feedback connections, the core signal transduction is usually described as a one-way communication, going from upstream to downstream in a feedforward chain or network of covalent modification cycles. In this paper we explore the possibility of a new type of signaling called retroactive signaling, offered by the recently demonstrated property of retroactivity in signaling cascades. The possibility of retroactive signaling is analysed in the simplest case of the stationary states of a bicyclic cascade of signaling cycles. In this case, we work out the conditions for which variables of the upstream cycle are affected by a change of the total amount of protein in the downstream cycle, or by a variation of the phosphatase deactivating the same protein. Particularly, we predict the characteristic ranges of the downstream protein, or of the downstream phosphatase, for which a retroactive effect can be observed on the upstream cycle variables. Next, we extend the possibility of retroactive signaling in short but nonlinear signaling pathways involving a few covalent modification cycles.

  11. Optimization of short amino acid sequences classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcz, Aleksy; Szymański, Zbigniew

    This article describes processing methods used for short amino acid sequences classification. The data processed are 9-symbols string representations of amino acid sequences, divided into 49 data sets - each one containing samples labeled as reacting or not with given enzyme. The goal of the classification is to determine for a single enzyme, whether an amino acid sequence would react with it or not. Each data set is processed separately. Feature selection is performed to reduce the number of dimensions for each data set. The method used for feature selection consists of two phases. During the first phase, significant positions are selected using Classification and Regression Trees. Afterwards, symbols appearing at the selected positions are substituted with numeric values of amino acid properties taken from the AAindex database. In the second phase the new set of features is reduced using a correlation-based ranking formula and Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. Finally, the preprocessed data is used for training LS-SVM classifiers. SPDE, an evolutionary algorithm, is used to obtain optimal hyperparameters for the LS-SVM classifier, such as error penalty parameter C and kernel-specific hyperparameters. A simple score penalty is used to adapt the SPDE algorithm to the task of selecting classifiers with best performance measures values.

  12. Short-pulse lasers for weather control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J. P.

    2018-02-01

    Filamentation of ultra-short TW-class lasers recently opened new perspectives in atmospheric research. Laser filaments are self-sustained light structures of 0.1–1 mm in diameter, spanning over hundreds of meters in length, and producing a low density plasma (1015–1017 cm‑3) along their path. They stem from the dynamic balance between Kerr self-focusing and defocusing by the self-generated plasma and/or non-linear polarization saturation. While non-linearly propagating in air, these filamentary structures produce a coherent supercontinuum (from 230 nm to 4 µm, for a 800 nm laser wavelength) by self-phase modulation (SPM), which can be used for remote 3D-monitoring of atmospheric components by Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging). However, due to their high intensity (1013–1014 W cm‑2), they also modify the chemical composition of the air via photo-ionization and photo-dissociation of the molecules and aerosols present in the laser path. These unique properties were recently exploited for investigating the capability of modulating some key atmospheric processes, like lightning from thunderclouds, water vapor condensation, fog formation and dissipation, and light scattering (albedo) from high altitude clouds for radiative forcing management. Here we review recent spectacular advances in this context, achieved both in the laboratory and in the field, reveal their underlying mechanisms, and discuss the applicability of using these new non-linear photonic catalysts for real scale weather control.

  13. A RARE CASE OF ACHONDROPLASIA- SHORT LIMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ravichander

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A 6-year-old boy was presented to the paediatric department with shortening of all the limbs and delay in growth. Clinical examinations revealed height less than third percentile along with other abnormalities like frontal bossing, midfacial hypoplasia, flattened nasal bridge, short neck and rhizomelic type of shortening of all the limbs. These clinical features raised the diagnosis towards achondroplasia, which was further supported by radiologic evidence. Achondroplasia is a disorder involving growth of bone. The conversion of cartilage to bone is hampered. The affection is particularly seen in the long bones of arms and legs. The characterising features of this disorder are dwarfism, limitation in range of motion at the elbows, enlarged size of head, small fingers, but with normal intelligence. Other complications like apnoea, obesity, recurrent ear infections and lordosis of the spine are often associated with achondroplasia. The basic defect in achondroplasia lies in mutations of the FGFR3 gene. It is an autosomal dominant disorder.

  14. An optimal filter for short photoplethysmogram signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yongbo; Elgendi, Mohamed; Chen, Zhencheng; Ward, Rabab

    2018-01-01

    A photoplethysmogram (PPG) contains a wealth of cardiovascular system information, and with the development of wearable technology, it has become the basic technique for evaluating cardiovascular health and detecting diseases. However, due to the varying environments in which wearable devices are used and, consequently, their varying susceptibility to noise interference, effective processing of PPG signals is challenging. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the optimal filter and filter order to be used for PPG signal processing to make the systolic and diastolic waves more salient in the filtered PPG signal using the skewness quality index. Nine types of filters with 10 different orders were used to filter 219 (2.1s) short PPG signals. The signals were divided into three categories by PPG experts according to their noise levels: excellent, acceptable, or unfit. Results show that the Chebyshev II filter can improve the PPG signal quality more effectively than other types of filters and that the optimal order for the Chebyshev II filter is the 4th order. PMID:29714722

  15. Short term load forecasting: two stage modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOARES, L. J.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the hourly electricity load demand in the area covered by a utility situated in the Seattle, USA, called Puget Sound Power and Light Company. Our proposal is put into proof with the famous dataset from this company. We propose a stochastic model which employs ANN (Artificial Neural Networks to model short-run dynamics and the dependence among adjacent hours. The model proposed treats each hour's load separately as individual single series. This approach avoids modeling the intricate intra-day pattern (load profile displayed by the load, which varies throughout days of the week and seasons. The forecasting performance of the model is evaluated in similiar mode a TLSAR (Two-Level Seasonal Autoregressive model proposed by Soares (2003 using the years of 1995 and 1996 as the holdout sample. Moreover, we conclude that non linearity is present in some series of these data. The model results are analyzed. The experiment shows that our tool can be used to produce load forecasting in tropical climate places.

  16. Targeted assembly of short sequence reads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René L Warren

    Full Text Available As next-generation sequence (NGS production continues to increase, analysis is becoming a significant bottleneck. However, in situations where information is required only for specific sequence variants, it is not necessary to assemble or align whole genome data sets in their entirety. Rather, NGS data sets can be mined for the presence of sequence variants of interest by localized assembly, which is a faster, easier, and more accurate approach. We present TASR, a streamlined assembler that interrogates very large NGS data sets for the presence of specific variants by only considering reads within the sequence space of input target sequences provided by the user. The NGS data set is searched for reads with an exact match to all possible short words within the target sequence, and these reads are then assembled stringently to generate a consensus of the target and flanking sequence. Typically, variants of a particular locus are provided as different target sequences, and the presence of the variant in the data set being interrogated is revealed by a successful assembly outcome. However, TASR can also be used to find unknown sequences that flank a given target. We demonstrate that TASR has utility in finding or confirming genomic mutations, polymorphisms, fusions and integration events. Targeted assembly is a powerful method for interrogating large data sets for the presence of sequence variants of interest. TASR is a fast, flexible and easy to use tool for targeted assembly.

  17. Short time ahead wind power production forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapronova, Alla; Meissner, Catherine; Mana, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    An accurate prediction of wind power output is crucial for efficient coordination of cooperative energy production from different sources. Long-time ahead prediction (from 6 to 24 hours) of wind power for onshore parks can be achieved by using a coupled model that would bridge the mesoscale weather prediction data and computational fluid dynamics. When a forecast for shorter time horizon (less than one hour ahead) is anticipated, an accuracy of a predictive model that utilizes hourly weather data is decreasing. That is because the higher frequency fluctuations of the wind speed are lost when data is averaged over an hour. Since the wind speed can vary up to 50% in magnitude over a period of 5 minutes, the higher frequency variations of wind speed and direction have to be taken into account for an accurate short-term ahead energy production forecast. In this work a new model for wind power production forecast 5- to 30-minutes ahead is presented. The model is based on machine learning techniques and categorization approach and using the historical park production time series and hourly numerical weather forecast. (paper)

  18. Leveraging FPGAs for Accelerating Short Read Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arram, James; Kaplan, Thomas; Luk, Wayne; Jiang, Peiyong

    2017-01-01

    One of the key challenges facing genomics today is how to efficiently analyze the massive amounts of data produced by next-generation sequencing platforms. With general-purpose computing systems struggling to address this challenge, specialized processors such as the Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) are receiving growing interest. The means by which to leverage this technology for accelerating genomic data analysis is however largely unexplored. In this paper, we present a runtime reconfigurable architecture for accelerating short read alignment using FPGAs. This architecture exploits the reconfigurability of FPGAs to allow the development of fast yet flexible alignment designs. We apply this architecture to develop an alignment design which supports exact and approximate alignment with up to two mismatches. Our design is based on the FM-index, with optimizations to improve the alignment performance. In particular, the n-step FM-index, index oversampling, a seed-and-compare stage, and bi-directional backtracking are included. Our design is implemented and evaluated on a 1U Maxeler MPC-X2000 dataflow node with eight Altera Stratix-V FPGAs. Measurements show that our design is 28 times faster than Bowtie2 running with 16 threads on dual Intel Xeon E5-2640 CPUs, and nine times faster than Soap3-dp running on an NVIDIA Tesla C2070 GPU.

  19. A short period undulator for MAX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahola, H.; Meinander, T.

    1992-01-01

    A hybrid undulator for generation of high brilliance synchrotron radiation in the photon energy range of 60--600 eV at the 550 MeV electron storage ring MAX in Lund, Sweden has been designed and built at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in close collaboration with MAX-lab of Lund University. At the rather modest electron energy of MAX this photon energy range can be reached only by an undulator featuring a fairly short period and the smallest possible magnetic gap. Even then, higher harmonics (up to the 13th) of the radiation spectrum must be utilized. An optimization of the magnetic design resulted in a hybrid configuration of NdFeB magnets and soft iron poles with a period of 24 mm and a minimum magnetic gap of 7--10 mm. A variable-gap vacuum chamber allows reduction of the vacuum gap from a maximum of 20 mm, needed for injection, down to 6 mm during stored beam operation. A special design of this chamber permits a magnetic gap between pole tips that is only 1 mm larger than the vacuum gap. Adequate field uniformity was ensured by calibration of magnets to equal strength at their true operating point and verification of the homogeneity of their magnetization. Magnetic measurements included Hall probe scans of the undulator field and flip coil evaluations of the field integral

  20. Lax representations for matrix short pulse equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popowicz, Z.

    2017-10-01

    The Lax representation for different matrix generalizations of Short Pulse Equations (SPEs) is considered. The four-dimensional Lax representations of four-component Matsuno, Feng, and Dimakis-Müller-Hoissen-Matsuno equations are obtained. The four-component Feng system is defined by generalization of the two-dimensional Lax representation to the four-component case. This system reduces to the original Feng equation, to the two-component Matsuno equation, or to the Yao-Zang equation. The three-component version of the Feng equation is presented. The four-component version of the Matsuno equation with its Lax representation is given. This equation reduces the new two-component Feng system. The two-component Dimakis-Müller-Hoissen-Matsuno equations are generalized to the four-parameter family of the four-component SPE. The bi-Hamiltonian structure of this generalization, for special values of parameters, is defined. This four-component SPE in special cases reduces to the new two-component SPE.

  1. Short tandem repeat analysis in Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiyada, M

    2000-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs), known as microsatellites, are one of the most informative genetic markers for characterizing biological materials. Because of the relatively small size of STR alleles (generally 100-350 nucleotides), amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is relatively easy, affording a high sensitivity of detection. In addition, STR loci can be amplified simultaneously in a multiplex PCR. Thus, substantial information can be obtained in a single analysis with the benefits of using less template DNA, reducing labor, and reducing the contamination. We investigated 14 STR loci in a Japanese population living in Sendai by three multiplex PCR kits, GenePrint PowerPlex 1.1 and 2.2. Fluorescent STR System (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) and AmpF/STR Profiler (Perkin-Elmer, Norwalk, CT, USA). Genomic DNA was extracted using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) proteinase K or Chelex 100 treatment followed by the phenol/chloroform extraction. PCR was performed according to the manufacturer's protocols. Electrophoresis was carried out on an ABI 377 sequencer and the alleles were determined by GeneScan 2.0.2 software (Perkin-Elmer). In 14 STRs loci, statistical parameters indicated a relatively high rate, and no significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected. We apply this STR system to paternity testing and forensic casework, e.g., personal identification in rape cases. This system is an effective tool in the forensic sciences to obtain information on individual identification.

  2. INVERTING ORTHOTOPIC ILEOCYSTOPLASTY FOR SHORT MESENTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Perepechay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During orthotopic ileocystoplasty, the short mesentery causes an increase in the risk of incompetence of anastomosis of the reservoir with the urethra. Inverting orthotopic ileocystoplasty ensures a free reservoir pull-through into the small pelvis and eliminates tissue tension in the anastomosis. The proposed procedure differs from the Studer operation in that the reservoir is sutured lengthwise, after which it is inverted between the mesenteric leaves. The posterior reservoir wall is anteverted and freely brought out into the small pelvis. This reduces the distance to the urethral stump by 3-4 cm. This procedure was used in 19 patients to be operated on. There were no cases of reservoir or reservoir-urethral anastomotic incompetence. The mean neocystic capacity was 110, 350, and 490 ml 0, 3, and 12 months, respectively, after urethral catheter removal. The maximum reservoir pressure does not exceed 40 (mean 30 cm H2O. Daytime urinary retention was 94.7%; nocturnal urinary retention during forced nocturnal miction was 79%. The obtained functional results compare well with those achieved during the similar procedures.

  3. INVERTING ORTHOTOPIC ILEOCYSTOPLASTY FOR SHORT MESENTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Perepechay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During orthotopic ileocystoplasty, the short mesentery causes an increase in the risk of incompetence of anastomosis of the reservoir with the urethra. Inverting orthotopic ileocystoplasty ensures a free reservoir pull-through into the small pelvis and eliminates tissue tension in the anastomosis. The proposed procedure differs from the Studer operation in that the reservoir is sutured lengthwise, after which it is inverted between the mesenteric leaves. The posterior reservoir wall is anteverted and freely brought out into the small pelvis. This reduces the distance to the urethral stump by 3-4 cm. This procedure was used in 19 patients to be operated on. There were no cases of reservoir or reservoir-urethral anastomotic incompetence. The mean neocystic capacity was 110, 350, and 490 ml 0, 3, and 12 months, respectively, after urethral catheter removal. The maximum reservoir pressure does not exceed 40 (mean 30 cm H2O. Daytime urinary retention was 94.7%; nocturnal urinary retention during forced nocturnal miction was 79%. The obtained functional results compare well with those achieved during the similar procedures.

  4. Laminar flow resistance in short microtubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phares, D.J. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Smedley, G.T.; Zhou, J. [Glaukos Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States). Dept. of Research and Development

    2005-06-01

    We have measured the pressure drop for the flow of liquid through a series of short microtubes ranging from 80 to 150 {mu}m in diameter with aspect ratios between L/D = 2 and L/D = 5. These dimensions were selected to resemble lumens of implantable microstents that are under consideration for the treatment of glaucoma. For physiologically relevant pressure drops and flow rates, we have determined that a fully-developed laminar pipe flow may be assumed throughout the microtube when (L/D) > 0.20Re, where Re is the Reynolds number based on the diameter, D, and L is the length of the tube. We have examined flow rates between 0.1 and 10 {mu}L/s, corresponding to Reynolds numbers between 1 and 150. For smooth microtubes, no difference from macroscopic flow is observed for the tube sizes considered. However, flow resistance is found to be sensitive to the relative surface roughness of the tube walls. (author)

  5. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Reis Milagres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

  6. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. Short Anabolic Peptides for Bone Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amso, Zaid; Cornish, Jillian; Brimble, Margaret A

    2016-07-01

    Loss of bone occurs in the age-related skeletal disorder, osteoporosis, leading to bone fragility and increased incidence of fractures, which are associated with enormous costs and substantial morbidity and mortality. Recent data indicate that osteoporotic fractures are more common than other diseases, which usually attract public attention (e.g., heart attack and breast cancer). The prevention and treatment of this skeletal disorder are therefore of paramount importance. Majority of osteoporosis medications restore skeletal balance by reducing osteoclastic activity, thereby reducing bone resorption. These agents, however, do not regenerate damaged bone tissue, leaving limited options for patients once bone loss has occurred. Recently, attention has turned to bone-anabolic agents. Such agents have the ability to increase bone mass and strength, potentially reversing structural damage. To date, only one bone-anabolic drug is available in the market. The discovery of more novel, cost-effective bone anabolic agents is therefore a priority to treat those suffering from this disabling condition. Short peptides offer an important alternative for the development of novel bone-anabolic agents given their high target binding specificity, which translates into potent activity with limited side effects. This review summarizes attempts in the identification of bone-anabolic peptides, and their development for promoting bone growth. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Are anomalously short tunnelling times measurable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, V.; Muga, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Low and Mende have analyzed the conditions that would make possible an actual measurement of an anomalously short traversal time through a potential barrier concluding that such a measurement cannot be made because it is not possible to describe the tunnelling of a wave packet initially close to the barrier by the open-quote open-quote usual wave packet space time analysis close-quote close-quote. We complement this work in several ways: It is argued that the described failure of the usual formalism occurs under a set of too restrictive conditions, some of them not physically motivated, so it does not necessarily imply the impossibility of such a measurement. However, by retaining only conditions well motivated on physical grounds we have performed a systematic numerical check which shows that the conclusion by Low and Mende is indeed generally valid. It is shown that, as speculated by Low and Mende, the process is dominated by over the barrier transmission. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  9. Short time ahead wind power production forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapronova, Alla; Meissner, Catherine; Mana, Matteo

    2016-09-01

    An accurate prediction of wind power output is crucial for efficient coordination of cooperative energy production from different sources. Long-time ahead prediction (from 6 to 24 hours) of wind power for onshore parks can be achieved by using a coupled model that would bridge the mesoscale weather prediction data and computational fluid dynamics. When a forecast for shorter time horizon (less than one hour ahead) is anticipated, an accuracy of a predictive model that utilizes hourly weather data is decreasing. That is because the higher frequency fluctuations of the wind speed are lost when data is averaged over an hour. Since the wind speed can vary up to 50% in magnitude over a period of 5 minutes, the higher frequency variations of wind speed and direction have to be taken into account for an accurate short-term ahead energy production forecast. In this work a new model for wind power production forecast 5- to 30-minutes ahead is presented. The model is based on machine learning techniques and categorization approach and using the historical park production time series and hourly numerical weather forecast.

  10. Short distance line of sight laser communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudassar, A.A.; Hussain, H.; Jamil-ur-Rehman

    1998-01-01

    Communication methods based on lasers as carrier are well known. In our work we have made a two way laser based communication system for short range (<2 Km) line of sight communication. A small piece of plane mirror (100% reflector) was mounted on the centre of a speaker cone. The speaker was positioned close to the opening of laser such that He-Ne laser beam (10 mW) after reflection from the mirror is directed towards the receiver. There is a pre-amplifier and an amplifier between a microphone and the speaker. When the diagram of the speaker vibrates, it positionally modulates the laser beam. On the receiving end, there is a photo diode, a pre-amplifier, an amplifier and a head phone. So the man on the receiving end can decode the sound signal. On each stage there is a transmitter and a receiver assembled close to each other. So the two way communication is possible in the range 20 to 20 Khz. (author)

  11. Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulder, Michael A.; White, Joanne C.; Masek, Jeffery G.; Dwyer, John L.; Roy, David P.

    2011-01-01

    As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record.

  12. Fuzzy approach for short term load forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenthur Pandian, S.; Duraiswamy, K.; Kanagaraj, N. [Electrical and Electronics Engg., K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode 637209, Tamil Nadu (India); Christober Asir Rajan, C. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry (India)

    2006-04-15

    The main objective of short term load forecasting (STLF) is to provide load predictions for generation scheduling, economic load dispatch and security assessment at any time. The STLF is needed to supply necessary information for the system management of day-to-day operations and unit commitment. In this paper, the 'time' and 'temperature' of the day are taken as inputs for the fuzzy logic controller and the 'forecasted load' is the output. The input variable 'time' has been divided into eight triangular membership functions. The membership functions are Mid Night, Dawn, Morning, Fore Noon, After Noon, Evening, Dusk and Night. Another input variable 'temperature' has been divided into four triangular membership functions. They are Below Normal, Normal, Above Normal and High. The 'forecasted load' as output has been divided into eight triangular membership functions. They are Very Low, Low, Sub Normal, Moderate Normal, Normal, Above Normal, High and Very High. Case studies have been carried out for the Neyveli Thermal Power Station Unit-II (NTPS-II) in India. The fuzzy forecasted load values are compared with the conventional forecasted values. The forecasted load closely matches the actual one within +/-3%. (author)

  13. Short-term natural gas consumption forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, P.; Govekar, E.; Grabec, I.

    2007-01-01

    Energy forecasting requirements for Slovenia's natural gas market were investigated along with the cycles of natural gas consumption. This paper presented a short-term natural gas forecasting approach where the daily, weekly and yearly gas consumption were analyzed and the information obtained was incorporated into the forecasting model for hourly forecasting for the next day. The natural gas market depends on forecasting in order to optimize the leasing of storage capacities. As such, natural gas distribution companies have an economic incentive to accurately forecast their future gas consumption. The authors proposed a forecasting model with the following properties: two submodels for the winter and summer seasons; input variables including past consumption data, weather data, weather forecasts and basic cycle indexes; and, a hierarchical forecasting structure in which a daily model was used as the basis, with the hourly forecast obtained by modeling the relative daily profile. This proposed method was illustrated by a forecasting example for Slovenia's natural gas market. 11 refs., 11 figs

  14. SHORT INTRODUCTION TO ETHICAL REASONING IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Hosta

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available It is clear at fi rst sight that sport is a very complex phenomenon, which generates ethical contradictions. It is pinned between moral-educational and essential biological movement drives on the one side. On the other side, it is trapped between extreme exploitation and passionate images of our time, and playful innocence of body and mind. By justifying ethical pluralism through our discussion we wish to point out that moral pluralism is not an apology for moral relativism, which can also be labeled as an ethical void. Moral autonomy of sport that is based on the idea of free pooling of civil society, and is at the same time trapped in the structure of the game, is inadmissible per se or has to be understood within the context of distinction among ethics of sport and sport ethics. Since we are dealing with pluralism, we cannot assure in advance the expected convincing power of ethical reasoning in sport. It is not uniform phenomenon and therefore such a demand would be too pretentious. However, as a PE teachers and trainers we need to stand fi rm on ethical grounds. We need to take into account that this short introduction is only a fi rst stage of understanding sport in order to develop further educational strategies to promote and practice socially responsible sport in the 21st century.

  15. Short term benefits for laparoscopic colorectal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, W; Haase, O; Neudecker, J; Müller, J M

    2005-07-20

    Colorectal resections are common surgical procedures all over the world. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery is technically feasible in a considerable amount of patients under elective conditions. Several short-term benefits of the laparoscopic approach to colorectal resection (less pain, less morbidity, improved reconvalescence and better quality of life) have been proposed. This review compares laparoscopic and conventional colorectal resection with regards to possible benefits of the laparoscopic method in the short-term postoperative period (up to 3 months post surgery). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CancerLit, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for the years 1991 to 2004. We also handsearched the following journals from 1991 to 2004: British Journal of Surgery, Archives of Surgery, Annals of Surgery, Surgery, World Journal of Surgery, Disease of Colon and Rectum, Surgical Endoscopy, International Journal of Colorectal Disease, Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery, Der Chirurg, Zentralblatt für Chirurgie, Aktuelle Chirurgie/Viszeralchirurgie. Handsearch of abstracts from the following society meetings from 1991 to 2004: American College of Surgeons, American Society of Colorectal Surgeons, Royal Society of Surgeons, British Assocation of Coloproctology, Surgical Association of Endoscopic Surgeons, European Association of Endoscopic Surgeons, Asian Society of Endoscopic Surgeons. All randomised-controlled trial were included regardless of the language of publication. No- or pseudorandomised trials as well as studies that followed patient's preferences towards one of the two interventions were excluded, but listed separately. RCT presented as only an abstract were excluded. Results were extracted from papers by three observers independently on a predefined data sheet. Disagreements were solved by discussion. 'REVMAN 4.2' was used for statistical analysis. Mean differences (95% confidence intervals) were used for analysing continuous variables. If

  16. Theoretical study of nitride short period superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, N. E.; Svane, A.

    2018-02-01

    Discussion of band gap behavior based on first principles calculations of electronic band structures for various short period nitride superlattices is presented. Binary superlattices, as InN/GaN and GaN/AlN as well as superlattices containing alloys, as InGaN/GaN, GaN/AlGaN, and GaN/InAlN are considered. Taking into account different crystallographic directions of growth (polar, semipolar and nonpolar) and different strain conditions (free-standing and pseudomorphic) all the factors influencing the band gap engineering are analyzed. Dependence on internal strain and lattice geometry is considered, but the main attention is devoted to the influence of the internal electric field and the hybridization of well and barrier wave functions. The contributions of these two important factors to band gap behavior are illustrated and estimated quantitatively. It appears that there are two interesting ranges of layer thicknesses; in one (few atomic monolayers in barriers and wells) the influence of the wave function hybridization is dominant, whereas in the other (layers thicker than roughly five to six monolayers) dependence of electric field on the band gaps is more important. The band gap behavior in superlattices is compared with the band gap dependence on composition in the corresponding ternary and quaternary alloys. It is shown that for superlattices it is possible to exceed by far the range of band gap values, which can be realized in ternary alloys. The calculated values of the band gaps are compared with the photoluminescence emission energies, when the corresponding data are available. Finally, similarities and differences between nitride and oxide polar superlattices are pointed out by comparison of wurtzite GaN/AlN and ZnO/MgO.

  17. Biomechanical Comparison of Shorts With Different Pads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolin, Giuseppe; Petrone, Nicola; Reggiani, Carlo; Panizzolo, Fausto A.; Paoli, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An intensive use of the bicycle may increase the risk of erectile dysfunction and the compression of the perineal area has been showed to be a major mechanism leading to sexual alterations compromising the quality of life. Manufacturers claim that pads contribute to increase cyclists perineal protection ensuring a high level of comfort. To investigate the influence of various cycling pads with regard to perineal protection and level of comfort. Nine club road cyclists rode 20 min on a drum simulator, located at the Nutrition and Exercise Physiology Laboratory, at a constant speed and gear ratio wearing the shorts with 3 cycling pads of different design and thickness: basic (BAS), intermediate (INT), and endurance (END). Kinematics and pressure data were recorded at min 5, 15, and 20 of the test using a motion capture system and a pressure sensor mat. The variables of interest were: 3-dimensional pelvis excursions, peak pressure, mean pressure, and vertical force. The comfort level was assessed with a ranking order based on the subjects’ perception after the 20-min trials and measuring the vertical ground reaction force under the anterior wheel as well as the length of the center of pressure (COP) trajectory on the saddle. Results showed that the vertical force and the average value of mean pressure on the saddle significantly decreased during the 20-min period of testing for BAS and END. Mean peak pressure on the corresponding perineal cyclist area significantly increased only for BAS during the 20-min period. Interestingly objective comfort indexes measured did not match cyclists subjective comfort evaluation. The lower capacity of BAS to reduce the peak pressure on the corresponding perineal area after 20 min of testing, together with its positive comfort evaluation, suggest that a balance between protection and perceived comfort should be taken into account in the choice of the pad. Hence, the quantitative approach of objective comfort indexes

  18. Design spectra development considering short time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, E.O.

    1983-01-01

    Two separate programs, MODQKE and MDOF, were written to provide a capability of obtaining equipment spectra from design spectra. MODQKE generates or modifies acceleration histories to conform with design spectra pertaining to, say, a foundation. MDOF is a simple linear modal superposition program that solves for equipment support histories using the design spectra conforming histories as input. Equipment spectra, then, are obtained from the support histories using MODQKE. MODQKE was written to modify or provide new histories with special attention paid to short seismic records. A technique from the open literature was borrowed to generate an initial history that approximates a given response spectrum. Further refinement is done with smoothing cycles in which several correction signals are added to the history in a way that produces a least squares fit between actual and prescribed spectra. Provision is made for history shaping, a baseline correction, and final scaling. MODQKE performance has been demonstrated with seven examples having zero to ten percent damping ratios, and 2.5 seconds to 20 seconds durations and a variety of target spectra. The examples show the program is inexpensive to use. MDOF is a simple modal superposition program. It has no eigensolver, and the user supplies mode shapes, frequencies, and participation factors as input. Floor spectra can be generated from design spectra by using a history from MODQKE that conforms to the design spectrum as input to MDOF. Floor motions from MDOF can be fed back to MODQKE without modification to obtain the floor spectra. A simple example is given to show how equipment mass effects can be incorporated into the MDOF solution. Any transient solution capability can be used to replace MDOF. For example, a direct transient approach may be desirable if both the equipment and floor structures are to be included in the model with different damping fractions. (orig./HP)

  19. Short Rotation Crops in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L L

    1998-06-04

    The report is based primarily on the results of survey questions sent to approximately 60 woody and 20 herbaceous crop researchers in the United States and on information from the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program. Responses were received from 13 individuals involved in woody crops research or industrial commercialization (with 5 of the responses coming from industry). Responses were received from 11 individuals involved in herbaceous crop research. Opinions on market incentives, technical and non-technical barriers, and highest priority research and development areas are summarized in the text. Details on research activities of the survey responders are provided as appendices to the paper. Woody crops grown as single-stem systems (primarily Populus and Eucalyptus species) are perceived to have strong pulp fiber and oriented strand board markets, and the survey responders anticipated that energy will comprise 25% or less of the utilization of single-stem short-rotation woody crops between now and 2010. The only exception was a response from California where a substantial biomass energy market does currently exist. Willows (Salix species) are only being developed for energy and only in one part of the United States at present. Responses from herbaceous crop researchers suggested frustration that markets (including biomass energy markets) do not currently exist for the crop, and it was the perception of many that federal incentives will be needed to create such markets. In all crops, responses indicate that a wide variety of research and development activities are needed to enhance the yields and profitability of the crops. Ongoing research activities funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program are described in an appendix to the paper.

  20. Coming up short on nonfinancial performance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittner, Christopher D; Larcker, David F

    2003-11-01

    Companies in increasing numbers are measuring customer loyalty, employee satisfaction, and other nonfinancial areas of performance that they believe affect profitability. But they've failed to relate these measures to their strategic goals or establish a connection between activities undertaken and financial outcomes achieved. Failure to make such connections has led many companies to misdirect their investments and reward ineffective managers. Extensive field research now shows that businesses make some common mistakes when choosing, analyzing, and acting on their nonfinancial measures. Among these mistakes: They set the wrong performance targets because they focus too much on short-term financial results, and they use metrics that lack strong statistical validity and reliability. As a result, the companies can't demonstrate that improvements in nonfinancial measures actually affect their financial results. The authors lay out a series of steps that will allow companies to realize the genuine promise of nonfinancial performance measures. First, develop a model that proposes a causal relationship between the chosen nonfinancial drivers of strategic success and specific outcomes. Next, take careful inventory of all the data within your company. Then use established statistical methods for validating the assumed relationships and continue to test the model as market conditions evolve. Finally, base action plans on analysis of your findings, and determine whether those plans and their investments actually produce the desired results. Nonfinancial measures will offer little guidance unless you use a process for choosing and analyzing them that relies on sophisticated quantitative and qualitative inquiries into the factors actually contributing to economic results.

  1. On-Demand Cell Internal Short Circuit Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric; Keyser, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    A device implantable in Li-ion cells that can generate a hard internal short circuit on-demand by exposing the cell to 60?C has been demonstrated to be valuable for expanding our understanding of cell responses. The device provides a negligible impact to cell performance and enables the instigation of the 4 general categories of cell internal shorts to determine relative severity and cell design susceptibility. Tests with a 18650 cell design indicates that the anode active material short to the aluminum cathode current collector tends to be more catastrophic than the 3 other types of internal shorts. Advanced safety features (such as shutdown separators) to prevent or mitigate the severity of cell internal shorts can be verified with this device. The hard short success rate achieved to date in 18650 cells is about 80%, which is sufficient for using these cells in battery assemblies for field-failure-relevant, cell-cell thermal runaway propagation verification tests

  2. Magnetic short range order and the exchange coupling in magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antropov, V.P.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss our recent results of time-dependent density functional simulations of magnetic properties of Fe and Ni at finite temperatures. These results indicated that a strong magnetic short range order is responsible for the magnetic properties of elementary Ni and any itinerant magnet in general. We demonstrated that one can use the value of the magnetic short range order parameter to produce new quantitative classification of magnets. We also discuss the nature of the exchange coupling and its connection with the short range order. The spin-wave like propagating and diffusive excitations in paramagnetic localized systems with small short range order have been predicted while in the itinerant systems the short range order is more complicated. The possible smallness of the quantum factor in the itinerant magnets with short range order is discussed

  3. Ultra-short laser pulses. Petawatt and femtosecond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, P.

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with a series of new results obtained thanks to the use of ultra-short laser pulses. This branch of physics has made incredible progresses during the last 25 years. Ultra-short laser pulses offer the opportunity to explore the domain of ultra-high energies and of ultra-short duration events. Applications are various, from controlled nuclear fusion to eye surgery and to more familiar industrial applications such as electronics. (J.S.)

  4. The Role of Short-term Consolidation in Memory Persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Ricker

    2015-01-01

    Short-term memory, often described as working memory, is one of the most fundamental information processing systems of the human brain. Short-term memory function is necessary for language, spatial navigation, problem solving, and many other daily activities. Given its importance to cognitive function, understanding the architecture of short-term memory is of crucial importance to understanding human behavior. Recent work from several laboratories investigating the entry of information into s...

  5. Radiopharmaceuticals and other compounds labelled with short-lived radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Welch, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals and Other Compounds Labelled with Short-Lived Radionuclides covers through both review and contributed articles the potential applications and developments in labeling with short-lived radionuclides whose use is restricted to institutions with accelerators. The book discusses the current and potential use of generator-produced radionuclides as well as other short-lived radionuclides, and the problems of quality control of such labeled compounds. The book is useful to nuclear medicine physicians.

  6. Nanoscale lamellae in an oxide dispersion strengthened steel processed by dynamic plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Mishin, Oleg; Tao, N. R.

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure of an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic PM2000 steel with a strong initial (100) texture has been investigated after compression by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) at room temperature to a strain of 2.1. Measurements using electron backscatter diffraction and transmission...

  7. Regeneration of gill lamellae of the Indian horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas (Muller)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Alam, H.; Joshi, B.K.; Bhonde, R.R.

    taxa of other plant groups l ike Coniferales and Cycadales. The appea r- ance of Ginkgoales in India du r ing Early Cretaceous is significant. Ther e fore, the present study is aimed to trace its lineage from the earl i est record of fossils from...

  8. Footprints in the sand: independent reduction of subdigital lamellae in the Namib–Kalahari burrowing geckos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Trip; Bauer, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    Many desert organisms exhibit convergence, and certain physical factors such as windblown sands have generated remarkably similar ecomorphs across divergent lineages. The burrowing geckos Colopus, Chondrodactylus and Palmatogecko occupy dune ecosystems in the Namib and Kalahari deserts of southwest Africa. Considered closely related, they share several putative synapomorphies, including reduced subdigital pads (toe pads) and spinose digital scales. Though recognized as part of Africa's ecologically diverse Pachydactylus Group, the burrowing geckos' precise phylogenetic affinities remain elusive. Convergent pedal modification provides a tenable alternative explaining the geckos' derived terrestriality and adaptation to Namib and Kalahari sands. We generated a molecular phylogeny for the Pachydactylus Group to examine evolutionary relationships among the burrowing geckos and infer historical patterns of pedal character change. Bayesian and parsimony analyses revealed all three burrowing genera to be deeply nested within Pachydactylus, each genus belonging to a separate clade. Strong support for these distinct clades indicates ecomorphological adaptations for burrowing have evolved independently three times in the southern Pachydactylus Group. We argue that the physical properties of Namib and Kalahari sands played a principal role in selecting for pedal similarity. PMID:16618680

  9. Footprints in the sand: independent reduction of subdigital lamellae in the Namib-Kalahari burrowing geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Trip; Bauer, Aaron M

    2006-04-07

    Many desert organisms exhibit convergence, and certain physical factors such as windblown sands have generated remarkably similar ecomorphs across divergent lineages. The burrowing geckos Colopus, Chondrodactylus and Palmatogecko occupy dune ecosystems in the Namib and Kalahari deserts of southwest Africa. Considered closely related, they share several putative synapomorphies, including reduced subdigital pads (toe pads) and spinose digital scales. Though recognized as part of Africa's ecologically diverse Pachydactylus Group, the burrowing geckos' precise phylogenetic affinities remain elusive. Convergent pedal modification provides a tenable alternative explaining the geckos' derived terrestriality and adaptation to Namib and Kalahari sands. We generated a molecular phylogeny for the Pachydactylus Group to examine evolutionary relationships among the burrowing geckos and infer historical patterns of pedal character change. Bayesian and parsimony analyses revealed all three burrowing genera to be deeply nested within Pachydactylus, each genus belonging to a separate clade. Strong support for these distinct clades indicates ecomorphological adaptations for burrowing have evolved independently three times in the southern Pachydactylus Group. We argue that the physical properties of Namib and Kalahari sands played a principal role in selecting for pedal similarity.

  10. CPV system based on NIR reflecting lamellae integrated into a greenhouse: Optimizing of Optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piet Sonneveld; Gert-Jan Swinkels

    2010-01-01

    In an previous research project a new type of greenhouse with an integrated concentrated photovoltaic system (CPV) was developed which has an integrated filter for reflecting the near infrared radiation (NIR) to the greenhouse and exploiting this radiation in a solar energy system. The performance

  11. Short-Term Memory and Aphasia: From Theory to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkina, Irene; Rosenberg, Samantha; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Martin, Nadine

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews existing research on the interactions between verbal short-term memory and language processing impairments in aphasia. Theoretical models of short-term memory are reviewed, starting with a model assuming a separation between short-term memory and language, and progressing to models that view verbal short-term memory as a cognitive requirement of language processing. The review highlights a verbal short-term memory model derived from an interactive activation model of word retrieval. This model holds that verbal short-term memory encompasses the temporary activation of linguistic knowledge (e.g., semantic, lexical, and phonological features) during language production and comprehension tasks. Empirical evidence supporting this model, which views short-term memory in the context of the processes it subserves, is outlined. Studies that use a classic measure of verbal short-term memory (i.e., number of words/digits correctly recalled in immediate serial recall) as well as those that use more intricate measures (e.g., serial position effects in immediate serial recall) are discussed. Treatment research that uses verbal short-term memory tasks in an attempt to improve language processing is then summarized, with a particular focus on word retrieval. A discussion of the limitations of current research and possible future directions concludes the review. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Innovation: study of 'ultra-short' time reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    This short article presents the new Elyse facility of Orsay-Paris 11 university for the study of ultra-short chemical and biochemical phenomena. Elyse uses the 'pump-probe' technique which consists in two perfectly synchronized electron and photon pulses. It comprises a 3 to 9 MeV electron accelerator with a HF gun photo-triggered with a laser. Elyse can initiate reactions using ultra-short electron pulses (radiolysis) or ultra-short photon pulses (photolysis). (J.S.)

  13. The Mind and Brain of Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.; Nee, Derek Evan; Lustig, Cindy A.; Berman, Marc G.; Moore, Katherine Sledge

    2008-01-01

    The past 10 years have brought near-revolutionary changes in psychological theories about short-term memory, with similarly great advances in the neurosciences. Here, we critically examine the major psychological theories (the “mind”) of short-term memory and how they relate to evidence about underlying brain mechanisms. We focus on three features that must be addressed by any satisfactory theory of short-term memory. First, we examine the evidence for the architecture of short-term memory, w...

  14. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy after short-term therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brandon N; Chun, Dal W

    2014-01-01

    To report an unusual case of hydroxychloroquine toxicity after short-term therapy. Observational case report. A 56-year-old woman presented to the Ophthalmology Clinic at Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) with a 6-month history of gradually decreasing vision in both eyes. The patient had been taking hydroxychloroquine for the preceding 48 months for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Examination of the posterior segment revealed bilateral "bull's eye" macular lesions. Fundus autofluorescence revealed hyperfluorescence of well-defined bull's eye lesions in both eyes. Optical coherence tomography revealed corresponding parafoveal atrophy with a loss of the retinal inner segment/outer segment junction. Humphrey visual field 10-2 white showed significant central and paracentral defects with a generalized depression. The patient was on a standard dose of 400 mg daily, which was above her ideal dose. The patient had no history of kidney or liver dysfunction. There were no known risk factors but there were several possible confounding factors. The patient was started on high-dose nabumetone, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, at the same time she was started on hydroxychloroquine. She also reported taking occasional ibuprofen. Retinal toxicity from chloroquine has been recognized for decades with later reports showing retinopathy from long-term hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) use for the treatment of antiinflammatory diseases. Hydroxychloroquine is now widely used and retinal toxicity is relatively uncommon. However, it can cause serious vision loss and is usually irreversible. The risk of hydroxychloroquine toxicity rises to nearly 1% with a total cumulative dose of 1,000 g, which is ∼5 years to 7 years of normal use. Toxicity is rare under this dose. For this reason, the American Academy of Ophthalmology has revised its recommendations such that annual screenings begin 5 years after therapy with hydroxychloroquine has begun unless there are known risk

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Chaos: A Very Short Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klages, R.

    2007-07-01

    is also getting a bit too intricate for the complete layman, and experts may not agree on all details of the more conceptual discussions. Altogether I thoroughly enjoyed reading this book. It was a happy companion while travelling and a nice bedtime literature. It is furthermore an excellent reminder of the `big picture' underlying nonlinear science as it applies to the real world. I will gladly recommend this book as background literature for students in my introductory course on dynamical systems. However, the book will be of interest to anyone who is looking for a very short account on fundamental problems and principles in modern nonlinear science.

  16. Rehabilitation of the short pelvic floor. II: Treatment of the patient with the short pelvic floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, M P; Kotarinos, R

    2003-10-01

    Several urogynecologic syndromes are associated with the clinical finding of a short, painful, tender and weak pelvic floor and a variety of connective tissue abnormalities. Techniques for rehabilitation include the avoidance of perpetuating factors, rehabilitation of extrapelvic musculoskeletal abnormalities, the use of manual techniques and needling to promote resolution of connective tissue problems, closure of any diastasis recti, and transvaginal/transrectal manual release of muscular trigger points and contractures. Therapy can be facilitated by pudendal or epidural nerve block. Patients contribute to their success through home maintenance programs.

  17. Language Identification in Short Utterances Using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazo, Ruben; Lozano-Diez, Alicia; Gonzalez-Dominguez, Javier; Toledano, Doroteo T; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) have recently outperformed other state-of-the-art approaches, such as i-vector and Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), in automatic Language Identification (LID), particularly when dealing with very short utterances (∼3s). In this contribution we present an open-source, end-to-end, LSTM RNN system running on limited computational resources (a single GPU) that outperforms a reference i-vector system on a subset of the NIST Language Recognition Evaluation (8 target languages, 3s task) by up to a 26%. This result is in line with previously published research using proprietary LSTM implementations and huge computational resources, which made these former results hardly reproducible. Further, we extend those previous experiments modeling unseen languages (out of set, OOS, modeling), which is crucial in real applications. Results show that a LSTM RNN with OOS modeling is able to detect these languages and generalizes robustly to unseen OOS languages. Finally, we also analyze the effect of even more limited test data (from 2.25s to 0.1s) proving that with as little as 0.5s an accuracy of over 50% can be achieved.

  18. Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight - Short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Wright, Kenneth P., Jr.; Ronda, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight - Short (Sleep-Short) will examine the effects of spaceflight on the sleep of the astronauts during space shuttle missions. Advancing state-of-the-art technology for monitoring, diagnosing and assessing treatment of sleep patterns is vital to treating insomnia on Earth and in space.

  19. Short-term memories with a stochastic perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, Jose C.A. de; Batista, Antonio M.; Viana, Ricardo L.; Lopes, Sergio R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate short-term memories in linear and weakly nonlinear coupled map lattices with a periodic external input. We use locally coupled maps to present numerical results about short-term memory formation adding a stochastic perturbation in the maps and in the external input

  20. Short-term Memory as a Processing Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Smith, Marion Quinn

    1975-01-01

    The series of experiments described here examined the predictions for free recall from sequential models and the shift formulation, focusing on the roles of short- and long-term memory in the primacy/recency shift and on the effects of expectancies on short- and long-term memory. (Author/RK)

  1. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts

  2. Isobar configurations in nuclei and short range correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, H J

    1979-01-01

    Recent results on short range correlations and isobar configurations are reviewed, and in particular a unitary version of the isobar model, coupling constants and rho -meson transition potentials, a comparison with experiments, the CERN N*-knockout from /sup 4/He, QCD and the NN interaction of short range. (42 refs).

  3. 29 CFR 778.306 - Salary reductions in short workweeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary reductions in short workweeks. 778.306 Section 778... Special Problems How Deductions Affect the Regular Rate § 778.306 Salary reductions in short workweeks. (a... an employee is compensated at a fixed salary for a fixed workweek and if this salary is reduced by...

  4. Pediatric polytrauma : Short-term and long-term outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderSluis, CK; Kingma, J; Eisma, WH; tenDuis, HJ

    Objective: To assess the short-term and long-term outcomes of pediatric polytrauma patients and to analyze the extent to which short-term outcomes can predict long-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: Ail pediatric polytrauma patients (Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 16, less than

  5. Short-Circuit Modeling of a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2011-03-01

    This paper investigates the short-circuit behavior of a WPP for different types of wind turbines. The short-circuit behavior will be presented. Both the simplified models and detailed models are used in the simulations and both symmetrical faults and unsymmetrical faults are discussed.

  6. Temporal Dynamics of Recovery from Extinction Shortly after Extinction Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbold, Georgina E.; Dobbek, Nick; Nader, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that extinction is new learning. Memory acquisition involves both short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) components; however, few studies have examined early phases of extinction retention. Retention of auditory fear extinction was examined at various time points. Shortly (1-4 h) after extinction acquisition…

  7. Short-lasting headache syndromes and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Todd D

    2004-08-01

    A number of primary headache syndromes are marked by their short duration of pain. Many of these syndromes have their own unique treatment, so they must be recognized by practicing physicians. In this article, a number of the short-lasting headache disorders are reviewed, including chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT syndrome, hypnic headache, exploding head syndrome, primary stabbing headache, and cough headache.

  8. Comparison of Sugammadex and Neostigmine in Short Term Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Koc

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study compared the efficacy and cost effectivines of sugammadex and neostigmine for reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium for short term elective surgery. Material and Method: After written informed consent, 33 patients aged 18%u201365, ASA I-III, who were undergoing short term surgery (

  9. 48 CFR 53.301-1438 - Settlement Proposal (Short Form).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement Proposal (Short Form). 53.301-1438 Section 53.301-1438 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-1438 Settlement Proposal (Short...

  10. Feasibility of progressive strength training shortly after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Jan; Kristensen, Morten T

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of a 6-wk progressive strength-training programme commenced shortly after hip fracture surgery in community-dwelling patients.......To investigate the feasibility of a 6-wk progressive strength-training programme commenced shortly after hip fracture surgery in community-dwelling patients....

  11. Short-Term Group Treatment for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alvin; McCormack, WIlliam A.

    1992-01-01

    Adult children of alcoholics (n=24) were tested on measures of loneliness, anxiety, hostility, depression, and interpersonal dependency before and after participation in short-term group therapy. Highly significant test score changes supported effectiveness of individual therapy in short-term groups. (Author/NB)

  12. On the Consistency of Individual Classification Using Short Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas; Meijer, Rob R.

    2007-01-01

    Short tests containing at most 15 items are used in clinical and health psychology, medicine, and psychiatry for making decisions about patients. Because short tests have large measurement error, the authors ask whether they are reliable enough for classifying patients into a treatment and a nontreatment group. For a given certainty level,…

  13. Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-06

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  14. Book Review: Leslie Holmes, Corruption: A Very Short Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keremis, Anestis

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Corruption. A Very Short Introduction / by Leslie Holmes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. 143pp., £7.99 (p/b), ISBN 9780199689699.......Book review of: Corruption. A Very Short Introduction / by Leslie Holmes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. 143pp., £7.99 (p/b), ISBN 9780199689699....

  15. A short introduction to image analysis - Matlab exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg

    2000-01-01

    This document contain a short introduction to Image analysis. In addition small exercises has been prepared in order to support the theoretical understanding.......This document contain a short introduction to Image analysis. In addition small exercises has been prepared in order to support the theoretical understanding....

  16. Thyristor based short circuit current injection in isolated grids

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Bjarte; Sharma, Pawan; Østrem, Trond

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a thyristor based short circuit current injector for providing short circuit current in isolated and weak grids, where sufficient fault current to trigger circuit breakers may not be available. This will allow the use of conventional miniature circuit breakers, which requires high fault current for instantaneous tripping. The method has been validated through experiments.

  17. TCAD analysis of short-circuit oscillations in IGBTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Rahimo, Munaf

    2017-01-01

    Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) exhibit a gate-voltage oscillation phenomenon during short-circuit, which can result in a gate-oxide breakdown. The oscillations have been investigated through device simulations and experimental investigations of a 3.3-kV IGBT. It has been found...... during short circuit....

  18. Short-Term Robustness of Production Management Systems : New Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the short-term robustness of production planning and control systems. This robustness is defined here as the systems ability to maintain short-term service probabilities (i.e., the probability that the fill rate remains within a prespecified range), in a variety of

  19. Testing for Short Memory in a VARMA Process

    OpenAIRE

    Oke, Timothy; Öller, Lars-Erik

    1997-01-01

    We generalize the short term memory test of an ARMA model, presented in Öller (1985), to the multivariate VARMA cases. In a study on Swedish exports and OECD demand we demonstrate how the multivariate setting extends the short memory.

  20. Multicultural personality questionnaire : Development of a short form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Zee, Karen; Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Fietzer, Alexander W.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the development of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire-Short Form among 511 participants. Using a split-sample scale validation design, Study 1 (N = 260) employed a principal component analysis and rigorous item selection criteria to extract a 40-item short form

  1. Latent lifestyle and mode choice decisions when travelling short distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2016-01-01

    In the quest for sustainable travel, short distances appear the most amenable to curbing the use of the automobile. Existing studies about short trips evaluate the potential of shifting from the automobile to sustainable travel options while considering the population as homogeneous in its prefer...

  2. Short-Term Reciprocity in Late Parent-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Thomas; Raab, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Long-term concepts of parent-child reciprocity assume that the amount of support given and received is only balanced in a generalized fashion over the life course. We argue that reciprocity in parent-child relationships also operates in the short term. Our analysis of short-term reciprocity focuses on concurrent exchange in its main upward and…

  3. A Short Introduction to Semitic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Agostini

    2001-06-01

    spoken and written in Ugarit (Ras Shamra on the north coast of Phoenicia in the 14-13th centuries BC, before this city was sacked. The first Ugaritic texts, discovered in the late 1920's, were written with alphabetic characters resembling cuneiform script. Canaanite constitutes a group of closely-related idioms from Palestina, Phoenicia and Syria. Records go back to cca 1500 BC. The major Canaanite languages are Phoenician, Punic, Moabite, Edomite, Hebrew and Ammonite. Initially all were written in Phoenician script. Letters from the 14th century BC in Akkadian, the language of diplomacy at the time and discovered at Tell el-Amarna in Egypt, contain "mistakes", i.e. early Canaanite words and phrases. Phoenician records extend from cca 1000 BC (inscriptions from Lebanon, Syria, Israel, Cypms, etc. to the early CE. Punic, developed from Phoenician in Phoenician colonies around the Mediterranean from the 9th century BC., was still spoken in the 5th century CE. Moabite, Edomite and Ammonite were spoken in present-day Jordan. Only a few short inscriptions and seals from the 9-5th century BC survive in these languages, which were probably supplanted by Aramaic. The best-known text, in Moabite, is inscribed on the Mesha Stone from about 840 BC; in it Mesha, King of Moab, recounts his battles against King Omri of Israel. Aramaic is recorded from 850 BC in Syria (the Tell Fekheriye stele. It spread very quickly and by the 6th century BC it was the administrative language and lingua franca in the entire Middle East. Aramaic supplanted many Semitic languages, including Akkadian and Hebrew. Only Greek rivaled it for dominance in the Middle East until the Arab conquest of the 7th century CE. Aramaic of the pre-Christian era (Ancient Aramaic or Imperial Aramaic is known from inscriptions, papyrus letters and documents, and from the Old Testament books of Ezra and Daniel. The Aramaic alphabet was derived from Canaanite script. By the 1st century CE, written Aramaic divided into

  4. Short-pulse laser interactions with disordered materials and liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phinney, L.M.; Goldman, C.H.; Longtin, J.P.; Tien, C.L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    High-power, short-pulse lasers in the picosecond and subpicosecond range are utilized in an increasing number of technologies, including materials processing and diagnostics, micro-electronics and devices, and medicine. In these applications, the short-pulse radiation interacts with a wide range of media encompassing disordered materials and liquids. Examples of disordered materials include porous media, polymers, organic tissues, and amorphous forms of silicon, silicon nitride, and silicon dioxide. In order to accurately model, efficiently control, and optimize short-pulse, laser-material interactions, a thorough understanding of the energy transport mechanisms is necessary. Thus, fractals and percolation theory are used to analyze the anomalous diffusion regime in random media. In liquids, the thermal aspects of saturable and multiphoton absorption are examined. Finally, a novel application of short-pulse laser radiation to reduce surface adhesion forces in microstructures through short-pulse laser-induced water desorption is presented.

  5. Verbal Short-Term Memory Span in Speech-Disordered Children: Implications for Articulatory Coding in Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Children with speech disorders had lower short-term memory capacity and smaller word length effect than control children. Children with speech disorders also had reduced speech-motor activity during rehearsal. Results suggest that speech rate may be a causal determinant of verbal short-term memory capacity. (BC)

  6. The Short Selling Regulation in the EU: Assessing the Authorization Granted for ESMA to Prohibit Short Selling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Huhtilainen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the renewed short selling regulation (Regulation (EU No 236/2012 in the European Union. The focus is on the provisions that deal with prohibiting short selling in exceptional market circumstances. The Regulation further enforces certain obligations to report and disclose short positions. It is concluded that banning short selling is not an effective tool to contain extreme price volatility. The difference-in-differences regression and repeated measures GLM were used to test whether short selling bans were successful in containing volatility of those Spanish and Italian stocks that were subject to two back-to-back prohibitions during the years 2011-2013. The results are consistent with the majority of previous research, suggesting that the effectiveness of short sale constraints in reducing volatility is limited at best. Furthermore, there are evidence of counterproductive effects: constraints on short selling may actually increase volatility as well as deteriorate liquidity. However, based on theory and previous studies, reporting and disclosure requirements shall be favored provided they improve market efficiency as well as supervisory work of regulatory bodies.This paper discusses the renewed short selling regulation (Regulation (EU No 236/2012 in the European Union. The focus is on the provisions that deal with prohibiting short selling in exceptional market circumstances. The Regulation further enforces certain obligations to report and disclose short positions. It is concluded that banning short selling is not an effective tool to contain extreme price volatility. The difference-in-differences regression and repeated measures GLM were used to test whether short selling bans were successful in containing volatility of those Spanish and Italian stocks that were subject to two back-to-back prohibitions during the years 2011-2013. The results are consistent with the majority of previous research, suggesting that the

  7. Evaluation of Short Term Memory Span Function In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ERGÜL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although details of the information encoded in the short-term memory where it is stored temporarily be recorded in the working memory in the next stage. Repeating the information mentally makes it remain in memory for a long time. Studies investigating the relationship between short-term memory and reading skills that are carried out to examine the relationship between short-term memory processes and reading comprehension. In this study information coming to short-term memory and the factors affecting operation of short term memory are investigated with regression model. The aim of the research is to examine the factors (age, IQ and reading skills that are expected the have an effect on short-term memory in children through regression analysis. One of the assumptions of regression analysis is to examine which has constant variance and normal distribution of the error term. In this study, because the error term is not normally distributed, robust regression techniques were applied. Also, for each technique; coefficient of determination is determined. According to the findings, the increase in age, IQ and reading skills caused the increase in short term memory in children. After applying robust regression techniques, the Winsorized Least Squares (WLS technique gives the highest coefficient of determination.

  8. Additive manufacturing of short and mixed fibre-reinforced polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, James; Duoss, Eric B.; Rodriguez, Jennifer Nicole; Worsley, Marcus A.; King, Michael J.

    2018-01-09

    Additive manufacturing of a fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) product using an additive manufacturing print head; a reservoir in the additive manufacturing print head; short carbon fibers in the reservoir, wherein the short carbon fibers are randomly aligned in the reservoir; an acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin in the reservoir, wherein the short carbon fibers are dispersed in the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin; a tapered nozzle in the additive manufacturing print head operatively connected to the reservoir, the tapered nozzle produces an extruded material that forms the fiber-reinforced polymer product; baffles in the tapered nozzle that receive the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin with the short carbon fibers dispersed in the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin; and a system for driving the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin with the short carbon fibers dispersed in the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin from the reservoir through the tapered nozzle wherein the randomly aligned short carbon fibers in the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin are aligned by the baffles and wherein the extruded material has the short carbon fibers aligned in the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin that forms the fiber-reinforced polymer product.

  9. Audit of long-term and short-term liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinko M.D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the importance of long-term and short-term liabilities for the management of financial and material resources of an enterprise. It reviews the aim, objects and information generators for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations. The organizing and methodical providing of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities of an enterprise are generalized. The authors distinguish the stages of realization of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities, the aim of audit on each of the presented stages, and recommend methodical techniques. It is fixed that it is necessary to conduct the estimation of the systems of internal control and record-keeping of an enterprise by implementation of public accountant procedures for determination of volume and maintenance of selection realization. After estimating the indicated systems, a public accountant determines the methodology for realization of public accountant verification of long-term and short-term liabilities. The analytical procedures that public accountants are expedient to use for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations are determined. The authors suggest the classification of the educed defects on the results of the conducted public accountant verification of short-term and long-term obligations.

  10. Hard probes of short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Arrington, D. W. Higinbotham, G. Rosner, M. Sargsian

    2012-10-01

    The strong interaction of nucleons at short distances leads to a high-momentum component to the nuclear wave function, associated with short-range correlations between nucleons. These short-range, high-momentum structures in nuclei are one of the least well understood aspects of nuclear matter, relating to strength outside of the typical mean-field approaches to calculating the structure of nuclei. While it is difficult to study these short-range components, significant progress has been made over the last decade in determining how to cleanly isolate short-range correlations in nuclei. We have moved from asking if such structures exist, to mapping out their strength in nuclei and studying their microscopic structure. A combination of several different measurements, made possible by high-luminosity and high-energy accelerators, coupled with an improved understanding of the reaction mechanism issues involved in studying these structures, has led to significant progress, and provided significant new information on the nature of these small, highly-excited structures in nuclei. We review the general issues related to short-range correlations, survey recent experiments aimed at probing these short-range structures, and lay out future possibilities to further these studies.

  11. Improved Short-Circuit Protection for Power Cells in Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2008-01-01

    A scheme for protection against short circuits has been devised for series strings of lithium electrochemical cells that contain built-in short-circuit protection devices, which go into a high-resistance, current-limiting state when heated by excessive current. If cells are simply connected in a long series string to obtain a high voltage and a short circuit occurs, whichever short-circuit protection device trips first is exposed to nearly the full string voltage, which, typically, is large enough to damage the device. Depending on the specific cell design, the damage can defeat the protective function, cause a dangerous internal short circuit in the affected cell, and/or cascade to other cells. In the present scheme, reverse diodes rated at a suitably high current are connected across short series sub-strings, the lengths of which are chosen so that when a short-circuit protection device is tripped, the voltage across it does not exceed its rated voltage. This scheme preserves the resetting properties of the protective devices. It provides for bypassing of cells that fail open and limits cell reversal, though not as well as does the more-expensive scheme of connecting a diode across every cell.

  12. Simulation and experimental study on lithium ion battery short circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rui; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Both external and internal short circuit tests were performed on Li-ion batteries. • An electrochemical–thermal model with an additional nail site heat source is presented. • The model can accurately simulate the temperature variations of non-venting batteries. • The model is reliable in predicting the occurrence and start time of thermal runaway. • A hydrogel cooling system proves its strength in preventing battery thermal runaway. - Abstract: Safety is the first priority in lithium ion (Li-ion) battery applications. A large portion of electrical and thermal hazards caused by Li-ion battery is associated with short circuit. In this paper, both external and internal short circuit tests are conducted. Li-ion batteries and battery packs of different capacities are used. The results indicate that external short circuit is worse for smaller size batteries due to their higher internal resistances, and this type of short can be well managed by assembling fuses. In internal short circuit tests, higher chance of failure is found on larger capacity batteries. A modified electrochemical–thermal model is proposed, which incorporates an additional heat source from nail site and proves to be successful in depicting temperature changes in batteries. Specifically, the model is able to estimate the occurrence and approximate start time of thermal runaway. Furthermore, the effectiveness of a hydrogel based thermal management system in suppressing thermal abuse and preventing thermal runaway propagation is verified through the external and internal short tests on batteries and battery packs.

  13. Learning From Short Text Streams With Topic Drifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peipei; He, Lu; Wang, Haiyan; Hu, Xuegang; Zhang, Yuhong; Li, Lei; Wu, Xindong

    2017-09-18

    Short text streams such as search snippets and micro blogs have been popular on the Web with the emergence of social media. Unlike traditional normal text streams, these data present the characteristics of short length, weak signal, high volume, high velocity, topic drift, etc. Short text stream classification is hence a very challenging and significant task. However, this challenge has received little attention from the research community. Therefore, a new feature extension approach is proposed for short text stream classification with the help of a large-scale semantic network obtained from a Web corpus. It is built on an incremental ensemble classification model for efficiency. First, more semantic contexts based on the senses of terms in short texts are introduced to make up of the data sparsity using the open semantic network, in which all terms are disambiguated by their semantics to reduce the noise impact. Second, a concept cluster-based topic drifting detection method is proposed to effectively track hidden topic drifts. Finally, extensive studies demonstrate that as compared to several well-known concept drifting detection methods in data stream, our approach can detect topic drifts effectively, and it enables handling short text streams effectively while maintaining the efficiency as compared to several state-of-the-art short text classification approaches.

  14. Introduction to nanotechnology: a short course for high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Alexey V.

    2016-04-01

    This report devoted to presenting results of development and implementation of a short course (4 hours) entitled "Introduction to Nanotechnology" that was specially designed for familiarizing high school students with nanomaterials and nanotechnology. The course contains introduction to nanotechnology, essential definitions, short overview of history, descriptions for various examples of nanomaterials and their classifications, performing demonstration experiments. All these parts of the course are briefly analyzed from pedagogical effectiveness point of view. Finally, results of course testing, problems and perspectives of nano-oriented education at high school are also discussed shortly.

  15. Potential barrier classification by short-time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granot, Er'el; Marchewka, Avi

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the short-time dynamics of a delta-function potential barrier on an initially confined wave packet. There are mainly two conclusions: (A) At short times the probability density of the first particles that passed through the barrier is unaffected by it. (B) When the barrier is absorptive (i.e., its potential is imaginary) it affects the transmitted wave function at shorter times than a real potential barrier. Therefore, it is possible to distinguish between an imaginary and a real potential barrier by measuring its effect at short times only on the transmitting wave function

  16. Potential barrier classification by short-time measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Er'El; Marchewka, Avi

    2006-03-01

    We investigate the short-time dynamics of a delta-function potential barrier on an initially confined wave packet. There are mainly two conclusions: (A) At short times the probability density of the first particles that passed through the barrier is unaffected by it. (B) When the barrier is absorptive (i.e., its potential is imaginary) it affects the transmitted wave function at shorter times than a real potential barrier. Therefore, it is possible to distinguish between an imaginary and a real potential barrier by measuring its effect at short times only on the transmitting wave function.

  17. Short read sequence typing (SRST: multi-locus sequence types from short reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inouye Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST has become the gold standard for population analyses of bacterial pathogens. This method focuses on the sequences of a small number of loci (usually seven to divide the population and is simple, robust and facilitates comparison of results between laboratories and over time. Over the last decade, researchers and population health specialists have invested substantial effort in building up public MLST databases for nearly 100 different bacterial species, and these databases contain a wealth of important information linked to MLST sequence types such as time and place of isolation, host or niche, serotype and even clinical or drug resistance profiles. Recent advances in sequencing technology mean it is increasingly feasible to perform bacterial population analysis at the whole genome level. This offers massive gains in resolving power and genetic profiling compared to MLST, and will eventually replace MLST for bacterial typing and population analysis. However given the wealth of data currently available in MLST databases, it is crucial to maintain backwards compatibility with MLST schemes so that new genome analyses can be understood in their proper historical context. Results We present a software tool, SRST, for quick and accurate retrieval of sequence types from short read sets, using inputs easily downloaded from public databases. SRST uses read mapping and an allele assignment score incorporating sequence coverage and variability, to determine the most likely allele at each MLST locus. Analysis of over 3,500 loci in more than 500 publicly accessible Illumina read sets showed SRST to be highly accurate at allele assignment. SRST output is compatible with common analysis tools such as eBURST, Clonal Frame or PhyloViz, allowing easy comparison between novel genome data and MLST data. Alignment, fastq and pileup files can also be generated for novel alleles. Conclusions SRST is a novel

  18. Impact of additional surface observation network on short range ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stations (AWS) surface observations (temperature and moisture) on the short range forecast over the Indian ... models, which are able to resolve mesoscale fea- ... J. Earth Syst. Sci. ..... terization of the snow field in a cloud model; J. Climate.

  19. Plastic instability in short tubes with internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blass, A.; Moro, N.

    1981-01-01

    Corrections are presented to a previous formulation, which becomes more suitable to the analysis of the plastic instability of both short and long tubes. Existing experimental evidence confirms moderately this statement. (Author) [pt

  20. Short-term effects of simultaneous cardiovascular workout and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PMD), has become a growing public health concern, as it may potentially result in the development of hearing difficulties. Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the differential impact and short-term effects of simultaneous ...