WorldWideScience

Sample records for shorelines protection act

  1. 78 FR 33051 - Non-Rock Alternatives to Shoreline Protection Demonstration Project (LA-16) Iberia, Jefferson...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service Non-Rock Alternatives to...-Rock Alternatives to Shoreline Protection Demonstration Project (LA-16), Iberia, Jefferson, and... and environmental limitations preclude the use of rock structures. The shoreline protection systems...

  2. Decision analysis of shoreline protection under climate change uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Philip T.; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    1997-04-01

    If global warming occurs, it could significantly affect water resource distribution and availability. Yet it is unclear whether the prospect of such change is relevant to water resources management decisions being made today. We model a shoreline protection decision problem with a stochastic dynamic program (SDP) to determine whether consideration of the possibility of climate change would alter the decision. Three questions are addressed with the SDP: (l) How important is climate change compared to other uncertainties?, (2) What is the economic loss if climate change uncertainty is ignored?, and (3) How does belief in climate change affect the timing of the decision? In the case study, sensitivity analysis shows that uncertainty in real discount rates has a stronger effect upon the decision than belief in climate change. Nevertheless, a strong belief in climate change makes the shoreline protection project less attractive and often alters the decision to build it.

  3. The management of shoreline protection and treatment operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.

    1996-01-01

    The management of shoreline cleaning operations in the event of an oil spill, was discussed. An eight-step approach was introduced which was based on the definition of objectives and strategies. The discussion included evaluation of the feasibility of each of these strategies, as well as the effects of the proposed actions. It was emphasized that apart from natural recovery, any response action will have an effect either directly, by the protection or treatment actions, or indirectly, by the support actions, on the shore zone or the adjacent backshore. The main purpose of a response is to accelerate natural recovery. This new response approach can be an effective management tool, since the use of standard terms and strategy statements give operations personnel a well defined set of instruction which reduce the potential for misinterpretation. 4 refs., 9 figs

  4. Field guide for the protection and cleanup of oiled Arctic shorelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.

    1996-01-01

    Practical suggestions for the protection, treatment and cleanup of oiled shorelines during summer and open-water conditions are described. This manual was developed as a field guide to be used during spill response operations for the rapid identification of shoreline response options. Special attention is given to techniques that are normally available and appropriate for shoreline types and coastal environmental setting that are typical of Arctic regions. The guide is divided into four main sections: (1) shoreline protection, (2) treatment strategy by shoreline type, (3) treatment or cleanup methods, and (4) response strategies for specific environments. The importance of the type and volume of oil spilled, and the environmental factors that should be taken into account in the event of a spill (time of year, weather, ice and wave conditions) are stressed. The presence of sensitive resources such as wildlife, fish stocks, plant communities and human-use activities are also considered. tabs., figs

  5. Radiological Protection Act 1970

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Act provides for the establishment of a Radiological Protection Board to undertake research and advise on protection from radiation hazards. Its functions include provision of advice to Government departments with responsibilities in relation to protection of sectors of the community or the community as a whole against the hazards of ionizing radiation. The Act, which lays down that the Board shall replace certain departments concerned with radiation protection, repeals several Sections of the Radioactive Substances Act 1948 and the Science and Technology Act 1965. (NEA) [fr

  6. A field guide for the protection and treatment of shorelines following an Orimulsion spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E. O.; Sergy, G.

    1997-01-01

    A field guide for use in marine shoreline protection and treatment for Orimulsion was prepared. Orimulsion is a bitumen-based fuel consisting of 70 per cent bitumen and 30 per cent water, stabilized by a surfactant. The guide addresses a wide range of issues related to the protection and cleanup of Orimulsion contamination. Topics covered include the fate, behaviour, persistence and natural removal rates, recommended techniques for shoreline protection, terminology for assessment documentation, and response decision guidelines. The manual covers both forms of Orimulsion, i.e. the non-sticky dispersed bitumen, as well as the tarry residue that results from weathering. 13 refs., 8 figs

  7. The Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1989-01-01

    The new Radiation Protection Act (1988:220) entered into force in Sweden on July 1st, 1988. This book presents the Act as well as certain regulations connected to it. As previously, the main responsibility for public radiation protection will rest with one central radiation protection authority. According to the 1988 Act, the general obligations with regard to radiation protection will place a greater responsibility than in the past on persons carrying out activities involving radiation. Under the act, it is possible to adjust the licensing and supervisory procedures to the level of danger of the radiation source and the need for adequate competence, etc. The Act recognises standardised approval procedures combined with technical regulations for areas where the risks are well known. The Act contains several rules providing for more effective supervision. The supervising authority may in particular decide on the necessary regulations and prohibitions for each individual case. The possibilities of using penal provisions have been extended and a rule on the mandatory execution of orders has been introduced. The Ordinance on Radiation Protection (1988:293) designates the National Institute of Radiation Protection (SSI) as the central authority referred to in the Radiation Protection Act. The book also gives a historic review of radiation protection laws in Sweden, lists regulations issued by SSI and presents explanations of radiation effects and international norms in the area. (author)

  8. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  9. Preventive Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewer, H.

    1988-01-01

    The commentary is intended to contribute to protection of the population by a practice-oriented discussion and explanation of questions arising in connection with the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Leaving aside discussions about abandonment of nuclear power, or criticism from any legal point of view, the commentary adopts the practical approach that accepts, and tries to help implementing, the act as it is. It is a guide for readers who are not experts in the law and gives a line of orientation by means of explanations and sometimes by citations from other acts (in footnotes). The commentary also presents the EURATOM Directive No. 3954/87 dated 22 December 1987, the EC Directive No. 3955/87 dated 22 December 1987, and the EC Directive No. 1983/88 dated 5 July 1988. A tabular survey shows the system of duties and competences defined by the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. (RST) [de

  10. Radiological protection act, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Act provides for the establishment of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland and dissolves An Bord Fuinnimh Nuicleigh (the Board), transferring its assets and liabilities to the Institute. It sets out a range of radiation protection measures to be taken by various Ministers in the event of a radiological emergency and gives effect at national level to the Assistance Convention, the Early Notification Convention and the Physical Protection Convention. The Institute is the competent Irish authority for the three Conventions. (NEA) [fr

  11. The present and future role of coastal wetland vegetation in protecting shorelines: Answering recent challenges to the paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedan, Keryn B.; Kirwan, Matthew L.; Wolanski, Eric; Barbier, Edward B.; Silliman, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    For more than a century, coastal wetlands have been recognized for their ability to stabilize shorelines and protect coastal communities. However, this paradigm has recently been called into question by small-scale experimental evidence. Here, we conduct a literature review and a small meta-analysis of wave attenuation data, and we find overwhelming evidence in support of established theory. Our review suggests that mangrove and salt marsh vegetation afford context-dependent protection from erosion, storm surge, and potentially small tsunami waves. In biophysical models, field tests, and natural experiments, the presence of wetlands reduces wave heights, property damage, and human deaths. Meta-analysis of wave attenuation by vegetated and unvegetated wetland sites highlights the critical role of vegetation in attenuating waves. Although we find coastal wetland vegetation to be an effective shoreline buffer, wetlands cannot protect shorelines in all locations or scenarios; indeed large-scale regional erosion, river meandering, and large tsunami waves and storm surges can overwhelm the attenuation effect of vegetation. However, due to a nonlinear relationship between wave attenuation and wetland size, even small wetlands afford substantial protection from waves. Combining man-made structures with wetlands in ways that mimic nature is likely to increase coastal protection. Oyster domes, for example, can be used in combination with natural wetlands to protect shorelines and restore critical fishery habitat. Finally, coastal wetland vegetation modifies shorelines in ways (e.g. peat accretion) that increase shoreline integrity over long timescales and thus provides a lasting coastal adaptation measure that can protect shorelines against accelerated sea level rise and more frequent storm inundation. We conclude that the shoreline protection paradigm still stands, but that gaps remain in our knowledge about the mechanistic and context-dependent aspects of shoreline

  12. Coral reefs as the first line of defense: Shoreline protection in face of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliff, Carla I; Silva, Iracema R

    2017-06-01

    Coral reefs are responsible for a wide array of ecosystem services including shoreline protection. However, the processes involved in delivering this particular service have not been fully understood. The objective of the present review was to compile the main results in the literature regarding the study of shoreline protection delivered by coral reefs, identifying the main threats climate change imposes to the service, and discuss mitigation and recovery strategies that can and have been applied to these ecosystems. While different zones of a reef have been associated with different levels of wave energy and wave height attenuation, more information is still needed regarding the capacity of different reef morphologies to deliver shoreline protection. Moreover, the synergy between the main threats imposed by climate change to coral reefs has also not been thoroughly investigated. Recovery strategies are being tested and while there are numerous mitigation options, the challenge remains as to how to implement them and monitor their efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act is concerned with regulating the registration, installation, operation, inspection and safety of X-ray machines. The Act provides for the establishment of the Healing Arts Radiation Protection Commission which is responsible for reporting on all the above matters to the Ontario Minister of Health. In addition the board is responsible for the continuing development of an X-ray safety code and for the submission of an annual report of their activities to the minister

  14. The American Inventors Protection Act

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Arvid O.I.; Kleimeier, Stefanie; Mimiroglu, Nagihan; Pennings, Joost M.E.

    2018-01-01

    We examine the impact of innovation disclosure through patenting on firms' cost of debt, focusing on the American Inventors Protection Act (AIPA) as an exogenous shock in innovation disclosure regulation. Post-AIPA, firms have an incentive to apply for patents only if commercial success is likely.

  15. Radiological Protection Miscellaneous Provisions Act 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish Legislation

    2014-07-01

    This Act provides for the dissolution of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland and the transfer of all its functions, assets, liabilities and staff to the Environmental Protection Agency, to give effect to the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material done at Vienna on 8 July 2005, to amend the Radiological Protection Act 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency Act 1992 and certain other enactments, and to provide for matters connected therewith

  16. Response of roseate tern to a shoreline protection project on Falkner Island, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C.J.; Spendelow, J.A.; Guilfoyle, Michael P.; Fischer, Richard A.; Pashley, David N.; Lott, Casey A.

    2007-01-01

    Construction was initiated following the 2000 tern breeding season for Phase 1 of a planned two-phase ?Shoreline Protection and Erosion Control Project? at the Falkner Island Unit of the USFWS Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge located in Long Island Sound off the coast of Guilford, CT. When the Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) and federally endangered Roseate Tern (S. dougallii) arrived in spring 2001, they encountered several major habitat changes from what had existed in previous years. These changes included: a rock revetment covering most of the former nesting habitat on the beach from the northwestern section around the northern tip and covering about 60% of the eastern side; an elevated 60- ? 4-m shelf covering the beach and lower bank of the southwestern section; and about 2,000 sq m of devegetated areas on top of the island on the northeast side above the revetment, and about one-third of the southern half of the island. The southwest shelf was created by bulldozing and compacting extra construction fill and in situ materials. This shelf differed in internal structure from the main revetment on the north and eastern sections of the island because it lacked the deep internal crevices of the revetment. The deep internal crevices were created from the large stones and boulders (up to 2 tons) used in the construction of the main revetment. Small rock and gravel was used to fill the crevices to within 3 feet (0.9 m) of the surface of the revetment. Because half-buried tires and nest boxes for the six Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) sub-colony areas were deployed in similar patterns on the remaining beach, and nest boxes were placed on the newly elevated shelf areas several meters above previous locations on the now-covered beach areas, the distribution of Roseate Tern nests did not change much from 2000 to 2001. However, the movements of Roseate Tern chicks ? in many cases led by their parents towards traditional hiding places ? into the labyrinth of

  17. New Croatian Act on Ionizing Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grgic, S.

    1998-01-01

    According to the new Croatian Act on ionizing radiation protection which is in a final stage of genesis, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Croatia is the governmental body responsible for all aspects relating sources of ionizing radiation in Croatia: practices, licenses, users, transport, in medicine and industry as well, workers with sources of ionizing radiation, emergency preparedness in radiological accidents, storage of radioactive wastes, x-ray machines and other machines producing ionizing radiation and radioactive materials in the environment. Ministry of Health is responsible to the Government of the Republic of Croatia, closely collaborating with the Croatian Radiation Protection Institute, health institution for the performance of scientific and investigation activities in the field of radiation protection. Ministry of Health is also working together with the Croatian Institute for the Occupational Health. More emphasis has been laid on recent discussion among the world leading radiation protection experts on justification of the last recommendations of the ICRP 60 publication. (author)

  18. Consumer protection act for digital products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Viktor E.

    1996-03-01

    This report proposes a `Consumer Protection Act for Digital Products' to support electronic commerce and to control the increasing abuse and lack of security on the national information highways. Patterned after the `Food and Drug Act of 1906 (21 USC)' and subsequent legislation, a new agency similar to that of the FDA would have the authority `to develop administrative policy with regard to the safety, effectiveness, and labeling of digital products and their communications for human use, and to review and evaluate new applications of such products.' Specifically, it is proposed that standards, originally developed by the defense industry for the labeling, enveloping, and authentication of digital products delivered to the Government, be extended to promote global electronic commerce by protecting the intellectual property rights of producers, establishing their liability for the end-use of digital products, and give consumers means for informed decision making and purchase.

  19. Nile Delta exhibited a spatial reversal in the rates of shoreline retreat on the Rosetta promontory comparing pre- and post-beach protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Eman; Mashaly, Jehan; Gamble, Douglas; Halls, Joanne; AbuBakr, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    The coastline of the Nile Delta experienced accelerated erosion since the construction of the Aswan High Dam in 1964 and, consequently, the entrapment of a large amount of river sediments behind it. The coastline of the Rosetta promontory showed the highest erosion in the Delta with an average retreat rate of 137.4 m year- 1. In 1991, in an effort to mitigate sediment loss, a 4.85 km long seawall was built on the outer margin of the promontory. For additional beach protection, 15 groins were constructed along the eastern and western sides of the seawall in 2003 and 2005. To quantify erosion and accretion patterns along the Rosetta promontory, 11 Landsat images acquired at unequal intervals during a 40 year time span (1972 and 2012) were analyzed. The positions of shorelines were automatically extracted from satellite imagery and compared with three very high resolution QuickBird and WorldView2 images for data validation. Analysis of the rates of shoreline change revealed that the construction of the seawall was largely successful in halting the recession along the tip of the promontory, which lost 10.8 km2 prior to coastal protection. Conversely, the construction of the 15 groins has negatively affected the coastal morphology of the promontory and caused a reversal from accretion to fast erosion along the promontory leeside, where some segments of the shoreline have undergone as much as 30.8 m year- 1 of erosion. Without hard structures, the tip of the Rosetta promontory would have retreated 2.3 km by 2013 and lost 7.2 km2 of land. About 10% of this land is deltaic fertile cultivated farms. Moreover, without additional protection the sides of the promontory will lose about 1.3 km2 of land and the coastline would recede at an average rate of 200 m by 2020. Unless action is taken, coastal erosion, enhanced by rising sea level, will steadily eat away the Nile Delta at an alarming rate. The successful demonstration of the advocated procedures in this study could be

  20. The Whistleblower Protection Act: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitaker, L. P

    2007-01-01

    .... Generally, whistleblower protections may be raised within four forums or proceedings: (1) employee appeals to the Merit Systems Protection Board of an agency's adverse action against an employee, known as Chapter 77 appeals; (2...

  1. Radiological Protection (Amendment) Act, 2002. Number 3 of 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This Act amends the Radiological Protection Acts, 1991 and 1995, and provides for the making of grants out of funds provided by the legislature for remediation works for houses having certain levels of radon gas and for the administration by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland of such grants and to provide for related matters

  2. The impact of the Consumer Protection Act on pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, K; van Eeden, E

    2014-11-01

    The Consumer Protection Act of 2008 has had far-reaching consequences for suppliers of goods and services in South Africa. The implementation of the Act has important implications for all suppliers who enter into 'consumer transactions.' This article aims to stimulate awareness of the legal consequences of the Act arising from day-to-day situations occurring in the pharmacy, and to highlight the compliance obligations that the Act creates for pharmacists.

  3. Radiation Protection and Control Act 1982. No 49 of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Act provides for radiation protection in the State of South Australia. It controls activities related to radioactive substances and irradiating apparatus and lays down a licensing system to this effect. The South Australia Health Commission is responsible for administering the Act and is advised by the Radiation Protection Committee created for this purpose. The powers and duties of both bodies are set out in detail. (NEA) [fr

  4. 60 years of Health Protection under the Clean Air Acts

    OpenAIRE

    Longhurst, J.

    2016-01-01

    2016 marks 60 years of UK Clean Air Acts. This presentation explores the challenges, opportunities and progress since the Clean Air Act, 1956. It reflects upon historical attempts to manage air pollution noting success factors and barriers to progress. Particular attention is given to the impact of the 1952 Great Smog and the role of National Smoke Abatement Society, the forerunner of Environmental Protection UK, in creating the momentum for the 1956 Act. The presentation concludes with a rev...

  5. Cuspate Shoreline Morphology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McWilliams, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    Large beach cusps with wavelengths O(200m), sometimes termed mega-cusps, were measured along 18km of the Southern Monterey Bay coastline from October 2004 to April 2005 to investigate the cuspate shoreline response to rip current systems...

  6. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-31

    Two laws governing activities in the marine environment are considered in this Reference Book. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) regulates ocean dumping of waste, provides for a research program on ocean dumping, and provides for the designation and regulation of marine sanctuaries. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA, P.L. 92-522) establishes a federal program to protect and manage marine mammals. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA, P.L. 94-265) establishes a program to regulate marine fisheries resources and commercial marine fishermen. Because the Department of Energy (DOE) is not engaged in any activities that could be classified as fishing under FCMA, this Act and its regulations have no implications for the DOE; therefore, no further consideration of this Act is given within this Reference Book. The requirements of the MPRSA and the MMPA are discussed in terms of their implications for the DOE.

  7. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998. Act No 133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A set of legislation consisting of three Acts in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety was passed by both Houses of Parliament on 10 December 1998 and was proclaimed on 5 February 1999. Act No. 133 - Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act, which is a framework Law, established the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) as the regulatory body for radiation protection and nuclear safety, in place of the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA, who is appointed by the Governor-General for a term of up to 5 years, is obliged to submit annual and quarterly reports to the Minister on the operations of the Chief Executive Officer, ARPANSA, the Council, the Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee. The Council is a consultative body which examines issues relating to radiation protection and nuclear safety and advises the Chief Executive Officer on these issues as well as on the adoption of recommendations, policies and codes. The Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee are to be established as advisory committees to the Chief Executive Officer or the Council. Both committees should draft national policies, codes and standards in their respective fields and review their effectiveness periodically. The second in this series of legislation, Act No. 134, Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (License Charges) Act requires holders of both facility and source licenses to pay an annual charge, to be prescribed by the regulations. The third, Act No. 135 , Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Consequential Amendments) Act repeals those provisions of the 1987 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Act which concern the Nuclear Safety Bureau, and the 1978 Environment Protection Act as a whole

  8. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998. Act No 133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A set of legislation consisting of three Acts in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety was passed by both Houses of Parliament on 10 December 1998 and was proclaimed on 5 February 1999. Act No. 133 - Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act, which is a framework Law, established the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) as the regulatory body for radiation protection and nuclear safety, in place of the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA, who is appointed by the Governor-General for a term of up to 5 years, is obliged to submit annual and quarterly reports to the Minister on the operations of the Chief Executive Officer, ARPANSA, the Council, the Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee. The Council is a consultative body which examines issues relating to radiation protection and nuclear safety and advises the Chief Executive Officer on these issues as well as on the adoption of recommendations, policies and codes. The Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee are to be established as advisory committees to the Chief Executive Officer or the Council. Both committees should draft national policies, codes and standards in their respective fields and review their effectiveness periodically. The second in this series of legislation, Act No. 134, Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (License Charges) Act requires holders of both facility and source licenses to pay an annual charge, to be prescribed by the regulations. The third, Act No. 135 , Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Consequential Amendments) Act repeals those provisions of the 1987 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Act which concern the Nuclear Safety Bureau, and the 1978 Environment Protection Act as a whole

  9. Radiation Protection Ordinance. Preventive Radiation Protection Act. 3. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Zerlett, G.

    1990-01-01

    This 3rd edition presents the official explanations of the legislative intent behind the Radiation Protection Ordinance of 1976 and the 2nd amending ordinance, and the commentaries which as usual refer to the legal aspects and the related medical, scientific, and technical aspects. As a consequence of the reactor accident at Chernobyl, the existing radiation protection law has been extended by the Act for Preventive Measures for Pretection of the Population Against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiation (Preventive Radiation Protection Act), establishing preventive legal provisions and measures, so that this new edition has likewise been extended by commentaries on the Protective Radiation Protection Act and an introduction to the new area of law. The material also includes the Act for Establishment of a Federal Office for Radiation Protection, of October 9, 1989, which amended the Atomic Energy Act and the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. The correction of the Radiation Protection Ordinance of October 16, 1989 (BGBl. I p. 1926) has been incorporated into the text of the amended version of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. Court decisions and literature referred to cover material published up to the first months of 1989. (orig.) [de

  10. Environment Protection (Alligator Rivers Region) Act 1978, No.28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The main object of this Act is to provide for the appointment of a Supervising Scientist responsible for supervising protection of the environment in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory from the effects of uranium mining operations. His functions include advising the competent Minister on the effects of uranium mining operations on the environment and on standards, practices and procedures for its protection and restoration. The Act also sets up a Co-ordinating Committee responsible for programmes for research into the environmental effects of such mining operations and also keeping under review standards, practices and procedures for environmental protection in relation thereto. Finally the Act provides for the establishment of a Research Institute managed by the Supervising Scientist, to promote and assist in research as well as to collect information on the environmental effects of uranium mining operations. (NEA) [fr

  11. Guide to the Federal Act for Protection against Nuisances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.; Wiedemann, R.

    1980-07-01

    The Federal Act for Protection against Nuisances contains all legal provisions related to pollution, noise, convulsions and shocks, thermal effects and similar effects on the environment. Apart from provisions of the actual Act for Protection against Nuisances, provisions related to nuisances are to be found in a number of legal fields. The authors provide a handy, completable survey on all relevant laws, ordinances, administrative regulations and directives issued by the Government of the federation and its individual states, and on the authorities responsible for their execution. The manual helps improve the transparency of legal provisions and adminstrative competences. (HSCH) [de

  12. 77 FR 63240 - Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... organizations, companies with whom consumers have an established business relationship, and calls to persons... Consumer Protection Act of 1991 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; announcement of effective date. SUMMARY: In this document, the Commission announces that the Office of Management...

  13. JC Knobel THE BALD AND GOLDEN EAGLE PROTECTION ACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USC 1531) (USA); and the Environment Protection and Biodiversity ... Province); Bophuthatswana Nature Conservation Act 3 of 1973 (Northwest Province, Free State) ... scientist may find it difficult to correctly identify members of the two species ..... usually sites its nest in trees close to water, the Golden Eagle usually breeds ...

  14. 77 FR 66935 - Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 [CG Docket No. 02-278; FCC 12-21] Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction...: Karen Johnson, Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau, Consumer Policy Division, at (202) 418- 7706 or...

  15. Environment Protection (Northern Territory Supreme Court) Act 1978, No.30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Act relates to the enforcement by the Supreme Court of the Northern Territory of certain provisions for protecting the environment in the Alligator Rivers Region; it provides that the Supreme Court has jurisdiction to make orders concerning enforcement of provisions relating to the environmental effects in the Region of uranium mining operations. (NEA) [fr

  16. Multidecadal shoreline changes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabuth, Alina Kristin; Kroon, Aart; Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp

    2014-01-01

    Multidecadal shoreline changes along ca. 7000 km coastline around Denmark were computed for the time interval between 1862 AD and 2005 AD and were connected with a geomorphological coastal classification. The shoreline data set was based on shoreline positions from historical and modern topograph...... shoreline changes around Denmark, the mapping can contribute to enhanced adaptation and mitigation strategies in response to increased risks of erosion and flooding under a changing climate....

  17. National assessment of shoreline change: historical shoreline change along the Pacific Northwest coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggerio, Peter; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Reid, David; Allan, Jonathan; Kaminsky, George

    2013-01-01

    Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to increase and infrastructure is threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along the open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally. In the case of the analysis of shoreline change in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), the shoreline is the interpreted boundary between the ocean water surface and the sandy beach. This report on the PNW coasts of Oregon and Washington is the seventh in a series of regionally focused reports on historical shoreline change. Previous investigations include analyses and descriptive reports of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Morton and others, 2004), the southeastern Atlantic (Morton and Miller, 2005), the sandy shorelines (Hapke and others, 2006) and coastal cliffs (Hapke and Reid, 2007) of California, the New England and mid-Atlantic coasts (Hapke and others, 2011), and parts of the Hawaii coast (Fletcher and others, 2012). Like the earlier reports in this series, this report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results of the analysis, provides explanations regarding long- and short-term trends and rates of shoreline change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. This report differs from the early USGS reports in the series in that those

  18. Numerical Modeling of Shoreline Undulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg

    model has been developed which describes the longshore sediment transport along arbitrarily shaped shorelines. The numerical model is based on a spectral wave model, a depth integrated flow model, a wave-phase resolving sediment transport description and a one-line shoreline model. First the theoretical...... of the feature and under predicts the migration speeds of the features. On the second shoreline, the shoreline model predicts undulations lengths which are longer than the observed undulations. Lastly the thesis considers field measurements of undulations of the bottom bathymetry along an otherwise straight...... length of the shoreline undulations is determined in the linear regime using a shoreline stability analysis based on the numerical model. The analysis shows that the length of the undulations in the linear regime depends on the incoming wave conditions and on the coastal profile. For larger waves...

  19. Overview of shoreline cleaning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, J.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical cleaning agents may be used to promote release of stranded oil from shorelines for reasons including biological sensitivity of indigenous fauna and flora to the oil, amenity considerations of the shoreline, or concern about refloating of the oil and subsequent stranding on adjacent shorelines. While use of chemical cleaning agents may be appropriate under proper toxic responses in circumstances, certain limitations should be recognized. The potential for toxic responses in indigenous fauna and flora to the cleaning agents must be considered. Enhanced penetration of oil into permeable shorelines following treatment with chemical cleaning agents also is not desirable. However, if conditions related to toxicity and substrate permeability are determined to be acceptable, the use of chemical cleaning agents for treatment of stranded oil can be considered. Chemical agents for cleaning oiled shorelines can be grouped into three categories: (1) non-surfactant-based solvents, (2) chemical dispersants, and (3) formulations especially designed to release stranded oil from shoreline substrates (i.e., shoreline-cleaning-agents). Depending on the specific circumstances present on an oiled shoreline, it is generally desirable that chemical agents used for cleaning will release oil from shoreline substrate(s) to surface waters. Recovery of the oil can then be accomplished by mechanical procedures such as booming and skimming operations

  20. Environment Protection (Nuclear Codes) Act 1978, No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this Act is to make provision for protecting the health and safety of the people of Australia, and the environment from possible harmful effects associated with nuclear activities. The competent Federal Minister, after consultation with the appropriate Minister of each State, may from time to time arrange for the formulation of codes of practice for regulating and controlling nuclear activities. Also, the Governor-General may authorize by order a Minister to take such action as is necessary to control and eliminate hazards to the health and safety of persons, or the environment, resulting from a nuclear activity. (NEA) [fr

  1. The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, species-based legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act of 1940 bestows legal protection on two North American eagle species in the United States of America. The Act was originally aimed at the legal protection of only one species: the Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus, the national symbol of the USA. Later the Act was amended to ...

  2. Licensing procedures according to the Federal Act Protection Against Nuisances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, K.

    1977-01-01

    On March 1st, 1977 the 9th decree of the Protection Against Nuisances came into force, which, as the first comprehensive and state-uniform regulation contains the principles of the licensing procedure supplementary to legal provisions. The legal provision is based on numerous recent regulations of procedure from which in the meantime an essential stock of regulations relating to the licensing procedure has emerged. In general, two aims are to be achieved by this new regulation: The acceleration and simplification of the licensing procedure as will as the imperative guaranteeing in this procedure of the rights of the neighbouring areas, and of the society in general by a constitutional state. The legal provision provides in part new legal instruments for this. Examples on which the legal provisions are based are presented in the introduction. Subsequent explanations of provisions of the decree are to assist the application of the new act. Relevant regulations of the Federal Act for Protection Against Nuisances, as well as further supplementary provisions are given in the supplement. (orig.) [de

  3. Reservoir shorelines : a methodology for evaluating operational impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, M.; Braund-Read, J.; Musgrave, B. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    BC Hydro has been operating hydroelectric facilities for over a century in British Columbia. The integrity and stability of the shorelines and slopes bordering hydroelectric reservoirs is affected by changing water levels in the reservoir, natural processes of flooding, wind and wave action and modification of groundwater levels. Establishing setbacks landward of the shoreline are needed in order to protect useable shoreline property that may be at risk of flooding, erosion or instability due to reservoir operations. Many of the reservoirs in British Columbia are situated in steep, glaciated valleys with diverse geological, geomorphological and climatic conditions and a variety of eroding shorelines. As such, geotechnical studies are needed to determine the operational impacts on reservoir shorelines. Since the 1960s BC Hydro has been developing a methodology for evaluating reservoir impacts and determining the land around the reservoir perimeter that should remain as a right of way for operations while safeguarding waterfront development. The methodology was modified in the 1990s to include geomorphological and geological processes. However, uncertainties in the methodology still exist due to limited understanding of key issues such as rates of erosion and shoreline regression, immaturity of present day reservoir shorelines and impacts of climate change. 11 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  4. Protecting personal information: Implications of the Protection of Personal Information (POPI) Act for healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, M

    2017-10-31

    Careless handling of patient information in daily medical practice can result in Health Professions Council of South Africa sanction, breach of privacy lawsuits and, in extreme cases, serious monetary penalty or even imprisonment. This review will focus on the Protection of Personal Information (POPI) Act (No. 4 of 2013) and the implications thereof for healthcare professionals in daily practice. Recommendations regarding the safeguarding of information are made.

  5. Litigation against dermatosurgeons and cosmetologists and consumer protection act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of beauty has acquired new dimensions due to the increasing awareness in general public about the aesthetic procedures. The problems between the patient and the cosmetologists arise when the patients expectations become very high and unrealistic. The classical concept of doctor – patient relationship born in the golden days of family physicians has undergone drastic change due to dramatic advancement in medical technology, availability of sophisticated imaging system, high tech electronics and preponderance of new diseases. However, the accountability of the doctors under the law of professional negligence has emerged as a debatable issue among the medical fraternity all over the country after the enactment of the consumer protection act, 1986, which has not only changed the law of medical negligence1, but created an inexpensive and speedy remedy against medical malpractice.

  6. Living Shoreline Designs in Urban Systems: Examples from New York and Baltimore Harbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, T.

    2017-12-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricanes Irene and Sandy, there was a renewed interest in protecting our shorelines and restoring community resiliency by using natural and nature based features. We observed in the wake of these storms that those shorelines that had been protected by natural features sustained less damage. But how well can we mimic these natural features? And how do we determine which strategy is best along a given shoreline? A series of living shoreline pilot projects are presented, highlighting the design and construction for the different strategies and how they are being monitored and adapted to sea level rise.

  7. 75 FR 52512 - Acceptance of Public Submissions on the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... and Consumer Protection Act and the Rulemakings That Will Be Proposed by the Commission AGENCY...-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (``Dodd-Frank Act'') was enacted on July 21, 2010... Consumer Protection Act (``Dodd-Frank Act''), Public Law 111-203, was enacted. The Dodd-Frank Act will...

  8. 77 FR 70583 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Parts 144, 147, 150, et al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules... and 156 [CMS-9972-P] RIN 0938-AR40 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market... Affordable Care Act with respect to health insurance issuers and group health plans that are non-federal...

  9. County Boundaries with Shorelines (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — County boundaries with shorelines cut in (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and...

  10. NOAA Coastal Mapping Shoreline Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Mapping Shoreline Products from the Remote Sensing Division are primarily for application to the nautical charts produced by NOAA's Office of Coast...

  11. 78 FR 13101 - No FEAR Act Notice; Notice of Rights and Protections Available Under Federal Antidiscrimination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... No. 1] No FEAR Act Notice; Notice of Rights and Protections Available Under Federal... FEAR Act. The Act requires that federal agencies provide notice to their employees, former employees.... 1214(f). Nothing in the No FEAR Act alters existing laws or permits an agency to take unfounded...

  12. Regulations under the Radiation Protection and Control Act, 1982, No. 221 of 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    These Regulations made under the Radiation Protection and Control Act of 1982, amend several numerical quotations contained in the Radiation Safety (Transport) Regulations, No. 27, 1984, also made under the above mentioned Act. (NEA) [fr

  13. Yugoslavia: Act of 21 November 1984 on radiation protection and the safe use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Act which entered into force on 1 December 1984 repeals the 1976 Act on Protection against Ionizing Radiation and regulates most of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and radiation protection in Yugoslavia. The Act lays down the licensing procedure for nuclear installations and covers safety-related questions in connection with standards, technical criteria etc. It also takes into account several areas regulated at international level, namely safeguards and physical protection of nuclear material. (NEA) [fr

  14. Power Scaling of the Mainland Shoreline of the Atlantic Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, E.; Barton, C. C.; Geise, G. R.; Rizki, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    The fractal dimension of the mainland shoreline of the Atlantic coast of the United Stated from Maine to Homestead, FL has been measured in 1000 km increments using the box-counting method. The shoreline analyzed is the NOAA Medium Resolution Shoreline (https://shoreline.noaa.gov/data/datasheets/medres.html). The shoreline was reconstituted into sequentially numbered X-Y coordinate points in UTM Zone 18N which are spaced 50 meters apart, as measured continuously along the shoreline. We created a MATLAB computer code to measure the fractal dimension by box counting while "walking" along the shoreline. The range of box sizes is 0.7 to 450 km. The fractal dimension ranges from 1.0 to1.5 along the mainland shoreline of the Atlantic coast. The fractal dimension is compared with beach particle sizes (bedrock outcrop, cobbles, pebbles, sand, clay), tidal range, rate of sea level rise, rate and direction of vertical crustal movement, and wave energy, looking for correlation with the measured fractal dimensions. The results show a correlation between high fractal dimensions (1.3 - 1.4) and tectonically emergent coasts, and low fractal dimensions (1.0 - 1.2) along submergent and stable coastal regions. Fractal dimension averages 1.3 along shorelines with shoreline protection structures such as seawalls, jetties, and groins.

  15. NOAA Composite Shoreline - Vectorized Shoreline Derived From NOAA-NOS Coastal Survey Maps and Aerial Photographs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Composite Shoreline is primarily intended for high-resolution cartographic representation of the shoreline. It is a high-resolution vector shoreline based...

  16. 16 CFR 313.16 - Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONGRESS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date § 313.16 Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. Nothing in this part shall be construed to modify, limit, or... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. 313...

  17. 12 CFR 216.16 - Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date § 216.16 Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. Nothing in this part shall be construed to modify, limit, or... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. 216.16...

  18. 12 CFR 573.16 - Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date § 573.16 Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. Nothing in this part shall be construed to modify, limit, or supersede the operation of the... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. 573.16...

  19. 12 CFR 716.16 - Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date § 716.16 Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. Nothing in this part shall be construed to modify, limit, or supersede the... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. 716.16...

  20. 12 CFR 332.16 - Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date § 332.16 Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. Nothing in this part shall be construed to modify, limit, or... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. 332.16...

  1. 14 CFR 374.3 - Compliance with the Consumer Credit Protection Act and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements of the Consumer Credit Protection Act, 15 U.S.C. 1601-1693r. Any violation of the following... PROTECTION ACT WITH RESPECT TO AIR CARRIERS AND FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS § 374.3 Compliance with the Consumer... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance with the Consumer Credit...

  2. 76 FR 48811 - Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of... of the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (54 FR 25818, June 19, 1989), and OMB... Security Administration (``SSA''). DATES: CNCS will file a report on the computer matching agreement with...

  3. A numerical shoreline model for shorelines with large curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    orthogonal horizontal directions are used. The volume error in the sediment continuity equation which is thereby introduced is removed through an iterative procedure. The model treats the shoreline changes by computing the sediment transport in a 2D coastal area model, and then integrating the sediment...

  4. The Bald And Golden Eagle Protection Act, Species-Based Legal Protection And The Danger Of Misidentification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann C Knobel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act of 1940 bestows legal protection on two North American eagle species in the United States of America. The Act was originally aimed at the legal protection of only one species: the Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus, the national symbol of the USA. Later the Act was amended to extend protection also to the Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos. The Bald Eagle was an Endangered Species, but the Golden Eagle was not formally listed as Endangered nationwide in the USA. One of the reasons for extending legal protection to the Golden Eagle under the Act was to strengthen the legal protection of the Bald Eagle, because immature Bald Eagles were being misidentified as Golden Eagles and shot. Additional factors relating to Golden Eagle mortality also made legal protection of the Golden Eagle desirable. The danger that a rare and legally protected species can be misidentified and mistaken for a more common and unprotected species can therefore serve as a reason for bestowing legal protection on the more common species as well. Other factors may also indicate that legal protection of the more common species is desirable, making the case more compelling. If this line of reasoning is applied in respect of South African birds of prey, a strong case can be made in favour of extending legal protection under the national biodiversity legislation to more species than the small number of species currently enjoying such protection. Species that are listed as Vulnerable under South African national biodiversity legislation may be misidentified as species that are not subject to such protection. Additional factors are also present that make such an extension of legal protection desirable.

  5. 75 FR 51429 - Definitions Contained in Title VII of Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... VII of Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... comments. SUMMARY: The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the ``Dodd-Frank Act... requirements. \\1\\ Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Public Law No. 111-203, 124 Stat...

  6. An integrated approach to shoreline mapping for spill response planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; LeBlanc, S.R.; Percy, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    A desktop mapping package was introduced which has the capability to provide consistent and standardized application of mapping and data collection/generation techniques. Its application in oil spill cleanup was discussed. The data base can be updated easily as new information becomes available. This provides a response team with access to a wide range of information that would otherwise be difficult to obtain. Standard terms and definitions and shoreline segmentation procedures are part of the system to describe the shore-zone character and shore-zone oiling conditions. The program that is in place for Atlantic Canada involves the integration of (1) Environment Canada's SCAT methodology in pre-spill data generation, (2) shoreline segmentation, (3) response management by objectives, (4) Environment Canada's national sensitivity mapping program, and (5) Environment Canada's field guide for the protection and treatment of oiled shorelines. 7 refs., 6 figs

  7. fundamental consumer rights under the consumer protection act 68

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Castle walk

    (g) a collective agreement in terms of Section 213 of the Labour Relations Act. 59 ..... "Direct marketing" means to approach a person, either in person or by ..... literacy skills and minimal experience as a consumer, to understand the contents.

  8. Implementing Biocriteria: Coral Reef Protection Using the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological assessments (surveying the presence, number, size and condition of fish, coral and other biota) provide important information about the health and integrity of coral reef ecosystems. Biological criteria are one means under the Clean Water Act (CWA) that managers can us...

  9. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) Sampling Areas Polygons, Hawaiian Islands Shoreline, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a polygon feature dataset with areas along the shoreline of the Hawaiian islands. The National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) is a national coastal...

  10. Impact of port structures on the shoreline of Karnataka, west coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deepa, N.; Kunte, P.D.

    (GIS) as the location of the shoreline and its historical rate of change can provide important information for the design of coastal protection, plans for coastal development, coastal and social vulnerability study, and the calibration...

  11. The Influence of Shoreline Curvature on Rates of Shoreline Change on Sandy Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A. B.; Lauzon, R.; Cheng, S.; Liu, J.; Lazarus, E.

    2017-12-01

    The sandy, low-lying barrier islands which characterize much of the US East and Gulf coasts are popular spots to live and vacation, and are often heavily developed. However, sandy shorelines and barriers are also naturally mobile landforms, which are vulnerable to sea level rise and storms and can experience high rates of shoreline change. Many previous studies have attempted to understand and quantify the factors that contribute to those rates of shoreline change, such as grain size, underlying geology, sea level rise, and anthropogenic modification. Shoreline curvature has not been considered in such analyses, but previous research has demonstrated that subtle coastline curvature (and therefore alongshore variation in relative offshore wave angle) can result in gradients in net alongshore transport that cause significant shoreline erosion or accretion. Here we present the results of a spatially extensive analysis of the correlation between shoreline curvature and shoreline change rates for the sandy shorelines of the US East and Gulf coasts. We find that, for wave-dominated sandy coasts where nourishment and shoreline stabilization do not dominate the shoreline change signal (such as parts of Texas, North Carolina, and Florida), there is a significant negative correlation between shoreline curvature and shoreline change rates over 1 - 5 km and decadal to centurial space and time scales. This correlation indicates that a portion of the coastal erosion (and accretion) observed in these areas can be explained by the smoothing of subtle coastline curvature by gradients in alongshore transport, and suggests that shoreline curvature should be included in future attempts to understand historical and future rates of shoreline change. Shoreline stabilization, especially through beach nourishment, complicates the relationship between curvature and shoreline change. Beach construction during nourishment creates a seaward convex curvature in the part of the shoreline moves

  12. Beyond formal groups: neighboring acts and watershed protection in Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Lukacs

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how watershed organizations in Appalachia have persisted in addressing water quality issues in areas with a history of coal mining. We identified two watershed groups that have taken responsibility for restoring local creeks that were previously highly degraded and sporadically managed. These watershed groups represent cases of self-organized commons governance in resource-rich, economically poor Appalachian communities. We describe the extent and characteristics of links between watershed group volunteers and watershed residents who are not group members. Through surveys, participant observation, and key-informant consultation, we found that neighbors – group members as well as non-group-members – supported the group's function through informal neighboring acts. Past research has shown that local commons governance institutions benefit from being nested in supportive external structures. We found that the persistence and success of community watershed organizations depends on the informal participation of local residents, affirming the necessity of looking beyond formal, organized groups to understand the resources, expertise, and information needed to address complex water pollution at the watershed level. Our findings augment the concept of nestedness in commons governance to include that of a formal organization acting as a neighbor that exchanges informal neighboring acts with local residents. In this way, we extend the concept of neighboring to include interactions between individuals and a group operating in the same geographic area.

  13. Cabotegravir long acting injection protects macaques against intravenous challenge with SIVmac251.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Chasity D; Bernard, Leslie St; Poon, Amanda Yee; Mohri, Hiroshi; Gettie, Natanya; Spreen, William R; Gettie, Agegnehu; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi; Blanchard, James; Hong, Zhi; Ho, David D; Markowitz, Martin

    2017-02-20

    We evaluated the effectiveness of cabotegravir (CAB; GSK1265744 or GSK744) long acting as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against intravenous simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge in a model that mimics blood transfusions based on the per-act probability of infection. CAB long acting is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor formulated as a 200 mg/ml injectable nanoparticle suspension that is an effective PrEP agent against rectal and vaginal simian/human immunodeficiency virus transmission in macaques. Three groups of rhesus macaques (n = 8 per group) were injected intramuscularly with CAB long acting and challenged intravenously with 17 animal infectious dose 50% SIVmac251 on week 2. Group 1 was injected with 50 mg/kg on week 0 and 4 to evaluate the protective efficacy of the CAB long-acting dose used in macaque studies mimicking sexual transmission. Group 2 was injected with 50 mg/kg on week 0 to evaluate the necessity of the second injection of CAB long acting for protection against intravenous challenge. Group 3 was injected with 25 mg/kg on week 0 and 50 mg/kg on week 4 to correlate CAB plasma concentrations at the time of challenge with protection. Five additional macaques remained untreated as controls. CAB long acting was highly protective with 21 of the 24 CAB long-acting-treated macaques remaining aviremic, resulting in 88% protection. The plasma CAB concentration at the time of virus challenge appeared to be more important for protection than sustaining therapeutic plasma concentrations with the second CAB long acting injection. These results support the clinical investigation of CAB long acting as PrEP in people who inject drugs.

  14. Unpacking the right to plain and understandable language in the consumer protection act 68 of 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Stoop, Philip N; Chürr, Chrizell

    2013-01-01

    The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 came into effect on 1 April 2011. The purpose of this Act is, among other things, to promote fairness, openness and respectable business practice between the suppliers of goods or services and the consumers of such good and services. In consumer protection legislation fairness is usually approached from two directions, namely substantive and procedural fairness. Measures aimed at procedural fairness address conduct during the bargaining process and gener...

  15. Soil erosion and deposition in the new shorelines of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaolei; Nilsson, Christer; Pilotto, Francesca; Liu, Songping; Shi, Shaohua; Zeng, Bo

    2017-12-01

    During the last few decades, the construction of storage reservoirs worldwide has led to the formation of many new shorelines in former upland areas. After the formation of such shorelines, a dynamic phase of soil erosion and deposition follows. We explored the factors regulating soil dynamics in the shorelines of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) on the Yangtze River in China. We selected four study sites on the main stem and three on the tributaries in the upstream parts of the reservoir, and evaluated whether the sites close to the backwater tail (the point at which the river meets the reservoir) had more soil deposition than the sites far from the backwater tail. We also tested whether soil erosion differed between the main stem and the tributaries and across shorelines. We found that soil deposition in the new shorelines was higher close to the backwater tail and decreased downstream. Soil erosion was higher in the main stem than in the tributaries and higher at lower compared to higher shoreline altitudes. In the tributaries, erosion did not differ between higher and lower shoreline levels. Erosion increased with increasing fetch length, inundation duration and distance from the backwater tail, and decreased with increasing soil particle fineness. Our results provide a basis for identifying shorelines in need of restorative or protective measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Awareness of Consumer Protection Act among dental health professionals in dental schools of Ghaziabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta; Dhingra, Chandan; Anand, Richa

    2013-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the awareness of the Consumer Protection Act among dental health professionals in dental schools of Ghaziabad, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out on dental health professionals in dental schools of Ghaziabad, India. A total of 348 dental health professionals (170 males and 178 females) were surveyed, out of which 116 were MDS faculty, 45 were BDS faculty and 187 were pursuing post graduation. The questionnaire comprised of 24 questions about the awareness of consumer protection act. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test, student's t test and ANOVA. A total of 84.8% (n=295) reported to be aware of consumer protection act. Amongst them, MDS faculty showed more awareness as compared to BDS faculty and those pursuing post-graduation. Considering the present scenario, MDS faculty dental professionals have more awareness of consumer protection act compared to other dental professionals. So, we must upgrade our knowledge on consumer protection act at all levels of our profession and change our attitude by inculcating a practice to spread the message of consumer protection act for delivering quality dental care.

  17. Did the Pension Protection Act (PPA) of 2006 Resolve the Pension Crisis in Corporate America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, John J.

    2009-01-01

    On August 17, 2006, President George W. Bush signed into law the Pension Protection Act (PL 109-280). The 907-page federal law has been referred to as the most comprehensive reform of the nation's pension law since the enactment of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) of 1974 (Lucas, 2008). This paper will examine the major…

  18. The Michigan Consumer Protection Act of 1976. Consumer Education Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, Charles

    This guide for secondary teachers is designed to identify and illustrate specified illegal practices identified in the Michigan Consumer Protection Act of 1976. The guide also explains procedures that a consumer or law-enforcement agency can take to enforce the provisions of this law. Since the act is a broad one, students learn not only about…

  19. 78 FR 12833 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... wellness services and chronic disease management; and pediatric services, including oral \\8\\ and vision... Act uses the terms ``dental'' and ``oral'' interchangeably when referring to the pediatric dental care... Parts 147, 155, and 156 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential...

  20. Oyster reefs as natural breakwaters mitigate shoreline loss and facilitate fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B Scyphers

    Full Text Available Shorelines at the interface of marine, estuarine and terrestrial biomes are among the most degraded and threatened habitats in the coastal zone because of their sensitivity to sea level rise, storms and increased human utilization. Previous efforts to protect shorelines have largely involved constructing bulkheads and seawalls which can detrimentally affect nearshore habitats. Recently, efforts have shifted towards "living shoreline" approaches that include biogenic breakwater reefs. Our study experimentally tested the efficacy of breakwater reefs constructed of oyster shell for protecting eroding coastal shorelines and their effect on nearshore fish and shellfish communities. Along two different stretches of eroding shoreline, we created replicated pairs of subtidal breakwater reefs and established unaltered reference areas as controls. At both sites we measured shoreline and bathymetric change and quantified oyster recruitment, fish and mobile macro-invertebrate abundances. Breakwater reef treatments mitigated shoreline retreat by more than 40% at one site, but overall vegetation retreat and erosion rates were high across all treatments and at both sites. Oyster settlement and subsequent survival were observed at both sites, with mean adult densities reaching more than eighty oysters m(-2 at one site. We found the corridor between intertidal marsh and oyster reef breakwaters supported higher abundances and different communities of fishes than control plots without oyster reef habitat. Among the fishes and mobile invertebrates that appeared to be strongly enhanced were several economically-important species. Blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus were the most clearly enhanced (+297% by the presence of breakwater reefs, while red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus (+108%, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus (+88% and flounder (Paralichthys sp. (+79% also benefited. Although the vertical relief of the breakwater reefs was reduced over the course of our study

  1. Vitamin C acts as radiation-protecting agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platzer, Isabel; Getoff, Nikola

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) is a very efficient, water soluble antioxidant. Its multifunctional biological and biochemical activities are rather well established in the last few decades (e.g. Sies and Stahl, 1995; Meydani et al., 1995; NRC, 1989. In the present letter we are reporting briefly the pronounced radiation-protecting properties of ascorbate (AH - ) observed on bacteria (E. coli AB1157) as well as on cultured cells (SCC VII, eukaryotic cells)

  2. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum extent...

  3. 76 FR 20569 - Horse Protection Act; Petition for Amendments to Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... of Cruelty to Animals, the American Horse Protection Association, Inc., Friends of Sound Horses, Inc... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0006] Horse Protection Act; Petition for Amendments to Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant...

  4. Environment Protection (Alligator Rivers Region) Amendment Act 1987 - No 17 of 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Act amends the Environment Protection (Alligator Rivers Region) Act 1978. The amendments mainly concern definition of general mining operations and specification of the functions of the Supervisory Scientist and the Research Institute in relation to general mining in an environment conservation zone (parts of the Alligator Rivers Region). The 1978 Act provided for the appointment of a Supervising Scientist responsible for supervising protection of the environment against the effects of uranium mining in the Region, and for the creation of a Research Institute under his management. (NEA) [fr

  5. Massachusetts shoreline change project: a GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the 2013 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Theresa L.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the rates and trends associated with the position of the shoreline through time presents vital information on potential impacts these changes may have on coastal populations and infrastructure, and supports informed coastal management decisions. This report publishes the historical shoreline data used to assess the scale and timing of erosion and accretion along the Massachusetts coast from New Hampshire to Rhode Island including all of Cape Cod, Martha’s Vineyard, Nantucket and the Elizabeth Islands. This data is an update to the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management Shoreline Change Project. Shoreline positions from the past 164 years (1845 to 2009) were used to compute the shoreline change rates. These data include a combined length of 1,804 kilometers of new shoreline data derived from color orthophoto imagery collected in 2008 and 2009, and topographic lidar collected in 2007. These new shorelines have been added to previously published historic shoreline data from the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management and the U.S. Geological Survey. A detailed report containing a discussion of the shoreline change data presented here and a summary of the resulting rates is available and cited at the end of the Introduction section of this report.

  6. Federal Act on the peaceful uses of atomic energy and protection against radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-12-01

    This is a framework Act regulating the peaceful uses of atomic energy in Switzerland. It establishes a licensing and control system for the construction and operation of nuclear installations, transport and possession of nuclear substances as well as for other nuclear activities. The Act also defines the measures for protection against ionizing radiation and contains a series of provisions sanctioning any actions jeopardising nuclear safety or violating the Act itself. Chapter 4 (Sec. 12-18) dealing with nuclear third party liability is repealed and replaced by the Act of 1979 on nuclear third party liability. (NEA) [fr

  7. Act concerning the establishment of a Federal Office for Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Federal Office for Radiation Protection shall be placed under the competence of the Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety, and shall have the powers of a higher federal authority. The Office shall have its seat in Salzgitter. The Office shall fulfil administrative tasks within the federal powers in the fields of radiation protection including preventive radiation protection, nuclear safety, transport of radioactive materials, and nuclear waste management including the construction and operation of installations under the competence of the Federal Covernment, for the collection and ultimate disposal of nuclear wastes. The Office shall fulfil such Federal tasks as are defined in these areas by the Atomic Energy Act, the Act on Preventive Radiation Protection, or any other federal act, or such tasks as will be assigned to the Office on the basis of said acts. Any amendments of the above acts required for proper fulfilment of tasks by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection shall be duly announced. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Radiation Protection Act promulgated on May 19, 1988, SFS 1988: 220

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Act entered into force on 1 July 1988 and supersedes the previous Radiation Protection Act (SFS 1958: 110). The objective of the new Act is to protect humans, animals and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing as well as non-ionizing radiation. As previously, the main responsibility for public radiation protection will rest with one central radiation protection authority. The general obligations with regard to radiation protection place a greater responsibility than in the past on persons carrying out activities involving radiation. The Act also contains rules governing decommissioning of technical equipment which could generate radiation. Basically, the same requirements still apply regarding licensing of activities involving ionizing radiation, with certain extensions covering, inter alia, also production and transportation of radioactive material. Under the Act, it is now possible to adjust the licensing and supervisory procedures to the level of danger of the radiation source and the need for adequate competence, etc., and finally, more effective supervision is provided for. (NEA) [fr

  9. Natural shorelines promote the stability of fish communities in an urbanized coastal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B Scyphers

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation are leading causes of species extinctions in terrestrial, aquatic and marine systems. Along coastlines, natural habitats support high biodiversity and valuable ecosystem services but are often replaced with engineered structures for coastal protection or erosion control. We coupled high-resolution shoreline condition data with an eleven-year time series of fish community structure to examine how coastal protection structures impact community stability. Our analyses revealed that the most stable fish communities were nearest natural shorelines. Structurally complex engineered shorelines appeared to promote greater stability than simpler alternatives as communities nearest vertical walls, which are among the most prevalent structures, were most dissimilar from natural shorelines and had the lowest stability. We conclude that conserving and restoring natural habitats is essential for promoting ecological stability. However, in scenarios when natural habitats are not viable, engineered landscapes designed to mimic the complexity of natural habitats may provide similar ecological functions.

  10. Observations on physical protection methods for protecting against unauthorized acts by an insider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, D.M.; Goldman, L.A.; Lobner, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Two basic approaches have evolved over the past several years for physical protection against sabotage by insiders. One, area-type physical protection, involves the use of access controls at area boundaries. Current practices at nuclear power plants generally fall into this category. The second, component-level physical protection, involves hardware at individual components as well as access controls at the boundary. The area-type physical protection concepts include team, area, and operational zoning. Team zoning requires the formation of multiperson teams that must be used to gain access to vital areas. Area zoning divides the plant into two or more zones, each of which is operated and maintained by separate, dedicated teams. Operational zoning is a closed-loop access control system that permits an initial vital area access, but blocks access to certain other vital areas until the operability of equipment in the first area is verified by test or inspection. Component-level physical protection is also a closed-loop system in which both area and component access are monitored. Each of the above measures can provide effective protection against an insider in certain instances, but each has weaknesses that must be recognized. An approach for protection against the insider is to take the most promising features of each of the above physical protection measures and supplement these capabilities with damage control and design changes as appropriate for a particular plant

  11. 78 FR 1306 - Transition Period Under Section 716 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Comptroller of the Currency [Docket ID OCC-2013-0001] Transition Period Under Section 716 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act AGENCY... Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) prohibits providing Federal...

  12. Positional Accuracy Assessment for Effective Shoreline Change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... as backdrop in GIS environment. Positional error of ... integrated dataset obviously bore the cumulative effect of the input datasets. ... change. The shoreline, which is the interface between land ... modelling, which enables future shoreline change trend to ..... as gaps due to cloud cover and limitation of the.

  13. Positional Accuracy Assessment for Effective Shoreline Change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Mining Journal ... Data quality may be expressed in terms of several indicators such as attributes, temporal or positional accuracies. ... It is concluded that for the purpose of shoreline change analysis, such as shoreline change trends, large scale data sources should be used where possible for accurate ...

  14. Shoreline response to detached breakwaters in prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khuong, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    An accurate prediction of shoreline changes behind detached breakwaters is, in regard to the adjustment to the environmental impact, still a challenge for designers and coastal managers. This research is expected to fill the gaps in the estimation of shoreline changes by developing new and

  15. Modeling of Shoreline Changes of Tulamben Coast, Bali Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanita, Nita; Pratama, Roka; Husrin, Semeidi

    2015-04-01

    Modeling of Shoreline Changes of Tulamben Coast, Bali Indonesia Tulamben coast is located in Lombok Strait on the northeastern coast of Bali island, Indonesia, as part of Karang Asem district. Severe erosion along the coastline has long been occurred in Karang Asem area and threatening houses, religious buildings (Hindu temples), and a national heritage site. As one of most popular diving site in Bali Island, Tulamben attracted many local and international tourist since 1980. The main attraction of Tulamben diving site is the USAT Liberty ship that was shipwrecked in Tulamben beach in 1942, after attacked by Japanese torpedo in Lombok Strait. Currently about 150 diver visit Tulamben per day. Due to physical changes of coastal environmental such as coastal erosion, sliding, and scouring, the shipwreck is vulnerable. It had been slipped off the beach several times and is predicted would be moved to deeper offshore floor if it is not protected. Coastal erosion in Karang Asem district is occurred probably due to interaction between cross-shore and long-shore wave-generated current and river sand supply decreasing after sand mining activities. In this study, the effect of cross-shore and longshore transport to coastal erosion in Tulamben is analyzed by doing numerical model. Numerical simulation of shoreline changes is performed by using Beach Processes Module of CEDAS (Coastal Engineering Design and Analysis System) consists of SBEACH and GENESIS. The model domain is covered Karang Asem coastline about 60 km length and wave data is calculated from hourly wind data (10 years). Simulated shoreline is calibrated using shoreline data from 1972 to 2013. Using calibrated model, then the simulation is performed from 2003 - 2013. From the simulation it is determined that longshore current and longshore sediment contribute to coastal erosion in Tulamben. Based on model results, several alternatives of general layout and configuration of coastal protection structures is proposed

  16. Fundamental Consumer Rights Under the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008: A Critical Overview and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R van Niekerk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa was in need of a comprehensive framework of legislation, policies and government authorities to regulate consumer-supplier interaction. The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008, which was signed by the President of the Republic of South Africa on 29 April 2009 and published in the Government Gazette on 29 April 2009, now provides an extensive framework for consumer protection and aims to develop, enhance and protect the rights of consumers and to eliminate unethical suppliers and improper business practices. Certain areas of the common law regarding consumer rights have been codified by the Act and certain unfair business practices that were previously unregulated are now governed by the Act. The Act has a wide field of application. It applies to every transaction occurring within South Africa for the supply of goods or services or the promotion of goods or services and the goods or services themselves, unless the transaction is exempted from the application of the Act. The Act also specifically regulates aspects of franchise agreements. In terms of the Act, consumers obtain several new rights and some existing rights are broadened and reinforced. These rights are: the right to equality in the consumer market; privacy; choice; disclosure and information; fair and responsible marketing; fair and honest dealing; fair, just and reasonable terms and conditions; and fair value, good quality and safety. The last right in terms of the Act deals with a supplier's accountability to consumers. The authors critically analyse and discuss these rights. It is clear that the Act is written in favour of the consumer.

  17. [High voltage objects and radiocommunication investments in view of requirements of the environmental protection act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuba, Marek

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the most important elements of the localization procedure of high voltage overhead lines and substations and radiocommunication objects which are the source of electromagnetic fields. These fields are perceived as a major threat to human health. The point of departure to make a choice of investments is the special classification of technical installations described in one of the executive directive issued by virtue of the Environmental Protection Act. This special executive directive enumerates a lot of technical objects (installation), classified in the group of investments which have significant impact on the environment and some objects which could be classified in this group. For all this technical installations (e.g., overhead high voltage power lines) the provisions of the Environmental Protection Act impose an obligation to take particular steps to assure transparency of the environmental protection procedures, transborder procedures and the protection of areas included in the Natura 2000 network.

  18. The National Assessment of Shoreline Change:A GIS Compilation of Vector Shorelines and Associated Shoreline Change Data for the Sandy Shorelines of the California Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Reid, David

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The Coastal and Marine Geology Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has generated a comprehensive data clearinghouse of digital vector shorelines and shoreline change rates for the sandy shoreline along the California open coast. These data, which are presented herein, were compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. Beach erosion is a chronic problem along many open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information including rates and trends of shoreline migration. There is also a critical need for shoreline change data that is consistent from one coastal region to another. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates of shorelines and shoreline change rates can be made at a National Scale. This data compilation for open-ocean, sandy shorelines of the California coast is one in a series that already includes the Gulf of Mexico and the Southeast Atlantic Coast (Morton et al., 2004; Morton et al., 2005) and will eventually cover Washington, Oregon, and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. Short- and long-term shoreline change evaluations are determined by comparing the positions of three historical shorelines digitized from maps, with a modern shoreline derived from LIDAR (light detection and ranging) topographic surveys. Historical shorelines generally represent the following time-periods: 1850s-1880s, 1920s-1930s, and late 1940s-1970s. The most recent shoreline is from data collected between 1997 and 2002. Long-term rates of change are calculated by linear regression using all four shorelines. Short-term rates of change are end-point rate calculations using the two most recent shorelines. Please refer to our full report on shoreline change of the

  19. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Laurie G.; Sharpe, Susan; Feeser, Cynthia Jo; Ondeck, Lynnette; Fekaris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation's students within the healthcare system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as…

  20. The Influence of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implementation of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) has great implications for the South African common law of sale. In this contribution the influence of the CPA on the seller's common law duty to warrant the buyer against eviction is investigated. Upon evaluation of the relevant provisions of the CPA, the ...

  1. The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 and procedural fairness in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    fair. In a South African context, procedural fairness and substantive fairness are therefore of equal importance. 5. The Consumer Protection Act and procedural fairness. In the discussion below, the special ..... actually read the terms, but standardisation in presentation may make it slightly easier for a consumer to understand ...

  2. CORAL REEF BIOLOGICAL CRITERIA: USING THE CLEAN WATER ACT TO PROTECT A NATIONAL TREASURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are declining at unprecedented rates worldwide due to multiple interactive stressors including climate change and land-based sources of pollution. The Clean Water Act (CWA) can be a powerful legal instrument for protecting water resources, including the biological inh...

  3. Adaptive management to protect biodiversity: best available science and the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although flawed, the most powerful tool for protecting biodiversity in the United States is the Endangered Species Act, which requires the use of the best available science to ensure that endangered and threatened species are not put in jeopardy of extinction. Unfortunately, the ...

  4. 17 CFR 248.16 - Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Reporting Act. 248.16 Section 248.16 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-P: Privacy of Consumer Financial Information and Safeguarding Personal Information Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date § 248.16 Protection of Fair Credit...

  5. The updated soil protection act. A decision support tool for contaminated groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, Henk; 364465476

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Not much attention was paid to the subsurface environmental quality of the Netherlands until the big pollution scandals in the early 1980’s. As a response, the government developed the multifunctional soil protection act (Wbb) to be applicable fo

  6. 78 FR 76212 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Maximizing January 1, 2014 Coverage Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 147, 155 and 156 [CMS-9945-IFC] RIN 0938-AS17 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Maximizing January 1, 2014 Coverage Opportunities AGENCY... meeting the size standards of the Small Business Administration (SBA); (2) a not-for-profit organization...

  7. Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act: Forestry contractors' model operating plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Bremer

    2007-01-01

    The Model Operating Plan for forestry contractors is a voluntary plan for compliance with the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act (MSPA) of 1983, with amendments passed in 1996 and 1997. This plan is designed as a guide for forestry contractors who wish to comply with all federal, state, and local rules and regulations that govern their employer/...

  8. 78 FR 13405 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Parts 144, 147, 150, et al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules... Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule implements provisions related to fair health insurance premiums, guaranteed...

  9. 76 FR 43237 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... have a choice of health plans to fit their needs. Exchanges will give individuals and small businesses... Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) Program... implement the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) program, which provides loans to foster the...

  10. Effects of erosion control structures along a portion of the northern Chesapeake Bay shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabawa, C.F.; Kerhin, R.T.; Bayley, S.

    1981-01-01

    A 6.500-meter reach of western Chesapeake Bay shoreline (lower Mayo Peninsula) lost about 1.1??106 cubic meters of sediment (equivalent to 170 cubic meters lost per meter of shoreline) between 1846 and 1932, when the first aerial photographs show the shoreline already substantially protected by a system of groins and intermittent bulkheading. These structures have eliminated the fastland as a source of erodable material, and have starved the supply of sand for littoral drift, thus limiting the extent of the beaches to the remaining groin fields. Volumes of sediment involved in these impacts are small in the overall sediment budget. Bulkheads produce no deficit in the budget since scouring of the beaches on their seaward sides makes up for the decreased erosion of protected fastland. Groins trap little of the potential littoral drift (computed to be about 104 cubic meters per meter of shoreline per year). The sand supply in the remaining beaches is nearly equivalent to the annual loss of sediment from the entire shoreline system due to the long-term rate of erosion of the shoreline and nearshore between 1846 and 1932. ?? 1981 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  11. Radiation Protection and Control Act, 1982 (South Australia) No.49 of 29 April 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Act provides for the control of activities related to radioactive substances and radiation apparatus as well as for protection against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. It also amends the Health Act, 1935-1980 by deleting certain provisions concerning, inter alia, radioactive substances and radiation apparatus. The Act states as its general objective that the competent authorities in the exercise of their duties and any person carrying on activities involving radioactive substances and equipment emitting ionizing radiation shall try to ensure that exposure of persons to ionizing radiation is kept as low as reasonably achievable, social and economic factors being taken into account (the ALARA principle recommended by the International Commission on radiological Protection). (NEA) [fr

  12. Numerical prediction of shoreline adjacent to breakwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mahadevan, R.; Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    Existing mathematical models for prediction of shoreline changes in the vicinity of a breakwater were reviewed The analytical and numerical results obtained from these models have been compared Under the numerical approach, two different implicit...

  13. Historical Shoreline for Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, NOAA (2001) [shoreline_la_NOAA_1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data were automated to provide a suitable geographic information system (GIS) data layer depicting the historical shoreline for Louisiana. These data are...

  14. [Psychiatric care act of Ukraine and issues concerning reformation of the mental health protection service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, V F; Gorban', E N; Tabachnikov, S I; Syropiatov, O G; Shtengelov, V V

    2000-01-01

    An analysis was performed of the conception and content of a new Psychiatric Care Act by making a comparison with data from published literature and the present-day status of the mental health protection service. The main features of the crisis of psychiatry in Ukraine are characterized together with possible ways of resolving it. Main trends in reformation of the psychiatric service are identified that are to be secured by relevant acts of departmental and interdepartmental character based on law. Priority is emphasized to defence of the patients' rights and liberties together with a need for a guarantee of a highly skilled medical care to be provided for mental patients.

  15. The US Refugee Protection System on the 35th Anniversary of the Refugee Act of 1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Kerwin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the Center for Migration Studies of New York (CMS initiated a project to bring concentrated academic and policy attention to the US refugee protection system, broadly understood to encompass refugees, asylum seekers and refugee-like populations in need of protection. The initiative gave rise to a series of papers published in 2014 and 2015, which CMS is releasing as a special collection in its Journal on Migration and Human Security on the 35th anniversary of the Refugee Act of 1980. This introductory essay situates the papers in the collection within a broader discussion of state compliance with international law, impediments to protection, US protection programs, vulnerable populations, and due process concerns. The essay sets forth extensive policy recommendations to strengthen the system drawn from the papers, legislative proposals, and other sources.

  16. 55-year (1960-2015) spatiotemporal shoreline change analysis using historical DISP and Landsat time series data in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Gang; Mi, Huan; Wang, Weian; Tong, Xiaohua; Li, Zhongbin; Li, Tan; Liu, Shijie; Hong, Yang

    2018-06-01

    Shoreline change has been an increasing concern for low-lying and vulnerable coastal zones worldwide, especially in estuarine delta regions, which generally have significant economic development, large human settlements and infrastructures. Thus, long time-series shoreline change data are useful for understanding how shorelines respond to natural and anthropogenic activities, as well as for providing greater insights into coastal protection and sustainable development in the future. For the first time, this study analyzes 55 years of spatiotemporal shoreline changes in Shanghai, China, by integrating the historical Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photography (DISP) and Landsat time series data at five-year intervals from 1960 to 2015. Twelve shorelines were interpreted from DISP and Landsat images. The spatiotemporal changes in the shorelines were explored at five-year intervals within the study period for the Shanghai mainland and islands. The results indicate that shorelines in Shanghai accreted significantly over the last 55 years, but different accretion patterns were observed in Chongming Dongtan. The rate of shoreline change varied in different areas, and the most noticeable expansions were Chongming Beitan, Chongming Dongtan, Hengsha Dongtan, and Nanhuizui. The length of the entire shoreline increased by 25.7% from 472.6 km in 1960 to 594.2 km in 2015. Due to the shoreline changes, the Shanghai area expanded by 1,192.5 km2 by 2015, which was an increase of 19.9% relative to its 1960 area. The Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) was used to compute rate-of-change statistics. Between 1960 and 2015, 10.6% of the total transects exceeded 3 km of Net Shoreline Movement (NSM), with a maximum value of approximately 20 km at eastern Hengsha Island. The average Weighted Linear Regression Rate (WLR) of the Shanghai shoreline was 52.2 m/yr from 1960 to 2015; there was 94.1% accretion, 3.1% erosion, and 2.8% with no significant change. In addition, the driving

  17. Students as Consumers: The Implications of the Consumer Protection Act for Higher Education Institutions in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Consumer Protection Act (CPA) lays the basis for the protection of consumer rights in South Africa and comprehensively sets out obligations for "suppliers". There have been differing views expressed as to whether a student should be seen as a consumer. It is clear, however, that this Act applies to HEIs. This article, firstly,…

  18. Shoreline type and subsurface oil persistence in the Exon Valdez spill zone of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, D.S. [Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Boehm, P.D. [Exponent Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Neff, J.M. [Neff and Associates, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The grounding of the Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska in the spring of 1989 resulted in the release of 258,000 barrels of Alaska North Slope crude oil into the marine environment. Nearly 800 km of shoreline were oiled to some degree. There was an unprecedented oil spill cleanup effort following the spill. The shoreline surveys of the spill zone were synthesized in this paper in an effort to demonstrate the relationship between shoreline type and persistence of subsurface oil (SSO) residues. Shoreline surveys of surface and SSO indicate rapid initial oil loss with a decline from about 800 linear km of PWS shoreline in 1989 to about 10 km of oiled shoreline in 1992. The period of rapid loss was attributed to natural physical process, biodegradation and cleanup activities that removed accessible spill remnants from shorelines. This was followed by a slower natural average loss rate for less accessible surface and SSO deposits of about 22 per cent per year for the period 1992-2001. This paper emphasized that shoreline type plays a key role in determining SSO persistence. The geology of PWS is complex. Many of the shorelines where SSO persists have armouring layers composed of hard, dense clasts, such as the quartzite boulders and cobblestones that can protect SSO deposits. Eighteen years after the spill, persistent SSO deposits in PWS shorelines remain protected from tidal water-washing and biodegradation by a surface boulder/cobble armour and low sediment porosity. The SSO deposits are in a physical/chemical form and location where they do not pose a health risk to intertidal biological communities and animals. The surveys continue to substantiate that remaining SSO deposits in PWS continue to degrade and go away slowly. 37 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  19. THREE DECADES OF CONSUMER PROTECTION OF RIGHTS ACT: RURAL INDIA NEEDS FOCUSED ATTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Amrit Patel

    2017-01-01

    India has been observing December 24 each year since 1986 as “National Consumer Rights Day”, when the Consumer Protection Act [CPA], 1986 came into force on this day. Despite the implementation of the CPA has completed three decades in the country, the rural India has yet to understand the meaning of consumer’s rights & the procedure to protect the right enshrined in the CPA,1986. This has its significance because according to the National Council of Applied Economic Research survey report th...

  20. Emerging and Submerging Shorelines: Impacts of Physical Change on Bioband Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, L. E.; Johnson, A. C.; Gregovich, D.; Buma, B.; Noel, J.

    2017-12-01

    We approximated shifts in coastal benthic species for shoreline length units undergoing both sea level rise and relative sea level lowering (often post-glacial, termed isostatic rebound) where subsistence-based, southeast Alaska Natives reside. From six community centers, we examined 30 km radii shoreline reaches by merging relevant portions of the NOAA ShoreZone database with near shore bathymetry and measures of mean global sea level rise with local global positioning system information (GIS) of tectonic shift and isostatic rebound. For our analysis, we estimated change for 9,868 assessed shoreline length units having uniform substrate and biologic type over a 100-yr time span (2008-2108) using geometric analysis of shoreline attributes. For each shoreline length unit we assessed relationships among substrate, slope, exposure, and presence of five benthic species including eel grass (Zostera marina), blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), butter clams (Saxidomus gigantean), bull kelp (Nereocytis leutkeana), and foliose red algae including ribbon kelp (Palmaria sp.). Our research indicates that both emergence, up to 1.8 m, and submergence, up 0.2 m, of the land will result in disportionately larger shoreline length segment alterations for habitats in protected low-slope gradient bays and estuaries (dominated by eelgrass and butter clam habitats) with less change for rocky steep-gradient exposed penninsulas (red algae and canopy kelp). This trend, holding true regardless of isostatic rebound, tectonic shift or sea level rise rate, highlights the importance of initial geomorphology-based assessments serving to improve bio-physical, chemical, and socially-related coastal research. Where shorelines are emerging 30% decreases in estuary lengths are predicted, but where shorelines are submerging up to 3% increases in estuaries are expected. Our research results are consistent with anthropology studies assessing past coastal change. Coastal change, influencing subsistance foods

  1. S.I. No 125 of 2000 Radiological Protection Act 1991 (ionising radiation) Order 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This statutory instrument provides for the implementation of Council Directive 96/29/Euratom of 13 May 1996 laying down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiation. It also incorporates the provisions of Council Directive 90/641/Euratom of 4 December 1990 on the operational protection of outside workers exposed to the risk of ionising radiation during their activities in controlled areas. It replaces the provisions of the European Communities (Ionising Radiation) Regulations, 1991 (S.I. No. 43 of 1991), the Radiological Protection Act, 1991 (General Control of Radioactive Substances, Nuclear Devices and Irradiating Apparatus) Order, 1993 (S.I. No. 151 of 1993) and the European Communities (Protection of Outside Workers from Ionising Radiation) Regulations, 1994 (S.I. No. 144 of 1994). The main changes introduced in this Order are: the inclusion of work activities involving exposure to natural sources of radiation, stricter application of existing radiation protection principles through the introduction of lower dose limits, the use of dose constraints in keeping doses as low as reasonably achievable (i.e. optimisation process) and extended application of justification principles, the introduction of radiation protection principles for intervention in cases of radiological emergencies or lasting exposures. (author)

  2. Wetland shoreline recession in the Mississippi River Delta from petroleum oiling and cyclonic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangoonwala, Amina; Jones, Cathleen E.; Ramsey, Elijah W.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the relative impact of petroleum spill and storm surge on near-shore wetland loss by quantifying the lateral movement of coastal shores in upper Barataria Bay, Louisiana (USA), between June 2009 and October 2012, a study period that extends from the year prior to the Deepwater Horizon spill to 2.5 years following the spill. We document a distinctly different pattern of shoreline loss in the 2 years following the spill, both from that observed in the year prior to the spill, during which there was no major cyclonic storm, and from change related to Hurricane Isaac, which made landfall in August 2012. Shoreline erosion following oiling was far more spatially extensive and included loss in areas protected from wave-induced erosion. We conclude that petroleum exposure can substantially increase shoreline recession particularly in areas protected from storm-induced degradation and disproportionally alters small oil-exposed barrier islands relative to natural erosion.

  3. Unpacking the Right to plain and understandable Language in the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip N Stoop

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 came into effect on 1 April 2011. The purpose of this Act is, among other things, to promote fairness, openness and respectable business practice between the suppliers of goods or services and the consumers of such good and services. In consumer protection legislation fairness is usually approached from two directions, namely substantive and procedural fairness. Measures aimed at procedural fairness address conduct during the bargaining process and generally aim at ensuring transparency. Transparency in relation to the terms of a contract relates to whether the terms of the contract terms accessible, in clear language, well-structured, and cross-referenced, with prominence being given to terms that are detrimental to the consumer or because they grant important rights. One measure in the Act aimed at addressing procedural fairness is the right to plain and understandable language. The consumer’s right to being given information in plain and understandable language, as it is expressed in section 22, is embedded under the umbrella right of information and disclosure in the Act. Section 22 requires that notices, documents or visual representations that are required in terms of the Act or other law are to be provided in plain and understandable language as well as in the prescribed form, where such a prescription exists. In the analysis of the concept “plain and understandable language” the following aspects are considered in this article: the development of plain language measures in Australia and the United Kingdom; the structure and purpose of section 22; the documents that must be in plain language; the definition of plain language; the use of official languages in consumer contracts; and plain language guidelines (based on the law of the states of Pennsylvania and Connecticut in the United States of America.

  4. Will the new Consumer Protection Act prevent harm to nutritional supplement users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriels, Gary; Lambert, Mike; Smith, Pete; Hiss, Donavon

    2011-07-25

    BACKGROUND. There is no clear distinction between the regulation of food, supplements and medicines in South Africa. Consequently, grey areas exist in implementing the legislation, particularly in the supplement industry. The increase in supplement sales in South Africa can be attributed to aggressive marketing by manufacturers whose claims are not always supported by published peer-reviewed evidence. Such claims often go unchecked, resulting in consumers being mislead about the role of supplements. As a result of poor regulation, contaminants or adulterants in supplements may also cause insidious effects unrelated to the listed ingredients. AIM. To assess the regulations, legislation, and claims associated with nutritional supplement products in South Africa. METHOD. Peer-reviewed literature and the relevant South African statutes were consulted. RESULTS. The National Health Act incorporates the Medicine Control Council, which is charged with ensuring the safety, quality and effectiveness of medicines, and related matters, including complementary/alternative medicines. The South African Institute for Drug-Free Sport and Amendment Act provides for testing athletes for using banned substances, but currently does not concern itself with monitoring nutritional supplements for contaminants or adulterants that may cause a positive drug test, which has implications for sports participants and also the health of the general population. The implementation of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) could protect consumer rights if it is administered and resourced appropriately. CONCLUSION. The CPA should promote greater levels of policy development, regulatory enforcement, and consumer education of South Africa's supplement industry.

  5. A legislative history of the Social Security Protection Act of 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Passage of the original Social Security Act in 1935, Public Law (P.L.) 74-271, represented one of the watershed achievements of social welfare reform in American history. For the first time, workers were guaranteed a basic floor of protection against the hardships of poverty. In the ensuing decades, more than 100 million beneficiaries have realized the value of this protection through the receipt of monthly Social Security payments. As this guarantee has endured and progressed, the policies and administration of such a vast and complex program have required ongoing modifications-more than 150 such revisions over the past 73 years. To some extent, these amendments can be seen as an ongoing refinement process, with the Social Security Protection Act of 2004 (SSPA) being another incremental step in the development of a social insurance program that best meets the evolving needs of American society. This article discusses the legislative history of the SSPA in detail. It includes summaries of the provisions and a chronology of the modification of these proposals as they passed through the House and Senate, and ultimately to the president's desk.

  6. Decoupling processes and scales of shoreline morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Henderson, Rachel E.; Schwab, William C.; Nelson, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Behavior of coastal systems on time scales ranging from single storm events to years and decades is controlled by both small-scale sediment transport processes and large-scale geologic, oceanographic, and morphologic processes. Improved understanding of coastal behavior at multiple time scales is required for refining models that predict potential erosion hazards and for coastal management planning and decision-making. Here we investigate the primary controls on shoreline response along a geologically-variable barrier island on time scales resolving extreme storms and decadal variations over a period of nearly one century. An empirical orthogonal function analysis is applied to a time series of shoreline positions at Fire Island, NY to identify patterns of shoreline variance along the length of the island. We establish that there are separable patterns of shoreline behavior that represent response to oceanographic forcing as well as patterns that are not explained by this forcing. The dominant shoreline behavior occurs over large length scales in the form of alternating episodes of shoreline retreat and advance, presumably in response to storms cycles. Two secondary responses include long-term response that is correlated to known geologic variations of the island and the other reflects geomorphic patterns with medium length scale. Our study also includes the response to Hurricane Sandy and a period of post-storm recovery. It was expected that the impacts from Hurricane Sandy would disrupt long-term trends and spatial patterns. We found that the response to Sandy at Fire Island is not notable or distinguishable from several other large storms of the prior decade.

  7. Shoreline clean-up methods : biological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoura, S.T. [Oil Spill Response Limited, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The cleanup of oil spills in shoreline environments is a challenging issue worldwide. Oil spills receive public and media attention, particularly in the event of a coastal impact. It is important to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of cleanup methods when defining the level of effort and consequences that are appropriate to remove or treat different types of oil on different shoreline substrates. Of the many studies that have compared different mechanical, chemical and biological treatments for their effectiveness on various types of oil, biological techniques have received the most attention. For that reason, this paper evaluated the effectiveness and effects of shoreline cleanup methods using biological techniques. It summarized data from field experiments and oil spill incidents, including the Exxon Valdez, Sea Empress, Prestige, Grand Eagle, Nakhodka, Guanabara Bay and various Gulf war oil spills. Five major shoreline types were examined, notably rocky intertidal, cobble/pebble/gravel, sand/mud, saltmarsh, and mangrove/sea-grass. The biological techniques that were addressed were nutrient enrichment, hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria, vegetable oil biosolvents, plants, surf washing, oil-particle interactions and natural attenuation. The study considered the oil type, volume and fate of stranded oil, location of coastal materials, extent of pollution and the impact of biological techniques. The main factors that affect biodegradation of hydrocarbons are the volume, chemical composition and weathering state of the petroleum product as well as the temperature, oxygen availability of nutrients, water salinity, pH level, water content, and microorganisms in the shoreline environment. The interaction of these factors also affect the biodegradation of oil. It was concluded that understanding the fate of stranded oil can help in the development of techniques that improve the weathering and degradation of oil on complex shoreline substrates. 39 refs.

  8. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - The Role of the School Nurse: Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as the school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation’s students within the health care system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This law presents an opportunity to transform the health care system through three primary goals: expanding access, improving quality, and reducing cost (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010). School nurses stand at the forefront of this system change and continue to provide evidence-based, quality interventions and preventive care that, according to recent studies, actually save health care dollars (Wang et al., 2014). NASN supports the concept that school nursing services receive the same financial parity as other health care providers to improve overall health outcomes, including insurance reimbursement for services provided to students.

  9. National assessment of shoreline change—Summary statistics for updated vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the Gulf of Mexico and Southeast Atlantic coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2017-07-18

    Long-term rates of shoreline change for the Gulf of Mexico and Southeast Atlantic regions of the United States have been updated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Assessment of Shoreline Change project. Additional shoreline position data were used to compute rates where the previous rate-of-change assessment only included four shoreline positions at a given location. The long-term shoreline change rates also incorporate the proxy-datum bias correction to account for the unidirectional onshore bias of the proxy-based high water line shorelines relative to the datum-based mean high water shorelines. The calculation of uncertainty associated with the long-term average rates has also been updated to match refined methods used in other study regions of the National Assessment project. The average rates reported here have a reduced amount of uncertainty relative to those presented in the previous assessments for these two regions.

  10. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the regulation of the health insurance industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom

    2012-12-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a comprehensive and multipronged reform of the US health care system. The legislation makes incremental changes to Medicare, Medicaid, and the market for employer-sponsored health insurance. However, it makes substantial changes to the market for individual and small-group health insurance. The purpose of this article is to introduce the key regulatory reforms in the market for individual and small-group health insurance and explain how these reforms tackle adverse selection and risk classification and improve access to health care for the hitherto uninsured or underinsured population. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Consumer Protection Act: No-fault liability of health care providers

    OpenAIRE

    Slabbert, M Nöthling; Pepper, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of no-fault or strict liability by the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) poses serious problems in the health care context. With a patient as a consumer' in terms of the CPA, health care practitioners may find themselves as suppliers' or retailers' as part of a supply chain, and potentially liable for harm and loss suffered by a patient in terms of the new no-fault liability provision. The claimant (patient) can sue anyone in the supply chain in terms of this provision...

  12. The new Federal Act for the protection against nuisances (BImSchV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froeba, K.; Thomas, L.

    1977-01-01

    Text of the decree with introduction and comprehensive explanations. Furnaces (1st decree of BImSchV); Chemical purification installations (2nd decree of BImSchV); sulfur content of light fuel oil and diesel oil (3rd decree of BImSchV); installations subject to licensing (4th decree of BImSchV); persons authorized with the protection against nuisances (5th decree of BImSchV); know-how and reliability of these persons (6th decree of BImSchV); ejection limitation for wood dust (7th decree of BImSchV); limitation of noise made by lawn mowing machines (8th decree of BImSchV); principles of the licensing procedure (9th decree of BImSchV). Text of the Federal Act for the Protection Against Nuisances. (orig.) [de

  13. Awareness of Consumer Protection Act among Doctors in Udaipur City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K; Shetty, S; Bhat, N; Sharda, A; Agrawal, A; Chaudhary, H

    2010-01-01

    To compare the awareness of provisions of consumer protection act among dental and medical professionals in Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. In a cross sectional study, a total of 448 professionals (253 males, 195 females) belonging to dental (222) and medical (226) categories were surveyed using a self administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised of 22 questions about the awareness of consumer protection art (CPA) and whether these professionals were following the recommendations of CPA. The student's t-test, ANOVA test, and Scheffe's test were used as tests of significance. The awareness scores were significantly higher for medical professionals compared with those of dental professionals. Similarly, postgraduates showed more awareness in both the professions and it was found that private practitioners significantly have more awareness than the academic sector. Though medical professionals have more awareness of CPA compared to dental professionals, considering the present scenario, better knowledge of CPA is necessary for both professionals in order to be on the safer side.

  14. Theater Security Cooperation Planning with Article 98: How the 2002 Servicemembers' Protection Act Fosters China's Quest for Global Influence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hernandez, Jaime A

    2005-01-01

    The Combatant Commander is hindered in constructing Theater Security Cooperation plans due to the restrictions placed upon foreign military aid dispersal as a result of the 2002 American Servicemembers' Protection Act...

  15. Notification: Audit of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Compliance with the Federal Information Security Management Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY14-0135, February 10, 2014. The Office of Inspector General plans to begin fieldwork for an audit of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's compliance with the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA).

  16. Eureka Littoral Cell CRSMP Humboldt Bay Shoreline Types 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In 2011 Aldaron Laird walked and kayaked the entire shoreline of Humboldt Bay mapping the shoreline conditions onto 11x17 laminated fieldmaps at a scale of 1' = 200'...

  17. Development of Biotechnical Methods to Control Shoreline Erosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mays, D

    1999-01-01

    .... Coconut fiber logs, straw bales wrapped in poultry netting, large round hay bales, and bundled logs anchored to the shoreline were all evaluated for their potential to control wave damage to the shoreline...

  18. 17 CFR 240.15b5-1 - Extension of registration for purposes of the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970 after...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purposes of the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970 after cancellation or revocation. 240.15b5-1... purposes of the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970 after cancellation or revocation. Commission... member within the meaning of Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970 for...

  19. 78 FR 15559 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... for an MSP because OPM can treat a church plan as equivalent to an issuer under the Church Parity and Entanglement Protections Act, Public Law 106-244 (``Parity Act''). The commenter recommended that OPM could..., national origin, disability, age, sex, gender identity, or sexual orientation. We sought comment on any...

  20. Act of 14 July 1983 amending Act of 29 March 1958 relating to the protection of the population against the hazards of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Act of 29 March 1958 on protection of the population against the hazards of ionizing radiation has been amended by an Act of 14 July 1983. The amendments concern, in particular, the non-involvement of communal authorities in decisions taken under the Act, the inclusion of the concept of the environment as a complement to public safety, and the extension of the powers of officials responsible for supervising certain aspects of the transport of radioactive materials. Finally, a new Section has been added which empowers the King to suspend or cancel decisions by decentralised administrations which affect the transport of nuclear substances. (NEA) [fr

  1. Quantifying the effectiveness of shoreline armoring removal on coastal biota of Puget Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Timothy S; Toft, Jason D; Cordell, Jeffery R; Dethier, Megan N; Adams, Jeffrey W; Kelly, Ryan P

    2018-01-01

    Shoreline armoring is prevalent around the world with unprecedented human population growth and urbanization along coastal habitats. Armoring structures, such as riprap and bulkheads, that are built to prevent beach erosion and protect coastal infrastructure from storms and flooding can cause deterioration of habitats for migratory fish species, disrupt aquatic-terrestrial connectivity, and reduce overall coastal ecosystem health. Relative to armored shorelines, natural shorelines retain valuable habitats for macroinvertebrates and other coastal biota. One question is whether the impacts of armoring are reversible, allowing restoration via armoring removal and related actions of sediment nourishment and replanting of native riparian vegetation. Armoring removal is targeted as a viable option for restoring some habitat functions, but few assessments of coastal biota response exist. Here, we use opportunistic sampling of pre- and post-restoration data for five biotic measures (wrack % cover, saltmarsh % cover, number of logs, and macroinvertebrate abundance and richness) from a set of six restored sites in Puget Sound, WA, USA. This broad suite of ecosystem metrics responded strongly and positively to armor removal, and these results were evident after less than one year. Restoration responses remained positive and statistically significant across different shoreline elevations and temporal trajectories. This analysis shows that removing shoreline armoring is effective for restoration projects aimed at improving the health and productivity of coastal ecosystems, and these results may be widely applicable.

  2. Quantifying the effectiveness of shoreline armoring removal on coastal biota of Puget Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S. Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Shoreline armoring is prevalent around the world with unprecedented human population growth and urbanization along coastal habitats. Armoring structures, such as riprap and bulkheads, that are built to prevent beach erosion and protect coastal infrastructure from storms and flooding can cause deterioration of habitats for migratory fish species, disrupt aquatic–terrestrial connectivity, and reduce overall coastal ecosystem health. Relative to armored shorelines, natural shorelines retain valuable habitats for macroinvertebrates and other coastal biota. One question is whether the impacts of armoring are reversible, allowing restoration via armoring removal and related actions of sediment nourishment and replanting of native riparian vegetation. Armoring removal is targeted as a viable option for restoring some habitat functions, but few assessments of coastal biota response exist. Here, we use opportunistic sampling of pre- and post-restoration data for five biotic measures (wrack % cover, saltmarsh % cover, number of logs, and macroinvertebrate abundance and richness from a set of six restored sites in Puget Sound, WA, USA. This broad suite of ecosystem metrics responded strongly and positively to armor removal, and these results were evident after less than one year. Restoration responses remained positive and statistically significant across different shoreline elevations and temporal trajectories. This analysis shows that removing shoreline armoring is effective for restoration projects aimed at improving the health and productivity of coastal ecosystems, and these results may be widely applicable.

  3. Implementation of the Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act of 2008. Interim final rule with request for comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-06

    The Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act, which was enacted on October 15, 2008, amended the Controlled Substances Act and Controlled Substances Import and Export Act by adding several new provisions to prevent the illegal distribution and dispensing of controlled substances by means of the Internet. DEA is hereby issuing an interim rule to amend its regulations to implement the legislation and is requesting comments on the interim rule.

  4. THE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT 68 OF 2008 AND PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS IN CONSUMER CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip N Stoop

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, the concept "contractual fairness" can be narrowed down, described and analysed with reference to the two interdependent types of fairness – substantive and procedural fairness. Measures aimed at procedural fairness in contracts address conduct during the bargaining process and generally aim at ensuring transparency. One could say that a contract is procedurally fair where its terms are transparent and do not mislead as to aspects of the goods, service, price and terms. Despite the noble aims of legislative measures aimed at procedural fairness there are certain limits to the efficacy of procedural measures and transparency. The special procedural measures which must be considered in terms of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 in order to decide if a contract is fair are analysed in this article, as are other measures contained in the Act, which may also increase procedural fairness, and are discussed so as to allow suppliers to predict whether their contracts will be procedurally fair or not in terms of the Act. The special procedural measures can be categorised under measures requiring disclosure and/or mandatory terms, and measures addressing bargaining position and choice. It is concluded that owing to the nature of all these factors and measures related to procedural fairness, it is clear that openness and transparency are required by the CPA.

  5. Monitoring Shoreline Change using Remote Sensing and GIS: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: remote sensing, geographic information system (GIS), aerial photographs, shoreline change. Data from aerial photographs taken in 1981, 1992 and 2002 of the Kunduchi shoreline off the Dar es Salaam coast were integrated in a geographic information system (GIS) to determine shoreline change in that locality.

  6. 76 FR 66940 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/United States Secret Service-004 Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary [Docket No. DHS-2011-0083] Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/United States Secret Service--004 Protection Information System... Security (DHS)/United States Secret Service (USSS)-004 System name: DHS/USSS-004 Protection Information...

  7. 47 CFR 54.520 - Children's Internet Protection Act certifications required from recipients of discounts under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... “technology protection measure” as used in this section, are defined in the Children's Internet Protection Act... discounts for Internet access or internal connections must certify on FCC Form 486 that an Internet safety... entity for the consortium, the school must certify instead on FCC Form 479 (“Certification to Consortium...

  8. Protection of business and industrial secrets under the Atomic Energy Act and the relevant ordinances governing licensing and supervisory procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, R.

    1988-01-01

    The article deals with problems concerning the protection of secret information in licensing and supervisory procedures under the Atomic Energy Act and the relevant ordinances. The extent of the secret protection of business and industrial secrets is regulated differently for both procedures. These legal provisions have to be interpreted with due consideration for third party interests in information. (WG) [de

  9. The National Assessment of Shoreline Change: a GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the U.S. southeast Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tara L.; Morton, Robert A.; Sallenger, Asbury H.

    2006-01-01

    The Coastal and Marine Geology Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has generated a comprehensive database of digital vector shorelines and shoreline change rates for the U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast (Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina). These data, which are presented herein, were compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information including rates and trends of shoreline migration. There is also a critical need for shoreline change data that is consistent from one coastal region to another. One purpose of this work is to develop standard repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic updates of shorelines and shoreline change rates can be made nationally that are systematic and internally consistent. This data compilation for open-ocean, sandy shorelines of the U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast is the second in a series that already includes the Gulf of Mexico, and will eventually include the Pacific Coast, and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. Short- and long-term shoreline change evaluations are based on merging three historical shorelines with a modern shoreline derived from lidar (light detection and ranging) topographic surveys. Historical shorelines generally represent the following time periods: 1800s, 1920s-1930s, and 1970s. The most recent shoreline is derived from data collected over the period of 1997-2002. Long-term rates of change are calculated by linear regression using all four shorelines. Short-term rates of change are simple end-point rate calculations using the two most recent shorelines. Please refer to our full report on shoreline change for the U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1401/ to get additional

  10. Shoreline change due to coastal structures of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K. S.; Lee, T. S.; Kim, Y. I.

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of shoreline change at the coastal area near power plant were analyzed. For a nuclear power plant located in the east coast of Korean peninsula, remote-sensing data, i.e.airborne images and satellite images are acquired and shoreline data were extracted. Recession and davance of shoreline due to coastal structures of powder plant and land reclamation was showed. 1-line numerical shoreline change model was established for simulating the response of shoreline to construction of coastal structures. The model uses curvilinear coordinates that follow the shoreline and is capable of handling the formation of tombolos as well as the growth of salients in the vicinity of coastal structures. The model predicted significant erosion of beach in case breakwaters were extended. Offshore breakwaters were suggested as a countermeasure to shoreline change

  11. Post-acute care and vertical integration after the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Patrick D; Mick, Stephen S

    2013-01-01

    The anticipated changes resulting from the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act-including the proposed adoption of bundled payment systems and the promotion of accountable care organizations-have generated considerable controversy as U.S. healthcare industry observers debate whether such changes will motivate vertical integration activity. Using examples of accountable care organizations and bundled payment systems in the American post-acute healthcare sector, this article applies economic and sociological perspectives from organization theory to predict that as acute care organizations vary in the degree to which they experience environmental uncertainty, asset specificity, and network embeddedness, their motivation to integrate post-acute care services will also vary, resulting in a spectrum of integrative behavior.

  12. Financial protection against nuclear hazards: thirty years' experience under the Price-Anderson Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Supplementing earlier reports on ways to provide financial protection against the potential hazards involved in the production of nuclear energy by analyzing the issues raised in the Silkwood v. Kerr-McGee Corporation decision, the author explores the impact of the case on the availability of funds to compensate the public and any increased exposure of the nuclear industry or the federal government to public liability. She concludes that the decision will have a significant impact on the day-to-day administration of claims, and could lead to higher premiums. The court would have to determine the priority given to claims in the event of a catastrophic accident, in which case the only significant impact would be under amendments to the Price-Anderson Act which resulted in elimination of its coverage or a substantial increase in or elimination of the limitation on liability

  13. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998. Guide to the Australian radiation protection and nuclear safety licensing framework. 1. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide information to Commonwealth entities who may require a license under the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (ARPANS) Act 1998 to enable them to posses, have control of, use, operate or dispose of radiation sources. The guide describes to which agencies and what activities require licensing. It also addresses general administrative and legal matters such as appeal procedures, ongoing licensing requirements, monitoring and compliance. Applicants are advised to consult the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998 and accompanying Regulations when submitting applications

  14. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998. Guide to the Australian radiation protection and nuclear safety licensing framework; 1. ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide information to Commonwealth entities who may require a license under the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (ARPANS) Act 1998 to enable them to posses, have control of, use, operate or dispose of radiation sources. The guide describes to which agencies and what activities require licensing. It also addresses general administrative and legal matters such as appeal procedures, ongoing licensing requirements, monitoring and compliance. Applicants are advised to consult the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998 and accompanying Regulations when submitting applications

  15. The UK National DNA Database: Implementation of the Protection of Freedoms Act 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwaa, Aaron Opoku; McCartney, Carole

    2018-03-01

    In 2008, the European Court of Human Rights, in S and Marper v the United Kingdom, ruled that a retention regime that permits the indefinite retention of DNA records of both convicted and non-convicted ("innocent") individuals is disproportionate. The court noted that there was inadequate evidence to justify the retention of DNA records of the innocent. Since the Marper ruling, the laws governing the taking, use, and retention of forensic DNA in England and Wales have changed with the enactment of the Protection of Freedoms Act 2012 (PoFA). This Act, put briefly, permits the indefinite retention of DNA profiles of most convicted individuals and temporal retention for some first-time convicted minors and innocent individuals on the National DNA Database (NDNAD). The PoFA regime was implemented in October 2013. This paper examines ten post-implementation reports of the NDNAD Strategy Board (3), the NDNAD Ethics Group (3) and the Office of the Biometrics Commissioner (OBC) (4). Overall, the reports highlight a considerable improvement in the performance of the database, with a current match rate of 63.3%. Further, the new regime has strengthened the genetic privacy protection of UK citizens. The OBC reports detail implementation challenges ranging from technical, legal and procedural issues to sufficient understanding of the requirements of PoFA by police forces. Risks highlighted in these reports include the deletion of some "retainable" profiles, which could potentially lead to future crimes going undetected. A further risk is the illegal retention of some profiles from innocent individuals, which may lead to privacy issues and legal challenges. In conclusion, the PoFA regime appears to be working well, however, critical research is still needed to evaluate its overall efficacy compared to other retention regimes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Measuring Sea Level Rise-Induced Shoreline Changes and Inundation in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, F.; Waetjen, D.; Grijalva, E.

    2016-12-01

    We describe a method to monitor shoreline inundation and changes in response to sea level rise (SLR) using a network of time-lapse cameras. We found for coastal tidal marshes that this method was sensitive to vertical changes in sea level of 20 cm has occurred in the San Francisco Bay and other US coastal areas and is likely to rise by another 30-45 cm by mid-century, which will flood and erode many coastal ecosystems, highways, and urban areas. This rapid degree of rise means that it is imperative to co-plan for natural and built systems. Many public facilities are adjacent to shoreline ecosystems, which both protect infrastructure from wave and tide energy and are home to regulated species and habitats. Accurate and timely information about the actual extent of SLR impacts to shorelines will be critical during built-system adaptation. Currently, satellite-sourced imagery cannot provide the spatial or temporal resolution necessary to investigate fine-scale shoreline changes, leaving a gap between predictive models and knowing how, where and when these changes are occurring. The method described is feasible for near-term (1 to 10 years) to long-term application and can be used for measuring fine-resolution shoreline changes (organize photographs that could be combined with related external data (e.g., gauged water levels) to create an information mashup. This information could be used to validate models predicting shoreline inundation and loss, inform SLR-adaptation planning, and to visualize SLR impacts to the public.

  17. Knowledge and awareness of the Consumer Protection Act among dental professionals in India: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurminder; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Singh, Simarpreet; Talwar, Puneet Singh; Munjal, Vaibhav

    2014-07-01

    The medical profession has been included in the Consumer Protection Act (CPA), to protect the interests of the patients in case of any unethical treatment rendered by the doctor. The present systematic review was conducted to assess the knowledge and awareness of CPA among dental professionals in India. A systematic review of relevant cross-sectional observational studies was conducted regarding the level of knowledge and awareness of CPA among dental professionals in India. Five studies out of 44 were finally included in the present review, after conducting both an electronic and manual search of scientific databases. The potential biases were reported and appropriate data was extracted by the concerned investigators. More than 90% of the study subjects in one of the studies were aware of the CPA, as compared to other studies. In two studies, when queried about the correct time period during which a patient can sue a doctor, very few subjects (18 and 23.2%) answered correctly. Almost 90% of the subjects were taking some form of consent in one of the studies. Private practitioners had more awareness as compared to academicians and combined practitioners. The results of the present review showed that a majority of the subjects were aware of the existence of CPA, but knowledge about the basic rules and regulations was lacking in a few studies. Therefore, dental professionals need to keep themselves updated on the various rules and latest amendments to save themselves from any litigation.

  18. Knowledge and awareness of Consumer Protection Act among private dentists in Tricity, Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Dhaliwal, Jagjit Singh; Anand, Samir; Bhardwaj, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Consumer Protection Act (CPA) aims to protect the interests of the patients in case of any unethical treatment rendered by a medical or a dental health professional. The present study was conducted to assess knowledge and awareness of CPA among dental professionals in a Tricity in India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 265 private dental practitioners in Tricity. A close-ended self-structured questionnaire was administered which contained 15 questions on knowledge and awareness regarding CPA. Categorization of knowledge scores was done at three levels-low, medium and high. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and Student t-test. 54.7% (145) of subjects were having low knowledge scores, 23.3% (62) had a medium score and 21.8% (58) had a high score. Mean knowledge score according to educational level was statistically significant (P 0.05). The results of the present study showed that majority of the subjects were aware of the existence of CPA but knowledge regarding basic rules and regulations was lacking in few studies. Therefore, dental professionals need to keep them updated of various rules and latest amendments to save themselves from any litigation.

  19. Knowledge and awareness of Consumer Protection Act among private dentists in Tricity, Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh Gambhir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumer Protection Act (CPA aims to protect the interests of the patients in case of any unethical treatment rendered by a medical or a dental health professional. The present study was conducted to assess knowledge and awareness of CPA among dental professionals in a Tricity in India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 265 private dental practitioners in Tricity. A close-ended self-structured questionnaire was administered which contained 15 questions on knowledge and awareness regarding CPA. Categorization of knowledge scores was done at three levels-low, medium and high. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and Student t-test. Results: 54.7% (145 of subjects were having low knowledge scores, 23.3% (62 had a medium score and 21.8% (58 had a high score. Mean knowledge score according to educational level was statistically significant (P 0.05. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that majority of the subjects were aware of the existence of CPA but knowledge regarding basic rules and regulations was lacking in few studies. Therefore, dental professionals need to keep them updated of various rules and latest amendments to save themselves from any litigation.

  20. Employers' Statutory Vicarious Liability in Terms of the Protection of Personal Information Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daleen Millard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A person whose privacy has been infringed upon through the unlawful, culpable processing of his or her personal information can sue the infringer's employer based on vicarious liability or institute action based on the Protection of Personal Information Act 4 of 2013 (POPI. Section 99(1 of POPI provides a person (a "data subject" whose privacy has been infringed upon with the right to institute a civil action against the responsible party. POPI defines the responsible party as the person who determines the purpose of and means for the processing of the personal information of data subjects. Although POPI does not equate a responsible party to an employer, the term "responsible party" is undoubtedly a synonym for "employer" in this context. By holding an employer accountable for its employees' unlawful processing of a data subject's personal information, POPI creates a form of statutory vicarious liability. Since the defences available to an employer at common law and developed by case law differ from the statutory defences available to an employer in terms of POPI, it is necessary to compare the impact this new statute has on employers. From a risk perspective, employers must be aware of the serious implications of POPI. The question that arises is whether the Act perhaps takes matters too far. This article takes a critical look at the statutory defences available to an employer in vindication of a vicarious liability action brought by a data subject in terms of section 99(1 of POPI. It compares the defences found in section 99(2 of POPI and the common-law defences available to an employer fending off a delictual claim founded on the doctrine of vicarious liability. To support the argument that the statutory vicarious liability created by POPI is too harsh, the defences contained in section 99(2 of POPI are further analogised with those available to an employer in terms of section 60(4 of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 (EEA and other

  1. National assessment of shoreline change: Historical shoreline change in the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Charles H.; Romine, Bradley M.; Genz, Ayesha S.; Barbee, Matthew M.; Dyer, Matthew; Anderson, Tiffany R.; Lim, S. Chyn; Vitousek, Sean; Bochicchio, Christopher; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    Sandy beaches of the United States are some of the most popular tourist and recreational destinations. Coastal property constitutes some of the most valuable real estate in the country. Beaches are an ephemeral environment between water and land with unique and fragile natural ecosystems that have evolved in equilibrium with the ever-changing winds, waves, and water levels. Beachfront lands are the site of intense residential and commercial development even though they are highly vulnerable to several natural hazards, including marine inundation, flooding and drainage problems, effects of storms, sea-level rise, and coastal erosion. Because the U.S. population continues to shift toward the coast where valuable coastal property is vulnerable to erosion, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a national assessment of coastal change. One aspect of this effort, the National Assessment of Shoreline Change, uses shoreline position as a proxy for coastal change because shoreline position is one of the most commonly monitored indicators of environmental change (for example, Fletcher, 1992; Dolan and others, 1991; Douglas and others, 1998; Galgano and others, 1998). Additionally, the National Research Council (1990) recommended the use of historical shoreline analysis in the absence of a widely accepted model of shoreline change.

  2. Utilizing topobathy LIDAR datasets to identify shoreline variations and to direct charting updates in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremillion, S. L.; Wright, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    Topographic and bathymetric light detection and ranging (LIDAR), remote sensing tools used to measure vertical elevations, are commonly employed to monitor shoreline fluctuations. Many of these publicly available datasets provide wide-swath, nearshore topobathy which can be used to extract shoreline positions and analyze coastlines experiencing the greatest temporal and spatial variability. This study focused on the shorelines of Mississippi's Jackson County to determine the minimum time for significant positional changes to occur, relative to currently published NOAA navigational charts. Many of these dynamic shorelines are vulnerable to relative sea level rise, storm surge, and coastal erosion. Utilizing LIDAR datasets from 1998-2015, shoreline positions were derived and analyzed against NOAA's Continually Updated Shoreline Product (CUSP) to recommend the frequency at which future surveys should be conducted. Advisement of charting updates were based upon the resolution of published charts, and the magnitude of observed variances. Jackson County shorelines were divided into four areas for analysis; the mainland, Horn Island, Petit Bois Island (PBI), and a dredge spoil area west of PBI. The mainland shoreline experienced an average change rate of +0.57 m/yr during the study period. This stability was due to engineering structures implemented in the early 1920's to protect against tropical storms. Horn Island, the most stable barrier island, changed an average of -1.34 m/yr, while PBI had an average change of -2.70 m/yr throughout. Lastly, the dredge spoil area changed by +9.06 m/yr. Based on these results, it is recommended that LIDAR surveys for Jackson County's mainland be conducted at least every two years, while surveys of the offshore barrier islands be conducted annually. Furthermore, insufficient LIDAR data for Round Island and the Round Island Marsh Restoration Project highlight these two areas as priority targets for future surveys.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF THE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT 68 OF 2008 ON THE COMMON LAW WARRANTY AGAINST EVICTION: A COMPARATIVE OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Barnard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA has great implications for the South African common law of sale. In this contribution the influence of the CPA on the seller’s common law duty to warrant the buyer against eviction is investigated. Upon evaluation of the relevant provisions of the CPA, the legal position in the United Kingdom – specifically the provisions of the Sales of Goods Act of 1979 – is investigated.

  4. Investigating Coastal Processes Responsible for Large-Scale Shoreline Responses to Human Shoreline Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slott, J. M.; Murray, A. B.; Ashton, A. D.

    2006-12-01

    Human shoreline stabilization practices, such as beach nourishment (i.e. placing sand on an eroding beach), have become more prevalent as erosion threatens coastal communities. On sandy shorelines, recent experiments with a numerical model of shoreline change (Slott, et al., in press) indicate that moderate shifts in storminess patterns, one possible outcome of global warming, may accelerate the rate at which shorelines erode or accrete, by altering the angular distribution of approaching waves (the `wave climate'). Accelerated erosion would undoubtedly place greater demands on stabilization. Scientists and coastal engineers have typically only considered the site-specific consequences of shoreline stabilization; here we explore the coastal processes responsible for large-scale (10's kms) and long-term (decades) effects using a numerical model developed by Ashton, et al. (2001). In this numerical model, waves breaking at oblique angles drive a flux of sediment along the shoreline, where gradients in this flux can shape the coastline into surprisingly complex forms (e.g. cuspate-capes found on the Carolina coast). Wave "shadowing" plays a major role in shoreline evolution, whereby coastline features may block incoming waves from reaching distant parts. In this work, we include beach nourishment in the Ashton, et al. (2001) model. Using a cuspate-cape shoreline as our initial model condition, we conducted pairs of experiments and varied the wave-climate forcing across each pair, each representing different storminess scenarios. Here we report on one scenario featuring increased extra-tropical storm influence. For each experiment-pair we ran a control experiment with no shoreline stabilization and a second where a beach nourishment project stabilized a cape tip. By comparing the results of these two parallel runs, we isolate the tendency of the shoreline to migrate landward or seaward along the domain due solely to beach nourishment. Significant effects from beach

  5. Undeclared baggage: Do tourists act as vectors for seed dispersal in fynbos protected areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth H. Bouchard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Encroachment by alien species is the second greatest threat to biodiversity worldwide. As South Africa’s Cape Floristic Region has a botanical endemism of nearly 70%, conservation efforts are a high priority. Estimates suggest that alien species cost the country over R6.5 billion per year. Despite significant research on alien species dispersal, the role of tourists as seed dispersers requires further exploration. To investigate the potential role tourists play in introducing alien seeds into protected areas, long-bristle brushes were used to scrape seeds off the shoes of hikers, dog walkers and cyclists, as well as the wheels of mountain bikes and dogs themselves, upon entering the Silvermine Nature Reserve section of the Table Mountain National Park in the Western Cape province, South Africa. In addition, a vegetation survey was conducted. This comprised 18 transects at various distances from the recreational paths in the park, and used a prioritisation ranking system that identified the alien species of greatest concern. It was concluded that the greatest number of alien plant species could be found along dog paths, in comparison to the hiking trails and cycling trails. This corresponded to the findings that dog walkers had the highest incidence of seeds on their shoes, suggesting that tourists were possibly dispersing seeds from their gardens. Alien species significantly covered more of the vegetation transects closer to the trails than they did in transects further into the matrix. Because more alien species were present in areas susceptible to human disturbance, the data suggest that tourists can act as vectors for alien seed dispersal. These findings emphasise the need for active tourism management in line with the South African National Parks Biodiversity Monitoring Programme in order to prevent the introduction and spread of alien species into South Africa’s protected areas. Conservation implications: Tourism is the main source of

  6. The constitutional protection of trade secrets and patents under the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 ("Biosimilars Act") is for the field of pharmaceutical products the single most important legislative development since passage of the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 ("Hatch-Waxman Act"), on which portions of the Biosimilars Act are clearly patterned. Congress revised section 351 of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA) to create a pathway for FDA approval of "biosimilar" biological products. Each biosimilar applicant is required to cite in its application a "reference product" that was approved on the basis of a full application containing testing data and manufacturing information, which is owned and was submitted by another company and much of which constitutes trade secret information subject to constitutional protection. Because the Biosimilars Act authorizes biosimilar applicants to cite these previously approved applications, the implementation of the new legislative scheme raises critical issues under the Fifth Amendment of the Constitution, pursuant to which private property--trade secrets included--may not be taken for public use, without "just compensation." FDA must confront those issues as it implements the scheme set out in the Biosimilars Act. This article will discuss these issues, after providing a brief overview of the Biosimilars Act and a more detailed examination of the law of trade secrets.

  7. Hydrogeologic uncertainties and policy implications: The Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. G.; Matlock, W. G.; Jacobs, K. L.

    The 1995 Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA (hereafter known as the Act) was passed following complaints from Tucson Water customers receiving treated Central Arizona Project (CAP) water. Consequences of the Act demonstrate the uncertainties and difficulties that arise when the public is asked to vote on a highly technical issue. The recharge requirements of the Act neglect hydrogeological uncertainties because of confusion between "infiltration" and "recharge." Thus, the Act implies that infiltration in stream channels along the Central Wellfield will promote recharge in the Central Wellfield. In fact, permeability differences between channel alluvium and underlying basin-fill deposits may lead to subjacent outflow. Additionally, even if recharge of Colorado River water occurs in the Central Wellfield, groundwater will become gradually salinized. The Act's restrictions on the use of CAP water affect the four regulatory mechanisms in Arizona's 1980 Groundwater Code as they relate to the Tucson Active Management Area: (a) supply augmentation; (b) requirements for groundwater withdrawals and permitting; (c) Management Plan requirements, particularly mandatory conservation and water-quality issues; and (d) the requirement that all new subdivisions use renewable water supplies in lieu of groundwater. Political fallout includes disruption of normal governmental activities because of the demands in implementing the Act. Résumé La loi de 1995 sur la protection des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson (Arizona, États-Unis) a été promulguée à la suite des réclamations des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson alimentés en eau traitée à partir à la station centrale d'Arizona (CAP). Les conséquences de cette loi montrent les incertitudes et les difficultés qui apparaissent lorsque le public est appeléà voter sur un problème très technique. Les exigences de la loi en matière de recharge négligent les incertitudes hydrogéologiques du fait de la

  8. Shoreline oiling conditions in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, J.M.; Owens, E.H.; Stoker, S.W.; McCormick, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, Exxon conducted comprehensive, systematic shoreline surveys in cooperation with federal and state authorities to obtain information on the distribution and magnitude of shoreline oiling and to identify natural and cultural resources requiring special protection. Similar joint surveys were performed during the springs of 1990, 1991, and 1992 on all Prince william Sound and Gulf of Alaska shorelines that were suspected of having remnants of weathered oil and that would benefit from further cleanup. In the springs of 1990, 1991, and 1992, isolated pockets of subsurface oil were found, chiefly in small scattered zones in coarse cobble/boulder sediments in the upper intertidal or supratidal zones. In 1991, about one-third of the subdivisions in Prince William Sound with surface oil also contained some subsurface oil. The areal extent of this subsurface oil declined by nearly 70% between 1991 and 1992, from about 37,000 m 2 to about 12,000 m 2 . Moreover, where subsurface oil remained in 1992, it was present in lesser amounts. Rates of oil removal were greatest on coastal sections treated early in the spring and summer of 1989. Where shoreline treatment was delayed, the subsequent rate of removal of oil from the shore by natural processes was slower. 27 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Spatio-temporal evolution of shoreline changes along the coast between sousse- Monastir (Eastearn of Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallah, S.; Ben Amor, R.; Gueddari, M.

    2009-04-01

    Spatio-temporal evolution of shoreline Changes along the coast between Sousse-Monastir (Eastern of Tunisia). Safa Fathallah*, Rim Ben Amor and Moncef Gueddari Unit of Research of Geochemistry and Environmental Geology. Faculty of Science of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, 2092. (*) Corresponding author: safa_fathallah@yahoo.fr The coast of Sousse-Monastir in eastern of Tunisia, has undergone great changes, due to natural and anthropic factors. Increasing human use, the construction of two ports and coastal urbanization (hotels and industries) has accelerated the erosion process. The coastal defense structures (breakwaters and enrockment), built to protect the most eroded zone are efficient, but eroded zones appeared in the southern part of breakwaters. Recent and historic aerial photography was used to estimate, observe, and analyze past shoreline and bathymetric positions and trends involving shore evolution for Sousse-Monastir coast. All of the photographs were calibrated and mosaicked by Arc Map Gis 9.1, the years used are 1925, 1962, 1988, 1996, and 2001 for shoreline change analysis and 1884 and 2001 for bathymetric changes. The analyze of this photographs show that the zone located at the south of breakwater are mostly eroded with high speed process (2m/year). Another zone appears as eroded at the south part of Hamdoun River, with 1,5m/year erosion speed . Keywords: Shoreline evolution, defense structures, Sousse-Monastir coast, Tunisia.

  10. Available data support protection of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher under the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theimer, Tad C.; Smith, Aaron D.; Mahoney, Sean M.; Ironside, Kirsten E.

    2016-01-01

    Zink (2015) argued there was no evidence for genetic, morphological, or ecological differentiation between the federally endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) and other Willow Flycatcher subspecies. Using the same data, we show there is a step-cline in both the frequency of a mtDNA haplotype and in plumage variation roughly concordant with the currently recognized boundary between E. t. extimus and E. t adastus, the subspecies with which it shares the longest common boundary. The geographical pattern of plumage variation is also concordant with previous song analyses differentiating those 2 subspecies and identified birds in one low-latitude, high-elevation site in Arizona as the northern subspecies. We also demonstrate that the ecological niche modeling approach used by Zink yields the same result whether applied to the 2 flycatcher subspecies or to 2 unrelated species, E. t. extimus and Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia). As a result, any interpretation of those results as evidence for lack of ecological niche differentiation among Willow Flycatcher subspecies would also indicate no differentiation among recognized species and would therefore be an inappropriate standard for delineating subspecies. We agree that many analytical techniques now available to examine genetic, morphological, and ecological differentiation would improve our understanding of the distinctness (or lack thereof) of Willow Flycatcher subspecies, but we argue that currently available evidence supports protection of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher under the Endangered Species Act.

  11. Health Education Specialists' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Jessica; Hanson, Carl L; Magnusson, Brianna; Neiger, Brad

    2016-03-01

    The changing landscape of health care as a result of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) may provide new opportunities for health education specialists (HES). The purpose of this study was to survey HES in the United States on their knowledge and attitudes of the ACA and assess their perceptions of job growth under the law. A random sample of 220 (36% response rate) certified HES completed a 53-item cross sectional survey administered online through Qualtrics. Findings were compared to public opinion on health care reform. HES are highly favorable of the law (70%) compared to the general public (23%). A total of 85% of respondents were able to list a provision of the ACA, and most (81%) thought the ACA would be successful at increasing insured Americans. Over half (64.6%) believe job opportunities will increase. Those who viewed the law favorably were significantly more likely to score better on a knowledge scale related to the ACA. HES understand publicized provisions but are uncertain about common myths and specific provisions related to Title IV, "Prevention of Chronic Disease and Improving Public Health." Directed and continuing education to HES regarding the ACA is warranted. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  12. Physician knowledge of and attitudes toward the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Daniel J; Thomas, Steven; Puscas, Liana; Lee, Walter T

    2014-02-01

    To assess otolaryngology physician knowledge of and attitudes toward the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) and compare the association of bias toward the PPACA with knowledge of the provisions of the PPACA. Cross-sectional survey. Nationwide assessment. Members of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Otolaryngology physicians answered 10 true/false questions about major provisions of the PPACA. They also indicated their level of agreement with 9 statements about health care and the PPACA. Basic demographic information was collected. Email solicitation was sent to 9972 otolaryngologists and 647 responses were obtained (6.5% response rate). Overall correct response rate was 74%. Fewer than 60% of physicians correctly answered questions on whether small businesses receive tax credits for providing health insurance, the effect of the PPACA on Medicare benefits, and whether a government-run health insurance plan was created. Academic center practice setting, bias toward the PPACA, and Democratic Party affiliation were associated with significantly more correct responses. Overall physician knowledge of the PPACA is assessed as fair, although better than the general public in 2010. There are several areas where knowledge of physicians regarding the PPACA is poor, and this knowledge deficit is more pronounced within certain subgroups. These knowledge issues should be addressed by individual physicians and medical societies.

  13. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: the victory of unorthodox lawmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussier, Anne-Laure

    2012-10-01

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was a major legislative achievement of the 111th Congress. This law structurally reforms the US health care system by encouraging universal health care coverage through regulated competition among private insurance companies. When looking at the process for reform, what strikes an observer of US health care policy in the first place is that the Democratic majority was able to enact something in a political field characterized by strong resistance to change. This article builds on that observation. Arguments concentrate on the legislative process of the reform and support the idea that it may be partly explained by considering an evolution of US legislative institutions, mostly in the sense of a more centralized legislative process. Based on approximately one hundred semidirected interviews, I argue that the Democratic majority, building on lessons from both President Bill Clinton's health care reform attempt and the Republicans' strategy of using strong congressional leadership to pass social reforms, was able to overcome institutional constraints that have long prevented comprehensive change. A more centralized legislative process, which has been described as "unorthodox lawmaking," enabled the Democratic leadership to overcome multiple institutional and political veto players.

  14. The Consumer Protection Act: no-fault liability of health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabbert, M Nöthling; Pepper, Michael S

    2011-11-01

    The introduction of no-fault or strict liability by the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) poses serious problems in the health care context. With a patient as a 'consumer' in terms of the CPA, health care practitioners may find themselves as 'suppliers' or 'retailers' as part of a supply chain, and potentially liable for harm and loss suffered by a patient in terms of the new no-fault liability provision. The claimant (patient) can sue anyone in the supply chain in terms of this provision, which places the health care practitioner who delivered the care in a very difficult position, as he or she is the most easily and often only identifiable person in the supply chain. Although the causal link between the harm suffered by the complainant will still need to be established on a balance of probabilities, the traditional common law obstacle requiring proof of negligence no longer applies. The article argues that this situation is unsatisfactory, as it places an increasingly onerous burden on certain health care practitioners.

  15. Early Cambrian wave-formed shoreline deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Glad, Aslaug Clemmensen; Pedersen, Gunver Krarup

    2017-01-01

    -preserved subaqueous dunes and wave ripples indicates deposition in a wave-dominated upper shoreface (littoral zone) environment, and the presence of interference ripples indicates that the littoral zone environment experienced water level fluctuations due to tides and/or changing meteorological conditions. Discoidal....... During this period, wave-formed shoreline sediments (the Vik Member, Hardeberga Formation) were deposited on Bornholm and are presently exposed at Strøby quarry. The sediments consist of fine- and medium-grained quartz-cemented arenites in association with a few silt-rich mudstones. The presence of well...

  16. Extended Kalman Filter framework for forecasting shoreline evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Joseph; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2012-01-01

    A shoreline change model incorporating both long- and short-term evolution is integrated into a data assimilation framework that uses sparse observations to generate an updated forecast of shoreline position and to estimate unobserved geophysical variables and model parameters. Application of the assimilation algorithm provides quantitative statistical estimates of combined model-data forecast uncertainty which is crucial for developing hazard vulnerability assessments, evaluation of prediction skill, and identifying future data collection needs. Significant attention is given to the estimation of four non-observable parameter values and separating two scales of shoreline evolution using only one observable morphological quantity (i.e. shoreline position).

  17. 22 CFR 104.1 - Coordination of implementation of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, as amended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination of implementation of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, as amended. 104.1 Section 104.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS INTERNATIONAL TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS: INTERAGENCY COORDINATION OF...

  18. Protection for Children Born Through Assisted Reproductive Technologies Act, B.E. 2558: The Changing Profile of Surrogacy in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Stasi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Legislative Assembly of Thailand has enacted on February 19, 2015 the Protection for Children Born through Assisted Reproductive Technologies Act (ART Act. Its primary objective aims at protecting children born through assisted reproductive technologies and providing the legal procedures that the intended parents must follow. The focus of this article is to discuss the ongoing issues involving assisted reproduction in Thailand. After reviewing the past legal framework surrounding surrogate motherhood and the downsides of the assisted reproductive technology market in Thailand, the article will discuss the new ART Act and its regulatory framework. It will conclude that although the new law contains some flaws and limitations, it has so far been successful in tackling surrogacy trafficking and preventing reproductive scandals from occurring again.

  19. Protection for Children Born Through Assisted Reproductive Technologies Act, B.E. 2558: The Changing Profile of Surrogacy in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    The National Legislative Assembly of Thailand has enacted on February 19, 2015 the Protection for Children Born through Assisted Reproductive Technologies Act (ART Act). Its primary objective aims at protecting children born through assisted reproductive technologies and providing the legal procedures that the intended parents must follow. The focus of this article is to discuss the ongoing issues involving assisted reproduction in Thailand. After reviewing the past legal framework surrounding surrogate motherhood and the downsides of the assisted reproductive technology market in Thailand, the article will discuss the new ART Act and its regulatory framework. It will conclude that although the new law contains some flaws and limitations, it has so far been successful in tackling surrogacy trafficking and preventing reproductive scandals from occurring again.

  20. The National Assessment of Shoreline Change: A GIS Compilation of Vector Shorelines and Associated Shoreline Change Data for the U.S. Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tara L.; Morton, Robert A.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Moore, Laura J.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction The Coastal and Marine Geology Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has generated a comprehensive database of digital vector shorelines and shoreline change rates for the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. These data, which are presented herein, were compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information including rates and trends of shoreline migration. There is also a critical need for shoreline change data that is consistent from one coastal region to another. One purpose of this work is to develop standard repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally that are systematic and internally consistent. This data compilation for open-ocean, sandy shorelines of the Gulf of Mexico is the first in a series that will eventually include the Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. Short- and long-term shoreline change evaluations are based on merging three historical shorelines with a modern shoreline derived from lidar (light detection and ranging) topographic surveys. Historical shorelines generally represent the following time periods: 1800s, 1920s-1930s, and 1970s. The most recent shoreline is derived from data collected over the period of 1998-2002. Long-term rates of change are calculated by linear regression using all four shorelines. Short-term rates of change are simple end-point rate calculations using the two most recent shorelines. Please refer to our full report on shoreline change in the Gulf of Mexico, National Assessment of Shoreline Change: Part 1, Historical Shoreline Changes and Associated Coastal Land Loss Along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (USGS Open File

  1. Combining pre-spill shoreline segmentation data and shoreline assessment tools to support early response management and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarche, A.; Owens, E.H.; Martin, V.; Laforest, S.

    2003-01-01

    Several organizations, such as Environment Canada and the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, are developing or refining pre-spill databases containing information about physical shoreline characteristics. Automated links between these pre-spill shoreline characteristic databases and computerized shoreline assessment tools were recently created by Environment Canada (Quebec and Ontario regions). The tools, which use Geographical Information System (GIS) technology, can be used for planning and documenting support needed for shoreline cleanup operations. A training exercise, designed to evaluate a spill management system integrating the Quebec region pre-spill shoreline database and the ShoreAssess R shoreline assessment system, was conducted at Vercheres, Quebec in October 2002 by Eastern Canada Response Corporation. The testing took place during the planning stage of the early phases of a spill, namely after the first over-flight. The computerized shoreline assessment tools made it possible to evaluate the length and type of shoreline that would potentially be impacted by oil. The tools also made it possible to assess the shoreline treatment methods most likely to be used, and evaluate the probable duration of the cleanup operation. The information would have to be available in time to be considered during the planning activities. The training exercise demonstrated that the integration of the databases is a valuable tool during the early phases of an oil spill response. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  2. Effects of the new radiation protection act on the radiation protection register and the monitoring of occupational radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasch, G.

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of DIRECTIVE 2013/59 / EURATOM (EURATOM Basic Safety Standards) is via the new radiation protection law and brings in the monitoring of occupational radiation among others two significant new features and changes: - Introduction of a unique personal identifier, - update of the occupational categories. Both require technical and organizational changes in the data transmission of the licensees to the dosimetry services and the radiation protection register.

  3. Main aspects of the planned reform of the Act on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy and Protection against its Hazards (Atomic Energy Act)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, R.

    1991-01-01

    There is no specific reason for planning a reform of the atomic energy law just now; the main idea is to keep the atomic energy law abreast with the developments made in the regime of protective laws pertaining to the sector of science and technology. A further aspect not to be neglected, however, is the nuclear power phase-out currently under debate, and a decision against the abandonment of nuclear power should be taken as an occasion to think about a nuclear law reform. The judiciary has been contributing to the development of nuclear law in the last years, and the decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court and of the Federal Administrative Court have not only set the corner flags for the future development of the nuclear law, but have given concrete shape by final settlement of cases of divergence of judicial decisions, to the protective intents of the law and to the subject-related purposes. Thus the judiciary has been taking into account the idea prevailing today, namely that the scope of duties of the Federal Government certainly includes the task of protecting the citizens against the hazards of technology in general, and of novel technologies in particular, and the task of avoiding hazards. So the main line of orientation to be pursued is to draw level with protective regulations established in other fields of law, and to make the Atomic Energy Act a modern instrument of protection by the law. (orig./HSCH) [de

  4. Act no 76-663 of 19 July 1976 on installations classified for the purposes of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This Act repeals the Act of 19 December 1917 on dangerous, noxious or insanitary establishments. Installations of all kinds, operated or owned by any person, whether natural or legal, public or private, are from now onwards governed by the provisions of the Act of 19 July 1976 if they may involve dangers or disadvantages for the amenities of the neighbour-hood, for public health, safety or hygiene, for agriculture, for the protection of nature and the environment, or for the preservation of sites and monuments. As was the case with the previous system, it is foreseen that large nuclear installations which have their own regulations and are defined in the Decree of 11 December 1963 will not appear in the nomenclature and will remain outside application of the legislation on classified installations. However, some nuclear installations are not large nuclear installations and a number of these were listed in the nomenclature of classified establishments drawn up under the 1917 Act. (NEA) [fr

  5. Observations and modelling of shoreline and multiple sandbar behaviour on a high-energy meso-tidal beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splinter, Kristen D.; Gonzalez, Maria V. G.; Oltman-Shay, Joan; Rutten, Jantien; Holman, Robert

    2018-05-01

    This contribution describes 10 years of observed sandbar and shoreline cross-shore position variability at a meso-tidal, high energy, multiple sandbar beach. To examine relationships between the temporal variability in shoreline/sandbar position with offshore wave forcing, a simple equilibrium model is applied to these data. The analysis presented in this paper shows that the equilibrium model is skilled at predicting the alongshore-averaged, time-varying position of the shoreline (R = 0.82) and the outer sandbar position (R = 0.75), suggesting that these end members of the nearshore sediment system are most strongly influenced by offshore wave forcing in a predictable, equilibrium-forced manner. The middle and inner bars are hypothesized to act as sediment transport pathways between the shoreline and the outer bar. Prediction of these more transient features by an equilibrium model was less skilful. Model coefficients reveal that these two end members (outer bar and shoreline) in the sediment system act in opposite directions to changes in the annual offshore wave forcing. During high wave events, sediment is removed from the shoreline and deposited in the nearshore sediment system with simultaneous landward retreat of the shoreline and offshore migration of the outer sandbar. While both end member features have cycles at annual and inter-annual scales, their respective equilibrium response factor differs by almost a factor of 10, with the shoreline responding around an inter-annual mean (ϕ = 1000 days) and the outer bar responding around a seasonal mean (ϕ = 170 days). The model accurately predicts shoreline response to both mild (e.g. 2004/05, 2008/09) and extreme (e.g. 2005/06, 2009/10) winter storms, as well as their summer recovery. The more mobile and dynamic outer sandbar is well-modelled during typical winters. Summer onshore sandbar migration of the outer bar in 2005 and 2006 is under-predicted as the system transitioned between a triple (winter) and

  6. Exploring the Dominant Modes of Shoreline Change Along the Central Florida Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, M. P.; Adams, P. N.; Jaeger, J. M.; MacKenzie, R.

    2017-12-01

    Geomorphic change within the littoral zone can place communities, ecosystems, and critical infrastructure at risk as the coastal environment responds to changes in sea level, sediment supply, and wave climate. At NASA's Kennedy Space Center near Cape Canaveral, Florida, chronic shoreline retreat currently threatens critical launch infrastructure, but the spatial (alongshore) pattern of this hazard has not been well documented. During a 5-year monitoring campaign (2009-2014), 86 monthly and rapid-response RTK GPS surveys were completed along this 11 km-long coastal reach in order to monitor and characterize shoreline change and identify links between ocean forcing and beach morphology. Results indicate that the study area can be divided into four behaviorally-distinct alongshore regions based on seasonal variability in shoreline change, mediated by the complex offshore bathymetry of the Cape Canaveral shoals. In addition, seasonal erosion/accretion cycles are regularly interrupted by large erosive storm events, especially during the anomalous wave climates produced during winter Nor'Easter storms. An effective tool for analyzing multidimensional datasets like this one is Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis, a technique to determine the dominant spatial and temporal signals within a dataset. Using this approach, it is possible to identify the main time and space scales (modes) along which coastal changes are occurring. Through correlation of these changes with oceanographic forcing mechanisms, we are enabled to infer the principal drivers of shoreline change at this site. Here, we document the results of EOF analysis applied to the Cape Canaveral shoreline change dataset, and further correlate the results of this analysis with oceanographic forcings in order to reveal the dominant modes as well as drivers of coastal variability along the central Atlantic coast of Florida. This EOF-based analysis, which is the first such analysis in the region, is shedding

  7. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and Utilization of Preventive Health Care Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Eno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined how (a health insurance coverage, and (b familiarity with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA’s or ObamaCare mandate of cost-free access to preventive health services, affect the use of preventive services by residents of a minority community. It was based on primary data collected from a survey conducted during March to April 2012 among a sample of self-identified African American adults in Tallahassee-Leon County area of northwest Florida. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 22 was used for running frequency analysis on the data set and multivariable regression modeling. The results showed that of 524 respondents, 382 (73% had health insurance while 142 (27% lacked insurance. Majority of insured respondents, 332 (87%, used preventive health services. However, the remaining 13% of respondents did not use preventive services because they were unfamiliar with the ACA provision of free access to preventive services for insured people. Regression analysis showed a high (91.04% probability that, among the insured, the use of preventive health services depended on the person’s age, income, and education. For uninsured residents, the lack of health insurance was the key reason for non-use of preventive health services, while among the insured, lack of knowledge about the ACA benefit of free access contributed to non-use of preventive services. Expansion of Medicaid eligibility can increase insurance coverage rates among African Americans and other minority populations. Health promotion and awareness campaigns about the law’s benefits by local and state health departments can enhance the use of preventive services.

  8. Classifications for Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act site-specific projects: 2008 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    The Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) funds over 100 wetland restoration projects across Louisiana. Integral to the success of CWPPRA is its long-term monitoring program, which enables State and Federal agencies to determine the effectiveness of each restoration effort. One component of this monitoring program is the analysis of high-resolution, color-infrared aerial photography at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana. Color-infrared aerial photography (9- by 9-inch) is obtained before project construction and several times after construction. Each frame is scanned on a photogrametric scanner that produces a high-resolution image in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). By using image-processing software, these TIFF files are then orthorectified and mosaicked to produce a seamless image of a project area and its associated reference area (a control site near the project that has common environmental features, such as marsh type, soil types, and water salinities.) The project and reference areas are then classified according to pixel value into two distinct classes, land and water. After initial land and water ratios have been established by using photography obtained before and after project construction, subsequent comparisons can be made over time to determine land-water change. Several challenges are associated with the land-water interpretation process. Primarily, land-water classifications are often complicated by the presence of floating aquatic vegetation that occurs throughout the freshwater systems of coastal Louisiana and that is sometimes difficult to differentiate from emergent marsh. Other challenges include tidal fluctuations and water movement from strong winds, which may result in flooding and inundation of emergent marsh during certain conditions. Compensating for these events is difficult but possible by using other sources of imagery to verify marsh conditions for other

  9. Awareness about medico legal aspects and Consumer Protection Act among dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, T; Nadeem, J; Arthi, R; Nithya, S

    2017-07-01

    The practice of medicine in India has undergone considerable change affecting delivery of health in both positive and negative directions. As a result, there was a growing feeling that medical treatment should be made accountable and this led to doctors and dentists becoming subject to the process of law. Patients have become more aware of their right to compensation and as a consequence doctors and dentists should be knowledgeable about the laws that govern them. To assess the awareness about Medico legal aspects and Consumer Protection Act [CPA] among Dental professionals. A self-structured validated questionnaire comprising of 20 questions related to medico legal aspects and CPA was designed. A total of 450 dental professionals were surveyed from 4 prime dental institutions in Chennai, India. Of the 450 professionals that were surveyed 150 were MDS faculty, 150 were BDS faculty and 150 were PG students. The data was subjected to SPSS, version 16 and statistically analysed using Chi square test and Fisher's exact test. A- p value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. BDS faculty, MDS faculty and PG students were found to possess similar level of understanding and there was no significant difference between the groups. Knowledge was found to be equal between male and female dentists. The young practitioners were found to be more informed about CPA than the senior practitioners. It was found that most of the participants were aware of relevant Medico legal aspects, but were less aware of CPA. This study emphasises the need for education relevant to Medico legal aspects and CPA for dental professionals.

  10. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  11. Whistleblower Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012 (WPA) and the Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 Enhanced by the Act of 2012 provides protection rights for Federal employees against retaliation for whistleblowing activities.

  12. Living Shorelines: Coastal Resilience with a Blue Carbon Benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenny L; Currin, Carolyn A; O'Brien, Colleen; Raffenburg, Craig; Davis, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Living shorelines are a type of estuarine shoreline erosion control that incorporates native vegetation and preserves native habitats. Because they provide the ecosystem services associated with natural coastal wetlands while also increasing shoreline resilience, living shorelines are part of the natural and hybrid infrastructure approach to coastal resiliency. Marshes created as living shorelines are typically narrow (erosion control and habitat for estuarine organisms has been documented but their capacity for carbon sequestration has not. We measured carbon sequestration rates in living shorelines and sandy transplanted Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Newport River Estuary, North Carolina. The marshes sampled here range in age from 12 to 38 years and represent a continuum of soil development. Carbon sequestration rates ranged from 58 to 283 g C m-2 yr-1 and decreased with marsh age. The pattern of lower sequestration rates in older marshes is hypothesized to be the result of a relative enrichment of labile organic matter in younger sites and illustrates the importance of choosing mature marshes for determination of long-term carbon sequestration potential. The data presented here are within the range of published carbon sequestration rates for S. alterniflora marshes and suggest that wide-scale use of the living shoreline approach to shoreline management may come with a substantial carbon benefit.

  13. Numerical modeling of shoreline undulations part 1: Constant wave climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    integrated flow model, a wave-phase resolving sediment transport description and a one-line shoreline model.First the length of the shoreline undulations is determined in the linear regime using a stability analysis. Next the further evolution from the linear to the fully non-linear regime is described...

  14. Statutory Instrument No 48 of 1992. Radiological Protection Act, 1991 (Establishment day) Order, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This order appoints 1st April 1992 as the day on which the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland is established. From that day the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland will take over the functions of An Bord Fuinnimh Nuicleigh

  15. The Atomic Energy Act: Looking back on its 30 years of existence, and on its contribution to environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.

    1989-01-01

    The author gives an account of the developments and the efficiency in practice of the Atomic Energy Act since its coming into effect thirty years ago. Referring to the full name of the 'Act on the peaceful uses of atomic energy and protection against its hazards', the author reviews the practical impact of this legal instrument with respect to its purpose and intent, and with respect to the developments in terms of substantive law. The article also summarizes and briefly comments proposals for amendment of the atomic energy law in the light of the 30 years of experience. (orig.) [de

  16. Projected atoll shoreline and run-up changes in response to sea-level rise and varying large wave conditions at Wake and Midway Atolls, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, James B.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Hoeke, Ron K.

    2017-10-01

    Atoll islands are dynamic features that respond to seasonal alterations in wave conditions and sea level. It is unclear how shoreline wave run-up and erosion patterns along these low elevation islands will respond to projected sea-level rise (SLR) and changes in wave climate over the next century, hindering communities' preparation for the future. To elucidate how these processes may respond to climate change, extreme boreal winter and summer wave conditions under future sea-level rise (SLR) and wave climate scenarios were simulated at two atolls, Wake and Midway, using a shallow-water hydrodynamic model. Nearshore wave conditions were used to compute the potential longshore sediment flux along island shorelines via the CERC empirical formula and wave-driven erosion was calculated as the divergence of the longshore drift; run-up and the locations where the run-up exceed the berm elevation were also determined. SLR is projected to predominantly drive future island morphological change and flooding. Seaward shorelines (i.e., ocean fronted shorelines directly facing incident wave energy) were projected to experience greater erosion and flooding with SLR and in hypothetical scenarios where changes to deep water wave directions were altered, as informed by previous climate change forced Pacific wave modeling efforts. These changes caused nearshore waves to become more shore-normal, increasing wave attack along previously protected shorelines. With SLR, leeward shorelines (i.e., an ocean facing shoreline but sheltered from incident wave energy) became more accretive on windward islands and marginally more erosive along leeward islands. These shorelines became more accretionary and subject to more flooding with nearshore waves becoming more shore-normal. Lagoon shorelines demonstrated the greatest SLR-driven increase in erosion and run-up. They exhibited the greatest relative change with increasing wave heights where both erosion and run-up magnitudes increased. Wider

  17. Projected atoll shoreline and run-up changes in response to sea-level rise and varying large wave conditions at Wake and Midway Atolls, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, James B.; Storlazzi, Curt; Hoeke, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Atoll islands are dynamic features that respond to seasonal alterations in wave conditions and sea level. It is unclear how shoreline wave run-up and erosion patterns along these low elevation islands will respond to projected sea-level rise (SLR) and changes in wave climate over the next century, hindering communities' preparation for the future. To elucidate how these processes may respond to climate change, extreme boreal winter and summer wave conditions under future sea-level rise (SLR) and wave climate scenarios were simulated at two atolls, Wake and Midway, using a shallow-water hydrodynamic model. Nearshore wave conditions were used to compute the potential longshore sediment flux along island shorelines via the CERC empirical formula and wave-driven erosion was calculated as the divergence of the longshore drift; run-up and the locations where the run-up exceed the berm elevation were also determined. SLR is projected to predominantly drive future island morphological change and flooding. Seaward shorelines (i.e., ocean fronted shorelines directly facing incident wave energy) were projected to experience greater erosion and flooding with SLR and in hypothetical scenarios where changes to deep water wave directions were altered, as informed by previous climate change forced Pacific wave modeling efforts. These changes caused nearshore waves to become more shore-normal, increasing wave attack along previously protected shorelines. With SLR, leeward shorelines (i.e., an ocean facing shoreline but sheltered from incident wave energy) became more accretive on windward islands and marginally more erosive along leeward islands. These shorelines became more accretionary and subject to more flooding with nearshore waves becoming more shore-normal. Lagoon shorelines demonstrated the greatest SLR-driven increase in erosion and run-up. They exhibited the greatest relative change with increasing wave heights where both erosion and run-up magnitudes increased. Wider

  18. NOAA's Shoreline Survey Maps - Raster NOAA-NOS Shoreline Survey Manuscripts that define the shoreline and alongshore natural and man-made features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOS coastal survey maps (often called t-sheet or tp-sheet maps) are special use planimetric or topographic maps that precisely define the shoreline and alongshore...

  19. Act No. 80-572 on protection and control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This Act lays down that the import, export, possession, transfer, use and transport of nuclear materials defined by the Act are subject to licensing and control under conditions to be determined by Decree. The purpose of this control is to avoid loss, theft or diversion of such materials. Any person who obtains fraudulently nuclear material referred to in the Act or who carries out activities involving such material without the required licence shall be subject to severe penalties. Finally, it is provided that the Government shall report to Parliament each year on operation of the provisions of this Act. (NEA) [fr

  20. Equal Protection of the Law: The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities Act, 2014, Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Bain

    2016-10-01

    This analysis of the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities Act, 2014, examines the nature and scope of equal rights and whether the Act provides adequate enforcement. The aim of the provisions is to restrict discrimination against persons with disabilities by providing opportunities on an equal basis and to require persons having dealings with the disabled to accommodate their needs. It is questionable whether the Act fulfils its purpose and whether penalties for failure to comply with the Act are adequate, as there is a lacuna or gap in the law, which hinders purposeful rights.

  1. 78 FR 31955 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security National Protection and Programs Directorate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... 1974; Department of Homeland Security National Protection and Programs Directorate--001 Arrival and... of records titled Department of Homeland Security/National Protection and Programs Directorate--001... of 1974, 5 U.S.C. 552a, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) National Protection and Programs...

  2. Living Shorelines: Coastal Resilience with a Blue Carbon Benefit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny L Davis

    Full Text Available Living shorelines are a type of estuarine shoreline erosion control that incorporates native vegetation and preserves native habitats. Because they provide the ecosystem services associated with natural coastal wetlands while also increasing shoreline resilience, living shorelines are part of the natural and hybrid infrastructure approach to coastal resiliency. Marshes created as living shorelines are typically narrow (< 30 m fringing marshes with sandy substrates that are well flushed by tides. These characteristics distinguish living shorelines from the larger meadow marshes in which most of the current knowledge about created marshes was developed. The value of living shorelines for providing both erosion control and habitat for estuarine organisms has been documented but their capacity for carbon sequestration has not. We measured carbon sequestration rates in living shorelines and sandy transplanted Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Newport River Estuary, North Carolina. The marshes sampled here range in age from 12 to 38 years and represent a continuum of soil development. Carbon sequestration rates ranged from 58 to 283 g C m-2 yr-1 and decreased with marsh age. The pattern of lower sequestration rates in older marshes is hypothesized to be the result of a relative enrichment of labile organic matter in younger sites and illustrates the importance of choosing mature marshes for determination of long-term carbon sequestration potential. The data presented here are within the range of published carbon sequestration rates for S. alterniflora marshes and suggest that wide-scale use of the living shoreline approach to shoreline management may come with a substantial carbon benefit.

  3. Fetal protection and potential liability: judicial application of the Pregnancy Discrimination Act and the disparate impact theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moelis, L S

    1985-01-01

    "Fetal vulnerability programs," which are employer attempts to protect employees' unborn fetuses from harm caused by the mothers' exposure to hazardous material in the workplace, have been challenged as a form of employment discrimination. This Note analyzes the recent judicial application of the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) and the disparate impact theory to fetal vulnerability cases. The Note also examines the business necessity defense's accommodation of legitimate employer interests. The Note concludes that a more potent business necessity defense, a stricter standard for evaluating alternative protective measures, and a judicial interpretation of the PDA which is more consistent with congressional intent are necessary for fair and reasonable resolution of these cases.

  4. Decadal changes in the land use/land cover and shoreline along the coastal districts of southern Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, A; Balaji, R

    2015-07-01

    The coastal zone along the districts of Surat, Navsari, and Valsad in southern Gujarat, India, is reported to be facing serious environmental challenges in the form of shoreline erosion, wetland loss, and man-made encroachments. This study assesses the decadal land use/ land cover (LULC) changes in these three districts for the years 1990, 2001, and 2014 using satellite datasets of Landsat TM, ETM, and OLI. The LULC changes are identified by using band ratios as a pre-classification step, followed by implementation of hybrid classification (a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification). An accuracy assessment is carried out for each dataset, and the overall accuracy ranges from 90 to 95%. It is observed that the spatial extents of aquaculture, urban built-up, and barren classes have appreciated over time, whereas the coverage of mudflats has depreciated due to rapid urbanization. The changes in the shoreline of these districts have also been analyzed for the same years, and significant changes are found in the form of shoreline erosion. The LULC maps prepared as well as the shoreline change analysis done for this study area will enable the local decision makers to adopt better land-use planning and shoreline protection measures, which will further aid in sustainable future developments in this region.

  5. 75 FR 12377 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations-Disposition of Culturally...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... support of a particular religious point of view or excessive entanglement with religion in the context of... Religious Freedom Act. Our Response: The proposed change revised the regulatory definition of cultural... Freedom Act. Section 10.2(e)(2) Definition of Culturally Unidentifiable Section 10.2(e)(2) defines the...

  6. Optimal index related to the shoreline dynamics during a storm: the case of Jesolo beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Renata; Paci, Agnese; Carniel, Sandro; Bonaldo, Davide

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents an application of shoreline monitoring aimed at understanding the response of a beach to single storms and at identifying its typical behaviour, in order to be able to predict shoreline changes and to properly plan the defence of the shore zone. On the study area, in Jesolo beach (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy), a video monitoring station and an acoustic wave and current profiler were installed in spring 2013, recording, respectively, images and hydrodynamic data. The site lacks previous detailed hydrodynamic and morphodynamic data. Variations in the shoreline were quantified in combination with available near-shore wave conditions, making it possible to analyse the relationship between the shoreline displacement and the wave features. Results denote characteristic patterns of beach response to storm events, and highlight the importance of improving beach protection in this zone, notwithstanding the many interventions experimented in the last decades. A total of 31 independent storm events were selected during the period October 2013-October 2014, and for each of them synthetic indexes based on storm duration, energy and maximum wave height were developed and estimated. It was found that the net shoreline displacements during a storm are well correlated with the total wave energy associated to the considered storm by an empirical power law equation. A sub-selection of storms in the presence of an artificial dune protecting the beach (in the winter season) was examined in detail, allowing to conclude that the adoption of this coastal defence strategy in the study area can reduce shoreline retreat during a storm. This type of intervention can sometimes contribute to prolonging overall stability not only in the replenished zone but also in downdrift areas. The implemented methodology, which confirms to be economically attractive if compared to more traditional monitoring systems, proves to be a valuable system to monitor beach erosive processes and

  7. Chinese Student Protection Act of 1992. Report To Accompany S. 1216 of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, 102D Congress, 2d Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jack

    This congressional report describes and analyzes the federal Chinese Student Protection Act of 1992 (S. 1216). This act provides for the adjustment of status under the Immigration and Nationality Act of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China until conditions permit their return in safety to China. An opening section presents the text…

  8. Massachusetts Shoreline Change Mapping and Analysis Project, 2013 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E. Robert; Smith, Theresa L.; Knisel, Julia M.; Sampson, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    Information on rates and trends of shoreline change can be used to improve the understanding of the underlying causes and potential effects of coastal erosion on coastal populations and infrastructure and can support informed coastal management decisions. In this report, we summarize the changes in the historical positions of the shoreline of the Massachusetts coast for the 165 years from 1844 through 2009. The study area includes the Massachusetts coastal region from Salisbury to Westport, including Cape Cod, as well as Martha’s Vineyard, Nantucket, and the Elizabeth Islands. New statewide shoreline data were developed for approximately 1,804 kilometers (1,121 miles) of shoreline using color aerial orthoimagery from 2008 and 2009 and topographic lidar from 2007. The shoreline data were integrated with existing historical shoreline data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) to compute long- (about 150 years) and short-term (about 30 years) rates of shoreline change. A linear regression method was used to calculate long- and short-term rates of shoreline change at 26,510 transects along the Massachusetts coast. In locations where shoreline data were insufficient to use the linear regression method, short-term rates were calculated using an end-point method. Long-term rates of shoreline change are calculated with (LTw) and without (LTwo) shorelines from the 1970s and 1994 to examine the effect of removing these data on measured rates of change. Regionally averaged rates are used to assess the general characteristics of the two-rate computations, and we find that (1) the rates of change for both LTw and LTwo are essentially the same; (2) including more data slightly reduces the uncertainty of the rate, which is expected as the number of shorelines increases; and (3) the data for the shorelines from the 1970s and 1994 are not outliers with respect to the long-term trend. These findings are true for regional

  9. Morphodynamic implications for shoreline management of the western-Mediterranean sector of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frihy, Omran E.

    2009-09-01

    Although the western-Mediterranean coast of Egypt between Sallum and Alexandria, ~550 km long, has maintained a considerable equilibrium throughout history, developers have built traditional protective structures in an effort to form sheltered recreational beaches without taking into consideration its geomorphologic characteristics, coastal processes and their harmful impact on the coastal environment and human safety. The improper practices in this environmentally valuable region have induced us to undertake an initiative to carry out a morphodynamic analysis to provide a framework for understanding the relationship between coastal morphology and the prevailing dynamic forces. Based on the degree of natural protection or wave sheltering, the study shoreline can be categorized into four distinct morphotypical stretches: (1) high-energy wave-exposed shores and the outer margins of the rocky headlands, (2) moderate to high wave-energy beaches along semi-exposed embayments and bays mostly downdrift of the rocky headlands, (3) low-wave energy at semi-exposed headland lee-sided and pocket beaches, and (4) calm wave-sheltered enclosing water basins for safe anchorages, moorings and recreation beaches. The results deducted will have practical applications for shoreline management initiatives regarding sustained sites suitable for future beachfront development such as safe swimming conditions, sport facilities, water intakes and sheltered areas for vessels. In addition, benefits realized by the understanding of the morphodynamic processes would enhance our awareness of the significance of the role of western coast morphodynamics in supporting sustainable development via shoreline management. As far as sustainability is concerned, the selection of appropriate sites would help avoiding or minimizing the formation of the hard structures needed for creating safe recreation beaches. On a national scale, results reached could provide reliable database for information that can be

  10. Third-party protection and residual risk in Atomic Energy Act. On legally dogmatic classification of paragraph 7 Atomic Energy Act in the jurisprudence of the Federal Constitutional Law and Federal Administrative Court

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, Hans-Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    On 25th June 2009, the Council of the European Union has passed the directive 2009/71/EURATOM on a common framework for nuclear safety of nuclear installations. At first, the 12th Law amending the Atomic Energy Act supplements the Atomic Energy Act by regulations which implement the directive 2009/71/EURATIM into national law. In addition, paragraph 7 Atomic Energy Act introduces a new substantive obligation of the operators of nuclear power plants. The author of the contribution reports on whether paragraph 7 Atomic Energy Act provides additional nuclear protection or reduces the potential protection by law and jurisprudence.

  11. Healing arts radiation protection act: revised statutes of Ontario, 1980, chapter 195

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    An act published by the Government of Ontario by the Minister of Health to ensure public safety while subjected to the use of x-rays for the irradiation of human beings for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes

  12. 25 CFR 63.13 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the Bureau of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of Character and Suitability for Employment § 63.13 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act...

  13. 42 CFR 136.404 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under...

  14. The Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) Version 4.0 - An ArcGIS extension for calculating shoreline change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E. Robert; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Zichichi, Jessica L.; Ergul, Ayhan

    2009-01-01

    The Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0 is a software extension to ESRI ArcGIS v.9.2 and above that enables a user to calculate shoreline rate-of-change statistics from multiple historic shoreline positions. A user-friendly interface of simple buttons and menus guides the user through the major steps of shoreline change analysis. Components of the extension and user guide include (1) instruction on the proper way to define a reference baseline for measurements, (2) automated and manual generation of measurement transects and metadata based on user-specified parameters, and (3) output of calculated rates of shoreline change and other statistical information. DSAS computes shoreline rates of change using four different methods: (1) endpoint rate, (2) simple linear regression, (3) weighted linear regression, and (4) least median of squares. The standard error, correlation coefficient, and confidence interval are also computed for the simple and weighted linear-regression methods. The results of all rate calculations are output to a table that can be linked to the transect file by a common attribute field. DSAS is intended to facilitate the shoreline change-calculation process and to provide rate-of-change information and the statistical data necessary to establish the reliability of the calculated results. The software is also suitable for any generic application that calculates positional change over time, such as assessing rates of change of glacier limits in sequential aerial photos, river edge boundaries, land-cover changes, and so on.

  15. EnviroAtlas - Percentage of stream and water body shoreline lengths within 30 meters of >= 5% or >= 15% impervious cover by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the percentages of stream and water body shoreline lengths within 30 meters of impervious cover by 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC)...

  16. Habitat structure and zonation patterns of northwestern Mediterranean shoreline strands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mariani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the habitat structure (macrofaunal assemblages and bottom types and zonation patterns of 29 unvegetated shoreline strands along the 900-km coast of Catalonia (NW Mediterranean Sea. Organisms were sampled with grabs, pitfall traps, sticky traps, clam nets and spades to ensure capture of the different proportions of macrofaunal assemblages from the supra-, medio- and infralittoral levels. We collected 211 taxa: 194 animals and 17 algae. The most abundant and dominant organisms collected with van Veen grabs were Nematoda, Oligochaeta and Collembola at the supralittoral level; the polychaetes Saccocirrus spp. and Pisione remota, the amphipod Corophium orientale, Nematoda, and Turbellaria at the mediolittoral level; and Nematoda at the upper infralittoral level. SIMPER analysis revealed great dissimilarity between the organisms inhabiting the supralittoral and the other littoral levels. Regarding the epifauna, the sticky traps used at the supralittoral level mainly collected Collembola, which were nearly absent in pitfall traps. The qualitative study performed with a clam net and a small spade revealed that Nematoda, Saccocirrus spp., Turbellaria, Nemertea and the polychaete P. remota were the most abundant animals at both the medio- and the infralittoral levels and no differences were found between these levels. Different qualitative sampling methodologies showed that in fine sediments the bivalves Donax trunculus and D. semistriatus determined more than 97% of dissimilarity from coarse-sand sites. Richness increased in protected sandy and cobble shores. Littoral level and bottom-type features were only to a certain extent valid indicators of specific biotic components for a specific habitat.

  17. Nutrient-enhanced bioremediation of oil-contaminated shoreline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the collision of the supertanker Exxon Valdez with a submerged reef in Prince William Sound AK, released 41.6 million L (11 million gal) of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. The oil spread with time to contaminate an estimated 565 km (350 miles) of shoreline. The degradation of oil components by biological mechanisms has been intensively studied during the last 20 years. The general outline of biodegradation pathways for aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons has been formulated and continues to be developed in greater detail. Consequently, the microbial decomposition of oil in aquatic environments is well understood to include descriptions of biodegradation kinetics; temperature effects for biodegradation can be described by an Arrhenius relationship. Even cold-water environments have been shown to support the biodegradation of oil components. This paper reports that a panel of experts was assembled to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in determining the best treatment strategy to accelerate the natural biodegradation process in Prince William Sound

  18. Federal Act on Protection against Nuisances (BImSchG) and supplementing regulations. 11. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmann, K.

    1993-01-01

    This handy booklet contains the BImSchG and related implementing regulations as well as the Technical Codes Clean Air and Noise Abatement. The contribution on the BImSchG explains the origin of the Act, the scope of application, its concept and principles. The contents of the Act is portrayed by emphasizing subject-related connections. Dealt with are also regulations for installations requiring licensing, the measurement of airborne pollution, stipulations concerning the area of installations and transport, as well as the regulation concerning the monitoring of airborne pollution in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  19. Federal Act on Protection against Nuisances (BImSchG) and supplementing regulations. 9. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmann, K.

    1992-01-01

    This handy booklet contains the BImSchG and related implementing regulations as well as the Technical Codes Clean Air and Noise Abatement. The contribution on the BImSchG explains the origin of the Act, the scope of application, its concept and principles. The contents of the Act is portrayed by emphasizing subject-related connections. Dealt with are also regulations for installations requiring licensing, the measurement of airborne pollution, stipulations concerning the area of installations and transport, as well as the regulation concerning the monitoring of airborne pollution in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  20. SPATIO-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF SHORELINE CHANGES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... The study recommended periodic monitoring of the coastal area on monthly and yearly bases. Keywords: Shoreline, GIS, Remote sensing, Bonny Island, Water transport, .... imported to Arcview GIS 3.3 for enhancement.

  1. Regional shoreline change and coastal erosion hazards in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Erikson, Li H.; Harden, E. Lynne; Wallendorf, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Historical shoreline positions along the mainland Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska were digitized and analyzed to determine the long-term rate of change. Average shoreline change rates and ranges from 1947 to the mid-2000s were determined every 50 meters between Barrow and Demarcation Point, at the U.S.-Canadian border. Results show that shoreline change rates are highly variable along the coast, with an average regional shoreline change rate of-2.0 m/yr and localized rates of up to -19 m/yr. The highest erosion rates were observed at headlands, points, and associated with breached thermokarst lakes. Areas of accretion were limited, and generally associated with spit extension and minor beach accretion. In general, erosion rates increase from east to west, with overall higher rates east of Harrison Bay.

  2. Driftcretions: The legacy impacts of driftwood on shoreline morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Natalie; Wohl, Ellen

    2015-07-01

    This research demonstrates how vegetation interacts with physical processes to govern landscape development. We quantify and describe interactions among driftwood, sedimentation, and vegetation for Great Slave Lake, which is used as proxy for shoreline dynamics and landforms before deforestation and wood removal along major waterways. We introduce driftcretion to describe large, persistent concentrations of driftwood that interact with vegetation and sedimentation to influence shoreline evolution. We report the volume and distribution of driftwood along shorelines, the morphological impacts of driftwood delivery throughout the Holocene, and rates of driftwood accretion. Driftcretions facilitate the formation of complex, diverse morphologies that increase biological productivity and organic carbon capture and buffer against erosion. Driftcretions should be common on shorelines receiving a large wood supply and with processes which store wood permanently. We encourage others to work in these depositional zones to understand the physical and biological impacts of large wood export from river basins.

  3. Preliminary assessment of bioengineered fringing shoreline reefs in Grand Isle and Breton Sound, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Peyre, Megan K.; Schwarting, Lindsay; Miller, Shea

    2013-01-01

    Restoration of three-dimensional shell habitats in coastal Louisiana presents a valuable and potentially self-sustaining approach to providing shoreline protection and critical nekton habitat and may contribute to water quality maintenance. The use of what has been called “living shorelines” is particularly promising because in addition to the hypothesized shoreline protection services, it is predicted that, if built and located in viable sites, these living shorelines may ultimately contribute to water quality maintenance through filtration of bivalves and may enhance nekton habitat. This approach, however, has not been tested extensively in different shallow water estuarine settings; understanding under what conditions a living shoreline must have to support a sustainable oyster population, and where these reefs may provide valuable shoreline protection, is key to ensuring that this approach provides an effective tool for coastal restoration. This project gathered preliminary data on the sustainability and shoreline stabilization of three large bioengineered fringing reefs located in Grand Isle, Lake Eloi, and Lake Fortuna, Louisiana. We collected preconstruction and postconstruction physiochemical and biological data by using a before-after-control-impact approach to evaluate the effectiveness of these living shoreline structures on reducing marsh erosion, enabling reef sustainability, and providing other ecosystem benefits. Although this project was originally designed to compare reef performance and impacts across three different locations over 2 years, delays in construction because of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in reefs being built from 12 to 18 months later than anticipated. As a result, monitoring postconstruction was severely limited. One reef, Grand Isle, was completed in March 2011 and monitored up to 18 months postcreation, whereas Lake Eloi and Lake Fortuna reefs were not completed until January 2012, and only 8 months of

  4. 75 FR 44724 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... statutory mandate, PPQ and VS each convene separate interagency working groups in order to review the lists... responsibility for implementing the provisions of the Act within the Department of Agriculture (USDA). Veterinary Services (VS) select agents and toxins, listed in 9 CFR 121.3, are those that have been determined to have...

  5. 12 CFR 40.16 - Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 40.16 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY OF... Reporting Act. Nothing in this part shall be construed to modify, limit, or supersede the operation of the... provisions of this part regarding whether information is transaction or experience information under section...

  6. The influence of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 on the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implications for the South African common law of sale. In this contribution the influence of the CPA ... legal position in the United Kingdom – specifically the provisions of the Sales of. Goods Act of 19792 – is .... rejected the argument that the purchaser would be placed in a better position after his eviction because he had the ...

  7. 78 FR 79619 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    .... 155.705(a) by adding a cross reference to subpart M, so that the provision reads, ``Exchange functions... with section 553(b) and (c) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b) & (c)). However... the finding and the reasons therefor in the notice. Section 553(d) of the APA ordinarily requires a 30...

  8. 77 FR 29235 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ..., 2012. II. Summary of Error On page 17248, we inadvertently made an incorrect cross reference in the regulations text at Sec. 153.220(d). We are correcting the cross reference from ``Sec. 153.210(a)(2)(ii)'' to... effect in accordance with section 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b...

  9. Food allergen law and the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004: falling short of true protection for food allergy sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roses, Jonathan B

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, Congress mandated labeling of food allergens on packaged foods for the first time by passing the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA). FALCPA requires that manufacturers of foods containing one of the eight major allergens responsible for 90 percent of food allergies either state on the food's packaging that the food contains the allergen, or refers to the allergen by a name easily understandable by consumers in the ingredients listing. Despite this important first step in protecting consumers with food allergies, FALCPA left unregulated the use of conditional precautionary statements (e.g., "may contain [allergen]"), which many manufacturers have used as a low-cost shield to liability. Further, FALCPA applies only to packaged foods, and does not mandate listing of food allergen ingredients in restaurants. This article discusses the history of food allergen litigation in the United States, highlighting the problems plaintiffs have faced in seeking recovery for allergic reactions to a defendants' food product, and some of the practical difficulties still extant due to the lack of regulation of precautionary statements. Also presented is a review of the Massachusetts Food Allergy Awareness Act, the first state legislation requiring restaurants to take an active role in educating employees and consumers about the presence and dangers of food allergens.

  10. Act No. 85-661 of 3 July 1985 amending and supplementing Act No. 76-663 of 19 July 1976 on installations classified for purposes of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Act both amends and supplements Act No. 76-663 of 19 July 1976 on installations classified for environmental protection purposes. In particular, the new provisions increase the penalties prescribed in cases where classified installations are operated in illegal conditions. (NEA) [fr

  11. Research on bioremediation of oil polluted shorelines in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sveum, P.

    1995-01-01

    Marine bioremediation research in Norway has been directed towards the use of fertilizers on arctic shorelines and ice infested waters. In addition from the focus on fertilizers, the research has paid considerable attention to nutrient dynamics, and the influence of microfauna such as bacterial and fungal grazers on the dynamics of macronutrients. The interactions between microbial and physical processes on the shorelines, between photochemical processes and nutrient dynamics, have also been addressed. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  12. A post-Calumet shoreline along southern Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, D.K.; Thompson, T.A.; Booth, R.K.

    2007-01-01

    The southern shore of Lake Michigan is the type area for many of ancestral Lake Michigan's late Pleistocene lake phases, but coastal deposits and features of the Algonquin phase of northern Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, and Lake Superior are not recognized in the area. Isostatic rebound models suggest that Algonquin phase deposits should be 100 m or more below modern lake level. A relict shoreline, however, exists along the lakeward margin of the Calumet Beach that was erosional west of Deep River and depositional east of the river. For this post-Calumet shoreline, the elevation of basal foreshore deposits east of Deep River and the base of the scarp west of Deep River indicate a slightly westward dipping water plane that is centered at ???184 m above mean sea level. Basal foreshore elevations also indicate that lake level fell ???2 m during the development of the shoreline. The pooled mean of radiocarbon dates from the surface of the peat below post-Calumet shoreline foreshore deposits indicate that the lake transgressed over the peat at 10,560 ?? 70 years B.P. Pollen assemblages from the peat are consistent with this age. The elevation and age of the post-Calumet shoreline are similar to the Main Algonquin phase of Lake Huron. Recent isostatic rebound models do not adequately address a high-elevation Algonquin-age shoreline along the southern shore of Lake Michigan, but the Goldthwait (1908) hinge-line model does. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  14. Timing of oceans on Mars from shoreline deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, Robert I; Manga, Michael; Hemingway, Douglas J

    2018-03-29

    Widespread evidence points to the existence of an ancient Martian ocean. Most compelling are the putative ancient shorelines in the northern plains. However, these shorelines fail to follow an equipotential surface, and this has been used to challenge the notion that they formed via an early ocean and hence to question the existence of such an ocean. The shorelines' deviation from a constant elevation can be explained by true polar wander occurring after the formation of Tharsis, a volcanic province that dominates the gravity and topography of Mars. However, surface loading from the oceans can drive polar wander only if Tharsis formed far from the equator, and most evidence indicates that Tharsis formed near the equator, meaning that there is no current explanation for the shorelines' deviation from an equipotential that is consistent with our geophysical understanding of Mars. Here we show that variations in shoreline topography can be explained by deformation caused by the emplacement of Tharsis. We find that the shorelines must have formed before and during the emplacement of Tharsis, instead of afterwards, as previously assumed. Our results imply that oceans on Mars formed early, concurrent with the valley networks, and point to a close relationship between the evolution of oceans on Mars and the initiation and decline of Tharsis volcanism, with broad implications for the geology, hydrological cycle and climate of early Mars.

  15. 78 FR 15553 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... & Medicaid Services, Department of Health and Human Services, Attention: CMS-9964-P2, P.O. Box 8016..., Attention: CMS-9964-P2, Mail Stop C4-26-05, 7500 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21244-1850. 4. By hand or... procedure, Advertising, Advisory Committees, Brokers, Conflict of interest, Consumer protection, Grant...

  16. 78 FR 37031 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, Premium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... in the private market, were previously proposed through the Blueprint process, discussed in agency... Vol. 78 Wednesday, No. 118 June 19, 2013 Part III Department of Health and Human Services 45 CFR... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 144, 147, 153, 155, and 156 [CMS-9957-P] RIN 0938-AR82 Patient Protection...

  17. Coral Reef Biological Criteria: Using Clean Water Act to Protect a National Treasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaborative Environmental Protection Agency effort is underway to elucidate the technical aspects of coral reef biocriteria implementation. A stony coral rapid bioassessment protocol has been introduced and applied in the Florida Keys and U.S. Virgin Islands, where several in...

  18. Synergism in mutations induction in Tradescantia by plants protection agents acting jointly with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Smagala, J.

    1990-01-01

    Tradescantia was first treated by plants protection agents such as: Ambusz, Afalton, Ripcord, Decis, deltametryne and after that irradiated with X radiation. The synergism of both factors was observed. The mutation frequency dependence on radiation doses was studied. 7 figs., 4 refs. (A.S.)

  19. 78 FR 54069 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, and Eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Qualified Health Plans; Exchange Standards for Employers, 77 FR 18310 (March 27, 2012). \\2\\ Patient..., including States, health insurance issuers, consumer groups, agents and brokers, provider groups, Members of....120(c) to Exchange consumer assistance entities, please see the recent final rule, Patient Protection...

  20. 75 FR 32306 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... marketing chain becomes a seller in its own turn and can preserve its own trust assets accordingly. Because... Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection Eligibility AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... industry that sellers may lose their status as trust creditors when they agree orally or in writing, after...

  1. ActRII blockade protects mice from cancer cachexia and prolongs survival in the presence of anti-cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Shinji; Summermatter, Serge; Jourdain, Marie; Melly, Stefan; Minetti, Giulia C; Lach-Trifilieff, Estelle

    2016-01-01

    Cachexia affects the majority of patients with advanced cancer and is associated with reduced treatment tolerance, response to therapy, quality of life, and life expectancy. Cachectic patients with advanced cancer often receive anti-cancer therapies against their specific cancer type as a standard of care, and whether specific ActRII inhibition is efficacious when combined with anti-cancer agents has not been elucidated yet. In this study, we evaluated interactions between ActRII blockade and anti-cancer agents in CT-26 mouse colon cancer-induced cachexia model. CDD866 (murinized version of bimagrumab) is a neutralizing antibody against the activin receptor type II (ActRII) preventing binding of ligands such as myostatin and activin A, which are involved in cancer cachexia. CDD866 was evaluated in association with cisplatin as a standard cytotoxic agent or with everolimus, a molecular-targeted agent against mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In the early studies, the treatment effect on cachexia was investigated, and in the additional studies, the treatment effect on progression of cancer and the associated cachexia was evaluated using body weight loss or tumor volume as interruption criteria. Cisplatin accelerated body weight loss and tended to exacerbate skeletal muscle loss in cachectic animals, likely due to some toxicity of this anti-cancer agent. Administration of CDD866 alone or in combination with cisplatin protected from skeletal muscle weight loss compared to animals receiving only cisplatin, corroborating that ActRII inhibition remains fully efficacious under cisplatin treatment. In contrast, everolimus treatment alone significantly protected the tumor-bearing mice against skeletal muscle weight loss caused by CT-26 tumor. CDD866 not only remains efficacious in the presence of everolimus but also showed a non-significant trend for an additive effect on reversing skeletal muscle weight loss. Importantly, both combination therapies slowed down time

  2. Changing Context of Trade Mark Protection in India: A Review of the Trade Marks Act, 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Akhileshwar

    2004-01-01

    With liberalisation and globalisation of the Indian economy, it has become possible for anyone to get into production and services in most of the sectors. This has led to rampant misuse and appropriation of trade marks. In an insulated economy, with monopoly markets, law protecting trade marks had a limited role. In the changed context, however, trade mark law will be a field of much interest for academics and practitioners. Towards this, the paper explores the formation of trade mark law in ...

  3. Biological conditions of shorelines following the Exxon Valdez spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, S.W.; Neff, J.M.; Schroeder, T.R.; McCormick, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    This report is based primarily on survey results from Prince William Sound, where most of the heavy shoreline oiling occurred. Although not strictly quantitative, the shoreline surveys provide an unprecedented, broad base of professional observations covering the entire spill-affected area from 1989 through 1992 by which to evaluate spill impacts and recovery. Shoreline surveys documented that the extent of shoreline oiling declined substantially from 1989 to 1992. In 1989, oil was found on about 16 percent of the 3,000 miles of shoreline in Prince William Sound; by the spring of 1991, oil was found on only about 2 percent of the shoreline; and by May of 1992, on only 0.2 percent. In all years, most of this oil was located in the biologically least productive upper intertidal and supratidal zones. In both 1991 and 1992, small, isolated pockets of subsurface oil were found on some boulder/cobble beaches. Most of these deposits were also located in the upper intertidal and were usually buried beneath clean sediments. In almost all cases, the condition of intertidal biological communities improved correspondingly from 1989 to 1992. By the spring of 1991, recovery appeared to be well under way on virtually all previously oiled shores, with species composition, abundance, and diversity levels usually comparable to those of nearby shores that were not oiled in 1989. Recruitment of intertidal plants and animals was observed as early as the summer of 1989, and increasingly through 1991 and 1992. Recruitment was evident even in areas with remnant deposits of surface and subsurface oil, indicating that toxicity levels of the oil had declined substantially and that, in most cases, the residual oil no longer interfered with biological recovery. Observations of birds and marine mammals on or near shorelines surveyed during 1991 and 1992 confirmed that species present before the spill were still present and were feeding and reproducing in areas affected by oil in 1989

  4. The term 'danger' according to the act on protection against nuisances - assessment of incidents on account of external effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehbinder, E.

    1976-01-01

    The author deliberates critically on the opinion taken up in the judgments of the Higher Administrative Court at Lueneburg dated February 25th, 1975 and June 27th, 1975 in the case of Dow Chemical, according to which the facilities subject to a licence under the Federal act on protection against nuisances have to be erected in such a way that dangers for the general public and the neighbourhood (in this case danger through gas cloud explosions from a chlorine plant of the Kernkraftwerk Stade) are excluded. If this view, hitherto only expressed by the OVG Lueneburg in summary proceedings according to section 80 paragraph 5 VwGO, gains acceptance, then, in the opinion of the author, the open air construction of the big chemical industry's plants would be illegal to a large extent. While defining the term of danger in police law, Rehbinder applies the term of probability and proportionateness to the term of danger in section 3 BImSchG. On the other hand, the term of danger would have to be taken in a wider sense in section 1 No. 2 and section 7 sub-section No. 2 and 4 Atomic Energy Act, because of the danger potential being here bigger in the long run. In a final conclusion with a view to politics and law, the author states, amongst other things, the following: an exaggerated safety philosophy hides the danger of a political discrediting of the whole environment protection idea, a danger which ought to weigh in the end more heavily than the minute remaining risk for the life and the health of people if a facility which has to have a licence is not protected against absolutely unlikely external incidents. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Pesticides used in forest nursery management in the United States and the impact of the Food Quality Protection Act and other regulatory actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus A. Cota

    2002-01-01

    The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 has placed new standards on the registration and regulation of pesticides intended to protect children. The most significant changed mandated by FQPA relate to the registration process termed the "Risk Cup." This approach to risk analysis has resulted in greater restrictions on the application of pesticides used...

  6. Differences in High School and College Students' Basic Knowledge and Perceived Education of Internet Safety: Do High School Students Really Benefit from the Children's Internet Protection Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA; 2000) requires an Internet filtering and public awareness strategy to protect children under 17 from harmful visual Internet depictions. This study compared high school students who went online with the CIPA restriction and college students who went online without the restriction in order to…

  7. An analysis of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act: protection for consumers and boon for business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Debra M

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes components of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, which was prompted by incidents of food contamination, exploring the history of its passage and explaining its significance, as well as its limitations. As the first time in 70 years that food law has been changed substantially, this new law represents only an initial but significant step in the direction of improving food safety. With bipartisan support from both Congress and the President, this legislation embodies a mandate that food safety is at this moment becoming a priority. As a result, the time is ripe for a reassessment of other areas of food laws--particularly genetically modified foods and the use of milk and meat from cloned animals and their progeny--which are allowed under current U.S. law with no labeling, preapprovals, or post-market monitoring. These areas warrant special regulation consistent with the new proactive policy towards securing the safety of the food supply.

  8. Korea act on compensation for nuclear damage (as amended on 16 January 2001). Norway act on radiation protection and use of radiation (12 May 2000). Poland atomic energy act (29 November 2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This volume reprints the English and French translation of three nuclear laws. The first law concerns Korea and its purpose is to protect victims and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing matters relating to compensation in the event of nuclear damage arising during the operation of a nuclear reactor. The second law concerns Norway and its purpose is to prevent the harmful effects of radiation on human health and to contribute to the protection of the environment. It applies to any production, import, export, transport, transfer, possession, installation, use, handling and waste management of radiation sources. It applies also to human activities which causes increased levels of naturally-occurring ionizing radiation in the environment, and to planning and emergency preparedness against incidents and accidents. The last law is the atomic energy act of Poland. It defines the activities related to the peaceful use of atomic energy, involving real and potential exposures to ionizing radiation emitted by artificial radioactive sources, nuclear materials, devices generating ionizing radiation, radioactive waste and spent fuel. It defines also duties of the head of the organisational entity conducting these activities, the authorities competent in the area of nuclear safety and radiological protection, and the principles of third party liability for nuclear damage. The act also establishes financial penalties for the violation of nuclear regulations and the rules for imposing such penalties. It applies also to practices conducted in conditions of exposure to natural ionizing radiation enhanced by human activity. Finally, it defines the principles of radioactive contamination monitoring and establishes rules governing activities undertaken in the event of a radiological emergency as well as in chronic exposure conditions in the aftermath of a radiological emergency or a past practice

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE NEW LEGAL ACTS ON MOBBING PROTECTION OF THE EMPLOYEES IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Denkova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Emotional abuse in the work place, psychological terror, social isolation, are terms well known to the Labor Union organizations. They all refer to harassment in the work place, which is actually mobbing. The word “mobbing” denotes a wide range of complex activities which represent harassment of the employees in their work places, in all social spheres. Therefore the consequences range from mild disturbances to disappointing repercussions to the employees. Those consequences mostly reflect badly on the family of the harassed employee, as well on the organization and the society in general. For that reason, the subject of this article is to analyze the regulations of the Law on Labor Relations which refer to protection of employees from harassment in the work place and to analyze the new “Law on Harassment Protection in the work place” adopted recently, in order to increase the protection measures against harassment in the work place on a higher level. The efficiency of this law is to be comprehended through professional and scientific approach, where the research should emphasize the efficiency of the new legal acts. The purpose of this article is not only to analyze the abovementioned laws on harassment protection in the work place in the Republic of Macedonia, but also to present a critique of the eventual mistakes that might occur during implementation and to identify legal gaps as obstacles against mobbing evidence. The methodological approach of this article is directed towards implementation of the qualitative methodanalyzing content founded on scientific and expert competence as well as on previously established real state of affairs by the adopted law regulations in order to present our own point of view. The conclusion of this article refers to the fact that weaknesses in some of the legal acts on the Law on Labor Relations and the Law on Harassment Protection could be noticed. Those cracks might be misinterpreted by the people

  10. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; exchange and insurance market standards for 2015 and beyond. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-27

    This final rule addresses various requirements applicable to health insurance issuers, Affordable Insurance Exchanges (``Exchanges''), Navigators, non-Navigator assistance personnel, and other entities under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act). Specifically, the rule establishes standards related to product discontinuation and renewal, quality reporting, non-discrimination standards, minimum certification standards and responsibilities of qualified health plan (QHP) issuers, the Small Business Health Options Program, and enforcement remedies in Federally-facilitated Exchanges. It also finalizes: A modification of HHS's allocation of reinsurance collections if those collections do not meet our projections; certain changes to allowable administrative expenses in the risk corridors calculation; modifications to the way we calculate the annual limit on cost sharing so that we round this parameter down to the nearest $50 increment; an approach to index the required contribution used to determine eligibility for an exemption from the shared responsibility payment under section 5000A of the Internal Revenue Code; grounds for imposing civil money penalties on persons who provide false or fraudulent information to the Exchange and on persons who improperly use or disclose information; updated standards for the consumer assistance programs; standards related to the opt-out provisions for self-funded, non-Federal governmental plans and related to the individual market provisions under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 including excepted benefits; standards regarding how enrollees may request access to non-formulary drugs under exigent circumstances; amendments to Exchange appeals standards and coverage enrollment and termination standards; and time-limited adjustments to the standards relating to the medical loss ratio

  11. Evaluation of the Variability of the Shoreline of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir and Lake Ilmen according to Space Sounding Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantsev, V. A.; Pozdnyakov, Sh. R.; Ulichev, V. I.; Chichkova, E. F.; Ryzhikov, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    This article presents the results of a study of the dynamics of the shorelines of Lake Ilmen and the Tsimlyansk Reservoir to indicate the location of the boundaries of the water protection zone. The study uses the method of processing information from Terra/MODIS, Landsat-7 and -8, and WorldView-1 space systems. The analysis of remote-sensing data reveal the off-season and yearly variability in the area of the surface and shoreline, which is characteristic of water bodies under flat relief conditions. On the basis of the results of the research, the issue of the necessity of allocating a water protection zone, taking into account the morphometric features of water bodies and the characteristics of their hydrological regime, followed by amendments to the Water Code of the Russian Federation, is posed.

  12. Assessment of the toxicity of a substance under Canadian environmental protection act, a case study. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadon, B.; Germain, A.; Coillie, R. van [Environment Canada, Montreal (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) proclaimed in 1988 requires the Canadian Ministers of the Environment and of National Health and Welfare to assess the toxicity of different substances. A Priority Substances List containing 44 substances was developed and their assessments had to determine if they were `toxic`, according to the CEPA definition. This definition states that `a substance is toxic if it is entering or may enter the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions (a) having or that may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment, (b) constituting or that may constitute a danger to the environment on which human life depends; or (c) constituting or that may constitute a danger in Canada to human life of health.` This presentation use the assessment of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as an example of this procedure. (author)

  13. The protective properties of Act-Belong-Commit indicators against incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment among older Irish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Koyanagi, Ai; Tyrovolas, Stefanos

    2017-01-01

    -Belong-Commit and incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment at two-year follow-up. The adjusted model showed that each increase in the number of social/recreational activities (Act) inversely predicted the onset of depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. The same was the case for social network...... integration (Belong); that is, being well integrated into social networks was a significant protective factor against all mental health outcomes. Finally, frequency of participation in social/recreational activities (Commit) significantly and inversely predicted the onset of depression and anxiety, while...... two consecutive waves of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analyzed. The analytical sample consisted of 6098 adults aged ≥ 50 years. Validated scales for depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment were used. The number of social/recreational activities engaged in was used...

  14. Assessment of the toxicity of a substance under Canadian environmental protection act, a case study. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadon, B; Germain, A; Coillie, R van [Environment Canada, Montreal (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) proclaimed in 1988 requires the Canadian Ministers of the Environment and of National Health and Welfare to assess the toxicity of different substances. A Priority Substances List containing 44 substances was developed and their assessments had to determine if they were `toxic`, according to the CEPA definition. This definition states that `a substance is toxic if it is entering or may enter the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions (a) having or that may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment, (b) constituting or that may constitute a danger to the environment on which human life depends; or (c) constituting or that may constitute a danger in Canada to human life of health.` This presentation use the assessment of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as an example of this procedure. (author)

  15. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  16. Utilization of coal fly ash in construction in relation to regulations within the framework of the Dutch Soil Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Sloot, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    In 1987, the Dutch Government passed the Soil Protection Act. Within the framework of this act aiming at reduction of soil pollution by anthropogenic activities, a number of regulations will be enforced. One of these is the Regulation for Construction Materials, which is intended to control environmental impacts resulting from the utilization of industrial residues in construction. The regulation will apply to all conventional materials used in construction and raw materials derived from waste materials. For effective enforcement of this regulation by 1992, a full set of well documented procedures are needed to cover such aspects as sampling, storage, analysis of solids and liquids, leaching, and evaluation of test results. These procedures should ultimately be available as national (NEN), or preferably internationally (CEN, ISO), agreed standard protocols. A coherent program of projects has been started in 1990 in association with the Dutch Normalization Institute to generate these protocols and initiate the necessary research activities. As a result of the new regulations, initiatives have been taken to certify industrial residues for certain applications. The utilization of coal combustion residues in construction is governed by certificates. Thus, quality control at the utilities is an integral part of coal fly ash utilization and marketing. For public acceptance of utilization of these materials, quality control and certification is an essential element along with demonstrations of proper performance in practice

  17. National assessment of shoreline change—Summary statistics for updated vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the north coast of Alaska, U.S.-Canadian Border to Icy Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2017-09-25

    Long-term rates of shoreline change for the north coast of Alaska, from the U.S.-Canadian border to the Icy Cape region of northern Alaska, have been updated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. Short-term shoreline change rates are reported for the first time. Additional shoreline position data were used to compute rates where the previous rate-of-change assessment only included two shoreline positions at a given location. The calculation of uncertainty associated with the long-term average rates has also been updated to match refined methods used in other study regions of the National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. The average rates of this report have a reduced amount of uncertainty compared to those presented in the first assessment for this region.

  18. Legal protection of elderly persons and risk of their victimization by criminal acts with elements of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Filip

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging process is inevitable. It follows the individual from birth until death. Due to the inability of people to influence it, there is a greater obligation of society to provide the people in the „third age“ a dignified life, without any form of victimization. The author defines which people are considered old according to positive legal acts of the Republic of Serbia. The subject of this paper are the factors that increase the risk of victimization of the elderly within the family, taking into account the physical, psychological, sexual and economic violence against the elderly, as well as mechanisms for their legal protection from domestic violence, as one of the most effective tools of the state and society in general for protection of this particularly vulnerable social group. Relevant provisions of the Criminal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Republic of Serbia with a critical analysis of the incrimination of offenses with elements of domestic violence where the victim is usually an old person will be analyzed. From the subject defined in this manner, stems the paper‘ s mainly descriptive goal of describing the phenomenon through the analysis of the major forms of violence to which the elderly within the family are exposed (physical, psychological, economic and sexual violence. The purpose of the paper is also to analyze the factors that increase the risk of victimization of the elderly and the mechanisms for their legal protection from domestic violence, point out the harm of this type of violence and thus contribute to combating this negative social phenomenon.

  19. Back-Island and Open-Ocean Shorelines, and Sand Areas of the Undeveloped Areas of New Jersey Barrier Islands, March 9, 1991, to July 30, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Kristy K.

    2015-11-09

    Assessing the physical change to shorelines and wetlands is critical for determining the resiliency of wetland systems that protect adjacent habitat and communities. The wetland and back-barrier shorelines of the New Jersey barrier islands were changed by wave action and storm surge from Hurricane Sandy in 2012. The U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program is assessing the impact of Hurricane Sandy to understand its historical context and the vulnerability of wetland systems. These assessments require data that document physical changes over time, such as maps, aerial photographs, satellite imagery, and lidar elevation data.

  20. Archaeological sites along the Gujarat coast: Proxies to decipher the past shoreline

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Gaur, A; Sundaresh

    on northwestern Saurashtra coast presents a classical case of shoreline shift in recent past. The paper discusses the archaeological evidences to decipher the past shoreline of the Saurashtra region...

  1. Sand spit and shoreline dynamics near Terekhol river mouth, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajasekaran, C.; Jayakumar, S.; Gowthaman, R.; Jishad, M.; Yadhunath, E.M.; Pednekar, P.S.

    Evolution of shoreline and sand spit at the mouth of the Terekhol River, near Keri beach, located in the Indian state of Goa has been investigated From the analysis of the data collected, the shoreline oscillation (accretion & erosion) is seasonal...

  2. Shoreline changes in and around the Thubon River mouth, Central Vietnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mau, L.D.; Nayak, G.N.; SanilKumar, V.

    Application of GENESIS model (GENEralized model for Simulating Shoreline change) for studying the shoreline change in and around the Thubon River Mouth, Central Vietnam is presented in this paper The input parameters used are the near shore wave...

  3. Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication, Environmental Protection Agency Number ID4890008952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzemer, Michael J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hart, Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication for the Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Partial Permit, PER-116. This Permit Reapplication is required by the PER-116 Permit Conditions I.G. and I.H., and must be submitted to the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality in accordance with IDAPA 58.01.05.012 [40 CFR §§ 270.10 and 270.13 through 270.29].

  4. 15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning... erosion/mitigation planning. (a) The management program must include a planning process for assessing the... planning process may be within the broader context of coastal hazard mitigation planning. (b) The basic...

  5. Pre-spill shoreline mapping in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Lamarche, A.; Reimer, P.D.; Marchant, S.O.; O'Brien, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    A long-term shoreline mapping program has been initiated in Prince William Sound, Alaska, to generate pre-spill data to assist in the planning activities for oil spill response in the area. Low-altitude aerial videotape surveys and video images form the basis for the mapping effort. The coast was initially divided into alongshore segments. The physical shore-zone is relatively homogeneous within each segment. A pre-spill Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) database, using the ShoreData software, was created based on this initial detailed mapping. The SCAT field teams are therefore equipped with a detailed analysis of the shore-zone character. The same information was also used to develop a separate database for use by planning and response operations groups. The data is entered into the Graphical Resource Database (GRD), and a Geographic Information System (GIS). A simplified characterization of the primary features of each segment is then made available through interpretation of the data. In the event of an oil spill, the SCAT data in the ShoreData files can be combined with field data on shoreline oiling conditions using a second software package called ShoreAccess R which provides summaries of the main parameters required by the planning group. It can also be used as a data storage and management tool. As part of this program, more than 1700 kilometres of shoreline in Prince William Sound have already been mapped. 24 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  6. Timing of oceans on Mars from shoreline deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, Robert I.; Manga, Michael; Hemingway, Douglas J.

    2018-03-01

    Widespread evidence points to the existence of an ancient Martian ocean. Most compelling are the putative ancient shorelines in the northern plains. However, these shorelines fail to follow an equipotential surface, and this has been used to challenge the notion that they formed via an early ocean and hence to question the existence of such an ocean. The shorelines’ deviation from a constant elevation can be explained by true polar wander occurring after the formation of Tharsis, a volcanic province that dominates the gravity and topography of Mars. However, surface loading from the oceans can drive polar wander only if Tharsis formed far from the equator, and most evidence indicates that Tharsis formed near the equator, meaning that there is no current explanation for the shorelines’ deviation from an equipotential that is consistent with our geophysical understanding of Mars. Here we show that variations in shoreline topography can be explained by deformation caused by the emplacement of Tharsis. We find that the shorelines must have formed before and during the emplacement of Tharsis, instead of afterwards, as previously assumed. Our results imply that oceans on Mars formed early, concurrent with the valley networks, and point to a close relationship between the evolution of oceans on Mars and the initiation and decline of Tharsis volcanism, with broad implications for the geology, hydrological cycle and climate of early Mars.

  7. Effects of shoreline erosion on infrastructure development along the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... coastal environment and affected the socio-economic life of local populations, threatened cultural heritage and hindered coastal tourism development. This paper assessed the extent of shoreline recession and its effects on buildings and infrastructure along Ghana's coastline through a study of the Nkontompo Community ...

  8. Shoreline stability in the vicinity of Cochin Harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Vethamony, P.

    , showing stability over a period of one year. The growth of shoreline north of Cochin harbour channel takes place at the cost of sediment that should have otherwise by-passed the estuarine mouth. During the southwest monsoon the development of opposing...

  9. Subtidal Bathymetric Changes by Shoreline Armoring Removal and Restoration Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Salish Sea, a region with a diverse coastline, is altered by anthropogenic shoreline modifications such as seawalls. In recent years, local organizations have moved to restore these shorelines. Current research monitors the changes restoration projects have on the upper beach, lower beach, and intertidal, however little research exists to record possible negative effects on the subtidal. The purpose of this research is to utilize multibeam sonar bathymetric data to analyze possible changes to the seafloor structure of the subtidal in response to shoreline modification and to investigate potential ecosystem consequences of shoreline alteration. The subtidal is home to several species including eelgrass (Zostera marina). Eelgrass is an important species in Puget Sound as it provides many key ecosystem functions including providing habitat for a wide variety of organisms, affecting the physics of waves, and sediment transport in the subtidal. Thus bathymetric changes could impact eelgrass growth and reduce its ability to provide crucial ecosystem services. Three Washington state study sites of completed shoreline restoration projects were used to generate data from areas of varied topographic classification, Seahurst Park in Burien, the Snohomish County Nearshore Restoration Project in Everett, and Cornet Bay State Park on Whidbey Island. Multibeam sonar data was acquired using a Konsberg EM 2040 system and post-processed in Caris HIPS to generate a base surface of one-meter resolution. It was then imported into the ArcGIS software suite for the generation of spatial metrics. Measurements of change were calculated through a comparison of historical and generated data. Descriptive metrics generated included, total elevation change, percent area changed, and a transition matrix of positive and negative change. Additionally, pattern metrics such as, surface roughness, and Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), were calculated. The comparison of historical data to new data

  10. 36 CFR 327.30 - Shoreline Management on Civil Works Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.30 Shoreline Management on Civil Works Projects. (a) Purpose. The... this regulation, shoreline management plans are not required for those projects where construction was... approval, one copy of each project Shoreline Management Plan will be forwarded to HQUSACE (CECW-ON) WASH DC...

  11. USGS science for the Nation's changing coasts; shoreline change assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E. Robert; Hapke, Cheryl J.

    2011-01-01

    The coastline of the United States features some of the most popular tourist and recreational destinations in the world and is the site of intense residential, commercial, and industrial development. The coastal zone also has extensive and pristine natural areas, with diverse ecosystems providing essential habitat and resources that support wildlife, fish, and human use. Coastal erosion is a widespread process along most open-ocean shores of the United States that affects both developed and natural coastlines. As the coast changes, there are a wide range of ways that change can affect coastal communities, habitats, and the physical characteristics of the coast?including beach erosion, shoreline retreat, land loss, and damage to infrastructure. Global climate change will likely increase the rate of coastal change. A recent study of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic coast, for example, found that it is virtually certain that sandy beaches will erode faster in the future as sea level rises because of climate change. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is responsible for conducting research on coastal change hazards, understanding the processes that cause coastal change, and developing models to predict future change. To understand and adapt to shoreline change, accurate information regarding the past and present configurations of the shoreline is essential. A comprehensive, nationally consistent analysis of shoreline movement is needed. To meet this national need, the USGS is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along open-ocean coasts of the conterminous United States and parts of Alaska and Hawaii, as well as the coasts of the Great Lakes.

  12. Resilience from coastal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Quantification of shoreline change along Hatteras Island, North Carolina: Oregon Inlet to Cape Hatteras, 1978-2002, and associated vector shoreline data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Henderson, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    Shoreline change spanning twenty-four years was assessed along the coastline of Cape Hatteras National Seashore, at Hatteras Island, North Carolina. The shorelines used in the analysis were generated from georeferenced historical aerial imagery and are used to develop shoreline change rates for Hatteras Island, from Oregon Inlet to Cape Hatteras. A total of 14 dates of aerial photographs ranging from 1978 through 2002 were obtained from the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers Field Research Facility in Duck, North Carolina, and scanned to generate digital imagery. The digital imagery was georeferenced and high water line shorelines (interpreted from the wet/dry line) were digitized from each date to produce a time series of shorelines for the study area. Rates of shoreline change were calculated for three periods: the full span of the time series, 1978 through 2002, and two approximately decadal subsets, 1978–89 and 1989–2002.

  14. A Study on the preparation of environmental act system in Korea II - concentrated on the preparation of environmental policy fundamental act, protection of water supply source, and greenbelt area act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study is to propose to reform environmental policy fundamental act and land related act into future-oriented direction. First of all, the environmental policy fundamental act presented the direction of reforming water supply, national parks, and greenbelt related acts in environmental preservation perspective. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  15. National Assessment of Shoreline Change; historical shoreline change along the New England and Mid-Atlantic coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; List, Jeffrey H.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2011-01-01

    Beach erosion is a chronic problem along many open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic, systematic, internally consistent updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally. In the case of this study, the shoreline is the interpreted boundary between the ocean water surface and the sandy beach. This report on the New England and Mid-Atlantic coasts is the fifth in a series of reports on historical shoreline change. Previous investigations include analyses and descriptive reports of the Gulf of Mexico, the Southeast Atlantic, and, for California, the sandy shoreline and the coastal cliffs. The rates of change presented in this report represent conditions up to the date of the most recent shoreline data and therefore are not intended for predicting future shoreline positions or rates of change. Because of the geomorphology of the New England and Mid-Atlantic (rocky coastlines, large embayments and beaches) as well as data gaps in some areas, this report presents beach erosion rates for 78 percent of the 1,360 kilometers of the New England and Mid-Atlantic coasts. The New England and Mid-Atlantic shores were subdivided into a total of 10 analysis regions for the purpose of reporting regional trends in shoreline change rates. The average rate of long

  16. Multidecadal (1960–2011 shoreline changes in Isbjørnhamna (Hornsund, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagórski Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A section of a gravel-dominated coast in Isbjørnhamna (Hornsund, Svalbard was analysed to calculate the rate of shoreline changes and explain processes controlling coastal zone development over last 50 years. Between 1960 and 2011, coastal landscape of Isbjørnhamna experienced a significant shift from dominated by influence of tide-water glacier and protected by prolonged sea-ice conditions towards storm-affected and rapidly changing coast. Information derived from analyses of aerial images and geomorphological mapping shows that the Isbjørnhamna coastal zone is dominated by coastal erosion resulting in a shore area reduction of more than 31,600 m2. With ~3,500 m2 of local aggradation, the general balance of changes in the study area of the shore is negative, and amounts to a loss of more than 28,000 m2. Mean shoreline change is −13.1 m (−0.26 m a−1. Erosional processes threaten the Polish Polar Station infrastructure and may damage of one of the storage buildings in nearby future.

  17. Are You Covered? Associations Between Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Knowledge and Preventive Reproductive Service Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Ashlee N; Kwitowski, Melissa A; Benotsch, Eric G

    2018-05-01

    Sexual and reproductive health conditions (eg, infections, cancers) represent public health concerns for American women. The present study examined how knowledge of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) relates to receipt of preventive reproductive health services among women. Cross-sectional online survey. Online questionnaires were completed via Amazon Mechanical Turk, a crowdsourcing website where individuals complete web-based tasks for compensation. Cisgendered women aged 18 to 44 years (N = 1083) from across the United States. Participants completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, insurance status, preventive service use, and knowledge of PPACA provisions. Chi-squares showed that receipt of well-woman, pelvic, and breast examinations, as well as pap smears, was related to insurance coverage, with those not having coverage at all during the previous year having significantly lower rates of use. Hierarchical logistic regressions determined the independent relationship between PPACA knowledge and use of health services after controlling for demographic factors and insurance status. Knowledge of PPACA provisions was associated with receiving well-woman, pelvic, and breast examinations, human papillomavirus vaccination, and sexually transmitted infections testing, after controlling for these factors. Results indicate that expanding knowledge about health-care legislation may be beneficial in increasing preventive reproductive health service use among women. Current findings provide support for increasing resources for outreach and education of the general population about the provisions and benefits of health-care legislation, as well as personal health coverage plans.

  18. Off-road compression-ignition engine emission regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act 1999 : guidance document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    This guide explained the requirements for Off-Road Compression Ignition Engine Emission Regulations established under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The regulations are enforced by Environment Canada, which authorizes and monitors the use of the national emissions mark. The regulations prescribe standards for off-road engines that operate as reciprocating, internal combustion engines, other than those that operate under characteristics similar to the Otto combustion cycle and that use a spark plug or other sparking device. The regulations apply to engines that are typically diesel-fuelled and found in construction, mining, farming and forestry machines such as tractors, excavators and log skidders. Four different types of persons are potentially affected by the regulations: Canadian engine manufacturers; distributors of Canadian engines or machines containing Canadian engines; importers of engines or machines for the purpose of sale; and persons not in companies importing engines or machines. Details of emission standards were presented, as well as issues concerning evidence of conformity, importing engines, and special engine cases. Compliance and enforcement details were reviewed, as well as applicable standards and provisions for emission control systems and defeat devices; exhaust emissions; crankcase and smoke emissions; and adjustable parameters. Details of import declarations were reviewed, as well as issues concerning defects and maintenance instructions. 4 tabs., 4 figs

  19. Areas of Potential Impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on EMS: A Synthesis of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Ostermayer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This comprehensive review synthesizes the existing literature on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA as it relates to emergency medical services (EMS in order to provide guidance for navigating current and future healthcare changes. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive review to identify all existing literature related to the ACA and EMS and all sections within the federal law pertaining to EMS. Results: Many changes enacted by the ACA directly affect emergency care with potential indirect effects on EMS systems. New Medicaid enrollees and changes to existing coverage plans may alter EMS transport volumes. Reimbursement changes such as adjustments to the ambulance inflation factor (AIF alter the yearly increases in EMS reimbursement by incorporating the multifactor productivity value into yearly reimbursement adjustments. New initiatives, funded by the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation are exploring novel and cost-effective prehospital care delivery opportunities while EMS agencies individually explore partnerships with healthcare systems. Conclusion: EMS systems should be aware of the direct and indirect impact of ACA on prehospital care due to the potential for changes in financial reimbursement, acuity and volume changes, and ongoing new care delivery initiatives.[West J Emerg Med. 2017;18(3446-453.

  20. 78 FR 57402 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Customs and Border Protection-019 Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ..., 1225, and 1324; and the Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Public Law 104-208..., 1225, and 1324; the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Public Law 104... [[Page 57405

  1. 75 FR 48974 - Notice of Intent To Award Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Funding to Approved But...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... manner consistent with other provisions of Recovery Act, all laborers and mechanics employed by... funding, over the fiscal year 2008 level, for programs authorized by the Public Health Services Act, for...

  2. 78 FR 29786 - Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988; Report of Matching Program: RRB and State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... required by the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the RRB is issuing a public notice in the Federal Register... benefits under the Railroad Retirement Act that the RRB plans to share this computer matching data with...

  3. Modelling shoreline evolution in the vicinity of a groyne and a river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsamidis, Antonios; Reeve, Dominic E.

    2017-01-01

    Analytical solutions to the equations governing shoreline evolution are well-known and have value both as pedagogical tools and for conceptual design. Nevertheless, solutions have been restricted to a fairly narrow class of conditions with limited applicability to real-life situations. We present a new analytical solution for a widely encountered situation where a groyne is constructed close to a river to control sediment movement. The solution, which employs Laplace transforms, has the advantage that a solution for time-varying conditions may be constructed from the solution for constant conditions by means of the Heaviside procedure. Solutions are presented for various combinations of wave conditions and sediment supply/removal by the river. An innovation introduced in this work is the capability to provide an analytical assessment of the accretion or erosion caused near the groyne due to its proximity to the river which may act either as a source or a sink of sediment material.

  4. Wave energy fluxes and multi-decadal shoreline changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabuth, Alina Kristin; Kroon, Aart

    2014-01-01

    Spatial patterns of multidecadal shoreline changes in two microtidal, low-energetic embayments of southern Zealand, Denmark, were investigated by using the directional distribution of wave energy fluxes. The sites include a barrier island system attached to moraine bluffs, and a recurved spit...... variability of directional distributions of wave energy fluxes furthermore outlined potential sediment sources and sinks for the evolution of the barrier island system and for the evolution of the recurved spit....... adjacent to a cliff coast. The barrier island system is characterized by cross-shore translation and by an alignment of the barrier alongshore alternating directions of barrier-spit progradation in a bidirectional wave field. The recurved spit adjacent to the cliff coast experienced shoreline rotation...

  5. Protecting Children in Day Care: Building a National Background Check System. Hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session on the National Child Protection Act of 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    In his opening statement at this hearing, committee chairman Senator Joseph Biden mentioned the National Child Protection Act of 1991; praised Oprah Winfrey's efforts to support programs and legislation to prevent sexual abuse of children; presented data on the incidence of sexual abuse of children in the home and in day care centers; and…

  6. Impacts of shoreline erosion on coastal ecosystems in Songkhla Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipaporn Chusrinuan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Songkhla Province is located on the eastern coast of the southern Thai Peninsula, bordering the Gulf of Thailand for approximately 107 km. Most of the basin’s foreshores have been extensively developed for housing, tourism and shrimp farming. The beaches are under deteriorating impacts, often causing sediment transport which leads to an unnaturally high erosion rate. This natural phenomenon is considered to be a critical problem in the coastal areas affected by the hazard of coastal infrastructure and reduced beach esthetics for recreation. In this study, shoreline changes were compared between 1975 and 2006 using aerial photographs and Landsat imageries using Geographic Information System (GIS. The results revealed that 18.5 km2 of the coastal areas were altered during the period. Of this, 17.3 km2 suffered erosion and 1.2 km2were subjected to accretion. The most significant changes occurred between 1975-2006. Shoreline erosion was found at Ban Paktrae, Ranot District, with an average erosion rate of 5.3 m/year, while accretion occurred at Laem Samila, MuangSongkhla District with an average accretion rate of 2.04 m/year. The occurrences of shoreline erosion have contributed to the degradation of coastal soil and water quality, destruction of beach and mangrove forests, loss of human settlements and livelihood.These processes have led to deterioration of the quality of life of the residents. Prevention and mitigation measures to lessen economic and social impacts due to shoreline erosion are discussed.

  7. Canadian coastal environments, shoreline processes, and oil spill cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.

    1994-03-01

    The coastal zone is a dynamic environment, so that in developing practical and effective oil spill response strategies it is necessary to understand the forces that contribute to shore-zone processs. The coasts of Canada encompass a wide range of environments and are characterized by a variety of shoreline types that include the exposed, resistant cliffs of eastern Newfoundland and the sheltered marshes of the Beaufort Sea. A report is presented to provide an understanding of the dynamics and physical processes as they vary on the different coasts of Canada, including the Great Lakes. An outline of the general character and processes on a regional basis describes the coastal environments and introduces the literature that can be consulted for more specific information. The likely fate and persistence of oil that reaches the shoreline is discussed to provide the framework for development of spill response strategies and for the selection of appropriate shoreline cleanup or treatment countermeasures. Lessons learned from recent experience with major oil spills and field experiments are integrated into the discussion. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each of the four sections of this report. 502 refs., 5 figs

  8. H.R.3052: This Act may be cited as the Coal Field Water Protection and Replacement Act, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, July 25, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This bill would amend the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 to provide for the protection of water resources during coal mining operations. Sections of the bill describe probable hydrologic consequences; surface and ground water monitoring plan; performance bonds; protection of water resources for permit approval; effect of underground coal mining operations; inspection and monitoring; penalty for failure of representative of Secretary or state regulatory authority to carry out certain duties; release of performance bond; water rights and replacement; regulations; and state programs

  9. A long-acting integrase inhibitor protects female macaques from repeated high-dose intravaginal SHIV challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Chasity D; Yueh, Yun Lan; Spreen, William R; St Bernard, Leslie; Boente-Carrera, Mar; Rodriguez, Kristina; Gettie, Agegnehu; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi; Blanchard, James; Ford, Susan; Mohri, Hiroshi; Cheng-Mayer, Cecilia; Hong, Zhi; Ho, David D; Markowitz, Martin

    2015-01-14

    Long-acting GSK1265744 (GSK744 LA) is a strand transfer inhibitor of the HIV/SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) integrase and was shown to be an effective preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) agent in a low-dose intrarectal SHIV (simian-human immunodeficiency virus) rhesus macaque challenge model. We examined the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of GSK744 LA as PrEP against repeat high-dose intravaginal SHIV challenge in female rhesus macaques treated with Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate), which promotes viral transmission vaginally. When Depo-Provera-treated female rhesus macaques were dosed with GSK744 LA (50 mg/kg) monthly, systemic and tissue drug concentrations were lower than previously observed in male rhesus macaques. GSK744 concentrations were fivefold lower on average in cervical tissues than in rectal tissues. Eight female rhesus macaques were treated with GSK744 LA at week 0, and four female rhesus macaques served as controls. All animals received a high-dose challenge of SHIV162P3 at week 1. No infection was detected in GSK744 LA-treated rhesus macaques, whereas viremia was detected 1 to 2 weeks after SHIV challenge in all control animals. The GSK744 LA-treated rhesus macaques were given a second administration of drug at week 4 and further challenged at weeks 5 and 7. GSK744 LA treatment protected six of eight female rhesus macaques against three high-dose SHIV challenges, whereas all control animals became infected after the first challenge (P = 0.0003, log-rank test). These results support further clinical development of GSK744 LA for PrEP. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Uncertainties in sandy shorelines evolution under the Bruun rule assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonéri eLe Cozannet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current practice of sandy shoreline change assessments, the local sedimentary budget is evaluated using the sediment balance equation, that is, by summing the contributions of longshore and cross-shore processes. The contribution of future sea-level-rise induced by climate change is usually obtained using the Bruun rule, which assumes that the shoreline retreat is equal to the change of sea-level divided by the slope of the upper shoreface. However, it remains unsure that this approach is appropriate to account for the impacts of future sea-level rise. This is due to the lack of relevant observations to validate the Bruun rule under the expected sea-level rise rates. To address this issue, this article estimates the coastal settings and period of time under which the use of the Bruun rule could be (invalidated, in the case of wave-exposed gently-sloping sandy beaches. Using the sedimentary budgets of Stive (2004 and probabilistic sea-level rise scenarios based on IPCC, we provide shoreline change projections that account for all uncertain hydrosedimentary processes affecting idealized coasts (impacts of sea-level rise, storms and other cross-shore and longshore processes. We evaluate the relative importance of each source of uncertainties in the sediment balance equation using a global sensitivity analysis. For scenario RCP 6.0 and 8.5 and in the absence of coastal defences, the model predicts a perceivable shift toward generalized beach erosion by the middle of the 21st century. In contrast, the model predictions are unlikely to differ from the current situation in case of scenario RCP 2.6. Finally, the contribution of sea-level rise and climate change scenarios to sandy shoreline change projections uncertainties increases with time during the 21st century. Our results have three primary implications for coastal settings similar to those provided described in Stive (2004 : first, the validation of the Bruun rule will not necessarily be

  11. Quebec region's shoreline segmentation in the St. Lawrence River : response tool for oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laforest, S.; Martin, V.

    2004-01-01

    Environment Canada, the Canadian Coast Guard, and the Eastern Canada Response Corporation are developing and refining pre-spill databases containing information about physical shoreline characteristics. Automated links between these pre-spill shoreline characteristic databases and computerized shoreline assessment tools have also been created using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. The pre-spill databases can be used for planning shoreline cleanup operations. A training exercise, designed to evaluate a spill management system integrating the Quebec region pre-spill shoreline database and the ShoreAssess R shoreline assessment system was performed by Eastern Canada Response Corporation during an aerial survey where shoreline was segmented into digitized information. The cartography of segmentation covers the fluvial part of the St. Lawrence River. The oil spill-oriented database includes geomorphologic information from the supratidal to the lower intertidal zones. It also includes some statistical information and other requirements for cleanup operations. The computerized shoreline assessment tools made it possible to evaluate the length and type of shoreline that would potentially be impacted by oil. The tools also made it possible to assess the shoreline treatment methods most likely to be used, and evaluate the probable duration of the cleanup operation. The training exercise demonstrated that the integration of the databases is a valuable tool during the early phases of an oil spill response. 9 refs., 3 figs

  12. Monitoring oiled shorelines in Prince William Sound Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilfillan, E.S.; Page, D.S.; Harner, E.J.; Boehm, P.D.; Stoker, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    Three types of shoreline monitoring programs were employed to evaluate the recovery of the ecological communities of Prince William Sound (PWS) shorelines after the oil spill: (a) Extensive shoreline surveys conducted (1989--1992) over much of the oiled shoreline to define extent of shoreline oiling and to assess biological conditions; (b) Detailed sampling in 1989 at nonrandomly chosen locations representing a range of oiling conditions (c) Comprehensive shoreline ecology program initiated in 1990 to assess shoreline recovery in Prince William Sound using (1) a rigorous stratified random sampling study design with 64 sites representing 4 shoreline habitats and 4 oiling levels (unoiled, light, moderate, heavy); (2) periodic sampling at 12 nonrandomly chosen sites of particular concern. Biological communities were analyzed to detect differences due to oiling in each of 16 habitat/tide zone combinations. Following the spill, populations of all major species survived as sources for recolonization. Recruitment to oiled shores began in summer 1989. By 1990, shoreline biota in PWS had largely recovered. Estimates of shoreline recovery (biological community indistinguishable from reference) ranged from 91% based on univariate analysis of standard community parameters to 73% based on multivariate correspondence analysis

  13. Drivers of coastal shoreline change: case study of hon dat coast, Kien Giang, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai-Hoa; McAlpine, Clive; Pullar, David; Leisz, Stephen Joseph; Galina, Gramotnev

    2015-05-01

    Coastal shorelines are naturally dynamic, shifting in response to coastal geomorphological processes. Globally, land use change associated with coastal urban development and growing human population pressures is accelerating coastal shoreline change. In southern Vietnam, coastal erosion currently is posing considerable risks to shoreline land use and coastal inhabitants. The aim of this paper is to quantify historical shoreline changes along the Hon Dat coast between 1995 and 2009, and to document the relationships between coastal mangrove composition, width and density, and rates of shoreline change. The generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the major biophysical and land-use factors influencing shoreline change rates. Most significant drivers of the rates of change are cutting of mangroves, the dominant mangrove genus, changes in adjacent shoreline land use, changes of shoreline land cover, and width of fringing mangroves. We suggest that a possible and inexpensive strategy for robust mangrove shoreline defense is direct mangrove planting to promote mangrove density with the presence of breakwater structures. In the shorter term, construction of coastal barriers such as fence-structured melaleuca poles in combination with mangrove restoration schemes could help retain coastal sediments and increase the elevation of the accretion zone, thereby helping to stabilize eroding fringe shorelines. It also is recommended that implementation of a system of payments for mangrove ecosystem services and the stronger regulation of mangrove cutting and unsustainable land-use change to strengthen the effectiveness of mangrove conservation programs and coastal land-use management.

  14. Drivers of Coastal Shoreline Change: Case Study of Hon Dat Coast, Kien Giang, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai-Hoa; McAlpine, Clive; Pullar, David; Leisz, Stephen Joseph; Galina, Gramotnev

    2015-05-01

    Coastal shorelines are naturally dynamic, shifting in response to coastal geomorphological processes. Globally, land use change associated with coastal urban development and growing human population pressures is accelerating coastal shoreline change. In southern Vietnam, coastal erosion currently is posing considerable risks to shoreline land use and coastal inhabitants. The aim of this paper is to quantify historical shoreline changes along the Hon Dat coast between 1995 and 2009, and to document the relationships between coastal mangrove composition, width and density, and rates of shoreline change. The generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the major biophysical and land-use factors influencing shoreline change rates. Most significant drivers of the rates of change are cutting of mangroves, the dominant mangrove genus, changes in adjacent shoreline land use, changes of shoreline land cover, and width of fringing mangroves. We suggest that a possible and inexpensive strategy for robust mangrove shoreline defense is direct mangrove planting to promote mangrove density with the presence of breakwater structures. In the shorter term, construction of coastal barriers such as fence-structured melaleuca poles in combination with mangrove restoration schemes could help retain coastal sediments and increase the elevation of the accretion zone, thereby helping to stabilize eroding fringe shorelines. It also is recommended that implementation of a system of payments for mangrove ecosystem services and the stronger regulation of mangrove cutting and unsustainable land-use change to strengthen the effectiveness of mangrove conservation programs and coastal land-use management.

  15. 76 FR 34732 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/National Protection and Programs Directorate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... 1974; Department of Homeland Security/National Protection and Programs Directorate--002 Chemical... Homeland Security/National Protection and Programs Directorate--002 Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism.... 552a, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS)/National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD...

  16. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: reforming the health care reform for the new decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Caraway, David L; Parr, Allan T; Fellows, Bert; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the ACA, for short) became law with President Obama's signature on March 23, 2010. It represents the most significant transformation of the American health care system since Medicare and Medicaid. It is argued that it will fundamentally change nearly every aspect of health care, from insurance to the final delivery of care. The length and complexity of the legislation and divisive and heated debates have led to massive confusion about the impact of ACA. It also became one of the centerpieces of 2010 congressional campaigns. Essentials of ACA include: 1) a mandate for individuals and businesses requiring as a matter of law that nearly every American have an approved level of health insurance or pay a penalty; 2) a system of federal subsidies to completely or partially pay for the now required health insurance for about 34 million Americans who are currently uninsured - subsidized through Medicaid and exchanges; 3) extensive new requirements on the health insurance industry; and 4) numerous regulations on the practice of medicine. The act is divided into 10 titles. It contains provisions that went into effect starting on June 21, 2010, with the majority of provisions going into effect in 2014 and later. The perceived major impact on practicing physicians in the ACA is related to growing regulatory authority with the Independent Payment Advisory Board (IPAB) and the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). In addition to these specifics is a growth of the regulatory regime in association with further discounts in physician reimbursement. With regards to cost controls and projections, many believe that the ACA does not fix the finances of our health care system - neither public nor private. It has been suggested that the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) and the administration have used creative accounting to arrive at an alleged deficit reduction; however, if everything is included appropriately and

  17. Radioactive waste disposal implications of extending Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act to cover radioactively contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, D J; White, M M

    2004-03-01

    A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 to include radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation. This is expected to be principally wastes of high volume and low activity (categorised as low level waste (LLW) and very low level waste (VLLW)). The availability problem results from a lack of applications by landfill operators for authorisation to accept LLW wastes for disposal. This is apparently due to perceived adverse publicity associated with the consultation process for authorisation coupled with uncertainty over future liabilities. Disposal of waste as VLLW is limited both by questions over volumes that may be acceptable and, more fundamentally, by the likely alpha activity of wastes (originating from radium and thorium operations). Authorised on-site disposal has had little attention in policy and guidance in recent years, but may have a part to play, especially if considered commercially attractive. Disposal at BNFL's near surface disposal facility for LLW at Drigg is limited to wastes for which there are no practical alternative disposal options (and preference has been given to operational type wastes). Therefore, wastes from the radioactively contaminated land (RCL) regime are not obviously attractive for disposal to Drigg. Illustrative calculations have been performed based on possible volumes and activities of RCL arisings (and assuming Drigg's future volumetric disposal capacity is 950,000 m3). These suggest that wastes arising from implementing the RCL regime, if all disposed to Drigg, would not represent a significant fraction of the volumetric capacity of Drigg, but could have a significant impact on the radiological

  18. Radioactive waste disposal implications of extending Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act to cover radioactively contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancarrow, D J; White, M M

    2004-01-01

    A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 to include radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation. This is expected to be principally wastes of high volume and low activity (categorised as low level waste (LLW) and very low level waste (VLLW)). The availability problem results from a lack of applications by landfill operators for authorisation to accept LLW wastes for disposal. This is apparently due to perceived adverse publicity associated with the consultation process for authorisation coupled with uncertainty over future liabilities. Disposal of waste as VLLW is limited both by questions over volumes that may be acceptable and, more fundamentally, by the likely alpha activity of wastes (originating from radium and thorium operations). Authorised on-site disposal has had little attention in policy and guidance in recent years, but may have a part to play, especially if considered commercially attractive. Disposal at BNFL's near surface disposal facility for LLW at Drigg is limited to wastes for which there are no practical alternative disposal options (and preference has been given to operational type wastes). Therefore, wastes from the radioactively contaminated land (RCL) regime are not obviously attractive for disposal to Drigg. Illustrative calculations have been performed based on possible volumes and activities of RCL arisings (and assuming Drigg's future volumetric disposal capacity is 950 000 m 3 ). These suggest that wastes arising from implementing the RCL regime, if all disposed to Drigg, would not represent a significant fraction of the volumetric capacity of Drigg, but could have a significant impact on the radiological

  19. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Ndugwa Kabwama; Daniel Kadobera; Sheila Ndyanabangi; Kellen Namusisi Nyamurungi; Shannon Gravely; Lindsay Robertson; David Guwatudde

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Word Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to asses...

  20. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Kadobera, Daniel; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Gravely, Shannon; Robertson, Lindsay; Guwatudde, David

    2017-01-01

    Background The Word Health Organization?s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to assess pra...

  1. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Ndugwa Kabwama

    2017-06-01

    Hospitality establishments in Kampala are not protecting the public from tobacco smoke exposure nor adequately limiting access to tobacco products. Effective dissemination of the Tobacco Control Act 2015 is important in ensuring that owners of public places are aware of their responsibility of complying with critical tobacco control laws. This would also likely increase self-enforcement among owners of hospitality establishments and public patrons of the no-smoking restrictions.

  2. Console modification in the video game industry an empirical study of the technological protection measure reforms of the Australian Copyright Act 1968 (Cth)

    OpenAIRE

    Raval, Melchor Inigo

    2017-01-01

    The Australian-United States Free Trade Agreement expanded the access rights provisions, including the technological protection measures (TPM) and anti-circumvention prohibitions in the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), to address the unauthorised distribution of copyrighted content, colloquially referred to as piracy. Copyright users object to these "paracopyright" principles being implemented as criminal penalties and restrictive Digital Rights Management (DRM). Evidence that piracy has persisted...

  3. Monitoring shoreline environment of Paradip, east coast of India using remote sensing

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; Shrivastava, D.; Vethamony, P.

    -raey et al. 8 used remote sensing for detecting beach erosion and ac- cretion along Damietta Port, Egypt. Narayana and Priju 9 studied the shoreline changes along the central Kerala coast using satellite images. Shoreline-change mapping was carried... and detecting long-term change in the entire coastline. Meijerink 11 and Rao 12 studied the dynamic geomor- phology of Mahanadi delta and problems of coastal dyna- mics and shoreline changes which arose after the construction of Paradip port. Rupali 13...

  4. COREXIT 9580 shoreline cleaner: Development, application, and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canevari, G.P.; Fiocco, R.J.; Lessard, R.R.; Fingas, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will describe research on chemical beach cleaners for treatment of oiled shorelines that was initiated in support of the cleaning activities in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Valdez oil spill in March 1989. The concept for using beach cleaners for shoreline cleanup is to apply a pre-soak to the weathered crude oil on shore and then flush with sea water to wash the oil into a boomed area for subsequent recovery. Criteria imposed on the use of chemical beach cleaners for the cleanup of the Valdez spill were: (1) effective rock cleaning agents should have very little or no toxicity to marine and terrestrial life, (2) there should be no dispersion of the oil washed from the shoreline into the water column; oil was to be recovered by techniques such as skimming or sorbents, and (3) the agents should be on the EPA National Contingency Plan (NCP) list. A laboratory-scale rock washing test was developed to measure cleaner effectiveness and dispersion. A large number of commercially available formulated products were evaluated, as well as development formulations. The commercial products included all of the available NCP-listed products which could function as cleaners. None of the commercial products completely satisfied all the requirements established by the agencies for beach cleaning. However, a new formula, called COREXIT 9580, consisting of two surfactants and a solvent was developed. It exhibited low fish toxicity, low dispersancy and effective rock cleaning capability. The paper reviews the laboratory and field testing to explore the potential use of the COREXIT 9580 to save and restore oiled vegetation

  5. Living shorelines enhanced the resilience of saltmarshes to Hurricane Matthew (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carter S; Puckett, Brandon; Gittman, Rachel K; Peterson, Charles H

    2018-06-01

    Nature-based solutions, such as living shorelines, have the potential to restore critical ecosystems, enhance coastal sustainability, and increase resilience to natural disasters; however, their efficacy during storm events compared to traditional hardened shorelines is largely untested. This is a major impediment to their implementation and promotion to policy-makers and homeowners. To address this knowledge gap, we evaluated rock sill living shorelines as compared to natural marshes and hardened shorelines (i.e., bulkheads) in North Carolina, USA for changes in surface elevation, Spartina alterniflora stem density, and structural damage from 2015 to 2017, including before and after Hurricane Matthew (2016). Our results show that living shorelines exhibited better resistance to landward erosion during Hurricane Matthew than bulkheads and natural marshes. Additionally, living shorelines were more resilient than hardened shorelines, as they maintained landward elevation over the two-year study period without requiring any repair. Finally, rock sill living shorelines were able to enhance S. alterniflora stem densities over time when compared to natural marshes. Our results suggest that living shorelines have the potential to improve coastal resilience while supporting important coastal ecosystems. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Variability and correlations of shoreline and dunes on the southern Baltic coast (CRS Lubiatowo, Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Zbigniew Pruszak; Rafal Ostrowski; Jan Schönhofer

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses the results of field investigations into the evolution of the shoreline and dune toe positions in a multi-bar,dissipative coastal zone. The correlations between the changes in the shoreline and the dune toe range from -0.4 to 0.8. It is most often the case that the dune toe is stable while the shoreline moves. Consistent cross-shore migration is slightly more likelyto happen than the divergent or convergent movements of both lines. Shoreline retreat and advance attain resp...

  7. Development of a practical methodology for integrating shoreline oil-holding capacity into modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt Etkin, D.; French-McCay, D.; Rowe, J.; Michel, J.; Boufadel, M.; Li, H.

    2008-01-01

    The factors that influence the behaviour of oil in the aftermath of an oil spill on water include oil type and characteristics; oil thickness on the shoreline; time until shoreline impact; timing with regards to tides; weathering during and after the spill; and nearshore wave energy. The oil behaviour also depends on the shoreline characteristics, particularly porosity and permeability. The interactions of spilled oil with sediments on beaches must be well understood in order to model the oil spill trajectory, fate and risk. The movement of oil can be most accurately simulated if the algorithm incorporates an estimate of shoreline oil retention. This paper presented a literature review of relevant shoreline oiling studies and considered the relevance of study findings for inclusion in modelling. Survey data from a detailed shoreline cleanup assessment team (SCAT) were analyzed for patterns in oil penetration and oil-holding capacity by shoreline sediment type and oil type for potential use in modelling algorithms. A theoretical beach hydraulics model was then developed for use in a stochastic spill model. Gaps in information were identified, including the manner in which wave action and other environmental variables have an impact on the dynamic processes involved in shoreline oiling. The methodology presented in this paper can be used to estimate the amount of oil held by a shoreline upon impact to allow a trajectory model to more accurately project the total spread of oil. 27 refs., 13 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Amendment of the Act of 29 March 1958 on protection of the population against the hazards of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The amendments made by this Act concern the levying of fees to be decided by the King for the State or approved organisations to cover the costs of control, administration and emergency planning. (NEA)

  9. Radiation dates of holocene shorelines in Peninsula Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjia, H.D.; Kigoshi, K.

    1977-01-01

    Fifteen newly determined radiocarbon dates indicate the presence of former shorelines up to 3 meters above present high tide level in the tectonically stable Peninsula of Malaysia. The sea level indicators consist of oysters in growth position (9 samples), molluscs in beach deposits (2), corals in growth position (3), and beachrock (1). In the Peninsula living oysters occur up to or slightly above high tide, modern beach deposits may occur as high as 1.5 meters above high tide, and corals live up to low tide level. The literature shows that high tide, and corals live up to low tide level. The literature shows that beachrock marks intertidal zones. Combined with seven previously published ages of raised shorelines in the region, strong evidence is presented for one or more high Holocene, eustatic sea level stands in the continental part of Southeast Asia. Periods of high sea levels occur between 2500 and 2900 yr BP, and between 4200 and 5700 yr BP. There is also some indication of high sea level between 8300 and 9500 yr BP. (author)

  10. Uplift of quaternary shorelines in eastern Patagonia: Darwin revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedoja, Kevin; Regard, Vincent; Husson, Laurent; Martinod, Joseph; Guillaume, Benjamin; Fucks, Enrique; Iglesias, Maximiliano; Weill, Pierre

    2011-04-01

    During his journey on the Beagle, Darwin observed the uniformity in the elevation of coastal Eastern Patagonia along more than 2000 km. More than one century later, the sequences of Quaternary shorelines of eastern Patagonia have been described and their deposits dated but not yet interpreted in terms of geodynamics. Consequently, we i) mapped the repartition of the Quaternary coastal sequences in Argentinean Patagonia, ii) secured accurate altitudes of shoreline angles associated with erosional morphologies (i.e. marine terraces and notches), iii) took into account previous chrono-stratigraphical interpretations in order to calculate mean uplift rates since ~ 440 ka (MIS 11) and proposed age ranges for the higher and older features (up to ~ 180 m), and iv) focused on the Last Interglacial Maximum terrace (MIS 5e) as the best constrained marine terrace (in terms of age and altitude) in order to use it as a tectonic benchmark to quantify uplift rates along the entire passive margin of Eastern South America. Our results show that the eastern Patagonia uplift is constant through time and twice the uplift of the rest of the South American margin. We suggest that the enhanced uplift along the eastern Patagonian coast that interested Darwin during his journey around South America on the Beagle could originate from the subduction of the Chile ridge and the associated dynamic uplift.

  11. Report: Opportunities to Improve Data Quality and Children’s Health through the Food Quality Protection Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2006-P-00009, January 10, 2006. To meet the requirements of FQPA, EPA instituted numerous data requirements designed to provide infants and children with better protection against the health risks of pesticides.

  12. Act No. 89-487 of 10 July 1989 relating to the prevention of the mistreatment of minors and protection of childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Act amends the French Family and Social Aid Code to insert provisions designed to prevent the mistreatment of minors. It provides that childhood social aid services are to have the additional objectives of preventing mistreatment and collecting information on the mistreatment of minors and are to inform and sensitize the public at large, as well as concerned persons, about the conditions of mistreated minors. The Act requires the president of each local general council to establish a system for collection of information, require the collaboration of professionals and associations dealing with the protection of the family and children, and notify legal authorities when a minor has or appears to have been mistreated and it is impossible to evaluate the situation or the family refuses to cooperate. The Act also creates a free telephone service to respond at any time of the day to requests for information or advice on minors who are or appear to be mistreated and to convey to the presidents of local general councils information and recommendations about these minors. In addition, all physicians, medical and paramedical personnel, magistrates, teachers, and police are to receive initial and continuing training to allow them to respond to cases of mistreated children and take actions necessary to prevent mistreatment and protect children.

  13. Instantaneous Shoreline Extraction Utilizing Integrated Spectrum and Shadow Analysis From LiDAR Data and High-resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I.-Chieh

    Shoreline delineation and shoreline change detection are expensive processes in data source acquisition and manual shoreline delineation. These costs confine the frequency and interval of shoreline mapping periods. In this dissertation, a new shoreline delineation approach was developed targeting on lowering the data source cost and reducing human labor. To lower the cost of data sources, we used the public domain LiDAR data sets and satellite images to delineate shorelines without the requirement of data sets being acquired simultaneously, which is a new concept in this field. To reduce the labor cost, we made improvements in classifying LiDAR points and satellite images. Analyzing shadow relations with topography to improve the satellite image classification performance is also a brand-new concept. The extracted shoreline of the proposed approach could achieve an accuracy of 1.495 m RMSE, or 4.452m at the 95% confidence level. Consequently, the proposed approach could successfully lower the cost and shorten the processing time, in other words, to increase the shoreline mapping frequency with a reasonable accuracy. However, the extracted shoreline may not compete with the shoreline extracted by aerial photogrammetric procedures in the aspect of accuracy. Hence, this is a trade-off between cost and accuracy. This approach consists of three phases, first, a shoreline extraction procedure based mainly on LiDAR point cloud data with multispectral information from satellite images. Second, an object oriented shoreline extraction procedure to delineate shoreline solely from satellite images; in this case WorldView-2 images were used. Third, a shoreline integration procedure combining these two shorelines based on actual shoreline changes and physical terrain properties. The actual data source cost would only be from the acquisition of satellite images. On the other hand, only two processes needed human attention. First, the shoreline within harbor areas needed to be

  14. Chimeric anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin B antibodies and lovastatin act synergistically to provide in vivo protection against lethal doses of SEB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulualem E Tilahun

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB is one of a family of toxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus that act as superantigens, activating a large fraction of the T-cell population and inducing production of high levels of inflammatory cytokines that can cause toxic shock syndrome (TSS and death. Extracellular engagement of the TCR of T-cells and class II MHC of antigen presenting cells by SEB triggers the activation of many intracellular signaling processes. We engineered chimeric antibodies to block the extracellular engagement of cellular receptors by SEB and used a statin to inhibit intracellular signaling. Chimeric human-mouse antibodies directed against different neutralizing epitopes of SEB synergistically inhibited its activation of human T-cells in vitro. In the in vivo model of lethal toxic shock syndrome (TSS in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice, two of these antibodies conferred significant partial protection when administered individually, but offered complete protection in a synergistic manner when given together. Similarly, in vivo, lovastatin alone conferred only partial protection from TSS similar to single anti-SEB antibodies. However, used in combination with one chimeric neutralizing anti-SEB antibody, lovastatin provided complete protection against lethal TSS in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice. These experiments demonstrate that in vivo protection against lethal doses of SEB can be achieved by a statin of proven clinical safety and chimeric human-mouse antibodies, agents now widely used and known to be of low immunogenicity in human hosts.

  15. COMPARISON OF TWO SIMPLIFICATION METHODS FOR SHORELINE EXTRACTION FROM DIGITAL ORTHOPHOTO IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bayram

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The coastal ecosystems are very sensitive to external influences. Coastal resources such as sand dunes, coral reefs and mangroves has vital importance to prevent coastal erosion. Human based effects also threats the coastal areas. Therefore, the change of coastal areas should be monitored. Up-to-date, accurate shoreline information is indispensable for coastal managers and decision makers. Remote sensing and image processing techniques give a big opportunity to obtain reliable shoreline information. In the presented study, NIR bands of seven 1:5000 scaled digital orthophoto images of Riga Bay-Latvia have been used. The Object-oriented Simple Linear Clustering method has been utilized to extract shoreline of Riga Bay. Bend and Douglas-Peucker methods have been used to simplify the extracted shoreline to test the effect of both methods. Photogrammetrically digitized shoreline has been taken as reference data to compare obtained results. The accuracy assessment has been realised by Digital Shoreline Analysis tool. As a result, the achieved shoreline by the Bend method has been found closer to the extracted shoreline with Simple Linear Clustering method.

  16. Comparison of Two Simplification Methods for Shoreline Extraction from Digital Orthophoto Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, B.; Sen, A.; Selbesoglu, M. O.; Vārna, I.; Petersons, P.; Aykut, N. O.; Seker, D. Z.

    2017-11-01

    The coastal ecosystems are very sensitive to external influences. Coastal resources such as sand dunes, coral reefs and mangroves has vital importance to prevent coastal erosion. Human based effects also threats the coastal areas. Therefore, the change of coastal areas should be monitored. Up-to-date, accurate shoreline information is indispensable for coastal managers and decision makers. Remote sensing and image processing techniques give a big opportunity to obtain reliable shoreline information. In the presented study, NIR bands of seven 1:5000 scaled digital orthophoto images of Riga Bay-Latvia have been used. The Object-oriented Simple Linear Clustering method has been utilized to extract shoreline of Riga Bay. Bend and Douglas-Peucker methods have been used to simplify the extracted shoreline to test the effect of both methods. Photogrammetrically digitized shoreline has been taken as reference data to compare obtained results. The accuracy assessment has been realised by Digital Shoreline Analysis tool. As a result, the achieved shoreline by the Bend method has been found closer to the extracted shoreline with Simple Linear Clustering method.

  17. Integrated Shoreline Extraction Approach with Use of Rasat MS and SENTINEL-1A SAR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, N.; Oy, S.; Erdem, F.; Şeker, D. Z.; Bayram, B.

    2017-09-01

    Shorelines are complex ecosystems and highly important socio-economic environments. They may change rapidly due to both natural and human-induced effects. Determination of movements along the shoreline and monitoring of the changes are essential for coastline management, modeling of sediment transportation and decision support systems. Remote sensing provides an opportunity to obtain rapid, up-to-date and reliable information for monitoring of shoreline. In this study, approximately 120 km of Antalya-Kemer shoreline which is under the threat of erosion, deposition, increasing of inhabitants and urbanization and touristic hotels, has been selected as the study area. In the study, RASAT pansharpened and SENTINEL-1A SAR images have been used to implement proposed shoreline extraction methods. The main motivation of this study is to combine the land/water body segmentation results of both RASAT MS and SENTINEL-1A SAR images to improve the quality of the results. The initial land/water body segmentation has been obtained using RASAT image by means of Random Forest classification method. This result has been used as training data set to define fuzzy parameters for shoreline extraction from SENTINEL-1A SAR image. Obtained results have been compared with the manually digitized shoreline. The accuracy assessment has been performed by calculating perpendicular distances between reference data and extracted shoreline by proposed method. As a result, the mean difference has been calculated around 1 pixel.

  18. Comparing Fuzzy Sets and Random Sets to Model the Uncertainty of Fuzzy Shorelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewi, Ratna Sari; Bijker, Wietske; Stein, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses uncertainty modelling of shorelines by comparing fuzzy sets and random sets. Both methods quantify extensional uncertainty of shorelines extracted from remote sensing images. Two datasets were tested: pan-sharpened Pleiades with four bands (Pleiades) and pan-sharpened Pleiades

  19. TOXICITY TRENDS DURING AN OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION EXPERIMENT ON A SANDY SHORELINE IN DELAWARE, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 13-week, refereed, inter-agency toxicity testing program involving five bioassay methods was used to document the effectiveness of shoreline bioremediation to accelerate toxicity reduction of an oiled sandy shoreline at Fowler Beach, Delaware, USA. The study was part of an inte...

  20. Impact of an offshore wind farm on wave conditions and shoreline development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    the shoreline’s sensitivity to the distance from the OWF to the shoreline was studied. The effect of the reduced wind speed inside and on the lee side of the offshore wind farm was incorporated in a parameterized way in a spectral wind wave model. The shoreline impact was studied with a one-line model....

  1. Survey of the authorities competent for licensing and supervision in the field of radiation protection under the terms of the Atomic Energy Act (As of January 1980)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Contents: 1. Portfolio of the Federal Minister of Defence. 2. Handling of other radioactive substances, equipment for the generation of ionizing radiation and activities in installations owned by third parties: 2.1 Licensing authorities; 2.2 competent authorities for the acception and documentation of notifications required under sections 4, sub-section 1, 17 sub-section 1, of the Radiation Protection Ordinance; 2.3 authorities competent for the registration of radiation records; 2.4 supervisory authorities. 3. Carriage of radioactive substances: 3.1 Federal authorities responsible for licensing and supervisions; 3.2 Land authorities responsible for licensing; 3.3 Land authorities responsible for supervision. 4. Permits concerning the design of equipment. 5. Import and export of radioactive substances: 5.1 Licensing authorities; 5.2 supervisory authorities. 6. Competent authorities in accordance with section 63 sub-section 3 paragraph 1 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (monitoring stations) and according to the provisions of Land legislation. 7. Licensing and supervisory authorities for the treatment, processing or any other use of nuclear fuels under section 9 of the Atomic Energy Act. 8. Competences of the Laender in the implementation of the Atomic Energy Act and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig.) [de

  2. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  3. Reforming the Regulation of Therapeutic Products in Canada: The Protecting of Canadians from Unsafe Drugs Act (Vanessa’s Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Fierlbeck

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Enacted November 2014, Vanessa’s Law amends the Food and Drugs Act to give Health Canada greater powers to compel the disclosure of information, recall drugs and devices, impose fines and injunctions, and collect post-market safety information. The Act amends seriously outdated legislation that had been in place since 1954. While the explicit goals of the Act are to improve patient safety and provide transparency, it also establishes a regulatory framework that facilitates investment in the burgeoning field of biotechnology. While regulatory reform was already on the public agenda, public awareness of litigation against large pharmaceutical firms combined with the championing of the legislation by Conservative MP Terence Young, whose daughter Vanessa died from an adverse drug reaction, pushed the legislation through to implementation. Many key aspects of the Act depend upon the precise nature of supporting regulations that are still to be implemented. Despite the new powers conferred by the legislation on the Minister of Health, there is some concern that these discretionary powers may not be exercised, and that Health Canada may not have sufficient resources to take advantage of these new powers. Given experience to date since enactment, the new legislation, designed to provide greater transparency vis-à-vis therapeutic products, may actually have a chilling effect on independent scrutiny.

  4. Evaluation of online resources on the implementation of the protection of personal information act in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tube, N.D.), Facebook (Facebook, N.D.), Twitter (Twitter, N.D.) and search engines. These data sources were chosen since it may be the most likely common route individuals will take to gain fundamental understanding of the requirements the PoPI Act places...

  5. 78 FR 66653 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; HHS Notice of Benefit and Payment Parameters for 2014...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Essential Health Benefits, we inadvertently included the incorrect section reference to the Affordable Care... inadvertently omitted references to paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section. On page 15540, in the regulation... 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). However, we can waive this notice...

  6. AGREEMENT ON THE SALE AND PURCHASE OF HOUSES TO BE BUILT IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In residential buying agreements, contracts governing default are usually common. Default is stated by expressing negligence in two respects, whether it is negligence in payment of instalment or negligence in the delay of settlement of house construction which will be delivered to the consumer. The developer's responsibility is usually related to the delay of the house construction and delivery to the consumer. In the execution of the sale and purchase transaction of the house to be built, consumers rarely gain consumer protection rights as regulated and mentioned in the article on consumer rights and business actor obligations contained in Article 4 and 7 of Law no. 8 of 1999 on Consumer Protection. Furthermore, field practice reality shows that consumers and developers do not have the same bargaining position, where the consumer are usually required to follow the agreement that has been standardized by developers who are legally contrary to Article 18 of Law no. 8 of 1999 on Consumer Protection.

  7. Legal instruments and proposals for acts of the European Communities relating to the protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1992-01-01

    The compilation comprises all legal instruments and proposals for legal instruments of the European Communities in the field of environmental protection which were incorporated in the EDP-aided compilation of the Federal Office for Environmental Protection, specialized field 'Juristic Environmental Issues'. It replaces the preceding compilation as of July 15, 1985, November 1, 1986, December 1, 1988 and March 1, 1991. The volume is subdivided into the sections: General information, regional development law, nature preservation law, law on water pollution control, refuse law, imission control law, atomic energy law, energy and mining law, law on dangerous materials and law on environmental health. (orig.) [de

  8. Shoreline oil cleanup, recovery and treatment evaluation system (SOCRATES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusin, J.; Lunel, T.; Sommerville, M.; Tyler, A.; Marshall, I.

    1996-01-01

    A beach cleanup computer system was developed to mitigate the impact of shoreline oiling. The program, entitled SOCRATES, was meant to determine the most suitable cleanup methodologies for a range of different spill scenarios. The development, operation and capabilities of SOCRATES was described, with recent examples of successful use during the Sea Empress spill. The factors which influenced decision making and which were central to the numerical solution were: (1) the volumetric removal rate of oil, (2) area removal rate of oil, (3) length of oil slick removed per hour, (4) volumetric removal rate of oily waste, (5) area of the oil slick, (6) length of the oil slick, (7) volume of liquid emulsion, and (8) length of beach. 14 figs

  9. Multiscale analysis of restoration priorities for marine shoreline planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L; Sobocinski, Kathryn L; Thom, Ronald M; May, Christopher W; Borde, Amy B; Southard, Susan L; Vavrinec, John; Sather, Nichole K

    2009-10-01

    Planners are being called on to prioritize marine shorelines for conservation status and restoration action. This study documents an approach to determining the management strategy most likely to succeed based on current conditions at local and landscape scales. The conceptual framework based in restoration ecology pairs appropriate restoration strategies with sites based on the likelihood of producing long-term resilience given the condition of ecosystem structures and processes at three scales: the shorezone unit (site), the drift cell reach (nearshore marine landscape), and the watershed (terrestrial landscape). The analysis is structured by a conceptual ecosystem model that identifies anthropogenic impacts on targeted ecosystem functions. A scoring system, weighted by geomorphic class, is applied to available spatial data for indicators of stress and function using geographic information systems. This planning tool augments other approaches to prioritizing restoration, including historical conditions and change analysis and ecosystem valuation.

  10. Act No. 87-565 of 22 July 1987 on the organization of public safety measures, forestry protection against fires and the prevention of major risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    As defined by this Act, the objective of the public safety measures is to prevent all types of major risks and to protect persons, property and the environment, including forests, against accidents, disasters and catastrophes. It deals with the conditions for preparing preventive measures and for implementing necessary measures in case of major risks or accidents. The preparation and organization of assistance are determined within the framework of ORSEC (ORganisation des SECours) plans and emergency plans; the first assess the possibilities for facing up to disasters while the latter provide for measures and means to overcome a particular risk [fr

  11. Megascale rhythmic shoreline forms on a beach with multiple bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study, carried out in 2003 and 2006 at the Lubiatowo Coastal ResearchStation (Poland, located on the non-tidal southern Baltic coast(tidal range < 0.06 m, focused on larger rhythmic forms (mega-cusps withwavelengths in the interval 500 m > Lc > 20 m. Statistical analyses of detailed shoreline configurations were performed mostly with the Discrete Wavelet Transformmethod (DWT. The beach is composed of fine sand with grain diameter D50 ≈ 0.22 mm, which produces 4 longshore sandbars and a gently sloping seabed with β = 0.015. The analysis confirms the key role of bars in hydro- and morphodynamic surf zone processes.The hypothesis was therefore set up that, in a surf zone with multiple bars, the bars and mega-scale shoreline rhythmic forms form one integrated physical system; experimental evidence to substantiate this hypothesis was also sought.In such a system not only do self-regulation processes include swash zone phenomena, they also incorporate processes in offshore surf zone locations.The longshore dimensions of large cusps are thus related to the distances between periodically active large bed forms (bars. The spatial dimension of bar system activity (number of active bars depends, at a given time scale, on the associated hydrodynamic conditions. It was assumed that such a time scale could include either the development and duration of a storm, or a period of stable, yet distinct waves, capable of remodelling the beach configuration.The indentation to wavelength ratio of mega-cusps for the studied non-tidal dissipative environment may be one order of magnitude greater than for mesotidal, reflective beaches.

  12. The perspectives of marital couples in Alexandra Township on the protection order under the Domestic Violence Act 116 of 1998

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    M.A. Domestic violence is widespread in South Africa, with one in four women being the victims of it. Victims of domestic violence try to change their conditions in the hope that things will get better. Domestic violence takes many forms. Some of the victims experience only one form of violence while others experience different forms. Domestic violence has physical, emotional, sexual, and economic dimensions (Goosen and Shaik, 1998: 1). The Domestic Violence Act 116 of 1998 was passed in t...

  13. Crystalline lens - Eyes under high radiological protection. From regulation to acts. With neuro-radiologists of the Pitie-Salpetriere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    As the limit exposure of workers' crystalline lens to ionizing radiations is about to be lowered, this set of three articles proposes an overview of this specific issue. A recent study performed by the IRSN revealed that interventional cardiologists display four more crystalline lens opacification that the rest of the population, and also revealed that other incidents could affect the eyes of some operators of nuclear medicine. In interventional radiology, fingers, fists and eyes are the most exposed and have not been so well protected as the rest of the body. After dosimetry measurements, the use of protective glasses has been introduced. These protective measures could be applied in other nuclear activities. Studies are being performed on the eyes of children living in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. A second article comments the various actions and initiatives aiming at limiting the dose received by the crystalline lens: preparation of a new regulation for the follow-up of exposed workers, definition of standards for dose measurement devices, risk assessments, recommendation to interventional radiologists to optimize their exposure (process, protective clothes, and so on). A last article briefly reports the implementation of a dose follow-up for interventional neuro-radiologists in a Parisian hospital

  14. Identification of protective actions to reduce the vulnerability of safety-critical systems to malevolent acts: A sensitivity-based decision-making approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tai-Ran; Pedroni, Nicola; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    A classification model based on the Majority Rule Sorting method has been previously proposed by the authors to evaluate the vulnerability of safety-critical systems (e.g., nuclear power plants) with respect to malevolent intentional acts. In this paper, we consider a classification model previously proposed by the authors based on the Majority Rule Sorting method to evaluate the vulnerability of safety-critical systems (e.g., nuclear power plants) with respect to malevolent intentional acts. The model is here used as the basis for solving an inverse classification problem aimed at determining a set of protective actions to reduce the level of vulnerability of the safety-critical system under consideration. To guide the choice of the set of protective actions, sensitivity indicators are originally introduced as measures of the variation in the vulnerability class that a safety-critical system is expected to undergo after the application of a given set of protective actions. These indicators form the basis of an algorithm to rank different combinations of actions according to their effectiveness in reducing the safety-critical systems vulnerability. Results obtained using these indicators are presented with regard to the application of: (i) one identified action at a time, (ii) all identified actions at the same time or (iii) a random combination of identified actions. The results are presented with reference to a fictitious example considering nuclear power plants as the safety-critical systems object of the analysis. - Highlights: • We use a hierarchical framework to represent the vulnerability. • We use an empirical classification model to evaluate vulnerability. • Sensitivity indicators are introduced to rank protective actions. • Constraints (e.g., budget limitations) are accounted for. • Method is applied to fictitious Nuclear Power Plants.

  15. National Assessment Of Shoreline Change: Part 2, Historical Shoreline Changes And Associated Coastal Land Loss Along The U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Miller, Tara L.

    2005-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. One purpose of this work is to develop standard repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally that are systematic and internally consistent. This report on states comprising the Southeast Atlantic Coast (east Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina) represents the second in a series that already includes the Gulf of Mexico and will eventually include the Northeast Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. The report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results, provides explanations regarding the historical and present trends and rates of change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. Shoreline change evaluations are based on comparing three historical shorelines with a recent shoreline derived from lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) topographic surveys. The historical shorelines generally represent the following periods: 1800s, 1920s-1930s, and 1970s, whereas the lidar shoreline is 1998-2002. Long-term rates of change are calculated using four shorelines (1800s to lidar shoreline), whereas short-term rates of change are calculated for the most recent period (1970s to lidar shoreline). The historical rates of change presented in

  16. National Assessment of Shoreline Change: Part 1, Historical Shoreline Changes and Associated Coastal Land Loss Along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Miller, Tara L.; Moore, Laura J.

    2004-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. One purpose of this work is to develop standard repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally that are systematic and internally consistent. This report on states bordering the Gulf of Mexico (Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) represents the first in a series that will eventually include the Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. The report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results, provides explanations regarding the historical and present trends and rates of change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. Shoreline change evaluations are based on comparing three historical shorelines with a recent shoreline derived from lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) topographic surveys. The historical shorelines generally represent the following periods: 1800s, 1920s-1930s, and 1970s, whereas the lidar shoreline is 1998-2002. Long-term rates of change are calculated using all four shorelines (1800s to lidar shoreline), whereas short-term rates of change are calculated for the most recent period (1970s to lidar shoreline). The historical rates of change presented in this report represent past conditions and therefore are not

  17. Back-island and open-ocean shorelines, and sand areas of Assateague Island, Maryland and Virginia, April 12, 1989, to September 5, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Kristy K.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the physical change to shorelines and wetlands is critical in determining the resiliency of wetland systems that protect adjacent habitat and communities. The wetland and back-barrier shorelines of Assateague Island, located in Maryland and Virginia, changed as a result of wave action and storm surge that occurred during Hurricane Sandy in 2012. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program, the impact of Hurricane Sandy will be assessed and placed in its historical context to understand the future vulnerability of wetland systems. Making these assessments will rely on data extracted from current and historical resources such as maps, aerial photographs, satellite imagery, and lidar elevation data, which document physical changes over time.

  18. Tangible and intangible costs of "protecting human subjects": The impact of the National Research Act of 1974 onuniversity research activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Jacobs

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This article (1 examines the overall structure of regulatory research oversight in the United States; (2 details the origins and evolution of federal legislation pertaining to the protection of human subjects in biomedical and behavioral treatment and research; and (3 describes the expansion of oversight regulation from biomedical and behavioral treatment areas to the social sciences. In addition, the paper describes three areas identified by compliance administrators as susceptible to abuse: (1 informed consent, (2 assessment of risks and benefits, and (3 equitable selection of human subjects. There is a discussion of existing tensions in the implementation of oversight policies and procedures. Finally, the paper identifies four issues for future consideration: (1 scope of the mandate regarding protection of human subjects, (2 impact on the nature of research being undertaken, (3 financial burden of compliance and oversight activities, and (4 ethical standards, constraints, and potential.

  19. A Bill to Amend the Intergovernmental Cooperation Act of 1968 to Improve . . . Strengthening of State and Local Offices of Consumer Protection. H.R. 2198. 95th Congress, 1st Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This U.S. House of Representatives bill (H.R. 2198), to be cited, if enacted, as the Intergovernmental Consumer Assistance Act, would add a new title to the Intergovernmental Cooperation Act of 1968: Title VII-Intergovernmental Cooperation with Respect to Consumer Assistance and Protection. The objective is to establish greater cooperation among…

  20. Second ordinance concerning transfer of competence for monitoring and evaluating activities in accordance with the Preventive Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Federal Fishery Research Institute is given the competence to carry out on behalf of the Federal Government measuring and evaluating activities for monitoring the radioactivity levels in marine organisms in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, including coastal waters. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection shall be competent for measuring the ambient gamma dose rate by means of airborne equipment in the case of events possibly leading considerable radiological effects. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Monitoring of shoreline changes using remote sensing (case study: coastal city of Bandar Abbas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamassoki, E; Amiri, H; Soleymani, Z

    2014-01-01

    Shoreline change is one of the most common natural processes that prevail upon coastal areas. The most important aspect of managing coastal areas is identifying the location and change over time of shoreline. This requires frequent monitoring of the shoreline using satellite imagery over time. We have used imagery from the Landsat TM-5 sensor from 1984,1998 and 2009 in order to monitor shoreline changes using the Max Likelihood Classification method (MLC) in Bandar Abbas city. Monitoring showed that during the period from 1984 to 1998 the area of coastline of Bandar Abbas increased 804.09 hectares. The increase over the next 11-year period was as less, at only 140.81 hectares. In 2009 there was a drastic decrease in shoreline, with the total length of shoreline decreasing from 330 km to 271 km during the period from 1984 to 2009.Results showed that in each period in which the area of coastline advanced, changes in length of shoreline had been less prominent

  2. Implementation of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act; here: Regulation governing ambient radioactivity monitoring subject to the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Pt. 1. Measuring programme for specified normal operation monitoring (routine measuring programme). BMU circular letter dated 28.07.94 -RS II 6 - 15 603/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The regulation addresses the competent Federal and Land authorities responsible for implementation of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act, and the competent highest Land authorities. The regulation defines the scope of obligatory measurement of ambient radioactivity during normal operation of installations and determines the measuring techniques to be applied for this purpose. The programme determines compulsory instructions to be observed in the performance of the routine measuring programme by the competent Federal and Land authorities and thus ensures nationwide application of standard procedures

  3. Detection of Oil near Shorelines during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Garcia-Pineda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During any marine oil spill, floating oil slicks that reach shorelines threaten a wide array of coastal habitats. To assess the presence of oil near shorelines during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill, we scanned the library of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imagery collected during the event to determine which images intersected shorelines and appeared to contain oil. In total, 715 SAR images taken during the DWH spill were analyzed and processed, with 188 of the images clearly showing oil. Of these, 156 SAR images showed oil within 10 km of the shoreline with appropriate weather conditions for the detection of oil on SAR data. We found detectable oil in SAR images within 10 km of the shoreline from west Louisiana to west Florida, including near beaches, marshes, and islands. The high number of SAR images collected in Barataria Bay, Louisiana in 2010 allowed for the creation of a nearshore oiling persistence map. This analysis shows that, in some areas inside Barataria Bay, floating oil was detected on as many as 29 different days in 2010. The nearshore areas with persistent floating oil corresponded well with areas where ground survey crews discovered heavy shoreline oiling. We conclude that satellite-based SAR imagery can detect oil slicks near shorelines, even in sheltered areas. These data can help assess potential shoreline oil exposure without requiring boats or aircraft. This method can be particularly helpful when shoreline assessment crews are hampered by difficult access or, in the case of DWH, a particularly large spatial and temporal spill extent.

  4. Compliance with the Clean Air Act Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program requirements at U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, M.P.; Atkins, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires promulgation of regulations to reduce and prevent damage to the earth's protective ozone layer. Regulations pursuant to Title VI of the CAA are promulgated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at Title 40 CFR, Part 822. The regulations include ambitious production phaseout schedules for ozone depleting substances (ODS) including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform under 40 CFR 82, Subpart A. The regulations also include requirements for recycling and emissions reduction during the servicing of refrigeration equipment and technician certification requirements under Subpart F; provisions for servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners under Subpart B; a ban on nonessential products containing Class 1 ODS under Subpart C; restrictions on Federal procurement of ODS under Subpart D; labeling of products using ODS under Subpart E; and the Significant New Alternatives Policy Program under Subpart G. This paper will provide details of initiatives undertaken at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of requirements under the Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program. The Stratospheric Ozone Protection Plans include internal DOE requirements for: (1) maintenance of ODS inventories; (2) ODS procurement practices; (3) servicing of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; (4) required equipment modifications or replacement; (5) technician certification training; (6) labeling of products containing ODS; (7) substitution of chlorinated solvents; and (8) replacement of halon fire protection systems. The plans also require establishment of administrative control systems which assure that compliance is achieved and maintained as the regulations continue to develop and become effective

  5. Historical sediment budget and present-day catchment-shoreline coupling at Twofold Bay, southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, T.; Oliver, T.; Hudson, J.; Woodroffe, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    Considering projected impacts of sea-level rise in the 21st century on sandy shorelines, an understanding of long-term sediment budget for individual beaches or coastal compartments supports assessments of shoreline stability. We examined a low-lying coastal beach-ridge barrier in Twofold Bay using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating , airborne LiDAR, sedimentological analysis and seismic data to assess changes in rates of sediment supply to this shoreline through time. Calculations of barrier volume, Twofold Bay bay-floor sediment volume and estimates of sediment delivery from a proximal river system provide a broad-scale assessment of past-sediment budget. Between ca. 7500 years ago and 1500 years ago, sources of sediment for shoreline progradation at Boydtown were bay-floor sediments either inherited or moved into the embayment during late-stage transgression. Progradation rate between ca. 7500-1500 years ago was 0.16 m/yr with subaerial barrier volume accumulating at 0.46 m3/m/yr. Between ca. 1500 years and present day, the Towamba River to the south has delivered additional sediment to the Boydtown shoreline more than doubling shoreline progradation rate to 0.65 m/yr and subaerial barrier accumulation has risen to 1.83 m3/m/yr. The delivery of fluvial sediment from the Towamba River was restricted to the past ca. 1500 years as prior to this, estuary infilling prevented floods delivering sediments to the bay. This recent historical coupling of river sand supply and shoreline progradation rate implies that anthropogenic modifications to the Towamba River catchment such as river damming, or climatic changes reducing rainfall or runoff, would negatively impact the Boydtown Beach shoreline. Conversely increased rainfall or deforestation may increase sediment discharge due to upstream erosion. The Boydtown shoreline within Twofold Bay may be able to maintain its current position in the coming century if fluvial sediment delivery continues. The fact that

  6. An empirical orthogonal function analysis of ocean shoreline location on the Virginia barrier islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluska, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Shoreline change along the Eastern Atlantic shore of Virginia has been studied for the individual barrier islands but not as an integrated system. This study combines the Atlantic shoreline locations for eleven barrier islands obtained from LANDSAT 5, 7, and 8 images. Approximately 250 shoreline locations over a 24-year period from Jan 1990 to Dec 2014 were extracted from the digitized shoreline data at 338 transects. The resulting 338 by 250 matrix was analyzed by the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) technique. The first four principal components (PC) explained 86 percent of the sample variance. Since the data was not detrended, the first PC was the overall trend of the data with a discontinuity in 2004-2005. The 2004-2005 interval included storm events and large shoreline changes. PCs 2 to 4 reflect the effects of El Nino events and tropical and non-tropical storms. Eigenvectors 1 to 4 all show the effects of the nine inlets in the island group. Eigenvector (EV) 1 explains 59 percent of the shoreline spatial variance and shows the largest changes at the northern and southern island ends. EVs 2 to 4 reflect the pattern of EV1 but at sequentially smaller percentages of the spatial variance. As a group, the eleven islands are losing ocean side shoreline. The lone exception is Hog Island. Sea level had the strongest correlation with the shoreline loss trend of PC1. The coefficient of determination was 0.41. The NAO and MEI also correlated with PC1 with correlations of determination of 0.05 and 0.12 respectively. These confidence level for the three factors was better than 99 percent. Sea level also correlated with PC3 and PC4. The PCs as a group show that the year intervals 2004-2005 and 2009-2010 had large effects on the shoreline change pattern for the island group. EVs 1 to 4 had the highest range of shoreline change at the island ends indicating the effect the changes of the inlets have on the adjacent islands. The smaller islands as a group had a higher level

  7. Third statutory ordinance for assignment of competence for environmental radioactivity measuring and evaluation under the German Preventive Radiation Protection Act (StrSchVG). As of 16 October 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The German Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Radiation Protection Office) is assigned the competence to perform the necessary activities for measurement and large-area monitoring of ambient gamma dose rates on behalf of the Federal Government in compliance with the German Preventive Radiation Protection Act (StrSchVG). (orig./CB) [de

  8. Protecting workers from pathogens. Employers must act now to comply with OSHA's new standard on bloodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C L

    1992-04-01

    A new standard set forth by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires healthcare employers to implement sweeping new controls in areas such as record keeping, engineering, hazard prevention, and work practice. Through the bloodborne pathogen standard, which went into effect on March 6, OSHA acknowledges that healthcare workers face significant health risks as a result of occupational exposure to blood and other infectious materials. Although most prudent healthcare providers already adhere to the Centers for Disease Control's universal precautions, the OSHA regulations include several additional mandatory measures that are more specific and stringent. The additional measures include the development of an exposure control plan, procedures for responding to an employee's exposure to bloodborne pathogens, the implementation of certain engineering and work practice controls to eliminate or minimize on-the-job exposure risks, and the provision of personal protective equipment and information and training programs. OSHA estimates that the greatest cost component of implementing procedures to bring a facility into compliance is attributable to the purchase of personal protective equipment. Although the costs of compliance are substantial, OSHA has estimated that these costs represent less than 1 percent of the healthcare industry's annual revenues. Violation of the bloodborne pathogen standard may result in penalties of up to $70,000, depending on the severity of the infraction. Criminal penalties are also possible for willful violations that result in worker death.

  9. Nuclear Regulatory Authority Act, 2015 (Act 895)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    An Act to establish a Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Ghana. This Act provides for the regulation and management of activities and practices for the peaceful use of nuclear material or energy, and to provide for the protection of persons and the environment against the harmful effects of radiation; and to ensure the effective implementation of the country’s international obligations and for related matters. This Act replaced the Radiation Protection Instrument, of 1993 (LI 1559).

  10. Shoreline change assessment using multi-temporal satellite images: a case study of Lake Sapanca, NW Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Umit

    2017-08-01

    The research summarized here determines historical shoreline changes along Lake Sapanca by using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Six multi-temporal satellite images of Landsat Multispectral Scanner (L1-5 MMS), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (L7 ETM+), and Operational Land Imager Sensors (L8 OLI), covering the period between 17 June 1975 and 15 July 2016, were used to monitor shoreline positions and estimate change rates along the coastal zone. After pre-possessing routines, the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), and supervised classification techniques were utilized to extract six different shorelines. Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS), a toolbox that enables transect-based computations of shoreline displacement, was used to compute historical shoreline change rates. The average rate of shoreline change for the entire cost was 2.7 m/year of progradation with an uncertainty of 0.2 m/year. While the great part of the lake shoreline remained stable, the study concluded that the easterly and westerly coasts and deltaic coasts are more vulnerable to shoreline displacements over the last four decades. The study also reveals that anthropogenic activities, more specifically over extraction of freshwater from the lake, cyclic variation in rainfall, and deposition of sediment transported by the surrounding creeks dominantly control spatiotemporal shoreline changes in the region. Monitoring shoreline changes using multi-temporal satellite images is a significant component for the coastal decision-making and management.

  11. 75 FR 8997 - National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility Shoreline Restoration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... maximum of 1,400 meters (m) (4,600 feet [ft]) south and placing an estimated 2.5 million cubic meters (MCM... extended a minimum of 460 m (1,500 ft) up to a maximum of 1,400 m (4,600 ft) south. The actual length of... lengthening (up to the 1,400 m [4,600 ft] total length) would be accomplished in future years as funding...

  12. 75 FR 66800 - National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility Shoreline Restoration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... maximum of 1,400 meters (m) (4,600 feet [ft]) south and placing an estimated 2.5 million cubic meters (MCM... years: Year 1 Activities--The existing rock seawall would be extended approximately 400 m (1,315 ft) south. Additional lengthening (up to the 1,400 m [4,600 ft] total length) would be accomplished in...

  13. a Study on Variations of Shoreline Changes and Temporal-Spatial Potentiality for Cloud Seeding at Urumia Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha Taher, R.; Jafari, M.; Fallah, M.; Alavi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Protecting the living environment has become one of the greatest human concerns; sudden increase of population, industry and technology development, unrestrained over consumption of the citizens and climate changes, have all caused many problems for mankind. Shores are special zones that are in contact with three Atmosphere, Hydrosphere and Lithosphere environments of earth. Shore lines are of the most important linear features of the earth's surface which have an animated and alive nature. In this regard, optimized management of the shores and environmental protection for stable development require observing the shorelines and their variations. Protection of shorelines within appropriate time periods is of high importance for the purpose of optimized management of the shores. The twenty first century has been called the era of information explosion. A time that, through benefits of new technologies, information experts attempt to generate more and up to date information in various fields and to provide them for managers and decision makers in order to be considered for future planning and also to assist the planners to arrange and set a comprehensive plan. Aerial images and remote sensing technology are economic methods to acquire the required data. Such methods are free from common time and place limitations in survey based methods. Among remote sensing data, the ones acquired from optical images have several benefits which include low cost, interpretation simplicity and ease of access. That is why most of the researches concerning extraction of shorelines are practiced using optical images. On the other hand, wide range coverage of satellite images along with rapid access to them caused these images to be used extensively for extracting the shorelines. The attempt in this research is to use satellite images and their application in order to study variations of the shorelines. Thus, for this purpose, Landsat satellite images from TM and ETM+ sensors in the 35

  14. A STUDY ON VARIATIONS OF SHORELINE CHANGES AND TEMPORAL-SPATIAL POTENTIALITY FOR CLOUD SEEDING AT URUMIA LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Agha Taher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protecting the living environment has become one of the greatest human concerns; sudden increase of population, industry and technology development, unrestrained over consumption of the citizens and climate changes, have all caused many problems for mankind. Shores are special zones that are in contact with three Atmosphere, Hydrosphere and Lithosphere environments of earth. Shore lines are of the most important linear features of the earth’s surface which have an animated and alive nature. In this regard, optimized management of the shores and environmental protection for stable development require observing the shorelines and their variations. Protection of shorelines within appropriate time periods is of high importance for the purpose of optimized management of the shores. The twenty first century has been called the era of information explosion. A time that, through benefits of new technologies, information experts attempt to generate more and up to date information in various fields and to provide them for managers and decision makers in order to be considered for future planning and also to assist the planners to arrange and set a comprehensive plan. Aerial images and remote sensing technology are economic methods to acquire the required data. Such methods are free from common time and place limitations in survey based methods. Among remote sensing data, the ones acquired from optical images have several benefits which include low cost, interpretation simplicity and ease of access. That is why most of the researches concerning extraction of shorelines are practiced using optical images. On the other hand, wide range coverage of satellite images along with rapid access to them caused these images to be used extensively for extracting the shorelines. The attempt in this research is to use satellite images and their application in order to study variations of the shorelines. Thus, for this purpose, Landsat satellite images from TM and ETM

  15. The Building Act 1984. The Building Regulations 1991; BR 211; Radon; guidance on protective measures for new dwellings, 1999 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This guidance is the 1999 edition of BR 211, Radon: guidance on protective measures for new dwellings, which was published on 11 November 1999. The guidance in the 1999 edition of BR 211 should be considered to apply to any building or building work for which a building notice, initial notice, amendment notice or public body's notice is given to a local authority, or full plans are deposited with a local authority on or after 14 February 2000. Where an amendment notice is given on or after 14 February 2000 relating to an initial notice given before that date, only new work added to the initial notice will be formally subject to the 1999 edition of BR 211

  16. Bioremediation of oil on shorelines with organic and inorganic nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sveum, P.; Ramstad, S.

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments to study the mechanisms associated with nutrient-enhanced biodegradation of oil (Statfjord crude oil)-contaminated shorelines were done in continuous-flow seawater exchange basins with simulated tides. The fertilizers included fish and meal pellets, stick water pellets, and two concentrations of Max Bac: standard and five times higher. Both one-time and repeated additions of fish meal were studied. The number of oil-degrading bacteria in the sediment increased by three to four orders of magnitude after adding oil and fertilizer, and repeated fertilization had little effect. Oil degradation was found to be extensive with all treatments in both experiments, which lasted 35 or 98 days. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation seems to be most extensive in the sediments with repeated application of fish meal. The relation between accumulated total soluble nitrogen in interstitial water and nC 17 /pristane differs between the sediments treated with Max Bac and the organic additives, and indicates that this concentration cannot be used as a sole indication of the oil degradation rate if organic nutrients are used. The relation between accumulated CO 2 production and nC 17 /pristane ratio indicates a diauxic use of the two different sources of carbon present, without being absolute. Repeated fertilization with organic additives is neither beneficial nor detrimental to the oil degradation activity

  17. Biological effects of three different shoreline cleanup methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, J.; Lethinen, C.; Linden, O.

    1981-06-01

    In order to simulate a real oil spill the shore of a small island in the Baltic proper was treated with a weathered crude oil. The aim of the study was to investigate and compare environmental impact of some shoreline cleanup techniques as well as the effectiveness of these methods. Hot water was the quickest cleanup method, whereas cleaning with a solvent took twice as much time and mechanical recovery three and a half time as much. The hot water treatment resulted in the smallest amounts of oil left in the soil compared to the two other methods, where two to three times as much was left. The oil content in sedimenting material and in mussels was highest outside the area cleaned with hot water. The oil content in mussel tissues increased 75 times after cleaning and the sediment contained about twice as much oil as outside the other areas. The vegetation on all four oiled areas was considerably reduced and the soil fauna was completely eliminated. Since no animals were found on the four oiled areas, not even on the untreated area, it appeared to be the oil itself that caused this effect. The number of animals caught with pitfall traps decreased after oiling and cleanup to between 10-40 % of the original amount. The results from the investigation of the fauna in the Cladophora-belt do not indicate any effects so far.

  18. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines representing the shoreline and coastal habitats for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, classified according to the...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: ESIL (ESI Shoreline Types - Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ESIL data set contains vector lines representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of South Florida classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: ESIP (ESI Shoreline Types - Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ESIP data set contains vector polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of South Florida classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity...

  1. Variability and correlations of shoreline and dunes on the southern Baltic coast (CRS Lubiatowo, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the results of field investigations into the evolution of the shoreline and dune toe positions in a multi-bar,dissipative coastal zone. The correlations between the changes in the shoreline and the dune toe range from -0.4 to 0.8. It is most often the case that the dune toe is stable while the shoreline moves. Consistent cross-shore migration is slightly more likelyto happen than the divergent or convergent movements of both lines. Shoreline retreat and advance attain respective rates of 0.7 m day-1 and 0.4 m day-1. Deep-water wave energy of about 50 kJ m-1 constitutes the boundary between shore accumulation and erosion.

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: ESIL (ESI Shoreline Types - Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ESIL data set contains vector lines representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of the Florida Panhandle, classified according to the Environmental...

  3. A Collaborative Geospatial Shoreline Inventory Tool to Guide Coastal Development and Habitat Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gies

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We are developing a geospatial inventory tool that will guide habitat conservation, restoration and coastal development and benefit several stakeholders who seek mitigation and adaptation strategies to shoreline changes resulting from erosion and sea level rise. The ESRI Geoportal Server, which is a type of web portal used to find and access geospatial information in a central repository, is customized by adding a Geoinventory tool capability that allows any shoreline related data to be searched, displayed and analyzed on a map viewer. Users will be able to select sections of the shoreline and generate statistical reports in the map viewer to allow for comparisons. The tool will also facilitate map-based discussion forums and creation of user groups to encourage citizen participation in decisions regarding shoreline stabilization and restoration, thereby promoting sustainable coastal development.

  4. Virginia ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats for Virginia, classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity...

  5. Maryland ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats for Maryland, classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity...

  6. Aquifer Sampling Tube Completion Report: 100 Area and Hanford Townsite Shorelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.E.; Borghese, J.V.; Erb, D.B.

    1998-02-01

    Groundwater contamination is known or suspected along the Hanford Site shoreline of the Columbia River adjacent to the retired reactor areas. Along the shoreline away from the reactor areas, where contamination is presumed to be absent, monitoring sites are frequently widely spaced or unavailable to confirm the presumption. Previous characterizations of contamination near the river have relied on data from a limited number of near-river wells, contaminant plume migration predictions, and river bank seepage sampling to anticipate shoreline conditions. In recent years, new methods have been developed to obtain groundwater samples from the aquifer near the groundwater/river water interface. These methods include using (1) divers to obtain samples of pore water from riverbed sediment and (2) sampling tubes that are driven into the aquifer at the shoreline. The latter method also permits sampling the aquifer at multiple depths, which helps to determine the thickness of the potentially contaminated groundwater layer that discharges into the river

  7. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Polygons and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, classified according to...

  8. Seismic surface-wave prospecting methods for sinkhole hazard assessment along the Dead Sea shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezersky, M.; Bodet, L.; Al-Zoubi, A.; Camerlynck, C.; Dhemaied, A.; Galibert, P.-Y.; Keydar, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Dead Sea's coastal areas have been dramatically hit by sinkholes occurrences since around 1990 and there is an obvious potential for further collapse beneath main highways, agricultural lands and other populated places. The sinkhole hazard in this area threatens human lives and compromise future economic developments. The understanding of such phenomenon is consequently of great importance in the development of protective solutions. Several geological and geophysical studies tend to show that evaporite karsts, caused by slow salt dissolution, are linked to the mechanism of sinkhole formation along both Israel and Jordan shorelines. The continuous drop of the Dead Sea level, at a rate of 1m/yr during the past decade, is generally proposed as the main triggering factor. The water table lowering induces the desaturation of shallow sediments overlying buried cavities in 10 to 30 meters thick salt layers, at depths from 25 to 50 meters. Both the timing and location of sinkholes suggest that: (1) the salt weakens as result of increasing fresh water circulation, thus enhancing the karstification process; (2) sinkholes appear to be related to the decompaction of the sediments above karstified zones. The location, depth, thickness and weakening of salt layers along the Dead Sea shorelines, as well as the thickness and mechanical properties of the upper sedimentary deposits, are thus considered as controlling factors of this ongoing process. Pressure-wave seismic methods are typically used to study sinkhole developments in this area. P-wave refraction and reflection methods are very useful to delineate the salt layers and to determine the thickness of overlying sediments. But the knowledge of shear-wave velocities (Vs) should add valuable insights on their mechanical properties, more particularly when the groundwater level plays an important role in the process. However, from a practical point of view, the measurement of Vs remains delicate because of well-known shear

  9. Performance of a process-based hydrodynamic model in predicting shoreline change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, I.; Warner, J. C.; List, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    Shoreline change is controlled by a complex combination of processes that include waves, currents, sediment characteristics and availability, geologic framework, human interventions, and sea level rise. A comprehensive data set of shoreline position (14 shorelines between 1978-2002) along the continuous and relatively non-interrupted North Carolina Coast from Oregon Inlet to Cape Hatteras (65 km) reveals a spatial pattern of alternating erosion and accretion, with an erosional average shoreline change rate of -1.6 m/yr and up to -8 m/yr in some locations. This data set gives a unique opportunity to study long-term shoreline change in an area hit by frequent storm events while relatively uninfluenced by human interventions and the effects of tidal inlets. Accurate predictions of long-term shoreline change may require a model that accurately resolves surf zone processes and sediment transport patterns. Conventional methods for predicting shoreline change such as one-line models and regression of shoreline positions have been designed for computational efficiency. These methods, however, not only have several underlying restrictions (validity for small angle of wave approach, assuming bottom contours and shoreline to be parallel, depth of closure, etc.) but also their empirical estimates of sediment transport rates in the surf zone have been shown to vary greatly from the calculations of process-based hydrodynamic models. We focus on hind-casting long-term shoreline change using components of the process-based, three-dimensional coupled-ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport modeling system (COAWST). COAWST is forced with historical predictions of atmospheric and oceanographic data from public-domain global models. Through a method of coupled concurrent grid-refinement approach in COAWST, the finest grid with resolution of O(10 m) that covers the surf zone along the section of interest is forced at its spatial boundaries with waves and currents computed on the grids

  10. Semi-automated procedures for shoreline extraction using single RADARSAT-1 SAR image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Fugura, A.'kif; Billa, Lawal; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2011-12-01

    Coastline identification is important for surveying and mapping reasons. Coastline serves as the basic point of reference and is used on nautical charts for navigation purposes. Its delineation has become crucial and more important in the wake of the many recent earthquakes and tsunamis resulting in complete change and redraw of some shorelines. In a tropical country like Malaysia, presence of cloud cover hinders the application of optical remote sensing data. In this study a semi-automated technique and procedures are presented for shoreline delineation from RADARSAT-1 image. A scene of RADARSAT-1 satellite image was processed using enhanced filtering technique to identify and extract the shoreline coast of Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. RADSARSAT image has many advantages over the optical data because of its ability to penetrate cloud cover and its night sensing capabilities. At first, speckles were removed from the image by using Lee sigma filter which was used to reduce random noise and to enhance the image and discriminate the boundary between land and water. The results showed an accurate and improved extraction and delineation of the entire coastline of Kuala Terrenganu. The study demonstrated the reliability of the image averaging filter in reducing random noise over the sea surface especially near the shoreline. It enhanced land-water boundary differentiation, enabling better delineation of the shoreline. Overall, the developed techniques showed the potential of radar imagery for accurate shoreline mapping and will be useful for monitoring shoreline changes during high and low tides as well as shoreline erosion in a tropical country like Malaysia.

  11. Exemption Clauses and the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008: An Assessment of Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeukai Mupangavanhu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exemption clauses are a rule rather than an exception particularly in standard-form contracts. Consumers are usually forced to accept such terms on a "take-it-or-leave-it" basis. This state of affairs shows that freedom of contract is theoretical and could lead to injustices. In Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ the Court refused to uphold the exemption clauses based on the fact that it would have been unfair and unjust to the plaintiff who had sustained serious bodily injuries during his stay at the hotel. The article discusses this court decision in the light of the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA against the background of the previous jurisprudence regarding exemption clauses, including the position of exemption clauses in a new constitutional dispensation.

  12. Underlying Motives, Moral Agendas and Unlikely Partnerships: The Formulation of the U.S. Trafficking in Victims Protection Act Through the Data and Voices of Key Policy Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Footen Bromfield

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the overwhelming amount of attention to human trafficking, the debates surrounding its definition, and its focus on the sex industry, the purpose of this study was to understand the motivations behind the formation of the Trafficking in Victims Protection Act (TVPA. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF as a model, data was collected and analyzed in order to examine the coalition identities of key players and their positions. Through the presentation of in-depth interview data with key policy players involved in the making of the TVPA, this article illustrates how and why the TVPA was formulated, the implications of its development, and the necessity for critical analysis of its effects. The use of alternative frameworks of labor and migration for understanding trafficking is proposed. Further consideration is given to legislative changes to eliminate anti-prostitution ideology and to support anti-oppressive approaches to addressing forced or deceptive working conditions.

  13. Test methods for estimating the efficacy of the fast-acting disinfectant peracetic acid on surfaces of personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, K; Howaldt, S; Heinrich, R; Roder, A; Pauli, G; Dorner, B G; Pauly, D; Mielke, M; Schwebke, I; Grunow, R

    2017-11-01

    The work aimed at developing and evaluating practically relevant methods for testing of disinfectants on contaminated personal protective equipment (PPE). Carriers were prepared from PPE fabrics and contaminated with Bacillus subtilis spores. Peracetic acid (PAA) was applied as a suitable disinfectant. In method 1, the contaminated carrier was submerged in PAA solution; in method 2, the contaminated area was covered with PAA; and in method 3, PAA, preferentially combined with a surfactant, was dispersed as a thin layer. In each method, 0·5-1% PAA reduced the viability of spores by a factor of ≥6 log 10 within 3 min. The technique of the most realistic method 3 proved to be effective at low temperatures and also with a high organic load. Vaccinia virus and Adenovirus were inactivated with 0·05-0·1% PAA by up to ≥6 log 10 within 1 min. The cytotoxicity of ricin was considerably reduced by 2% PAA within 15 min of exposure. PAA/detergent mixture enabled to cover hydrophobic PPE surfaces with a thin and yet effective disinfectant layer. The test methods are objective tools for estimating the biocidal efficacy of disinfectants on hydrophobic flexible surfaces. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Vegetation of natural and artificial shorelines in Upper Klamath Basin’s fringe wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Andrew M.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Hamilton, Andy S.

    2013-01-01

    The Upper Klamath Basin (UKB) in northern California and southern Oregon supports large hypereutrophic lakes surrounded by natural and artificial shorelines. Lake shorelines contain fringe wetlands that provide key ecological services to the people of this region. These wetlands also provide a context for drawing inferences about how differing wetland types and wave exposure contribute to the vegetative assemblages in lake-fringe wetlands. Here, we summarize how elevation profiles and vegetation richness vary as a function of wave exposure and wetland type. Our results show that levee wetland shorelines are 4X steeper and support fewer species than other wetland types. We also summarize the occurrence probability of the five common wetland plant species that represent the overwhelming majority of the diversity of these wetlands. In brief, the occurrence probability of the culturally significant Nuphar lutea spp. polysepala and the invasive Phalaris arundinacea in wave exposed and sheltered sites varies based on wetland type. The occurrence probability for P. arundinacea was greatest in exposed portions of deltaic shorelines, but these trends were reversed on levees where the occurrence probability was greater in sheltered sites. The widespread Schoenoplectus acutus var. acutus occurred throughout all wetland and exposure type combinations but had a higher probability of occurrence in wave exposed sites. Results from this work will add to our current understanding of how wetland shoreline profiles interact with wave exposure to influence the occurrence probability of the dominant vegetative species in UKB’s shoreline wetlands.

  15. The Efficiency of Random Forest Method for Shoreline Extraction from LANDSAT-8 and GOKTURK-2 Imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, B.; Erdem, F.; Akpinar, B.; Ince, A. K.; Bozkurt, S.; Catal Reis, H.; Seker, D. Z.

    2017-11-01

    Coastal monitoring plays a vital role in environmental planning and hazard management related issues. Since shorelines are fundamental data for environment management, disaster management, coastal erosion studies, modelling of sediment transport and coastal morphodynamics, various techniques have been developed to extract shorelines. Random Forest is one of these techniques which is used in this study for shoreline extraction.. This algorithm is a machine learning method based on decision trees. Decision trees analyse classes of training data creates rules for classification. In this study, Terkos region has been chosen for the proposed method within the scope of "TUBITAK Project (Project No: 115Y718) titled "Integration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Sustainable Coastal Zone Monitoring Model - Three-Dimensional Automatic Coastline Extraction and Analysis: Istanbul-Terkos Example". Random Forest algorithm has been implemented to extract the shoreline of the Black Sea where near the lake from LANDSAT-8 and GOKTURK-2 satellite imageries taken in 2015. The MATLAB environment was used for classification. To obtain land and water-body classes, the Random Forest method has been applied to NIR bands of LANDSAT-8 (5th band) and GOKTURK-2 (4th band) imageries. Each image has been digitized manually and shorelines obtained for accuracy assessment. According to accuracy assessment results, Random Forest method is efficient for both medium and high resolution images for shoreline extraction studies.

  16. THE EFFICIENCY OF RANDOM FOREST METHOD FOR SHORELINE EXTRACTION FROM LANDSAT-8 AND GOKTURK-2 IMAGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bayram

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal monitoring plays a vital role in environmental planning and hazard management related issues. Since shorelines are fundamental data for environment management, disaster management, coastal erosion studies, modelling of sediment transport and coastal morphodynamics, various techniques have been developed to extract shorelines. Random Forest is one of these techniques which is used in this study for shoreline extraction.. This algorithm is a machine learning method based on decision trees. Decision trees analyse classes of training data creates rules for classification. In this study, Terkos region has been chosen for the proposed method within the scope of "TUBITAK Project (Project No: 115Y718 titled "Integration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Sustainable Coastal Zone Monitoring Model – Three-Dimensional Automatic Coastline Extraction and Analysis: Istanbul-Terkos Example". Random Forest algorithm has been implemented to extract the shoreline of the Black Sea where near the lake from LANDSAT-8 and GOKTURK-2 satellite imageries taken in 2015. The MATLAB environment was used for classification. To obtain land and water-body classes, the Random Forest method has been applied to NIR bands of LANDSAT-8 (5th band and GOKTURK-2 (4th band imageries. Each image has been digitized manually and shorelines obtained for accuracy assessment. According to accuracy assessment results, Random Forest method is efficient for both medium and high resolution images for shoreline extraction studies.

  17. Pleistocene Lake Bonneville and Eberswalde Crater of Mars: Quantitative Methods for Recognizing Poorly Developed Lacustrine Shorelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to quantify shoreline features on Earth has been aided by advances in acquisition of high-resolution topography through laser imaging and photogrammetry. Well-defined and well-documented features such as the Bonneville, Provo, and Stansbury shorelines of Late Pleistocene Lake Bonneville are recognizable to the untrained eye and easily mappable on aerial photos. The continuity and correlation of lesser shorelines must rely quantitative algorithms for processing high-resolution data in order to gain widespread scientific acceptance. Using Savitsky-Golay filters and the geomorphic methods and criteria described by Hare et al. [2001], minor, transgressive, erosional shorelines of Lake Bonneville have been identified and correlated across the basin with varying degrees of statistical confidence. Results solve one of the key paradoxes of Lake Bonneville first described by G. K. Gilbert in the late 19th century and point the way for understanding climatically driven oscillations of the Last Glacial Maximum in the Great Basin of the United States. Similar techniques have been applied to the Eberswalde Crater area of Mars using HRiSE DEMs (1 m horizontal resolution) where a paleolake is hypothesized to have existed. Results illustrate the challenges of identifying shorelines where long term aeolian processes have degraded the shorelines and field validation is not possible. The work illustrates the promises and challenges of indentifying remnants of a global ocean elsewhere on the red planet.

  18. Freedom of conscience and health care in the United States of america: the conflict between public health and religious liberty in the patient protection and affordable care act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Oram, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The recent confirmation of the constitutionality of the Obama administration's Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) by the US Supreme Court has brought to the fore long-standing debates over individual liberty and religious freedom. Advocates of personal liberty are often critical, particularly in the USA, of public health measures which they deem to be overly restrictive of personal choice. In addition to the alleged restrictions of individual freedom of choice when it comes to the question of whether or not to purchase health insurance, opponents to the PPACA also argue that certain requirements of the Act violate the right to freedom of conscience by mandating support for services deemed immoral by religious groups. These issues continue the long running debate surrounding the demands of religious groups for special consideration in the realm of health care provision. In this paper I examine the requirements of the PPACA, and the impacts that religious, and other ideological, exemptions can have on public health, and argue that the exemptions provided for by the PPACA do not in fact impose unreasonable restrictions on religious freedom, but rather concede too much and in so doing endanger public health and some important individual liberties.

  19. Analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration food allergen recalls after implementation of the food allergen labeling and consumer protection act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Steven M; Zhu, Jianmei

    2013-11-01

    To avoid potentially life-threatening reactions, food allergic consumers rely on information on food labels to help them avoid exposure to a food or ingredient that could trigger a reaction. To help consumers in the United States obtain the information that they need, the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 defined a major food allergen as being one of eight foods or food groups and any ingredient that contains protein from one of these foods or food groups. A food that contains an undeclared major food allergen is misbranded under the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and is subject to recall. Food allergen labeling problems are the most common cause of recalls for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated food products. To help understand why food allergen recalls continue to occur at a high rate, information on each food allergen recall that occurred in fiscal years 2007 through 2012 was obtained from the FDA recall database. This information was analyzed to identify the food, allergen, root cause, and mode of discovery for each food allergen recall. Bakery products were the most frequently recalled food type, and milk was the most frequently undeclared major food allergen. Use of the wrong package or label was the most frequent problem leading to food allergen recalls. These data are the first reported that indicate the importance of label and package controls as public health measures.

  20. The terms 'current scientific knowledge', and 'precautionary measures to provide protection' in the provisions governing the licensing procedure under the Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renneberg, W.

    1986-01-01

    Under the Atomic Energy Act, a licence may be granted for a nuclear installation provided that 'every precaution which is necessary in the light of existing scientific knowledge and technology has been taken to provide adequate protection against damage due to the erection or operation of the installation' (section 7, sub-sec. (2), no. 3 of the Atomic Energy Act). This condition can be split off into two specific problem fields, and for each a rather unspecific legal concept is to be more exactly defined. The author explains the technique of the law hitherto applied in the weighting and evaluation of hazards and risks and comes to the conclusion that the technique adopted has been subject to pre-legal appraisals: the result in terms of the law is not the final step in the process of legal evaluation, but quite to the contrary, the legal technique applied has been derived from the wanted result. This, the author says, is a crisis of legitimation of the law. (HSCH) [de

  1. In situ bioremediation strategies for oiled shoreline environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.; Mora, S. de

    1999-01-01

    Despite advances in preventative measures, recent events have demonstrated that accidental oil spills at sea will still occur. While physical (e.g. booms and skimmers) and chemical (e.g. chemical dispersants) methods have been developed to recover and/or disperse oil spilled at sea, they are not 100% effective and are frequently limited by operational constraints attributed to sea state and/or nature of the contamination. As a result, oil spills frequently impact shoreline environments. In situ bioremediation, the addition of substances or modification of habitat at contaminated sites to accelerate natural biodegradation processes, is now recognised as an alternative spill response technology of the remediation of these sites. Recommended for use following the physical removal of bulk oil, this treatment strategy has an operational advantage in that it breaks down and/or removes the residual contamination in place. Laboratory experiments and field trials have demonstrated the feasibility and success of bioremediation strategies such as nutrient enrichment to enhance bacterial degradation of oil on cobble, sand beach and salt marsh environments. With improved knowledge of the factors that limit natural oil degradation rates, the feasibility of other strategies such as phytoremediation, enhanced oil-mineral fines interaction and the addition of oxygen or alternative electron acceptors are now being evaluated. Laboratory and field test protocols are being refined for the selection of effective bioremediation agents and methods of application. It is recommended that future operational guidelines include real time product efficacy test and environmental effects monitoring programs. Termination of treatment should be implemented when: 1) it is no longer effective; 2) the oil has degraded to acceptable biologically benign concentrations; or 3) toxicity due to the treatment is increasing. (Author)

  2. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Kadobera, Daniel; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Gravely, Shannon; Robertson, Lindsay; Guwatudde, David

    2017-01-01

    The Word Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to assess practices related to protection of the public from tobacco smoke exposure, limiting access to tobacco products and TAPS in restaurants and bars in Kampala City to inform implementation of the new law. This was a cross-sectional study that used an observational checklist to guide observations. Assessments were: whether an establishment allows for tobacco products to be smoked on premises, offer of tobacco products for sale, observation of tobacco products for sale, tobacco advertising posters, illuminated tobacco advertisements, tobacco promotional items, presence of designated smoking zones, no-smoking signs and posters, and observation of indoor smoking. Managers of establishments were also asked whether they conducted tobacco product sales promotions within establishments. Data were collected in May 2016, immediately prior to implementation of the smoke-free and TAPS laws. Of the 218 establishments in the study, 17% ( n  = 37) had no-smoking signs, 50% ( n  = 108) allowed for tobacco products to be smoked on premises of which, 63% ( n  = 68) had designated smoking zones. Among the respondents in the study, 33.3% ( n  = 72) reported having tobacco products available for sale of which 73.6% ( n  = 53) had manufactured cigarettes as the available tobacco products. Eleven percent ( n  = 24) of respondents said they conducted tobacco promotion within their establishment while 7.9% ( n  = 17) had promotional items given to them by tobacco companies. Hospitality

  3. Baby doe redux? The Department of Health and Human Services and the Born-Alive Infants Protection Act of 2002: a cautionary note on normative neonatal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeed, Sadath A

    2005-10-01

    The Born-Alive Infants Protection Act (BAIPA), passed by Congress in 2002, has attracted little publicity. Its purposes were, in part, "to repudiate the flawed notion that a child's entitlement to the protections of the law is dependent on whether that child's mother or others want him or her." Understood as antiabortion rhetoric, the bill raised little concern among physicians at the time of legislative hearings and passed in both Houses by overwhelming majorities, hardly suggesting contentious legislation. After its signing into law, the Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) Steering Committee issued an opinion stating that "[BAIPA] should not in any way affect the approach that physicians currently follow with respect to the extremely premature infant." This interpretation of the law, however, may have been short sighted. In April 2005, the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) brought life to the BAIPA, announcing: "As a matter of law and policy, [DHHS] will investigate all circumstances where individuals and entities are reported to be withholding medical care from an infant born alive in potential violation of federal statutes." The agency issued instructions to state officials on how the definitional provision within the BAIPA interacts with the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA). These interagency memoranda potentially resurrect dormant governmental oversight of newborn-treatment decisions and thus may have influence over normative neonatal practice. Under the BAIPA, the DHHS interprets EMTALA to protect all "born-alive" infants; hospitals and physicians violating regulatory requirements face agency-sanctioned monetary penalties or a "private right of action by any individual harmed as a direct result." According to its memorandum, the DHHS will investigate allegations of EMTALA violations whenever it finds evidence that a newborn was not provided with at least a medical

  4. A METHOD OF EXTRACTING SHORELINE BASED ON SEMANTIC INFORMATION USING DUAL-LENGTH LiDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Shoreline is a spatial varying separation between water and land. By utilizing dual-wavelength LiDAR point data together with semantic information that shoreline often appears beyond water surface profile and is observable on the beach, the paper generates the shoreline and the details are as follows: (1 Gain the water surface profile: first we obtain water surface by roughly selecting water points based on several features of water body, then apply least square fitting method to get the whole water trend surface. Then we get the ground surface connecting the under -water surface by both TIN progressive filtering method and surface interpolation method. After that, we have two fitting surfaces intersected to get water surface profile of the island. (2 Gain the sandy beach: we grid all points and select the water surface profile grids points as seeds, then extract sandy beach points based on eight-neighborhood method and features, then we get all sandy beaches. (3 Get the island shoreline: first we get the sandy beach shoreline based on intensity information, then we get a threshold value to distinguish wet area and dry area, therefore we get the shoreline of several sandy beaches. In some extent, the shoreline has the same height values within a small area, by using all the sandy shoreline points to fit a plane P, and the intersection line of the ground surface and the shoreline plane P can be regarded as the island shoreline. By comparing with the surveying shoreline, the results show that the proposed method can successfully extract shoreline.

  5. The success of the citizen suit: protecting consumers from inaccurate food labeling by amending the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, James

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act ("FDCA"), amended in 1990 by the Nutrition Education and Labeling Act ("NLEA"), established a national framework for the administration and promulgation of uniform food labeling standards. Specifically, the NLEA created affirmative obligations for the food--requiring detailed disclosure of food content and strict adherence to regulations governing the use of health and nutritional claims on food packaging. To accomplish these goals, Congress tasked the Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") with the sole responsibility of the enforcement of these new requirements. Under the statutory framework of the FDCA, the United States Supreme Court ("Court") has held that there is no private right of action, of which extended to the enforcement of NLEA standards. This interpretation has left individuals with no federal outlet for relief in the enforcement of federal food labeling standards. Adherence to this interpretation is especially concerning when the FDA currently faces exponential growth in administrative responsibilities while simultaneously experiencing employment reduction, a $206 million "Sequester," and a recent government-wide shutdown. As a result, the American people are left to depend on an Agency that is struggling with drastic resource reduction while being accountable for ever increasing enforcement responsibilities. To ensure consumer protection, this Article argues that Congress should amend the FDCA to include a citizen suit provision in order to provide individuals with a right of private action for the enforcement of NLEA standards. Borrowing from the successes realized under similar citizen suit provisions found in environmental legislation, this Article argues that a citizen suit provision is amendable to the FDCA and would relieve fiscal pressures, strengthen the current enforcement framework of the FDCA, encourage more robust enforcement by the FDA and states, and ensure uniform interpretation of NLEA

  6. Numerical simulation of hydrodynamic and water quality effects of shoreline changes in Bohai Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Han; Shen, Yongming; Su, Meirong; Yu, Chunxue

    2018-02-01

    This study uses the HD and Ecolab modules of MIKE to simulate the hydrodynamic and water quality and predict the influence of shoreline changes in Bohai Bay, China. The study shows that shoreline changes weaken the residual current and generate a counter-clockwise circulation south of Huanghua Port, thereby resulting in weak water exchange capacity and low pollutant-diffusing capacity. Shoreline changes reduce the area of Bohai Bay, resulting in a smaller tidal prism and further weakening the water exchange capacity. This situation is not conducive to the diffusion of pollutants, and therefore may lead to increased water pollution in the bay. Shoreline changes hinder the spread of runoff, weaken the dilution effect of the river on seawater, and block the spread of coastal residual current, thereby resulting in increased salinity near the reclamation area. Shoreline changes lead to an increase in PO4-P concentration and decrease in DIN concentration. The value of N/P near the project decreases, thereby weakening the phosphorus-limited effect.

  7. Interferon-β induced in female genital epithelium by HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 via Toll-like-receptor 2 pathway acts to protect the mucosal barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazli, Aisha; Dizzell, Sara; Zahoor, Muhammad Atif; Ferreira, Victor H; Kafka, Jessica; Woods, Matthew William; Ouellet, Michel; Ashkar, Ali A; Tremblay, Michel J; Bowdish, Dawn Me; Kaushic, Charu

    2018-03-19

    More than 40% of HIV infections occur via female reproductive tract (FRT) through heterosexual transmission. Epithelial cells that line the female genital mucosa are the first line of defense against HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted pathogens. These sentient cells recognize and respond to external stimuli by induction of a range of carefully balanced innate immune responses. Previously, we have shown that in response to HIV-1 gp120, the genital epithelial cells (GECs) from upper reproductive tract induce an inflammatory response that may facilitate HIV-1 translocation and infection. In this study, we report that the endometrial and endocervical GECs simultaneously induce biologically active interferon-β (IFNβ) antiviral responses following exposure to HIV-1 that act to protect the epithelial tight junction barrier. The innate antiviral response was directly induced by HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 and addition of gp120 neutralizing antibody inhibited IFNβ production. Interferon-β was induced by gp120 in upper GECs through Toll-like receptor 2 signaling and required presence of heparan sulfate on epithelial cell surface. The induction of IFNβ was dependent upon activation of transcription factor IRF3 (interferon regulatory factor 3). The IFNβ was biologically active, had a protective effect on epithelial tight junction barrier and was able to inhibit HIV-1 infection in TZM-bl indicator cells and HIV-1 replication in T cells. This is the first report that recognition of HIV-1 by upper GECs leads to induction of innate antiviral pathways. This could explain the overall low infectivity of HIV-1 in the FRT and could be exploited for HIV-1 prophylaxis.Cellular and Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 19 March 2018; doi:10.1038/cmi.2017.168.

  8. Act of 29 March 1958 on Protection of the population against the hazards of ionizing radiation (MB 30 April 1958) amended by the Act of 29 May 1963 (MB 26 June 1963), 3 December 1969 (MB 6 January 1970) and 14 July 1983 (MB 6 August 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Outline Act as amended empowers the King to lay down by Order the conditions governing all activities involving the use of devices or substances emitting ionizing radiations, including their disposal, for the purpose of protecting the population against the hazards of ionizing radiations. He may designate the authorities responsible for ensuring the application of Orders made uner the Act; these Orders are deliberated in the Council of Ministers. (NEA) [fr

  9. βENaC acts as a mechanosensor in renal vascular smooth muscle cells that contributes to renal myogenic blood flow regulation, protection from renal injury and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Heather A; Stec, David E

    2015-06-01

    Pressure-induced constriction (also known as the "myogenic response") is an important mechanodependent response in small renal arteries and arterioles. The response is initiated by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) stretch due to an increase in intraluminal pressure and leads to vasoconstriction. The myogenic response has two important roles as a mechanism of local blood flow autoregulation and protection against systemic blood pressure-induced microvascular damage. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying initiation of myogenic response are unresolved. Although several molecules have been considered initiators of the response, our laboratory has focused on the role of degenerin proteins because of their strong evolutionary link to mechanosensing in the nematode. Our laboratory has addressed the hypothesis that certain degenerin proteins act as mechanosensors in VSMCs. This article discusses the importance of a specific degenerin protein, β Epithelial Na + Channel (βENaC), in pressure-induced vasoconstriction, renal blood flow and susceptibility to renal injury. We propose that loss of the renal myogenic constrictor response delays the correction of renal blood flow that occurs with fluctuations in systemic pressure, which allows pressure swings to be transmitted to the microvasculature, thus increasing the susceptibility to renal injury and hypertension. The role of βENaC in myogenic regulation is independent of tubular βENaC and thus represents a non-tubular role for βENaC in renal-cardiovascular homeostasis.

  10. Keeping up with the Cadillacs: What Health Insurance Disparities, Moral Hazard, and the Cadillac Tax Mean to The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Rebecca Adkins

    2016-03-01

    A major goal of The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is to broaden health care access through the extension of insurance coverage. However, little attention has been given to growing disparities in access to health care among the insured, as trends to reduce benefits and increase cost sharing (deductibles, co-pays) reduce affordability and access. Through a political economic perspective that critiques moral hazard, this article draws from ethnographic research with the United Steelworkers (USW) at a steel mill and the Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union (RWDSU) at a food-processing plant in urban Central Appalachia. In so doing, this article describes difficulties of health care affordability on the eve of reform for differentially insured working families with employer-sponsored health insurance. Additionally, this article argues that the proposed Cadillac tax on high-cost health plans will increase problems with appropriate health care access and medical financial burden for many families. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  11. Comparison of two shoreline assessment programs conducted for the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harner, E.J.; Gilfillan, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Two large shoreline assessment studies conducted in 1990 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill used different design strategies to determine the impact of oiling on shoreline biota. One of the studies, the Coastal Habitat Injury Assessment (CHIA) conducted for the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Council, used matched pairs of sites, normal population distributions for biota, and meta-analysis. The power of the CHIA study to detect oiling impacts depends on being able to identify and select appropriate pairs of sites for comparison. The CHIA study also increased the oiling signal by focusing on moderate to heavily oiled sites. The Shoreline Ecology Program (SEP), conducted for Exxon, used a stratified-random-sampling study design, normal and non-normal population distributions and covariates. The SEP study was able to detect oiling impacts by using a sufficient number of sites and widely spaced transects

  12. Environmental Assessment for Beach Shoreline Protection at Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    by embryonic snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina ). Journal of Experimental Biology 108:195-204. 47 Packard, G.C., M.J. Packard, and W.H.N. Gutzke...composition of hatchling snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina ). Journal of Comparative Physiology B 158:117-125. Parmenter, C.J. 1980. Incubation

  13. Low - Cost Shore Protection. Final Report on the Shoreline Erosion Control Demonstration Program (Section 54) 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va.) Dr. Robert A. Sweeney: Director, Great Lakes Laboratory, Professor of Biology , New York State University College...4.0 0-1 1 --3-- = Kotaebue, Alaeka 0-1 6.5 0-1 - 3 - tnil•hik, Alaska 0-1 6.5 0-1 6 9 235,314 a 307,146 1 71,831(k) HANAII Koalas . Hawaii 0-1 1.7...by interaction between waves and water currents across which the waves are moving. CORAL - (1) ( Biology ) Marine coelenterates (Madreporaria), solitary

  14. Shoreline Changes at New Mangalore Port, India in the past and over future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathan Radhamma, R.; Deo, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    The New Mangalore port is one of the major ports along the west coast of India. It is of artificial type with a pair of breakwaters constructed in phases from the year 1974 to 1996. The studies indicating the impact of constructing the breakwaters on adjacent shorelines after 1996 are difficult to find. The present work is aimed in this direction. For a 10 km stretch of the coast lying on both sides of the breakwaters 35 transects were constructed and shorelines were delineated from 4 satellite imageries that were recorded over the past 36 years at around 12 years' interval. Over each transect the rate of change of shoreline was calculated using linear regression and its adequacy was checked using the error statistics of R2 and RMSE. After such satisfactory cross-check, shorelines were predicted over the 12 and 36 years in future, i. e., in the years: 2028 and 2051. The patches undergoing erosion as well as accretion were identified. It was found that the rate of shoreline shifts fluctuated from -1.69 ± 0.45 m/year to 2.56 ± 0.45 m/year and about 52.28 % of the study area underwent substantial erosion. Most of the transects located toward north of the northern breakwater saw pro-gradation while those sited at south of the southern breakwater exhibited chronic erosion. The human interventions and presence of artificial structures accelerated the changes in the shoreline and also gave rise to higher uncertainties. The paper will present full details of the methodology, results and their interpretation.

  15. Automatic Detection of Decadal Shoreline Change on Northern Coastal of Gresik, East Java - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuad, M. A. Z.; A, M. Fais D.

    2017-12-01

    The Coastal zone is a dynamic region that has high environmental and economic values. This present research focuses on the analyzing the rate of shoreline change using multi-temporal Landsat Imagery and Digital Shoreline Analysis Systems (DSAS) along the northern part of Gresik coastal area, East Java Indonesia. Five village were selected for analysis; Campurejo, Dalegan, Prupuh, Ngemboh, and Banyuurip. Erosion and Accretion were observed and detected on Multi-temporal satellite Images along the area of interest from 1972 - 2016. Landsat Images were radiometrically and geometrically corrected before using for analysis. Coastline delineation for each Landsat image was performed by MNDWI method before digitized for quantitative shoreline change analysis. DSAS was performed for quantitative analysis of Net Shoreline Movement (NSM) and End Point Rate (EPR). The results indicate that in the study area accretion and abrasion was occurred, but overall abrasion was dominated than accretion. The remarkable shoreline changes were observed in the entire region. The highest abrasion area was occurred in Ngemboh village. From 1972 to 2016, coastline was retreat 242.56 meter to the land and the rate of movement was -5.54m/yr. In contrast, Campurejo area was relatively stable due to the introduction of manmade structure, i.e. Jetty and Groin. The Shoreline movement and the rate of movement in this area were -6.11m and -0.12 m/yr respectively. The research represents an important step in understanding the dynamics of coastal area in this area. By identification and analysis of coastline evolution, the stake holder could perform a scenario for reducing the risk of coastal erosion and minimize the social and economic lost.

  16. Further ecological and shoreline stability reconnaissance surveys of Back Island, Behm Canal, Southeast Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.S.; Strand, J.A.; Ecker, R.M.

    1987-09-01

    A diver reconnaissance of the intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island was performed to catalog potentially vulnerable shellfish, other invertebrates, and marine plant resources occurring at three proposed alternate pier sites on the west side of Back Island. Additionally, a limited survey of terrestrial vegetation was conducted in the vicinity of one of the proposed alternate pier sites to describe the littoral community and to list the dominant plant species found there. Finally, a reconnaissance survey of the shoreline of Back Island was conducted to evaluate potential changes in shoreline stability resulting from construction of onshore portions of the Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC).

  17. Simulation of shoreline development in a groyne system, with a case study Sanur Bali beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, P. H.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2018-03-01

    The process of shoreline changes due to transport of sediment by littoral drift is studied in this paper. Pelnard-Considère is the commonly adopted model. This model is based on the principle of sediment conservation, without diffraction. In this research, we adopt the Pelnard-Considère equation with diffraction, and a numerical scheme based on the finite volume method is implemented. Shoreline development in a groyne system is then simulated. For a case study, the Sanur Bali Beach, Indonesia is considered, in which from Google Earth photos, the beach experiences changes of coastline caused by sediment trapped in a groyne system.

  18. 76 FR 67755 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security U.S. Customs and Border Protection DHS/CBP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary [Docket No. DHS-2011-0102] Privacy Act of... Data System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974 the Department of Homeland Security proposes to...

  19. Atomic Act amended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper by the chairwoman of the Czech nuclear regulatory authority, the history of Czech nuclear legislation is outlined, the reasons for the amendment of the Atomic Act (Act No. 18/1997) are explained, and the amendments themselves are highlighted. The Act No. 13/2002 of 18 December 2001 is reproduced from the official Collection of Acts of the Czech Republic in the facsimile form. The following acts were thereby amended: Atomic Act No. 18/1997, Metrology Act No. 505/1990, Public Health Protection Act No. 258/2000, and Act No. 2/1969 on the Establishment of Ministries and Other Governmental Agencies of the Czech Republic. (P.A.)

  20. Act No. 85.661 of 3 July 1985 amending and supplementing Act No. 76-663 of 19 July 1976 on installations classified for purposes of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The amendments made by this Act introduce new provisions in the 1976 Act to increase the penalties prescribed in cases where classified installations are operated in illegal conditions. In particular, increased fines and terms of imprisonment are laid down for operating an installation without a licence. (NEA) [fr

  1. The tumor suppressor gene Trp53 protects the mouse lens against posterior subcapsular cataracts and the BMP receptor Acvr1 acts as a tumor suppressor in the lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke A. Wiley

    2011-07-01

    We previously found that lenses lacking the Acvr1 gene, which encodes a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP receptor, had abnormal proliferation and cell death in epithelial and cortical fiber cells. We tested whether the tumor suppressor protein p53 (encoded by Trp53 affected this phenotype. Acvr1 conditional knockout (Acvr1CKO mouse fiber cells had increased numbers of nuclei that stained for p53 phosphorylated on serine 15, an indicator of p53 stabilization and activation. Deletion of Trp53 rescued the Acvr1CKO cell death phenotype in embryos and reduced Acvr1-dependent apoptosis in postnatal lenses. However, deletion of Trp53 alone increased the number of fiber cells that failed to withdraw from the cell cycle. Trp53CKO and Acvr1;Trp53DCKO (double conditional knockout, but not Acvr1CKO, lenses developed abnormal collections of cells at the posterior of the lens that resembled posterior subcapsular cataracts. Cells from human posterior subcapsular cataracts had morphological and molecular characteristics similar to the cells at the posterior of mouse lenses lacking Trp53. In Trp53CKO lenses, cells in the posterior plaques did not proliferate but, in Acvr1;Trp53DCKO lenses, many cells in the posterior plaques continued to proliferate, eventually forming vascularized tumor-like masses at the posterior of the lens. We conclude that p53 protects the lens against posterior subcapsular cataract formation by suppressing the proliferation of fiber cells and promoting the death of any fiber cells that enter the cell cycle. Acvr1 acts as a tumor suppressor in the lens. Enhancing p53 function in the lens could contribute to the prevention of steroid- and radiation-induced posterior subcapsular cataracts.

  2. Using GPS-surveyed intertidal zones to determine the validity of shorelines automatically mapped by Landsat water indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Joshua T.; Gontz, Allen M.

    2018-03-01

    Satellite remote sensing has been used extensively in a variety of shoreline studies and validated using aerial photography. This ground truth method only represents an instantaneous depiction of the shoreline at the time of acquisition and does not take into account the spatial and temporal variability of the dynamic shoreline boundary. Landsat 8‧s Operational Land Imager sensor's capability to accurately delineate a shoreline is assessed by comparing all known Landsat water index-derived shorelines with two GPS-surveyed intertidal zones that coincide with the satellite flyover date, one of which had near-neap tide conditions. Seven indices developed for automatically classifying water pixels were evaluated for their ability to delineate shorelines. The shoreline is described here as the area above and below maximum low and high tide, otherwise known as the intertidal zone. The high-water line, or wet/dry sediment line, was chosen as the shoreline indicator to be mapped using a handheld GPS. The proportion of the Landsat-derived shorelines that fell within this zone and their alongshore profile lengths were calculated. The most frequently used water index and the predecessor to Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), was found to be the least accurate by a significant margin. Other indices required calibration of their threshold value to achieve accurate results, thus diminishing their replicability success for other regions. MNDWI was determined to be the best index for automated shoreline mapping, based on its superior accuracy and repeatable, stable threshold value.

  3. Using Shoreline Video Assessment for coastal planning and restoration in the context of climate change in Kien Giang, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Russell, Michael; Brown, Sharon; Dart, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Kien Giang, bordering Cambodia in the Mekong River Delta, is one of the two most vulnerable provinces in the region to coastal erosion and flooding. Coastal protection can conflict with current land use and economic development activities. The conditions of the mangrove forest and mainland coastline of the Kien Giang province were assessed using the Shoreline Video Assessment Method (SVAM) backed up with information from satellite images. Half of the 206 km Kien Giang coastline has been eroded or is being eroded. Protective mangrove forests naturally occurred in 74% of the coastline but have been under threat from illegal cutting, erosion and coastal retreat. Accurate information on the state of the coastline and mangrove forest health provided invaluable data for developing a new coastal rehabilitation plan to guard against future sea level rise. In contrast to the current boundary management of land and natural resources, this plan divided the provincial coastline into 19 sections based on the landscape condition and exposure to erosion. Priority strategic actions for erosion management, mangrove restoration and sustainable livelihood development for local communities for each section of coast were developed based on an integrated cross sectoral approach and practical experience in the Conservation and Development of the Kien Giang Biosphere Reserve Project.

  4. 18 CFR 1304.208 - Shoreline stabilization on TVA-owned residential access shoreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of gabions and riprap to stabilize eroded shorelines. (1) The riprap material must be quarry-run stone, natural stone, or other material approved by TVA. (2) Rubber tires, concrete rubble, or other... concrete, gabions, or other materials acceptable to TVA. Railroad ties, rubber tires, broken concrete...

  5. Decadal shoreline assessment using remote sensing along the central Odisha coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; Dhiman, R.; Choudhary, R.; Jayakumar, S.; Ilangovan, D.; Vethamony, P.

    sensing data (Landsat and IRS P6) were used in the study. Digital shoreline analysis system discovered the eroded and accreted parts of the study area. Gahirmatha and coast above Devi River experienced heavy erosion during 2000–2012 compared with 1990...

  6. Preliminary study of soil liquefaction hazard at Terengganu shoreline, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, H.; Suhatril, M.; Hashim, R.

    2017-06-01

    Terengganu is a shoreline state located in Peninsular Malaysia which is a growing hub for port industries and tourism centre. The northern part offers pristine settings of a relax beach areas whereas the southern part are observed to be a growing centre for development. The serious erosion on soil deposit along the beach line presents vulnerable soil condition to soil liquefaction consists of sandy with low plasticity and shallow ground water. Moreover, local earthquake from nearby fault have present significant tremors over the past few years which need to be considered in the land usage or future development in catering the seismic loading. Liquefaction analysis based on field standard penetration of soil is applied on 546 boreholes scattered along the shoreline areas ranging 244 km of shoreline stretch. Based on simplified approach, it is found that more than 70% of the studied areas pose high liquefaction potential since there are saturated loose sand and silt deposits layer ranges at depth 3 m and up to 20 m. The presence of clay deposits and hard stratum at the remaining 30% of the studied areas shows good resistance to soil liquefaction hence making the area less significant to liquefaction hazard. Result indicates that liquefaction improving technique is advisable in future development of shoreline areas of Terengganu state.

  7. A chronology for glacial Lake Agassiz shorelines along Upham's namesake transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper, Kenneth; Buell, Alex W.; Fisher, Timothy G.; Lowell, Thomas V.

    2013-07-01

    Four traditionally recognized strandline complexes in the southern basin of glacial Lake Agassiz are the Herman, Norcross, Tintah and Campbell, whose names correspond to towns in west-central Minnesota that lie on a linear transect defined by the Great Northern railroad grade; the active corridor for commerce at the time when Warren Upham was mapping and naming the shorelines of Lake Agassiz (ca.1880-1895). Because shorelines represent static water planes, their extension around the lake margin establishes time-synchronous lake levels. Transitions between shoreline positions represent significant water-level fluctuations. However, geologic ages have never been obtained from sites near the namesake towns in the vicinity of the southern outlet. Here we report the first geologic ages for Lake Agassiz shorelines obtained at field sites along the namesake transect, and evaluate the emerging chronology in light of other paleoclimate records. Our current work from 11 sampling sites has yielded 16 independent ages. These results combined with a growing OSL age data set for Lake Agassiz's southern basin provide robust age constraints for the Herman, Norcross and Campbell strandlines with averages and standard deviations of 14.1 ± 0.3 ka, 13.6 ± 0.2 ka, and 10.5 ± 0.3 ka, respectively.

  8. Microbial diversity in oiled and un-oiled shoreline sediments in the Norwegian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, M.J.; Prince, R.C.; Garrett, R.M.; Garrett, K.K.; Bare, R.E.; O'Neil, K.R.; Sowlay, M.R.; Hinton, S.M.; Lee, K.; Sergy, G.A.; Guenette, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Field trials were conducted at an oiled shoreline on the island of Spitsbergen to examine the effect of nutrient addition on the metabolic status, potential for aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, and the phylogenetic diversity of the microbial community in oiled Arctic shoreline sediments. IF-30 intermediate fuel grade oil was applied to the shoreline which was then divided into four plots. One was left untreated and two were tilled. Four applications of fertilizer were applied over a two-month period. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), gene probe and 16S microbial community analysis suggested that bioremediation stimulated the metabolic activity, increased microbial biomass and genetic potential for aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, and increased the population of hydrocarbon degradation of an oiled Arctic shoreline microbial community. The results of this study are in agreement with the results from stimulation of oil biodegradation in temperate marine environments. It was concluded that biodegradation and fertilizer addition are feasible treatment methods for oil spills in Arctic regions. 31 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  9. SCAT 2000 : a new generation of forms for the description and documentation of oiled shorelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Sergy, G.A.; Martin, R.D.; Tarpley, J.A.; Michel, J.; Yender, R.

    2000-01-01

    Over ten years ago, the Exxon Valdez and the Nestucca both generated major oil spills which highlighted the need to develop appropriate response procedures and documentation protocols. The Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team approach was born. In recent years, the forms were used to describe the conditions resulting from oil spills and shoreline oiling conditions and recommendations were made for improvements and modifications. The call was heard and the staff at Environment Canada worked closely with the staff at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to review the forms and provide a suitable upgrade for the third generation set of forms. The authors described the improvements which included: (1) a revised standard shoreline oiling form, (2) a revised short form, (3) a tar ball form, and (4) a revised marsh/wetlands oiling form. Environment Canada also introduced (5) a tidal flat form, and (6) a revised sketch map base. It also made provisions for the use of those forms for large freshwater lakes, arctic coasts, mangroves, coral reefs, rivers, and stream environments and for winter ice or snow conditions with a few minor adjustments suggested. Only a few minor differences remained, specifically in the standard shoreline types, between the systems used by NOAA and Environment Canada since both agencies cooperated for their development. 24 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Palaeoenvironment and shoreline displacement on Suursaari Island, the Gulf of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atko Heinsalu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The island of Suursaari in the middle of the Gulf of Finland is exceptionally high (175 m a.s.l.. Sediment profiles from one mire and three lakes were investigated using diatom and pollen analysis, radiocarbon dating and levelling of the elevations of ancient shorelines. The pollen stratigraphy of the Lounatkorkiasuo Mire sediment suggests a sedimentary record dating from the late Allerød.The development of late-glacial vegetation went through the same phases as in southern Finland, however these are probably somewhat earlier on the island of Suursaari. There are differences in the Holocene vegetation history of the higher and lower areas of the island. Lake Ruokalahenjärvi was isolated around 10 000 BP during the initial phase of the Yoldia Sea and the diatom assemblage indicates that at that time brackish-water flow had not penetrated into the Gulfof Finland. Diatoms from the isolation sediments of Lake Liivalahenjärvi and Lake Veteljärvi indicate a freshwater environment for the Yoldia Sea final phase at 9500–9600 BP. Levelling of coastal formations on Suursaari Island reveals that the Late Weichselian and early Holocene ancient shorelines are 5–15 m higher than expected from the isobase data for similar land uplift areas on the mainland.The anomalous shoreline levels on Suursaari Island may be explained byirregular land uplift. By the time of the Litorina Sea differences in shoreline altitudes had disappeared.

  11. Hurricane impact and recovery shoreline change analysis of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, USA: 1855 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Sarah Mary; Miner, Michael D.; Kulp, Mark; Bohling, Carl; Penland, Shea

    2009-12-01

    Results from historical (1855-2005) shoreline change analysis conducted along the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana demonstrate that tropical cyclone frequency dominates the long-term evolution of this barrier island chain. Island area decreased at a rate of -0.16 km2/year for the relatively quiescent time period up until 1996, when an increase in tropical cyclone frequency accelerated this island area reduction to a rate of -1.01 km2/year. More frequent hurricanes also affected shoreline retreat rates, which increased from -11.4 m/year between 1922 and 1996 to -41.9 m/year between 1982 and 2005. The erosional impact caused by the passage of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 was unprecedented. Between 2004 and 2005, the shoreline of the northern islands retreated -201.5 m/year, compared with an average retreat rate of -38.4 m/year between 1922 and 2004. A linear regression analysis of shoreline change predicts that, as early as 2013, the backbarrier marsh that serves to stabilize the barrier island chain will be completely destroyed if storm frequency observed during the past decade persists. If storm frequency decreases to pre-1996 recurrence intervals, the backbarrier marsh is predicted to remain until 2037. Southern portions of the barrier island chain where backbarrier marsh is now absent behave as ephemeral islands that are destroyed after storm impacts and reemerge during extended periods of calm weather, a coastal behavior that will eventually characterize the entire island chain.

  12. Shoreline resilience to individual storms and storm clusters on a meso-macrotidal barred beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angnuureng, Donatus Bapentire; Almar, Rafael; Senechal, Nadia; Castelle, Bruno; Addo, Kwasi Appeaning; Marieu, Vincent; Ranasinghe, Roshanka

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of individual storms and storm clusters on shoreline recovery for the meso-to macrotidal, barred Biscarrosse beach in SW France, using 6 years of daily video observations. While the study area experienced 60 storms during the 6-year study period, only 36 storms

  13. Recent shoreline changes in the Volta River delta, West Africa: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spit growth has been accompanied by a wave of erosion over the last century of the immediate downdrift sector of the bight coast, endangering the town of Keta. Erosion since the 1960s may have been aggravated by the construction of the Akosombo hydropower dam. The tip of the spit has recently welded to the shoreline, ...

  14. Growth and decline of shoreline industry in Sydney estuary (Australia) and influence on adjacent estuarine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, G F; Lean, J; Gunns, T

    2015-06-01

    Sydney estuary (Australia), like many urbanised waterways, is degraded due to an extended history of anthropogenic activity. Two major sources of contamination to this estuary are discharge by former shoreline industries and historic and contemporary catchment stormwater. The objectives of the present study were to document changes in shoreline land use from European settlement to the present day and determine the influence of this trend on the metal content of adjacent estuarine sediments. Temporal analysis of land use for seven time horizons between 1788 and 2010 showed rapid expansion of industry along much of the Sydney estuary foreshore soon after European settlement due to the benefits of easy and inexpensive access and readily available water for cooling and power. Shoreline industry attained maximum development in 1978 (32-km length) and declined rapidly to the present-day (9-km length) through redevelopment of industrial sites into medium- to high-density, high-value residential housing. Cores taken adjacent to 11 long-term industrial sites showed that past industrial practices contributed significantly to contamination of estuarine sediment. Subsurface metal concentrations were up to 35 times that of present-day surface sediment and over 100 times greater than natural background concentrations. Sedimentation rates for areas adjacent to shoreline industry were between 0.6 and 2.5 cm/year, and relaxation times were estimated at 50 to 100 years. Natural relaxation and non-disturbance of sediments may be the best management practice in most locations.

  15. Guidance For The Bioremediation Of Oil-Contaminated Wetlands, Marshes, And Marine Shorelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine shorelines are important public and ecological resources that serve as a home to a variety of wildlife and provide public recreation. Marine oil spills, particularly large scale spill accidents, have posed great threats and cause extensive damage to the marine coastal env...

  16. UAV survey of a Thyrrenian micro-tidal beach for shoreline evolution update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassai, Guido; Pugliano, Giovanni; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Mucerino, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Coastal geomorphology requires increasingly accurate topographic information of the beach systems to perform reliable simulation of coastal erosion, flooding phenomena, and coastal vulnerability assessment. Among the range of terrestrial and aerial methods available to produce such a dataset, this study tests the utility of low-altitude aerial imageries collected by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The image-based approach was selected whilst searching for a rapid, inexpensive, and highly automated method, able to produce 3D information from unstructured aerial images. In particular, it was used to generate a high-resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM) of the micro-tidal beach of Serapo - Gaeta (LT) in order to obtain recent update of erosional/accretional trends already established through historical shoreline evolution. A UAV exacopter (fig. 1a) was used, weighing about 2500g, carrying on board a GPS and multi-directional accelerometer to ensure a recovery of the beach features (fig. 1b) through a sweep with constant speed, direction and altitude. The on-board camera was a Canon 16M pixels, with fixed and constant focal takeoff in order to perform the 3D cloud points. Six adjacent strips were performed for the survey realization with pictures taken every second in sequence, in order to allow a minimum 80% overlap. A direct on site survey was also carried out with a DGPS for the placement of GPS markers and the geo-referencing of the final product (fig. 1c). Each flight with constant speed, direction and altitude recorded from 500 to 800 shots. The height of flight was dictated by the scale of the final report, an altitude of 100m was used for the beach survey. The topographic survey on the ground for the placement of the control points was performed with the Trimble R6 DGPS in RTK mode. The long-term shoreline evolution was obtained by a sixty-year historical shoreline time-series, through the analysis of a number of aerial photographs dating from 1954 to 2013. The

  17. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Reservoir Shoreline Revegetation Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    24. Taller trees such as green ash, cottonwood (Populus spp.), red maple (Acer rubrum), and persimmon (Diospyros virginiana ) should be planted in...be left aboveground to prevent moisture loss due to wicking. Any excess should be pruned off. Gray and Leiser (1982) provide the following... pruning , staking woody stems, and installing fencing around individual plants or the entire site to provide protection from animals or humans. Additional

  18. Living Shorelines: Assessing Geomorphic Change and Water Quality in an Urban Waterway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, A.; Schwartz, M. C.; Schmutz, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, alternative strategies for shoreline armoring have become increasingly popular with coastal property owners. In Northwest Florida, local agencies implemented plans to attenuate wave action and reduce landward shore recession in an urban bayou by installing living shorelines. Living shorelines are constructed in the inter-tidal zones and incorporate both hard and soft structured stabilization. Generally, the hard component is fossilized oyster shells and the soft component is planted intertidal vegetation, such as Spartina alterniflora (Smooth cordgrass) and Juncus roemererianus (Black needlerush). Living shorelines were intended to comprise both ecological and societal implications by significantly slowing erosion processes for property owners, by utilizing oyster beds to improve water quality, and by fostering new ecological habitats in the marsh grasses. The issue presented with living shoreline management is long-term studies have not been carried out on these engineered systems. For this study, geospatial technology was utilized to create 3D images of terrain by interpolation of data points using a TotalStation to compute geomorphic change. Additionally, water samples were analyzed using traditional wet chemistry laboratory methods to determine total oxidized nitrogen (TON), ammonium, and orthophosphate content in water. Over a short three-month preliminary study, sediment accretion was observed primarily within the vegetation with the bulk of the erosion occurring around the oyster beds. TON was detected at levels between 10 µM and 30 µM, ammonium up to 5 µM, and orthophosphate was only detected in very low levels, consistently quality data will be used to establish baseline data for future research to determine volumetric geomorphic change,and to set a standard for water quality trends, surrounding oyster beds and vegetation in response to climatic events.

  19. Changes in the shoreline at Paradip Port, India in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopikrishna, B.; Deo, M. C.

    2018-02-01

    One of the popular methods to predict shoreline shifts into the future involves use of a shoreline evolution model driven by the historical wave climate. It is however understood by now that historical wave conditions might substantially change in future in response to climate change induced by the global warming. The future shoreline changes as well as sediment transport therefore need to be determined with the help of future projections of wave climate. In this work this is done at the port of Paradip situated along the east coast of India. The high resolution wind resulting from a climate modelling experiment called: CORDEX, South Asia, was used to simulate waves over two time-slices of 25 years each in past and future. The wave simulations were carried out with the help of a numerical wave model. Thereafter, rates of longshore sediment transport as well as shoreline shifts were determined over past and future using a numerical shoreline model. It was found that at Paradip Port the net littoral drift per metre width of cross-shore might go up by 37% and so also the net accumulated drift over the entire cross-shore width by 71%. This could be caused by an increase in the mean significant wave height of around 32% and also by changes in the frequency and direction of waves. The intensification of waves in turn might result from an increase in the mean wind speed of around 19%. Similarly, the horizontal extent of the beach accretion and erosion at the port's southern breakwater might go up by 4 m and 8 m, respectively, from the current level in another 25 years. This study should be useful in framing future port management strategies.

  20. Endangered Species Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contraception and Protection How Does CF Affect the Female Reproductive System? How Does CF Affect the Male ... Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements ...

  2. Criteria in implementation of paragraph 3 of section 11 of Act no.319 of 10 May 1976 laying down standards for the protection of waters against pollution. Dumping on the high seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A set of directives by the Ministry of Public Works (Committee of Ministers for the protection of waters against pollution) were published in the Italian Official Gazette of 9 August 1978. They lay down criteria to be met in implementation of Act no.319 of 10 May 1976 on the protection of waters against pollution. The Ministerial provisions prohibit the dumping of radioactive waste, except under certain conditions. Also, the definition of radioactive materials is the same as that contained in the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency. (NEA) [fr

  3. BNN-20, a synthetic microneurotrophin, strongly protects dopaminergic neurons in the "weaver" mouse, a genetic model of dopamine-denervation, acting through the TrkB neurotrophin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsakis, Konstantinos; Mourtzi, Theodora; Panagiotakopoulou, Vasiliki; Vreka, Malamati; Stathopoulos, Georgios T; Pediaditakis, Iosif; Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Gravanis, Achilleas; Delis, Foteini; Antoniou, Katerina; Zisimopoulos, Dimitrios; Georgiou, Christos D; Panagopoulos, Nikolaos T; Matsokis, Nikolaos; Angelatou, Fevronia

    2017-07-15

    Neurotrophic factors are among the most promising treatments aiming at slowing or stopping and even reversing Parkinson's disease (PD). However, in most cases, they cannot readily cross the human blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Herein, we propose as a therapeutic for PD the small molecule 17-beta-spiro-[5-androsten-17,2'-oxiran]-3beta-ol (BNN-20), a synthetic analogue of DHEA, which crosses the BBB and is deprived of endocrine side-effects. Using the "weaver" mouse, a genetic model of PD, which exhibits progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the Substantia Nigra (SN), we have shown that long-term administration (P1-P21) of BNN-20 almost fully protected the dopaminergic neurons and their terminals, via i) a strong anti-apoptotic effect, probably mediated through the Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) neurotrophin receptor's PI3K-Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway, ii) by exerting an efficient antioxidant effect, iii) by inducing significant anti-inflammatory activity and iv) by restoring Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels. By intercrossing "weaver" with NGL mice (dual GFP/luciferase-NF-κΒ reporter mice, NF-κΒ.GFP.Luc), we obtained Weaver/NGL mice that express the NF-κB reporter in all somatic cells. Acute BNN-20 administration to Weaver/NGL mice induced a strong NF-κB-dependent transcriptional response in the brain as detected by bioluminescence imaging, which was abolished by co-administration of the TrkB inhibitor ANA-12. This indicates that BNN-20 exerts its beneficial action (at least in part) through the TrkB-PI3K-Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway. These results could be of clinical relevance, as they suggest BNN-20 as an important neuroprotective agent acting through the TrkB neurotrophin receptor pathway, mimicking the action of the endogenous neurotrophin BDNF. Thus BNN-20 could be proposed for treatment of PD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Does Medicaid Insurance Confer Adequate Access to Adult Orthopaedic Care in the Era of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrum, Joseph T; Paziuk, Taylor; Rihn, Theresa C; Hilibrand, Alan S; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Rihn, Jeffrey A

    2017-06-01

    A current appraisal of access to orthopaedic care for the adult patient receiving Medicaid is important, since Medicaid expansion was written into law by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). (1) Do orthopaedic practices provide varying access to orthopaedic care for simulated patients with Medicaid insurance versus private insurance in a blinded survey? (2) What are the surveyed state-by-state Medicaid acceptance rates for adult orthopaedic practices in the current era of Medicaid expansion set forth by the PPACA? (3) Do surveyed rates of access to orthopaedic care in the adult patient population vary across practice setting (private vs academic) or vary with different Medicaid physician reimbursement rates? (4) Are there differences in the surveyed Medicaid acceptance rates for adult orthopaedic practices in states that have expanded Medicaid coverage versus states that have foregone expansion? Simulated Patient Survey: We performed a telephone survey study of orthopaedic offices in four states with Medicaid expansion. In the survey, the caller assumed a fictitious identity as a 38-year-old male who experienced an ankle fracture 1 day before calling, and attempted to secure an appointment within 2 weeks. During initial contact, the fictitious patient reported Medicaid insurance status. One month later, the fictitious patient contacted the same orthopaedic practice and reported private insurance coverage status. National Orthopaedic Survey: Private and academic orthopaedic practices operating in each state in the United States were called and asked to complete a survey assessing their practice model of Medicaid insurance acceptance. State reimbursement rates for three different Current Procedural Terminology (CPT ®) codes were collected from state Medicaid agencies. Results Simulated Patient Survey: Offices were less likely to accept Medicaid than commercial insurance (30 of 64 [47%] versus 62 of 64 [97%]; odds ratio [OR], 0.0145; 95% CI, 0

  5. Act of 17 April 1986 to implement Articles 7 and 8 of the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, done in Vienna and New York on 3 March 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this Act is to implement in domestic legislation Articles 7 and 8 of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, signed by Belgium on 13th June 1980. Article 7 of the Convention lays down that states Parties must provide for penalties for a number of serious offences with respect to nuclear material. Article 8 specifies the cases in which measures must be taken by States Parties to establish their jurisdiction over such offences. (NEA) [fr

  6. Decree no. 85-449 of 23 April 1985 in implementation of Act no. 83-630 of 12 July 1983 on democratisation of public inquiries and environmental protection with regard to major nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Act No. 83-630 of 19 July 1983 on democratisation of public inquiries and environmental protection prescribes a public inquiry procedure for work likely to affect the environment. This Decree was made in implementation of the Act. Its scope is set out in an annexed table which provides that this new procedure applies to major nuclear installations governed by Decree No. 63-1128 of 11 December 1963 on nuclear installations and their radioactive effluent releases. The definition of a major nuclear installation which, until now, was set out in orders, is henceforth included in the 1963 Decree which is amended by the above Decree. As regards substance, the main modifications concerning nuclear installations are those directly resulting from the 1983 Act: one month's duration at least for the inquiry, designation of an inquiry commissioner by the president of the administrative court, stay of execution decided ipso facto by the judicial authority in case of the inquiry commissioner's negative opinion. (NEA) [fr

  7. The ecology, status, and conservation of marine and shoreline birds on the west coast of Vancouver Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeer, K.; Butler, R.W.; Morgan, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    A symposium was held to combine various disciplines to provide a review of current knowledge about the marine biology of the west coast of Vancouver Island, with a particular emphasis on birds. Papers were presented on the physical and biological environment of the study region, the population and breeding ecology of marine and shoreline birds, the distribution of marine and shoreline birds at sea, the effects of oil pollution on the bird population, and the conservation of marine and shoreline birds. Separate abstracts have been prepared for two papers from this symposium

  8. Ancient shorelines of Gujarat, India, during the Indus civilization (Late Mid-Holocene): A study based on archaeological evidences

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Vora, K.H.

    or production of salt, etc. as indicators of palaeo-shorelines. As of today, these sites are located away from the present shoreline. Lothal, believed to be the oldest dockyard in the world, is located at the head of the Gulf of Khambhat, now situated about... shorelines of Gujarat, India, during the Indus civilization (Late Mid-Holocene): A study ... 16-Nov-06http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/jul10/articles29.htm centre for acquiring and processing raw materials for manufacturing articles for export. Discovery of two...

  9. Are mangroves as tough as a seawall? Flow-vegetation interaction in a living shoreline restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, K. M.; Kitsikoudis, V.; Spiering, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of an established living shoreline restoration on near-shore hydraulics, shoreline slope, and sediment texture and organic matter content. We collected data from three 100 m shoreline sites within an estuarine lagoon in Canaveral National Seashore: one restored; one that had been stabilized by a seawall; and one in a reference condition stabilized by mature mangrove vegetation. The living shoreline site was restored five years prior with a breakwater of oyster shell bags, emergent marsh grasses (Spartina alterniflora), and mangroves (Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia germinans). We sampled water depth and incoming velocity profiles of the full water column at 2 Hz using a 2 MHz Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP, Nortek), stationed down-looking, approximately 10 m offshore. A 2 - 3 cm velocity profile above the bed was sampled on the shoreline at 100 Hz, using a Nortek Vectrino profiler. In restored and reference sites, the onshore probe was placed within vegetation. We surveyed vegetation upstream of the probe for species and diameter at water level. Windspeed and direction were collected 2 m above the water surface. Shorelines were surveyed in transects using GPS survey equipment. Five sediment cores were collected to 20 cm depth from both onshore and offshore of each site. Individual cores were processed for loss on ignition before being pooled by site for analysis of grain size distribution. While incoming velocity profiles were similar between sites, hydraulic conditions onshore within the vegetated sites deviated from the seawall site, which was devoid of vegetation. Offshore to onshore gradients in shear stress, mean velocity, and turbulent kinetic energy differed widely between sites, despite similar wind and tidal conditions. Sediment grain sizes were finer and contained more organic matter in the restored and reference sites than in the seawall site. Profiles of the restored and seawall sites were similar, though

  10. Medium-term shoreline evolution of the mediterranean coast of Andalusia (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Messina, Enrica; Anfuso, Giorgio; Suffo, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Coastal environment is a dynamic system in which numerous natural processes are continuously actuating and interacting among them. As a result, geomorphologic, physical and biological characteristics of coastal environments are constantly changing. Such dynamic balance is nowadays seriously threatened by the strong and increasing anthropic pressure that favors erosion processes, and the associated loss of environmental, ecologic and economic aspects. Sandy beaches are the most vulnerable environments in coastal areas. The aim of this work was to reconstruct the historical evolution of the Mediterranean coastline of Andalusia, Spain. The investigated area is about 500 km in length and includes the provinces of Cadiz, Malaga, Granada and Almeria. It is essentially composed by cliffed sectors with sand and gravel pocket beaches constituting independent morphological cells of different dimensions. This study was based on the analysis of aerial photos and satellite images covering a period of 55 years, between 1956 and 2011. Aerial photos were scanned and geo-referenced in order to solve scale and distortion problems. The shoreline was considered and mapped through the identification of the wet / dry sand limit which coincides with the line of maximum run-up; this indicator - representing the shoreline at the moment of the photo - is the most easily identifiable and representative one in microtidal coastal environments. Since shoreline position is linked to beach profile characteristics and to waves, tide and wind conditions at the moment of the photo, such parameters were taken into account in the calculation of shoreline position and changes. Specifically, retreat/accretion changes were reconstructed applying the DSAS method (Digital Shoreline Analysis System) proposed by the US Geological Survey. Significant beach accretion was observed at Playa La Mamola (Granada), with +1 m/y, because the construction of five breakwaters, and at Playa El Cantal (Almeria) and close

  11. Sea-level rise and shoreline retreat: time to abandon the Bruun Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. Andrew G.; Pilkey, Orrin H.

    2004-11-01

    In the face of a global rise in sea level, understanding the response of the shoreline to changes in sea level is a critical scientific goal to inform policy makers and managers. A body of scientific information exists that illustrates both the complexity of the linkages between sea-level rise and shoreline response, and the comparative lack of understanding of these linkages. In spite of the lack of understanding, many appraisals have been undertaken that employ a concept known as the "Bruun Rule". This is a simple two-dimensional model of shoreline response to rising sea level. The model has seen near global application since its original formulation in 1954. The concept provided an advance in understanding of the coastal system at the time of its first publication. It has, however, been superseded by numerous subsequent findings and is now invalid. Several assumptions behind the Bruun Rule are known to be false and nowhere has the Bruun Rule been adequately proven; on the contrary several studies disprove it in the field. No universally applicable model of shoreline retreat under sea-level rise has yet been developed. Despite this, the Bruun Rule is in widespread contemporary use at a global scale both as a management tool and as a scientific concept. The persistence of this concept beyond its original assumption base is attributed to the following factors: Appeal of a simple, easy to use analytical model that is in widespread use. Difficulty of determining the relative validity of 'proofs' and 'disproofs'. Ease of application. Positive advocacy by some scientists. Application by other scientists without critical appraisal. The simple numerical expression of the model. Lack of easy alternatives. The Bruun Rule has no power for predicting shoreline behaviour under rising sea level and should be abandoned. It is a concept whose time has passed. The belief by policy makers that it offers a prediction of future shoreline position may well have stifled much

  12. Shoreline deposits and diagenesis resulting from two Late Pleistocene highstands near +5 and +6 metres, Durban, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.A.G.; Flores, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Facies 1, 2, 3 and 4 under marine conditions, initially as aragonite which has since inverted to calcite. Facies 5, 6 and 7 are cemented only by equant calcite spar, evidence of cementation in the meteoric phreatic and vadose zones. Lowering of the water table during regression caused the remaining pore space in Facies 1, 2, 3 and 4 to be filled with equant calcite spar. Decementation in a 130 cm wide zone is attributed to water table shifts associated with the later transgression which deposited Facies 8. The vertical stacking of the two depositional sequences may be attributed to rapid cementation of Facies 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 under humid, subtropical conditions. This lithified sequence then acted as a focus for deposition of coarse-grained shoreline facies (Facies 8) during the subsequent transgression. ?? 1991.

  13. Protecting the rights of patients in psychiatric settings : a comparison of the work of the Mental Health Act Commission with the CQC / Judy Laing

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laing, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Tervishoiu kvaliteedi komisjoni (Care Quality Commission) ning vaimse tervishoiu komisjoni (Mental Health Act Commission) töö võrdlusest psühhiaatriliste patsientidega ning vastavatest regulatsioonidest

  14. 40 CFR 1508.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act. 1508.2 Section 1508.2 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.2 Act. Act means the National Environmental Policy Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.) which is also referred to as “NEPA.” ...

  15. Environmental disturbance and conservation of marine and shoreline birds on the west coast of Vancouver Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, K.H.; Butler, R.W.; Vermeer, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Loss of habitat and oiling of birds represent two major threats to marine and shoreline bird populations on Vancouver Island's west coast, since their effects are widespread and cumulative. Offshore tanker traffic and local inshore shipments of petroleum products expose the coast to high risks of oiling. Large numbers of birds are most at risk when concentrated in relatively small areas, such as highly productive feeding areas, at communal roosting sites, and around nesting colonies. Logging of mature and old-growth forests has led to destruction of the nesting habitat of marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus), while industrial development of estuaries, mudflats, and spawning grounds of Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) has diminished feeding habitats for other marine and shoreline birds. Fisheries operations, human disturbance of colonies, and introduced predators, notably the raccoon (Procyon lotor) and mink (Mustela vison), have impacted upon local populations. Management actions and research needs to mitigate these threats are addressed. 40 refs

  16. Shoreline change detection from Karwar to Gokarna - South West coast of India using remotely Sensed data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Choudhary, R.; Gowthaman, R.; SanilKumar, V.

    -494 #02060313 Copyright ©2013 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved. Shoreline change detection from Karwar to Gokarna - South West coast of India using remotely Sensed data RICHA CHOUDHARY 1 , R. GOWTHAMAN 2 AND V. SANIL KUMAR 2 1... years period. Gangavali river mouth has narrowed due to siltation. Significant changes in the geomorphic features like spit growth, braided island, creeks, tidal flat are observed near Kali and Gangavali river mouth. Keywords: Remote sensing...

  17. Research into the further development of the LIMPET shoreline wave energy plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project focussing on technical issues associated with the design of the LIMPET shoreline oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy plant. Fifteen tasks are listed as the objectives of the project which was carried out to broaden the knowledge of the wave environment and the construction and operation of a wave energy plant. The experience gained in LIMPET instrumentation, control systems, and grid integration issues are discussed.

  18. Spatiotemporal shoreline dynamics of Namibian coastal lagoons derived by a dense remote sensing time series approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Robert; Milewski, Robert; Chabrillat, Sabine

    2018-06-01

    This paper proposes the remote sensing time series approach WLMO (Water-Land MOnitor) to monitor spatiotemporal shoreline changes. The approach uses a hierarchical classification system based on temporal MNDWI-trajectories with the goal to accommodate typical uncertainties in remote sensing shoreline extraction techniques such as existence of clouds and geometric mismatches between images. Applied to a dense Landsat time series between 1984 and 2014 for the two Namibian coastal lagoons at Walvis Bay and Sandwich Harbour the WLMO was able to identify detailed accretion and erosion progressions at the sand spits forming these lagoons. For both lagoons a northward expansion of the sand spits of up to 1000 m was identified, which corresponds well with the prevailing northwards directed ocean current and wind processes that are responsible for the material transport along the shore. At Walvis Bay we could also show that in the 30 years of analysis the sand spit's width has decreased by more than a half from 750 m in 1984-360 m in 2014. This ongoing cross-shore erosion process is a severe risk for future sand spit breaching, which would expose parts of the lagoon and the city to the open ocean. One of the major advantages of WLMO is the opportunity to analyze detailed spatiotemporal shoreline changes. Thus, it could be shown that the observed long-term accretion and erosion processes underwent great variations over time and cannot a priori be assumed as linear processes. Such detailed spatiotemporal process patterns are a prerequisite to improve the understanding of the processes forming the Namibian shorelines. Moreover, the approach has also the potential to be used in other coastal areas, because the focus on MNDWI-trajectories allows the transfer to many multispectral satellite sensors (e.g. Sentinel-2, ASTER) available worldwide.

  19. The ichthyofauna of the shoreline zone in the longitudinal profile of the Danube River, Bulgaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polačik, Matej; Trichkova, T.; Janáč, Michal; Vassilev, M.; Jurajda, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2008), s. 77-88 ISSN 0324-0770 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Grant - others:National Science Fund(BG) B-1510/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Lower Danube * shoreline zone * fish community * distribution * abundance * endangered species Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://www.acta-zoologica-bulgarica.eu/downloads/acta-zoologica-bulgarica/2008/60-1-077-088.pdf

  20. Shoreline Erosion and Proposed Control at Experimental Facility 15-Spesutie Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    distribution is unlimited. 1 1. Introduction Coastal erosion is the wearing away of land and the removal of beach or dune sediments by wave action...the land , air, and water defines the wetted perimeter where land use and clearing practices have taken on an adversarial role with regard to the...stand with approximately 30–40 ft of manicured lawn to the shoreline. There are no trees on the range proper, with only a smattering of indigenous

  1. Hurricane impact and recovery shoreline change analysis of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, USA: 1855 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Sarah M.; Miner, Michael; Brock, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Results from historical (1855-2005) shoreline change analysis of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, demonstrate that tropical cyclone frequency dominates the long-term evolution of this barrier-island arc. The detailed results of this study were published in December 2009 as part of a special issue of Geo-Marine Letters that documents early results from the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project.

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: ESIL (ESI Shoreline Types - Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ESIL data set contains lines representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of the Upper Coast of Texas, classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: ESIP (ESI Shoreline Types - Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ESIP data set contains polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of the Upper Coast of Texas, classified according to the Environmental...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats for the Hudson River, classified according to the Environmental...

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of Northern California, classified according to the Environmental...

  6. Healing arts radiation protection act: revised statutes of Ontario, 1980, chapter 195; Loi sur la protection contre les rayons X: Lois refondues de l`Ontario de 1980, chapitre 195

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-09-01

    An act published by the Government of Ontario by the Minister of Health to ensure public safety while subjected to the use of x-rays for the irradiation of human beings for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.

  7. Application of Low-Cost Fixed-Wing UAV for Inland Lakes Shoreline Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, Tomasz; Popielarczyk, Dariusz; Kosecki, Rafał

    2017-10-01

    One of the most important factors that influences the performance of geomorphologic parameters on urban lakes is the water level. It fluctuates periodically, causing shoreline changes. It is especially significant for typical environmental studies like bathymetric surveys, morphometric parameters calculation, sediment depth changes, thermal structure, water quality monitoring, etc. In most reservoirs, it can be obtained from digitized historical maps or plans or directly measured using the instruments such as: geodetic total station, GNSS receivers, UAV with different sensors, satellite and aerial photos, terrestrial and airborne light detection and ranging, or others. Today one of the most popular measuring platforms, increasingly applied in many applications is UAV. Unmanned aerial system can be a cheap, easy to use, on-demand technology for gathering remote sensing data. Our study presents a reliable methodology for shallow lake shoreline investigation with the use of a low-cost fixed-wing UAV system. The research was implemented on a small, eutrophic urban inland reservoir located in the northern part of Poland—Lake Suskie. The geodetic TS, and RTK/GNSS measurements, hydroacoustic soundings and experimental aerial mapping were conducted by the authors in 2012-2015. The article specifically describes the UAV system used for experimental measurements, the obtained results and the accuracy analysis. Final conclusions demonstrate that even a low-cost fixed-wing UAV can provide an excellent tool for accurately surveying a shallow lake shoreline and generate valuable geoinformation data collected definitely faster than when traditional geodetic methods are employed.

  8. A multi-indicator approach for identifying shoreline sewage pollution hotspots adjacent to coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaya, Leilani M; Wiegner, Tracy N; Colbert, Steven L; Beets, James P; Carlson, Kaile'a M; Kramer, K Lindsey; Most, Rebecca; Couch, Courtney S

    2018-04-01

    Sewage pollution is contributing to the global decline of coral reefs. Identifying locations where it is entering waters near reefs is therefore a management priority. Our study documented shoreline sewage pollution hotspots in a coastal community with a fringing coral reef (Puakō, Hawai'i) using dye tracer studies, sewage indicator measurements, and a pollution scoring tool. Sewage reached shoreline waters within 9 h to 3 d. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations were high and variable, and δ 15 N macroalgal values were indicative of sewage at many stations. Shoreline nutrient concentrations were two times higher than those in upland groundwater. Pollution hotspots were identified with a scoring tool using three sewage indicators. It confirmed known locations of sewage pollution from dye tracer studies. Our study highlights the need for a multi-indicator approach and scoring tool to identify sewage pollution hotspots. This approach will be useful for other coastal communities grappling with sewage pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiological survey of shoreline vegetation from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1990--1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, E.J.; Poston, T.M.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    A great deal of interest exists concerning the seepage of radiologically contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River where it borders the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site (Hanford Reach). Areas of particular interest include the 100-N Area, the Old Hanford Townsite, and the 300 Area springs. While the radiological character of the seeps and springs along the Hanford Site shoreline has been studied, less attention has been given to characterizing the radionuclides that may be present in shoreline vegetation. The objective of this study was to characterize radionuclide concentrations in shoreline plants along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River that were usable by humans for food or other purposes. Vegetation in two areas was found to have elevated levels of radionuclides. Those areas were the 100-N Area and the Old Hanford Townsite. There was also some indication of uranium accumulation in milfoil and onions collected from the 300 Area. Tritium was elevated above background in all areas; 60 Co and 9O Sr were found in highest concentrations in vegetation from the 100-N Area. Technetium-99 was found in 2 of 12 plants collected from the Old Hanford Townsite and 1 of 10 samples collected upstream from the Vernita Bridge. The concentrations of 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, and isotopes of uranium were just above background in all three areas (100-N Area, Old Hanford Townsite, and 300 Area)

  10. Lake Izabal (Guatemala) shoreline detection and inundated area estimation from ENVISAT ASAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, C.; Gomez-Enri, J.; Alonso, J. J.; Villares, P.

    2008-10-01

    The surface extent of a lake reflects its water storage variations. This information has important hydrological and operational applications. However, there is a lack of information regarding this subject because the traditional methodologies for this purposes (ground surveys, aerial photos) requires high resources investments. Remote sensing techniques (optical/radar sensors) permit a low cost, constant and accurate monitoring of this parameter. The objective of this study was to determine the surface variations of Lake Izabal, the largest one in Guatemala. The lake is located close to the Caribbean Sea coastline. The climate in the region is predominantly cloudy and rainy, being the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) the best suited sensor for this purpose. Although several studies have successfully used SAR products in detecting land-water boundaries, all of them highlighted some sensor limitations. These limitations are mainly caused by roughened water surfaces caused by strong winds which are frequent in Lake Izabal. The ESA's ASAR data products were used. From the set of 9 ASAR images used, all of them have wind-roughened ashore waters in several levels. Here, a chain of image processing steps were applied in order to extract a reliable shoreline. The shoreline detection is the key task for the surface estimation. After the shoreline extraction, the inundated area of the lake was estimated. In-situ lake level measurements were used for validation. The results showed good agreement between the inundated areas estimations and the lake level gauges.

  11. Shoreline changes in reef islands of the Central Pacific: Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvat, Virginie K. E.; Pillet, Valentin

    2017-04-01

    Atoll reef islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. While accelerated sea-level rise is expected to destabilize reef islands, ocean warming and acidification are considered as major threats to coral reef growth, which is of primary importance for the persistence of islands and of food supply to islanders. Using multi-date aerial imagery, shoreline and island changes between 1969 and 2013 were assessed on Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu region, in French Polynesia. Results show that over the 44-year study period, 41% of islands were stable in area while 33% expanded and 26% contracted. Island expansion was the dominant mode of change on the leeward side of the atoll. Tropical Cyclone Orama (category 3, 1983) contributed to shoreline and island change on the windward side of the atoll through the reworking of previous storm deposits and the injection of fresh sediments in the island system (with up to 62% of an island's land area being covered with fresh sediments). Human activities contributed significantly to shoreline and island change throughout the atoll through infrastructure construction, the removal of the indigenous vegetation from a number of islets and sediment mining.

  12. A Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) system for data acquisition during shoreline assessment field surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarche, A.; Owens, E.H.; Laflamme, A.; Laforest, S.; Clement, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Technique (SCAT) is a recognized method in North America to collect shoreline information and report observations on an oil spill. The long processing time required to analyze SCAT observations sometimes causes delays in oil spill response. Computerized systems have been developed to address this problem, but data entry of SCAT within such system involves much effort and is subject to potential errors. This paper described the development of a tool dedicated to the field capture of SCAT data on a Windows CE based Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). The system is compatible with both the SCAT methodology and Global Positioning System technology. A prototype of the system was tested during oil spills in Ontario and Nova Scotia. This paper described how the field data collection system was designed, developed and tested. Details of some user interfaces were provided to demonstrate how the large paper Shoreline Oiling Summary forms were made to fit on the small display screen of pocket-size devices. 8 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs

  13. Waves Generated by Asteroid Impacts and Their Hazard Consequences on The Shorelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, S. M.; Miller, P. L.; Dearborn, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    We have performed numerical simulations of a hypothetical asteroid impact onto the ocean in support of an emergency preparedness, planning, and management exercise. We addressed the scenario from asteroid entry; to ocean impact (splash rim); to wave generation, propagation, and interaction with the shoreline. For the analysis we used GEODYN, a hydrocode, to simulate the impact and generate the source wave for the large-scale shallow water wave program, SWWP. Using state-of-the-art, high-performance computing codes we simulated three impact areas — two are located on the West Coast near Los Angeles's shoreline and the San Francisco Bay, respectively, and the third is located in the Gulf of Mexico, with a possible impact location between Texas and Florida. On account of uncertainty in the exact impact location within the asteroid risk corridor, we examined multiple possibilities for impact points within each area. Uncertainty in the asteroid impact location was then convolved and represented as uncertainty in the shoreline flooding zones. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and partially funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL under tracking code 12-ERD-005.

  14. Radiological survey of shoreline vegetation from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1990--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.; Poston, T.M.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    A great deal of interest exists concerning the seepage of radiologically contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River where it borders the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site (Hanford Reach). Areas of particular interest include the 100-N Area, the Old Hanford Townsite, and the 300 Area springs. While the radiological character of the seeps and springs along the Hanford Site shoreline has been studied, less attention has been given to characterizing the radionuclides that may be present in shoreline vegetation. The objective of this study was to characterize radionuclide concentrations in shoreline plants along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River that were usable by humans for food or other purposes. Vegetation in two areas was found to have elevated levels of radionuclides. Those areas were the 100-N Area and the Old Hanford Townsite. There was also some indication of uranium accumulation in milfoil and onions collected from the 300 Area. Tritium was elevated above background in all areas; {sup 60}Co and {sup 9O}Sr were found in highest concentrations in vegetation from the 100-N Area. Technetium-99 was found in 2 of 12 plants collected from the Old Hanford Townsite and 1 of 10 samples collected upstream from the Vernita Bridge. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and isotopes of uranium were just above background in all three areas (100-N Area, Old Hanford Townsite, and 300 Area).

  15. Interaction of oil and mineral fines on shorelines: review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, Edward H.; Lee, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of fine mineral particles with stranded oil in an aqueous medium reduces the adhesion of the oil to solid surfaces, such as sediments or bedrock. The net result is the formation of stable, micron-sized, oil droplets that disperse into the water column. In turn, the increase in surface area makes the oil more available for biodegradation. This interaction, referred to as oil-mineral aggregate (OMA) formation, can explain how oiled shorelines are cleaned naturally in the absence of wave action in very sheltered coastal environments. OMA formation also plays an important role in the efficacy of shoreline treatment techniques, such as physical mixing and sediment relocation that move oiled sediments into the zone of wave action to promote the interaction between oil and mineral fines. Successful application of these shoreline treatment options has been demonstrated at two spill events (the Tampa Bay response in Florida and the Sea Empress operation in Wales) and at a controlled oil spill experiment in the field (the 1997 Svalbard ITOSS program). Sediment relocation harnesses the hydraulic action of waves so that the processes of fine-particle interaction and physical abrasion usually occur in tandem on open coasts. There has been no evidence of significant detrimental side-effects of residual oil in pelagic or benthic environments associated with the use of these treatment options to enhance rates of dispersion and oil biodegradation

  16. Interaction of oil and mineral fines on shorelines: review and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Edward H.; Lee, Kenneth

    2003-12-01

    The interaction of fine mineral particles with stranded oil in an aqueous medium reduces the adhesion of the oil to solid surfaces, such as sediments or bedrock. The net result is the formation of stable, micron-sized, oil droplets that disperse into the water column. In turn, the increase in surface area makes the oil more available for biodegradation. This interaction, referred to as oil-mineral aggregate (OMA) formation, can explain how oiled shorelines are cleaned naturally in the absence of wave action in very sheltered coastal environments. OMA formation also plays an important role in the efficacy of shoreline treatment techniques, such as physical mixing and sediment relocation that move oiled sediments into the zone of wave action to promote the interaction between oil and mineral fines. Successful application of these shoreline treatment options has been demonstrated at two spill events (the Tampa Bay response in Florida and the Sea Empress operation in Wales) and at a controlled oil spill experiment in the field (the 1997 Svalbard ITOSS program). Sediment relocation harnesses the hydraulic action of waves so that the processes of fine-particle interaction and physical abrasion usually occur in tandem on open coasts. There has been no evidence of significant detrimental side-effects of residual oil in pelagic or benthic environments associated with the use of these treatment options to enhance rates of dispersion and oil biodegradation.

  17. Effects of oil on the rate and trajectory of Louisiana marsh shoreline erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClenachan, Giovanna; Eugene Turner, R; Tweel, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    Oil can have long-term detrimental effects on marsh plant health, both above- and belowground. However, there are few data available that quantify the accelerated rate of erosion that oil may cause to marshes and the trajectory of change. Between November 2010 and August 2012, we collected data on shoreline erosion, soil strength, per cent cover of Spartina alterniflora, and marsh edge overhang at 30 closely spaced low oil and high oil sites in Bay Batiste, Louisiana. Surface oil samples were taken one meter into the marsh in February 2011. All high oiled sites in Bay Batiste were contaminated with Macondo 252 oil (oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, 20 April–15 July 2010). The results suggest that there is a threshold where soil parameters change dramatically with a relatively small increase in oil concentration in the soil. Heavy oiling weakens the soil, creating a deeper undercut of the upper 50 cm of the marsh edge, and causing an accelerated rate of erosion that cascades along the shoreline. Our results demonstrate that it could take at least 2 yr to document the effects heavy oiling has had on the marsh shoreline. The presence of aboveground vegetation alone may not be an appropriate indicator of recovery. (letter)

  18. Tracking of the LAZIO region shoreline from orthophotos AGEA 2014 and implementation of the database layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscotti, Erik; Pizzeghello, Nicola; Murri, Chiara; Colistra, Graziano; Batzu, Ilenia

    2018-05-01

    The integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) is the modern approach used in the study, management and exploitation of the coastal area in various applications whereas in this area are concentrated interests concerning the most different fields, economic, environmental, legal, scientific and social. The coast is in fact inherently unstable by nature and consequently its characterization should take into account a continuous monitoring and updating of its variations and trends. The coastal area is that portion of land emerged and submerged containing the shoreline and is subject to both continental and marine geomorphic processes. The shoreline is the clearest expression of how this sector is particularly dynamic. Proper analysis and representation of the shape and nature of the coastal area are a first step to provide reliable and comparable tools to those who study and manage it. This paper presents the results of a study aimed to the realization of an integrated approach in the extraction of the shoreline using a case study of Lazio coast as a part of the European Project "Intercoast". This work is based on national and international directives on the coastal zone, whether linked to a more terrestrial or maritime area, still within the broad definition of Hydrography provided by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO). The spatial information extracted by direct or indirect measurements of the most dynamic coastal sector emerged and submerged (emerged coast and sea bottom) have been provided by associating with a budget of measurement uncertainties, and assessing the quality.

  19. Geographic information systems-based expert system modelling for shoreline sensitivity to oil spill disaster in Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Lawal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of adequate and appropriate actions, hazards often result in disaster. Oil spills across any environment are very hazardous; thus, oil spill contingency planning is pertinent, supported by Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI mapping. However, a significant data gap exists across many low- and middle-income countries in aspect of environmental monitoring. This study developed a geographic information system (GIS-based expert system (ES for shoreline sensitivity to oiling. It focused on the biophysical attributes of the shoreline with Rivers State as a case study. Data on elevation, soil, relative wave exposure and satellite imageries were collated and used for the development of ES decision rules within GIS. Results show that about 70% of the shoreline are lined with swamp forest/mangroves/nympa palm, and 97% have silt and clay as dominant sediment type. From the ES, six ranks were identified; 61% of the shoreline has a rank of 9 and 19% has a rank of 3 for shoreline sensitivity. A total of 568 km out of the 728 km shoreline is highly sensitive (ranks 7–10. There is a clear indication that the study area is a complex mixture of sensitive environments to oil spill. GIS-based ES with classification rules for shoreline sensitivity represents a rapid and flexible framework for automatic ranking of shoreline sensitivity to oiling. It is expected that this approach would kick-start sensitivity index mapping which is comprehensive and openly available to support disaster risk management around the oil producing regions of the country.

  20. Deepwater Horizon MC252 shoreline data from the Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA) containing shoreline exposure and data related to the shoreline exposure model, coastal wetland vegetation sites and other datasets collected between 2010-01-01 to 2015-01-01 for the DWH response in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NCEI Accession 0163814)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Archival Information Package (AIP) contains Environmental Resource Management Application (ERMA) GIS layers including shoreline exposure model for beach and...

  1. Legal protection of private persons in the case of acts of foreign states contrary to international law - with special reference to international environmental law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarze, J

    1986-01-01

    The author describes the basis for claims following to international law for a case like Chernobyl. He examines possibilities of enforcement of private claims, regarding legal protection in courts of the state where the incident occurred, and of the state where the damage was suffered, of the International Court of Justice, and by way of diplomatic protection. Individual guarantees of procedure still can be improved at present.

  2. Legal protection of private persons in the case of acts of foreign states contrary to international law - with special reference to international environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarze, J.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes the basis for claims following to international law for a case like Chernobyl. He examines possibilities of enforcement of private claims, regarding legal protection in courts of the state where the incident occurred, and of the state where the damage was suffered, of the International Court of Justice, and by way of diplomatic protection. Individual guarantees of procedure still can be improved at present. (CW) [de

  3. Ancient shoreline reconstruction at a Maritime Maya Port in Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaijel, Roy; Goodman, Beverly; Glover, Jeffrey; Rissolo, Dominique; Beddows, Patricia; Carter, Alice; Smith, Derek; Ben Avraham, Zvi

    2017-04-01

    Throughout history, worldwide, a major part of the human experience has been to adapt to changing landscapes, and environments. These adaptations can take many forms, sometimes as innovation, manipulation of the conditions, behavioral or technological changes; and in some cases the decision to abandon the area. The northeastern Yucatan peninsula, home of the Maritime maya port site Vista-Alegre, shows signs of such human changes, though little is known about the corresponding landscape and environment. Vista Alegre is located on the meeting point of the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, at the north-eastern tip of the Yucatan peninsula, in the back of the Holbox lagoon. The site was inhabited from the 9th century B.C until the mid 16th century A.D., with an apparent two century abandonment phase from the mid 7th to 9th century A.D. A multidisciplinary effort ("Costa Escondida project") has been investigating the life of past Mayan inhabitants and the broader connections of the site to the Maritime Maya trade network. One of the questions that has arisen is what were the mutual influences between the inhabitants to their surrounding environment. In order to answer that question the site's shoreline geomorphology and climate history is being reconstructed for the past 2-3000 years. The reconstruction is based on multiproxy analysis of marine sediment cores and surface samples, combined with archaeological data. The study presented focuses on the shoreline shifts at the site, revealing the complexity, and significant affect of sea level rise on the marine environment of Vista Alegre. This study contributes to our understanding of the site's possible functions, the environmental challenges the local inhabits contended with, and the identification of ancient harboring locations. The results show five depositional phases over the past 2-3000 years. The ancient shoreline maps show a general trend of sea level rise, though with varying rates over time that relates well

  4. Nature and landscape protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with National Council of the Slovak Republic Act N. 287/1994 Coll. on Nature and Landscape Protection, the system of complex nature landscape protection has been designed based on five levels of protection. Categories of protected areas as well as cultural monuments in the Slovak Republic are reviewed.Slovak contribution to the world heritage is included

  5. 7 CFR 33.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices... AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.1 Act. Act and Export Apple Act are synonymous and mean “An act to promote the foreign trade of the United States in apples to protect the reputation of...

  6. Effects of the new radiation protection act on the radiation protection register and the monitoring of occupational radiation exposure; Auswirkungen des neuen Strahlenschutzgesetzes auf das Strahlenschutzregister und die berufliche Strahlenueberwachung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frasch, G. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The implementation of DIRECTIVE 2013/59 / EURATOM (EURATOM Basic Safety Standards) is via the new radiation protection law and brings in the monitoring of occupational radiation among others two significant new features and changes: - Introduction of a unique personal identifier, - update of the occupational categories. Both require technical and organizational changes in the data transmission of the licensees to the dosimetry services and the radiation protection register.

  7. Legal instruments and proposals for acts of the European Communities relating to the protection of the environment. As of May 12, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1993-01-01

    The compilation comprises all legal instruments and proposals for legal instruments of the European Communities in the field of environmental protection which were incorporated in the EDP-aided compilation of the Federal Office for Environmental Protection, specialized field 'Juristic Environmental Issues'. It replaces the preceding compilations. The volume is subdivided into the sections: General information, regional development law, nature preservation law, law on water pollution control, refuse law, imission control law, atomic energy law, energy and mining law, law on dangerous materials and law on environmental health. (orig.) [de

  8. Act No. 61 of 21 January 1994-Transformation into law, with amendments, of Decree-Law No. 496 of 4 December 1996 laying down urgent provisions on reorganising environmental controls and creating the National Environmental Protection Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Act sets up the National Environmental Protection Agency-ANPA which replaces the Nuclear Safety and Health Protection Directorate (ENEA/DISP) of the National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment (ENEA). The ENEA/DISP's tasks, staff, structures, technical equipment and financial resources are transferred to the new Agency. ANPA is responsible for all the national technical and scientific activities and co-ordinates the working methods of the above-mentioned regional and provincial agencies. It also provides consultation and support services to the Ministry of the environment. In particular, ANPA is competent for supervising activities related to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and analysing the impact of radiation on the environment. (NEA)

  9. Correlation between land use changes and shoreline changes around THE Nakdong River in Korea using landsat images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, J. S.; Lim, C.; Baek, S. G.; Shin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal erosion has badly affected the marine environment, as well as the safety of various coastal structures. In order to monitor shoreline changes due to coastal erosion, remote sensing techniques are being utilized. The land-cover map classifies the physical material on the surface of the earth, and it can be utilized in establishing eco-policy and land-use policy. In this study, we analyzed the correlation between land-use changes around the Nakdong River and shoreline changes at Busan Dadaepo Beach adjacent to the river. We produced the land-cover map based on the guidelines published by the Ministry of Environment Korea, using eight Landsat satellite images obtained from 1984 to 2015. To observe land use changes around the Nakdong River, the study site was set to include the surroundings areas of the Busan Dadaepo Beach, the Nakdong River as well as its estuary, and also Busan New Port. For the land-use classification of the study site, we also produced a land-cover map divided into seven categories according to the Ministry of Environment, Korea guidelines and using the most accurate Maximum Likelihood Method (MLM). Land use changes inland, at 500m from the shoreline, were excluded for the correlation analysis between land use changes and shoreline changes. The other categories, except for the water category, were transformed into numerical values and the land-use classifications, using all other categories, were analyzed. Shoreline changes were observed by setting the base-line and three cut-lines. We assumed that longshore bars around the Nakdong River and the shoreline of the Busan Dadaepo Beach are affected. Therefore, we expect that shoreline changes happen due to the influence of barren land, wetlands, built-up areas and deposition. The causes are due to natural factors, such as weather, waves, tide currents, longshore currents, and also artificial factors such as coastal structures, construction, and dredging.

  10. 78 FR 15962 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Customs and Border Protection-DHS/CBP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Fax; Business Web site address; Business history; Physical Address(es); Mailing Address(es); Owner... Protection's Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism program. Businesses accepted into the program... on higher risk businesses and thereby assists the agency in achieving its mission to secure the...

  11. Directive of the Minister of Public Health and Environmental Protection of 14 October 1975, Stcrt. 203 in implementation of Section 28 of the Nuclear Energy Act (Devices) Decree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This Directive lays down the procedure for applications for licences under the Devices Decree. The competent authority in this respect is the Minister of Public Health and Environmental Protection, formerly the State Secretary for Social Affairs and Public Health. (NEA) [fr

  12. 78 FR 3015 - Privacy Act of 1974; U.S. Customs and Border Protection; DHS/CBP-004-Intellectual Property Rights...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... Search Systems, System of Records AGENCY: Department of Homeland Security, Privacy Office. ACTION: Notice... and Border Protection, Mint Annex, 799 9th Street NW., Washington, DC 20229-1177. For privacy issues... Property Rights Internal Search (IPRiS) system. IPRS provides a web-based search engine for the public to...

  13. Does optimism act as a buffer against posttraumatic stress over time? A longitudinal study of the protective role of optimism after the 2011 Oslo bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Blix, Ines; Solberg, Øivind; Heir, Trond

    2017-03-01

    Cross-sectional studies have revealed that high levels of optimism can protect against high levels of posttraumatic stress after exposure to trauma. However, this is the first study to explore (a) the protective role of optimism in a longitudinal perspective and (b) optimism's protective effects on specific symptom clusters within the posttraumatic stress symptomatology. This study used prospective survey data from ministerial employees (n = 256) collected approximately 1, 2, and 3 years after the 2011 Oslo bombing. To examine relationships between optimism and development of posttraumatic stress, we applied a series of latent growth curve analyses of both overall posttraumatic stress and the 5 clusters within the posttraumatic stress symptomatology (intrusions, avoidance, numbing, dysphoric arousal, and anxious arousal) with predictors and interaction terms. The results showed that levels of exposure and optimism had main effects on starting levels of all clusters of posttraumatic stress. In addition, optimism had a protective-stabilizing effect on starting levels of avoidance, numbing, and dysphoric arousal. No associations between optimism and rate of change in symptoms clusters were found. These results suggest that optimism may help to neutralize the effects of high exposure on levels of symptoms of avoidance, numbing, and dysphoric arousal but not on the symptoms of intrusions and anxious arousal. Thus, individuals high in optimism still experience intrusions and anxious arousal after trauma, but may be better equipped to cope with these so they do not develop into avoidance, numbing and dyshorical arousal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Sheen surveillance: An environmental monitoring program subsequent to the 1989 Exxon Valdez shoreline cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, D.G.; Egging, D.E.; Kuhn, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    In the fall of 1989, an aerial surveillance program was implemented to locate oil sheens (or slicks) originating from shorelines affected by the Exxon Valdez spill. The objectives of the program were to identify any oil on the water that warranted response and to identify those sections of shoreline that would be priority candidates for further cleanup in 1990. The program initially surveyed the entire affected area, but, because proportionally fewer sheens were spotted in the Gulf of Alaska, the program was refocused on Prince Williams Sound in early 1990. The surveillance program consisted of frequent low-altitude flights with trained observers in a deHavilland Twin otter outfitted with observation ports and communication equipment. The primary surveillance technique used was direct visual observation. Other techniques, including photography, were tested but proved less effective. The flights targeted all shorelines of concern, particularly those near fishing, subsistence, and recreational areas.the observers attempted to locate all sheens, estimate their size and color, ad identify the source of the oil found in the sheen. Size and color were used to estimate the volume of oil in each sheen. Samples were collected whenever possible during the summer of 1990 using a floating Teflon trademark sampling device that was developed for easy deployment from a boat or the pontoon of a float plane. Forty four samples were analyzed by UV-fluorescence spectroscopy. Eleven of these samples were also analyzed by GC/MS. In general, the analyses confirmed the observers' judgment of source. 16 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Recent Niger Delta shoreline response to Niger River hydrology: Conflict between forces of Nature and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Olusegun A.; Li, Guangxue; Qiao, Lulu; Asiwaju-Bello, Yinusa Ayodele; Anifowose, Adeleye Yekini Biodun

    2018-03-01

    The Niger River Delta is a prolific hydrocarbon province and a mega-delta of economic and environmental relevance. To understand patterns of its recent shoreline evolution (1923-2013) in response to the Niger River hydrology, and establish the role played by forces of Nature and Human, available topographic and satellite remote sensing data, combined with hydro-climatic (rainfall and runoff) data were analyzed. Results indicate that the entire delta coastline dramatically receded: 82% of the >400 km-long coast retreated, during the period 1950-1987; and 69% between 2007 and 2012. Prior to 1950, there was a continuation of seaward advancement along 53-74% of the delta coast. The 1950-1987 shoreline recession coincided with occurrences of two major events in the Niger River basin; these are downward trends in hydro-climatic conditions (the great droughts of the 1970s-1980s), and dam construction on the Lower Niger River at Kainji (1964-1968). The 2007-2012 event corresponded with the extensive channel dredging during 2009-2012 in the Lower Niger River from the coastal town of Warri in the south to Baro in the north. Remarkably, the largest net shoreline advancement recorded in 74% of the entire delta area occurred within a year (2012-2013), which we link to increased sediment supply to the coast caused by the '2012' floods, adjudged the worst floods in the entire Niger River Basin in the last few decades. With both anthropogenic and environmental factors inducing delta evolution, only innovative river and coastal management can determine the fortune of the future coastal development of the Niger Delta.

  16. Investigation of groundwater seepage from the Hanford shoreline of the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, W.D.; Carlile, J.M.V.

    1984-11-01

    Groundwater discharges to the Columbia River are evaluated by the Hanford Environmental Surveillance and Groundwater Surveillance Programs via monitoring of the Columbia River and Hanford groundwater. Both programs concluded that Hanford groundwater has not adversely affected Columbia River water quality. This report supplements the above programs by investigating the general characteristics of groundwater entering the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Specific objectives of the investigation were to identify general shoreline areas where Hanford-related materials were entering the river, and to evaluate qualitatively the physical characteristics and relative magnitudes of those discharges. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved visual inspection of Columbia River shoreline, within the Hanford Site, for indications of groundwater seepage. As a result of that inspection, 115 springs suspected of discharging groundwater were recorded. During Phase 2, water samples were collected from these springs and analyzed for Hanford-related materials known to be present in the groundwater. The specific materials used as indicators for the majority of samples were tritium or uranium and nitrate. The magnitude and distribution of concentrations measured in the spring samples were consistent with concentrations of these materials measured in groundwater near the sampled spring locations. Water samples were also collected from the Columbia River to investigate the localized effects of groundwater discharges occurring above and below river level. These samples were collected within 2 to 4 m of the Hanford shoreline and analyzed for tritium, nitrate, and uranium. Elevated concentrations were measured in river samples collected near areas where groundwater and spring concentrations were elevated. All concentrations were below applicable DOE Concentration Guides. 8 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  17. Drivers of shoreline change in atoll reef islands of the Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvat, Virginie K. E.; Salvat, Bernard; Salmon, Camille

    2017-11-01

    This paper increases by around 30% the sample of atoll reef islands studied from a shoreline change perspective, and covers an under-studied geographical area, i.e. the French Tuamotu Archipelago. It brings new irrefutable evidences on the persistence of reef islands over the last decades, as 77% of the 111 study islands exhibited areal stability while 15% and 8% showed expansion and contraction, respectively. This paper also addresses a key research gap by interpreting the major local drivers controlling recent shoreline and island change, i.e. tropical cyclones and seasonal swells, sediment supply by coral reefs and human activities. The 1983 tropical cyclones had contrasting impacts, depending on the shoreline indicator considered. While they generally caused a marked retreat of the stability line, the base of the beach advanced at some locations, as a result of either sediment reworking or fresh sediment inputs. The post-cyclone fair weather period was characterised by reversed trends indicating island morphological readjustment. Cyclonic waves contributed to island upwards growth, which reached up to 1 m in places, through the transfer of sediments up onto the island surface. However, the steep outer slopes of atolls limited sediment transfers to the reef flat and island system. We found that 57% of the study islands are disturbed by human activities, including 'rural' and uninhabited islands. Twenty-six percent of these islands have lost the capacity to respond to ocean-climate related pressures, including the 'capital' islands concentrating atolls' population, infrastructures and economic activities, which is preoccupying under climate change.

  18. Bioremediation of oil on shoreline environments: development of techniques and guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.; Merlin, F.X.

    1999-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, the development of operational procedures to accelerate the natural biodegradation rates of oil spilled on shoreline environments has been the focus of numerous research programs. As a result, bioremediation has been demonstrated to be an effective oil spill countermeasure for use in cobble, sand beach, salt marsh, and mudflat environments. Today, studies are directed towards improving the efficacy and evaluating the ecological impacts of available bioremediation agents and/or procedures. This review describes the latest developments in bioremediation strategies and their key success factors. (author)

  19. Simulation of the landfall of the Deepwater Horizon oil on the shorelines of the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufadel, Michel C; Abdollahi-Nasab, Ali; Geng, Xiaolong; Galt, Jerry; Torlapati, Jagadish

    2014-08-19

    We conducted simulations of oil transport from the footprint of the Macondo Well on the water surface throughout the Gulf of Mexico, including deposition on the shorelines. We used the U.S. National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) model General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment (GNOME) and the same parameter values and input adopted by NOAA following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout. We found that the disappearance rate of oil off the water surface was most likely around 20% per day based on satellite-based observations of the disappearance rate of oil detected on the sea surface after the DWH wellhead was capped. The simulations and oil mass estimates suggest that the mass of oil that reached the shorelines was between 10,000 and 30,000 tons, with an expected value of 22,000 tons. More than 90% of the oil deposition occurred on the Louisiana shorelines, and it occurred in two batches. Simulations revealed that capping the well after 2 weeks would have resulted in only 30% of the total oil depositing on the shorelines, while capping after 3 weeks would have resulted in 60% deposition. Additional delay in capping after 3 weeks would have averted little additional shoreline oiling over the ensuing 4 weeks.

  20. Application of the AMBUR R package for spatio-temporal analysis of shoreline change: Jekyll Island, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Chester W.; Alexander, Clark R.; Bush, David M.

    2012-04-01

    The AMBUR (Analyzing Moving Boundaries Using R) package for the R software environment provides a collection of functions for assisting with analyzing and visualizing historical shoreline change. The package allows import and export of geospatial data in ESRI shapefile format, which is compatible with most commercial and open-source GIS software. The "baseline and transect" method is the primary technique used to quantify distances and rates of shoreline movement, and to detect classification changes across time. Along with the traditional "perpendicular" transect method, two new transect methods, "near" and "filtered," assist with quantifying changes along curved shorelines that are problematic for perpendicular transect methods. Output from the analyses includes data tables, graphics, and geospatial data, which are useful in rapidly assessing trends and potential errors in the dataset. A forecasting function also allows the user to estimate the future location of the shoreline and store the results in a shapefile. Other utilities and tools provided in the package assist with preparing and manipulating geospatial data, error checking, and generating supporting graphics and shapefiles. The package can be customized to perform additional statistical, graphical, and geospatial functions, and, it is capable of analyzing the movement of any boundary (e.g., shorelines, glacier terminus, fire edge, and marine and terrestrial ecozones).

  1. Providing support for day-to-day monitoring of shoreline cleanup operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarche, A.; Tarpley, J.

    1997-01-01

    Experiences gained during the 'Cape Mohican' incident in October 1996, in San Francisco Bay, were recounted and proposed as a potential example of day-to-day monitoring, evaluation and reporting of shoreline cleanup effort. During this cleanup a set of communications procedures, progress reports and maps were developed which should be equally useful in other similar situations. The cartographic representations were specially highlighted as they focused on ways to provide a clear picture of the short term modifications in oiling conditions of the affected shoreline. The most important lesson learned from this oil spill was the importance of having personnel and equipment sufficiently matched to the task in order to evaluate oil conditions, produce cleanup recommendations, execute and communicate the status of the cleanup effort as fast, and as efficiently and effectively as possible. It was clearly demonstrated that unless the decision process is streamlined and supported with the best, most up-to-date information, the efforts of the cleanup team would be seriously undermined. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  2. Sedimentation and erosion in Lake Diefenbaker, Canada: solutions for shoreline retreat monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Amir; de Boer, Dirk; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich

    2017-09-15

    This study looks into sedimentation and erosion rates in Lake Diefenbaker, a prairie reservoir, in Saskatchewan, Canada, which has been in operation since 1968. First, we looked at the historical data in all different formats over the last 70 years, which includes data from more than 20 years before the formation of the lake. The field observations indicate high rates of shoreline erosion, especially in the upstream portion as a potential region for shoreline retreat. Because of the great importance of this waterbody to the province, monitoring sedimentation and erosion rates is necessary for maintaining the quality of water especially after severe floods which are more common due to climate change effects. Second, we used Google Maps Elevation API, a new tool from Google that provides elevation data for cross sections drawn between two points, by drawing 24 cross sections in the upstream area extending 250 m from each bank. This feature from Google can be used as an easy and fast monitoring tool, is free of charge, and provides excellent control capabilities for monitoring changes in cross-sectional profiles.

  3. Ikaite precipitation by mixing of shoreline springs and lake water, Mono Lake, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, James L.; Stine, Scott; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Fitzpatrick, John A.; Stafford, Thomas W., Jr.

    1993-08-01

    Metastable ikaite (CaCO 3·6H 2O) forms abundantly during winter months along the south shoreline of Mono Lake where shoreline springs mix with lake water. Ikaite precipitates because of its decreased solubility at low temperature and because of orthophosphate-ion inhibition of calcite and aragonite. During the spring some of the ikaite is transformed to anhydrous CaCO 3 and is incorporated into tufa, but most is dispersed by wave action into the lake where it reacts to form gaylussite (Na 2Ca(CO 3) 2· 5H 2O). Spring waters have low pH values, are dominantly Ca-Na-HCO 3, have low radiocarbon activities, and are mixtures of deep-seated geothermal and cold groundwaters. Chemical modeling reveals that precipitation of CaCO 3 can occur over a broad range of mixtures of spring and lake water with a maximum production occurring at 96% spring water and 4% lake water. Under these conditions all the Ca and a significant fraction of the CO 3 of the precipitate is spring supplied. A radiocarbon age of 19,580 years obtained on a natural ikaite sample supports this conclusion. With the springs supplying a large and probably variable portion of the carbonate, and with apparent 14C age of the carbonate varying from spring to spring, tufa of similar actual antiquity may yield significantly different 14C dates, making tufa at this location unsuitable for absolute age dating by the radiocarbon method.

  4. A model integrating longshore and cross-shore processes for predicting long-term shoreline response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick; Limber, Patrick W.; Erikson, Li; Cole, Blake

    2017-01-01

    We present a shoreline change model for coastal hazard assessment and management planning. The model, CoSMoS-COAST (Coastal One-line Assimilated Simulation Tool), is a transect-based, one-line model that predicts short-term and long-term shoreline response to climate change in the 21st century. The proposed model represents a novel, modular synthesis of process-based models of coastline evolution due to longshore and cross-shore transport by waves and sea-level rise. Additionally, the model uses an extended Kalman filter for data assimilation of historical shoreline positions to improve estimates of model parameters and thereby improve confidence in long-term predictions. We apply CoSMoS-COAST to simulate sandy shoreline evolution along 500 km of coastline in Southern California, which hosts complex mixtures of beach settings variably backed by dunes, bluffs, cliffs, estuaries, river mouths, and urban infrastructure, providing applicability of the model to virtually any coastal setting. Aided by data assimilation, the model is able to reproduce the observed signal of seasonal shoreline change for the hindcast period of 1995-2010, showing excellent agreement between modeled and observed beach states. The skill of the model during the hindcast period improves confidence in the model's predictive capability when applied to the forecast period (2010-2100) driven by GCM-projected wave and sea-level conditions. Predictions of shoreline change with limited human intervention indicate that 31% to 67% of Southern California beaches may become completely eroded by 2100 under sea-level rise scenarios of 0.93 to 2.0 m.

  5. Open Adoption and the Right to Identity in the Context of the Best Interest of the Child: an Analysis of Article 22 of the Act on “Protection of Children and Adolescents without Guardian and with Inappropriate Guardian” (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمد روشن

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adoption as a ground for the best interests of the child, focuses on finding a proper family for a child rather than a child for the family. Open adoption as a sort of adoption for protecting children claims that child’s access to the information of original parents and other identity features will provide child’s right to identity and include child’s best interest. On the other hand, despite rejecting adoption, Islam postulates child access to biological parents’ information due to protecting child’s identity and ancestry. The trace of this point of view is observable in the “Protection of children and Teenagers without Guardian or with Improper Guardian” Act (2013. This article is planning to find similarities and differences between the two supportive approaches. According to the findings, it is to say that both of the approaches, despite the fundamental differences, are convergent in presenting information about the child’s identity. In other sorts of adoption, the main plot is the child’s right to have access to the biological inform-ation as well, but in the open adoption approach, child can also contact to the primary parents beyond the mere information access.

  6. Anthropogenic effects on shoreface and shoreline changes: Input from a multi-method analysis, Agadir Bay, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouiche, Ismail; Daoudi, Lahcen; Anthony, Edward J.; Sedrati, Mouncef; Ziane, Elhassane; Harti, Abderrazak; Dussouillez, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    In many situations, the links between shoreline fluctuations and larger-scale coastal change embracing the shoreface are not always well understood. In particular, meso-scale (years to decades) sand exchanges between the shoreface and the shoreline, considered as important on many wave-dominated coasts, are rather poorly understood and difficult to identify. Coastal systems where sediment transport is perturbed by engineering interventions on the shoreline and shoreface commonly provide fine examples liable to throw light on these links. This is especially so where shoreface bathymetric datasets, which are generally lacking, are collected over time, enabling more or less fine resolution of the meso-scale coastal sediment budget. Agadir Bay and the city of Agadir together form one of the two most important economic development poles on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. Using a combined methodological approach based on wave-current modelling, bathymetric chart-differencing, determination of shoreline fluctuations, and beach topographic surveying, we highlight the close links between variations in the bed of the inner shoreface and the bay shoreline involving both cross-shore and longshore sand transport pathways, sediment budget variations and new sediment cell patterns. We show that the significant changes that have affected the bay shoreline and shoreface since 1978 clearly reflect anthropogenic impacts, notably blocking of alongshore sand transport by Agadir harbour, completed in 1988, and the foundations of which lie well beyond the depth of wave closure. Construction of the harbour has led to the creation of a rapidly accreting beach against an original portion of rocky shoreline updrift and to a net sand loss exceeding 145,000 m3/year between 1978 and 2012 over 8.5 km2of the bay shoreface downdrift. Shoreline retreat has been further exacerbated by sand extraction from aeolian dunes and by flattening of these dunes to make space for tourist infrastructure. Digital

  7. Αutomated 2D shoreline detection from coastal video imagery: an example from the island of Crete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velegrakis, A. F.; Trygonis, V.; Vousdoukas, M. I.; Ghionis, G.; Chatzipavlis, A.; Andreadis, O.; Psarros, F.; Hasiotis, Th.

    2015-06-01

    Beaches are both sensitive and critical coastal system components as they: (i) are vulnerable to coastal erosion (due to e.g. wave regime changes and the short- and long-term sea level rise) and (ii) form valuable ecosystems and economic resources. In order to identify/understand the current and future beach morphodynamics, effective monitoring of the beach spatial characteristics (e.g. the shoreline position) at adequate spatio-temporal resolutions is required. In this contribution we present the results of a new, fully-automated detection method of the (2-D) shoreline positions using high resolution video imaging from a Greek island beach (Ammoudara, Crete). A fully-automated feature detection method was developed/used to monitor the shoreline position in geo-rectified coastal imagery obtained through a video system set to collect 10 min videos every daylight hour with a sampling rate of 5 Hz, from which snapshot, time-averaged (TIMEX) and variance images (SIGMA) were generated. The developed coastal feature detector is based on a very fast algorithm using a localised kernel that progressively grows along the SIGMA or TIMEX digital image, following the maximum backscatter intensity along the feature of interest; the detector results were found to compare very well with those obtained from a semi-automated `manual' shoreline detection procedure. The automated procedure was tested on video imagery obtained from the eastern part of Ammoudara beach in two 5-day periods, a low wave energy period (6-10 April 2014) and a high wave energy period (1 -5 November 2014). The results showed that, during the high wave energy event, there have been much higher levels of shoreline variance which, however, appeared to be similarly unevenly distributed along the shoreline as that related to the low wave energy event, Shoreline variance `hot spots' were found to be related to the presence/architecture of an offshore submerged shallow beachrock reef, found at a distance of 50-80 m

  8. ACTS 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Co-curator of ACTS 2014 together with Rasmus Holmboe, Judith Schwarzbart and Sanne Kofoed. ACTS is the Museum of Contemporary Art’s international bi-annual festival. ACTS was established in 2011 and, while the primary focus is on sound and performance art, it also looks toward socially oriented art....... For the 2014 festival, the museum has entered into a collaboration with the Department for Performance Design at Roskilde University – with continued focus on sound and performance art, and social art in public spaces. With ACTS, art moves out of its usual exhibition space and instead utilizes the city, its...... various possibilities and public spaces as a stage. ACTS takes place in and around the museum and diverse locations in Roskilde city. ACTS is partly curated by the museum staff and partly by guest curators. ACTS 2014 is supported by Nordea-fonden and is a part of the project The Museum goes downtown....

  9. Control of decisions in proceedings at administrative courts relating to the Federal Act for Protection Against Nuisances and to the Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellner, D.

    1980-01-01

    The author examines especially those lawsuits where the judicial decision depends - among other things - on the prior settling of most difficult technological questions. The decision on Kalkar given by the Federal Court of Justice is so important because it confirms that largely unclear legal terms are unobjectionable from the point of view of constitutional law. Using other findings, the author discusses the extension of legal protection as to include earlier stages of licensing procedures, foreclosure, the tightness of controls in case of review and subsequent assessment of difficult scientific or technological issues, risk assessment and its evaluation by the executive and judiciary. Law leaves final decision and assessment up to the executive power, the review of the framework up to the court. The problems mentioned can be solved without having to set up a science court or to install a judge who is an expert in technologies. (HSCH) [de

  10. How the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 Has Undermined US Refugee Protection Obligations and Wasted Government Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Acer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Seeking asylum is a human right, enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (“Refugee Convention” and its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (“1967 Protocol” prohibit the United States from returning refugees to persecution, and the 1980 Refugee Act set up a formal process for applying for asylum in the United States. However, the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA created a barrage of new barriers to asylum. These impediments have blocked many refugees from accessing asylum in the United States and inserted additional layers of technicalities, screening, and processing, undermining the effectiveness of the US asylum system. The barriers imposed by IIRIRA are significant. They include a filing deadline on asylum applications, which prevents genuine refugees from receiving asylum if they cannot prove they have filed the application within one year of arriving in the United States. IIRIRA also established summary deportation procedures, including “expedited removal” and “reinstatement of removal,” which block asylum seekers from even applying for asylum or accessing an immigration court removal hearing, unless they first pass through a screening process. Finally, IIRIRA imposed “mandatory detention” on certain immigrants, including asylum seekers who are placed in expedited removal proceedings upon their arrival at a US port of entry. Each of these provisions imposed new processes and procedures that have contributed to an increasingly ineffective immigration system. The current backlog in the immigration courts has reached a record high, surpassing half a million cases, while the backlog of affirmative asylum cases before the Asylum Division of US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS has increased by a factor of six [check] in just three years. Backlogs, which lead to long delays in adjudication

  11. Potential for shoreline changes due to sea-level rise along the U.S. mid-Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Thieler, E. Robert

    2007-01-01

    Sea-level rise over the next century is expected to contribute significantly to physical changes along open-ocean shorelines. Predicting the form and magnitude of coastal changes is important for understanding the impacts to humans and the environment. Presently, the ability to predict coastal changes is limited by the scientific understanding of the many variables and processes involved in coastal change, and the lack of consensus regarding the validity of existing conceptual, analytical, or numerical models. In order to assess potential future coastal changes in the mid-Atlantic U.S. for the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), a workshop was convened by the U.S. Geological Survey. Assessments of future coastal change were made by a committee of coastal scientists with extensive professional experience in the mid-Atlantic region. Thirteen scientists convened for a two-day meeting to exchange information and develop a consensus opinion on potential future coastal changes for the mid-Atlantic coast in response to sea-level rise. Using criteria defined in past work, the mid-Atlantic coast was divided into four geomorphic compartments: spits, headlands, wave-dominated barriers, and mixed-energy barriers. A range of potential coastal responses was identified for each compartment based on four sea-level rise scenarios. The four scenarios were based on the assumptions that: a) the long-term sea-level rise rate observed over the 20th century would persist over the 21st century, b) the 20th century rate would increase by 2 mm/yr, c) the 20th century rate would increase by 7 mm/yr, or d) sea-level would rise by 2 m over the next few hundred years. Potential responses to these sea-level rise scenarios depend on the landforms that occur within a region and include increased likelihood for erosion and shoreline retreat for all coastal types, increased likelihood for erosion, overwash and inlet breaching for barrier islands, as well as the possibility of a threshold

  12. Shoreline change after 12 years of tsunami in Banda Aceh, Indonesia: a multi-resolution, multi-temporal satellite data and GIS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugianto, S.; Heriansyah; Darusman; Rusdi, M.; Karim, A.

    2018-04-01

    The Indian Ocean Tsunami event on the 26 December 2004 has caused severe damage of some shorelines in Banda Aceh City, Indonesia. Tracing back the impact can be seen using remote sensing data combined with GIS. The approach is incorporated with image processing to analyze the extent of shoreline changes with multi-temporal data after 12 years of tsunami. This study demonstrates multi-resolution and multi-temporal satellite images of QuickBird and IKONOS to demarcate the shoreline of Banda Aceh shoreline from before and after tsunami. The research has demonstrated a significant change to the shoreline in the form of abrasion between 2004 and 2005 from few meters to hundred meters’ change. The change between 2004 and 2011 has not returned to the previous stage of shoreline before the tsunami, considered post tsunami impact. The abrasion occurs between 18.3 to 194.93 meters. Further, the change in 2009-2011 shows slowly change of shoreline of Banda Aceh, considered without impact of tsunami e.g. abrasion caused by ocean waves that erode the coast and on specific areas accretion occurs caused by sediment carried by the river flow into the sea near the shoreline of the study area.

  13. Anthropogenic influences on shoreline and nearshore evolution in the San Francisco Bay coastal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, K.L.; Barnard, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of four historical bathymetric surveys over a 132-year period has revealed significant changes to the morphology of the San Francisco Bar, an ebb-tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay estuary. From 1873 to 2005 the San Francisco Bar vertically-eroded an average of 80 cm over a 125 km2 area, which equates to a total volume loss of 100 ± 52 million m3 of fine- to coarse-grained sand. Comparison of the surveys indicates the entire ebb-tidal delta contracted radially, with the crest moving landward an average of 1 km. Long-term erosion of the ebb-tidal delta is hypothesized to be due to a reduction in the tidal prism of San Francisco Bay and a decrease in coastal sediment supply, both as a result of anthropogenic activities. Prior research indicates that the tidal prism of the estuary was reduced by 9% from filling, diking, and sedimentation. Compilation of historical records dating back to 1900 reveals that a minimum of 200 million m3 of sediment has been permanently removed from the San Francisco Bay coastal system through dredging, aggregate mining, and borrow pit mining. Of this total, ~54 million m3 of sand-sized or coarser sediment was removed from central San Francisco Bay. With grain sizes comparable to the ebb-tidal delta, and its direct connection to the bay mouth, removal of sediments from central San Francisco Bay may limit the sand supply to the delta and open coast beaches. SWAN wave modeling illustrates that changes to the morphology of the San Francisco Bar have altered the alongshore wave energy distribution at adjacent Ocean Beach, and thus may be a significant factor in a persistent beach erosion ‘hot spot’ occurring in the area. Shoreline change analyses show that the sandy shoreline in the shadow of the ebb-tidal delta experienced long-term (1850s/1890s to 2002) and short-term (1960s/1980s to 2002) accretion while the adjacent sandy shoreline exposed to open-ocean waves experienced long-term and short-term erosion. Therefore

  14. Quality control in environmental radioactivity measurements: experience of the Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiation, acting as International Reference Center Of the World Health Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, M L; Gahinet, M E; Moroni, J P; De Zertucha, J; Pellerin, P [Service Central de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, 78 - Le Vesinet (France)

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to make known the experiences in the Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (SCPRI) in two fields: (i)in relation to the survey of, and research on, environmental radiation in France for 15 years, and (ii) as the International Reference Center (IRC), a responsibility which has been assigned to it by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for more than 7 years. The SCPRI has no permanent activity in pure metrology but the control which it exerts on a national scale (more than 30,000 environmental samples analyzed each year) and the periodic intercomparisons which it organizes with a large number of foreign Public Health Laboratories have led to the development of a strict quality control program for the techniques of preparation and verification of standard sources and reference samples which are essential in the use of counters, the application and development of spectrometric and radiochemical analytical methods and in the distribution of samples for intercomparison purposes. A description is given of practical experience of quality control in the preparation of standards and in international inter-comparisons organized under the sponsorship of the World Health Organization.

  15. Implementing the shoreline cleanup assessment team process in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Ramsey, K.E.; Lindstedt, D.; Westphal, K.A.; Seal, R.; McBride, R.A.; Byrnes, M.R.; Owens, E.

    1993-01-01

    Louisiana State University (LSU) and Woodward-Clyde Consultants are working with state and federal agencies and industry through the LSU Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Research and Response Program to establish a shoreline cleanup assessment team program (SCAT) in the Gulf of Mexico. Each SCAT team consists of a coastal geomorphologist and ecologist (and archaeologist when appropriate), as well as representatives from the responsible federal, state, and private agencies. This cooperative effort is aimed at identifying oil spill impact and interagency coastal resource concerns and recommendations, and developing a cleanup strategy based on interagency cooperation and concurrence within a systematic and standardized framework. The SCAT program provides interagency coordination, SCAT preparedness, spill drill participation, interagency training, geographic information systems services, monitoring, and routine aerial videotape surveys. It also offers technical support to the decision-making process within spill response operations

  16. Toxicity of oiled sediments treated with bioremediation agents: A shoreline experiment in Delaware, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mearna, A.; Doe, K.; Fisher, W.; Lee, K.; Mueller, C.

    1995-01-01

    Using a randomized complete block design, a battery of five pore water and sediment bioassays were used to monitor and compare toxicity among un-oiled, oiled (light Nigerian crude) and nutrient and bacteria-treated shoreline plots on a sandy beach. Tests included sea urchin fertilization, water and modified-solid phase microtox, 10-day amphipod survival and grass shrimp embryo bioassays. During the 13-week study, bioremediation treatment with nutrients and/or bacteria did not decrease toxicity relative to that in untreated plots. Results from at least one bioassay suggested that, relative to no treatment, treatment may have increased toxicity for several weeks. The least and most sensitive tests were sea urchin fertilization (pore water) and 10-day amphipod test, respectively. Coupled with chemical monitoring, the study produced a large data-base for evaluating toxic concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in sandy sediments

  17. Tsunami Waves Extensively Resurfaced the Shorelines of an Early Martian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. A. P.; Fairen, A. G.; Linares, R.; Zarroca, M.; Platz, T.; Komatsu, G.; Kargel, J. S.; Gulick, V.; Jianguo, Y.; Higuchi, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Viking image-based mapping of a widespread deposit covering most of the northern low-lands of Mars led to the proposal by Parker et al. that the deposit represents the vestiges of an enormous ocean that existed approx. 3.4 Ga. Later identified as the Vastitas Borealis Formation, the latest geologic map of Mars identifies this deposit as the Late Hesperian lowland unit (lHl). This deposit is typically bounded by raised lobate margins. In addition, some margins have associated rille channels, which could have been produced sub-aerially by the back-wash of high-energy tsunami waves. Radar-sounding data indicate that the deposit is ice-rich. However, until now, the lack of wave-cut shoreline features and the presence of lobate margins have remained an im-pediment to the acceptance of the paleo-ocean hypothesis.

  18. Bioremediation of diesel from a rocky shoreline in an arid tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2015-10-15

    A non invasive sampling and remediation strategy was developed and implemented at shoreline contaminated with spilt diesel. To treat the contamination, in a practical, cost-effective, and safe manner (to personnel working on the stockpiles and their ship loading activity), a non-invasive sampling and remediation strategy was designed and implemented since the location and nature of the impacted geology (rock fill) and sediment, precluded conventional ex-situ and any in-situ treatment where drilling is required. A bioremediation process using surfactant, and added N & P and increased aeration, increased the degradation rate allowing the site owner to meet their regulatory obligations. Petroleum hydrocarbons decreased from saturation concentrations to less than detectable amounts at the completion of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline, Texas to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Thomas, Burt; Wong, Florence L.

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons were extracted and analyzed from shoreline sediment collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) coastline that could potentially be impacted by Macondo-1 (M-1) well oil. Sediment was collected before M-1 well oil made significant local landfall and analyzed for baseline conditions by a suite of diagnostic petroleum biomarkers. Oil residue in trace quantities was detected in 45 of 69 samples. With the aid of multivariate statistical analysis, three different oil groups, based on biomarker similarity, were identified that were distributed geographically along the nGOM from Texas to Florida. None of the sediment hydrocarbon extracts correlated with the M-1 well oil extract, however, the similarity of tarballs collected at one site (FL-18) with the M-1 well oil suggests that some oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill may have been transported to this site in the Florida Keys, perhaps by a loop current, before that site was sampled.

  20. Geochemical distribution of trace metals and organochlorine contaminants of a lake ontario shoreline marsh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glooschenko, W A; Capocianco, J; Coburn, J; Glooschenko, V

    1981-02-01

    Rattray Marsh, an 8 ha marsh on the Lake Ontario shoreline at Mississauga, Ontario, is an important local habitat for waterfowl and shorebirds during spring and fall migration. A study was conducted to determine the distribution of nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) and potential trace metal and organochlorine pollutants in the marsh as evidenced by the sedimentary concentrations of these compounds. Generally, copper, zinc, lead, and mercury were higher in concentration in local soils than in Lake Ontario sediments. Metals and organic carbon levels did not correlate, and the metals appeared to be associated with silts and clays. Organochlorine contaminants include p,p1-DDE, p,p1-DDD, p,p1-DDT, alpha-chlordane, PCB, mirex, and HCB.