WorldWideScience

Sample records for shooting white-tailed deer

  1. Population characteristics of a central Appalachian white tailed deer herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler A. Campbell; Benjamin R. Laseter; W. Mark Ford; Karl V. Miller; Karl V. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Reliable estimates of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population parameters are needed for effective population management. We used radiotelemetrv to compare survival and cause-specific mortality rates between male and female white-tailed deer and present reproductive data for a high-density deer herd in the central Appalachians of West Virginia during...

  2. Modeling white-tailed deer activity patterns across forested landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. Gribko; Michael E. Hohn; William M. Ford

    2000-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory has been identified as a major impediment to the survival and growth of forest regeneration in the northeastern United States. As a supplement to direct control of deer densities through hunting, it may be possible for land managers to manipulate habitat and browsing pressure through carefully...

  3. Will Culling White-Tailed Deer Prevent Lyme Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugeler, K J; Jordan, R A; Schulze, T L; Griffith, K S; Mead, P S

    2016-08-01

    White-tailed deer play an important role in the ecology of Lyme disease. In the United States, where the incidence and geographic range of Lyme disease continue to increase, reduction of white-tailed deer populations has been proposed as a means of preventing human illness. The effectiveness of this politically sensitive prevention method is poorly understood. We summarize and evaluate available evidence regarding the effect of deer reduction on vector tick abundance and human disease incidence. Elimination of deer from islands and other isolated settings can have a substantial impact on the reproduction of blacklegged ticks, while reduction short of complete elimination has yielded mixed results. To date, most studies have been conducted in ecologic situations that are not representative to the vast majority of areas with high human Lyme disease risk. Robust evidence linking deer control to reduced human Lyme disease risk is lacking. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to recommend deer population reduction as a Lyme disease prevention measure, except in specific ecologic circumstances. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Predator evasion by white-tailed deer fawns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite their importance for understanding predator–prey interactions, factors that affect predator evasion behaviours of offspring of large ungulates are poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize the influence of selection and availability of escape cover and maternal presence on predator evasion by white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, fawns in the northern Great Plains, U.S.A. We observed 45 coyote, Canis latrans, chases of fawns, and we participated in 83 human chases of fawns during 2007–2009, of which, 19 and 42 chases, respectively, ended with capture of the fawn. Evasive techniques used by fawns were similar for human and coyote chases. Likelihood of a white-tailed deer fawn escaping capture, however, was influenced by deer group size and a number of antipredator behaviours, including aggressive defence by females, initial habitat and selection of escape cover, all of which were modified by the presence of parturient females. At the initiation of a chase, fawns in grasslands were more likely to escape, whereas fawns in forested cover, cultivated land or wheat were more likely to be captured by a coyote or human. Fawns fleeing to wetlands and grasslands also were less likely to be captured compared with those choosing forested cover, wheat and cultivated land. Increased probability of capture was associated with greater distance to wetland and grassland habitats and decreased distance to wheat. Use of wetland habitat as a successful antipredator strategy highlights the need for a greater understanding of the importance of habitat complexity in predator avoidance.

  5. Variable Acorn Crops: Responses of White-Tailed Deer and Other Mast Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. McShea; Georg Schwede

    1993-01-01

    We examined movements and behavior of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) relative to the acorn mast-fall from 1986 through 1989 in a mature deciduous forest in Front Royal, Virginia. Ten white-tailed deer with radiotransmitters increased their home range to incorporate acorn-producing areas during mast-fall. Consumption of acorns by...

  6. Genetic structuring of Coues white-tailed deer in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy G. Lopez

    2006-01-01

    The manuscripts in this thesis examine different aspects of white-tailed deer. In the first manuscript I used microsatellite DNA markers in the form of multilocus genotype data and microsatellite allele frequencies to examine spatial patterns of genetic relatedness for Coues white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus couesi) in Arizona and New Mexico...

  7. Parasites, diseases, and health status of sympatric populations of sika deer and white-tailed deer in Maryland and Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, W R; Crow, C B

    1983-10-01

    In July 1981, investigations on parasites, diseases, and herd health status were conducted on sympatric populations of sika deer (Cervus nippon) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (Maryland) and Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge (Virginia) on the Delmarva Peninsula. Five adult deer of each species were collected from each location and subjected to thorough necropsy examinations and laboratory tests. White-tailed deer at both locations harbored protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites typically associated with this species throughout the southeastern United States. In contrast, sika deer at both locations harbored only light burdens of ticks, chiggers, and sarcocysts. Serologic tests for antibodies to seven infectious disease agents revealed evidence of exposure to bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and parainfluenza3 virus in white-tailed deer, but only BVD virus in sika deer. At both locations the general health status of sika deer was superior to that of white-tailed deer.

  8. Survival of Columbian white-tailed deer in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A.; Anthony, Robert G.; Jackson, Dewaine H.; Wolfe, Scott A.

    2002-01-01

    Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus; CWTD) are an endangered subspecies on which little demographic information exists. We determined survival rates and causes of mortality for 64 radiocol- lared adults from 1996 to 1998, and for 63 radiocollared neonatal fawns during the summer and fall months of 1996-2001 in Douglas County, Oregon, USA. Annual adult survival rates averaged 0.74 over 3 years, and most mor- tality (73%) occurred between fall and winter. Seasonal survival was lowest (0.75) for the fall-winter 1997-1998, and was 20.90 during all spring-summer periods. Annual and seasonal survival rates did not differ by gender. Average annual survival was 0.77 for deer in wildland areas compared with 0.66 for deer in suburban areas, but these dif- ferences were not consistent between years and seasons. Survival over the entire 3-year study was low (0.38). Eight deer died from a combination of emaciation and disease, and almost all (92%) necropsied deer were in poor body condition. Fawn survival to 7 months was low (0.14, 95% CI = 0.02-0.26) and declined most rapidly during the first 1.5 months of life. Predation (n = 21) and abandonment (n = 6) were the most frequent known causes of death for fawns. Our results suggest that CWTD may have responded to density-dependent factors during this short-term study, although the effects of other environmental or intrinsic factors cannot be ignored. Fawn survival may be insufficient to produce enough recruits for population growth and eventual range expansion.

  9. Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

  10. Seasonal food selection and digestibility by tame white-tailed deer in central Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlette S. Crawford

    1982-01-01

    Seasonal food selection and digestibility by tame white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were studied in the white pine (Pinus strobus)–Canada hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and lowland conifer types, areas representative of important deer habitat in the northeastern United States. Deer selected highly...

  11. The Netherlands strain of BTV serotype 8 in white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the susceptibility of U.S. white-tailed deer to the European strain of BTV-8 (EU-BTV-8) isolated in The Netherlands, eight seronegative deer were injected subcutaneously in the neck and intradermally in the inner left leg. Two deer were sham inoculated to serve as uninfected controls an...

  12. Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. Comer; John C. Kilgo; Gino J. D' Angelo; Travis C. Glenn; Karl V. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial...

  13. A regional assessment of white-tailed deer effects on plant invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averill, Kristine M. [Ecology Intercollege Graduate Degree Program, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Department of Plant Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Mortensen, David A. [Ecology Intercollege Graduate Degree Program, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Department of Plant Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Smithwick, Erica A. H. [Ecology Intercollege Graduate Degree Program, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Department of Geography, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Kalisz, Susan [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; McShea, William J. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Front Royal, VA, USA; Bourg, Norman A. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Front Royal, VA, USA; Parker, John D. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD, USA; Royo, Alejandro A. [United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Irvine, PA, USA; Abrams, Marc D. [Ecology Intercollege Graduate Degree Program, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Apsley, David K. [Department of Extension, The Ohio State University, Jackson, OH, USA; Blossey, Bernd [Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; Boucher, Douglas H. [Department of Biology, Hood College, Frederick, MD, USA; Caraher, Kai L. [Department of Biology, Hood College, Frederick, MD, USA; DiTommaso, Antonio [Soil and Crop Sciences Section, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; Johnson, Sarah E. [Ecology Intercollege Graduate Degree Program, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Masson, Robert [National Park Service, Morristown National Historical Park, Morristown, NJ, USA; Nuzzo, Victoria A. [Natural Area Consultants, Richford, NY, USA

    2017-12-07

    Herbivores can profoundly influence plant species assembly, including plant invasion, and resulting community composition. Population increases of native herbivores, e.g., white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), combined with burgeoning plant invasions raise concerns for native plant diversity and forest regeneration. While individual researchers typically test for the impact of deer on plant invasion at a few sites, the overarching influence of deer on plant invasion across regional scales is unclear. We tested the effects of deer on the abundance and diversity of introduced and native herbaceous and woody plants across 23 white-tailed deer research sites distributed across the east central and northeastern United States and representing a wide range of deer densities and invasive plant abundance and identity. Deer access/exclusion or deer population density did not affect introduced plant richness or community-level abundance. Native and total plant species richness, abundance (cover and stem density), and Shannon diversity were lower in deer-access vs. deer-exclusion plots. Among deer access plots, native species richness, native and total cover, and Shannon diversity (cover) declined as deer density increased. Deer access increased the proportion of introduced species cover (but not of species richness or stem density). As deer density increased, the proportion of introduced species richness, cover, and stem density all increased. Because absolute abundance of introduced plants was unaffected by deer, the increase in proportion of introduced plant abundance is likely an indirect effect of deer reducing native cover. Indicator species analysis revealed that deer access favored three introduced plant species, including Alliaria petiolata and Microstegium vimineum, as well as four native plant species. In contrast, deer exclusion favored three introduced plant species, including Lonicera japonica and Rosa multiflora, and fifteen native plant species. Overall

  14. Undernutrition and serum and urinary urea nitrogen of white-tailed deer during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1994-01-01

    Direct, practical means of assessing undernutrition in deer (Odocoileus spp.) and other ungulates during winter are needed in areas of research and management. We examined the relationship between mass loss and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine (U:C) in captive white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). During 4 February-5 May 1988, we maintained 7 adult white-tailed deer on various feeding regimes to simulate natural nutritional restriction during winter. Mass loss was greater (P = 0.037) in deer (17.0-32.2%) fed restricted amounts of a low protein low energy diet versus control deer (7.0-17.4%) fed the same diet ad libitum. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations did not differ (P = 0.191) between groups, but declined (P = 0.001) as nutrition declined. Slopes of percent mass lossSUN and urinary U:C relationships were positive (P = 0.008 and 0.055) in 7 and 6 deer, respectively. Mean U:C was directly related (r2 = 0.52, P = 0.040) to mean cumulative mass loss, whereas mean SUN was not (r2 = 0.29, P = 0.125). Data presented support the potential of urinary U:C as an index of winter nutritional condition of white-tailed deer; however, additional research is required to provide a complete understanding of this index's utility under field conditions.

  15. Wolf, Canis lupus, visits to white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, summer ranges: Optimal foraging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demma, D.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2009-01-01

    We tested whether Wolf (Canis lupus) visits to individual female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) summer ranges during 2003 and 2004 in northeastern Minnesota were in accord with optimal-foraging theory. Using GPS collars with 10- to 30-minute location attempts on four Wolves and five female deer, plus eleven VHF-collared female deer in the Wolves' territory, provided new insights into the frequency of Wolf visits to summer ranges of female deer. Wolves made a mean 0.055 visits/day to summer ranges of deer three years and older, significantly more than their 0.032 mean visits/day to ranges of two-year-old deer, which generally produce fewer fawns, and most Wolf visits to ranges of older deer were much longer than those to ranges of younger deer. Because fawns comprise the major part of the Wolf's summer diet, this Wolf behavior accords with optimal-foraging theory.

  16. Movement patterns of rural and suburban white-tailed deer in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, C.R.; DeStefano, S.

    2005-01-01

    We used satellite land cover data and the program FRAGSTATS toquantify land cover types and calculate the amount of forest edge available in suburban and rural regions of northeastern and northwestern Massachusetts. Cover categories included forest cover, open canopy vegetation, and non-deer habitat. We calculated all edge segments where forest cover abutted open canopy cover. Our open canopy vegetation category was calculated both with and without low intensity suburban development. We then compared these findings to movement data from 53 (13 males, 40 females) adult radio-marked white-tailed deerOdocoileus virginianusmonitored biweekly and diurnally from January 2001 to January 2003. The range of movements of suburban deer in eastern Massachusetts showed no difference to that of suburban deer in western Massachusetts (P = 0.7). However, the ranges for suburban deer in both eastern and western Massachusetts were 10 times less than those of deer in rural western Massachusetts (P = 0.001).Our findings suggest that landscape configuration, as described by the amount and distribution of edge due to suburban development, which is related to the amount and distribution of resources such as food and cover, affects migratory behavior of white-tailed deer, allowsdeer to have smaller ranges, and contributes to high deer densities.Inclusion of suburban edge in habitat models will increase our understanding of deer-habitat relationships for management of deer in urbanizing environments. ?? 2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

  17. Cattle or sheep reduce fawning habitat available to Columbian white-tailed deer in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston P. Smith; Bruce E. Coblentz

    2010-01-01

    We studied responses of Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus) to cattle and sheep in western Oregon because of viability concerns. We used radio-telemetry, observations from horseback, and searches with a trained dog to determine fawning habitat, dam home ranges, and habitat use by fawns. Dams shifted their center of...

  18. Influences of hunting on the behavior of white-tailed deer: implications for conservation of the Florida panther

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Kilgo; Ronald F. Labisky; Duane E. Fritzen

    1998-01-01

    The effects of deer hunting by humans on deer population dynamics and behavior may indirectly affect the population dynamics and behavior of deer predators. The authors present data on the effects of hunting on the behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Osceola National Forest, a potential reintroduction site for the endangered Florida panther (...

  19. Measuring Fine-Scale White-Tailed Deer Movements and Environmental Influences Using GPS Collars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.L.; Strickland, B.K.; Demarais, S.; Webb, S.L.; Gee, K.L.; DeYoung, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS) technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt) from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects of reproductive phase, moon phase, and short-term weather patterns on movements. Female and male movements were primarily crepuscular. Male total daily movements were 20% greater during rut (7,363? 364) than postrut (6,156 m±260). Female daily movements were greatest during post parturition (3,357 91), followed by parturition (2,902 m±107), and pre parturition (2,682 m±121). We found moon phase had no effect on daily, nocturnal, and diurnal deer movements and fine-scale temporal weather conditions had an inconsistent influence on deer movement patterns within season. Our data suggest that hourly and daily variation in weather events have minimal impact on movements of white-tailed deer in southern latitudes. Instead, routine crepuscular movements, presumed to maximize thermoregulation and minimize predation risk, appear to be the most important factors influencing movements.

  20. Measuring Fine-Scale White-Tailed Deer Movements and Environmental Influences Using GPS Collars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Webb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects of reproductive phase, moon phase, and short-term weather patterns on movements. Female and male movements were primarily crepuscular. Male total daily movements were 20% greater during rut (7,363m±364 than postrut (6,156m±260. Female daily movements were greatest during postparturition (3,357m±91, followed by parturition (2,902m±107, and preparturition (2,682m±121. We found moon phase had no effect on daily, nocturnal, and diurnal deer movements and fine-scale temporal weather conditions had an inconsistent influence on deer movement patterns within season. Our data suggest that hourly and daily variation in weather events have minimal impact on movements of white-tailed deer in southern latitudes. Instead, routine crepuscular movements, presumed to maximize thermoregulation and minimize predation risk, appear to be the most important factors influencing movements.

  1. Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comer, Christopher E.; Kilgo, John C.; D' Angelo, Gino J.; Glenn, Travis C.; Miller, Karl V.

    2005-07-01

    Abstract: Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial and genetic structure in white-tailed deer on a 7,000-ha portion of the Savannah River Site in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. We used 14 microsatellite DNA loci to calculate pairwise relatedness among individual deer and to assign doe pairs to putative relationship categories. Linear distance and genetic relatedness were weakly correlated (r = –0.08, P = 0.058). Relationship categories differed in mean spatial distance, but only 60% of first-degree-related doe pairs (full sibling or mother–offspring pairs) and 38% of second-degree-related doe pairs (half sibling, grandmother–granddaughter pairs) were members of the same social group based on spatial association. Heavy hunting pressure in this population has created a young age structure among does, where the average age is <2.5 years, and <4% of does are >4.5 years old. This—combined with potentially elevated dispersal among young does—could limit the formation of persistent, cohesive social groups. Our results question the universal applicability of recently proposed models of spatial and genetic structuring in white-tailed deer, particularly in areas with differing harvest histories.

  2. Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Teresa J; Jenks, Jonathan A; Leslie, David M; Neiger, Regg D

    2008-04-01

    Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n = 42) and mule deer (n = 41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (Tl), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P feeding strategies and morphology between deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P

  3. Chronic wasting disease drives population decline of white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, David; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Schumaker, Brant; Lindzey, Frederick G.; Cook, Walter; Kreeger, Terry J.; Grogan, Ronald; Cornish, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an invariably fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk, and moose. Despite a 100% fatality rate, areas of high prevalence, and increasingly expanding geographic endemic areas, little is known about the population-level effects of CWD in deer. To investigate these effects, we tested the null hypothesis that high prevalence CWD did not negatively impact white-tailed deer population sustainability. The specific objectives of the study were to monitor CWD-positive and CWD-negative white-tailed deer in a high-prevalence CWD area longitudinally via radio-telemetry and global positioning system (GPS) collars. For the two populations, we determined the following: a) demographic and disease indices, b) annual survival, and c) finite rate of population growth (λ). The CWD prevalence was higher in females (42%) than males (28.8%) and hunter harvest and clinical CWD were the most frequent causes of mortality, with CWD-positive deer over-represented in harvest and total mortalities. Survival was significantly lower for CWD-positive deer and separately by sex; CWD-positive deer were 4.5 times more likely to die annually than CWD-negative deer while bucks were 1.7 times more likely to die than does. Population λ was 0.896 (0.859–0.980), which indicated a 10.4% annual decline. We show that a chronic disease that becomes endemic in wildlife populations has the potential to be population-limiting and the strong population-level effects of CWD suggest affected populations are not sustainable at high disease prevalence under current harvest levels.

  4. Wolf predation risk associated with white-tailed deer movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    The survival of 159 yearling and adult deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was monitored by telemetry during 282 spring and 219 fall individual migrations to winter deeryards in northeastern Minnesota. A disproportionate number of deer were killed by wolves (Canis lupus) during fall migration relative to the short time they spent migrating, but not during spring migration. Predation was also significantly greater for male and female yearlings and adult females outside deeryards during winter. Survival of 79 yearlings dispersing from natal ranges was high (1.00). It appears that changing climatic conditions combined with unfamiliar terrain and undetermined factors predispose migratory deer to wolf predation during fall. These findings support an earlier hypothesis that winter yarding is an antipredator strategy.

  5. White-tailed deer vigilance: the influence of social and environmental factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus A Lashley

    Full Text Available Vigilance behavior may directly affect fitness of prey animals, and understanding factors influencing vigilance may provide important insight into predator-prey interactions. We used 40,540 pictures taken withcamera traps in August 2011 and 2012to evaluate factors influencing individual vigilance behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus while foraging at baited sites. We used binary logistic regression to determine if individual vigilance was affected by age, sex, and group size. Additionally, we evaluated whether the time of the day,moon phase,and presence of other non-predatorwildlife species impacted individual vigilance. Juveniles were 11% less vigilant at baited sites than adults. Females were 46% more vigilant when fawns were present. Males and females spent more time feeding as group size increased, but with each addition of 1 individual to a group, males increased feeding time by nearly double that of females. Individual vigilance fluctuated with time of day andwith moon phase but generally was least during diurnal and moonlit nocturnal hours, indicating deer have the ability to adjust vigilance behavior to changing predation risk associated with varyinglight intensity.White-tailed deer increased individual vigilance when other non-predator wildlife were present. Our data indicate that differential effects of environmental and social constraints on vigilance behavior between sexes may encourage sexual segregation in white-tailed deer.

  6. A regional assessment of white-tailed deer effects on plant invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, David A; Smithwick, Erica A H; Kalisz, Susan; McShea, William J; Bourg, Norman A; Parker, John D; Royo, Alejandro A; Abrams, Marc D; Apsley, David K; Blossey, Bernd; Boucher, Douglas H; Caraher, Kai L; DiTommaso, Antonio; Johnson, Sarah E; Masson, Robert; Nuzzo, Victoria A

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Herbivores can profoundly influence plant species assembly, including plant invasion, and resulting community composition. Population increases of native herbivores, e.g. white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), combined with burgeoning plant invasions raise concerns for native plant diversity and forest regeneration. While individual researchers typically test for the impact of deer on plant invasion at a few sites, the overarching influence of deer on plant invasion across regional scales is unclear. We tested the effects of deer on the abundance and diversity of introduced and native herbaceous and woody plants across 23 white-tailed deer research sites distributed across the east-central and north-eastern USA and representing a wide range of deer densities and invasive plant abundance and identity. Deer access/exclusion or deer population density did not affect introduced plant richness or community-level abundance. Native and total plant species richness, abundance (cover and stem density) and Shannon diversity were lower in deer-access vs. deer-exclusion plots. Among deer-access plots, native species richness, native and total cover, and Shannon diversity (cover) declined as deer density increased. Deer access increased the proportion of introduced species cover (but not of species richness or stem density). As deer density increased, the proportion of introduced species richness, cover and stem density all increased. Because absolute abundance of introduced plants was unaffected by deer, the increase in proportion of introduced plant abundance is likely an indirect effect of deer reducing native cover. Indicator species analysis revealed that deer access favoured three introduced plant species, including Alliaria petiolata and Microstegium vimineum, as well as four native plant species. In contrast, deer exclusion favoured three introduced plant species, including Lonicera japonica and Rosa multiflora, and 15 native plant species. Overall, native

  7. Environmental Factors Influencing White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus Exposure to Livestock Pathogens in Wisconsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelli Dubay

    Full Text Available White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR, and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3. We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010-2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%, IBR (7.9%, Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%, L. i. bratislava (1.0%, L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5% and L. i. hardjo (0.3%. Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119 were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens.

  8. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

  9. White-tailed Deer as a Taphonomic Agent: Photographic Evidence of White-tailed Deer Gnawing on Human Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckel, Lauren A; McDaneld, Chloe P; Wescott, Daniel J

    2018-01-01

    Ungulate gnawing on bone has been reported in the taphonomic and zooarchaeological literature, but there are no known reports of ungulates altering human remains. Herein, we report on the first known photographic evidence of deer gnawing human remains. As described in nonhuman scavenging literature, forking of the bone characterizes the taphonomic effect of deer gnawing in this case, which is distinct from the effect caused by other scavengers. This type of osteophagia during the winter season is consistent with previously documented behavior of deer gnawing on nonhuman bone, possibly to obtain minerals absent in their diet. In this study, we briefly discuss the distinguishing features of ungulate gnawing, the reasons for this behavior, and possible confusion with other common types of scavenging and modification. This report contributes to taphonomic literature covering the range of animal interactions with human skeletal remains. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Detection of stx1 and stx2 Genes in Pennsylvanian White-Tailed Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Mauro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing E. coli carrying the stx1 and/or stx2 genes can cause multi-symptomatic illness in humans. A variety of terrestrial and aquatic environmental reservoirs of stx have been described. Culture based detection of microbes in deer species have found a low percentage of samples that have tested positive for Stx-producing microbes, suggesting that while deer may contain these microbes, their overall abundance in deer is low. In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR was utilized to test for the presence of stx genes in white-tailed deer fecal matter in western Pennsylvania. In this culture independent screening, nearly half of the samples tested positive for the stx2 gene, with a bias towards samples that were concentrated with stx2. This study, while limited in scope, suggests that deer may be a greater reservoir for stx than was previously thought.

  11. Capture-recapture of white-tailed deer using DNA from fecal pellet-groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Matthew J; Beaver, Jared T; Muller, Lisa I; Clark, Joseph D.; van Manen, Frank T.; Harper, Craig T; Basinger, P Seth

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods for estimating white-tailed deer population size and density are affected by behavioral biases, poor detection in densely forested areas, and invalid techniques for estimating effective trapping area. We evaluated a noninvasive method of capture—recapture for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) density estimation using DNA extracted from fecal pellets as an individual marker and for gender determination, coupled with a spatial detection function to estimate density (spatially explicit capture—recapture, SECR). We collected pellet groups from 11 to 22 January 2010 at randomly selected sites within a 1-km2 area located on Arnold Air Force Base in Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee. We searched 703 10-m radius plots and collected 352 pellet-group samples from 197 plots over five two-day sampling intervals. Using only the freshest pellets we recorded 140 captures of 33 different animals (15M:18F). Male and female densities were 1.9 (SE = 0.8) and 3.8 (SE = 1.3) deer km-2, or a total density of 5.8 deer km-2 (14.9 deer mile-2). Population size was 20.8 (SE = 7.6) over a 360-ha area, and sex ratio was 1.0 M: 2.0 F (SE = 0.71). We found DNA sampling from pellet groups improved deer abundance, density and sex ratio estimates in contiguous landscapes which could be used to track responses to harvest or other management actions.

  12. Relationship between snow depth and gray wolf predation on white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    Survival of 203 yearling and adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was monitored for 23,441 deer days from January through April 1975-85 in northeastern Minnesota. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) predation was the primary mortality cause, and from year to year during this period, the mean predation rate ranged from 0.00 to 0.29. The sum of weekly snow depths/month explained 51% of the variation in annual wolf predation rate, with the highest predation during the deepest snow.

  13. Heavy metals in white-tailed deer living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson

    1985-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann)) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney.

  14. White-tailed deer are a biotic filter during community assembly, reducing species and phylogenetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley-Miller, Danielle R; Hipp, Andrew L; Brown, Bethany H; Hahn, Marlene; Rooney, Thomas P

    2014-06-09

    Community assembly entails a filtering process, where species found in a local community are those that can pass through environmental (abiotic) and biotic filters and successfully compete. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to reduce species diversity and favour browse-tolerant plant communities. In this study, we expand on our previous work by investigating deer as a possible biotic filter altering local plant community assembly. We used replicated 23-year-old deer exclosures to experimentally assess the effects of deer on species diversity (H'), richness (SR), phylogenetic community structure and phylogenetic diversity in paired browsed (control) and unbrowsed (exclosed) plots. Additionally, we developed a deer-browsing susceptibility index (DBSI) to assess the vulnerability of local species to deer. Deer browsing caused a 12 % reduction in H' and 17 % reduction in SR, consistent with previous studies. Furthermore, browsing reduced phylogenetic diversity by 63 %, causing significant phylogenetic clustering. Overall, graminoids were the least vulnerable to deer browsing based on DBSI calculations. These findings demonstrate that deer are a significant driver of plant community assembly due to their role as a selective browser, or more generally, as a biotic filter. This study highlights the importance of knowledge about the plant tree of life in assessing the effects of biotic filters on plant communities. Application of such knowledge has considerable potential to advance our understanding of plant community assembly. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  15. Attributes of seasonal home range influence choice of migratory strategy in white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Charles R.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Myers, Woodrow L.; Lukacs, Paul M.; Nelson, Gerald P.

    2018-01-01

    Partial migration is a common life-history strategy among ungulates living in seasonal environments. The decision to migrate or remain on a seasonal range may be influenced strongly by access to high-quality habitat. We evaluated the influence of access to winter habitat of high quality on the probability of a female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) migrating to a separate summer range and the effects of this decision on survival. We hypothesized that deer with home ranges of low quality in winter would have a high probability of migrating, and that survival of an individual in winter would be influenced by the quality of their home range in winter. We radiocollared 67 female white-tailed deer in 2012 and 2013 in eastern Washington, United States. We estimated home range size in winter using a kernel density estimator; we assumed the size of the home range was inversely proportional to its quality and the proportion of crop land within the home range was proportional to its quality. Odds of migrating from winter ranges increased by 3.1 per unit increase in home range size and decreased by 0.29 per unit increase in the proportion of crop land within a home range. Annual survival rate for migrants was 0.85 (SD = 0.05) and 0.84 (SD = 0.09) for residents. Our finding that an individual with a low-quality home range in winter is likely to migrate to a separate summer range accords with the hypothesis that competition for a limited amount of home ranges of high quality should result in residents having home ranges of higher quality than migrants in populations experiencing density dependence. We hypothesize that density-dependent competition for high-quality home ranges in winter may play a leading role in the selection of migration strategy by female white-tailed deer.

  16. Epizootiology of cranial abscess disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) of Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bradley S.; Belser, Emily H.; Killmaster, Charlie H.; Bowers, John W.; Irwin, Brian J.; Yabsley, Michael J.; Miller, Karl V.

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial abscess disease is a cause of natural mortality for mature male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of abscesses are associated with bacterial infection byTrueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes, but a complete understanding of the epidemiology of this disease is lacking. We quantified the effects of individual characteristics, site-specific herd demographics, land cover, and soil variables in estimating the probability of this disease. We examined 7,545 white-tailed deer from 60 sites throughout Georgia US for signs of cranial abscesses, the predecessor of intracranial abscesses, and recorded the presence or absence of cranial abscesses for each individual examined. We detected no cranial abscesses in 2,562 female deer but 91 abscesses in 4,983 male deer examined (1.8%). A generalized linear mixed model, treating site as a random effect, was used to examine several potential explanatory risk factors including site-level landscape and soil characteristics (soil and forest type), demographic factors (deer density and male to female ratio), and individual host factors (deer sex and age). Model results indicated that the probability of a male having a cranial abscess increased with age and that adult sex ratio (male:female) was positively associated with this disease. Site-specific variables for land cover and soil types were not strongly associated with observations of the disease at the scale measured and a large amount of among-site variability remained. Given the demonstrated effect of age, gender, and local sex ratios but the remaining unexplained spatial variability, additional investigation into spatiotemporal variation of the presumed bacterial causative agent of cranial abscesses appears warranted.

  17. Movement and habitat use of Sika and White-tailed Deer on Assateague Island national seashore, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Christensen, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    This research project was conducted to describe habitat use of sika deer (Cervus nippon) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and possibly attribute the effects of ungulate herbivory to specific deer species, if spatial separation in habitat use could be identified. Sturm (2007) conducted an exclosure study to document the effect of feral horse (Equus caballus) herbivory, deer herbivory, and horse and deer herbivory combined on plant communities. Sturm (2007) found that ungulate herbivory reduced plant species richness, evenness, and diversity in the maritime forest and affected species composition in all habitats studied. Sturm (2007) also found that herbivory on some species could be directly attributable to either horse or deer. However, the effects of sika and white-tailed deer herbivory could not be separated via an exclosure study design because of the difficulty of passively excluding one deer species but not the other. We captured white-tailed deer and sika deer in January–March of 2006 and 2007 throughout the Maryland portion of Assateague Island. Deer were fitted with radio-collars and their survival and locations monitored via ground telemetry. Up to four locations were acquired per deer each week during early (May–June) and late (August–September) growth periods for vegetation on the island. Also, we estimated deer locations during a dormant vegetation period (November– December 2006). We used these data to estimate survival and harvest rates, document movements, and model habitat use. We captured and fitted 50 deer with radio-collars over the course of the study. Of these 50 deer, 36 were sika and 14 were white-tailed deer. Of the 36 sika deer, 10 were harvested, three were likely killed by hunters but not recovered, and one died of natural causes while giving birth. Of the 14 white-tailed deer, three were harvested, one was illegally killed, and two were censored because of study-related mortality. Annual survival was 0.48 (95% CI

  18. Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

  19. Sensitive detection of PrPCWD in rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue from preclinical white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the comparative diagnostic performance of postmortem rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) sampling in four white-tailed deer test populations: from Wisconsin, a sample of free-ranging deer and a captive herd; and from Saskatchewan, Canada, two captive herds. Th...

  20. Distribution of bovine viral diarrhoea virus antigen in persistently infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passler, T; Walz, H L; Ditchkoff, S S; van Santen, E; Brock, K V; Walz, P H

    2012-11-01

    Infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), analogous to that occurring in cattle, is reported rarely in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). This study evaluated the distribution of BVDV antigen in persistently infected (PI) white-tailed deer and compared the findings with those from PI cattle. Six PI fawns (four live-born and two stillborn) from does exposed experimentally to either BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 were evaluated. Distribution and intensity of antigen expression in tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Data were analyzed in binary fashion with a proportional odds model. Viral antigen was distributed widely and was present in all 11 organ systems. Hepatobiliary, integumentary and reproductive systems were respectively 11.8, 15.4 and 21.6 times more likely to have higher antigen scores than the musculoskeletal system. Pronounced labelling occurred in epithelial tissues, which were 1.9-3.0 times likelier than other tissues to contain BVDV antigen. Antigen was present in >90% of samples of liver and skin, suggesting that skin biopsy samples are appropriate for BVDV diagnosis. Moderate to severe lymphoid depletion was detected and may hamper reliable detection of BVDV in lymphoid organs. Muscle tissue contained little antigen, except for in the cardiovascular system. Antigen was present infrequently in connective tissues. In nervous tissues, antigen expression frequency was 0.3-0.67. In the central nervous system (CNS), antigen was present in neurons and non-neuronal cells, including microglia, emphasizing that the CNS is a primary target for fetal BVDV infection. BVDV antigen distribution in PI white-tailed deer is similar to that in PI cattle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. White-tailed deer migration and its role in wolf predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, R.L.; Mech, L.D.

    1976-01-01

    Seventeen white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were radio-tagged in winter yards and tracked for up to 17 months each (881 locations) from January 1973 through August 1974 in the central Superior National Forest of NE Minnesota following a drastic decline in deer numbers. Ten vyolves (Canis lupus) from 7 packs in the same area were radiotracked before and/or during the same period (703 locations). Deer had winter ranges averaging 26.4 ha. Spring migration took place from 26 March to 23 April and was related to loss of snow cover. Deer generally migrated ENE in straight-line distances of 10.0 to 38.0 km to summer ranges. Two fawns did not migrate. Arrival on summer ranges was between 19 April and 18 May, and summer ranges varied from 48.1 to 410.4 ha. Migration back to the same winter yards took place in early December, coincident with snow accumulation and low temperatures. Social grouping appeared strongest during migration and winter yarding. Survival of the radio-tagged deer was studied through 1 May 1975. Four deer were killed by wolves, one was poached, and one drowned. Mean age of the captured deer was 5.4 years and estimated minimum survival after capture was 2.6 years, giving an estimated total minimum survival of 8.0 years. This unusually high survival rate appeared to be related to the fact that both winter and summer ranges of these deer were situated along wolf-pack territory edges rather than in centers. In addition, most summer ranges of the radio-tagged deer were along major waterways where the deer could escape wolves.

  2. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W David Walter

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles, brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type. Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd

  3. Prevalence of antibody titers to leptospira spp. in Minnesota white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S.M.; Mech, L.D.; Nelson, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    Serum samples (n = 204) from 124 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota (USA) were collected from 1984 through 1989 and tested for antibodies to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (bratislava, canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohemorrhagiae, and pomona) using a microtiter agglutination test. Eighty-eight (43%) sera were positive at greater than or equal to 1:100 for antibodies against serovars pomona and/or bratislava; none was positive for any of the other four serovars. None of the 31 sera collected in 1984-85 was positive, whereas all 54 sera collected from 1986 through 1988 had titers of greater than or equal to 1:100. During 1989, only 34 (29%) of 119 sera had titers of greater than or equal to 1:100. Based on these results, we believe there to be wide variability in exposure of Minnesota deer to Leptospira interrogans.

  4. Predicting intensity of white-tailed deer herbivory in the Central Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniowski, Andrew B.; Ford, W. Mark

    2018-01-01

    In eastern North America, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have profound influences on forest biodiversity and forest successional processes. Moderate to high deer populations in the central Appalachians have resulted in lower forest biodiversity. Legacy effects in some areas persist even following deer population reductions or declines. This has prompted managers to consider deer population management goals in light of policies designed to support conservation of biodiversity and forest regeneration while continuing to support ample recreational hunting opportunities. However, despite known relationships between herbivory intensity and biodiversity impact, little information exists on the predictability of herbivory intensity across the varied and spatially diverse habitat conditions of the central Appalachians. We examined the predictability of browsing rates across central Appalachian landscapes at four environmental scales: vegetative community characteristics, physical environment, habitat configuration, and local human and deer population demographics. In an information-theoretic approach, we found that a model fitting the number of stems browsed relative to local vegetation characteristics received most (62%) of the overall support of all tested models assessing herbivory impact. Our data suggest that deer herbivory responded most predictably to differences in vegetation quantity and type. No other spatial factors or demographic factors consistently affected browsing intensity. Because herbivory, vegetation communities, and productivity vary spatially, we suggest that effective broad-scale herbivory impact assessment should include spatially-balanced vegetation monitoring that accounts for regional differences in deer forage preference. Effective monitoring is necessary to avoid biodiversity impacts and deleterious changes in vegetation community composition that are difficult to reverse and/or may not be detected using traditional deer

  5. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in white-tailed deer from Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakirat A. Adetunji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lyme Disease is caused by the bacterial pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, and is transmitted by the tick-vector Ixodes scapularis. It is the most prevalent arthropod-borne disease in the United States. To determine the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi antibodies in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus from Texas, we analyzed serum samples (n = 1493 collected during the 2001–2015 hunting seasons, using indirect ELISA. Samples with higher sero-reactivity (0.803 and above than the negative control group (0.662 were further tested using a more specific standardized western immunoblot assay to rule out false positives. Using ELISA, 4.7% of the samples were sero-reactive against B. burgdorferi, and these originated in two eco-regions in Texas (Edwards Plateau and South Texas Plains. However, only 0.5% of the total samples were sero-reactive by standardized western immunoblot assay. Additionally, both ELISA and standardized western immunoblot assay results correlated with an increased incidence in human Lyme Disease cases reported in Texas. This is the first longitudinal study to demonstrate fluctuation in sero-reactivity of white-tailed deer to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto antigens in southern United States. Future ecological and geographical studies are needed to assess the environmental factors governing the prevalence of Lyme Disease in non-endemic areas of the southern United States.

  6. Movement behavior preceding autumn mortality for white-tailed deer in central New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Brigham J.; Porter, W. F.; Dechen Quinn, Amy C.; Williams, David M.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Underwood, Harold; Crawford, Joanne C.

    2018-01-01

    A common yet largely untested assumption in the theory of animal movements is that increased rates and a wider range of movements, such as occurs during breeding, make animals more vulnerable to mortality. We examined mortality among 34 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) wearing GPS collars during the autumn breeding season of 2006 and 2007 in a heavily hunted, forest-agricultural landscape of central New York state. We evaluated whether individuals having higher rates of movement incurred higher rates of mortality and whether mortality risk was higher when deer were in less familiar areas. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to analyze how mortality risk changes with movement rates measured over 3 time periods: < 1 day, up to 2 weeks prior to death, and 3–4 weeks prior to death. Overall, deer increased their movement rates as autumn progressed, males more so than females. However, deer that died moved at a slower rate relative to surviving deer up to 2 weeks prior to death (ß = -2.22 ± 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -3.91 to -0.51) and a slower rate on their day of death compared to deer that survived (ß = -1.77 ± 0.73; 95% CI = -3.19 to -0.33). Site familiarity was not significantly related to mortality risk. Deer were equally likely to die within their 50% core use area as elsewhere within their autumn home range. We hypothesize that increased sociality associated with breeding may make animals more vulnerable to harvest mortality. Our findings contradict general assumptions about the influences of movement behavior on mortality risk, suggesting that patterns may be sensitive to the spatiotemporal context of the movement analysis.

  7. Daily movements of female white-tailed deer relative to parturition and breeding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gino J. D' Angelo; Christopher E. Comer; John C. Kilgo; Cory D. Drennan; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller

    2005-10-01

    Abstract: To assess how white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd demographics influence reproductive behaviors, we examined 24-h diel movements of female whitetailed deer relative to parturition and breeding in a low-density population with a near even sex ratio at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina. We conducted a series of intensive, 24-h radio-tracking periods of 13 females during spring and fall 2002. We compared daily range (ha), rate of travel (m/h), and distance between extreme daily locations (m), among the periods of pre-parturition and post-parturition and pre-, peak-, and post-rut. From pre-parturition to post-parturition, we observed decreases in diel range size (–38.2%), distance between extreme diel locations (–17.0%), and diel rate of travel (–18.2%). Diel range size, distance between extreme diel locations, and diel rate of travel during the pre-rut and rut exceeded those observed during post-rut. We further identified substantial increases in mobility during 12 24-h diel periods for eight females during our fall monitoring. Our data suggest that female white-tailed deer reduce mobility post-fawning following exaggerated movements during pre-parturition. Furthermore, despite a near equal sex ratio, estrous does may be required to actively seek potential mates due to low population density.

  8. Does landscape connectivity shape local and global social network structure in white-tailed deer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Koen

    Full Text Available Intraspecific social behavior can be influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. While much research has focused on how characteristics of individuals influence their roles in social networks, we were interested in the role that landscape structure plays in animal sociality at both individual (local and population (global levels. We used female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in Illinois, USA, to investigate the potential effect of landscape on social network structure by weighting the edges of seasonal social networks with association rate (based on proximity inferred from GPS collar data. At the local level, we found that sociality among female deer in neighboring social groups (n = 36 was mainly explained by their home range overlap, with two exceptions: 1 during fawning in an area of mixed forest and grassland, deer whose home ranges had low forest connectivity were more social than expected; and 2 during the rut in an area of intensive agriculture, deer inhabiting home ranges with high amount and connectedness of agriculture were more social than expected. At the global scale, we found that deer populations (n = 7 in areas with highly connected forest-agriculture edge, a high proportion of agriculture, and a low proportion of forest tended to have higher weighted network closeness, although low sample size precluded statistical significance. This result implies that infectious disease could spread faster in deer populations inhabiting such landscapes. Our work advances the general understanding of animal social networks, demonstrating how landscape features can underlie differences in social behavior both within and among wildlife social networks.

  9. Seasonal use of conservation reserve program lands by white-tailed deer in east-central South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jeffrey H.; Jenkins, Kurt J.

    1993-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP_, a provision of the 1985 Food Security Act, subsidizes landowners to take highly erodible lands out of cultivation and seed them to perennial cover for 10years. In eastern South Dakota, 0.5 million ha were enrolled in the CRP from 1985 to 1990 (Agric. Stabilization and Conserv. Serv., Brookings, S.D., unpubl. Data), which represents the largest change in conservation land-use practices in the region since the 1956 Soil Bank Program (Goetz 1987).Although the CRP is anticipated to produce substantial benefits for some wildlife species, particularly ground-nesting birds, its significance to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the northern Great Plains agricultural region is poorly understood. Higgins et al. (1987) speculated that proliferation of CRP grasslands may provide a missing habitat component in intensively managed farmland, thereby enhancing several species of wildlife, including white-tailed deer. Deer managers in the region have expressed concerns that improved cover associated with DRP plantings on private land could attract deer and reduce hunter success rates or lead to increased depredation of adjacent croplands or stored winter forages (L. Rice, S.D. Dep. Game, Fish, and Parks, Rapid City, pers. comm., 1989). Our objectives were to describe variation in deer use of CRP lands by season, diel period, and deer activity class as a means of assessing seasonal importance of CRP fields to white-tailed deer in agricultural Midwest.

  10. Incorporating harvest rates into the sex-age-kill model for white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Andrew S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Wallingford, Bret D.

    2013-01-01

    Although monitoring population trends is an essential component of game species management, wildlife managers rarely have complete counts of abundance. Often, they rely on population models to monitor population trends. As imperfect representations of real-world populations, models must be rigorously evaluated to be applied appropriately. Previous research has evaluated population models for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus); however, the precision and reliability of these models when tested against empirical measures of variability and bias largely is untested. We were able to statistically evaluate the Pennsylvania sex-age-kill (PASAK) population model using realistic error measured using data from 1,131 radiocollared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2008. We used these data and harvest data (number killed, age-sex structure, etc.) to estimate precision of abundance estimates, identify the most efficient harvest data collection with respect to precision of parameter estimates, and evaluate PASAK model robustness to violation of assumptions. Median coefficient of variation (CV) estimates by Wildlife Management Unit, 13.2% in the most recent year, were slightly above benchmarks recommended for managing game species populations. Doubling reporting rates by hunters or doubling the number of deer checked by personnel in the field reduced median CVs to recommended levels. The PASAK model was robust to errors in estimates for adult male harvest rates but was sensitive to errors in subadult male harvest rates, especially in populations with lower harvest rates. In particular, an error in subadult (1.5-yr-old) male harvest rates resulted in the opposite error in subadult male, adult female, and juvenile population estimates. Also, evidence of a greater harvest probability for subadult female deer when compared with adult (≥2.5-yr-old) female deer resulted in a 9.5% underestimate of the population using the PASAK model. Because obtaining

  11. Drought effect on selection of conservation reserve program grasslands by white-tailed deer on the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Limited information exists regarding summer resource selection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in grassland regions of the Northern Great Plains. During summers 2005-2006, we analyzed habitat selection of adult female white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota. We collected 1905 summer locations and used 21 and 30 home ranges during 2005 and 2006, respectively, to estimate habitat selection. Results indicated that selection occurred at the population (P rural development areas containing permanent water sources during extreme drought conditions during 2006. Deer likely selected for fields of CRP grasslands during early summer for cover and natural forages, such as clover (Trifolium sp.), prior to the period when agricultural crops become available. Drought conditions occurring in semiarid prairie grassland regions may reduce food and water availability and contribute to subsequent changes in deer habitat selection across the range of the species.

  12. Effects of capture-related injury on postcapture movement of white-tailed deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechen Quinn, Amy C; Williams, David M; Porter, William F; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Hynes, Kevin

    2014-04-01

    Capture-related injuries or deaths of wildlife study subjects pose concerns to researchers, from considerations for animal welfare to inflated project costs and biased data. Capture myopathy (CM) is an injury that can affect an animal's survival ≤ 30 days postrelease, but is often difficult to detect without close monitoring and immediate necropsy. We evaluated the influence of capture and handling on postcapture movement in an attempt to characterize movement rates of animals suffering from CM. We captured and global positioning system-collared 95 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central and northern New York during 2006-2008. Six juveniles died within 30 days postrelease, and necropsy reports indicated that two suffered CM (2%). We compared postcapture movement rates for juveniles that survived >30 days with those that died ≤ 30 days postcapture. Survivor movement rates (43.74 m/hr, SD = 3.53, n = 28) were significantly higher than rates for deer that died within 30 days (17.70 m/hr, SD = 1.57, n = 6) (Pheart rate, respiration rate) during handling between survivors and juveniles that died within 30 days postcapture but observed that survivors were in better body condition at capture. These results suggest that deer likely to die within the 30-day CM window can be identified soon after capture, provided that intensive movement data are collected. Further, even if necropsy reports are unavailable, these animals should be censored from analysis because their behavior is not representative of movements of surviving animals.

  13. Radiocesium concentrations in wholebody homogenates and several body compartments of naturally contaminated white-tailed deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; Smith, M.H.

    1975-01-01

    Radiocesium concentrations were determined for various tissues, organs, and other body compartments of 17 white-tailed deer collected from contaminated habitats on the AEC Savannah River Plant. Highest levels of radiocesium concentration were found in skeletal muscle, feces, kidney, and adrenal tissue, which averaged between 50 to 70 pCi radiocesium/g (dry weight). Liver and bone showed the lowest average values. With the exception of feces and rumen contents, nearly all tissues and organ compartments showed significant positive linear correlations between their respective radiocesium levels. Analyses of whole-body homogenates indicated that the deer examined averaged 9.91 pCi radiocesium/g (whole-body wet weight). These values were best predicted from the radiocesium contents of skeletal muscle, using the relationship: pCi radiocesium/g dry whole-body weight = 3.33 + 0.60 (pCi/g dry skeletal muscle). Calculation of a weighted ''predictive index'' indicated that concentrations in skeletal muscle best predicted the overall pattern and levels of radiocesium distribution within all compartments of the deer body. Radiocesium concentrations in the brain, heart, and liver, respectively, followed muscle in order of predictive ability

  14. Evaluation of pathogen-specific biomarkers for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective - To develop a noninvasive biomarker based Mycobacterium bovis specific detection system to track infection in domestic and wild animals. Design – Experimental longitudinal study for discovery and cross sectional design for validation Animals - Yearling white-tailed deer fawns (n=8) were ...

  15. 77 FR 1720 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock Creek Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock Creek Park AGENCY: National Park...), Rock Creek Park, Washington, DC The Plan will support long-term protection, preservation, and restoration of native vegetation and other natural and cultural resources in Rock Creek Park. DATES: The NPS...

  16. Distribution and interaction of white-tailed deer and cattle in a semi-arid grazing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan M. Cooper; Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso; M. Keith Owens; Michael G. Meek; Manuel Figueroa-Pagan

    2008-01-01

    In order to optimize production, range managers need to understand and manage the spatial distribution of free-ranging herbivores, although this task becomes increasingly difficult as ranching operations diversify to include management of wildlife for recreational hunting. White-tailed deer are sympatric with cattle throughout much of their range and are a valuable...

  17. Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

  18. White-tailed deer winter feeding strategy in area shared with other deer species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolka, Miloslav; Heroldová, Marta; Bartoš, L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2008), s. 283-293 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/97/0172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : diet analysis * fallow deer * red deer * roe deer Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/57/3/283_293.pdf

  19. Molecular and serologic evidence for Babesia bovis-like parasites in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Christina M; Cooper, Susan M; Holman, Patricia J

    2010-09-20

    The current study was undertaken to determine if white-tailed deer in south Texas harbor Babesia bovis, a causative agent of bovine babesiosis. Blood samples from free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on two ranches in LaSalle and Webb Counties were screened for B. bovis and other hemoparasites by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the piroplasm 18S rDNA. Serology was conducted on selected samples to detect antibody activity to B. bovis by the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). PCR revealed that 16% of the LaSalle County samples and 4% of the Webb County samples were positive for B. bovis. Five of the LaSalle County and the two Webb County B. bovis 18S rDNA amplicons were cloned and sequenced. The resulting clones shared 99% identity to B. bovis 18S rRNA gene sequences derived from cattle isolates. Weak seroreactivity to B. bovis was shown by the IFAT. The samples were also screened for additional hemoparasites of deer including Theileria cervi, Babesia odocoilei and other Babesia spp. A genotypically unique Theileria sp. was found, along with T. cervi and B. odocoilei. The finding of putative B. bovis in white-tailed deer necessitates further study to determine if deer may act as a transient host or even a reservoir of infection for B. bovis pathogenic to cattle.

  20. Close relationship of Plasmodium sequences detected from South American pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus to Plasmodium spp. in North American white-tailed deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Asada

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We report, for the first time, the presence of ungulate malaria parasites in South America. We conducted PCR-based surveys of blood samples of multiple deer species and water buffalo from Brazil and detected Plasmodium sequences from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus samples. Phylogenic analysis revealed that the obtained sequences are closely related to the Plasmodium odocoilei clade 2 sequence from North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Nucleotide differences suggest that malaria parasites in South American pampas deer and North American P. odocoilei clade 2 branched more recently than the Great American Interchange. Keywords: Malaria, Pampas deer, South America, Plasmodium odocoilei, Brazil

  1. Habitat, wildlife and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Melissa M.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Conner, Mark C.; Eyler, T. Brian; Lancia, Richard A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Stoskopf, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM) disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans.

  2. Predation by coyotes on white-tailed deer neonates in South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilgo, John C.; Ray, H. Scott; Vukovich, Mark; Goode, Matthew J.; Ruth, Charles

    2012-05-07

    Abstract: Coyotes (Canis latrans) are novel predators throughout the southeastern United States and their depredation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates may explain observed declines in some deer populations in the region, but direct evidence for such a relationship is lacking. Our objective was to quantify neonate survival rates and causes of mortality at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina to directly evaluate degree of predation in this deer population. From 2006 to 2009, we radio-monitored 91 neonates captured with the aid of vaginal implant transmitters in pregnant adult females and opportunistic searches. Overall Kaplan Meier survival rate to 16 weeks of age was 0.230 (95% CI = 0.155-0.328), and it varied little among years. Our best-fitting model estimated survival at 0.220 (95% CI = 0.144-0.320). This model included a quadratic time trend variable (lowest survival rate during the first week of life and increasing to near 1.000 around week 10), and Julian date of birth (survival probability declining as date of birth increased). Predation by coyotes was the most frequent cause of death among the 70 monitored neonates that died, definitively accounting for 37% of all mortalities and potentially accounting for as much as 80% when also including probable coyote predation. Predation by bobcats (Felis rufus) accounted for 7% (definitive) to 9% (including probable bobcat predation) of mortalities. The level of coyote-induced mortality we observed is consistent with the low recruitment rates exhibited in the SRS deer population since establishment of coyotes at the site. If representative of recruitment rates across South Carolina, current harvest levels appear unsustainable. This understanding is consistent with the recent declining trend in the statewide deer population. The effects of coyote predation on recruitment should be considered when setting harvest goals, regardless of whether local

  3. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W. David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauterren, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research onM. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovisidentified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd

  4. Habitat, wildlife, and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Turner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans. Methods: Our study used standard bacterial culture techniques to assess A. pyogenes prevalence among male deer sampled across six physiogeographic regions in Maryland and male and female deer in the Upper Eastern Shore under Traditional Deer Management (TDM and Quality Deer Management (QDM, a management protocol that alters population demographics in favor of older male deer. Samples were collected from antler pedicles for males, the top of the head where pedicles would be if present for females, or the whole dorsal frontal area of the head for neonates. We collected nasal samples from all animals by swabbing the nasopharyngeal membranes. A gram stain and catalase test were conducted, and aerobic bacteria were identified to genus and species when possible. We evaluated the effect of region on whether deer carried A. pyogenes using Pearson's chi-square test with Yates’ continuity correction. For the white-tailed deer management study, we tested whether site, age class and sex predisposed animals to carrying A. pyogenes using binary logistic regression. Results: A. pyogenes was detected on deer in three of the 6 regions studied, and was common in only one region, the Upper Eastern Shore. In the Upper Eastern Shore, 45% and 66% of

  5. Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-tailed Deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Richards, Bryan J.; Storm, Daniel J.; Rolley, Robert E.; Shelton, Paul; Nicholas S. Keuler,; Timothy R. Van Deelen,

    2013-01-01

    Host-parasite dynamics and strategies for managing infectious diseases of wildlife depend on the functional relationship between disease transmission rates and host density. However, the disease transmission function is rarely known for free-living wildlife, leading to uncertainty regarding the impacts of diseases on host populations and effective control actions. We evaluated the influence of deer density, landscape features, and soil clay content on transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in young (disease prevalence and density of infected deer, performed better than simple density- and frequency-dependent models. Our results indicate a combination of social structure, non-linear relationships between infectious contact and deer density, and distribution of disease among groups are important factors driving CWD infection in young deer. The landscape covariates % deciduous forest cover and forest edge density also were positively associated with infection rates, but soil clay content had no measurable influences on CWD transmission. Lack of strong density-dependent transmission rates indicates that controlling CWD by reducing deer density will be difficult. The consequences of non-linear disease transmission and aggregation of disease on cervid populations deserves further consideration.

  6. Survey of Borreliae in ticks, canines, and white-tailed deer from Arkansas, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryxell Rebecca T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Eastern and Upper Midwestern regions of North America, Ixodes scapularis (L. is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans and the primary vector of B. burgdorferi, whereas in the southeastern region Amblyomma americanum (Say is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans but cannot transmit B. burgdorferi. Surveys of Borreliae in ticks have been conducted in the southeastern United States and often these surveys identify B. lonestari as the primary Borrelia species, surveys have not included Arkansas ticks, canines, or white-tailed deer and B. lonestari is not considered pathogenic. The objective of this study was to identify Borrelia species within Arkansas by screening ticks (n = 2123, canines (n = 173, and white-tailed deer (n = 228 to determine the identity and locations of Borreliae endemic to Arkansas using PCR amplification of the flagellin (flaB gene. Methods Field collected ticks from canines and from hunter-killed white-tailed were identified to species and life stage. After which, ticks and their hosts were screened for the presence of Borrelia using PCR to amplify the flaB gene. A subset of the positive samples was confirmed with bidirectional sequencing. Results In total 53 (21.2% white-tailed deer, ten (6% canines, and 583 (27.5% Ixodid ticks (252 Ixodes scapularis, 161 A. americanum, 88 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 50 Amblyomma maculatum, 19 Dermacentor variabilis, and 13 unidentified Amblyomma species produced a Borrelia flaB amplicon. Of the positive ticks, 324 (22.7% were collected from canines (151 A. americanum, 78 R. sanguineus, 43 I. scapularis, 26 A. maculatum, 18 D. variabilis, and 8 Amblyomma species and 259 (37.2% were collected from white-tailed deer (209 I. scapularis, 24 A. maculatum, 10 A. americanum, 10 R. sanguineus, 1 D. variabilis, and 5 Amblyomma species. None of the larvae were PCR positive. A majority of the flaB amplicons were homologous with B

  7. Oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell V Palmer

    Full Text Available Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer, thus interfering with the intraspecies and interspecies transmission cycles. Thirty-three white-tailed deer were assigned to one of two groups; oral vaccination with 1 × 10(8 colony-forming units of M. bovis BCG Danish (n = 17; and non-vaccinated (n = 16. One hundred eleven days after vaccination deer were infected intratonsilarly with 300 colony-forming units of virulent M. bovis. At examination, 150 days after challenge, BCG vaccinated deer had fewer gross and microscopic lesions, fewer tissues from which M. bovis could be isolated, and fewer late stage granulomas with extensive liquefactive necrosis. Fewer lesions, especially those of a highly necrotic nature should decrease the potential for dissemination of M. bovis within the host and transmission to other susceptible hosts.

  8. Proteomics Approach to the Study of Cattle Tick Adaptation to White Tailed Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Popara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, are a serious threat to animal health and production. Some ticks feed on a single host species while others such as R. microplus infest multiple hosts. White tailed deer (WTD play a role in the maintenance and expansion of cattle tick populations. However, cattle ticks fed on WTD show lower weight and reproductive performance when compared to ticks fed on cattle, suggesting the existence of host factors that affect tick feeding and reproduction. To elucidate these factors, a proteomics approach was used to characterize tick and host proteins in R. microplus ticks fed on cattle and WTD. The results showed that R. microplus ticks fed on cattle have overrepresented tick proteins involved in blood digestion and reproduction when compared to ticks fed on WTD, while host proteins were differentially represented in ticks fed on cattle or WTD. Although a direct connection cannot be made between differentially represented tick and host proteins, these results suggested that differentially represented host proteins together with other host factors could be associated with higher R. microplus tick feeding and reproduction observed in ticks fed on cattle.

  9. Forecasting the Effects of Fertility Control on Overabundant Ungulates: White-Tailed Deer in the National Capital Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M Raiho

    Full Text Available Overabundant populations of ungulates have caused environmental degradation and loss of biological diversity in ecosystems throughout the world. Culling or regulated harvest is often used to control overabundant species. These methods are difficult to implement in national parks, other types of conservation reserves, or in residential areas where public hunting may be forbidden by policy. As a result, fertility control has been recommended as a non-lethal alternative for regulating ungulate populations. We evaluate this alternative using white-tailed deer in national parks in the vicinity of Washington, D.C., USA as a model system. Managers seek to reduce densities of white-tailed deer from the current average (50 deer per km2 to decrease harm to native plant communities caused by deer. We present a Bayesian hierarchical model using 13 years of population estimates from 8 national parks in the National Capital Region Network. We offer a novel way to evaluate management actions relative to goals using short term forecasts. Our approach confirms past analyses that fertility control is incapable of rapidly reducing deer abundance. Fertility control can be combined with culling to maintain a population below carrying capacity with a high probability of success. This gives managers confronted with problematic overabundance a framework for implementing management actions with a realistic assessment of uncertainty.

  10. Forecasting the effects of fertility control on overabundant ungulates: White-tailed deer in the National Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiho, Ann M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Bates, Scott; Hobbs, N. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Overabundant populations of ungulates have caused environmental degradation and loss of biological diversity in ecosystems throughout the world. Culling or regulated harvest is often used to control overabundant species. These methods are difficult to implement in national parks, other types of conservation reserves, or in residential areas where public hunting may be forbidden by policy. As a result, fertility control has been recommended as a non-lethal alternative for regulating ungulate populations. We evaluate this alternative using white-tailed deer in national parks in the vicinity of Washington, D.C., USA as a model system. Managers seek to reduce densities of white-tailed deer from the current average (50 deer per km2) to decrease harm to native plant communities caused by deer. We present a Bayesian hierarchical model using 13 years of population estimates from 8 national parks in the National Capital Region Network. We offer a novel way to evaluate management actions relative to goals using short term forecasts. Our approach confirms past analyses that fertility control is incapable of rapidly reducing deer abundance. Fertility control can be combined with culling to maintain a population below carrying capacity with a high probability of success. This gives managers confronted with problematic overabundance a framework for implementing management actions with a realistic assessment of uncertainty.

  11. Do biological and bedsite characteristics influence survival of neonatal white-tailed deer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Colter Chitwood

    Full Text Available Coyotes recently expanded into the eastern U.S. and potentially have caused localized white-tailed deer population declines. Research has focused on quantifying coyote predation on neonates, but little research has addressed the potential influence of bedsite characteristics on survival. In 2011 and 2012, we radiocollared 65 neonates, monitored them intensively for 16 weeks, and assigned mortality causes. We used Program MARK to estimate survival to 16 weeks and included biological covariates (i.e., sex, sibling status [whether or not it had a sibling], birth weight, and Julian date of birth. Survival to 16 weeks was 0.141 (95% CI = 0.075-0.249 and the top model included only sibling status, which indicated survival was lower for neonates that had a sibling. Predation was the leading cause of mortality (35 of 55; 64% and coyotes were responsible for the majority of depredations (30 of 35; 86%. Additionally, we relocated neonates for the first 10 days of life and measured distance to firebreak, visual obstruction, and plant diversity at bedsites. Survival of predation to 10 days (0.726; 95% CI = 0.586-0.833 was weakly associated with plant diversity at bedsites but not related to visual obstruction. Our results indicate that neonate survival was low and coyote predation was an important source of mortality, which corroborates several recent studies from the region. Additionally, we detected only weak support for bedsite cover as a covariate to neonate survival, which indicates that mitigating effects of coyote predation on neonates may be more complicated than simply managing for increased hiding cover.

  12. Pattern and Drivers of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus Herbivory on Tree Saplings across a Plateau Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Evans

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus populations are impacting long-term regeneration across eastern United States forests. Deer distribution and resulting herbivory patterns are variable across a landscape due to habitat patchiness and topography. It is poorly understood how features associated with topography control deer herbivory. We examined the heterogeneity of deer herbivory as it affects sapling densities across a single forest-type landscape on the Cumberland Plateau. The 1242 hectare site represented a peninsula of tableland that transitioned from developed land to forest and was surrounded on three sides by a bluff, irregularly punctuated by drainages. We examined the spatial variability of deer impacts on sapling density and modeled the relative importance of plateau accessibility features related to topography, proximity to edge, and deer culling as predictors of sapling variation. We used a stratified random design to sample sapling density across the landscape in 2012 and 2015. The intensity of deer herbivory on saplings varied, with the fewest saplings in forests surrounded by residential development. Our model predicted that plateau accessibility measures best determined sapling densities, followed by distance from edge and deer culling measures. Our results suggest that herbivory impacts may not be homogeneous in a contiguous uniform landscape if there are topographic barriers.

  13. Assessing plant community composition fails to capture impacts of white-tailed deer on native and invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Victoria; Dávalos, Andrea; Blossey, Bernd

    2017-07-01

    Excessive herbivory can have transformative effects on forest understory vegetation, converting diverse communities into depauperate ones, often with increased abundance of non-native plants. White-tailed deer are a problematic herbivore throughout much of eastern North America and alter forest understory community structure. Reducing (by culling) or eliminating (by fencing) deer herbivory is expected to return understory vegetation to a previously diverse condition. We examined this assumption from 1992 to 2006 at Fermilab (Batavia, IL) where a cull reduced white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) abundance in 1998/1999 by 90 % from 24.6 to 2.5/km 2 , and at West Point, NY, where we assessed interactive effects of deer, earthworms, and invasive plants using 30 × 30 m paired fenced and open plots in 12 different forests from 2009 to 2012. We recorded not only plant community responses (species presence and cover) within 1 m 2 quadrats, but also responses of select individual species (growth, reproduction). At Fermilab, introduced Alliaria petiolata abundance initially increased as deer density increased, but then declined after deer reduction. The understory community responded to the deer cull by increased cover, species richness and height, and community composition changed but was dominated by early successional native forbs. At West Point plant community composition was affected by introduced earthworm density but not deer exclusion. Native plant cover increased and non-native plant cover decreased in fenced plots, thus keeping overall plant cover similar. At both sites native forb cover increased in response to deer reduction, but the anticipated response of understory vegetation failed to materialize at the community level. Deer-favoured forbs ( Eurybia divaricata , Maianthemum racemosum , Polygonatum pubescens and Trillium recurvatum ) grew taller and flowering probability increased in the absence of deer. Plant community monitoring fails to capture

  14. Metals in obex and retropharyngeal lymph nodes of Illinois white-tailed deer and their variations associated with CWD status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Nelda A; Novakofski, Jan; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Kelly, Amy; Satterthwaite-Phillips, Damian; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra

    2015-01-01

    Prion proteins (PrP(C)) are cell membrane glycoproteins that can be found in many cell types, but specially in neurons. Many studies have suggested PrP(C)'s participation in metal transport and cellular protection against stress in the central nervous system (CNS). On the other hand PrP(Sc), the misfolded isoform of PrP(C) and the pathogenic agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), has been associated with brain metal dyshomeostasis in prion diseases. Thus, changes in metal concentration associated with protein misfolding and aggregation have been reported for human and animal prion diseases, as well as for other neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. The use of metal concentrations in tissues as surrogate markers for early detection of TSEs has been suggested. Studies on the accumulation of metals in free-ranging white-tailed deer have not been conducted. This study established concentrations of copper, iron, manganese, and magnesium in 2 diagnostic tissues used for CWD testing (obex and retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN)). We compared these concentrations between tissues and in relation to CWD status. We established reference intervals (RIs) for these metals and explored their ability to discriminate between CWD-positive and CWD-negative animals. Our results indicate that independent of CWD status, white-tailed deer accumulate higher concentrations of Fe, Mn and Mg in RLN than in obex. White-tailed deer infected with CWD accumulated significantly lower concentrations of Mn and Fe than CWD-negative deer. These patterns differed from other species infected with prion diseases. Overlapping values between CWD positive and negative groups indicate that evaluation of these metals in obex and RLN may not be appropriate as a diagnostic tool for CWD infection in white-tailed deer. Because the CWD-negative deer were included in constructing the RIs, high specificities were expected and should be interpreted with caution

  15. Mortality and survival of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus fawns on a north Atlantic coastal island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Robert A.; O'Connell, A.F.; Harrison, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Mortality and survival of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus fawns (n=29) were studied from birth to 1 year of age during 1991-95 on Mount Desert Island (MDI), Maine where deer hunting is prohibited, coyotes Canis latrans have become recently established, and protected U. S. National Park lands are interspersed with private property. Rate of predator-caused mortality was 0.52, with coyote predation (n=8) accounting for at least 47% of mortalities from all causes (n=17). Mortality rate from drowning was 0.24 (n=3), and from vehicles was 0.14 (n=3). Of fawns radio-collared as neonates, 10 of 14 mortalities occurred during the first 2 months of life. Annual rate of fawn survival was 0.26. Survival rate from 6 months to 1 year was 0.65 and 4 mortalities (2 predation, 2 drowning) were observed during this interval. A subgroup of fawns (n = 11) captured near a residential area and along the edge of a coyote territory had a higher (P = 0.002) rate of survival to 1 year of age (S = 0.67) than did fawns from all other areas (n = 18, S = 0.00). Recruitment to 1 year of age was lower than has been observed in other deer populations in the northeastern United States. Low recruitment associated with coyote predation and mortality sources influenced by humans appears to be limiting white-tailed deer populations in this insular landscape.

  16. Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deperno, Christopher Shannon

    Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and yearling male white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. Natural mortality (71%) was the primary cause of female mortality, followed by harvest (22.5%) and accidental causes (6.5%). More females died in spring (53.2%) than in fall (22.6%), winter (14.5%), or summer (9.7%). Male mortality resulted from hunting in fall (66.7%) and natural causes in spring (33.3%). Survival rates for all deer by year were 62.1% in 1993, 51.1% in 1994, 56.4% in 1995, and 53.9% in 1996 and were similar (P = 0.691) across years. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa ) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with >70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with 40% canopy cover and all sapling-pole pine structural stages; sapling-pole stands with >70% canopy cover received the greatest use. White-tailed deer primarily fed in pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover. Overall, selected habitats contained lower amounts of grass/forb, shrubs, and litter than random locations. Male and female deer generally bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites. When feeding and bedding sites were combined

  17. Evaluation of a wild white-tailed deer population management program for controlling chronic wasting disease in Illinois, 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Shelton, Paul; Novakofski, Jan

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated population management programs for controlling chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild white-tailed deer in Illinois between November 2002 and March 2008. The intervention consisted of measures of deer removal from three deer population control programs: Illinois Department of Natural Resources culling, deer population control permits and nuisance deer removal permits. We included in the analysis a total of 14,650 white-tailed deer CWD test results. These data also included location and demographic data collected from both deer harvested in the interventions as well as deer from hunter harvests and deer vehicle collisions. We quantified intervention pressures as the number of years of intervention, the total number of deer removed and the average number of deer removed per year. We accounted for temporal and spatial variations of intervention by using mixed logistic regression to model the association between intervention pressures and CWD prevalence change. The results showed that deer population management intervention as practiced in Illinois during the study period was negatively associated with CWD prevalence and the strength of association varied depending on age of deer and the measure of intervention pressure. The population management programs showed a more consistent association with reduced CWD prevalence in fawn and yearling white-tailed deer than in adult deer. Our results also suggested that frequent and continuing intervention events with at least moderate intensity of culling were needed to reduce CWD prevalence. A longer study period, however, is needed to make a more definite conclusion about the effectiveness of similar population management programs for controlling CWD in wild white-tailed deer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Browsing Patterns of White-Tailed Deer Following Increased Timber Harvest and a Decline in Population Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn M. Crimmins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined browsing patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus on a site in the central Appalachians that experienced a substantial (>50% reduction in deer population density and an increase in the amount of timber harvest since 2001. We sampled woody browse in and immediately adjacent to 12 clearcuts ranging in age from 0–5 years postharvest in summer 2007. Clearcut-interior areas had higher woody browse abundance and browsing rates than clearcut-edge or mature forest areas. Woody browse abundance was slightly higher within individual clearcuts than in 2001 at higher population densities and lower timber harvest rates. Overall browsing rates declined from approximately 17% in 2001 to less than 5% during our study, suggesting that the combination of deer population control, and increasing the amount of timber harvest across the landscape can reduce herbivory to levels that may not impede growth and survival of forest vegetation.

  19. Diagnosis of preclinical CWD in farmed white-tailed deer in Canada by the immunohistochemical examination of recto-anal mucosa- associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the comparative diagnostic performance of postmortem rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) sampling in two white-tailed deer farms from Saskatchewan, Canada. The apparent prevalence of disease in these two farms was 21% and 31%. None of these deer were demonstra...

  20. Lesion Distribution and Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in Elk and White-Tailed Deer in South-Western Manitoba, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd K. Shury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance for Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus from south-western Manitoba was carried out from 1997 to 2010 to describe the lesions, epidemiology, and geographic distribution of disease. Tissues were cultured from animals killed by hunters, culled for management, blood-tested, or found opportunistically. Period prevalence in elk was approximately six times higher than deer, suggesting a significant reservoir role for elk, but that infected deer may also be involved. Prevalence was consistently higher in elk compared to deer in a small core area and prevalence declines since 2003 are likely due to a combination of management factors instituted during that time. Older age classes and animals sampled from the core area were at significantly higher risk of being culture positive. Positive elk and deer were more likely to be found through blood testing, opportunistic surveillance, and culling compared to hunting. No non-lesioned, culture-positive elk were detected in this study compared to previous studies in red deer.

  1. Contrasting the Effects of Maternal and Behavioral Characteristics on Fawn Birth Mass in White-Tailed Deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S Michel

    Full Text Available Maternal care influences offspring quality and can improve a mother's inclusive fitness. However, improved fitness may only occur when offspring quality (i.e., offspring birth mass persists throughout life and enhances survival and/or reproductive success. Although maternal body mass, age, and social rank have been shown to influence offspring birth mass, the inter-dependence among these variables makes identifying causation problematic. We established that fawn birth mass was related to adult body mass for captive male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, thus maternal care should improve offspring fitness. We then used path analysis to identify which maternal characteristic(s most influenced fawn birth mass of captive female white-tailed deer. Maternal age, body mass and social rank had varying effects on fawn birth mass. Maternal body mass displayed the strongest direct effect on fawn birth mass, followed by maternal age and social rank. Maternal body mass had a greater effect on social rank than age. The direct path between social rank and fawn birth mass may indicate dominance as an underlying mechanism. Our results suggest that heavier mothers could use dominance to improve access to resources, resulting in increased fitness through production of heavier offspring.

  2. Butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine anesthesia in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using radiotransmitter darts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal-Willott, Jessica; Citino, Scott B; Wade, Scotty; Elder, Laura; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Lance, William R

    2009-04-01

    Fourteen free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were successfully anesthetized for a total of 15 anesthetic events using a combination of butorphanol (mean+/-SD, 0.58+/-0.1 mg/kg), azaperone (0.37+/-0.06 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.19+/-0.03 mg/kg) (BAM) administered by radiotelemetry darts from hunting blinds between November 2006 and May 2007. Mean time to locate deer (mean+/-SD, 17. 3+/-7 min), to recumbency (21.4+/-5 min), to initiation of data acquisition (27.5+/-8 min), total down time (37+/-6 min), and average distance run (161+/-82 m) were recorded. Physiologic monitoring was done every 5 min for a total of 20 min. Arterial blood gases were collected every 10 min. Mild to moderate hypoxemia and mildly depressed ventilation occurred in some animals. Muscle relaxation and plane of anesthesia were adequate for completion of all procedures; two deer were administered intravenous butorphanol supplementation to achieve light anesthesia (mean+/-SD, 0.19 mg/kg; 0.12 mg/kg). Recovery following intramuscular administration of naltrexone (1.34+/-0.42 mg/kg; 2x butorphanol dose) and atipamezole (0.93+/-0.14 mg/kg; 5x medetomidine dose) was rapid, smooth, and complete. Mean+/-SD recovery time was 4.5+/-1.5 min. Overall efficacy of the Pneu-Dart radiotelemetry system was 65%. Negative attributes of this protocol included long induction time and dart failure. No known mortalities occurred as a result of the study. This drug combination provided safe, reliable, short-term anesthesia of free-ranging white-tailed deer. Further evaluation for use in field procedures in other cervids is warranted.

  3. 78 FR 44148 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Antietam, Monocacy, Manassas White-tailed Deer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... capture and euthanasia to reduce deer populations to the target density and maintain that level. Donation... through the use of sharpshooting with firearms, possible capture, and euthanasia to reduce deer...

  4. Effects of chronic wasting disease on reproduction and fawn harvest vulnerability in Wisconsin white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Grear, Daniel A.; Weckworth, Byron V.; Keane, Delwyn P.; Scribner, Kim T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects free-ranging and captive North American cervids. Although the impacts of CWD on cervid survival have been documented, little is known about the disease impacts on reproduction and recruitment. We used genetic methods and harvest data (2002–04) to reconstruct parentage for a cohort of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns born in spring 2002 and evaluate the effects of CWD infection on reproduction and fawn harvest vulnerability. There was no difference between CWD-positive and CWD-negative male deer in the probability of being a parent. However, CWD-positive females were more likely to be parents than CWD-negative females. Because our results are based on harvested animals, we evaluated the hypothesis that higher parentage rates occurred because fawns with CWD-positive mothers were more vulnerable to harvest. Male fawns with CWD-positive mothers were harvested earlier (>1 mo relative to their mother’s date of harvest) and farther away from their mothers than male fawns with CWD-negative mothers. Male fawns with CWD-positive mothers were also harvested much earlier and farther away than female fawns from CWD-positive mothers. Most female fawns (86%) with CWD-positive mothers were harvested from the same section as their mothers, while almost half of male and female fawns with CWD-negative mothers were farther away. We conclude that preclinical stages of CWD infection do not prohibit white-tailed deer from successfully reproducing. However, apparently higher harvest vulnerability of male fawns with CWD-positive mothers suggests that CWD infection may make females less capable of providing adequate parental care to ensure the survival and recruitment of their fawns.

  5. Transmission of chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin white-tailed deer: Implications for disease spread and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennelle, Christopher S.; Henaux, Viviane; Wasserberg, Gideon; Thiagarajan, Bala; Rolley, Robert E.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males) can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations.

  6. Coyote removal, understory cover, and survival of white-tailed deer neonates: Coyote Control and Fawn Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service; Southern Research Station, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Vukovich, Mark [USDA Forest Service; Southern Research Station, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Ray, H. Scott [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River; New Ellenton, SC (United States); Shaw, Christopher E. [USDA Forest Service; Southern Research Station, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Ruth, Charles [South Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Predation by coyotes (Canis latrans) on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates has led to reduced recruitment in many deer populations in southeastern North America. This low recruitment combined with liberal antlerless deer harvest has resulted in declines in some deer populations, and consequently, increased interest in coyote population control. We investigated whether neonate survival increased after coyote removal, whether coyote predation on neonates was additive to other mortality sources, and whether understory vegetation density affected neonate survival. We monitored neonate survival for 4 years prior to (2006–2009) and 3 years during (2010–2012) intensive coyote removal on 3 32-km2 units on the United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site, South Carolina. We removed 474 coyotes (1.63 coyotes/km2 per unit per year), reducing coyote abundance by 78% from pre-removal levels. The best model (wi = 0.927) describing survival probability among 216 radio-collared neonates included a within-year quadratic time trend variable, date of birth, removal treatment, and a varying removal year effect. Under this model, survival differed between pre-treatment and removal periods and it differed among years during the removal period, being >100% greater than pre-treatment survival (0.228) during the first removal year (0.513), similar to pre-treatment survival during the second removal year (0.202), and intermediate during the third removal year (0.431). Despite an initial increase, the overall effect of coyote removal on neonate survival was modest. Mortality rate attributable to coyote predation was lowest during the first removal year (0.357) when survival was greatest, but the mortality rate from all other causes did not differ between the pretreatment period and any year during removals, indicating that coyote predation acted as an additive source of mortality. Survival probability was not related to

  7. Modeled Impacts of Chronic Wasting Disease on White-Tailed Deer in a Semi-Arid Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M Foley

    Full Text Available White-tailed deer are a culturally and economically important game species in North America, especially in South Texas. The recent discovery of chronic wasting disease (CWD in captive deer facilities in Texas has increased concern about the potential emergence of CWD in free-ranging deer. The concern is exacerbated because much of the South Texas region is a semi-arid environment with variable rainfall, where precipitation is strongly correlated with fawn recruitment. Further, the marginally productive rangelands, in combination with erratic fawn recruitment, results in populations that are frequently density-independent, and thus sensitive to additive mortality. It is unknown how a deer population in semi-arid regions would respond to the presence of CWD. We used long-term empirical datasets from a lightly harvested (2% annual harvest population in conjunction with 3 prevalence growth rates from CWD afflicted areas (0.26%, 0.83%, and 2.3% increases per year via a multi-stage partially deterministic model to simulate a deer population for 25 years under four scenarios: 1 without CWD and without harvest, 2 with CWD and without harvest, 3 with CWD and male harvest only, and 4 with CWD and harvest of both sexes. The modeled populations without CWD and without harvest averaged a 1.43% annual increase over 25 years; incorporation of 2% annual harvest of both sexes resulted in a stable population. The model with slowest CWD prevalence rate growth (0.26% annually without harvest resulted in stable populations but the addition of 1% harvest resulted in population declines. Further, the male age structure in CWD models became skewed to younger age classes. We incorporated fawn:doe ratios from three CWD afflicted areas in Wisconsin and Wyoming into the model with 0.26% annual increase in prevalence and populations did not begin to decline until ~10%, ~16%, and ~26% of deer were harvested annually. Deer populations in variable environments rely on high

  8. Intranasal inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus with lyophilized chronic wasting disease prion particulate complexed to montmorillonite clay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy A Nichols

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD, the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte, lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure.

  9. Field and laboratory responses of adult Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) to kairomones produced by white-tailed deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J F; Mills, G D; Schmidtmann, E T

    1996-07-01

    In a field test, adult blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, of both sexes exhibited an arrestant response to substances associated with external glands on the legs of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), their principal host. Substances rubbed from the pelage covering tarsal and interdigital glands were applied to artificial vantage points simulating vegetation on which I. scapularis adults wait for host contact. A combination of tarsal substances (applied to the apex of the simulated vantage point) and interdigital gland substances (applied to the horizontal base) elicited a greater response than either treatment alone. A minimal response was observed on untreated vantage points. In laboratory bioassays using glass tubing as vantage points, substances associated with preorbital glands of deer elicited a strong arrestant response among I. scapularis females, whereas samples rubbed from the forehead, back, and a nonglandular area on deer tarsi evoked weak arrestant responses. These results support the hypothesis that the kairomonal properties of host-generated residues, either in conjunction with or in lieu of the effects of carbon dioxide, help account for the prevalence of host-seeking ticks along animal trails.

  10. Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): occurrence, congenital transmission, correlates of infection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in white tailed deer (WTD) in the USA is high, but little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host. In the present study, we compared T. gondii seroprevalence from 531 WTD collected in 2012 and 2013 from a Metropolitan Park in Ohio, and and 485 W...

  11. Acaricidal Treatment of White-Tailed Deer to Control Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a New York Lyme Disease-Endemic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) against ticks using the acaricide amitraz was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distribut...

  12. Rapid detection of serum antibody by dual-path platform VetTB assay in white-tailed deer infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; O'Brien, Daniel J; Schmitt, Stephen M; Palmer, Mitchell V; Waters, W Ray

    2013-06-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) in cervids remains a significant problem affecting farmed herds and wild populations. Traditional skin testing has serious limitations in certain species, whereas emerging serological assays showed promising diagnostic performance. The recently developed immunochromatographic dual-path platform (DPP) VetTB assay has two antigen bands, T1 (MPB83 protein) and T2 (CFP10/ESAT-6 fusion protein), for antibody detection. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of this test by using serum samples collected from groups of white-tailed deer experimentally inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, or M. bovis BCG Pasteur. In addition, we used serum samples from farmed white-tailed deer in herds with no history of TB, as well as from free-ranging white-tailed deer culled during field surveillance studies performed in Michigan known to have bovine TB in the wild deer population. The DPP VetTB assay detected antibody responses in 58.1% of experimentally infected animals within 8 to 16 weeks postinoculation and in 71.9% of naturally infected deer, resulting in an estimated test sensitivity of 65.1% and a specificity of 97.8%. The higher seroreactivity found in deer with naturally acquired M. bovis infection was associated with an increased frequency of antibody responses to the ESAT-6 and CFP10 proteins, resulting in a greater contribution of these antigens, in addition to MPB83, to the detection of seropositive animals, compared with experimental M. bovis infection. Deer experimentally inoculated with either M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. bovis BCG Pasteur did not produce cross-reactive antibodies that could be detected by the DPP VetTB assay. The present findings demonstrate the relatively high diagnostic accuracy of the DPP VetTB test for white-tailed deer, especially in the detection of naturally infected animals.

  13. Comparative Morphology and Histology of the Nasal Fossa in Four Mammals: Gray Squirrel, Bobcat, Coyote, and White-Tailed Deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karen K; Craven, Brent A; Wysocki, Charles J; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2016-07-01

    Although the anatomy of the nasal fossa is broadly similar among terrestrial mammals, differences are evident in the intricacies of nasal turbinal architecture, which varies from simple scroll-like to complex branching forms, and in the extent of nonsensory and olfactory epithelium covering the turbinals. In this study, detailed morphological and immunohistochemical examinations and quantitative measurements of the turbinals and epithelial lining of the nasal fossa were conducted in an array of species that include the gray squirrel, bobcat, coyote, and white-tailed deer. Results show that much more of the nose is lined with olfactory epithelium in the smallest species (gray squirrel) than in the larger species. In two species with similar body masses, bobcat and coyote, the foreshortened felid snout influences turbinal size and results in a decrease of olfactory epithelium on the ethmoturbinals relative to the longer canine snout. Ethmoturbinal surface area exceeds that of the maxilloturbinals in all four sampled animals, except the white-tailed deer, in which the two are similar in size. Combining our results with published data from a broader array of mammalian noses, it is apparent that olfactory epithelial surface area is influenced by body mass, but is also affected by aspects of life history, such as diet and habitat, as well as skull morphology, itself a product of multiple compromises between various functions, such as feeding, vision, and cognition. The results of this study warrant further examination of other mammalian noses to broaden our evolutionary understanding of nasal fossa anatomy. Anat Rec, 299:840-852, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. White-tailed deer age ratios as herd management and predator impact measures in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Norton, Andrew S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Fleegle, Jeannine T.; Wallingford, Bret D.

    2011-01-01

    A review of the Pennsylvania Game Commission's (PGC) deer management program and public concern about predator impacts on deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations compelled the PGC to investigate the role of age ratios in developing management recommendations. Age ratios, such as proportion of juveniles in the antlerless harvest, may provide an index to population productivity and predator impacts. We estimated proportion of juveniles in the antlerless harvest from hunter-killed deer, population trends using the Pennsylvania (USA) sex–age–kill model, and reproduction from road-killed females. Using these estimates and a simulation model, we concluded that no single age-ratio value would serve as a reliable measure of population status. Wildlife Management Unit-specific trends in proportion of juveniles in the antlerless harvest and population trends provided the most relevant management information. We also provide an example decision chart to guide management actions in response to declining age ratios in the harvest. Although predator management activities and juvenile survival studies are often desired by the public, our decision-chart example indicated a number of deer management options exist before investing resources in predator management activities and juvenile survival studies.

  15. Susceptibility of North American white-tailed deer to the Netherlands strain of BTV serotype 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    World-wide there are at least 24 serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV), a complex non-enveloped virus in the family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus. Bluetongue (BT) is an arthropod-borne disease of cattle, sheep, goats, and deer and is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. In 2006, bluetongue serotype ...

  16. The Dutch strain of BTV-8 in white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluetongue virus (BTV), family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus, contains ten double stranded RNA segments encoding at least ten viral proteins. Bluetongue (BT) is an arthropod-borne disease; transmission to ruminants, including cattle, sheep, goats, and deer species by bites of species of Culicoides. In...

  17. A Review of Techniques for Minimizing Beaver and White-Tailed Deer Damage in Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward P. Hill; Douglas N. Lasher; R. Blake. Roper

    1978-01-01

    Methods of reducing beaver and deer damage to hardwood forest resources are reviewed. Beaver controls considered were poisons, chemosterilants, predators, and trapping. Population reduction through trapping with 330 conibear traps for two weeks during two successive years effectively eliminates beaver from small watersheds and shows greater promise for control than...

  18. Distribution of eastern equine encephalomyelitis viral protein and nucleic acid within central nervous tissue lesions in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiupel, M; Fitzgerald, S D; Pennick, K E; Cooley, T M; O'Brien, D J; Bolin, S R; Maes, R K; Del Piero, F

    2013-11-01

    An outbreak of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) occurred in Michigan free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during late summer and fall of 2005. Brain tissue from 7 deer with EEE, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, was studied. Detailed microscopic examination, indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC), and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used to characterize the lesions and distribution of the EEE virus within the brain. The main lesion in all 7 deer was a polioencephalomyelitis with leptomeningitis, which was more prominent within the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and brainstem. In 3 deer, multifocal microhemorrhages surrounded smaller vessels with or without perivascular cuffing, although vasculitis was not observed. Neuronal necrosis, associated with perineuronal satellitosis and neutrophilic neuronophagia, was most prominent in the thalamus and the brainstem. Positive IHC labeling was mainly observed in the perikaryon, axons, and dendrites of necrotic and intact neurons and, to a much lesser degree, in glial cells, a few neutrophils in the thalamus and the brainstem, and occasionally the cerebral cortex of the 7 deer. There was minimal IHC-based labeling in the cerebellum and hippocampus. ISH labeling was exclusively observed in the cytoplasm of neurons, with a distribution similar to IHC-positive neurons. Neurons positive by IHC and ISH were most prominent in the thalamus and brainstem. The neuropathology of EEE in deer is compared with other species. Based on our findings, EEE has to be considered a differential diagnosis for neurologic disease and meningoencephalitis in white-tailed deer.

  19. Trophic loading capacity of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, Zimmermann, 1780

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino Martínez Revol

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in the Tibisí locality of the Minas de Matahambre Agroforestry Company, in 3 formations of pine forests and semideciduous forest, considering the characteristics of the arboreal and shrub layer, during the low rainy season (lower biomass production of November to April and from May to October (maximum biomass production. One of the bases for the proper management of O. virginianus is to determine the carrying capacity of the habitat, as well as the botanical composition of the diet of the species on which it feeds. The density and coverage of the tree species and the density of the shrub species were evaluated with the method of quadrants centered on a point, the coverage of the shrub species with the method of plots of 4 x 4 m and the production of biomass with the method of Adelaide. The biomass production of the species used by the deer in the low rainy season did not present a significant difference between vegetation types, according to the Tukey test (α = 0.05. However, for the rainy season a significant difference was found in the gallery forest with respect to the rest of the plant formations. For the rainy season (183 days the carrying capacity that the area can support is 4.3 deer x ha, feeding on vegetable groups (trees, shrubs and lianas, distributed in the four types of forests. During the less rainy season the available dry matter only tolerates 1.2 deer x ha.

  20. Influence of landscape factors and management decisions on spatial and temporal patterns of the transmission of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn O’Hara Ruiz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD has been reported in white-tailed deer at the border of the US states of Illinois and Wisconsin since 2002. Transmission of infectious prions between animals and from the environment has resulted in spatial and temporal structure observable in the spatio-temporal patterns of reported cases. Case locations of 382 positive cases from 28,954 deer tested between 2002 and 2009 provided insight into the potential risk factors and landscape features associated with transmission using a combination of clustering, generalised linear modelling and descriptive evaluations of a risk map of predicted cases of CWD. A species distribution map of white-tailed deer developed using MaxEnt provided an estimate of deer locations. We found that deer probability increased in areas with larger forests and less urban and agricultural lands. Spatial clustering analysis revealed a core area of persistent CWD transmission in the northern part of the region. The regression model indicated that larger and more compact forests were associated with higher risk for CWD. High risk areas also had soils with less clay and more sand than other parts of the region. The transmission potential was higher where landscape features indicated the potential for higher deer concentrations. The inclusion of spatial lag variables improved the model. Of the 102 cases reported in the study area in the two years following the study period, 89 (87% of those were in the 32% of the study area with the highest 50% of predicted risk of cases.

  1. Evaluation of Serodiagnostic Assays for Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Elk, White-Tailed Deer, and Reindeer in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the United States Department of Agriculture conducted a project in which elk (Cervus elaphus spp., white-tailed deer (WTD (Odocoileus virginianus, and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus were evaluated by the single cervical tuberculin test (SCT, comparative cervical tuberculin test (CCT, and serologic tests. The rapid antibody detection tests evaluated were the CervidTB Stat-Pak (Stat-Pak, and the Dual Path Platform VetTB (DPP. Blood was collected from presumably uninfected animals prior to tuberculin injection for the SCT. A total of 1,783 animals were enrolled in the project. Of these, 1,752 (98.3% were classified as presumably uninfected, based on originating from a captive cervid herd with no history of exposure to TB. Stat-Pak specificity estimates were 92.4% in reindeer, 96.7% in WTD, and 98.3% in elk and were not significantly different from SCT specificity estimates. Using the DPP in series on Stat-Pak antibody-positive samples improved specificity in the three species. Thirty one animals were classified as confirmed infected, based on necropsy and laboratory results, and 27/31 were antibody positive on Stat-Pak for an estimated sensitivity of 87.1%. The study findings indicate that rapid serologic tests used in series are comparable to the SCT and CCT and may have a greater ability to detect TB-infected cervids.

  2. Weather and landscape factors affect white-tailed deer neonate survival at ecologically important life stages in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Eric S.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Kaskie, Kyle D.; Klaver, Robert W.; Jensen, William F.

    2018-01-01

    Offspring survival is generally more variable than adult survival and may limit population growth. Although white-tailed deer neonate survival has been intensively investigated, recent work has emphasized how specific cover types influence neonate survival at local scales (single study area). These localized investigations have often led to inconsistences within the literature. Developing specific hypotheses describing the relationships among environmental, habitat, and landscape factors influencing white-tailed deer neonate survival at regional scales may allow for detection of generalized patterns. Therefore, we developed 11 hypotheses representing the various effects of environmental (e.g., winter and spring weather), habitat (e.g., hiding and escape cover types), and landscape factors (e.g., landscape configuration regardless of specific cover type available) on white-tailed deer neonate survival up to one-month and from one- to three-months of age. At one-month, surviving fawns experienced a warmer lowest recorded June temperature and more June precipitation than those that perished. At three-months, patch connectance (percent of patches of the corresponding patch type that are connected within a predefined distance) positively influenced survival. Our results are consistent with white-tailed deer neonate ecology: increased spring temperature and precipitation are likely associated with a flush of nutritional resources available to the mother, promoting increased lactation efficiency and neonate growth early in life. In contrast, reduced spring temperature with increased precipitation place neonates at risk to hypothermia. Increased patch connectance likely reflects increased escape cover available within a neonate’s home range after they are able to flee from predators. If suitable escape cover is available on the landscape, then managers could focus efforts towards manipulating landscape configuration (patch connectance) to promote increased neonate

  3. Supersize me: Remains of three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in an invasive Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boback, Scott M.; Snow, Ray W.; Hsu, Teresa; Peurach, Suzanne C.; Dove, Carla J.; Reed, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Snakes have become successful invaders in a wide variety of ecosystems worldwide. In southern Florida, USA, the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) has become established across thousands of square kilometers including all of Everglades National Park (ENP). Both experimental and correlative data have supported a relationship between Burmese python predation and declines or extirpations of mid- to large-sized mammals in ENP. In June 2013 a large python (4.32 m snout-vent length, 48.3 kg) was captured and removed from the park. Subsequent necropsy revealed a massive amount of fecal matter (79 cm in length, 6.5 kg) within the snake’s large intestine. A comparative examination of bone, teeth, and hooves extracted from the fecal contents revealed that this snake consumed three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). This is the first report of an invasive Burmese python containing the remains of multiple white-tailed deer in its gut. Because the largest snakes native to southern Florida are not capable of consuming even mid-sized mammals, pythons likely represent a novel predatory threat to white-tailed deer in these habitats. This work highlights the potential impact of this large-bodied invasive snake and supports the need for more work on invasive predator-native prey relationships.

  4. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Glaser

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010-2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak.

  5. Major-histocompatibility-complex-associated variation in secondary sexual traits of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): evidence for good-genes advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchkoff, S S; Lochmiller, R L; Masters, R E; Hoofer, S R; Van Den Bussche, R A

    2001-03-01

    Good-genes hypotheses predict that development of secondary sexual characters can be an honest advertisement of heritable male quality. We explored this hypothesis using a cervid model (adult, male white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus) to determine whether antler development could provide an honest signal of a male's genetic quality and condition to adversaries. We compared antler, morphometric, hormonal, and parasitic data collected from hunter-harvested deer to characteristics of the Mhc-DRB (Odvi), the most widely studied gene of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in Artiodactyla. We detected associations between genetic characteristics at Odvi-DRB and antler development and body mass, suggesting that antler development and body mass may be associated with pathogen resistance in deer and thus may be an honest signal of genetic quality. We also detected associations between Odvi-DRB characteristics and serum testosterone during the breeding season, suggesting that certain MHC characteristics may help deer cope with stresses related to breeding activity. In addition, we observed a negative relationship between degree of antler development and overall abundance of abomasal helminths. Our observations provide support for the hypothesis that antler development in white-tailed deer is an honest signal of quality.

  6. Long-Term Effects of White-Tailed Deer Exclusion on the Invasion of Exotic Plants: A Case Study in a Mid-Atlantic Temperate Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Shen

    Full Text Available Exotic plant invasions and chronic high levels of herbivory are two of the major biotic stressors impacting temperate forest ecosystems in eastern North America, and the two problems are often linked. We used a 4-ha deer exclosure maintained since 1991 to examine the influence of a generalist herbivore, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, on the abundance of four exotic invasive (Rosa multiflora, Berberis thunbergii, Rubus phoenicolasius and Microstegium vimineum and one native (Cynoglossum virginianum plant species, within a 25.6-ha mature temperate forest dynamics plot in Virginia, USA. We identified significant predictors of the abundance of each focal species using generalized linear models incorporating 10 environmental and landscape variables. After controlling for those predictors, we applied our models to a 4-ha deer exclusion site and a 4-ha reference site, both embedded within the larger plot, to test the role of deer on the abundance of the focal species. Slope, edge effects and soil pH were the most frequent predictors of the abundance of the focal species on the larger plot. The abundance of C. virginianum, known to be deer-dispersed, was significantly lower in the exclosure. Similar patterns were detected for B. thunbergii, R. phoenicolasius and M. vimineum, whereas R. multiflora was more abundant within the exclosure. Our results indicate that chronic high deer density facilitates increased abundances of several exotic invasive plant species, with the notable exception of R. multiflora. We infer that the invasion of many exotic plant species that are browse-tolerant to white-tailed deer could be limited by reducing deer populations.

  7. Benefits to rare plants and highway safety from annual population reductions of a "native invader," white-tailed deer, in a Chicago-area woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeman, Richard M; Guerrant, Travis; Dunn, Glen; Beckerman, Scott F; Anchor, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Overabundant white-tailed deer are one of the most serious threats to woodland plant communities in the Chicago area. Moreover, the abundant deer in a highly populated area causes economic harm and poses hazards to human safety through collisions with vehicles. The artificial conditions causing the overabundance and resulting consequences qualify the white-tailed deer in the Chicago area to be considered as "native invaders". We examined the benefits of culling deer at a Chicago-area woodland preserve by comparing browse rates on four endangered plant species from years before culling began with years with culling. We also examined deer-vehicle collision and traffic flow rates on area roads from years before culling began and years with culling to assess whether population reductions may have benefited road safety in the area. All four endangered plant species (three orchid species and sweet fern) had lower browse rates in years with culls, although the decreased browsing rates were statistically distinguishable for only two of the species (grass pink orchid and sweet fern). After first verifying that traffic flow rates did not decrease from pre-cull years to years with culls, we analyzed the Illinois Department of Transportation data from area roads based on deer-vehicle collisions causing >US$500 in damage and showed a one-third reduction in deer-vehicle collisions. An economic analysis showed a cost savings during the cull years of US$0.6 million for reducing browsing to just these four monitored plant species and the reduction in deer-vehicle collisions.

  8. Multiple osteochondromas of the antlers and cranium in a free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Kierdorf

    Full Text Available This paper reports a case of multiple osteochondromas affecting the antlers and the left zygomatic bone of a free-ranging adult white-tailed buck (Odocoileus virginianus from Georgia, USA. Along with a few postcranial bones, the antlered cranium of the individual was found in a severely weathered condition and devoid of any soft tissue. The antlers exhibited five pedunculated exostoses that were composed of cancellous bone and, in their peripheral portions, also mineralized cartilage. The largest of the exostoses, located on the right antler, had a maximum circumference of 55 cm. The exostosis arising from the zygomatic bone was broad-based and much smaller than the exophytic outgrowths on the antlers. Diagnosis of the exostoses as osteochondromas was based on their overall morphology, the normal bone structure in their stalk regions, and the continuity of their spongiosa and cortex with the respective components of the parent bones. Antleromas, i.e., pathological outgrowths developing on antlers as a result of insufficient androgen production, were excluded in the differential diagnosis, based on (1 the apparent maturity and, except for the tumors, normal shape of the antlers and (2 the fact that exostosis formation had also affected the zygomatic bone. Previously only a single case of solitary osteochondroma of an antler has been described in the scientific literature. The case presented here is the first report of multiple osteochondromas in a deer. As antlers are regularly collected as trophies, and huge numbers of them are critically inspected each year, the fact that thus far only two cases of antler osteochondromas have been reported suggests that these tumors are very rare.

  9. Effects of maternal nutrition, resource use and multi-predator risk on neonatal white-tailed deer survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared F Duquette

    Full Text Available Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus during their post-partum period (14 May-31 Aug in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans, was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus, their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and

  10. Spatial correlations between browsing on balsam fir by white-tailed deer and the nutritional value of neighboring winter forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Emilie; Moore, Ben D; Côté, Steeve D; Tremblay, Jean-Pierre

    2018-03-01

    Associational effects, that is, the influence of neighboring plants on herbivory suffered by a plant, are an outcome of forage selection. Although forage selection is a hierarchical process, few studies have investigated associational effects at multiple spatial scales. Because the nutritional quality of plants can be spatially structured, it might differently influence associational effects across multiple scales. Our objective was to determine the radius of influence of neighbor density and nutritional quality on balsam fir ( Abies balsamea ) herbivory by white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) in winter. We quantified browsing rates on fir and the density and quality of neighboring trees in a series of 10-year-old cutovers on Anticosti Island (Canada). We used cross-correlations to investigate relationships between browsing rates and the density and nutritional quality of neighboring trees at distances up to 1,000 m. Balsam fir and white spruce ( Picea glauca ) fiber content and dry matter in vitro true digestibility were correlated with fir browsing rate at the finest extra-patch scale (across distance of up to 50 m) and between cutover areas (300-400 m). These correlations suggest associational effects, that is, low nutritional quality of neighbors reduces the likelihood of fir herbivory (associational defense). Our results may indicate associational effects mediated by intraspecific variation in plant quality and suggest that these effects could occur at scales from tens to hundreds of meters. Understanding associational effects could inform strategies for restoration or conservation; for example, planting of fir among existing natural regeneration could be concentrated in areas of low nutritional quality.

  11. The pCS20 PCR assay for Ehrlichia ruminantium does not cross-react with the novel deer ehrlichial agent found in white-tailed deer in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mahan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available White-tailed deer are susceptible to heartwater (Ehrlichia [Cowdria] ruminantium infection and are likely to suffer high mortality if the disease spreads to the United States. It is vital, therefore, to validate a highly specific and sensitive detection method for E. ruminantium infection that can be reliably used in testing white-tailed deer, which are reservoirs of antigenically or genetically related agents such as Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Anaplasma (Ehrlichia phagocytophilum (HGE agent and Ehrlichia ewingii. Recently, a novel but as yet unnamed ehrlichial species, the white-tailed deer ehrlichia (WTDE, has been discovered in deer populations in the United States. Although the significance of WTDE as a pathogen is unknown at present, it can be distinguished from other Ehrlichia spp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In this study it was differentiated from E. ruminantium by the use of the pCS20 PCR assay which has high specificity and sensitivity for the detection of E. ruminantium. This assay did not amplify DNA from the WTDE DNA samples isolated from deer resident in Florida, Georgia and Missouri, but amplified the specific 279 bp fragment from E. ruminantium DNA. The specificity of the pCS20 PCR assay for E. ruminantium was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Similarly, the 16S PCR primers (nested that amplify a specific 405-412 bp fragment from the WTDE DNA samples, did not amplify any product from E. ruminantium DNA. This result demonstrates that it would be possible to differentiate between E. ruminantium and the novel WTDE agent found in white tailed deer by applying the two respective PCR assays followed by Southern hybridizations. Since the pCS20 PCR assay also does not amplify any DNA products from E. chaffeensis or Ehrlichia canis DNA, it is therefore the method of choice for the detection of E. ruminantium in these deer and other animal hosts.

  12. Patterns of Cattle Farm Visitation by White-Tailed Deer in Relation to Risk of Disease Transmission in a Previously Infected Area with Bovine Tuberculosis in Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Lima, J; Carstensen, M; Cornicelli, L; Forester, J D; Wells, S J

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to characterize spatial patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) movement related to bovine tuberculosis (bTB) transmission risk to cattle in north-western Minnesota. Twenty-one adult deer (16 females and 5 males) were captured during winter (January-March) 2011 in areas adjacent to where an outbreak (2005-2009) of bTB occurred in deer and cattle. Deer were fitted with GPS collars programmed to collect deer location information every 90 min over a 15-month period. The exact locations of cattle, cattle feeding areas, and stored forage that were available to collared deer were assessed seasonally. In total, 47% (n = 9) of collared deer survived to the end of the study. Causes of mortality included wolves (n = 6), hunters (n = 1) and unknown (n = 2); additionally, 2 deer were censored due to collar malfunctions. Our results indicated that 5 deer (25%) had home ranges that included 6 cattle farms (20%). Most (77%) of the deer visits occurred in areas where cattle were present, with most visits (60%) from 00:00 to 06:00. March to May revealed the most farm visitations by deer (37%). This study provided baseline information regarding cattle-deer interactions critical to transmission of bTB in this region and suggested that risk mitigation practices should be implemented to separate wildlife and domestic livestock when feasible. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Estimating ages of white-tailed deer: Age and sex patterns of error using tooth wear-and-replacement and consistency of cementum annuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Storm, Daniel J.; Rolley, Robert E.; Beissel, Thomas; Richards, Bryan J.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    The age structure of harvested animals provides the basis for many demographic analyses. Ages of harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other ungulates often are estimated by evaluating replacement and wear patterns of teeth, which is subjective and error-prone. Few previous studies however, examined age- and sex-specific error rates. Counting cementum annuli of incisors is an alternative, more accurate method of estimating age, but factors that influence consistency of cementum annuli counts are poorly known. We estimated age of 1,261 adult (≥1.5 yr old) white-tailed deer harvested in Wisconsin and Illinois (USA; 2005–2008) using both wear-and-replacement and cementum annuli. We compared cementum annuli with wear-and-replacement estimates to assess misclassification rates by sex and age. Wear-and-replacement for estimating ages of white-tailed deer resulted in substantial misclassification compared with cementum annuli. Age classes of females were consistently underestimated, while those of males were underestimated for younger age classes but overestimated for older age classes. Misclassification resulted in an impression of a younger age-structure than actually was the case. Additionally, we obtained paired age-estimates from cementum annuli for 295 deer. Consistency of paired cementum annuli age-estimates decreased with age, was lower in females than males, and decreased as age estimates became less certain. Our results indicated that errors in the wear-and-replacement techniques are substantial and could impact demographic analyses that use age-structure information. 

  14. Familiarity breeds contempt: combining proximity loggers and GPS reveals female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) avoiding close contact with neighbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosa, Marie I; Schauber, Eric M; Nielsen, Clayton K

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions can influence infectious disease dynamics, particularly for directly transmitted pathogens. Therefore, reliable information on contact frequency within and among groups can better inform disease modeling and management. We compared three methods of assessing contact patterns: (1) space-use overlap (volume of interaction [VI]), (2) direct contact rates measured by simultaneous global positioning system (GPS) locations (<10 m apart), and (3) direct contact rates measured by proximity loggers (PLs; 1-m detection) among female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We calculated the PL∶GPS contact ratios to see whether both devices reveal similar contact patterns and thus predict similar pathogen transmission patterns. Contact rates measured by GPS and PLs were similarly high for two within-group dyads (pairs of deer in the same social groups). Dyads representing separate but neighboring groups (high VI) had PL∶GPS contact ratios near zero, whereas dyads further apart (intermediate VI) had higher PL∶GPS contact ratios. Social networks based on PL contacts showed the fewest connected individuals and lowest mean centrality measures; network metrics were intermediate when based on GPS contacts and greatest when based on VI. Thus, the VI network portrayed animals to be more uniformly and strongly connected than did the PL network. We conclude that simultaneous GPS locations, compared with PLs, substantially underestimate the impact of group membership on direct contact rates of female deer and make networks appear more connected. We also present evidence that deer coming within the general vicinity of each other are less likely to come in close contact if they are in neighboring social groups than deer whose home ranges overlap little if at all. Combined, these results provide evidence that direct transmission of disease agents among female and juvenile white-tailed deer is likely to be constrained both spatially and by social structure, more

  15. Comparison of visual-based helicopter and fixed-wing forward-looking infrared surveys for counting white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Daniel J.; Samuel, Michael D.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.; Malcolm, Karl D.; Rolley, Robert E.; Frost, Nancy A.; Bates, Donald P.; Richards, Bryan J.

    2011-01-01

    Aerial surveys using direct counts of animals are commonly used to estimate deer abundance. Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) technology is increasingly replacing traditional methods such as visual observation from helicopters. Our goals were to compare fixed-wing FLIR and visual, helicopter-based counts in terms of relative bias, influence of snow cover and cost. We surveyed five plots: four 41.4 km2 plots with free-ranging white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus populations in Wisconsin and a 5.3 km2 plot with a white-tailed deer population contained by a high fence in Michigan. We surveyed plots using both fixed-wing FLIR and helicopters, both with snow cover and without snow. None of the methods counted more deer than the other when snow was present. Helicopter counts were lower in the absence of snow, but lack of snow cover did not apparently affect FLIR. Group sizes of observed deer were similar regardless of survey method or season. We found that FLIR counts were generally precise (CV = 0.089) when two or three replicate surveys were conducted within a few hours. However, at the plot level, FLIR counts differed greatly between seasons, suggesting that detection rates vary over larger time scales. Fixed-wing FLIR was more costly than visual observers in helicopters and was more restrictive in terms of acceptable survey conditions. Further research is needed to understand what factors influence the detection of deer during FLIR surveys.

  16. Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: complement component C1q and Prnp polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Scribner, Kim T.; Libants, Scot V.; Johnson, Chad; Aiken, Judd M.; Langenberg, Julia A.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic basis of susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids is of great interest. Association studies of disease susceptibility in free-ranging populations, however, face considerable challenges including: the need for large sample sizes when disease is rare, animals of unknown pedigree create a risk of spurious results due to population admixture, and the inability to control disease exposure or dose. We used an innovative matched case–control design and conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations between polymorphisms of complement C1q and prion protein (Prnp) genes and CWD infection in white-tailed deer from the CWD endemic area in south-central Wisconsin. To reduce problems due to admixture or disease-risk confounding, we used neutral genetic (microsatellite) data to identify closely related CWD-positive (n = 68) and CWD-negative (n = 91) female deer to serve as matched cases and controls. Cases and controls were also matched on factors (sex, location, age) previously demonstrated to affect CWD infection risk. For Prnp, deer with at least one Serine (S) at amino acid 96 were significantly less likely to be CWD-positive relative to deer homozygous for Glycine (G). This is the first characterization of genes associated with the complement system in white-tailed deer. No tests for association between any C1q polymorphism and CWD infection were significant at p of CWD infection in deer with at least one Glycine (G) at amino acid 56 of the C1qC gene. While we documented numerous amino acid polymorphisms in C1q genes none appear to be strongly associated with CWD susceptibility.

  17. Qualitative and Quantitative Drug residue analyses: Florfenicol in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and supermarket meat by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Shanoy C; Subbiah, Seenivasan; Gentles, Angella; Austin, Galen; Stonum, Paul; Brooks, Tiffanie A; Brooks, Chance; Smith, Ernest E

    2016-10-15

    A method for confirmation and detection of Florfenicol amine residues in white-tailed deer tissues was developed and validated in our laboratory. Tissue samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and cleaned up on sorbent (Chem-elut) cartridges. Liguid chromatography (LC) separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse plus C18 column with gradient elution using a mobile phase composed of ammonium acetate in water and methanol at a flow rate of 300μL/min. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out using liquid chromatography - heated electrospray ionization(HESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) interface. The limits of detection (LODs) for HESI and APCI probe were 1.8ng/g and 1.4ng/g respectively. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) for HESI and APCI probe were 5.8ng/g and 3.4ng/g respectively. Mean recovery values ranged from 79% to 111% for APCI and 30% to 60% for HESI. The validated method was used to determine white-tailed deer florfenicol tissue residue concentration 10-days after exposure. Florfenicol tissue residues concentration ranged from 0.4 to 0.6μg/g for liver and 0.02-0.05μg/g for muscle and a trace in blood samples. The concentration found in the tested edible tissues were lower than the maximum residual limit (MRL) values established by the federal drug administration (FDA) for bovine tissues. In summary, the resulting optimization procedures using the sensitivity of HESI and APCI probes in the determination of florfenicol in white-tailed deer tissue are the most compelling conclusions in this study, to the extent that we have applied this method in the evaluation of supermarket samples drug residue levels as a proof of principle. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Evaluation of the factors involved in bioaccumulation of gamma-emmitting radionuclides in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginanus). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the work were to: determine the amounts and kinds of fallout gamma emitting radionuclides in an important food and sport animal, the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the southeastern U.S.A.; elucidate some of the food chain interrelationships around the year; and see if a relationship exists between bioaccumulation in deer, the soils, the deer foods available, the rumen contents, and uptake in man. Whole body counters were constructed to measure the gamma rays emitted by animals varying in size from warblers (10 grams) and cotton rats (100 grams) up through live deer and people. Over 1800 deer from throughout the Southeast were analyzed. Deer from the Flatwoods sub-type of the Lower Coastal Plain region often have 137 Cs levels exceeding those reported for Alaskan Caribou at their peak and 90 Sr is as effectively transported through the Lower Coastal Plains environment as 137 Cs. Detailed studies have been conducted on two sites (Piedmont and Lower Coastal Plain) to determine the characteristics of soil and vegetation contributing to biomagnification

  19. Epethelial presence of Trueperella pyogenes predicts site-level presence of cranial abscess disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily H Belser

    Full Text Available Cranial/intracranial abscess disease is an emerging source of significant mortality for male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Most cases of cranial/intracranial abscess disease are associated with infection by the opportunistic pathogen Trueperella pyogenes although the relationship between the prevalence of the bacteria and occurrence of disease is speculative. We examined 5,612 hunter-harvested deer from 29 sites across all physiographic provinces in Georgia for evidence of cranial abscess disease and sampled the forehead, lingual, and nasal surfaces from 692 deer. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR to determine presence of T. pyogenes from these samples. We found T. pyogenes prevalence at a site was a predictor for the occurrence of cranial abscess disease. Prevalence of T. pyogenes did not differ between samples from the nose or tongue although prevalence along the forehead was greater for males than females (p = 0.04, particularly at sites with high occurrence of this disease. Socio-sexual behaviors, bacterial prevalence, or physiological characteristics may predispose male deer to intracranial/cranial abscess disease. Determination of factors that affect T. pyogenes prevalence among sites may help explain the occurrence of this disease among populations.

  20. The walk is never random: subtle landscape effects shape gene flow in a continuous white-tailed deer population in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stacie J.; Samuel, Michael D.; Lopez, Davin L.; Shelton, Paul

    2012-01-01

    One of the pervasive challenges in landscape genetics is detecting gene flow patterns within continuous populations of highly mobile wildlife. Understanding population genetic structure within a continuous population can give insights into social structure, movement across the landscape and contact between populations, which influence ecological interactions, reproductive dynamics or pathogen transmission. We investigated the genetic structure of a large population of deer spanning the area of Wisconsin and Illinois, USA, affected by chronic wasting disease. We combined multiscale investigation, landscape genetic techniques and spatial statistical modelling to address the complex questions of landscape factors influencing population structure. We sampled over 2000 deer and used spatial autocorrelation and a spatial principal components analysis to describe the population genetic structure. We evaluated landscape effects on this pattern using a spatial autoregressive model within a model selection framework to test alternative hypotheses about gene flow. We found high levels of genetic connectivity, with gradients of variation across the large continuous population of white-tailed deer. At the fine scale, spatial clustering of related animals was correlated with the amount and arrangement of forested habitat. At the broader scale, impediments to dispersal were important to shaping genetic connectivity within the population. We found significant barrier effects of individual state and interstate highways and rivers. Our results offer an important understanding of deer biology and movement that will help inform the management of this species in an area where overabundance and disease spread are primary concerns.

  1. Deciphering seasonal variations in the diet and drinking water of modern White-Tailed deer by in situ analysis of osteons in cortical bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, T. E.; Longstaffe, F. J.

    2007-12-01

    In situ carbon and oxygen isotope values for bioapatite were obtained from longitudinal slices of cortical bone from modern domesticated sheep and free-range White-Tailed deer. The analyses were obtained using an IR-laser coupled to a GC-IRMS interface. Ablation pits averaged 200 × 50 μm, making it possible to sample individual or small bundles of osteons. Cortical bone is remodeled along osteons throughout a mammal's life. Therefore, data at this scale can record seasonal variations in diet and drinking water during the adult stages of a mammal, whereas teeth provide may provide information about the juvenile years of a mammal. Average δ18O and δ13C values for the sheep from southwestern Ontario, Canada, were 14.0 and -16.1‰, respectively. No trend was observed in the isotopic composition of the sheep's osteons, consistent with its constant diet and water supply. The δ18O (14.2 to 16.6‰) and δ13C (-19.2 to -15.6‰) values of osteons from White-Tailed deer from nearby Pinery Provincial Park, however, varied systematically and were negatively correlated. Oxygen isotope values of the osteons correlated well with changes in the δ18O values of the main water source for these deer: winter average, -10.7‰; summer average, -8.6‰. The variation in δ13C values of the osteons reflects changes in diet; summer diet consisted mainly of leafy C3 vegetation (-28.4‰), whereas winter diet comprised bark (-25.6‰), C4 grasses (δ13C, -12.7‰), and corn stalks and husks (-11.3‰).

  2. Evaluation of the factors involved in bioaccumulation of gamma-emitting radionuclides in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Sixth technical progress report, July 1, 1974--June 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Radioanalysis of 165 deer specimens in 1974 from the Southeast may show the beginning of a decline in radiocesium ( 137 Cs) bioaccumulation. Southeastern white-tailed deer continue to yield spectacularly high levels of radiostrontium ( 90 Sr). Vegetation analyses for both 90 Sr and 137 Cs also showed a decrease over the past two years. Fluctuations in 137 Cs levels in deer are primarily a result of habitat and deer food production changes. The highest mercury levels detected in individual mammals occurred in raccoons, bobcats, and otter from the Lower Coastal Plain habitats of southern Georgia. (U.S.)

  3. Educational outreach and impacts of white-tailed deer browse on native and invasive plants at the Crooked Creek Environmental Learning Center, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Lisa O.

    Overabundance of deer can assist the intrusion of invasive plants through browse, leading to homogenization of plant communities. Public attitudes towards native and invasive plant species and white-tailed deer browse related to personal experiences, can be changed through education focusing public awareness of ramifications of deer browse on native and invasive plants. I developed an interactive, interpretive Self-Guided Walking Tour brochure of the "You Can Trail" to provide an educational outreach program for visitors of Crooked Creek Environmental Learning Center that includes ecologically important native and invasive plants species from my investigation. This research study focuses on the overall abundance of native and invasive plant species once Odocoileus virginianus have been removed from the landscape during collection periods in June and September 2013 from exclosure and access plots that were maintained for seven years. Similarity of abundance were found in native and invasive abundance of forbs, bushes and percentage of ground cover. Differences included native bush volume being greater than invasive bush volume in the access plot in June with opposing results in the exclosure plot, being greater in invasive bush volume. However, in September, native and invasive bush volume was similar within the exclosure plot, while invasive bush volume decreased in the access plot. Invasive vines recorded in the June access plot were absent in the September collection period.

  4. Effects of tick control by acaricide self-treatement of white-tailed deer on host-seeking tick infection prevalence and entomologic risk for Ixodes scapularis-borne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the effects of tick control by acaricide self-treatment of white-tailed deer on the infection prevalence and entomologic risk for three I. scapularis-borne bacteria in host-seeking ticks. Ticks were collected from vegetation in areas treated with the ‘4-Poster’ device and from control a...

  5. 78 FR 46603 - Notice of Availability of a Draft White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... actions would occur to reduce the effects of deer overbrowsing. Alternative B (Combined Non-lethal Actions... (sharpshooting with firearms or capture and euthanasia of individual deer) to reduce the herd size. Alternative D... sharpshooting with firearms or capture and euthanasia and nonsurgical reproductive control of does with an...

  6. Preliminary data used to assess the accuracy of estimating female white-tailed deer diel birthing-season home ranges using only daytime locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    Because many white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) home-range and habitat-use studies rely only on daytime radio-tracking data, we were interested in whether diurnal data sufficiently represented diel home ranges. We analyzed home-range and core-use size and overlap of 8 adult-female Global-Positioning-System-collared deer during May and June 2001 and 2002 in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, USA. We used 2 traditional means of analysis: minimum-convex polygons (MCP) and fixed kernels (95% FK, home range and 50% FK, core use) and two methods to partition day and night location data: (1) daytime = 0800-2000 h versus nighttime = 2000-0800 h and (2) sunup versus sundown. We found no statistical difference in size of home-range and core-use areas across day and night comparisons; however, in terms of spatial overlap, approximately 30% of night-range areas on average were not accounted for using daytime locations, with even greater differences between core-use areas (on average approximately 50%). We conclude that diurnal data do not adequately describe diel adult-female-deer, May-June home-ranges due to differences in spatial overlap (location). We suggest research to determine (1) if our findings hold in other circumstances (e.g., exclusive of the parturition period, other age classes, etc.), (2) if our conclusions generalize under other conditions (e.g., across deer range, varying seasons, etc.), (3) if habitat-use conclusions are affected by the incomplete overlap between diurnal and diel data, (4) how many nocturnal locations must be included to generate sufficient overlap, and (5) the influence of using other kernel sizes (e.g., 75%, 90%).

  7. Deciphering Seasonal Variations of Diet and Water in Modern White-Tailed Deer by In Situ Analysis of Osteons in Cortical Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, T. E.; Longstaffe, F. J.

    2004-12-01

    In situ stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of biogenic apatite were obtained from longitudinally-cut sections of cortical bone from femurs of modern domesticated sheep and free-range White-Tailed deer, using an IR-laser and a GC-continuous flow interface. Ablation pits averaged 200x50 microns, making it possible to analyze individual osteons. Since cortical bone is remodelled along osteons throughout a mammal's lifetime, isotopic data at this resolution provides information about seasonal variations in diet and drinking water. The O-isotope results were calibrated using laser analyses of NBS-18 and NBS-19, which produced a value of 26.39±0.46 permil (n=27) for WS-1 calcite (accepted value, 26.25 permil). C-isotope results were calibrated using a CO2 reference gas, producing a value of 0.76±0.40permil (n=27) for WS-1, also in excellent agreement with its accepted value of 0.74 permil. Average O- and C-isotope values for a local domestic sheep (southwestern Ontario, Canada) were 12.20±0.58 and -15.70±0.35 permil (n=27), respectively. No isotopic trend occurred along or across individual osteons. This pattern is consistent with the sheep's relatively unchanging food and water sources. The free-range White-Tailed deer came from Pinery Provincial Park (PPP), southwestern Ontario. Its O- and C-isotope compositions varied systematically across individual osteons and were negatively correlated (R2=0.56). O-isotope values ranged from 13.4 to 15.5 permil; the highest values correlated with summer and the lowest values, with winter. The O-isotope compositions of the main water source (Old Ausable River Channel) varied similarly during the deer's lifetime: winter average, -10.7±0.5 permil; summer average, -8.6±0.4 permil. The C-isotope results for the deer osteons varied from -19.7 to -15.9 permil. This variation can be explained by changes in food sources. Summer diets of deer in PPP consist mainly of leafy fractions of C3 vegetation, especially sumac, cedar

  8. Presence and seeding activity of pathological prion protein (PrP(TSE in skeletal muscles of white-tailed deer infected with chronic wasting disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L Daus

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD is a contagious, rapidly spreading transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE, or prion disease, occurring in cervids such as white tailed-deer (WTD, mule deer or elk in North America. Despite efficient horizontal transmission of CWD among cervids natural transmission of the disease to other species has not yet been observed. Here, we report for the first time a direct biochemical demonstration of pathological prion protein PrP(TSE and of PrP(TSE-associated seeding activity, the static and dynamic biochemical markers for biological prion infectivity, respectively, in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected cervids, i. e. WTD for which no clinical signs of CWD had been recognized. The presence of PrP(TSE was detected by Western- and postfixed frozen tissue blotting, while the seeding activity of PrP(TSE was revealed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA. Semi-quantitative Western blotting indicated that the concentration of PrP(TSE in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected WTD was approximately 2000-10,000-fold lower than in brain tissue. Tissue-blot-analyses revealed that PrP(TSE was located in muscle-associated nerve fascicles but not, in detectable amounts, in myocytes. The presence and seeding activity of PrP(TSE in skeletal muscle from CWD-infected cervids suggests prevention of such tissue in the human diet as a precautionary measure for food safety, pending on further clarification of whether CWD may be transmissible to humans.

  9. Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: use of geographical information systems to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus-related transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravan Kakani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF virus is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighbouring regions, RVF is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat for humans, livestock and wildlife in all parts of the world. Introduction of West Nile virus to North America has shown the potential for “exotic” viral pathogens to become embedded in local ecological systems. While RVF is known to infect and amplify within domestic livestock, such as taurine cattle, sheep and goats, if RVF virus is accidentally or intentionally introduced into North America, an important unknown factor will be the role of local wildlife in the maintenance or propagation of virus transmission. We examined the potential impact of RVF transmission via white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in a typical north-eastern United States urban-suburban landscape, where livestock are rare but where these potentially susceptible, ungulate wildlife are highly abundant. Model results, based on overlap of mosquito, human and projected deer densities, indicate that a significant proportion (497/1186 km2, i.e. 42% of the urban and peri-urban landscape could be affected by RVF transmission during the late summer months. Deer population losses, either by intervention for herd reduction or by RVF-related mortality, would substantially reduce these likely transmission zones to 53.1 km2, i.e. by 89%.

  10. 77 FR 24734 - Final White-tailed Deer Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Indiana Dunes National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... National Lakeshore, 1100 North Mineral Springs Road, Porter, Indiana 46304; telephone 219-395- 1550. A copy... time to ensure that the local deer population does not become a dominant force that negatively... populations that provides multi-year (three to five years) efficacy for does. Alternative C would include all...

  11. 77 FR 74204 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Final White-Tailed Deer Management Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Mineral Springs Road, Porter, Indiana 46304; telephone (219) 395-1550. Copies of the document also may be... ensure that the local deer population does not become a dominant force that negatively influences... multiple year (three to five years) efficacy for does. Alternative C would have included all actions...

  12. Antemortem detection of chronic wasting disease prions in nasal brush collections and rectal biopsies from white-tailed deer by real time quaking-induced conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Nicholas J.; Siepker, Chris; Walter, W. David; Thomsen, Bruce V.; Greenlee, Justin J.; Lehmkuhl, Aaron D.; Richt, Jürgen a.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since spread to cervids in 23 states, two Canadian provinces, and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction of farmed or free-ranging deer and elk or surveillance studies of private or protected herds, where depopulation is contraindicated. This study sought to evaluate the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay by using recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brush samples collected antemortem from farmed white-tailed deer (n = 409). Antemortem findings were then compared to results from ante- and postmortem samples (RAMALT, brainstem, and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes) evaluated by using the current gold standard in vitro assay, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to IHC analysis in antemortem tissues and would correlate with both the genotype and the stage of clinical disease. Our results showed that RAMALT testing by RT-QuIC assay had the highest sensitivity (69.8%) compared to that of postmortem testing, with a specificity of >93.9%. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is an effective assay for detection of PrPCWD in rectal biopsy specimens and other antemortem samples and, with further research to identify more sensitive tissues, bodily fluids, or experimental conditions, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing for CWD diagnosis.

  13. Modeling the impact of climate and landscape on the efficacy of white tailed deer vaccination for cattle tick control in northeastern Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Estrada-Peña

    Full Text Available Cattle ticks are distributed worldwide and affect animal health and livestock production. White tailed deer (WTD sustain and spread cattle tick populations. The aim of this study was to model the efficacy of anti-tick vaccination of WTD to control tick infestations in the absence of cattle vaccination in a territory where both host species coexist and sustain cattle tick populations. Agent-based models that included land cover/landscape properties (patch size, distances to patches and climatic conditions were built in a GIS environment to simulate WTD vaccine effectiveness under conditions where unvaccinated cattle shared the landscape. Published and validated information on tick life cycle was used to build models describing tick mortality and developmental rates. Data from simulations were applied to a large territory in northeastern Mexico where cattle ticks are endemic and WTD and cattle share substantial portions of the habitat. WTD movements were simulated together with tick population dynamics considering the actual landscape and climatic features. The size of the vegetation patches and the distance between patches were critical for the successful control of tick infestations after WTD vaccination. The presence of well-connected, large vegetation patches proved essential for tick control, since the tick could persist in areas of highly fragmented habitat. The continued application of one yearly vaccination on days 1-70 for three years reduced tick abundance/animal/patch by a factor of 40 and 60 for R. annulatus and R. microplus, respectively when compared to non-vaccinated controls. The study showed that vaccination of WTD alone during three consecutive years could result in the reduction of cattle tick populations in northeastern Mexico. Furthermore, the results of the simulations suggested the possibility of using vaccines to prevent the spread and thus the re-introduction of cattle ticks into tick-free areas.

  14. Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in the reservoir host (white-tailed deer and in an incidental host (dog is impacted by its prior growth in macrophage and tick cell environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy D S Nair

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia chaffeensis, transmitted from Amblyomma americanum ticks, causes human monocytic ehrlichiosis. It also infects white-tailed deer, dogs and several other vertebrates. Deer are its reservoir hosts, while humans and dogs are incidental hosts. E. chaffeensis protein expression is influenced by its growth in macrophages and tick cells. We report here infection progression in deer or dogs infected intravenously with macrophage- or tick cell-grown E. chaffeensis or by tick transmission in deer. Deer and dogs developed mild fever and persistent rickettsemia; the infection was detected more frequently in the blood of infected animals with macrophage inoculum compared to tick cell inoculum or tick transmission. Tick cell inoculum and tick transmission caused a drop in tick infection acquisition rates compared to infection rates in ticks fed on deer receiving macrophage inoculum. Independent of deer or dogs, IgG antibody response was higher in animals receiving macrophage inoculum against macrophage-derived Ehrlichia antigens, while it was significantly lower in the same animals against tick cell-derived Ehrlichia antigens. Deer infected with tick cell inoculum and tick transmission caused a higher antibody response to tick cell cultured bacterial antigens compared to the antibody response for macrophage cultured antigens for the same animals. The data demonstrate that the host cell-specific E. chaffeensis protein expression influences rickettsemia in a host and its acquisition by ticks. The data also reveal that tick cell-derived inoculum is similar to tick transmission with reduced rickettsemia, IgG response and tick acquisition of E. chaffeensis.

  15. A long-term assessment of the variability in winter use of dense conifer cover by female white-tailed deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn D Delgiudice

    Full Text Available Long-term studies allow capture of a wide breadth of environmental variability and a broader context within which to maximize our understanding of relationships to specific aspects of wildlife behavior. The goal of our study was to improve our understanding of the biological value of dense conifer cover to deer on winter range relative to snow depth and ambient temperature.We examined variation among deer in their use of dense conifer cover during a 12-year study period as potentially influenced by winter severity and cover availability. Female deer were fitted with a mixture of very high frequency (VHF, n = 267 and Global Positioning System (GPS, n = 24 collars for monitoring use of specific cover types at the population and individual levels, respectively. We developed habitat composites for four study sites. We fit multinomial response models to VHF (daytime data to describe population-level use patterns as a function of snow depth, ambient temperature, and cover availability. To develop alternative hypotheses regarding expected spatio-temporal patterns in the use of dense conifer cover, we considered two sets of competing sub-hypotheses. The first set addressed whether or not dense conifer cover was limiting on the four study sites. The second set considered four alternative sub-hypotheses regarding the potential influence of snow depth and ambient temperature on space use patterns. Deer use of dense conifer cover increased the most with increasing snow depth and most abruptly on the two sites where it was most available, suggestive of an energy conservation strategy. Deer use of dense cover decreased the most with decreasing temperatures on the sites where it was most available. At all four sites deer made greater daytime use (55 to >80% probability of use of open vegetation types at the lowest daily minimum temperatures indicating the importance of thermal benefits afforded from increased exposure to solar radiation. Date

  16. Effects of tick control by acaricide self-treatment of white-tailed deer on host-seeking tick infection prevalence and entomologic risk for Ixodes scapularis-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoen, Anne Gatewood; Rollend, Lindsay G; Papero, Michele A; Carroll, John F; Daniels, Thomas J; Mather, Thomas N; Schulze, Terry L; Stafford, Kirby C; Fish, Durland

    2009-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of tick control by acaricide self-treatment of white-tailed deer on the infection prevalence and entomologic risk for three Ixodes scapularis-borne bacteria in host-seeking ticks. Ticks were collected from vegetation in areas treated with the "4-Poster" device and from control areas over a 6-year period in five geographically diverse study locations in the Northeastern United States and tested for infection with two known agents of human disease, Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and for a novel relapsing fever-group spirochete related to Borrelia miyamotoi. Overall, 38.2% of adults and 12.5% of nymphs were infected with B. burgdorferi; 8.5% of adults and 4.2% of nymphs were infected with A. phagocytophilum; and 1.9% of adults and 0.8% of nymphs were infected with B. miyamotoi. In most cases, treatment with the 4-Poster device was not associated with changes in the prevalence of infection with any of these three microorganisms among nymphal or adult ticks. However, the density of nymphs infected with B. burgdorferi, and consequently the entomologic risk for Lyme disease, was reduced overall by 68% in treated areas compared to control areas among the five study sites at the end of the study. The frequency of bacterial coinfections in ticks was generally equal to the product of the proportion of ticks infected with a single bacterium, indicating that enzootic maintenance of these pathogens is independent. We conclude that controlling ticks on deer by self-application of acaricide results in an overall decrease in the human risk for exposure to these three bacterial agents, which is due solely to a reduction in tick density.

  17. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  18. Factors associated with shooting accuracy and wounding rate of four managed wild deer species in the UK, based on anonymous field records from deer stalkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Aebischer

    Full Text Available The amount of wounding during routine culling is an important factor in the welfare of wild deer. Little information exists on factors determining shooting accuracy and wounding rates under field conditions in the UK. In this study, 102 anonymous stalkers collected data on the outcomes and circumstances of 2281 shots. Using hot-deck imputation and generalised linear mixed modelling, we related the probability that a shot hit its target, and the probability that the shot killed the deer if it was hit, to 28 variables describing the circumstances of the shot. Overall, 96% of deer were hit, of which 93% were killed outright. A reduced probability of hitting the target was associated with an uncomfortable firing position, too little time available, shooting off elbows or freehand, taking the head or upper neck as point of aim, a heavily obscured target, a distant target, shooting at females, lack of shooting practice and a basic (or no stalker qualification. An increase in the likelihood of wounding was associated with an uncomfortable firing position, shooting with insufficient time, a distant target (only when time was not sufficient, a bullet weight below 75 grains, a target concealed in thicket or on the move and an area rarely stalked. To maximise stalking success and deer welfare, we recommend that stalkers ensure a comfortable firing position, use a gun rest, aim at the chest, use bullets heavier than 75 grains, avoid taking a rushed shot, shoot a distant animal only if there is plenty of time, fire only when the target is stationary, avoid shooting at an obscured animal, take care when the ground is unfamiliar, and do shooting practice at least once a month. The high miss rate of basic-level stalkers suggests that training should include additional firing practice under realistic shooting conditions.

  19. Deer forests, game shooting and landed estates in the South West of Ireland, 1840 - 1970

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, John M. (Sean)

    2001-01-01

    This thesis is concentrated on the historical aspects of the elitist field sports of deer stalking and game shooting, as practiced by four Irish landed ascendancy families in the south west of Ireland. Four great estates were selected for study. Two of these were, by Irish standards, very large: the Kenmare estate of over 136,000 acres in the ownership of the Roman Catholic Earls of Kenmare, and the Herbert estate of over 44,000 acres in the ownership of the Protestant Herbert family. The oth...

  20. 137Cs levels in deer following the Three Mile Island accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R W

    1993-06-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus) tongues were assayed to assess whether or not significant widespread 137Cs contamination occurred in the vicinity of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station as a result of the 1979 accident. White-tailed deer tongues harvested from 10 Pennsylvania counties more than 88 km away from Three Mile Island had significantly higher 137Cs levels than deer tongues harvested from counties surrounding the nuclear plant. The mean deer tongue 137Cs levels found in Pennsylvania white-tailed deer were lower than 137Cs levels found in deer from other parts of the U.S. sampled shortly after culmination of major atmospheric nuclear testing. These findings support the conclusions of previous studies suggesting that only minimal quantities of 137Cs escaped from the damaged Three Mile Island plant after the accident.

  1. The taxonomic status of the white-tailed kite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W.S.; Banks, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) of the Americas has been merged with the Black-shouldered (or Black-winged) Kite (E. caeruleus) of the Old World and the Australian Black-shouldered Kite (E. axillaris) by North American authorities (but not elsewhere), primarily because of similarity in plumage. However, American kites differ from Old World kites in greater size and weight, in proportions (relatively longer tail and smaller bill and feet), plumage pattern (particularly of juveniles), and in behavior. Here we argue that these characters are sufficiently distinctive to warrant recognition of E. leucurus at the species level.

  2. Inhibition of protease-resistant prion protein formation in a transformed deer cell line infected with chronic wasting disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymond, G.J.; Olsen, E.A.; Lee, K.S.; Raymond, L.D.; Bryant, P.K.; Baron, G.S.; Caughey, W.S.; Kocisko, D.A.; McHolland, L.E.; Favara, C.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Mayer, R.T.; Miller, M.W.; Williams, E.S.; Caughey, B.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of North American cervids, i.e., mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk (wapiti). To facilitate in vitro studies of CWD, we have developed a transformed deer cell line that is persistently infected

  3. The Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative: can adaptive management and local stakeholder engagement sustain reduced impact of ungulate browsers in forest systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan L. Stout; Alejandro A. Royo; David S. deCalesta; Kevin McAleese; James C. Finley

    2013-01-01

    The Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative (KQDC) was established in 2000 to test new approaches to stewardship of white-tailed deer and forest habitat on a 30 000 hectare landscape in northwest Pennsylvania, USA. Partners included land managers, scientists, educators, tourism promoters,and hunters. KQDC goals were adaptive management of the deer herd, improved habitat...

  4. Human perceptions before and after a 50% reduction in an urban deer herd's density

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Henderson; Robert J. Warren; David H. Newman; J. Michael Bowker; Jennifer S. Cromwell; Jeffrey J. Jackson

    2000-01-01

    Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations in urban and suburban areas can be controversial because of potential damage to landscape vegetation, deer-vehicle collisions, and fear over transmission of tick-borne diseases. Herd reduction is often proposed to solve these problems; however, the ability of human residents to...

  5. The legacy of deer overabundance: long-term delays in herbaceous understory recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Pendergast; Shane M. Hanlon; Zachary M. Long; Alex Royo; Walter P. Carson

    2016-01-01

    Decades of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) overpopulation have dramatically homogenized forests across much of the eastern United States, creating depauperate forest understory communities. The rate at which these communities recover once deer browsing has been reduced remains an open question. We evaluate overbrowsing...

  6. The effects of wind turbines on white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus Albicilla) in Hokkaido, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraki, Saiko; Kitano, Masato

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The recent growth of wind facilities in Japan has raised concerns about bird collisions, especially for white-tailed eagles in Hokkaido, northern part of Japan. Approx. 150 pairs of white-tailed eagles breed in Hokkaido in the latest survey (Shiraki unpub. data) and these pairs are considered as residents. On the other hand, ca.500-700 white-tailed eagles including migrants from the breeding areas in Russia winter in Hokkaido. The major objectives of this study are to (1) examine the impacts of wind turbines on white-tailed eagles by information analysis in the previous accident reports of the collisions and by field investigations at the wind facilities, and (2) explore the possible factors which relate to the collisions of the eagles with wind turbines A total of 24 collisions of sea eagles (Haliaeetus spp.) have been reported by both incidental discoveries and fatality searching since 2004 in Hokkaido. 22 of the 24 fatalities were white-tailed eagles and 23 of the 24 were immature birds. Field surveys to estimate of fatality rate of white-tailed eagles and observations of the flight behaviours were carried out at the wind facilities including a total of 42 turbines for one and half years. Annual mortality for white-tailed eagles was estimated at 0.08 fatalities / yr / MW and the Risk Index (Smallwood et Thelander 2004) was calculated at 0.058, the second highest value after common buzzards (Buteo buteo) in this survey. In addition, white-tailed eagles and common buzzards flew at the altitudes of rotor zones of the wind turbines more frequently than the other raptors. The effects of the collisions at wind turbines on white-tailed eagles in Hokkaido based on the results of this study, and on the ecological and the genetically information of the population will be considered in the presentation. (Author)

  7. Vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) for protection against bovine tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis and other related species in the M. tuberculosis complex, pose a serious continual threat to the health and economic wellbeing of wildlife, livestock, and humans worldwide. Wildlife reservoirs of bTB play a very important role in the epidemio...

  8. Experimental infection of white-tailed deer with bluetongue virus serotype 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drolet, B.S.; Reister, L.M.; Mecham, J.O.; Wilson, W.C.; Nol, P.; Vercauteren, K.C.; Rijn, van P.A.; Bowen, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the

  9. Nutrition and In Vitro Digestibility of Tall Fescue for White-Tailed Deer, May Through November

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.E. Probasco; A.J. Bjugstad

    1978-01-01

    Describes a study of the nutritive quality and digestibility of ferilized and unfertilized tall fescue in spring, summer, and fall. The grass may be most valuable as food in early spring and late fall, and on unfertilized sites.

  10. Distribution and geographical variation of the White-tailed Hawk (Buteo albicaudatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voous, K.H.

    1968-01-01

    The present knowledge on infraspecific variation, distribution, and migration of the White-tailed Hawk ( Buteo albicaudatus Vieillot) is critically reviewed. In practically every aspect knowledge is highly inadequate. Size variation (tables I—IV) is in accordance with Bergmann’s Phenomenon, but does

  11. Nesting success of White Terns and White-tailed Tropicbirds on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the breeding success of two tropical seabirds that exploit dissimilar nesting habitats on Cousine Island in the Seychelles archipelago, the White Tern Gygis alba and the White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus, which nest in trees and in crevices on the ground, respectively. Both species have a ...

  12. Persistent pollutants in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, J.H.; Hadderingh, R.H.; Bijleveld, M.F.I.J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the possible relationship between persistent pollutants and the decline in reproductive success of the White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Schleswig Holstein, Federal Republic of Germany. Chemical analyses were made of Eagle's eggs, of one adult Eagle which was found

  13. Post-fledging movements of white-tailed eagles: Conservation implications for wind-energy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balotari-Chiebao, Fabio; Villers, Alexandre; Ijäs, Asko; Ovaskainen, Otso; Repka, Sari; Laaksonen, Toni

    2016-11-01

    The presence of poorly sited wind farms raises concerns for wildlife, including birds of prey. Therefore, there is a need to extend the knowledge of the potential human-wildlife conflicts associated with wind energy. Here, we report on the movements and habitat use of post-fledging satellite-tagged white-tailed eagles in Finland, where wind-energy development is expected to increase in the near future. In particular, we examine the probability of a fledgling approaching a hypothetical turbine that is placed at different distances from the nest. We found that this probability is high at short distances but considerably decreases with increasing distances to the nest. A utilisation-availability analysis showed that the coast was the preferred habitat. We argue that avoiding construction between active nests and the shoreline, as well as adopting the currently 2-km buffer zone for turbine deployment, can avoid or minimise potential impacts on post-fledging white-tailed eagles.

  14. Breeding of the White-Tailed Eagle in the Omsk Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yu. Kassal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla in the Omsk region prefers to breed within the Irtysh River floodplain and its tributaries, as well as along Rahtovo lake and large lake systems (Bolshie Krutinskie, Tyukalinskie, Ilyinskie. Its nests are built mainly on silver birch, aspen, Scots and Siberian pines, white willow and poplars, at a height of 6–15 m with zonal.

  15. Modelling the impact of toxic and disturbance stress on white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsman, John C; Schipper, Aafke M; Lenders, H J Rob; Foppen, Ruud P B; Hendriks, A Jan

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have related breeding success and survival of sea eagles to toxic or non-toxic stress separately. In the present investigation, we analysed single and combined impacts of both toxic and disturbance stress on populations of white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), using an analytical single-species model. Chemical and eco(toxico)logical data reported from laboratory and field studies were used to parameterise and validate the model. The model was applied to assess the impact of ∑PCB, DDE and disturbance stress on the white-tailed eagle population in The Netherlands. Disturbance stress was incorporated through a 1.6% reduction in survival and a 10-50% reduction in reproduction. ∑PCB contamination from 1950 up to 1987 was found to be too high to allow the return of white-tailed eagle as a breeding species in that period. ∑PCB and population trends simulated for 2006-2050 suggest that future population growth is still reduced. Disturbance stress resulted in a reduced population development. The combination of both toxic and disturbance stress varied from a slower population development to a catastrophical reduction in population size, where the main cause was attributed to the reduction in reproduction of 50%. Application of the model was restricted by the current lack of quantitative dose-response relationships between non-toxic stress and survival and reproduction. Nevertheless, the model provides a first step towards integrating and quantifying the impacts of multiple stressors on white-tailed eagle populations.

  16. Disseminated Mycobacterium celatum infection in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, M. F.; Grondahl, C.; Giese, Steen Bjørck

    2006-01-01

    An adult female white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis) was presented with abdominal enlargement and hard subcutaneous masses. Necropsy findings included bony masses extending from skeletal structures, disseminated pale foci in the liver, and a pale mass in the kidney. Histological examination revea...... revealed multifocal to coalescing granulomatous inflammation in the bone, liver, kidney, lung and spleen. Mycobacterium celatum was isolated from the liver and identified by DNA sequencing. This is the first report of M. celatum infection in an avian species....

  17. Effects of climate change on nutrition and genetics of White-tailed Ptarmigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Stricker, Craig A.; St. John, Judy; Braun, Clait E.; Wann, Gregory T.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Sandercock, Brett K.; Martin, Kathy; Segelbacher, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) are well suited as a focal species for the study of climate change because they are adapted to cool, alpine environments that are expected to undergo unusually rapid climate change. We compared samples collected in the late 1930s, the late 1960s, and the late 2000s using molecular genetic and stable isotope methods in an effort to determine whether White-tailed Ptarmigan on Mt. Evans, Colorado, have experiences recent environmental changes resulting in shifts in genetic diversity, gene frequency, and nutritional ecology. We genotyped 115 individuals spanning the three time periods, using nine polymorphic microsatellite loci in our genetic analysis. These samples were also analyzed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition. We found a slight trend of lower heterozygosity through time, and allelic richness values were significantly lower in more recent times, but not significantly using an alpha of 0.05 (P 13C and δ15N values decreased significantly across time periods, whereas the range in isotope values increased consistently from the late 1930s to the late time periods. Inferred changes in the nutritional ecology of White-tailed Ptarmigan on Mt. Evans relate primarily to increased atmospheric deposition of nutrients that likely influenced foraging habits and tundra plant composition and nutritional quality. Future work seeks to integrate genetic and isotopic data with long-term demographics to develop a detailed understanding of the interaction among environmental stressors on the long-term viability of ptarmigan populations.

  18. Response of northern red oak, black walnut, and white ash seedlings to various levels of simulated summer deer browsing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Morrissey; Douglass F. Jacobs; John R. Seifert

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the response of tree seedlings to browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) is critical to the management of high value hardwood plantations in the Central Hardwood Forest Region. One-year-old black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and white ash...

  19. Use of noninvasive genetics to assess nest and space use by white-tailed eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Zafer; Bragin, Evgeny A.; DeWoody, J. Andrew; Braham, Melissa A.; Katzner, Todd E.; Doyle, Jacqueline M.

    2016-01-01

    Movement and space use are important components of animal interactions with the environment. However, for hard-to-monitor raptor species, there are substantial gaps in our understanding of these key determinants. We used noninvasive genetic tools to evaluate the details of space use over a 3-yr period by White-tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) at the Naurzum Zapovednik in northern Kazakhstan. We genotyped, at 10 microsatellite markers and one mitochondrial marker, 859 eagle feathers and assigned naturally shed feathers to individuals. We identified 124 White-tailed Eagles, including both members of 5–10 pairs per year, and were able to monitor birds across years. Distances between eagle nests and hunting perches were always greater than nearest neighbor distances, eagles never used the closest available hunting perch, and hunting perches were always shared with other eagles. When eagles switched nests between years, the nests they chose were almost always well outside the space that theory predicted they defended the prior year. Our data are inconsistent with classical territorial and colonial models of resource use; they more closely resemble semi-colonial behavior. It is unlikely that standard methods of animal tracking (e.g., marking and telemetry), would have provided a similarly cost-effective mechanism to gain these insights into spatial and temporal aspects of eagle behavior. When combined with existing information on space use of other local species, these data suggest that partitioning of spatial resources among White-tailed Eagles and other eagles at the Zapovednik may be facilitated by the alternative strategies of space use they employ.

  20. Evidence for Neandertal jewelry: modified white-tailed eagle claws at Krapina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorka Radovčić

    Full Text Available We describe eight, mostly complete white-tailed eagle (Haliaëtus [Haliaeetus] albicilla talons from the Krapina Neandertal site in present-day Croatia, dating to approximately 130 kyrs ago. Four talons bear multiple, edge-smoothed cut marks; eight show polishing facets and/or abrasion. Three of the largest talons have small notches at roughly the same place along the plantar surface, interrupting the proximal margin of the talon blade. These features suggest they were part of a jewelry assemblage, --- the manipulations a consequence of mounting the talons in a necklace or bracelet. An associated phalanx articulates with one of the talons and has numerous cut marks, some of which are smoothed. These white-tailed eagle bones, discovered more than 100 years ago, all derive from a single level at Krapina and represent more talons than found in the entire European Mousterian period. Presence of eight talons indicates that the Krapina Neandertals acquired and curated eagle talons for some kind of symbolic purpose. Some have argued that Neandertals lacked symbolic ability or copied this behavior from modern humans. These remains clearly show that the Krapina Neandertals made jewelry well before the appearance of modern humans in Europe, extending ornament production and symbolic activity early into the European Mousterian.

  1. A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhou

    Full Text Available Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905 was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN, white tail disease (WTD or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD. To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

  2. Molecular identification of Sarcocystis halieti n. sp., Sarcocystis lari and Sarcocystis truncata in the intestine of a white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Gjerde

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An emaciated white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla from Western Norway was found and nursed briefly before it died. The necropsy revealed that the principal cause of death was an inflammation and occlusion of the bile ducts. A secondary finding was the presence in the intestinal mucosa of numerous sporulated Sarcocystis oocysts measuring 21.8–22.8 × 16.0–17.0 μm. The aim of this study was to identify these oocysts to species level using molecular methods. Genomic DNA was extracted from 10 mucosal scrapings containing oocysts and subjected to PCR amplification and sequencing of four DNA regions: the 18S and 28S rRNA genes, the ITS1 region and the cox1 gene. DNA of three previously known Sarcocystis spp. was identified, but only two of these, Sarcocystis halieti n. sp. and Sarcocystis lari, both employing sea birds as intermediate hosts, were considered to have used the sea eagle as a definitive host and to have formed oocysts in its intestine. The third species found, Sarcocystis truncata, employs red deer as intermediate hosts and seems to use felids as definitive hosts based on its phylogenetic position and prevalence. The sea eagle had probably recently ingested portions of one of the latter hosts (red deer or cat/lynx containing stages (sarcocysts/oocysts and thus DNA of S. truncata. The species S. halieti and S. lari could only be unambiguously separated from their most closely related congeners on the basis of their ITS1 sequences. This is the first report of Sarcocystis oocysts in sea eagles and the first identification to species level of Sarcocystis oocysts in any type of eagle. The sea eagle also acted as intermediate host of an unidentified Sarcocystis spp. as evidenced by the finding of six thin-walled sarcocysts in a histological section of cardiac muscle. Keywords: Sarcocystis, Haliaeetus albicilla, Oocysts, ITS1, Cox1, Phylogeny

  3. On-Farm Mitigation of Transmission of Tuberculosis from White-Tailed Deer to Cattle: Literature Review and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. David Walter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Animal Industry Division of the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD has been challenged with assisting farmers with modifying farm practices to reduce potential for exposure to Mycobacterium bovis from wildlife to cattle. The MDARD recommendations for on-farm risk mitigation practices were developed from experiences in the US, UK and Ireland and a review of the scientific literature. The objectives of our study were to review the present state of knowledge on M. bovis excretion, transmission, and survival in the environment and the interactions of wildlife and cattle with the intention of determining if the current recommendations by MDARD on farm practices are adequate and to identify additional changes to farm practices that may help to mitigate the risk of transmission. This review will provide agencies with a comprehensive summary of the scientific literature on mitigation of disease transmission between wildlife and cattle and to identify lacunae in published research.

  4. The Missouri Deer Game. A Wildlife Conservation Action Game for 15-40 Players, Ages 10-Adult. Instructional Unit. Conservation Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyland, Jim

    This unit consists of a four-part game designed to provide students with a basic understanding of four possible interactions between animal populations. Management of the white-tailed deer, one of the most abundant large wild animals in Missouri, is the central focus of the game. Included with the unit are: (1) unit objectives; (2) pre-game…

  5. Preventing the Establishment of a Wildlife Disease Reservoir: A Case Study of Bovine Tuberculosis in Wild Deer in Minnesota, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Carstensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB has been found in 12 cattle operations and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in northwestern Minnesota, following the state's most recent outbreak of the disease in 2005 in the northwest part of the state. Both deer and cattle have the same strain of bTB. The Minnesota Board of Animal Health has been leading efforts to eradicate the disease in Minnesota's cattle, which have included the depopulation of all infected herds, a cattle buy-out program, and mandatory fencing of stored feeds. The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources began surveillance efforts in free-ranging white-tailed deer in fall 2005. All bTB-infected deer have been found within a 16 km2 area in direct association with infected cattle farms. Aggressive efforts to reduce deer densities through liberalized hunting and sharpshooting have resulted in a 55% decline in deer densities. Also, recreational feeding of wild deer has been banned. Disease prevalence in deer has decreased from 1.2% in 2005 to an undetectable level in 2010.

  6. Predation of artificial ground nests on white-tailed prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B.W.; Stanley, T.R.; Sedgwick, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies are unique to prairie and shrub-steppe landscapes. However, widespread eradication, habitat loss, and sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) have reduced their numbers by 98% since historical times. Birds associated with prairie dogs also are declining. Potential nest predators, such as coyotes (Canis latrans), swift foxes (Vulpes velox), and badgers (Taxidea taxus), may be attracted to colonies where a high concentration of prairie dogs serve as available prey. Increased abundance of small mammals, including prairie dogs, also may increase the risk of predation for birds nesting on colonies. Finally, because grazing by prairie dogs may decrease vegetation height and canopy cover, bird nests may be easier for predators to locate. In this study, we placed 1,444 artificial ground nests on and off 74 white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) colonies to test the hypothesis that nest predation rates are higher on colonies than at nearby off sites (i.e., uncolonized habitat). We sampled colonies from 27 May to 16 July 1997 at the following 3 complexes: Coyote Basin, Utah and Colorado; Moxa Arch, Wyoming; and Shirley Basin, Wyoming. Differences in daily predation rates between colonies and paired off sites averaged 1.0% (P = 0.060). When converted to a typical 14-day incubation period, predation rates averaged 14% higher on colonies (57.7 ?? 2.7%; ?? ?? SE) than at off sites (50.4 ?? 3.1%). Comparisons of habitat variables on colonies to off sites showed percent canopy cover of vegetation was similar (P = 0.114), percent bare ground was higher on colonies (P 0.288). Although we found the risk of nest predation was higher on white-tailed prairie dog colonies than at off sites, fitness of birds nesting on colonies might depend on other factors that influence foraging success, reproductive success, or nestling survival.

  7. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the Intermountain Province of the Columbia Basin, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielgus, Robert B.; Shipley, Lisa

    2002-07-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the subbasins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are not ranked as target species and are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated ''press'' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM subbasins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend

  8. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the IM Province of the Columbia Basin, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielgus, Robert; Shipley, Lisa; Myers, Woodrow

    2003-09-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the sub basins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated 'press' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM sub basins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend indices. Predation rates and population growth rates

  9. Can coyotes affect deer populations in Southeastern North America?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilgo, J., C.; Ray, H., Scott; Ruth, Charles; Miller, Karl, V.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The coyote (Canis latrans) is a recent addition to the fauna of eastern North America, and in many areas coyote populations have been established for only a decade or two. Although coyotes are known predators of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in their historic range, effects this new predator may have on eastern deer populations have received little attention. We speculated that in the southeastern United States, coyotes may be affecting deer recruitment, and we present 5 lines of evidence that suggest this possibility. First, the statewide deer population in South Carolina has declined coincident with the establishment and increase in the coyote population. Second, data sets from the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina indicate a new mortality source affecting the deer population concurrent with the increase in coyotes. Third, an index of deer recruitment at SRS declined during the period of increase in coyotes. Fourth, food habits data from SRS indicate that fawns are an important food item for coyotes during summer. Finally, recent research from Alabama documented significant coyote predation on fawns there. Although this evidence does not establish cause and effect between coyotes and observed declines in deer recruitment, we argue that additional research should proactively address this topic in the region. We identified several important questions on the nature of the deer–coyote relationship in the East.

  10. Using GPS telemetry to determine roadways most susceptible to deer-vehicle collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David W.; Prebyl, Thomas J.; Stickles, James H.; Osborn, David A.; Irwin, Brian J.; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Warren, Robert J.; Miller, Karl V.

    2016-01-01

    More than 1 million wildlife-vehicle collisions occur annually in the United States. The majority of these accidents involve white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and result in >US $4.6 billion in damage and >200 human fatalities. Prior research has used collision locations to assess sitespecific as well as landscape features that contribute to risk of deer-vehicle collisions. As an alternative approach, we calculated road-crossing locations from 25 GPS-instrumented white-tailed deer near Madison, Georgia (n=154,131 hourly locations). We identified crossing locations by creating movement paths between subsequent GPS points and then intersecting the paths with road locations. Using AIC model selection, we determined whether 10 local and landscape variables were successful at identifying areas where higher frequencies of deer crossings were likely to occur. Our findings indicate that traffic volume, distance to riparian areas, and the amount of forested area influenced the frequency of road crossings. Roadways that were predominately located in wooded landscapes and 200–300 m from riparian areas were crossed frequently. Additionally, we found that areas of low traffic volume (e.g., county roads) had the highest frequencies of deer crossings. Analyses utilizing only records of deer-vehicle collision locations cannot separate the relative contribution of deer crossing rates and traffic volume. Increased frequency of road crossings by deer in low-traffic, forested areas may lead to a greater risk of deer-vehicle collision than suggested by evaluations of deer-vehicle collision frequency alone.

  11. Diet of the White-Tailed Eagle During the Breeding Season in the Polesski State Radiation-Ecological Reserve, Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri V. Yurko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data on the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla collected during breeding seasons of 2006–2015 in the Polesski State Radiation-Ecological Reserve. The data included 127 records of prey remains belonging to 27 species of vertebrates collected in and under the nests. We discovered that the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle mainly consists of vertebrates of three classes: fishes (Pisces 48.1 %, birds (Aves 41.7 % and mammals (Mammalia 10.2 %. At the present, the main prey species in the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle in the breeding season are: Bream (Abramis brama – 22.0 %, Black Stork (Ciconia nigra – 12.6 %, Northern Pike (Esox lucius – 10.2 %, Wild Boar (Sus scrofa – 7.1 %, White Stork (Ciconia ciconia – 6.3 %, Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos – 5.5 % and Eurasian Coot (Fulica atra – 5.5 %. Together these species makes up 69.2 % or 2/3 of the diet of this raptor. We also established that cannibalism is a character feature of the local population of White-Tailed Eagle, and its proportion is 2.4 %.

  12. Deer use of riparian zones and adjacent pine plantations in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micah L. Poteet; Ronald E. Thill; R. Montague Whiting; R. Lee Rayburn

    1996-01-01

    The authors monitored white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use of riparian zones (RZ’s) and adjacent pine plantations of 3 age classes (young, 1 to 3 years old; intermediate, 5 to 7 years old; and older, 9 to 13 years old) using radio telemetry for 2 years on a 1,300 ha study area near Alto, TX. Riparian zones comprised 22.0 percent of the area; young,...

  13. Breeding of White-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon lepturus) in the western South Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, G R; Serafini, P P; Simão-Neto, I; Ladle, R J; Efe, M A

    2016-04-19

    Basic information on natural history is crucial for assessing the viability of populations, but is often lacking for many species of conservation concern. One such species is the White-tailed Tropicbird, Phaethon lepturus (Mathews, 1915). Here, we address this shortfall by providing detailed information on reproductive biology, distribution and threats on the Fernando de Noronha archipelago, Brazil - the largest colony of P. lepturus in the South Atlantic. We assessed reproduction from August 2011 to January 2012 by monitoring tropicbird nests and their contents. A population estimate was obtained through a combination of active searches for nests and by census at sea between 2010 and 2012. Breeding success was calculated by traditional methods. The growth curve of chicks and life table were also calculated. Additional information on nest and mate fidelity and on age of breeding birds was obtained from the banded birds. Our results indicate that the unusual nest form (limestone pinnacles) and predation by crabs may be responsible for the observed patterns of hatching and fledging success. Although the Fernando de Noronha population appears to be stable (at between 100-300 birds), a long term monitoring program would be desirable to assess fluctuations in this globally important population. Conservation strategies should focus on controlling predation by land crabs and tegu lizards.

  14. Breeding of White-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon lepturus in the western South Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Leal

    Full Text Available Abstract Basic information on natural history is crucial for assessing the viability of populations, but is often lacking for many species of conservation concern. One such species is the White-tailed Tropicbird, Phaethon lepturus (Mathews, 1915. Here, we address this shortfall by providing detailed information on reproductive biology, distribution and threats on the Fernando de Noronha archipelago, Brazil – the largest colony of P. lepturus in the South Atlantic. We assessed reproduction from August 2011 to January 2012 by monitoring tropicbird nests and their contents. A population estimate was obtained through a combination of active searches for nests and by census at sea between 2010 and 2012. Breeding success was calculated by traditional methods. The growth curve of chicks and life table were also calculated. Additional information on nest and mate fidelity and on age of breeding birds was obtained from the banded birds. Our results indicate that the unusual nest form (limestone pinnacles and predation by crabs may be responsible for the observed patterns of hatching and fledging success. Although the Fernando de Noronha population appears to be stable (at between 100-300 birds, a long term monitoring program would be desirable to assess fluctuations in this globally important population. Conservation strategies should focus on controlling predation by land crabs and tegu lizards.

  15. Independent Effects of Invasive Shrubs and Deer Herbivory on Plant Community Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Ward

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Both invasive species and deer herbivory are recognized as locally important drivers of plant community dynamics. However, few studies have examined whether their effects are synergistic, additive, or antagonistic. At three study areas in southern New England, we examined the interaction of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann herbivory and three levels of invasive shrub control over seven growing seasons on the dynamics of nine herbaceous and shrub guilds. Although evidence of synergistic interactions was minimal, the separate effects of invasive shrub control and deer herbivory on plant community composition and dynamics were profound. Plant communities remained relatively unchanged where invasive shrubs were not treated, regardless if deer herbivory was excluded or not. With increasing intensity of invasive shrub control, native shrubs and forbs became more dominant where deer herbivory was excluded, and native graminoids became progressively more dominant where deer herbivory remained severe. While deer exclusion and intensive invasive shrub control increased native shrubs and forbs, it also increased invasive vines. Restoring native plant communities in areas with both established invasive shrub thickets and severe deer browsing will require an integrated management plan to eliminate recalcitrant invasive shrubs, reduce deer browsing intensity, and quickly treat other opportunistic invasive species.

  16. Endemic chronic wasting disease causes mule deer population decline in Wyoming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melia T DeVivo

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni, and moose (Alces alces shirasi in North America. In southeastern Wyoming average annual CWD prevalence in mule deer exceeds 20% and appears to contribute to regional population declines. We determined the effect of CWD on mule deer demography using age-specific, female-only, CWD transition matrix models to estimate the population growth rate (λ. Mule deer were captured from 2010-2014 in southern Converse County Wyoming, USA. Captured adult (≥ 1.5 years old deer were tested ante-mortem for CWD using tonsil biopsies and monitored using radio telemetry. Mean annual survival rates of CWD-negative and CWD-positive deer were 0.76 and 0.32, respectively. Pregnancy and fawn recruitment were not observed to be influenced by CWD. We estimated λ = 0.79, indicating an annual population decline of 21% under current CWD prevalence levels. A model derived from the demography of only CWD-negative individuals yielded; λ = 1.00, indicating a stable population if CWD were absent. These findings support CWD as a significant contributor to mule deer population decline. Chronic wasting disease is difficult or impossible to eradicate with current tools, given significant environmental contamination, and at present our best recommendation for control of this disease is to minimize spread to new areas and naïve cervid populations.

  17. Polymorphic integrations of an endogenous gammaretrovirus in the mule deer genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleder, Daniel; Kim, Oekyung; Padhi, Abinash; Bankert, Jason G; Simeonov, Ivan; Schuster, Stephan C; Wittekindt, Nicola E; Motameny, Susanne; Poss, Mary

    2012-03-01

    Endogenous retroviruses constitute a significant genomic fraction in all mammalian species. Typically they are evolutionarily old and fixed in the host species population. Here we report on a novel endogenous gammaretrovirus (CrERVγ; for cervid endogenous gammaretrovirus) in the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) that is insertionally polymorphic among individuals from the same geographical location, suggesting that it has a more recent evolutionary origin. Using PCR-based methods, we identified seven CrERVγ proviruses and demonstrated that they show various levels of insertional polymorphism in mule deer individuals. One CrERVγ provirus was detected in all mule deer sampled but was absent from white-tailed deer, indicating that this virus originally integrated after the split of the two species, which occurred approximately one million years ago. There are, on average, 100 CrERVγ copies in the mule deer genome based on quantitative PCR analysis. A CrERVγ provirus was sequenced and contained intact open reading frames (ORFs) for three virus genes. Transcripts were identified covering the entire provirus. CrERVγ forms a distinct branch of the gammaretrovirus phylogeny, with the closest relatives of CrERVγ being endogenous gammaretroviruses from sheep and pig. We demonstrated that white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and elk (Cervus canadensis) DNA contain proviruses that are closely related to mule deer CrERVγ in a conserved region of pol; more distantly related sequences can be identified in the genome of another member of the Cervidae, the muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak). The discovery of a novel transcriptionally active and insertionally polymorphic retrovirus in mammals could provide a useful model system to study the dynamic interaction between the host genome and an invading retrovirus.

  18. Comparison of the breeding biology of sympatric red-tailed Hawks, White-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actkinson, M.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P.; Boal, C.W.; Brennan, L.A.; Hernandez, F.

    2009-01-01

    We compared the breeding biology of sympatric nesting Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) in south Texas during 2003 and 2004. We monitored 46 breeding attempts by Red-tailed Hawks, 56 by White-tailed Hawks, and 27 by Crested Caracaras. Observed nesting success was similar for Red-tailed Hawks (62%) and Crested Caracaras (61%), but lower for White-tailed Hawks (51%). Daily survival rates (0.99) were the same for all three species. Red-tailed Hawks and White-tailed Hawks both fledged 1.13 young per nesting pair and Crested Caracaras fledged 1.39 young per nesting pair. All three species nested earlier in 2004 than in 2003; in addition, the overall nesting density of these three species almost doubled from 2003 (1.45 pairs/km2) to 2004 (2.71 pairs/km2). Estimated productivity of all three species was within the ranges reported from other studies. Given extensive and progressive habitat alteration in some areas of south Texas, and the limited distributions of White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracaras, the presence of large ranches managed for free-range cattle production and hunting leases likely provides important habitat and may be key areas for conservation of these two species. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  19. Long-term regional shifts in plant community composition are largely explained by local deer impact experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Frerker

    Full Text Available The fact that herbivores and predators exert top-down effects to alter community composition and dynamics at lower trophic levels is no longer controversial, yet we still lack evidence of the full nature, extent, and longer-term effects of these impacts. Here, we use results from a set of replicated experiments on the local impacts of white-tailed deer to evaluate the extent to which such impacts could account for half-century shifts in forest plant communities across the upper Midwest, USA. We measured species' responses to deer at four sites using 10-20 year-old deer exclosures. Among common species, eight were more abundant outside the exclosures, seven were commoner inside, and 16 had similar abundances in- and outside. Deer herbivory greatly increased the abundance of ferns and graminoids and doubled the abundance of exotic plants. In contrast, deer greatly reduced tree regeneration, shrub cover (100-200 fold in two species, plant height, plant reproduction, and the abundance of forbs. None of 36 focal species increased in reproduction or grew taller in the presence of deer, contrary to expectations. We compared these results to data on 50-year regional shifts in species abundances across 62 sites. The effects of herbivory by white-tailed deer accurately account for many of the long-term regional shifts observed in species' abundances (R2 = 0.41. These results support the conjecture that deer impacts have driven many of the regional shifts in forest understory cover and composition observed in recent decades. Our ability to link results from shorter-term, local experiments to regional long-term studies of ecological change strengthens the inferences we can draw from both approaches.

  20. Rapid antemortem detection of CWD prions in deer saliva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davin M Henderson

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD is an efficiently transmitted prion disease of cervids, now identified in 22 United States, 2 Canadian provinces and Korea. One hallmark of CWD is the shedding of infectious prions in saliva, as demonstrated by bioassay in deer. It is also clear that the concentration of prions in saliva, blood, urine and feces is much lower than in the nervous system or lymphoid tissues. Rapid in vitro detection of CWD (and other prions in body fluids and excreta has been problematic due to the sensitivity limits of direct assays (western blotting, ELISA and the presence of inhibitors in these complex biological materials that hamper detection. Here we use real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC to demonstrate CWD prions in both diluted and prion-enriched saliva samples from asymptomatic and symptomatic white-tailed deer. CWD prions were detected in 14 of 24 (58.3% diluted saliva samples from CWD-exposed white-tailed deer, including 9 of 14 asymptomatic animals (64.2%. In addition, a phosphotungstic acid enrichment enhanced the RT-QuIC assay sensitivity, enabling detection in 19 of 24 (79.1% of the above saliva samples. Bioassay in Tg[CerPrP] mice confirmed the presence of infectious prions in 2 of 2 RT-QuIC-positive saliva samples so examined. The modified RT-QuIC analysis described represents a non-invasive, rapid ante-mortem detection of prions in complex biologic fluids, excreta, or environmental samples as well as a tool for exploring prion trafficking, peripheralization, and dissemination.

  1. Comparison of white-tailed kite food web dynamics among various habitats in California using stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iko, W.M.; Kester, C.L.; Bern, C.R.; Stendell, R.C.; Rye, R.O.

    2003-01-01

    The White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) was once a common raptor species in the southern United States. However, by the 1930s, the species was considered on the verge of extinction until the 1940s, when a trend towards recovery was apparent. These dramatic fluctuations may be related to changes in rodent prey base due to the conversion of native wetlands to agriculture. To investigate the effects of changes in habitat, land use practices, and prey base on kite populations, we collected tissue samples from kites, their prey, and vegetation at four different locations in California: Arcata, Coastal-Coniferous Forest; Davis, mixed Urban-Agricultural; Cosumnes, Mixed Wetland-Agriculture, and Santa Barbara, Coastal-Chaparral.

  2. DEFECATION RATE IN CAPTIVE DEER IN “LOS CAPOMOS”, MUNICIPALITY OF El FUERTE, SINALOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Gibrán Ochoa-Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable use of white-tailed deer in Mexico can only be performed in Management Units for the Conservation of Wildlife (UMA , for its acronym in Spanish , based on a management plan for legal operation. Among the methods for population estimate harvest rates, highlights fecal count groups, depending on the frequency at which a deer excretes daily, and whose values are estimated from captive specimens and tolerant observer, but considering subspecies and different from the northern Sinaloa conditions. Using these rates of defecation can lead to overharvesting. This research was conducted in the farmed deer of the indigenous ejido (Mayo-Yoreme ethnic group called “Los Capomos”, in the municipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa, between October 2011 and May 2012, to estimate the rate of defecation counts from fecal groups, obtained from a confined deer population and in apparent equilibrium with its environment through adjustments to the model of Eberhardt and Van Etten. It was found that the lowest rate published defecation (12.7 deer fecal groups per day, the estimated population accounted for half of the known population, which would prevent excessive use of native deer in the wild. However, the pattern of random grouping of excreta in confinement, makes it advisable that it be used in conditions of freedom, since it presupposes the mathematical model used aggregate grouping patterns.

  3. Food partitioning between breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. Scheibler

    Full Text Available I examined the diet of breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae in an agrarian area of southern Brazil by analyzing regurgitated prey remains. The objective was to evaluate how these raptors, which differ markedly in their hunting activity periods (owls are nocturnal and kites diurnal, share their mammalian food component. 2,087 prey consumed by Barn Owls and 1,276 by White-tailed Kites were identified. They presented a high overlap of food-niches (Pianka’s index was 0.98. Based on the daily activity period of their main small mammal prey, a lower overlap would be expected. The crepuscular/nocturnal Mus musculus was the main prey for the diet of breeding Barn Owls (81% and White-tailed Kites (63%. This small exotic rodent provided 63% of the small mammal biomass ingested by owls and 44% by kites. Larger native small mammals were also considered important for the diet of kites, mainly because of their biomass contribution. Although these raptors differ markedly in their hunting activity periods, Barn Owls and White-tailed Kites are very similar predators in southern Brazil, overlapping their diets.

  4. Large-scale model-based assessment of deer-vehicle collision risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Hothorn

    Full Text Available Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer-vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population sizes of free-living ungulates living in a complex landscape. Attempts to directly estimate population sizes of deer are problematic owing to poor data quality and lack of spatial representation on larger scales. We used data on >74,000 deer-vehicle collisions observed in 2006 and 2009 in Bavaria, Germany, to model the local risk of deer-vehicle collisions and to investigate the relationship between deer-vehicle collisions and both environmental conditions and browsing intensities. An innovative modelling approach for the number of deer-vehicle collisions, which allows nonlinear environment-deer relationships and assessment of spatial heterogeneity, was the basis for estimating the local risk of collisions for specific road types on the scale of Bavarian municipalities. Based on this risk model, we propose a new "deer-vehicle collision index" for deer management. We show that the risk of deer-vehicle collisions is positively correlated to browsing intensity and to harvest numbers. Overall, our results demonstrate that the number of deer-vehicle collisions can be predicted with high precision on the scale of municipalities. In the densely populated and intensively used landscapes of Central Europe and North America, a model-based risk assessment for deer-vehicle collisions provides a cost-efficient instrument for deer management on the landscape scale. The measures derived from our model provide valuable information for planning road protection and defining

  5. Long-term deer exclusion has complex effects on a suburban forest understory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faison, Edward K.; Foster, David R.; DeStefano, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Herbivory by deer is one of the leading biotic disturbances on forest understories (i.e., herbs, small shrubs, and small tree seedlings). A large body of research has reported declines in height, abundance, and reproductive capacity of forbs and woody plants coupled with increases in abundance of graminoids, ferns, and exotic species due to deer herbivory. Less clear is the extent to which (and the direction in which) deer alter herbaceous layer diversity, where much of the plant diversity in a forest occurs. We examined the effect of 15 y of deer exclusion on the understory of a suburban hardwood forest in Connecticut exposed to decades of intensive herbivory by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We compared species richness (at subplot and plot scale), individual species and life form group abundance (% cover), and community composition between grazed and exclosure plots, as well as between mesic and wet soil blocks. Forb cover was more than twice as abundant in exclosure as in grazed plots, whereas sedge (Carex spp.) cover was 28 times more abundant, and exotic species cover generally higher in grazed than in exclosure plots. Native and exotic species richness were both higher in grazed than exclosure plots at the subplot scale, and native herbaceous richness was higher in grazed plots at both spatial scales. In contrast, native shrub richness increased with deer exclusion at the plot scale. Our results suggest that deer exclusion had contrasting effects on species richness, depending on plant life form, but that overall richness of both exotic and native plants declined with deer exclusion. In addition, site heterogeneity remained an important driver of vegetation dynamics even in the midst of high deer densities.

  6. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Roberson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau region Pennsylvania and Northern Highlands region of Wisconsin. We recorded the abundance of seven types of webs, each corresponding to a family of web-building spiders. We quantified vegetation structure and habitat suitability for the spiders by computing a web scaffold availability index (WSAI at 0.5 m and 1.0 m above the ground. At Northern Highlands sites, we recorded prey availability. Spider webs were twice as abundant in deer-free plots compared to control plots, while WSAI was 7–12 times greater in deerfree plots. Prey availability was lower in deer-free plots. With the exception of funnel web-builders, all spider web types were significantly more abundant in deer-free plots. Both deer exclusion and the geographic region of plots were significant predictors of spider community structure. In closed canopy forests with high browsing pressure, the low density of tree saplings and shrubs provides few locations for web-building spiders to anchor webs. Recruitment of these spiders may become coupled with forest disturbance events that increase tree and shrub recruitment. By modifying habitat structure, deer appear to indirectly modify arthropod food web interactions. As deer populations have increased in eastern North America over the past several decades, the effects of deer on web-building spiders may be widespread.

  7. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  8. Antemortem detection of chronic wasting disease prions in nasal brush collections and rectal biopsies from white-tailed deer by real time quaking-induced conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly fifty years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since spread to cervids in 23 states, 2 Canadian provinces, and the Republic of Korea. The increasing expansion of this disease makes the d...

  9. Variation in the diet composition of the white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmit Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la variación en la composición botánica de la dieta del venado cola blanca Odocoileus virginianus en la Reserva de la Biosfera Tehuacán-Cuicatlán (RBTC, México. Las especies consumidas se identificaron mediante el análisis microhistológico de epidermis en excretas frescas. Los muestreos se realizaron en épocas húmedas y secas del 2011 al 2013 en San Gabriel Casa Blanca, dominado por bosque tropical seco (BTS y matorral crasicaule, y en San Pedro Chicozapotes, dominado por BTS; ambas localidades del estado de Oaxaca. La dieta anual consistió de 83 especies de 36 familias; 13 especies representaron más de 50 % de la dieta. Las hojas y tallos tiernos de las especies arbóreas y herbáceas fueron las más frecuentemente consumidas. La composición de la dieta no difirió (P > 0.05 entre épocas del año pero sí entre localidades de estudio. La composición de las plantas consumidas por el venado fue similar a lo reportado en otros BTS. Los resultados de este estudio permiten comprender las estrategias ecológicas de forrajeo del herbívoro en los BTS y podrían tener relevancia en las unidades de manejo para la conservación de la vida silvestre (UMAs en la RBTC y en áreas aledañas a la misma.

  10. The Effect of Herbivory by White-Tailed Deer and Additionally Swamp Rabbits in an Old-Growth Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret S. Devall; Bernard R. Parresol; Winston P. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Forest openings create internal patchiness and offer different habitat qualities that attract wildlife, especially herbivores, that flourish along forest edges. But intense herbivory in these openings can reduce or eliminate herbaceous and woody species and thus influence local species composition and structure of the forest. This study in an old-growth bottomland...

  11. Persistence of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) After Oral or Parenteral Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in cattle and a serious zoonotic pathogen, most commonly contracted through consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. To control this zoonosis, many countries have developed bovine tuberculosis eradication programs. Although relatively successful, ...

  12. Surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in scavengers of white-tailed deer carcasses in the chronic wasting disease area of wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Johnson, Chad; Vanderloo, J.P.; Aiken, Judd M.; Hamir, A.N.; Hoover, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains and excreta, and pose a threat of cross-species transmission. In this study tissues were tested from 812 representative mammalian scavengers, collected in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin, for TSE infection using the IDEXX HerdChek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the collected mammals tested positive using the ELISA, but these were negative when tested by Western blot. While our sample sizes permitted high probabilities of detecting TSE assuming 1% population prevalence in several common scavengers (93%, 87%, and 87% for raccoons, opossums, and coyotes, respectively), insufficient sample sizes for other species precluded similar conclusions. One cannot rule out successful cross-species TSE transmission to scavengers, but the results suggest that such transmission is not frequent in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin. The need for further surveillance of scavenger species, especially those known to be susceptible to TSE (e.g., cat, American mink, raccoon), is highlighted in both a field and laboratory setting.

  13. Validation of Use of Rectoanal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a family of fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by accumulation of abnormal prion proteins in the brain. The abnormal prion protein is the major constituent of the infectious agent and is a reliable marker for disease. The occurrence of ...

  14. Injury and Illness Among Deer Hunters

    OpenAIRE

    McRae, Shelagh M.

    1989-01-01

    General practice and out-patient emergency records for a five-year period were reviewed for injuries and illnesses that occurred during the week of deer rifle hunting on Manitoulin Island. Of 65 hunters who were identified, most had lacerations secondary to knife injuries. There were two deaths (one shooting and one in a motor vehicle accident), and 19 persons required hospitalization. More than half of these serious accidents occurred on the weekends immediately preceding or following the hu...

  15. SEASON OF DELTAMETHRIN APPLICATION AFFECTS FLEA AND PLAGUE CONTROL IN WHITE-TAILED PRAIRIE DOG (CYNOMYS LEUCURUS) COLONIES, COLORADO, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Daniel W; Streich, Sean P; Sack, Danielle A; Martin, Daniel J; Griffin, Karen A; Miller, Michael W

    2016-07-01

    In 2008 and 2009, we evaluated the duration of prophylactic deltamethrin treatments in white-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys leucurus ) colonies and compared effects of autumn or spring dust application in suppressing flea numbers and plague. Plague occurred before and during our experiment. Overall, flea abundance tended to increase from May or June to September, but it was affected by deltamethrin treatment and plague dynamics. Success in trapping prairie dogs (animals caught/trap days) declined between June and September at all study sites. However, by September trap success on dusted sites (19%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 16-22%) was about 15-fold greater than on undusted control sites (1%; CI 0.3-4%; P≤0.0001). Applying deltamethrin dust as early as 12 mo prior seemed to afford some protection to prairie dogs. Our data showed that dusting even a portion of a prairie dog colony can prolong its persistence despite epizootic plague. Autumn dusting may offer advantages over spring in suppressing overwinter or early-spring flea activity, but timing should be adjusted to precede the annual decline in aboveground activity for hibernating prairie dog species. Large colony complexes or collections of occupied but fragmented habitat may benefit from dusting some sites in spring and others in autumn to maximize flea suppression in a portion of the complex or habitat year-round.

  16. The influence of fine-scale habitat features on regional variation in population performance of alpine White-tailed Ptarmigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, B.; Martin, K.

    2011-01-01

    It is often assumed (explicitly or implicitly) that animals select habitat features to maximize fitness. However, there is often a mismatch between preferred habitats and indices of individual and population measures of performance. We examined the influence of fine-scale habitat selection on the overall population performance of the White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura), an alpine specialist, in two subdivided populations whose habitat patches are configured differently. The central region of Vancouver Island, Canada, has more continuous and larger habitat patches than the southern region. In 2003 and 2004, using paired logistic regression between used (n = 176) and available (n = 324) sites, we identified food availability, distance to standing water, and predator cover as preferred habitat components . We then quantified variation in population performance in the two regions in terms of sex ratio, age structure (n = 182 adults and yearlings), and reproductive success (n = 98 females) on the basis of 8 years of data (1995-1999, 2002-2004). Region strongly influenced females' breeding success, which, unsuccessful hens included, was consistently higher in the central region (n = 77 females) of the island than in the south (n = 21 females, P = 0.01). The central region also had a much higher proportion of successful hens (87%) than did the south (55%, P < 0.001). In light of our findings, we suggest that population performance is influenced by a combination of fine-scale habitat features and coarse-scale habitat configuration. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  17. Is Sustainablity Possible in Protected Areas in Mexico? Deer as an Example of a Renewable Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gallina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, Mexico’s National Commission of Protected Areas (CONANP was created to encourage the protection, management and restoration of natural and cultural resources and their conservation. Protected areas were recently increased by more than 3 million hectares, for a current total of more than 25 million hectares, corresponding to 174 protected areas that cover 12.90% of the country’s surface area. The information obtained by research helps us understand both biodiversity and ecological processes, as well as the social and economic phenomena that influence the use of ecosystems. In Mexico there are four species of deer: white-tailed deer, mule deer, red brocket and brown brocket. These ungulates have been an important part of the diet of indigenous people and rural communities, and represent an important resource for sport and trophy hunting. We found the best deer populations in protected areas; these can therefore maintain the gene pool and serve as source populations for other areas. These populations are also useful from a research perspective. People living in some protected areas continue to use natural resources such as deer, and also receive economic inputs to develop ecotourism programs, and support from the government for the environmental services derived from conserving biodiversity.

  18. Endemic chronic wasting disease causes mule deer population decline in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVivo, Melia T.; Edmunds, David R.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Schumaker, Brant A.; Binfet, Justin; Kreeger, Terry J.; Richards, Bryan J.; Schatzl, Hermann M.; Cornish, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and moose (Alces alces shirasi) in North America. In southeastern Wyoming average annual CWD prevalence in mule deer exceeds 20% and appears to contribute to regional population declines. We determined the effect of CWD on mule deer demography using age-specific, female-only, CWD transition matrix models to estimate the population growth rate (λ). Mule deer were captured from 2010–2014 in southern Converse County Wyoming, USA. Captured adult (≥ 1.5 years old) deer were tested ante-mortem for CWD using tonsil biopsies and monitored using radio telemetry. Mean annual survival rates of CWD-negative and CWD-positive deer were 0.76 and 0.32, respectively. Pregnancy and fawn recruitment were not observed to be influenced by CWD. We estimated λ= 0.79, indicating an annual population decline of 21% under current CWD prevalence levels. A model derived from the demography of only CWD-negative individuals yielded; λ = 1.00, indicating a stable population if CWD were absent. These findings support CWD as a significant contributor to mule deer population decline. Chronic wasting disease is difficult or impossible to eradicate with current tools, given significant environmental contamination, and at present our best recommendation for control of this disease is to minimize spread to new areas and naïve cervid populations.

  19. Survey for hemoparasites in imperial eagles (Aquila heliaca), steppe eagles (Aquila nipalensis), and white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppert, Lynda L; Layman, Seth; Bragin, Evgeny A; Katzner, Todd

    2004-04-01

    Prevalence of hemoparasites has been investigated in many avian species throughout Europe and North America. Basic hematologic surveys are the first step toward evaluating whether host-parasite prevalences observed in North America and Europe occur elsewhere in the world. We collected blood smears from 94 nestling imperial eagles (Aquila heliaca), five nestling steppe eagles (Aquila nipalensis), and 14 nestling white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) at Naurzum Zapovednik (Naurzum National Nature Reserve) in Kazakhstan during the summers of 1999 and 2000. In 1999, six of 29 imperial eagles were infected with Lencocytozoon toddi. Five of 65 imperial eagles and one of 14 white-tailed sea eagle were infected with L. toddi in 2000. Furthermore, in 2000, one of 65 imperial eagles was infected with Haemoproteus sp. We found no parasites in steppe eagles in either year, and no bird had multiple-species infections. These data are important because few hematologic studies of these eagle species have been conducted.

  20. Collision risk in white-tailed eagles. Modelling kernel-based collision risk using satellite telemetry data in Smoela wind-power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Roel; Nygaard, Torgeir; Dahl, Espen Lie; Reitan, Ole; Bevanger, Kjetil

    2011-05-15

    Large soaring birds of prey, such as the white-tailed eagle, are recognized to be perhaps the most vulnerable bird group regarding risk of collisions with turbines in wind-power plants. Their mortalities have called for methods capable of modelling collision risks in connection with the planning of new wind-power developments. The so-called 'Band model' estimates collision risk based on the number of birds flying through the rotor swept zone and the probability of being hit by the passing rotor blades. In the calculations for the expected collision mortality a correction factor for avoidance behaviour is included. The overarching objective of this study was to use satellite telemetry data and recorded mortality to back-calculate the correction factor for white-tailed eagles. The Smoela wind-power plant consists of 68 turbines, over an area of approximately 18 km2. Since autumn 2006 the number of collisions has been recorded on a weekly basis. The analyses were based on satellite telemetry data from 28 white-tailed eagles equipped with backpack transmitters since 2005. The correction factor (i.e. 'avoidance rate') including uncertainty levels used within the Band collision risk model for white-tailed eagles was 99% (94-100%) for spring and 100% for the other seasons. The year-round estimate, irrespective of season, was 98% (95-99%). Although the year-round estimate was similar, the correction factor for spring was higher than the correction factor of 95% derived earlier from vantage point data. The satellite telemetry data may provide an alternative way to provide insight into relative risk among seasons, and help identify periods or areas with increased risk either in a pre- or post construction situation. (Author)

  1. Ingestion of lead from ammunition and lead concentrations in white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, B.; Axelsson, J.; Borg, H.; Holm, K.; Bignert, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we show for the first time that lead poisoning from ammunition is a significant mortality factor for white-tailed sea eagle (WSE) (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden. We analyzed 118 WSEs collected between 1981 and 2004 from which both liver and kidney samples could be taken. A total of 22% of all eagles examined had elevated (> 6 μg/g d.w.) lead concentrations, indicating exposure to leaded ammunition, and 14% of the individuals had either liver or kidney lead concentrations diagnostic of lethal lead poisoning (> 20 μg/g d.w.). Lead concentrations in liver and kidney were significantly correlated. In individuals with lead levels 20 μg/g, concentrations were significantly higher in liver. The lead isotope ratios indicate that the source of lead in individuals with lethal concentrations is different from that of individuals exhibiting background concentrations of lead ( 10 times higher than concentrations reported for Baltic fish from the same time period. In contrast to other biota there was no decrease in lead concentrations in WSE over the study period. The proportion of lead poisoned WSE remained unchanged over the study period, including two years after a partial ban of lead shot was enforced in 2002 for shallow wetlands. The use of lead in ammunition poses a threat to all raptors potentially feeding on shot game or offal. The removal of offal from shot game and alternatives to leaded ammunition needs to be implemented in order to prevent mortality from lead in raptors and scavengers.

  2. Ingestion of lead from ammunition and lead concentrations in white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helander, B., E-mail: bjorn.helander@nrm.se [Department of Contaminant Research, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Box 50007, SE-104 05 Stockholm (Sweden); Axelsson, J., E-mail: jeanette.axelsson@hgen.slu.se [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Borg, H., E-mail: hans.borg@itm.su.se [Department of Applied Environmental Science/ITM, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Holm, K. [Department of Applied Environmental Science/ITM, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Bignert, A., E-mail: anders.bignert@nrm.se [Department of Contaminant Research, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Box 50007, SE-104 05 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    In this study we show for the first time that lead poisoning from ammunition is a significant mortality factor for white-tailed sea eagle (WSE) (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden. We analyzed 118 WSEs collected between 1981 and 2004 from which both liver and kidney samples could be taken. A total of 22% of all eagles examined had elevated (> 6 {mu}g/g d.w.) lead concentrations, indicating exposure to leaded ammunition, and 14% of the individuals had either liver or kidney lead concentrations diagnostic of lethal lead poisoning (> 20 {mu}g/g d.w.). Lead concentrations in liver and kidney were significantly correlated. In individuals with lead levels < 6 {mu}g/g, concentrations were significantly higher in kidney than in liver; in individuals with lead levels > 20 {mu}g/g, concentrations were significantly higher in liver. The lead isotope ratios indicate that the source of lead in individuals with lethal concentrations is different from that of individuals exhibiting background concentrations of lead (< 6 {mu}g/g d.w.) There were no significant sex or age differences in lead concentrations. A study from the Baltic reported in principle no biomagnification of lead, but background lead concentrations in WSE liver in this study were still four to > 10 times higher than concentrations reported for Baltic fish from the same time period. In contrast to other biota there was no decrease in lead concentrations in WSE over the study period. The proportion of lead poisoned WSE remained unchanged over the study period, including two years after a partial ban of lead shot was enforced in 2002 for shallow wetlands. The use of lead in ammunition poses a threat to all raptors potentially feeding on shot game or offal. The removal of offal from shot game and alternatives to leaded ammunition needs to be implemented in order to prevent mortality from lead in raptors and scavengers.

  3. Reproduction, growth, and tissue residues of deer fed dieldrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D.A.; Korschgen, L.J.

    1970-01-01

    Feeding tests were conducted from January, 1966, to January, 1969, to ascertain the effects of daily ingestions of sublethal amounts of dieldrin on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Groups of deer on 0 ppm dieldrin (controls), 5 ppm, and 25 ppm dieldrin were maintained at these respective levels, as were their progeny. Treated food was readily accepted. Dieldrin intoxication was not observed, and 9 of 10 animals of each group survived 3 years of treatment. No differences in conception or in utero mortality were found between groups. Fawns from dieldrin-fed does were smaller at birth and greater post-partum mortality occurred. Fertility of male progeny was not affected. Growth was slower and remained reduced in dieldrin-treated females which were immature when the study began. Hematologic values and serum protein concentrations were not significantly (P > 0.05) related to treatment. Liver/body weight ratios were significantly (P brain, liver, and thigh muscle tissues showed no evidence of increasing with length of treatment, but showed definite relationships to levels of dieldrin in daily diets. Nursing fawns had higher residues in brain tissues than did older deer on 5 ppm a d 25 ppm dieldrin. Highest brain residues (12.60 and 12.10 ppm, wet weight) occurred in fawns only a few days of age at death. Equilibrium between ingestion and storage or excretion of dieldrin occurred prior to 200 days and continued until nearly 1,100 days. There was no evidence of a sharp decline in residues after a long period of continued dosage. Daily ingestion of 100 and 200 ppm of dieldrin proved fatal to yearling male deer at 27 and 22 days, respectively.

  4. Shooting stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurette, M.; Hammer, C.

    1985-01-01

    A shooting star passage -even a star shower- can be sometimes easily seen during moonless black night. They represent the partial volatilization in earth atmosphere of meteorites or micrometeorites reduced in cosmic dusts. Everywhere on earth, these star dusts are searched to be gathered. This research made one year ago on the Greenland ice-cap is this article object; orbit gathering projects are also presented [fr

  5. Mother to offspring transmission of chronic wasting disease in reeves' muntjac deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy V Nalls

    Full Text Available The horizontal transmission of prion diseases has been well characterized in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, chronic wasting disease (CWD of deer and elk and scrapie of sheep, and has been regarded as the primary mode of transmission. Few studies have monitored the possibility of vertical transmission occurring within an infected mother during pregnancy. To study the potential for and pathway of vertical transmission of CWD in the native cervid species, we used a small cervid model-the polyestrous breeding, indoor maintainable, Reeves' muntjac deer-and determined that the susceptibility and pathogenesis of CWD in these deer reproduce that in native mule and white-tailed deer. Moreover, we demonstrate here that CWD prions are transmitted from doe to fawn. Maternal CWD infection also appears to result in lower percentage of live birth offspring. In addition, evolving evidence from protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA assays on fetal tissues suggest that covert prion infection occurs in utero. Overall, our findings demonstrate that transmission of prions from mother to offspring can occur, and may be underestimated for all prion diseases.

  6. A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with “Bacterial White Tail Disease” of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by “white tail” and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of “white tail” but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as “bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)”. Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

  7. Deer carcass decomposition and potential scavenger exposure to chronic wasting disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Berkley, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy afflicting the Cervidae family in North America, causing neurodegeneration and ultimately death. Although there are no reports of natural cross-species transmission of CWD to noncervids, infected deer carcasses pose a potential risk of CWD exposure for other animals. We placed 40 disease-free white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses and 10 gut piles in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin (USA) from September to April in 2003 through 2005. We used photos from remotely operated cameras to characterize scavenger visitation and relative activity. To evaluate factors driving the rate of carcass removal (decomposition), we used KaplanMeier survival analysis and a generalized linear mixed model. We recorded 14 species of scavenging mammals (6 visiting species) and 14 species of scavenging birds (8 visiting species). Prominent scavengers included American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). We found no evidence that deer consumed conspecific remains, although they visited gut piles more often than carcasses relative to temporal availability in the environment. Domestic dogs, cats, and cows either scavenged or visited carcass sites, which could lead to human exposure to CWD. Deer carcasses persisted for 18 days to 101 days depending on the season and year, whereas gut piles lasted for 3 days. Habitat did not influence carcass decomposition, but mammalian and avian scavenger activity and higher temperatures were positively associated with faster removal. Infected deer carcasses or gut piles can serve as potential sources of CWD prions to a variety of scavengers. In areas where surveillance for CWD exposure is practical, management agencies should consider strategies for testing primary scavengers of deer carcass material.

  8. Development of Northern White-Cedar Regeneration Following Partial Cutting, with and without Deer Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Larouche

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L. is an important commercial species with a high wildlife value, both as a food source and habitat for many bird and mammal species. Concerns have been expressed about its decreasing abundance across its range, and especially in mixedwood stands, where it has to compete with several other species and can suffer from heavy browsing. In this study, we quantified the development of natural northern white-cedar seedlings and saplings under various partial cutting regimes, with and without white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus Zimmerman browsing, in three selected sites in Quebec (Canada and in Maine (USA. Our data show that northern white-cedar regeneration was present in all studied stands, but that only a few stems were taller than 30 cm on the two sites with high densities of deer. In the absence of heavy browsing, stems reached a height of 30 cm in 11 years, and 130 cm in 28 years. Height growth of northern white-cedar regeneration increased with canopy light transmittance, while ground-level diameter increment increased after partial cutting. This suggests that partial cutting can be used in mixedwood stands to release natural northern white-cedar regeneration, but also that the recruitment of northern white-cedar seedlings to larger size classes constitutes a major challenge in stands subject to heavy deer browsing.

  9. DW-DEERS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Subset of data from the DoD Defense Enrollment Eligibility Reporting System (DEERS) used for USCG member and reporting within the Coast Guard Business Intelligence...

  10. Rabies in Captive Deer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-30

    Dr. Brett Petersen, a medical officer at CDC, discusses rabies in captive deer.  Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/30/2012.

  11. Deer browsing delays succession by altering aboveground vegetation and belowground seed banks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio DiTommaso

    Full Text Available Soil seed bank composition is important to the recovery of natural and semi-natural areas from disturbance and serves as a safeguard against environmental catastrophe. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus populations have increased dramatically in eastern North America over the past century and can have strong impacts on aboveground vegetation, but their impacts on seed bank dynamics are less known. To document the long-term effects of deer browsing on plant successional dynamics, we studied the impacts of deer on both aboveground vegetation and seed bank composition in plant communities following agricultural abandonment. In 2005, we established six 15 × 15 m fenced enclosures and paired open plots in recently followed agricultural fields near Ithaca, NY, USA. In late October of each of six years (2005-2010, we collected soil from each plot and conducted seed germination cycles in a greenhouse to document seed bank composition. These data were compared to measurements of aboveground plant cover (2005-2008 and tree density (2005-2012. The impacts of deer browsing on aboveground vegetation were severe and immediate, resulting in significantly more bare soil, reduced plant biomass, reduced recruitment of woody species, and relatively fewer native species. These impacts persisted throughout the experiment. The impacts of browsing were even stronger on seed bank dynamics. Browsing resulted in significantly decreased overall species richness (but higher diversity, reduced seed bank abundance, relatively more short-lived species (annuals and biennials, and fewer native species. Both seed bank richness and the relative abundance of annuals/biennials were mirrored in the aboveground vegetation. Thus, deer browsing has long-term and potentially reinforcing impacts on secondary succession, slowing succession by selectively consuming native perennials and woody species and favoring the persistence of short-lived, introduced species that continually

  12. Identification of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in deer (Odocoileus spp. using the BovineSNP50 BeadChip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwilym D Haynes

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are growing in popularity as a genetic marker for investigating evolutionary processes. A panel of SNPs is often developed by comparing large quantities of DNA sequence data across multiple individuals to identify polymorphic sites. For non-model species, this is particularly difficult, as performing the necessary large-scale genomic sequencing often exceeds the resources available for the project. In this study, we trial the Bovine SNP50 BeadChip developed in cattle (Bos taurus for identifying polymorphic SNPs in cervids Odocoileus hemionus (mule deer and black-tailed deer and O. virginianus (white-tailed deer in the Pacific Northwest. We found that 38.7% of loci could be genotyped, of which 5% (n = 1068 were polymorphic. Of these 1068 polymorphic SNPs, a mixture of putatively neutral loci (n = 878 and loci under selection (n = 190 were identified with the F(ST-outlier method. A range of population genetic analyses were implemented using these SNPs and a panel of 10 microsatellite loci. The three types of deer could readily be distinguished with both the SNP and microsatellite datasets. This study demonstrates that commercially developed SNP chips are a viable means of SNP discovery for non-model organisms, even when used between very distantly related species (the Bovidae and Cervidae families diverged some 25.1-30.1 million years before present.

  13. Characterization of enteropathogenic and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in cattle and deer in a shared agroecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi eSingh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC is an important foodborne pathogen. Cattle are suggested to be an important reservoir for STEC; however, these pathogens have also been isolated from other livestock and wildlife. In this study we sought to investigate transmission of STEC, enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC between cattle and white-tailed deer in a shared agroecosystem. Cattle feces were collected from 100 animals in a Michigan dairy farm in July 2012, while 163 deer fecal samples were collected during two sampling periods (March and June. The locations of deer fecal pellets were recorded via geographic information system mapping and microsatellite multi-locus genotyping was used to link the fecal samples to individual deer at both time points. Following subculture to sorbitol MacConkey agar and STEC CHROMagar, the pathogens were characterized by serotyping, stx profiling, and PCR-based fingerprinting; multilocus sequence typing (MLST was performed on a subset. STEC and EHEC were cultured from 12% and 16% of cattle, respectively, and EPEC was found in 36%. Deer were significantly less likely to have a pathogen in March versus June where the frequency of STEC, EHEC, and EPEC was 1%, 6% and 22%, respectively. PCR fingerprinting and MLST clustered the cattle- and deer-derived strains together in a phylogenetic tree. Two STEC strains recovered from both animal species shared MLST and fingerprinting profiles, thereby providing evidence of interspecies transmission and highlighting the importance of wildlife species in pathogen shedding dynamics and persistence in the environment and cattle herds.

  14. The population history of endogenous retroviruses in mule deer (Odocoileus heminous)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L.; Elleder, Daniel; Bao, Le; Cross, Paul C.; Powell, John H.; Poss, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Mobile elements are powerful agents of genomic evolution and can be exceptionally informative markers for investigating species and population-level evolutionary history. While several studies have utilized retrotransposon-based insertional polymorphisms to resolve phylogenies, few population studies exist outside of humans. Endogenous retroviruses are LTR-retrotransposons derived from retroviruses that have become stably integrated in the host genome during past infections and transmitted vertically to subsequent generations. They offer valuable insight into host-virus co-evolution and a unique perspective on host evolutionary history because they integrate into the genome at a discrete point in time. We examined the evolutionary history of a cervid endogenous gammaretrovirus (CrERVγ) in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). We sequenced 14 CrERV proviruses (CrERV-in1 to -in14), and examined the prevalence and distribution of 13 proviruses in 262 deer among 15 populations from Montana, Wyoming, and Utah. CrERV absence in white-tailed deer (O. virginianus), identical 5′ and 3′ long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences, insertional polymorphism, and CrERV divergence time estimates indicated that most endogenization events occurred within the last 200000 years. Population structure inferred from CrERVs (F ST = 0.008) and microsatellites (θ = 0.01) was low, but significant, with Utah, northwestern Montana, and a Helena herd being particularly differentiated. Clustering analyses indicated regional structuring, and non-contiguous clustering could often be explained by known translocations. Cluster ensemble results indicated spatial localization of viruses, specifically in deer from northeastern and western Montana. This study demonstrates the utility of endogenous retroviruses to elucidate and provide novel insight into both ERV evolutionary history and the history of contemporary host populations.

  15. The population history of endogenous retroviruses in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L; Elleder, Daniel; Bao, Le; Cross, Paul C; Powell, John H; Poss, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Mobile elements are powerful agents of genomic evolution and can be exceptionally informative markers for investigating species and population-level evolutionary history. While several studies have utilized retrotransposon-based insertional polymorphisms to resolve phylogenies, few population studies exist outside of humans. Endogenous retroviruses are LTR-retrotransposons derived from retroviruses that have become stably integrated in the host genome during past infections and transmitted vertically to subsequent generations. They offer valuable insight into host-virus co-evolution and a unique perspective on host evolutionary history because they integrate into the genome at a discrete point in time. We examined the evolutionary history of a cervid endogenous gammaretrovirus (CrERVγ) in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). We sequenced 14 CrERV proviruses (CrERV-in1 to -in14), and examined the prevalence and distribution of 13 proviruses in 262 deer among 15 populations from Montana, Wyoming, and Utah. CrERV absence in white-tailed deer (O. virginianus), identical 5' and 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences, insertional polymorphism, and CrERV divergence time estimates indicated that most endogenization events occurred within the last 200000 years. Population structure inferred from CrERVs (F ST = 0.008) and microsatellites (θ = 0.01) was low, but significant, with Utah, northwestern Montana, and a Helena herd being particularly differentiated. Clustering analyses indicated regional structuring, and non-contiguous clustering could often be explained by known translocations. Cluster ensemble results indicated spatial localization of viruses, specifically in deer from northeastern and western Montana. This study demonstrates the utility of endogenous retroviruses to elucidate and provide novel insight into both ERV evolutionary history and the history of contemporary host populations.

  16. Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: potential for human dietary exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Grainger Hunt

    Full Text Available Human consumers of wildlife killed with lead ammunition may be exposed to health risks associated with lead ingestion. This hypothesis is based on published studies showing elevated blood lead concentrations in subsistence hunter populations, retention of ammunition residues in the tissues of hunter-killed animals, and systemic, cognitive, and behavioral disorders associated with human lead body burdens once considered safe. Our objective was to determine the incidence and bioavailability of lead bullet fragments in hunter-killed venison, a widely-eaten food among hunters and their families. We radiographed 30 eviscerated carcasses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus shot by hunters with standard lead-core, copper-jacketed bullets under normal hunting conditions. All carcasses showed metal fragments (geometric mean = 136 fragments, range = 15-409 and widespread fragment dispersion. We took each carcass to a separate meat processor and fluoroscopically scanned the resulting meat packages; fluoroscopy revealed metal fragments in the ground meat packages of 24 (80% of the 30 deer; 32% of 234 ground meat packages contained at least one fragment. Fragments were identified as lead by ICP in 93% of 27 samples. Isotope ratios of lead in meat matched the ratios of bullets, and differed from background lead in bone. We fed fragment-containing venison to four pigs to test bioavailability; four controls received venison without fragments from the same deer. Mean blood lead concentrations in pigs peaked at 2.29 microg/dL (maximum 3.8 microg/dL 2 days following ingestion of fragment-containing venison, significantly higher than the 0.63 microg/dL averaged by controls. We conclude that people risk exposure to bioavailable lead from bullet fragments when they eat venison from deer killed with standard lead-based rifle bullets and processed under normal procedures. At risk in the U.S. are some ten million hunters, their families, and low

  17. Sirococcus Shoot Blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Nicholls; Kathryn Robbins

    1984-01-01

    Sirococcus shoot blight, caused by the fungus Sirococcus strobilinus Preuss, affects conifers in the Northern United States and southern Canada. The fungus infects the new shoots; diseased seedlings and saplings are especially affected. In the United States, sirococcus shoot blight has become increasingly widespread since the early 1970's. When favorable...

  18. Analyzing the Correlation between Deer Habitat and the Component of the Risk for Lyme Disease in Eastern Ontario, Canada: A GIS-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis, caused by the bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, is an emerging vector-borne infectious disease in Canada. According to the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC, by the year 2020, 80% of Canadians will live in Lyme endemic areas. An understanding of the association of Ixodes scapularis, the main vector of Lyme disease, with it hosts is a fundamental component in assessing changes in the spatial distribution of human risk for Lyme disease. Through the application of Geographic Information System (GIS mapping methods and spatial analysis techniques, this study examines the population dynamics of the black-legged Lyme tick and its primary host, the white-tailed deer, in eastern Ontario, Canada. By developing a habitat suitability model through a GIS-based multi-criteria decision making (MCDM analysis, the relationship of the deer habitat suitability map was generated and the results were compared with deer harvest data. Tick submission data collected from two public health units between 2006 and 2012 were used to explore the relationship between endemic ticks and deer habitat suitability in eastern Ontario. The positive correlation demonstrated between the deer habitat suitability model and deer harvest data allows us to further analyze the association between deer habitat and black-legged ticks in our study area. Our results revealed that the high tick submission number corresponds with the high suitability. These results are useful for developing management strategies that aim to prevent Lyme from becoming a threat to public health in Canada. Further studies are required to investigate how tick survival, behaviour and seasonal activity may change with projected climate change.

  19. A comparison of non-destructive sampling strategies to assess the exposure of white-tailed eagle nestlings (Haliaeetus albicilla) to persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulaers, Igor; Covaci, Adrian; Hofman, Jelle; Nygård, Torgeir; Halley, Duncan J; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel; Jaspers, Veerle L B

    2011-12-01

    To circumvent difficulties associated with monitoring adult predatory birds, we investigated the feasibility of different non-destructive strategies for nestling white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla). We were able to quantify polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) in body feathers (16.92, 3.37 and 7.81ngg(-1) dw, respectively), blood plasma (8.37, 0.32 and 5.22ngmL(-1) ww, respectively), and preen oil (1157.95, 30.92 and 440.74ngg(-1) ww, respectively) of all nestlings (N=14). Strong significant correlations between blood plasma and preen oil concentrations (0.565≤r≤0.801; Pfeather and blood plasma concentrations, which were almost exclusively between PCB concentrations (0.554≤r≤0.737; Pnest, were possibly undergoing certain physiological changes that may have confounded the use of body feathers as biomonitor matrix. Finally, we provide an integrated discussion on the use of body feathers and preen oil as non-destructive biomonitor strategies for nestling predatory birds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of climate on deer bone δ15N and δ13C: Lack of precipitation effects on δ15N for animals consuming low amounts of C 4 plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, A. B.; Schwarcz, H. P.

    1996-11-01

    We have examined the relationship of bone collagen δ15N and δ13C to climatic variables, humidity, temperature, and amount of precipitation using fifty-nine specimens of North American white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) from forty-six different locations. In previous studies of African mammals there was a significant correlation between bone collagen δ15N and local amount of precipitation. Results presented here similarly show an increase in δ15N with decreasing amount of precipitation but only for 25% of the animals, namely those consuming more than 10% C 4 plants. These animals also exhibited a significant correlation between δ13C and temperature which mirrors previous observations for grasses suggesting that these deer consume grasses during times of population and nutrient stress. In contrast, even in dry areas containing high proportions of C 4 grasses, the majority of the deer had consumed low amounts of C 4 plants and these deer did not have δ15N which correlate with amount of precipitation. Only when deer deviated from their normal feeding pattern by consuming C 4 plants or grasses did their δ15N correlate with amount of rainfall. For these animals, consumption of C 4 plants or grasses may signal conditions of water and nutrient stress. An increase in δ15N of bone collagen may result from combined effects from excretion of concentrated urine (to conserve water) and increased internal recycling of nitrogen (to conserve nitrogen).

  1. DEER BELIEF AND DEER SACRIFICE AROUND STEPPE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı KAHRAMAN ÇINAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Turkish people have spreaded on a large area historically. They have left a mark on all the places they reach. The history of Turks begun in Central Asian Steppes. In reaction to the steppe culture, the human communities of Turks are hunter-nomad communities. The hunter-nomad comminuties make a living from stockfarming and apiculture. The deer is one of the essential animals for t he hunter-nomad communities in the daily life. In the steppe, the deer is seen in all area of social life. Further, the deer motives are commonly used in political, military, financial, the most religious areas. The hunter-nomad comminuties benefit by the meat, milk, leather, horns, nails, etc of the deer. In this study, we dwell on the deer with regard to its intended purposes and usage areas according to steppe culture. The references of this study are references are inscriptions, mythologic stories and archeological datas.

  2. Shooting mechanisms in nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakes, Aimée; Wiel, van der Marleen; Henselmans, Paul W.J.; Leeuwen, van Johan L.; Dodou, Dimitra; Breedveld, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these

  3. Incidence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains in beef, pork, chicken, deer, boar, bison, and rabbit retail meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwedere, Kudakwashe; Dang, Huu Anh; Mills, Edward W; Cutter, Catherine N; Roberts, Elisabeth L; DeBroy, Chitrita

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the incidence of contamination by the top 7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O-groups, responsible for the majority of E. coli infections in human beings, in retail meat from different animal species. Samples from ground beef (n = 51), ground pork (n = 16), ground chicken (n = 16), and game meat (deer, wild boar, bison, and rabbit; n = 55) were collected from retail vendors for the detection of 7 STEC O-groups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157). Meat samples were tested by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the wzx gene of O antigen gene clusters of the 7 STEC O-groups. The positive samples were further tested for Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2). Out of a total of 83 ground beef, pork, and chicken samples, 17 (20%) carried O121, 9 (10%) carried O45, 8 (9%) carried O157, 3 (3%) carried O103, and 1 (1%) carried O145. None of the samples were positive for O26, O111, or the stx gene. All 3 white-tailed deer samples (100%) were positive for O45, O103, or both, 2 (10%) out of 20 red deer samples exhibited the presence of O103, and all 3 bison samples were contaminated with either O121, O145, or O157. One sample from ground deer, contaminated with E. coli O45, carried the stx1 gene. This preliminary investigation illustrates the importance of microbiological testing of pathogens in meat products, as well as the recognized need for increased surveillance and research on foodborne pathogens.

  4. The First Report of Mycobacterium celatum Isolation from Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa domestica and Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus and an Overview of Human Infections in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Pate

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium celatum, a slowly growing potentially pathogenic mycobacterium first described in humans, is regarded as an uncommon cause of human infection, though capable of inducing invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. According to some reports, a serious disease due to M. celatum may also occur in individuals with no apparent immunodeficiency. In animals, an M. celatum-related disease has been described in three cases only: twice in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo and once in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis. In this paper, we report the first detection of M. celatum in a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus. A nation-wide overview of human M. celatum infections recorded in Slovenia between 2000 and 2010 is also given. Pulmonary disease due to M. celatum was recognized in one patient with a history of a preexisting lung disease.

  5. Violence and school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Daniel J; Modzeleski, William; Kretschmar, Jeff M

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-homicide school shootings are rare events, but when they happen they significantly impact individuals, the school and the community. We focus on multiple-homicide incidents and identified mental health issues of shooters. To date, studies of school shootings have concluded that no reliable profile of a shooter exists, so risk should be assessed using comprehensive threat assessment protocols. Existing studies primarily utilize retrospective case histories or media accounts. The field requires more empirical and systematic research on all types of school shootings including single victim incidents, those that result in injury but not death and those that are successfully averted. We discuss current policies and practices related to school shootings and the role of mental health professionals in assessing risk and supporting surviving victims.

  6. Millet's Shooting Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, M.

    1988-12-01

    In this essay two paintings by the French artist Jean-Francois Millet are described. These paintings, Les Etoiles Filantes and Nuit Etoilée are particularly interesting since they demonstrate the rare artistic employment of the shooting-star image and metaphor.

  7. Distributed trouble-shooting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.M.; Bogaard, S.A.A. van den; Rasker, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    When knowledge, required for trouble-shooting at sea, can be supplied real-time but from a distance, problems, such as with the limited availability of specialists, and the high costs of maintenance, may be tackled. Unclear is, however, how this redistribution of knowledge will work in practice. We

  8. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  9. The Binomial Distribution in Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikias, Miltiadis S.

    2009-01-01

    The binomial distribution is used to predict the winner of the 49th International Shooting Sport Federation World Championship in double trap shooting held in 2006 in Zagreb, Croatia. The outcome of the competition was definitely unexpected.

  10. PrPC expression and prion seeding activity in the alimentary tract and lymphoid tissue of deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Kristen A; Hoover, Clare E; Bian, Jifeng; Telling, Glenn C; Mathiason, Candace K; Hoover, Edward A

    2017-01-01

    The agent responsible for prion diseases is a misfolded form of a normal protein (PrPC). The prion hypothesis stipulates that PrPC must be present for the disease to manifest. Cervid populations across the world are infected with chronic wasting disease, a horizontally-transmissible prion disease that is likely spread via oral exposure to infectious prions (PrPCWD). Though PrPCWD has been identified in many tissues, there has been little effort to characterize the overall PrPC expression in cervids and its relationship to PrPCWD accumulation. We used immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to describe PrPC expression in naïve white-tailed deer. We used real-time, quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) to detect prion seeding activity in CWD-infected deer. We assessed tissues comprising the alimentary tract, alimentary-associated lymphoid tissue and systemic lymphoid tissue from 5 naïve deer. PrPC was expressed in all tissues, though expression was often very low compared to the level in the CNS. IHC identified specific cell types wherein PrPC expression is very high. To compare the distribution of PrPC to PrPCWD, we examined 5 deer with advanced CWD infection. Using RT-QuIC, we detected prion seeding activity in all 21 tissues. In 3 subclinical deer sacrificed 4 months post-inoculation, we detected PrPCWD consistently in alimentary-associated lymphoid tissue, irregularly in alimentary tract tissues, and not at all in the brain. Contrary to our hypothesis that PrPC levels dictate prion accumulation, PrPC expression was higher in the lower gastrointestinal tissues than in the alimentary-associated lymphoid system and was higher in salivary glands than in the oropharyngeal lymphoid tissue. These data suggest that PrPC expression is not the sole driver of prion accumulation and that alimentary tract tissues accumulate prions before centrifugal spread from the brain occurs.

  11. Radiographing roots and shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariffah Noor Khamseah Al Idid

    1985-01-01

    The effect of seed orientation on germination time and on shoot and root growth patterns is studied. Neutron radiography is used to observe the development of 4 types of plants, maize, greenpea, soya bean and padi. These plants were grown in varying orientations; sand sizes, sand thicknesses, and level of water content. Radiography of the seeds and plants were obtained for time exposure ranging from 3-12 hours and at reactor thermal power level, ranging from 500-750 kilowatts. Results obtained showed that seeds planted in varying orientations need different length of time for shoot emergence. Neutron radiography is now developed to other areas of non-industrial applications in Malaysia. (A.J.)

  12. Ship and Shoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.

  13. School Shootings and Student Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Panu Poutvaara; Olli Ropponen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study how high school students reacted to the shocking news of a school shooting. The shooting coincided with national high-school matriculation exams. As there were exams both before and after the shooting, we can use a difference-in-differences analysis to uncover how the school shooting affected the test scores compared to previous years. We find that the average performance of young men declined due to the school shooting, whereas we do not observe a similar pattern for ...

  14. Deer hunting and television: are tv shows creating expectations among deer hunters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua D. Agee; Craig A. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the past two decades new media outlets emphasizing trophy deer hunting have come to dominate hunting culture. Using data collected through a mail survey of Illinois deer hunters (n = 2,683, 78.5-percent response), we tested two hypotheses to determine factors that contribute to preference for hunting trophy deer. In particular, we examined the relationship...

  15. Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    across the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic...USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project (Deer Island AERP...Mississippi Wetlands Restoration Projects). The project received additional funding through several public laws in response to hurricane damages

  16. Lions and prions and deer demise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contagious prion diseases--scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease of several species in the deer family--give rise to epidemics that seem capable of compromising host population viability. Despite this prospect, the ecological consequences of prion disease epidemics in natural populations have received little consideration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a cohort study design, we found that prion infection dramatically lowered survival of free-ranging adult (>2-year-old mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus: estimated average life expectancy was 5.2 additional years for uninfected deer but only 1.6 additional years for infected deer. Prion infection also increased nearly fourfold the rate of mountain lions (Puma concolor preying on deer, suggesting that epidemics may alter predator-prey dynamics by facilitating hunting success. Despite selective predation, about one fourth of the adult deer we sampled were infected. High prevalence and low survival of infected deer provided a plausible explanation for the marked decline in this deer population since the 1980s. CONCLUSION: Remarkably high infection rates sustained in the face of intense predation show that even seemingly complete ecosystems may offer little resistance to the spread and persistence of contagious prion diseases. Moreover, the depression of infected populations may lead to local imbalances in food webs and nutrient cycling in ecosystems in which deer are important herbivores.

  17. Chemical immobilization of North American mule deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Robert E.; Nielsen, Leon; Haigh, Jerry C.; Fowler, Murray E.

    1983-01-01

    The choice of agents for chemical immobilization of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) is a problem with a simple and effective solution, in my opinion. I recommend combinations of etorphine hydrochloride (M199©) and xylazine hydrochloride (Rompun©) administered intravenously and reversed intravenously. I have used this combination on hundreds of mule deer and have supervised its use on hundreds more. It is a forgiving combination in terms of safety to the deer. I have never seen a mortality in mule deer that I could blame on this combination of drugs, which, in my experience, has performed well under a wide variety of environmental, physiological and organizational conditions.

  18. Stream-crossing structure for deer fence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Blair; James A. Hays; Louis Brunett

    1963-01-01

    Stream crossings are the most vulnerable points in a deer-proof fence. When an inadequately constructed crossing washes out, enclosed deer may escape and unwanted animals enter. Structures of the type described here have withstood 2 years of frequent, severe flooding in the pine-hardwood hills of central Louisiana.

  19. Welfare issues of modern deer farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Mattiello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will start with briefly outlining the recent domestication history of red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama, followed by a description of the present status of modern deer farming. It will then review the main welfare issues of deer farming. The following aspects will be considered: accommodation and housing, management and handling, nutrition (feed and water provision, transport and slaughter, plus a short mention of velvet harvest. As a summary, the following practices can be recommended to ensure animal welfare in modern deer farming: the adoption of suitable housing systems and of adequate management techniques (e.g. specific handling pens and drop-floor cradles or crushes and the respect of specific needs (e.g. provision of protection and shelter from predators as well as from climatic extremes, such as cold winds or direct solar radiation. Handling and yarding operations will be easier when they occur in dim light. Special attention must be paid to the manipulation of the newborns. At the slaughterhouse, facilities must be designed specifically for deer. The presence of well trained stockpersons, with a sound knowledge of deer physiology and behaviour, is also a key-factor for improving welfare levels in deer farms. To achieve these aims, training of the managers and stockpersons and the adoption of specific codes of conducts are highly recommendable.

  20. A School Shooting Plot Foiled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, James A.; Thorp, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Dinkes, Cataldi, and Lin-Kelly (2007) claims that 78% of public schools reported one or more violent incidents during the 2005/2006 school year. School shootings are a rare but real threat on school campuses. Shootings at private schools are even less frequent with only a few recorded examples in the United States. This case study examines how a…

  1. Reproductive Behaviour Of Timor Deer (Rusa Timorensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Sansudewa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Timor deer (Rusa timorensis is a newly domesticated animal in Indonesia and other countries in the world. It is a potential source of meat and livelihood. Low birth rate is a problem of deer farming in Indonesia. It happens because of low concern for key aspects of behaviors including reproductive behavior. The aim of this review is to give information about reproductive behavior of Timor deer in natural habitat and captivity breeding. Libido and estrous behaviors of Timor deer in captivity breeding were similar with natural habitat. However, male Timor deer in captivity breeding took longer time to approach the females before mating, compared with those in their natural habitat. Aggressive behavior commonly leads mating. Parturition and maternal behavior of hinds are affected by limitation of space, therefore dividing the area of cage which depends on age and physiological status is needed to improve reproductive management.

  2. Pathways of Prion Spread during Early Chronic Wasting Disease in Deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Clare E; Davenport, Kristen A; Henderson, Davin M; Denkers, Nathaniel D; Mathiason, Candace K; Soto, Claudio; Zabel, Mark D; Hoover, Edward A

    2017-05-15

    Among prion infections, two scenarios of prion spread are generally observed: (i) early lymphoid tissue replication or (ii) direct neuroinvasion without substantial antecedent lymphoid amplification. In nature, cervids are infected with chronic wasting disease (CWD) prions by oral and nasal mucosal exposure, and studies of early CWD pathogenesis have implicated pharyngeal lymphoid tissue as the earliest sites of prion accumulation. However, knowledge of chronological events in prion spread during early infection remains incomplete. To investigate this knowledge gap in early CWD pathogenesis, we exposed white-tailed deer to CWD prions by mucosal routes and performed serial necropsies to assess PrP CWD tissue distribution by real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) and tyramide signal amplification immunohistochemistry (TSA-IHC). Although PrP CWD was not detected by either method in the initial days (1 and 3) postexposure, we observed PrP CWD seeding activity and follicular immunoreactivity in oropharyngeal lymphoid tissues at 1 and 2 months postexposure (MPE). At 3 MPE, PrP CWD replication had expanded to all systemic lymphoid tissues. By 4 MPE, the PrP CWD burden in all lymphoid tissues had increased and approached levels observed in terminal disease, yet there was no evidence of nervous system invasion. These results indicate the first site of CWD prion entry is in the oropharynx, and the initial phase of prion amplification occurs in the oropharyngeal lymphoid tissues followed by rapid dissemination to systemic lymphoid tissues. This lymphoid replication phase appears to precede neuroinvasion. IMPORTANCE Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a universally fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting cervids, and natural infection occurs through oral and nasal mucosal exposure to infectious prions. Terminal disease is characterized by PrP CWD accumulation in the brain and lymphoid tissues of affected animals. However, the initial sites of prion

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease in British deer: transmission of virus to cattle, sheep and deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, E P; Herniman, K A; Lawman, M J; Sellers, R F

    1975-06-28

    After exposure for two hours to cattle with foot-and-mouth disease, each of the five species of deer found in the British countryside became infected. Clinical disease was typical and severe in the roe and muntjac deer, with some animals dying, less severe in the sika deer and usually subclinical in the fallow and red deer. Each species transmitted disease to its own species and to cattle and sheep. The amounts of virus present in the blood, and in oesophageal/pharyngeal samples and excreted as an aerosol during the course of the infection in the deer were similar to those recorded for the sheep and cattle in the same experiment. The fallow and sika deer commonly carried virus in the pharynx beyond 28 days after exposure; some red deer also became carriers. In epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease in the UK, it is likely that deer would have such intimate contact with farm animals as occurred in this study. The natural behavior of free-living deer in the UK suggests that, although the five species are susceptible to foot-and-mouth disease, they are unlikely to be an important factor in the maintenance and transmission of the virus during an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in domestic livestock.

  4. Intraspecific variation in adult Uvitellina iraquensis Dronen, Ali & Al-Amura, 2013 (Cyclocoelidae: Haematotrephinae) from two collection sites of white-tailed lapwing, Vanellus leucurus (Lichtenstein) (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae), in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronen, Norman O; Al-Kassar, Nothiala R; Ali, Atheer H; Abdulhameed, Mohanad F; Abdullah, Basim H; Al-Mayah, Sabeeh H

    2017-03-09

    A total of 19 white-tailed lapwing, Vanellus leucurus, were collected from Huwazah Marsh, north-eastern Basrah Province, Iraq from February to March and in October, 2011 (collection site #1) and 60 V. leucurus were collected from Al-Hammar Marshes, Thi-Qar Province, southern Iraq from July to November, 2012 (collection site #2), and examined for cyclocoelids. Nineteen Uvitellina iraquensis Dronen, Ali & Al-Amura, 2013 from site #1 and 17 specimens from site #2 were fixed with minimal compression for comparisons of morphological characteristics, measurements, morphometric percentages and morphometric ratios commonly used to distinguish species of cyclocoelids. An additional five adult specimens from site #1 were fixed without compression for comparisons. Specimens from site # 1 (n=24) represented only fully-developed, non-senescing adults, while those from site #2 (n=17) could be divided into fully-developed (non-senescing) adults (n=8); younger (smaller, less developed) adults (n=5) and senescing adults (n=4). The following characteristics were relatively consistent, and appeared to be valuable in identifying groups of similar species and distinguishing species in Uvitellina: the presence or absence of the oral sucker; the oral sucker/pharynx width ratio; the posterior extent of the cirrus sac relative to the intestinal bifurcation; the position of the genital pore relative to the pharynx; the position of the testes in the body; the length of the intertesticular space; the length of the posttesticular space; the lateral disposition of the uterine loops; the presence of a posteriorly-directed, tail-like extension off the posterior confluence of the vitelline fields; the posterior extent of the uterine loops relative to the gonads; and the size of fully-developed eggs. It may be beneficial to calculate the percentage that measurements represent relative to the body length to provide insight into the relationship of the size of a structure to increased size of the

  5. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-PCBs in eggs of white-tailed sea eagles collected along the Swedish coast in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlöf, Ulrika; Helander, Björn; Zebühr, Yngve; Bignert, Anders; Asplund, Lillemor

    2012-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and dioxin-like non-ortho-PCBs were measured in white-tailed sea eagle (WTSE) eagle eggs collected along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea during the period 1992-2004. The eggs represent two different subpopulations with significantly different nestling brood sizes; the Baltic Proper (BP) with an approximately normal nestling brood size (1.62), and the south Bothnian Sea (sBS) with reduced nestling brood size (1.22) combined with a significantly higher rate of dead eggs. The aim was to investigate if this difference in reproductive outcome was linked to differences in exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Three eggs collected in Greenland in 2000 were included in the study to provide a reference sea eagle population outside of the Baltic Sea region. The concentrations of ∑PCDD, ∑PCDF and ∑non-ortho-PCB in the two subpopulations from the Baltic Sea (BS) region ranged from 0.41-4.1, 1.2-5.3 and 180-970 ng/g lipids, respectively, while in the Greenland population the ranges were 0.11-0.16, 0.22-0.33 and 57-83 ng/g lipid, respectively. 2,3,4,7,8-PCDF was the predominant congener in all areas and accounted for on average 31-49% of the total ∑PCDD/F concentrations. The total toxic equivalents (TEQ) in sBS WTSEs were higher (approximately 39 ng TEQ/g lipid) than reported in eggs for many other birds, and the major contributors to the TEQ in the Baltic Sea were the non-ortho-PCBs. A principal component analysis (PCA) showed a difference in congener pattern between the two Baltic regions that was statistically significant (Hotelling's T(2) test). We found no significant differences in the total TEQ between the two populations (sBS-BP) and thus no evidence was found linking the reproductive impairment in WTSE in sBS to the concentrations of PCDD/Fs or non-ortho-PCBs in the eggs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. PERBANDINGAN JUMP SHOOT DENGAN AWALAN DAN TANPA AWALAN TERHADAP PENINGKATAN KETEPATAN SHOOTING DALAM PERMAINAN BOLABASKET

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Ngurah Agung Cahya Prananta; N. Adiputra; I P G Adiatmika

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of  jump-shoot technique step jump shoot and still jump shoot in a game is still questionable,  because many different assumptions arise. One opinion stated that step jump shoot was more effective and the other stated that and still jump shoot was more efective. Therefore it is necessary to do research on the analysis of the results of step jump shoot and and still jump shoot to improve the accuracy of shooting in a basketball. The experimental research had been conducted on...

  7. Setting objectives for managing Key deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Wagner, Tyler; Stauffer, Glenn E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is responsible for the protection and management of Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) because the species is listed as Endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The purpose of the ESA is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. There are a host of actions that could possibly be undertaken to recover the Key deer population, but without a clearly defined problem and stated objectives it can be difficult to compare and evaluate alternative actions. In addition, management goals and the acceptability of alternative management actions are inherently linked to stakeholders, who should be engaged throughout the process of developing a decision framework. The purpose of this project was to engage a representative group of stakeholders to develop a problem statement that captured the management problem the FWS must address with Key deer and identify objectives that, if met, would help solve the problem. In addition, the objectives were organized in a hierarchical manner (i.e., an objectives network) to show how they are linked, and measurable attributes were identified for each objective. We organized a group of people who represented stakeholders interested in and potentially affected by the management of Key deer. These stakeholders included individuals who represented local, state, and federal governments, non-governmental organizations, the general public, and local businesses. This stakeholder group met five full days over the course of an eight-week period to identify objectives that would address the following problem:“As recovery and removal from the Endangered Species list is the purpose of the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service needs a management approach that will ensure a sustainable, viable, and healthy Key deer population. Urbanization has affected the behavior and population dynamics of the Key deer and the amount and characteristics

  8. Deployment of deer-resistant western redcedar (Thuja plicata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Russell

    2008-01-01

    Protecting planted western redcedar (Thuja plicata) seedlings from deer browse in the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia is estimated to cost up to CAN$ 25 million annually. Recent studies linking deer browse and needle monoterpenes has resulted in the initiation of a breeding program for deer-resistant western redcedar at Cowichan Lake Research...

  9. A Common Parvovirus in Deer from California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Woods, Leslie; Gerstenberg, Greg; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric

    2016-10-01

    We characterize the genome of the first reported deer parvovirus, Ungulate tetraparvovirus 5, which we detected by PCR in multiple tissues from 2/9 California mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus californicus) with hair loss syndrome (HLS) and in 4/12 deer without HLS, suggesting this common infection does not cause HLS.

  10. Forestry and deer in the pine region of New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; G. R. Moorhead; H. A. Somes

    1958-01-01

    Forestry and deer affect each other's welfare. Forestry and other land-use practices, particularly farming, affect deer chiefly by modifying the supplies of available food and protective cover. On the other side, an overabundance of deer can overbrowse and eliminate the most palatable and nutritious food species. If these are trees that could be valuable for...

  11. Shootings Revive Debates on Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    By nearly all accounts, the staff and students at Sandy Hook Elementary School did everything right on Dec. 14--and with the security measures they took before that day--when a young man armed with powerful weapons blasted his way into the school. But the deadliest K-12 school shooting in American history, a day that President Barack Obama has…

  12. School Shootings as Organizational Deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Cybelle; Harding, David J.

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that rampage school shootings in American public schools can be understood as instances of organizational deviance, which occurs when events created by or in organizations do not conform to an organization's goals or expectations and produce unanticipated and harmful outcomes. Drawing on data from qualitative case studies of…

  13. School Shootings in Policy Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2006-01-01

    The three school shootings that left a principal and six students dead in less than a week have sparked a barrage of pledges from national and state political leaders to tighten campus security. School safety experts urged caution against overreacting to the horrific, but rare, incidents in rural schools in Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.…

  14. School Shootings and Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Juliet

    2013-01-01

    What has been left out of studying school violence and shootings is a comprehensive look at the culture that creates violence and the lack of support for those deemed "different" in an educational setting that promotes and rewards competition. If parents, teachers, and other adults associated with children were teaching the values of…

  15. Marine wind farms - seabirds, white-tailed eagles, Eurasian eagle-owl and waders. A screening of potential conflict areas; Offshore vindenergianlegg - sjoefugl, havoern, hubro og vadere. En screening av potensielle konfliktomraader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, S.; Lorentsen, S.-H.; Dahl, E.L.; Follestad, A.; Hanssen, F.O.; Systad, G.H.

    2010-06-15

    sufficient quality to be used for this method. For the species where less data was available (e.g. geese, waders, white-tailed eagle and the Eurasian eagle-owl) we have chosen to illustrate potential conflicts by means of maps of the major functional areas. The results are presented in maps, where the WSI is given for 10x10 km squares. The results of the study showed a clear difference in WSI between areas and seasons. For the seabirds it was shown that especially the large breeding colonies in Vesteraalen, Roest and Runde were areas with high WSI. In Vesteraalen, the gannets and some of the puffin colonies resulted in a high WSI, while on Roest auks and for Runde gannets and gulls resulted in high WSI-values. Further south it was mainly gulls and terns that caused high WSI-values on the coast of Vest- Agder and between Jaeren and Karmoey. The results for the breeding season were as expected, as other studies have previously pointed to these sites as valuable areas. There were some similarities between important localities in summer and winter, for example between Jaeren and Vesteraalen. But during the winter season, areas such as Lista, Nordoeyerne and Gossen (Moere and Romsdal), Smoela, Froan, Oerlandet, Frost, Vikna and Vega also showed a high vulnerability. For the white-tailed sea eagle especially the islands of Smoela, Hitra and Froeya, as well as the area from Bodoe to Steigen were very important. For the Eurasian eagle-owl the coast of Helgeland and the areas surrounding Karmoey in Rogaland were most important. For waders and geese the focus was on important resting and moulting sites. Such sites for geese and eiders are distributed across the study area, with the most important and largest areas being the coast of central Norway and northwards. For waders a number of important resting areas are spread over the entire study area, but with a concentration of localities along the coast of Moere and Romsdal and Rogaland, especially along the coast of Jaeren. In our

  16. Training visual control in wheelchair basketball shooting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.; Heubers, S.; Ruitenbeek, J-R.J.A.C.; Janssen, T.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use

  17. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

  18. Shoot regeneration and embryogenesis in lily shoot tips cryopreserved by droplet vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoot regeneration and embryogenesis were, for the first time, achieved directly in shoot tips of Lilium Oriental hybrid ‘Siberia’ following cryopreservation by droplet-vitrification. Shoot tips (2 mm in length) including 2-3 leaf primordia were excised from 4-week-old adventitious shoots directly r...

  19. 77 FR 41939 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ...-0379; Airspace Docket No. 12-ANM-7 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Deer Lodge-City-County Airport, Deer Lodge, MT... System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Deer Lodge-City-County Airport, Deer Lodge, MT...

  20. Risk factors in school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J

    2000-01-01

    Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Lucjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus, 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%, 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7% and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans.

  2. Stontium-90 contamination in vegetation from radioactive waste seepage areas at ORNL, and theoretical calculations of /sup 90/Sr accumulation by deer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Lomax, R.D.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes data obtained during a preliminary characterization of /sup 90/Sr levels in browse vegetation from the vicinity of seeps adjacent to ORNL solid waste storage areas (SWSA) where deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were suspected to accumulate /sup 90/Sr through the food chain. The highest strontium concentrations in plant samples were found at seeps associated with SWSA-5. Strontium-90 concentrations in honeysuckle and/or blackberry shoots from two seeps in SWSA-5 averaged 39 and 19 nCi/g dry weight (DW), respectively. The maximum concentration observed was 90 nCi/g DW. Strontium-90 concentrations in honeysuckle and blackberry shoots averaged 7.4 nCi/g DW in a study area south of SWSA-4, and averaged 1.0 nCi/g DW in fescue grass from a seepage area located on SWSA-4. A simple model (based on metabolic data for mule deer) has been used to describe the theoretical accumulation of /sup 90/Sr in bone of whitetail deer following ingestion of contaminated vegetation. These model calculations suggest that if 30 pCi /sup 90/Sr/g deer bone is to be the accepted screening level for retaining deer killed on the reservation, then 5-pCi /sup 90/Sr/g DW vegetation should be considered as a possible action level in making decisions about the need for remedial measures, because unrestricted access and full utilization of vegetation contaminated with <5 pCi/g DW results in calculated steady-state (maximum) /sup 90/Sr bone concentrations of <30 pCi/g in a 45-kg buck.

  3. Stontium-90 contamination in vegetation from radioactive waste seepage areas at ORNL, and theoretical calculations of 90Sr accumulation by deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Lomax, R.D.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes data obtained during a preliminary characterization of 90 Sr levels in browse vegetation from the vicinity of seeps adjacent to ORNL solid waste storage areas (SWSA) where deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were suspected to accumulate 90 Sr through the food chain. The highest strontium concentrations in plant samples were found at seeps associated with SWSA-5. Strontium-90 concentrations in honeysuckle and/or blackberry shoots from two seeps in SWSA-5 averaged 39 and 19 nCi/g dry weight (DW), respectively. The maximum concentration observed was 90 nCi/g DW. Strontium-90 concentrations in honeysuckle and blackberry shoots averaged 7.4 nCi/g DW in a study area south of SWSA-4, and averaged 1.0 nCi/g DW in fescue grass from a seepage area located on SWSA-4. A simple model (based on metabolic data for mule deer) has been used to describe the theoretical accumulation of 90 Sr in bone of whitetail deer following ingestion of contaminated vegetation. These model calculations suggest that if 30 pCi 90 Sr/g deer bone is to be the accepted screening level for retaining deer killed on the reservation, then 5-pCi 90 Sr/g DW vegetation should be considered as a possible action level in making decisions about the need for remedial measures, because unrestricted access and full utilization of vegetation contaminated with 90 Sr bone concentrations of <30 pCi/g in a 45-kg buck

  4. Chemical Aspects of Lesser Mouse Deer Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment aiming for studying chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. This research explored the chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. Eight lesser mouse deer (four female and four male were used in chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat. The parameters observed included proximate analysis, amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA of the meat. The results showed that average meat chemical composition were content of water, protein, fat, ash and cholesterol were 76.33 %, 21.42 %, 0.51 %, 1.20% and 50.00 mg/100 g, respectively. Fatty acid consist of lauric acid, miristate, palmitate, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were 1.04 % 3.09%, 30.97, 0.77%., 59.41%, 3.22% and 1.12%, respectively. The total EPA and DHA was 0.13% and 0.05%,   Keywords: amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA

  5. "The Deer Hunter": Rhetoric of the Warrior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Janice Hocker; Frentz, Thomas S.

    A psychological/ritual model of criticism is used to examine the movie "The Deer Hunter" as a rhetorical event in which males undergo psychological change through their war and postwar experiences. The critical model depends on understanding a Jungian interpretation of the human psyche, the form and function of initiation rituals, and…

  6. [School shooting in statu nascendi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, amok-like killings and especially so-called "school shootings" have received a great deal of public attention both in the Old and the New world. Meanwhile, criminal psychological research has gained a thorough insight into this dangerous development in young people. Thus, the possibility to assess the concrete threat of such a multiple killing before it is carried out has been considerably improved, as many prognostic criteria have been worked out in the meantime. The case report presented shows that it is possible to exercise a favourable influence on this critical negative trend.

  7. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout 236U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, M.B.; Steier, P.; Wallner, G.; Fifield, L.K.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic 236 U and 239 Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954–1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA ® . The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the 236 U and 239 Pu concentrations, the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high 236 U/ 238 U ratios of the order of 10 −6 were observed. These measured ratios, where the 236 U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the 236 U/ 238 U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment. - Highlights: • Roe deer antlers were studied as an environmental archive for the retrospective study of fallout isotopes 236 U and 239 Pu. • The rather high 236 U/ 238 U ratios of about 10 −6 suggest 236 U as a fingerprint tool for nuclear material releases. • The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio underpins global fallout as the main anthropogenic contributor in antlers.

  8. Activity of Cs-137 in red deer and wild boar in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missik, J [Agricultural Univ. Nitra (Slovakia). Lab. of Radiometry and Radioecology; Puskeiler, L; Miklas, P [Inst. of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, Nitra (Slovakia). Lab. of Radiometry and Radioecology

    1996-12-31

    Results of monitoring the activity of radiocesium in game animals from various parts of Slovakia are presented. Samples of game flesh were collected by veterinary officials during hunting seasons 1988-1994. More than 80 % of samples came from following districts of Slovakia: Ziar nad Hronom, Prievidza, Martin, Rimavska Sobota, Senica, Banska Bystrica, Roznava, Poprad and Spisska Nova Ves. All measurements were carried out using gamma spectrometric system equipped with 4 high purity germanium detectors. Presented results were obtained using statistical evaluation for left-censored log-normal distribution of data sets. Overall activities of Cs-137 found in red deer and wild boards in Slovakia are considerably lower, than activities reported in game animals from some parts of Northern Moravia, Southern Bohemia and Austria. While the mean activities in red deer show a decreasing tendency, mean activities of wild boar are low, but with higher occurrence of extreme values, and hence, higher variance. The observed difference could be explained by the feeding habits of wild boar: grubbing in the ground for worms, larvae, roots, etc. can lead to presence of up to 20 % of contaminated soil in their stomach. At the same time wild boars often graze farmlands, where the activity of the Cs-137 in the top soil layer is reduced by ploughing and radiocesium on clay particles. Fraction of farmlands in the home range of the wild boars and the time of shooting could contribute to observed variations in radiocesium activity. (J.K.) 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  9. Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer

    OpenAIRE

    Krumm, Caroline E.; Conner, Mary M.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Hunter, Don O.; Miller, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. We examined whether mountain lions (Puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. We located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (?2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters i...

  10. Babesias of red deer (Cervus elaphus in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zintl Annetta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Blood samples were obtained from 38 wild red deer (Cervus elaphus at two sites in Ireland and subjected to PCR analysis of the 18S rRNA gene followed by sequencing. Two fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were generated by two different PCR protocols and subsequent sequencing suggested that at least six of the deer were infected by a babesia that, in those loci, is indistinguishable from Babesia divergens, an important tick-borne pathogen of cattle and of zoonotic significance. Additionally, a B. odocoilei-like parasite was detected in three samples and a babesia that did not match any sequences in the GenBank database was found in five samples. Neither B. capreoli nor B. venatorum (EU1 were found. There have been several reports of B. divergens occurring in deer species, including red deer, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. However, in view of recent re-sequencing of bovine-origin samples deposited previously in GenBank, it is unlikely that any of these sequences from deer are B. divergens. The present study describes the only deer piroplasm detected so far that shows complete identity with B. divergens, in just over half of the 18S rRNA gene. The entire gene of this deer parasite should be analysed and transmission experiments undertaken before the infectivity of B. divergens for red deer can be confirmed.

  11. Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter's cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data

  12. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  13. Epidemiology of Chronic Wasting Disease: PrPres Detection, Shedding, and Environmental Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) epidemics in Aug−Sep 2006 and 2007 killed six otherwise apparently healthy white-tailed deer (1 96GG, 3 96GS, and 2...in inoculated white-tailed deer; seasonal EHD epidemics killed six otherwise healthy white-tailed deer during the course of this study, thereby...precautionary measure, all of the elk in this study group were treated with Nuflor (Schering- Plough Animal Health, Union, New Jersey). The sampling

  14. Shooting mechanisms in Nature : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakes, A.; van der Wiel, M.; Henselmans, P.W.J.; van Leeuwen, J.L.; Dodou, D.; Breedveld, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these

  15. Current perspectives on shoot branching regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunquan YUAN,Lin XI,Yaping KOU,Yu ZHAO,Liangjun ZHAO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching is regulated by the complex interactions among hormones, development, and environmental factors. Recent studies into the regulatory mecha-nisms of shoot branching have focused on strigolactones, which is a new area of investigation in shoot branching regulation. Elucidation of the function of the D53 gene has allowed exploration of detailed mechanisms of action of strigolactones in regulating shoot branching. In addition, the recent discovery that sucrose is key for axillary bud release has challenged the established auxin theory, in which auxin is the principal agent in the control of apical dominance. These developments increase our understan-ding of branching control and indicate that regulation of shoot branching involves a complex network. Here, we first summarize advances in the systematic regulatory network of plant shoot branching based on current information. Then we describe recent developments in the synthesis and signal transduction of strigolactones. Based on these considerations, we further summarize the plant shoot branching regulatory network, including long distance systemic signals and local gene activity mediated by strigolactones following perception of external envi-ronmental signals, such as shading, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of plant shoot branching.

  16. thidiazuron improves adventitious bud and shoot regeneration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Induction of adventitious buds and shoots from intact leaves and stem internode segments of two recalcitrant. Ugandan sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivars was investigated in vitro on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, supplemented with 3 different levels (0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 µM) of Thidiazuron (TDZ). Shoots were.

  17. Tragedy and the Meaning of School Shootings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Johnson, Benjamin A.; Rocha, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    School shootings are traumatic events that cause a community to question itself, its values, and its educational systems. In this article Bryan Warnick, Benjamin Johnson, and Samuel Rocha explore the meanings of school shootings by examining three recent books on school violence. Topics that grow out of these books include (1) how school shootings…

  18. Shoot organogenesis in oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transplanted to soil. Key words: shoot organogenesis, callus, ... saline and alkaline soils (Economou and Maloupa, 1995). Its fruits have been used as a .... cally inert compounds as reported by Kaminek (1992). Direct shoot organogenesis without ...

  19. Mass Shootings, Mental Illness, and Gun Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott-Jones, Sean

    2018-03-01

    In the wake of the Stoneman Douglas School shooting, Republican and Democratic leaders-like the American electorate they represent-remain sharply divided in their responses to gun violence. They are united in their condemnation of these mass shootings, but they disagree about whether stricter or looser gun control laws are the answer. Those on the right side of the political aisle suggest that the issue is one of mental illness rather than gun control. Conversely, those who are more liberal or progressive in their political learnings are quick to condemn attempts to reframe the issue of mass shootings as a mental health problem. Both sides are wrong. Mass shootings are indeed partially a mental health problem, albeit one poorly addressed by our current laws and policies. But the solution to mass shootings also needs to consider strategies that may reduce gun violence in general. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  20. Increasing Contact with Hepatitis E Virus in Red Deer, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Maribel; Martín, Marga; Vicente, Joaquín; Segalés, Joaquim; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2010-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in red deer in mainland Spain, we tested red deer for HEV RNA and antibodies. Overall, 10.4% and 13.6% of serum samples were positive by ELISA and reverse transcription–PCR, respectively. The increasing prevalence suggests a potential risk for humans. PMID:21122241

  1. Adenoviral hemorrhagic disease in California mule deer, 1990-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Leslie W; Schumaker, Brant A; Pesavento, Patricia A; Crossley, Beate M; Swift, Pamela K

    2018-03-01

    We reviewed case records from the California Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) laboratory and the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) spanning 25 years (1990-2014) for all deer accessions submitted to CAHFS for pathology and/or histopathology, with and without a diagnosis of adenoviral hemorrhagic disease (AHD), in order to determine the prevalence of AHD in California. We also examined spatial and temporal distribution, age, and mule deer subspecies in deer that died from AHD. Of 483 deer submitted to CAHFS for diagnostic testing in 1990-2014, 17.2% were diagnosed with confirmed AHD, and 26.5% were confirmed plus suspected cases of AHD. Columbian black-tailed deer ( Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), particularly fawns and juveniles, were most frequently affected. Deer adenovirus ( Odocoileus adenovirus 1; OdAdV-1) was detected by immunohistochemistry in archived CDFW formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from deer that died in mortality events in 1981, 1983, and 1986-1987. OdAdV-1 is a common cause of hemorrhagic disease mortality events in California deer, and mortality as a result of AHD is documented as early as 1981.

  2. Anatomy of the female reproductive system of Rusa deer ( Rusa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims to present baseline data on the reproductive anatomy of a poorly known tropical deer species, Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis). The anatomy of female reproductive system is described using seven uniparous hinds, aged between four and eight years. The various reproductive structures were studied via ...

  3. Ecologically sound management: aspects of modern sustainable deer farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, A J; Drew, K R

    1998-01-01

    Modern deer farming systems have become increasingly intensive allowing strategic feeding for production and genetic improvement programmes. Meeting feeding standards that account for changing nutritional demands related to seasonality and reproductive state is critical. As the industry matures there is a growing awareness of the balance between retaining natural behaviour in producing breeding stock on larger extensive holdings and intensification systems for performance in young stock. Stocking rates are critical determinants of success as land use and capability needs are matched with an increasing stratification of stock type and purpose. Food product safety and welfare considerations of farmed deer are being driven by consumer demands. Farm quality assurance and codes of practice are developing to ensure that deer farming meets and exceeds international expectations of land use and deer welfare in modern deer farming systems.

  4. 77 FR 61248 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ...-0379; Airspace Docket No. 12-ANM-7 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT AGENCY: Federal... at Deer Lodge-City- County Airport, Deer Lodge, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate... procedures at Deer Lodge-City-County Airport. This improves the safety and management of Instrument Flight...

  5. Pestivirus Exposure in Free-living and Captive Deer in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krametter, Reinhild; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Loitsch, Angelika

    2004-01-01

    During the hunting season of 2001–02, blood and spleen samples from 59 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 77 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), four fallow deer (Dama dama), and five chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) were collected from nine hunting districts (n=133) and one deer farm (n=12) in southern Austria...

  6. Reliability and precision of pellet-group counts for estimating landscape-level deer density

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. deCalesta

    2013-01-01

    This study provides hitherto unavailable methodology for reliably and precisely estimating deer density within forested landscapes, enabling quantitative rather than qualitative deer management. Reliability and precision of the deer pellet-group technique were evaluated in 1 small and 2 large forested landscapes. Density estimates, adjusted to reflect deer harvest and...

  7. Flight distance in roe deer Capreolus capreolus and fallow deer Dama dama as related to hunting and other factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de H.Y.; Breukelen, van L.; Hootsmans, M.J.M.; Wieren, van S.E.

    2004-01-01

    Flight distances in roe deer Capreolus capreolus and fallow deer Dama dama with respect to a human observer on foot were measured in four nature reserves in the Netherlands: two dune reserves in the western part (the Amsterdam Water Supply Dunes (AWD) and Kennemerduinen (KD)) and two forested areas

  8. Cryopreservation of Sambar deer semen in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongpralub, Thevin; Chinchiyanond, Wittaya; Hongkuntod, Pornchai; Sanchaisuriya, Pitcharat; Liangpaiboon, Sanan; Thongprayoon, Areeya; Somphol, Noppadon

    2015-01-01

    Little is known of the different freezing and thawing techniques for post-thaw survival of spermatozoa in Sambar deer. So, this study determined the effect of seminal plasma, egg yolk and glycerol extenders and their concentrations, plus cooling, freezing, and thawing protocols on the post-thaw quality of their semen. Semen samples were collected by electro-ejaculation from four Thai Sambar deer stags (Cervus unicolor equinus). As evaluated by post-thaw progressive motility and acrosome integrity removal of seminal plasma was beneficial; Tris-egg yolk was the most efficient extender; a 20% egg yolk concentration was better than the 0%, 10%, or 30%; and a 3% glycerol concentration was better than 5%, 7%, or 9%. Using the optimum dilution techniques, semen was loaded in 0.5 ml plastic straws. Cooling times from ambient temperature to 5°C in 3 hr resulted in higher post-thaw progressive motility and acrosome integrity than 1, 2, or 4 hr. Suspending the straws 4 cm above the surface for 15 min before plunging into liquid nitrogen was better than suspending at 2 or 6 cm. For thawing frozen semen, an intermediate thawing (50°C, 8 sec) protocol was more effective than the slower (37°C, 10 sec) or faster (70°C, 5 sec) thawing rates. Timed insemination following estrus synchronization of 10 hinds resulted in six confirmed pregnancies at 60 days. Five hinds delivered live fawns. This study provides an effective approach for semen cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI), which should be valuable to scientists for genetics and reproductive management of Sambar deer in developing countries. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Sarcocystis spp. in red deer (Cervus elaphus, fallow deer (Dama dama, and pudu (Pudu pudu in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Reyes Lobão-Tello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Worldwinde, cervids are considered an important source of infection and dissemination of a wide variety of pathogens, both for farm animals and humans. Among this diseases is sarcosporidiosis, which is a parasitic disease caused by Sarcocystis spp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa. Most frequent clinical signs are hemolytic anemia, weakness, weight loss and decrease of growth and some species of Sarcocystis might cause abortions. The clinical disease in ruminants is fairly rare but the infection is very frequent. Infections are accumulative and the parasite does not generate immunity in any of the hosts. Ovine sarcosporidiosis is a serious issue in the some regions of Chile due to the macrocysts located in the muscle which means condemnation of the whole carcass. Sarcocystis spp. has been widely reported in red deer and other cervid species but in Chile the situation remains unknown. Nowadays there is little to no evidence of Sarcocystis in foreign deer in Chile and there is only one report of the parasite on pudu. The main goal of this study is to demonstrate the presence of Sarcocystis spp. in myocardium of red deer and fallow deer in Chile, and confirm the presence of Sarcocystis spp. in pudu. All cervid cases from 1994 to 2013 of the Institute of Animal Pathology of the Universidad Austral de Chile were reviewed. The animals selected were those in which a myocardium sample was taken. From the histopathological samples observed, it was found that 5 of the 9 red deer, 1 of the 4 fallow deer and in 11 of the 23 pudu there were Sarcocystis cysts in the myocardium. This study represents the first record for Chile of Sarcocystis spp. in myocardium of red deer and fallow deer. Stablishing the red deer, fallow deer and pudu as hosts of Sarcocystis aids to have a better understanding of the parasite epidemiology in Chile and the role of wild and captive cervids in the maintenance and spread of these parasites.

  10. Cell fate regulation in the shoot meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, T; Mayer, K F

    1998-04-01

    The shoot meristem is a proliferative centre containing pluripotent stem cells that are the ultimate source of all cells and organs continuously added to the growing shoot. The progeny of the stem cells have two developmental options, either to renew the stem cell population or to leave the meristem and to differentiate, possibly according to signals from more mature tissue. The destiny of each cell depends on its position within the dynamic shoot meristem. Genetic data suggest a simple model in which graded positional information is provided by antagonistic gene functions and is interpreted by genes which regulate cell fate.

  11. Bovine virus diarrhea virus in free-living deer from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S S; Roensholt, L; Bitsch, V

    2000-07-01

    Free-living deer are suggested as a possible source of infection of cattle with bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus. To examine this hypothesis blood samples from 476 free-living deer were collected during two different periods and tested for BVD virus and antibody in Denmark. In 1995-96, 207 animals were tested. These included 149 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 29 fallow deer (Dama dama), 20 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and one sika deer (Cervus sika). For the remaining eight animals no species information was available. In 1998-99, 269 animals were tested including 212 roe deer and 57 red deer. The animals were selected from areas with a relatively high prevalence of cattle herds with a BVD persistent infection status in 1997 and 1998. All 207 samples from 1995-96 were found antibody-negative except two samples from red deer. Only 158 of the 207 samples were tested for virus and were all found negative. Of the 269 samples from 1998-99 all but one were antibody negative. The positive sample was from a red deer. All samples were virus-negative. It appears that BVD infection does not occur in roe deer in Denmark. The presence of antibody in a few red deer from various districts in Jutland probably results from cattle to deer transmission, rather than spread among deer. Hence, the possibility of free-living deer as a source of infection for cattle in Denmark seems to be remote.

  12. PERBANDINGAN JUMP SHOOT DENGAN AWALAN DAN TANPA AWALAN TERHADAP PENINGKATAN KETEPATAN SHOOTING DALAM PERMAINAN BOLABASKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Agung Cahya Prananta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of  jump-shoot technique step jump shoot and still jump shoot in a game is still questionable,  because many different assumptions arise. One opinion stated that step jump shoot was more effective and the other stated that and still jump shoot was more efective. Therefore it is necessary to do research on the analysis of the results of step jump shoot and and still jump shoot to improve the accuracy of shooting in a basketball. The experimental research had been conducted on 20samples of people whowere selected randomly from the men's basketball club of the Faculty of Physical Educationand Health of Teacher Training Institute PGRI Bali. Samples were divided into two groups each  consisting of 10 people. Group I was given training step  jump shoot four sets of 10 reps  and Group II training still jump shoot four sets of 10 reps. The data before and after treatment were tested by SPSS computer program. The data were normally distributed and homogeneous so further tested using pairedt-test to compare the average values?? before and after training between each group, while the independent t-test was used to determine differences in mean values?? between the two groups. Paired t-test resulted the obtained data were significantly increased in both treatment groups p=0,001 in Group I and p=0,000 in Group II (p <0.05. Results of independent t-test found that both groups before training did not differ significantly p=0,926 (p>0.05 and after training both groups equally improve the accuracy of shooting because p=0,133 (p>0.05. It was concluded that botht raining improved the shooting accuracy and there was no difference between the effect of step jumps hoot and still jump shoot toward the shooting accuracy. It was suggested to improve the shooting accuracy in basketball used step jump shoot training and still jump shoot training four sets of 10 reps with a training frequency of 4 times a week for 6 weeks

  13. Authenticity control of game meat products--a single method to detect and quantify adulteration of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, Barbara; Grandits, Stephanie; Mayer, Walter; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-03-01

    This contribution presents a single real-time PCR assay allowing the determination of the deer content (the sum of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon)) in meat products to detect food adulteration. The PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with 20 animal species and 43 botanical species potentially contained in game meat products. The limit of quantification is 0.5% for fallow deer and red deer and 0.1% for sika deer. The deer content in meat products is determined by relating the concentration obtained with the deer PCR assay to that obtained with a reference system which amplifies mammals and poultry DNA. The analysis of binary meat mixtures with pork, a meat mixture containing equal amounts of fallow deer, red deer and sika deer in pork and a model game sausage showed that the quantification approach is very accurate (systematic error generally <25%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, Caroline E.; Conner, Mary M.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Hunter, Don O.; Miller, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. We examined whether mountain lions (Puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. We located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (≥2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters in the vicinity of kill sites. Hunter-killed female deer were less likely to be infected than males (odds ratios (OR) = 0.2, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.1–0.6; p = 0.015). However, both female (OR = 8.5, 95% CI = 2.3–30.9) and male deer (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1–10) killed by a mountain lion were more likely to be infected than same-sex deer killed in the vicinity by a hunter (p < 0.001), suggesting that mountain lions in this area actively selected prion-infected individuals when targeting adult mule deer as prey items. PMID:19864271

  15. Profiling helper T cell subset gene expression in deer mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjelle Brian

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus are the most common mammals in North America and are reservoirs for several zoonotic agents, including Sin Nombre virus (SNV, the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in North America. Unlike human HCPS patients, SNV-infected deer mice show no overt pathological symptoms, despite the presence of virus in the lungs. A neutralizing IgG antibody response occurs, but the virus establishes a persistent infection. Limitations of detailed analysis of deer mouse immune responses to SNV are the lack of reagents and methods for evaluating such responses. Results We developed real-time PCR-based detection assays for several immune-related transcription factor and cytokine genes from deer mice that permit the profiling of CD4+ helper T cells, including markers of Th1 cells (T-bet, STAT4, IFNγ, TNF, LT, Th2 cells (GATA-3, STAT6, IL-4, IL-5 and regulatory T cells (Fox-p3, IL-10, TGFβ1. These assays compare the expression of in vitro antigen-stimulated and unstimulated T cells from individual deer mice. Conclusion We developed molecular methods for profiling immune gene expression in deer mice, including a multiplexed real-time PCR assay for assessing expression of several cytokine and transcription factor genes. These assays should be useful for characterizing the immune responses of experimentally- and naturally-infected deer mice.

  16. [Genetic regulation of plant shoot stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'bert, E V; Ezhova, T A

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the main features of plant stem cells and summarizes the results of studies of the genetic control of stem cell maintenance in the apical meristem of the shoot. It is demonstrated that the WUS-CLV gene system plays a key role in the maintenance of shoot apical stem cells and the formation of adventitious buds and somatic embryos. Unconventional concepts of plant stem cells are considered.

  17. Mass shooting and mass media : does media coverage of mass shootings inspire copycat crimes?

    OpenAIRE

    Mesoudi, A.

    2013-01-01

    In December 2012, twenty elementary school children and six adult staff members were shot and killed by a single individual at a school in Connecticut. Although this horrific event was met with widespread shock, Americans are sadly all too familiar with such mass shootings. From Columbine in 1999, to Virginia Tech in 2007, to the Colorado cinema shootings earlier in 2012, mass shootings seem to occur with alarming regularity. And although they appear to afflict the United States more than mos...

  18. Branch architecture in Ginkgo biloba: wood anatomy and long shoot-short shoot interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Stefan A; Jacobs, Brooke; McKechnie, Steven J; Cooper, Ranessa L; Christianson, Michael L; Jernstedt, Judith A

    2013-10-01

    Ginkgo, centrally placed in seed plant phylogeny, is considered important in many phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Shoot dimorphism of Ginkgo has been long noted, but no work has yet been done to evaluate the relationships between overall branch architecture and wood ring characters, shoot growth, and environmental conditions. • Branches, sampled from similar canopy heights, were mapped with the age of each long shoot segment determined by counting annual leaf-scar series on its short shoots. Transverse sections were made for each long shoot segment and an adjacent short shoot; wood ring thickness, number of rings, and number of tracheids/ring were determined. Using branch maps, we identified wood rings for each long shoot segment to year and developmental context of each year (distal short shoot growth only vs. at least one distal long shoot). Climate data were also analyzed in conjunction with developmental context. • Significantly thicker wood rings occur in years with distal long shoot development. The likelihood that a branch produced long shoots in a given year was lower with higher maximum annual temperature. Annual maximum temperature was negatively correlated with ring thickness in microsporangiate trees only. Annual minimum temperatures were correlated differently with ring thickness of megasporangiate and microsporangiate trees, depending on the developmental context. There were no significant effects associated with precipitation. • Overall, developmental context alone predicts wood ring thickness about as well as models that include temperature. This suggests that although climatic factors may be strongly correlated with wood ring data among many gymnosperm taxa, at least for Ginkgo, correlations with climate data are primarily due to changes in proportions of shoot developmental types (LS vs. SS) across branches.

  19. Enhanced in vitro multiple shoot induction in elite Pakistani guava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elite guava (Psidium guajava L.) strains of cv. Safeda were explored in vitro for multiple shoot induction. Shoot induction was enhanced up to 83% with 3.5 to 4.25 shoots per single node cutting and shoot tip explants, respectively, using higher levels of benzyl amino purine (BAP) in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium.

  20. Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olazabal Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have also included new, unpublished information. Detailed descriptions are provided of the anatomy of both the female and the male reproductive tract, puberty onset, the oestrous cycle and gestational length. Birthing and the early postpartum period are described, as are maternal behaviour and early fawn development, seasonal distribution of births, seasonal changes in male reproduction and antler cycle, reproductive behaviour, semen collection, and cryopreservation. Finally, an overview is given and future directions of research are proposed.

  1. Serosurvey for selected pathogens in Iberian roe deer

    OpenAIRE

    Boadella, Mariana; Carta, Tania; Oleaga, ?lvaro; Pajares, Gerardo; Mu?oz, Marta; Gort?zar, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The roe deer is the most abundant and widespread wild Eurasian cervid. Its populations are expanding and increasingly in contact with livestock. This may affect the distribution of infectious diseases shared with other wild and domestic ungulates. Methods We investigated the antibody seroprevalence against Pestivirus, Herpesvirus, Bluetongue (BT) virus, M. avium paratuberculosis (MAP), and Brucella sp. in 519 roe deer from different regions in Spain, south-western Europe. ...

  2. Shooting Mechanisms in Nature: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée Sakes

    Full Text Available In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these mechanisms fulfill.We systematically searched the literature using Scopus and Web of Knowledge to retrieve articles about solid projectiles that either are produced in the body of the organism or belong to the body and undergo a ballistic phase. The shooting mechanisms were categorized based on the energy management prior to and during shooting.Shooting mechanisms were identified with projectile masses ranging from 1·10-9 mg in spores of the fungal phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota to approximately 10,300 mg for the ballistic tongue of the toad Bufo alvarius. The energy for shooting is generated through osmosis in fungi, plants, and animals or muscle contraction in animals. Osmosis can be induced by water condensation on the system (in fungi, or water absorption in the system (reaching critical pressures up to 15.4 atmospheres; observed in fungi, plants, and animals, or water evaporation from the system (reaching up to -197 atmospheres; observed in plants and fungi. The generated energy is stored as elastic (potential energy in cell walls in fungi and plants and in elastic structures in animals, with two exceptions: (1 in the momentum catapult of Basidiomycota the energy is stored in a stalk (hilum by compression of the spore and droplets and (2 in Sphagnum energy is mainly stored in compressed air. Finally, the stored energy is transformed into kinetic energy of the projectile using a catapult mechanism delivering up to 4,137 J/kg in the osmotic shooting mechanism in cnidarians and 1,269 J/kg in the muscle-powered appendage strike of the mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus. The launch accelerations range from 6.6g in the frog Rana pipiens to 5,413,000g in

  3. Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd`s unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd`s overall health and reproductive status.

  4. Melatonin Promotes Superovulation in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and PRL were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation, the serum LH levels in donor sika deer reached their highest values (7.1 ± 2.04 ng/mL at the point of insemination, compared with the baseline levels (4.98 ± 0.07 ng/mL in control animals. This high level of LH was sustained until the day of embryo recovery. In contrast, the serum levels of PRL in the 80 mg of melatonin-treated group were significantly lower than those of control deer. The average number of corpora lutea in melatonin-treated deer was significantly higher than that of the control (p < 0.05. The average number of embryos in the deer treated with 40 mg of melatonin was higher than that of the control; however, this increase did not reach significant difference (p > 0.05, which may be related to the relatively small sample size. In addition, embryonic development in melatonin-treated groups was delayed.

  5. Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M.

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd's unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd's overall health and reproductive status

  6. The Mental Health Consequences of Mass Shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Galea, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Mass shooting episodes have increased over recent decades and received substantial media coverage. Despite the potentially widespread and increasing mental health impact of mass shootings, no efforts to our knowledge have been made to review the empirical literature on this topic. We identified 49 peer-reviewed articles, comprised of 27 independent samples in the aftermath of 15 mass shooting incidents. Based on our review, we concluded that mass shootings are associated with a variety of adverse psychological outcomes in survivors and members of affected communities. Less is known about the psychological effects of mass shootings on indirectly exposed populations; however, there is evidence that such events lead to at least short-term increases in fears and declines in perceived safety. A variety of risk factors for adverse psychological outcomes have been identified, including demographic and pre-incident characteristics (e.g., female gender and pre-incident psychological symptoms), event exposure (e.g., greater proximity to the attack and acquaintance with the deceased), and fewer psychosocial resources (e.g., emotion regulation difficulties and lower social support). Further research that draws on pre-incident and longitudinal data will yield important insights into the processes that exacerbate or sustain post-incident psychological symptoms over time and provide important information for crisis preparedness and post-incident mental health interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and mouflon (Ovis musimon) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Melanie; Rehbein, Steffen; Hamel, Dietmar; Lutz, Walburga; Heddergott, Mike; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2017-02-01

    Infections with the tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. can cause febrile disease in several mammalian species, including humans. Wild ruminants in Europe are suggested to serve as reservoir hosts for particular strains or species of these pathogens. The aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and mouflon (Ovis musimon orientalis) in Germany, and the diversity and host association of genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia species. From 2009 to 2010, 364 spleen samples from 153 roe deer, 43 fallow deer and 168 mouflon from 13 locations in Germany were tested for DNA of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. by real-time PCR or conventional PCR, respectively. Variants of A. phagocytophilum were investigated with a nested PCR targeting the partial 16S rRNA gene, and species of piroplasms were identified by sequencing. DNA of A. phagocytophilum was detected in 303 (83.2%) samples: roe deer, 96.1% (147/153); fallow deer, 72.1% (31/43); and mouflon, 74.4% (125/168). Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA-PCR products revealed the presence of nine different genetic variants. DNA of Babesia spp. was found in 113 (31.0%) samples: roe deer, 62.8% (96/153); fallow deer, 16.3% (6/43); and mouflon, 6.5% (11/168). Babesia capreoli, Babesia sp. EU1 (referred to also as B. venatorum), B. odocoilei-like and a Theileria species were identified. Co-infections with A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. were detected in 30.0% of the animals which were tested positive for A. phagocytophilum and/or Babesia spp. Roe deer had a significantly higher percentage of co-infections (60.8%), followed by fallow deer (14.0%) and mouflon (6.5%). Thus, the results suggest that roe deer plays a key role in the endemic cycles of the pathogens investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Photosynthesis of a scots pine shoot: the effect of shoot inclination on the photosynthetic response of a shoot subjected to direct radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oker-Blom, P.; Kellomaki, S.; Smolander, H.

    1983-01-01

    A set of photosynthetic responses of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoot to light was derived from the shoot geometry and the photosynthetic response of a single needle. Computations showed that the shape of the photosynthesis light-curves varies substantially depending on the direction of radiation relative to the shoot position. Differences in the initial and maximum rates of photosynthesis were due to changes in the effective projection area and the irradiated fraction of the shoot, respectively

  9. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry Towers

    Full Text Available Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts.Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed. We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event.We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015. We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001. All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings.

  10. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event. We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015). We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001). All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings.

  11. Youth Responses to School Shootings: A Reviw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, Áine

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This paper aims to synthesize research relating to youth responses to school shootings between 2014 and 2017. The main questions it addresses are how such events impact young people psychologically, and what risk or protective factors may contribute to different trajectories...... of recovery? RECENT FINDINGS:Recent research suggests that most young people exposed to school shootings demonstrate resilience, exhibiting no long-term dysfunction. However, a minority will experience severe and chronic symptoms. The likelihood of experiencing clinically significant reactions is influenced...

  12. New Genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi Isolated from Sika Deer and Red Deer in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianying Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine the occurrence and genotype distribution of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in cervids, 615 fecal samples were collected from red deer (Cervus elaphus and sika deer (Cervus nippon on 10 different farms in Henan and Jilin Province. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was identified and genotyped with a nested PCR analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of the rRNA genes, showing an average infection rate of 35.9% (221/615. In this study, 25 ITS genotypes were identified including seven known genotypes (BEB6, EbpC, EbpA, D, HLJDI, HLJD-IV, and COS-I and 18 novel genotypes (designated JLD-I to JLD-XIV, HND-I to HND-IV. Among these, BEB6 (131/221, 59.3% was the predominant genotype (P < 0.01, followed by HLJDI (18/221, 8.1% and JLD-VIII (16/221, 7.2%. BEB6 has recently been detected in humans and nonhuman primates in China. The phylogenetic analysis showed that BEB6, HLJDI, HLJD-IV, COS-I, and 10 novel genotypes (JLD-VII to JLD-XIV, HND-III to HND-IV clustered in group 2. Genotype D, EbpC, and EbpA, known to cause human microsporidiosis worldwide, clustered in group 1, the members of which have zoonotic potential, together with eight novel genotypes (JLD-I to JLD-VI, HND-I to HND-II. Therefore, deer may play a role in the transmission of E. bieneusi to humans.

  13. Challenges in identifying and determining the impacts of infection with pestiviruses on the herd health of free ranging cervid populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although most commonly associated with the infection of domestic livestock, the replication of pestiviruses, in particular bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), occurs in a wide range of free ranging cervids including white-tailed deer, mule deer, fallow deer, elk, red deer, roe deer, eland and moused...

  14. 50 CFR 32.33 - Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carry a compass while hunting on the refuge. C. Big Game Hunting. We allow hunting of white-tailed deer.... 4. We prohibit quail, squirrel, and rabbit hunting during refuge deer hunts. C. Big Game Hunting. We... at all times (see § 26.21(b) of this chapter). C. Big Game Hunting. We allow hunting of white-tailed...

  15. Lead Pollution of Shooting Range Soils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    range. Most of the shooting range soils contained high levels of Pb in the range above 2000 mg kg–1 far exceeding the United States ... N. Sehube, R. Kelebemang, O. Totolo, M. Laetsang, O. Kamwi and P. Dinake,. 21 ..... Eng. Sci., 1999, 16,.

  16. Improving adventitious shoot regeneration from cultured leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of various concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ) with or without 2.7 μM of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation of two Petunia hybrida cultivars was studied. Seeds from 'Daddy Blue' and 'Dreams White' cultivars were germinated in vitro. Expanded leaves from both seedlings and ...

  17. Adventitious shoots induction and plant regeneration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A highly efficient regeneration system is a prerequisite step for successful genetic transformation of watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus L.). The objective of this study was to establish efficient in vitro plant regeneration for three watermelon cultivars. To achieve optimal conditions for adventitious shoot induction, the ...

  18. School Shootings; Standards Kill Students and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angert, Betsy L.

    2008-01-01

    School shootings have been in the news of late. People ponder what occurs in classrooms today. Why would a young person wish to take a life? Within educational institutions, the killings are a concern. In our dire attempt to teach the children and ensure student success, it seems many of our offspring are lost. Some students feel separate from…

  19. Canopy gap replacement failure in a Pennsylvania forest preserve subject to extreme deer herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian S. Pedersen; Angela M. Wallis

    2003-01-01

    While research has demonstrated the adverse effects of deer herbivory on forest regeneration in forests managed for timber production, less study has been devoted to the long term effects of deer on the dynamics of forests set aside as natural areas. At sufficiently high population densities, deer could interrupt the typical cycle of canopy gap formation and...

  20. Infectious Disease and Grouping Patterns in Mule Deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Mejía Salazar

    Full Text Available Infectious disease dynamics are determined, to a great extent, by the social structure of the host. We evaluated sociality, or the tendency to form groups, in Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus from a chronic wasting disease (CWD endemic area in Saskatchewan, Canada, to better understand factors that may affect disease transmission. Using group size data collected on 365 radio-collared mule deer (2008-2013, we built a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM to evaluate whether factors such as CWD status, season, habitat and time of day, predicted group occurrence. Then, we built another GLMM to determine factors associated with group size. Finally, we used 3 measures of group size (typical, mean and median group sizes to quantify levels of sociality. We found that mule deer showing clinical signs of CWD were less likely to be reported in groups than clinically healthy deer after accounting for time of day, habitat, and month of observation. Mule deer groups were much more likely to occur in February and March than in July. Mixed-sex groups in early gestation were larger than any other group type in any season. Groups were largest and most likely to occur at dawn and dusk, and in open habitats, such as cropland. We discuss the implication of these results with respect to sociobiology and CWD transmission dynamics.

  1. Polonium assimilation and retention in mule deer and pronghorn antelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejkora, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    Excretion kinetics and tissue distribution of polonium-210 in mule deer and pronghorn were studied. Each animal in a captive herd of 7 mule deer and 2 pronghorn received an intraruminal injection of 4.4 μCi of polonium chloride. Feces and urine were collected periodically over a 43-day period and daily excretion rate for each pathway was regressed as a function of time. Assimilation fractions of 0.40 and 0.51 were calculated for mule deer (n=2) and 0.60 for a pronghorn. Body burden retention functions were calculated from integrated excretion rate functions. Polonium burdens in muscle, liver, and kidney were calculated as a fraction of body burden from serially-sacrificed animals. Background tissue burdens in mule deer were comparable to those of other ruminants reported in the literature. Hypothetical cases were assumed which combined feeding rate of mule deer, forage concentrations of polonium, retention function, tissue burden fraction, and human intake to estimate human radiation dose. 26 references

  2. Adolescent mass shootings: developmental considerations in light of the Sandy Hook shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon

    2015-05-01

    Adolescent mass shootings are a special subset of mass killings, which continue despite significant preventative public health efforts. It is often held that these individuals have few salient warning signs that could have been identified. This piece proposes that mass shootings committed by adolescent and post-adolescent young males must be understood from a developmental perspective. The hypothesis proposed in this paper is that such killings occur as the result of the adolescent's frustrated effort to progress along normative development. The goal of normative separation from maternal figures by the boy is presented as a potential risk factor when this goal is thwarted. Childhood case material from the perpetrator of a recent adolescent mass shooting, the Sandy Hook shooting, is discussed as an illustration of this hypothesis. Implications for public health measures and for individualized treatment are presented and developed.

  3. Removal of cesium from red deer meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandl, J.; Novosad, J.; Francova, J.; Prochazka, H.

    1989-01-01

    The effect was studied of marinading on the reduction of cesium radionuclide activity in red deer meat contaminated by ingestion of feed containing 134 Cs+ 137 Cs from radioactive fallout following the Chernobyl accident. Two types of marinade were studied, viz., a vinegar infusion and a vinegar infusion with an addition of vegetables and spices. The meat was chopped to cubes of about 1.5 cm in size and the marinading process took place at temperatures of 5 and 11 degC. The drop of cesium content in the meat was determined by gamma spectrometry at given time intervals. The replacement of the marinade and the duration of the process were found to maximally affect efficiency. If the solution was not replaced, about 80% of cesium radionuclides were removed after seven hours of marinading. With one replacement of the infusion the drop in 134 Cs+ 137 Cs radioactivity amounted to up to 90% after seven hours of marinading. No effects were shown of vegetable additions to the vinegar infusion and of the change in temperature from 5 to 11 degC on the efficiency of the process. (author). 3 tabs., 6 refs

  4. Germination, seedling growth and relative water content of shoot in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... (mg), root : shoot length (R:S) ratio, and relative water content of shoot (RWC, %) were investigated in this study. The results ... seedlings may provide an advantage by allowing access ... Residual chlorine was eliminated by.

  5. The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter, shoot P and Zn concentrations in wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.)wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.) grown in a calcareous soil.

  6. High Frequency Multiple Shoot Induction of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.: Shoot Tip V/S Rhizome Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Nagesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. is an endangered medicinal plant with anticancer properties. The rhizome and tuberous roots of the plant have been used extensively in India in indigenous medicine. Due to its multiple uses, the demand for Curculigo orchioides is constantly on the rise; however, the supply is rather erratic and inadequate. Destructive harvesting, combined with habitat destruction in the form of deforestation has aggravated the problem. The plant is now considered ‘endangered’ in its natural habitat. Therefore, the need for conservation of this plant is crucial. Here, we describe a successful protocol for multiple shoot induction of C. orchioides using shoot tip and rhizome disc. We find that proximal rhizome discs are optimal for high frequency shoot bud formation than shoot tip and distal rhizome disc. We observed a synergistic effect between 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and kinetin (KN (each at 1 mg/L on the regeneration of shoot buds from proximal rhizome disc than shoot tip explant. Optimum root induction was achieved on half-strength MS liquid medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized in green house and successfully transplanted to natural condition with 90% survival.

  7. Multiple shoot regeneration of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... Induction of multiple shoots of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plant in two commercial varieties (Sahel and Varamin) using shoot apex was done. Explants were isolated from 3 - 4 days old seedlings, then they were cultured on a shoot induction media, modified MS nutrient agar with combinations: 1- ...

  8. Root~Shoot Growth Interactions of Sorghmn (Sorghwn Bicolor L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth. Studies on root-shoot intera'ctions in relation to mechanical impedance have only investigated the effect on shoots of ... growth regulators that may be responsible. Studies of root-shoot ... of germinating seeds to MI leaving roots in rela-.

  9. Sound propagation from a semi-open shooting range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Berg, F. van den

    2011-01-01

    Semi-open shooting ranges, in contrast to a fully open shooting range, are often used in the densely populated area of the Netherlands. The Ministry of Defense operates a number of these ranges. In these shooting ranges above the line of fire a number of screens are situated for safety precautions

  10. Lead pollution of shooting range soils | Sehube | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atotal of eight military shooting ranges were used for this study. Soil samples were collected at each of the eight shooting ranges at the berm, target line, 50 and 100 m from berm. In all of the shooting ranges investigated the highest total lead (Pb) concentrations were found in the bermsoils. Elevated Pb concentrations of 38 ...

  11. Effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on controlling shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro shoot necrosis is a quite widespread disorder affecting raspberry micropropagation. This study was conducted to investigate effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on shoot necrosis and dieback of raspberry shoots during micropropagation. Nodal segments of primocane-fruiting raspberry cultivars 'Allgold', ...

  12. Shoot and root morphogenesis from Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla plantlets were regenerated via indirect organogenesis. Histological assessment of their development focused on identifying the calli, the differentiation of shoots from the calli and the shoot-root junction from the nascent shoots. Vascular tissue formation within the callus preceded that of ...

  13. Production of polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus globulus were produced by treatment with colchicine. Results showed that the combination of 0.5% colchicine and treating multiple shoot clumps for 4 days was the most appropriate conditions for E. globulus polyploidy induction and the effect of the use of multiple shoot ...

  14. Protocol optimization for in vitro shoot multiplication of Jackfruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jemal

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... Protocol optimization for in vitro shoot multiplication of ... shoot length and leaf number, whereby 2 mg/L BAP alone was found to be the best with a mean shoot .... Analysis of variance showed that the interaction between.

  15. Regeneration of okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus L.) via apical shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. Monech) via apical shoot culture system. The study of apical shoot culture system was found effective for regeneration of apical shoots. The okra (A. esculentus L. Monech) N-550 line evolved at R&D, Nirmal Seeds Pvt. Ltd., ...

  16. Maporal Hantavirus Causes Mild Pathology in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda McGuire

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4 containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions. The aim of this study was to develop an ABSL-3 hantavirus infection model using the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the natural reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV, and a virus that is pathogenic in another animal model to examine immune response of a reservoir host species. Deer mice were inoculated with MAPV, and viral RNA was detected in several organs of all deer mice during the 56 day experiment. Infected animals generated both nucleocapsid-specific and neutralizing antibodies. Histopathological lesions were minimal to mild with the peak of the lesions detected at 7–14 days postinfection, mainly in the lungs, heart, and liver. Low to modest levels of cytokine gene expression were detected in spleens and lungs of infected deer mice, and deer mouse primary pulmonary cells generated with endothelial cell growth factors were susceptible to MAPV with viral RNA accumulating in the cellular fraction compared to infected Vero cells. Most features resembled that of SNV infection of deer mice, suggesting this model may be an ABSL-3 surrogate for studying the host response of a New World hantavirus reservoir.

  17. Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Geiger, Michael; Körkel, Stefan; Rannacher, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive collection of the most advanced numerical techniques for the efficient and effective solution of simulation and optimization problems governed by systems of time-dependent differential equations. The contributions present various approaches to time domain decomposition, focusing on multiple shooting and parareal algorithms.  The range of topics covers theoretical analysis of the methods, as well as their algorithmic formulation and guidelines for practical implementation. Selected examples show that the discussed approaches are mandatory for the solution of challenging practical problems. The practicability and efficiency of the presented methods is illustrated by several case studies from fluid dynamics, data compression, image processing and computational biology, giving rise to possible new research topics.  This volume, resulting from the workshop Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods, held in Heidelberg in May 2013, will be of great interest to applied...

  18. Propagation of pineapple by shoot tip culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almobasher, H. A. A.; Osman, M. G.; Said, A. E.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted with the objective of modifying the composition of MS medium for the clonal propagation of pineapple using shoot tips of Smooth Cayenne cultivar. Modification were made on various medium components. Results showed that both MS salts at the full or half strength were optimal, and there was on significant difference between them. Sucrose concentrations of 3% and 6% were better than other concentrations tested for growth and development of plant lets. The cultures responded positively to the increase of adenine sulfate and 80 mg/1 was the optimal. As for the additions of NAA and BA , alone or in combinations, the best results were recorded with the combination of NAA at 0.01 mg/1, and BA at 3.0 mg/1 where the largest number of shoots was obtained. Better explants performance was achieved on liquid medium with cotton support compared to solid medium. (Author)

  19. Date of shoot collection, genotype, and original shoot position affect early rooting of dormant hardwood cuttings of Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S., Jr. Zalesny; A.H. Wiese

    2006-01-01

    Identifying superior combinations among date of dormant- season shoot collection, genotype, and original shoot position can increase the rooting potential of Populus cuttings. Thus, the objectives of our study were to: 1) evaluate variation among clones in early rooting from hardwood cuttings processed every three weeks from shoots collected...

  20. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings

    OpenAIRE

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Methods Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent dat...

  1. Chlordecone Transfer and Distribution in Maize Shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Létondor, Clarisse; Liber, Yohan; Jamin, Emilien L; Laurent, François

    2016-01-20

    Chlordecone (CLD) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that was mainly used as an insecticide against banana weevils in the French West Indies (1972-1993). Transfer of CLD via the food chain is now the major mechanism for exposure of the population to CLD. The uptake and the transfer of CLD were investigated in shoots of maize, a C4 model plant growing under tropical climates, to estimate the exposure of livestock via feed. Maize plants were grown on soils contaminated with [(14)C]CLD under controlled conditions. The greatest part of the radioactivity was associated with roots, nearly 95%, but CLD was detected in whole shoots, concentrations in old leaves being higher than those in young ones. CLD was thus transferred from the base toward the plant top, forming an acropetal gradient of contaminant. In contrast, results evidenced the existence of a basipetal gradient of CLD concentration within leaves whose extremities accumulated larger amounts of CLD because of evapotranspiration localization. Extractable residues accounted for two-thirds of total residues both in roots and in shoots. This study highlighted the fact that the distribution of CLD contamination within grasses resulted from a conjunction between the age and evapotranspiration rate of tissues. CLD accumulation in fodder may be the main route of exposure for livestock.

  2. Structuring agreements for seismic group shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeping, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    Sigma Explorations Inc. sells licenses to use Sigma owned seismic data. The company participates with exploration and production companies in the joint acquisition of semi-private participation surveys. This paper discusses three major types of seismic group shoots and the essential elements of the agreements that govern or should govern them. They are: (1) exploration and production company joint ventures, (2) publicly offered spec shoots, and (3) semi-private participation surveys. The key issue with the exploration and production company joint ventures is that the companies are owners of the seismic data in proportion to their contribution towards the cost of the program. Their use of the data should be restricted to those situations permitted by the other owners. These are not often well documented, and there is much concern in the industry as a result. The key issue with publicly offered spec shoots is that the seismic company ultimately owns the data and the client exploration and production company is a licensee and must behave as such. In most such cases the rights and responsibilities are well documented in formal agreements that are signed in advance of the program's beginning date

  3. Do individual differences in use of cover habitat affect red deer`s (Cervus elaphus) probability of being shot by hunters?

    OpenAIRE

    Stamnes, Inga

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test if red deer (Cervus elaphus) habitat use affects their risk of being shot by hunters. I compared habitat use of 20 GPS-marked red deer that survived the hunting season with 20 individuals that were shot. I predicted that shot red deer used open areas within forested habitats with a better visibility for hunters than surviving red deer. I also predicted that the use of less risky habitat is costly in terms of foraging opportunity, with shot animals using b...

  4. Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama)

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklund, Eva; Manley, Timothy R.; Littlejohn, Roger P.

    2004-01-01

    The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter) gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy) levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and 11 fallow deer (Dama dama) w...

  5. Analysis of radionuclide concentrations and movement patterns of Hanford-site mule deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Hanson, E.E.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-10-01

    From 1980 through 1982, the movements of 37 radio-collared mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were monitored for periods of 3 to 17 months on the Handord Site in southcentral Washington. The objectives were to compare radionuclide concentrations in deer residing near the 200 Area waste management sites with concentrations in deer occupying areas remote from waste management sites and to document movement patterns of Hanford Site deer with particular emphasis on offsite movements. Cesium-137 in deer muscle and liver and 90 Sr concentrations in deer bone were statistically higher in deer living near the 200 Area than in control animals. During this study, the highest concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in 200 Area deer were in those individuals residing in or immediately adjacent to radiation zones. Cesium-137 and 90 Sr concentrations were more variable in deer residing near the 200 Area than in control animals, where only background (fallout) levels were observed. Movement patterns of Hanford site deer were analyzed to determine home range size and usage. The average home range was 0.39 +- 27 km 2 . In addition, ten (27%) of the monitored deer made offsite movements during the study period. While most of these movements were made in the spring and summer, some fall and winter movements were noted. It was estimated that approximately 8% (95% confidence interval is from 0 to 21%) of the Hanford deer herd is harvested each year. As a result of the low harvest rate, the Hanford deer herd appears to have a disproportionate number of older animals, with 24% of the 17 examined deer older than 10.5 years

  6. Rampage shootings: an historical, empirical, and theoretical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocque, Michael; Duwe, Grant

    2018-02-01

    Rampage shootings is a relatively new term to describe a phenomenon that has a long history. Rampage shootings are mass shootings (generally defined as involving four or more victims), taking place in a public location, with victims chosen randomly or for symbolic purposes. These shootings are isolated events, meaning they are not connected to another criminal act (such as robbery or terrorism). Research suggests that rampage shootings are not a new phenomenon, but have occurred throughout the US since the early 1900s. There is some evidence of an increase in recent years, but definitional differences across studies and data sources make interpreting trends somewhat tenuous. Theories regarding the perpetration of rampage shootings center on masculinity, mental illness, and contagion effects. Policies aimed at preventing rampage shootings remain somewhat controversial and not well-tested in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Experimental Test of Factors Attracting Deer Mice into Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzi, Amy J; Douglass, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the principal reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV). Deer mice use a wide variety of habitats including peridomestic settings in and around human dwellings, their presence in and around homes has been implicated as a risk factor for acquiring Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Deer mice are believed to enter buildings in order to gain access to a variety of resources including food, bedding material, and better thermal microclimates. However, no one has experimentally tested which factors influence mice use of buildings. We conducted experiments using small simulated buildings to determine the effects of two factors, i.e., food and bedding material, on mouse activity in these buildings. We also examined if these effects varied with time of year. We found that deer mice entered our buildings regardless of the presence or absence of food or bedding. However, the amount of activity in buildings was affected by what they contained. We found significantly higher indices of activity in buildings containing food compared to both empty buildings (control) and buildings containing bedding material. Time of year did not affect activity in buildings.

  8. Effects of fire on deer habitat in the southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Stransky; Richard F. Harlow

    1981-01-01

    Based on the literature on cattle range as well as that on deer habitat, it appears that burning temporarily increased the crude protein and P contents and the palatibility of most plants. It temporarily decreases quantity and fruiting of understory shrubs. All changes are influenced by the season of burning. The many site and stand conditions which exist in southern...

  9. Ecological correlates of seed survival after ingestion by Fallow Deer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouissie, AM; Van der Veen, CEJ; Veen, GF; Van Diggelen, R

    1. The survival and retention of seeds was studied by feeding known quantities of seeds of 25 species to four captive Fallow Deer (Dama dama L.). To test for ecological correlates, plant species were selected to represent large variation in seed size, seed shape, seed longevity and habitat

  10. Risk assessment of Sika deer Cervus nippon in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammertsma, D.R.; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A.; Griffioen, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) is considered an invasive alien species in Europe. They were introduced in the 19th and 20th century in Europe and have established self-sustaining populations in various countries. Main concerns for Sika, without preventive measures taken and without population control,

  11. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... factors that could be affected by the proposed Project were evaluated in detail in the EIS. These issues... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek... Energy Facility project (Project) in Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota. The Administrator of RUS...

  12. Widespread movement of invasive cattle fever ticks (Rhipicephalus microplus) in southern Texas leads to shared local infestations on cattle and deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a highly-invasive tick that transmits the cattle parasites (Babesia bovis and B. bigemina) that cause cattle fever. R. microplus and Babesia are endemic in Mexico and ticks persist in the United States inside a narrow tick eradication quarantine area (TEQA) along the Rio Grande. This containment area is threatened by unregulated movements of illegal cattle and wildlife like white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus). Methods Using 11 microsatellite loci we genotyped 1,247 R. microplus from 63 Texas collections, including outbreak infestations from outside the TEQA. We used population genetic analyses to test hypotheses about ecological persistence, tick movement, and impacts of the eradication program in southern Texas. We tested acaricide resistance with larval packet tests (LPTs) on 47 collections. Results LPTs revealed acaricide resistance in 15/47 collections (32%); 11 were outside the TEQA and three were resistant to multiple acaricides. Some collections highly resistant to permethrin were found on cattle and WTD. Analysis of genetic differentiation over time at seven properties revealed local gene pools with very low levels of differentiation (FST 0.00-0.05), indicating persistence over timespans of up to 29 months. However, in one neighborhood differentiation varied greatly over a 12-month period (FST 0.03-0.13), suggesting recurring immigration from distinct sources as another persistence mechanism. Ticks collected from cattle and WTD at the same location are not differentiated (FST = 0), implicating ticks from WTD as a source of ticks on cattle (and vice versa) and emphasizing the importance of WTD to tick control strategies. We identified four major genetic groups (K = 4) using Bayesian population assignment, suggesting multiple introductions to Texas. Conclusions Two dispersal mechanisms give rise to new tick infestations: 1) frequent short-distance dispersal from the TEQA; and 2) rare long

  13. Weak population structure in European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and evidence of introgressive hybridization with Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus in northeastern Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Olano-Marin

    Full Text Available We investigated contemporary and historical influences on the pattern of genetic diversity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus. The study was conducted in northeastern Poland, a zone where vast areas of primeval forests are conserved and where the European roe deer was never driven to extinction. A total of 319 unique samples collected in three sampling areas were genotyped at 16 microsatellites and one fragment (610 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region. Genetic diversity was high, and a low degree of genetic differentiation among sampling areas was observed with both microsatellites and mtDNA. No evidence of genetic differentiation between roe deer inhabiting open fields and forested areas was found, indicating that the ability of the species to exploit these contrasting environments might be the result of its phenotypic plasticity. Half of the studied individuals carried an mtDNA haplotype that did not belong to C. capreolus, but to a related species that does not occur naturally in the area, the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus. No differentiation between individuals with Siberian and European mtDNA haplotypes was detected at microsatellite loci. Introgression of mtDNA of Siberian roe deer into the genome of European roe deer has recently been detected in eastern Europe. Such introgression might be caused by human-mediated translocations of Siberian roe deer within the range of European roe deer or by natural hybridization between these species in the past.

  14. In vitro shoot multiplication of Ziziphus spina-christi by shoot tip culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... Key words: Clonal propagation, cidir, shoot tip culture, Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. INTRODUCTION. Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf., locally known as cidir, is a multipurpose tree species belonging to the botanical family Rhamnaceae. It is an important cultivated tree and one of the few truly native tree ...

  15. Light Requirement for Shoot Regeneration in Horseradish Hairy Roots 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Tsutomu; Kamada, Hiroshi; Harada, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Hairy roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) were induced by inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring Ri plasmid and cultured on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium after eliminating the bacteria. Hairy roots grew vigorously and sometimes formed yellowish calli under dark conditions. On the other hand, growth of hairy roots stopped after several weeks of culture with light, then shoots were regenerated. Frequency of shoot formation from hairy roots increased as the culture period in light lengthened and the light intensity increased. The shoot regeneration was induced by treatment with white or red light, but not with far-red light. Shoot regeneration by red light was inhibited by following treatment with far-red light. Red and far-red light reversibly affected shoot regeneration. Excised roots of nontransformed plants grew quite slowly on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium and occasionally formed shoots under white light conditions. PMID:16669041

  16. Light requirement for shoot regeneration in horseradish hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, T; Kamada, H; Harada, H

    1992-08-01

    Hairy roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) were induced by inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring Ri plasmid and cultured on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium after eliminating the bacteria. Hairy roots grew vigorously and sometimes formed yellowish calli under dark conditions. On the other hand, growth of hairy roots stopped after several weeks of culture with light, then shoots were regenerated. Frequency of shoot formation from hairy roots increased as the culture period in light lengthened and the light intensity increased. The shoot regeneration was induced by treatment with white or red light, but not with far-red light. Shoot regeneration by red light was inhibited by following treatment with far-red light. Red and far-red light reversibly affected shoot regeneration. Excised roots of nontransformed plants grew quite slowly on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium and occasionally formed shoots under white light conditions.

  17. Accuracy of Skill Performance in the Basketball Free Throw Shooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igawa Shoji

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal and shot timing. Shot timing was not significant difference. Shooting successful rate of skilled players was higher than unskilled players. Offtarget distance of skilled players was significant smaller than naive player. Consequently, skilled player is possible to aim at the center of the goal and shooting near the center of goal.

  18. Youth Responses to School Shootings: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Áine; McDonagh, Tracey; Elklit, Ask

    2018-05-19

    This paper aims to synthesize research relating to youth responses to school shootings between 2014 and 2017. The main questions it addresses are how such events impact young people psychologically, and what risk or protective factors may contribute to different trajectories of recovery? Recent research suggests that most young people exposed to school shootings demonstrate resilience, exhibiting no long-term dysfunction. However, a minority will experience severe and chronic symptoms. The likelihood of experiencing clinically significant reactions is influenced by pre-trauma functioning as well as peri-traumatic and post-traumatic factors. These include proximity to the trauma, peri-traumatic dissociation, post-traumatic emotional regulation difficulties, social support, and flexibility of coping styles. Research that separates the distinguishing features of young people with differing recovery styles is vital to tailor intervention. But methodological and design issues associated with such research necessitates caution in drawing conclusions. Variation in definitions and measures and the self-report nature of many of the studies are potential sources of bias. Greater uniformity across designs would enhance confidence and allow for improved evidence-based intervention.

  19. Journalism and School Shootings in Finland 2007 -2008

    OpenAIRE

    Raittila, Pentti; Koljonen, Kari; Väliverronen, Jari

    2010-01-01

    Two school shootings in Finland (Jokela in 2007 and Kauhajoki in 2008) resulted in the death of 20 people, and they shook not only the foundations of Finnish society but also of the profession that reported about the tragedies. This report is based on research conducted on school shootings at the University of Tampere Journalism Research and Development Centre between 2008 and 2009. The analysis concentrates on both the journalistic texts published on the shootings and journalists' actions...

  20. Mass propagation of shoots of Stevia rebaudiana using a large scale bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, M; Shigeoka, T; Koizumi, Y; Kawamura, M

    1994-01-01

    A procedure for the mass propagation of multiple shoots of Stevia rebaudiana is described. Isolated shoot primordia were used as the inoculum to obtain clusters of shoot primordia. Such clusters were grown in a 500 liter bioreactor to obtain shoots. A total of 64.6 Kg of shoots were propagated from 460 g of the inoculated shoot primordia. These shoots were easily acclimatized in soil.

  1. Radiosensitivity of in vitro Cultured Banana Shoot-Tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagamawy, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Longitudinally dissected shoot apices of Grand Nain, Williams and Maghrabi banana cultivars were exposed to gamma irradiation with Cobalt 60 source at the doses of 0, 20, 40 and 60 Gy and immediately placed into proliferation medium. A number of micropropagation cycles after irradiation were necessary up to M1 V2 to M1 V4 stage to let mutated sectors developing into non-chimeric shoots. Radiosensitivity was evaluated by the rate of shoot proliferation and by the shoot fresh weight increase. Increasing gamma doses caused reduction in survival rates and average number of shoots. Grand Nain exhibited the highest multiplication- rate (3.1). The lower dose (20 Gy) enhanced shoot multiplication ratio specially in Williams and Maghrabi, which however decreased with increased doses. The doses of 20-40 Gy yielded Ld50, with sensible degree of shoot multiplication, which occurred hardly ever beyond 40 Gy. The dose of 60 Gy resulted 80% lethal shoot growth. Linear decrease in fresh weight was observed in post-irradiation recovery, notably in the Maghrabi. In contradictory vulnerable damage was observed in Williams which showed the highest fresh weight value. Shoot proliferation appeared generally on the surface of the corm. Root formation was observed without additional hormone. The roots were dark colored and was decreased with the increased of dosage

  2. Australian Mass Shootings: An Analysis of Incidents and Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, Samara

    2017-06-01

    Mass shooting events are relatively underresearched, and most study comes from the United States. Despite significant international interest, little is known about other countries' experiences of these events. The current study examines Australian mass shooting incidents and offenders, with emphasis on mental illness, life strains, and offenders' life histories. Australia had 14 mass shootings between 1964 and 2014. Most offenders experienced acute life stressors and/or chronic strains leading up to the event; however, diagnosed mental illness was less commonly documented. These observations provide new information about mass shooting incidents and offenders, and can help to inform international policy development.

  3. School shootings: law enforcement and school district networking

    OpenAIRE

    Topadzhikyan, Tigran

    2013-01-01

    CHDS State/Local School shootings have happened in the past and will happen again. The history of school shootings prompts all stakeholders to look at ways to prevent them from happening, and if they do happen, to be resilient. Change is needed in the prevention of school shootings. The case studies of Virginia Tech, Sandy Hook, E. O. Green Junior High, and Beslan school shootings reveal that the lack of information sharing and lack of communication were flaws; and the incidents might have...

  4. In vitro mass propagation of Salvia canariensis by axillary shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiana Mederos Molina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the establishment of shoots of Salvia canariensis L., five environmental factor treatments were applied. For each axillary node two shoots grew well when explants were incubated at continued ligth for 15 days followed by 16 hrs photoperiod by 30 days. Shoots multiplication was improved on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium - MS + 825 mg/l NH4NO3 - supplemented with 10-7 M BA and 10-7 M NAA. The shoots produced well developed root systems within three weeks after transfer to the same culture medium supplemented with 5x 10-7 M NAA.

  5. 77 FR 35541 - Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... ``wasting'' syndrome in 1967, the disease is typified by chronic weight loss leading to death. Species... deer, white-tailed deer, black-tailed deer, sika deer, and moose. In the United States, as of March... population has been documented to be low risk for CWD based on a surveillance program. The part also allows...

  6. Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yugang; Wang, Shijie; Du, Rui; Wang, Quankai; Sun, Changjiang; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Pengju; Zhang, Lianxue

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical...

  7. SHOOT2.0: An indirect grid shooting package for optimal control problems, with switching handling and embedded continuation

    OpenAIRE

    Martinon , Pierre; Gergaud , Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The SHOOT2.0 package implements an indirect shooting method for optimal control problems. It is specifically designed to handle control discontinuities, with an automatic switching detection that requires no assumptions concerning the number of switchings. Special care is also devoted to the computation of the Jacobian matrix of the shooting function, using the variational system instead of classical finite differences. The package also features an embedded continuation method and an automati...

  8. An epidemiological survey of hepatitis E virus in Shika deer, Cervus nippon, in Nara Park, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    萩原, 克郎; 辻, 正義; 川渕, 貴子; 鳥居, 春己; 小林, 朋子; 浅川, 満彦; 石原, 智明

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infections have been reported in deer as well as in domestic animals; however, the precise epidemiological information regarding HEV infections in the Shika Deer in Nara Park in Japan remains to be investigated. In this study, we examined the anti-HEV antibodies and HEV-RNA in sera from 173 of female sika deer in the park. The reactivity to HEV antigen in the serum samples were low levels. The detection of HEV-RNA in sera from the deer revealed no positive samples by R...

  9. Management of deer for experimental studies with foor-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, E P; McDiarmid, A; Rowe, J J

    1975-06-07

    Red, sika, fallow, roe and muntjac deer adapted to captivity in experimental units designed for working with foot-and-mouth disease. The red, sika and fallow deer readily accepted rolled oats and hay as their staple diet. This diet was replaced for the roe and muntjac deer with flaked maize, calf starter pellets and green browse. Etorphine/acepromazine ans xylazine were found to be suitable sedatives for detailed examination of the tongue and oral cavity of the various species of deer and gave adequate analgesia for the inoculation and collection of virus samples.

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Gut Microbiota Composition between Captive and Wild Forest Musk Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimeng Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The large and complex gut microbiota in animals has profound effects on feed utilization and metabolism. Currently, gastrointestinal diseases due to dysregulated gut microbiota are considered important factors that limit growth of the captive forest musk deer population. Compared with captive forest musk deer, wild forest musk deer have a wider feeding range with no dietary limitations, and their gut microbiota are in a relatively natural state. However, no reports have compared the gut microbiota between wild and captive forest musk deer. To gain insight into the composition of gut microbiota in forest musk deer under different food-source conditions, we employed high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology to investigate differences in the gut microbiota occurring between captive and wild forest musk deer. Both captive and wild forest musk deer showed similar microbiota at the phylum level, which consisted mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, although significant differences were found in their relative abundances between both groups. α-Diversity results showed that no significant differences occurred in the microbiota between both groups, while β-diversity results showed that significant differences did occur in their microbiota compositions. In summary, our results provide important information for improving feed preparation for captive forest musk deer and implementing projects where captive forest musk deer are released into the wild.

  11. Blood plasma proteins and protein fractions in roe deer Capreolus capreolus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota CYGAN-SZCZEGIELNIAK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate some selected biochemical blood parameters in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.. The experiment covered 15 from 2 to 3-year-old bucks from Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship. The animals were shot by individual hunters on the shooting grounds during the hunting season of 2008/2009 (in the accordance with the Journal of Laws No 48. The material for the research was blood plasma obtained after centrifuging full, nonhemolyzed blood. The blood was collected from the zygomatic vein directly to the test tubes with EDTA and transported in cooling conditions to the laboratory. After transporting the samples of blood to a certified analytical laboratory, the following elements of the obtained blood plasma were examined: ceruloplasmin . using turbidimetric method; transferrin . using immunoturbimetric method; troponin- using a third generation assay on an Elecsys; total protein, albumin, globulin . using spectrophotometric method and total iron . using colorimetric method. The results were statistically analyzed, i.e. the correlation between the parameters was measured by means of Pearsonfs correlation coefficient. The analysis of the results revealed a number of statistically significant relations between the parameters under the investigation, especially among the compounds directly responsible for metabolism of iron and copper. A statistically important positive correlation was observed between ceruloplasmin and ferritin (r = 0.563; P.0.05 and a negative one between transferrin and troponin (r = -0.609; P.0.05. Moreover, the content of transferrin . an iron-binding protein . was 0.17 g/l, while the concentration of iron was 58 ƒĘmol/l. The content of ceruloplasmin . a protein responsible for metabolism of copper . was very low (0.036 g/l. The level of proteins in the blood plasma of the animals under the research was approximately 72 g/l, with the share of albumins about 46%. The albumin-globulin ratio was 0.86.

  12. Cutaneous fibroma in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kureljušić Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromas present very frequent skin neoplasms in different species of wild game of the family Cervidae. Viral etiology of skin neoplasms was proven in certain species of wild game from this family, with the most frequent diagnoses being: fibromas, ossifying fibromas, fibrosarcomas, multiple neurofibromatosis, fibropapillomas, and papillomas. The diagnozed tumor in the roe deer had the histological characteristics of a polimorphous fibroblast, which is not the case with domestic animals. This finding can be considered as a characteristic of fibromas in animals of the family Cervidae. Solitary fibroma or multiple fibroma (fibromatosis does not present a significant cause of deer deaths, but they cause concern among hunters who are in direct contact with them. Although fibromas do not lead to spoilage of game meat, they are esthetically repellent and people are reluctant to consume meat of such game.

  13. Incidence of gasrointestinal helminthiasis in captive deers at Nagpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Borghare

    Full Text Available Out of 60 Samples of deer from Maharajbag Zoo, Nagpur, 30 were positive for eggs and larvae of helminthic parasites. The encountered parasitic species were Haemonchus spp., Dicrocoelium spp., Paramphistomum spp., Oesophagostomum spp. and Bunostomum spp. etc. Direct smear method together with sedimentation technique were used for the purpose. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 337-338

  14. Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mattioli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy, are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this nucleus and its biogeographic importance make a long-term conservation plan particularly urgent. Management measures such as fallow deer reduction, winter feeding and pasture mowing were tested, giving promising results. The physical condition of the animals improved, calf and adult mortality declined, and a few cases of antlers with bez tine or crown were reported in this study after four decades. Riassunto Il Cervo della Mesola: caratteristiche fisiche, dinamica di popolazione e prospettive di conservazione La biometria, la demografia e la genetica del cervo Cervus elaphus del Gran Bosco della Mesola (Italia nord-orientale, vengono presentate e discusse in relazione alla salvaguardia di questa popolazione. Il cervo della Mesola risulta caratterizzato dalle modeste dimensioni corporee, dalla struttura semplificata dei palchi e da un basso rendimento riproduttivo. L'analisi del genoma mitocondriale ha evidenziato un aplotipo privato, diverso da quello degli altri cervi italiani e centroeuropei. L'unicità di questo nucleo e la sua importanza biogeografica rendono particolarmente urgente un piano di conservazione a lungo termine. Sono stati verificati interventi gestionali quali la riduzione numerica dei daini, il foraggiamento invernale e lo sfalcio delle superfici a pascolo, con risultati promettenti. Le condizioni fisiche degli animali sono migliorate, la mortalità tra i piccoli e gli adulti è diminuita, e sono stati registrati alcuni

  15. Serosurvey for selected pathogens in Iberian roe deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleaga Álvaro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The roe deer is the most abundant and widespread wild Eurasian cervid. Its populations are expanding and increasingly in contact with livestock. This may affect the distribution of infectious diseases shared with other wild and domestic ungulates. Methods We investigated the antibody seroprevalence against Pestivirus, Herpesvirus, Bluetongue (BT virus, M. avium paratuberculosis (MAP, and Brucella sp. in 519 roe deer from different regions in Spain, south-western Europe. Results No antibodies were detected against BT and Brucella sp. However, antibodies were detected against Pestivirus (1.5%, Herpesvirus (0.2% and MAP (9.2%. MAP antibodies were detected in seven of the eight populations (range 5-16.4%. Conclusions The detection of MAP antibodies in samples from most roe deer populations suggests that contact with MAP is widespread in this wildlife species. The highest prevalence was detected in sites with abundant dairy cattle and frequent use of liquid manure on pastures. Considering the results obtained regarding exposure to different pathogens, we suggest that antibody prevalences in this non-gregarious browser are largely determined by environmental factors, potentially modulating vector populations or pathogen survival in the environment.

  16. THE YIELD OF DNA IN THERMAL TERATED DEER MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Golian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Residuals of DNA are one of the most important factors for detection, traceability and reverse authentication of deer meat. In this project we isolated DNA from deer processed meat and analysed by electrophoresis. Goal of the study was compute ratio between raw meat and several heat processed deer meat. Samples were prepared by five heat treatment techniques (pan roasted with temperature 180-240°C, fried with 156°C, braised with temperature 100-150°C, boiled in 100.2°C water and autoclaved in different time intervals. The highest amount of residual DNA 1927ng was obtained with two hours boiled sample. The lowest value 89.89ng was obtained with one hour braised sample. In technological adjustments highest amount of DNA and 1927ng, so the total yield of 192.7ng.-l was observed in the sample we cooked for two hours at boiling temperature.   doi:10.5219/153 

  17. Analysis of sports injuries related with shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, Banu; Karanfilci, Muharrem; Ersöz, Taner; Kabak, Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    Athletes typically maintain rigorous training and work programs to be able to participate in competitions. An injury that occurs during the competition that causes withdrawal from the competition and a possible departure from sports, can render results athletes' and their support staff's efforts as meaningless. The early detection of injuries in the competition and developing preventive training programs can help ensure that participating in competitions and the associated preparatory efforts are not wasted. In this study, the sports injuries discussed occurred during training and competition events of the Turkish Shooting Sportive group. Body parts of injuries are determined and exercise programs focused on the affected body parts are developed. A total of 729 athletes (285 female, 444 male) who participated in Turkish Shooting Sports Championship during the 2010-2011 competition period participated in the study. Athletes were given a questionnaire that was developed prior to the event, and the questionnaire was filled in during interviews conducted one-on-one. Data was collected from the questionnaire and SPSS v.16.0 was used to analyze the results. The study was completed in six months. The results showed that the most of the injuries that occurred during training were strain and muscle tears whereas most of the injuries occurred during the actual competition were strain, muscle tears, tendinitis, and sprain. The results also indicated that during training, the most frequently-occurring injuries were in shoulder, calf-thigh, hand and wrist; whereas during the competition, it was manifested in the shoulder, foot and ankle. Muscle strengthening, stretching and proprioception exercises for these body parts should be included as part of the athletic training program.

  18. Mural folliculitis and alopecia caused by infection with goat-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus in two sika deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Timothy B; Li, Hong; Rosenburg, Stuart R; Norhausen, Robert W; Garner, Michael M

    2002-09-15

    Two sika deer from a zoo in Florida were examined because of chronic hair loss and skin lesions. No common causes of alopecia were identified in either deer. One deer was treated with prednisone, but the condition worsened when the dosage was decreased. Both deer were euthanatized after several months because of continued disease. The predominant histologic lesion in skin specimens was granulomatous mural folliculitis. Serologic testing and sequencing of fragments produced with a consensus polymerase chain reaction assay indicated that both deer were infected with caprine herpesvirus-2, a newly recognized member of the malignant catarrhal fever group of viruses. Disease in these deer was substantially different from that typically seen following infection with ovine herpesvirus-2, the sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus. Findings in these deer establish the pathogenicity of caprine herpesvirus-2 in sika deer and illustrate the ability of this group of complex herpesviruses to cause a wide variety of clinical abnormalities in diverse species.

  19. Highly efficient in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration of Adenosma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenosma glutinosum (Linn.) Druce is an important aromatic plant, but no information is available regarding its regeneration, callus induction and proliferation from leaf explants. In this study, an in vitro shoot regeneration procedure was developed for native A. glutinosum using leaf explants. Callus induction and shoots ...

  20. Efficient regeneration of plants from shoot tip explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dendrobium densiflorum Lindl. is one of the horticulturally important orchids of Nepal due to its beautiful yellowish flower and medicinal properties. The present study was carried out for plant regeneration from shoot tip explants of D. densiflorum by tissue culture technique. The shoot tip explants of this species, obtained ...

  1. Defense.gov Special Report: Fort Hood Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    identify possible insider threats, Army Secretary John M. McHugh told lawmakers. Story Obama: Soldiers ," Army Secretary John M. McHugh told lawmakers. Story President Praises Swift Response to Fort Hood Remarks on Fort Hood Shooting at White House McHugh, Odierno Address Fort Hood Shooting Before Congress

  2. Gene expression in arabidopsis shoot tips after liquid nitrogen exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabidopsis thaliana shoot tips can be successfully cryopreserved using either Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) or Plant Vitrification Solution 3 (PVS3) as the cryoprotectant. We used this model system to identify suites of genes that were either upregulated or downregulated as shoot tips recov...

  3. An Analysis of US School Shooting Data (1840-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradice, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and descriptive analysis of a data set of United States school shooting events. Three hundred forty-three shooting events are included, spanning 175 years of United States educational history. All levels of US educational institution are included. Events are included when a firearm is discharged, regardless of…

  4. How to talk (and not to talk) about school shootings

    OpenAIRE

    Scheper-Hughes, N

    2018-01-01

    © RAI 2018 In this guest editorial, the author addresses the latest school shootings at the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida. This event is weighed up against reports written by prominent academics, including anthropologists, during previous school shootings.

  5. Revisiting the Virginia Tech Shootings: An Ecological Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Cho, Hyunkag; Lee, Alvin Shiulain

    2010-01-01

    School shooting cases since the late 1990s have prompted school officials and legislators to develop and implement programs and measures that would prevent violence in school. Despite the number of explanations by the media, politicians, organizations, and researchers about the etiology of school shootings, we are not united in our understanding…

  6. The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting as tipping point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Muschert, Glenn W; Dingwall, Alison; Cohen, Alyssa M

    2013-01-01

    Among rampage shooting massacres, the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting on December 14, 2012 galvanized public attention. In this Commentary we examine the features of this episode of gun violence that has sparked strong reactions and energized discourse that may ultimately lead toward constructive solutions to diminish high rates of firearm deaths and injuries in the United States. PMID:28228989

  7. Shoot Differentiation in Callus Cultures of Datura Innoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1973-01-01

    promoted shoot differentiation. Gibberellic acid inhibited shoot formation weakly, but inhibited proper leaf blade formation. Root differentiation was rare. The callus cultures of Datura innoxia grew rapidly (100-fold in 4 weeks) on a slightly modified Murashige and Skoog medium (0.5 mg/l thiamin · HCl, p...

  8. Cryopreservation of in vitro -grown shoot tips of apricot ( Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro grown apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. El-Hamawey shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Shoot tips were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads before preculture on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations; 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, ...

  9. Initiation and growth of shoots of Gongronema latifolia Benth stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was significant reduction in number of days to shoot initiation and growth in sawdust medium in the wet season. Sawdust and soil gave a better performance of the cuttings in opening of apical buds, initiation of shoots, percentage of rooted cuttings, number of vines, vine length and number of opposite leaves on vines ...

  10. Country, Cover or Protection: What Shapes the Distribution of Red Deer and Roe Deer in the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heurich, M.; Brand, T. T. G.; Kaandrop, M. Y.; Šustr, Pavel; Muller, J.; Reineking, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2015), e0120960 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-26561S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : caproelus deer * sitka spruce plantatio * national park * wildlife management * habitat selection Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  11. Elk and deer studies related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, L.E.; McCorquodale, S.M.; Sargeant, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    A study of elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was conducted in the vicinity of planned site characterization activities for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Both species are known to be sensitive to disturbance and are considered important species because they are recreationally and/or commercially valuable. The principal objectives of the study were to (1) estimate pre-activity (site characterization) recruitment of deer and elk, (2) characterize deer and elk use of limited habitats critical to their survival (e.g., riparian areas), (3) describe preferential habitat use by deer and elk during critical seasons (i.e., winter and summer), and (4) document pre-activity distributions of seasonal home range centers of deer and elk. Early termination of BWIP prevented some of the objectives from being fully addressed. Fifteen adult elk (11 females and 4 males) and 19 female deer equipped with radio transmitters were studied on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve from February through December 1987. More than 1800 relocations of the marked elk and deer were made during aerial and ground tracking sessions. Deer confined their activities to within 2 km of water sources. In contrast, elk used 6-12 times the average area used by deer. As with deer, female elk were closely associated with available water sources during the summer and fall, presumably because of the physiological demands of lactation. However, during the winter, female elk showed no preference for areas near water, as did male elk throughout the study. Riparian areas, which are scarce on the arid Hanford Site, are particularly valuable habitat to both elk and deer because they provide drinking water and succulent forage during the dry summer and early fall months

  12. Do Père David's deer lose memories of their ancestral predators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunwang Li

    Full Text Available Whether prey retains antipredator behavior after a long period of predator relaxation is an important question in predator-prey evolution. Père David's deer have been raised in enclosures for more than 1200 years and this isolation provides an opportunity to study whether Père David's deer still respond to the cues of their ancestral predators or to novel predators. We played back the sounds of crows (familiar sound and domestic dogs (familiar non-predators, of tigers and wolves (ancestral predators, and of lions (potential naïve predator to Père David's deer in paddocks, and blank sounds to the control group, and videoed the behavior of the deer during the experiment. We also showed life-size photo models of dog, leopard, bear, tiger, wolf, and lion to the deer and video taped their responses after seeing these models. Père David's deer stared at and approached the hidden loudspeaker when they heard the roars of tiger or lion. The deer listened to tiger roars longer, approached to tiger roars more and spent more time staring at the tiger model. The stags were also found to forage less in the trials of tiger roars than that of other sound playbacks. Additionally, it took longer for the deer to restore their normal behavior after they heard tiger roars, which was longer than that after the trial of other sound playbacks. Moreover, the deer were only found to walk away after hearing the sounds of tiger and wolf. Therefore, the tiger was probably the main predator for Père David's deer in ancient time. Our study implies that Père David's deer still retain the memories of the acoustic and visual cues of their ancestral predators in spite of the long term isolation from natural habitat.

  13. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat.

  14. Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus and 11 fallow deer (Dama dama were included to investigate the relationship between ultimate pH and residual glycogen concentration in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus. In addition, the muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH values in three red deer muscles (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus and biceps femoris were studied. M. triceps brachii had higher ultimate pH and lower glycogen content compared with the other two studied muscles. The frequency of intermediate DFD (5.8≤ pH<6.2 was 5.4% in red deer M. longissimus, compared with 9.1% in fallow deer, while the frequency of DFD (pH≥ 6.2 was much lower in red deer (3.8% than in fallow deer (54.5%. A curvilinear relationship between ultimate pH and total glucose concentration (glycogen and glucose 30 min post slaughter in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus was found. The relationship between muscle pH and lactic acid concentration however, was indicated to be linear. A significant variation in total glucose concentration at ultimate pH below 5.80 was observed, including values in the range from 18 to 123 mmol/kg wet tissue. It was concluded that further studies are needed to further explore the relationship between muscle glycogen content and technological and sensory quality attributes of meat from different deer species.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Köttets pH-värde (mätt ca 24 timmar efter slakt har stor betydelse för den teknologiska kvaliteten som t. ex. hållbarhet, färg, vattenhållande förmåga och m

  15. Modeling shoot-tip temperature in the greenhouse environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, J.E.; Heins, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    An energy-balance model is described that predicts vinca (Catharanthus roseus L.) shoot-tip temperature using four environmental measurements: solar radiation and dry bulb, wet bulb, and glazing material temperature. The time and magnitude of the differences between shoot-tip and air temperature were determined in greenhouses maintained at air temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, or 35 °C. At night, shoot-tip temperature was always below air temperature. Shoot-tip temperature decreased from 0.5 to 5 °C below air temperature as greenhouse glass temperature decreased from 2 to 15 °C below air temperature. During the photoperiod under low vapor-pressure deficit (VPD) and low air temperature, shoot-tip temperature increased ≈4 °C as solar radiation increased from 0 to 600 W·m -2 . Under high VPD and high air temperature, shoot-tip temperature initially decreased 1 to 2 °C at sunrise, then increased later in the morning as solar radiation increased. The model predicted shoot-tip temperatures within ±1 °C of 81% of the observed 1-hour average shoot-tip temperatures. The model was used to simulate shoot-tip temperatures under different VPD, solar radiation, and air temperatures. Since the rate of leaf and flower development are influenced by the temperature of the meristematic tissues, a model of shoot-tip temperature will be a valuable tool to predict plant development in greenhouses and to control the greenhouse environment based on a plant temperature setpoint. (author)

  16. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting with Vision Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, P.M.; Latham, K.; Mann, D.L.; Ravensbergen, H.J.C.; Myint, J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle,

  17. Investigation of the lead-, mercury- and cadmium concentration found in red deer, deer and chamois in an tyrolian preserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, E.

    1984-05-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals, lead, mercury and cadmium were tested in liver, kidney and rib samples taken from 43 red deer, 24 deer and 42 chamois between June 1982 and June 1983. Since the free living animals aquire the damaging substances through food, water and air intake, the determined sediments found in the bodies give information on the environmental pollution. The lead content in liver and kidney showed minimal values averraging between 0.001 and 0.014 ppm in all three animal types. Ribs, as well as all bones, due to the effect of time, served as reservoirs for lead with average values of 0.2-0.4ppm. In two chamois livers the maximal values of 3.007 and 1.006 ppm were detected and can be accounted for in a secondary contaminated originating from the lethal projectile. In reference to age and sex, no differences could be seen. A seasonal dependency was determined such that the concentration increased in spring and summer in examined livers and kidneys. The rumen content and grazing habit analysis showed minimal residue amounts as in the indicator organs. This lies in connection with the locality of the hunting grounds compared to the road. The mercury content in liver and kidney was of the maximal value 0.449 ppm. Deer showed the greatest contamination in the kidneys, which were surprisingly high in the fall. After rumen content and grazing analysis, the high value can be accounted for the deer's preference to eat mushrooms in the fall which contained an average 1.029 ppm Hg. Changes in concentrations could not be determined to be sex and age dependet. The cadmium concentration was highest in the kidney cortex in all three animal types. A highly significant dependency should be observed in the cadmium concentration. Deer showed the greatest amounts in each age class, which can be referred back to the grazing habits, to the preferred herbs and mushrooms which have high cadmium contents. Due to the strong influence of the age factor in cadmium storage

  18. Estimating willingness to pay for protection of eastern black walnut from deer damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry D. Godsey; John P. Dwyer

    2008-01-01

    For many landowners willing to plant trees, one of the biggest establishment and maintenance costs is protecting those young trees from deer browse damage. In some cases, the method of protection used can cost two to three times as much as the cost of planting. Deer damage such as nipping off terminal buds and buck rub penetrating the bark and cambial tissue can kill...

  19. Lack of caching of direct-seeded Douglas fir seeds by deer mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    Seed caching by deer mice was investigated by radiotagging seeds in forest and clear-cut areas in coastal British Columbia. Deer mice tend to cache very few Douglas fir seeds in the fall when the seed is uniformly distributed and is at densities comparable with those used in direct-seeding programs. (author)

  20. The fallow deer (dama dama) protection against parasites in the ecological meat breeding

    OpenAIRE

    JANUSZ KILAR; MARIA RUDA

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the efficiency of Valbazen 10% against the parasites at the fallow deers bred on the ecological farm. The efficiency of Valbazen 10% for Eimeria spp, Bunostomum spp, Cooperia spp, Oesophagostomum spp, Toxocara vitulorum were found. The risk of Protostrongylus spp. decreased. The Valbazen 10% did not protect fallow deers from Trichostrongylus spp.

  1. Systemic adenovirus infection associated with high mortality in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Woods, L.W.; Swift, P.K.; Barr, B.C.; Nordhausen, R.W.; Stillian, M.H.; Patton, J.F.; Oliver, M.N.; Jones, K.R.; Maclachlan, N.J.

    1996-01-01

    Seventeen counties in northern California experienced epizootics of high mortality in the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) population during the latter half of 1993. Thirteen deer submitted to the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System as part of this natural die-off had systemic

  2. Responses of northern red oak seedlings to lime and deer exclosure fencing in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Long; Patrick H. Brose; Stephen B. Horsley

    2012-01-01

    In Pennsylvania, two hypotheses compete to explain the chronic oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration problem: excessive deer browsing and soil cation depletion. We tested these hypotheses by evaluating the effect of forest liming and deer exclosure fencing on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling growth and nutrition in five...

  3. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Borghezan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, and ended on 2/6/2007, totalizing 144 days of evaluation. During the 2008/2009 cycle, phenology and shoot growth for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' were assessed from grape development (1/13/2009 (pea-sized grapes until shoot vegetative growth had ceased. Budburst occurred in the second half of September, and shoot-growth cessation occurred during ripening. Higher growth rates (about 4 cm per day were observed in pre- and post-flowering, followed by reduction due to the competition for photosynthates for the formation of flowers and bunches. Temperature and photoperiod induce grapevine shoots to cease growth in the highland regions of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

  4. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references.

  5. Firearm Legislation and Fatal Police Shootings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J; Ray, Bradley; Phalen, Peter L

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether stricter firearm legislation is associated with rates of fatal police shootings. We used a cross-sectional, state-level design to evaluate the effect of state-level firearm legislation on rates of fatal police shootings from January 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016. We measured state-level variation in firearm laws with legislative scorecards from the Brady Center, and for fatal police shootings we used The Counted, an online database maintained by The Guardian. State-level firearm legislation was significantly associated with lower rates of fatal police shootings (incidence rate ratio = 0.961; 95% confidence interval = 0.939, 0.984). When we controlled for sociodemographic factors, states in the top quartile of legislative strength had a 51% lower incidence rate than did states in the lowest quartile. Laws aimed at strengthening background checks, promoting safe storage, and reducing gun trafficking were associated with fewer fatal police shootings. Legislative restrictions on firearms are associated with reductions in fatal police shootings. Public Health Implications. Although further research is necessary to determine causality and potential mechanisms, firearm legislation is a potential policy solution for reducing fatal police shootings in the United States.

  6. Exposure to lead in South African shooting ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathee, Angela; Jager, Pieter de; Naidoo, Shan; Naicker, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Lead exposure in shooting ranges has been under scrutiny for decades, but no information in this regard is available in respect of African settings, and in South Africa specifically. The aim of this study was to determine the blood lead levels in the users of randomly selected private shooting ranges in South Africa's Gauteng province. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted, with participants recruited from four randomly selected shooting ranges and three archery ranges as a comparator group. Results: A total of 118 (87 shooters and 31 archers) were included in the analysis. Shooters had significantly higher blood lead levels (BLL) compared to archers with 36/85 (42.4%) of shooters versus 2/34 (5.9%) of archers found to have a BLL ≥10 μg/dl (p<0.001). Conclusion: Shooting ranges may constitute an import site of elevated exposure to lead. Improved ventilation, low levels of awareness of lead hazards, poor housekeeping, and inadequate personal hygiene facilities and practices at South African shooting ranges need urgent attention. - Highlights: • This is the first study, to our knowledge, of lead exposure in shooting ranges in an African setting. • This study indicates highly elevated lead exposure amongst the users of certain private shooting ranges in South Africa. • Lead exposure may be a serious, yet under-studied, source of adult lead exposure in South Africa, and possibly elsewhere on the African continent.

  7. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in [U- 14 C]sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with [U- 14 C]sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references

  8. Exposure to lead in South African shooting ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathee, Angela [South African Medical Research Council, Environment & Health Research Unit, PO Box 87373, Houghton 2041 (South Africa); University of the Witwatersrand (School of Public Health), PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); University of Johannesburg (Environmental Health Department, Faculty of Health Sciences), PO Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Jager, Pieter de [University of the Witwatersrand (School of Public Health), PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); National Health Laboratory Service (Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit, National Institute for Occupational Health), PO Box 4788, Johannesburg 2000 (South Africa); Naidoo, Shan [University of the Witwatersrand (School of Public Health), PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Naicker, Nisha [South African Medical Research Council, Environment & Health Research Unit, PO Box 87373, Houghton 2041 (South Africa); University of the Witwatersrand, School of Public Health, PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); University of Johannesburg, Environmental Health Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa)

    2017-02-15

    Introduction: Lead exposure in shooting ranges has been under scrutiny for decades, but no information in this regard is available in respect of African settings, and in South Africa specifically. The aim of this study was to determine the blood lead levels in the users of randomly selected private shooting ranges in South Africa's Gauteng province. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted, with participants recruited from four randomly selected shooting ranges and three archery ranges as a comparator group. Results: A total of 118 (87 shooters and 31 archers) were included in the analysis. Shooters had significantly higher blood lead levels (BLL) compared to archers with 36/85 (42.4%) of shooters versus 2/34 (5.9%) of archers found to have a BLL ≥10 μg/dl (p<0.001). Conclusion: Shooting ranges may constitute an import site of elevated exposure to lead. Improved ventilation, low levels of awareness of lead hazards, poor housekeeping, and inadequate personal hygiene facilities and practices at South African shooting ranges need urgent attention. - Highlights: • This is the first study, to our knowledge, of lead exposure in shooting ranges in an African setting. • This study indicates highly elevated lead exposure amongst the users of certain private shooting ranges in South Africa. • Lead exposure may be a serious, yet under-studied, source of adult lead exposure in South Africa, and possibly elsewhere on the African continent.

  9. Structure–Function Relationships in Highly Modified Shoots of Cactaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAUSETH, JAMES D.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. • Scope Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus ‘flower’ is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels. PMID:16820405

  10. Structure-function relationships in highly modified shoots of cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauseth, James D

    2006-11-01

    Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus 'flower' is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels.

  11. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Borghezan; Olavo Gavioli; Hamilton Justino Vieira; Aparecido Lima da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, ...

  12. Methodology of shooting training using modern IT techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudzbeler, Grzegorz; Struniawski, Jarosław

    2017-08-01

    Mastering, improvement, shaping and preservation of skills of safe, efficient and effective use of the firearm requires the use of relevant methodology of conducting the shooting training. However reality of police trainings does not usually allow for intensive training shooting with the use of ammunition. An alternative solution is the use of modern training technologies. Example of this is the "Virtual system of improvement tactics of intervention services responsible for security and shooting training." Introduction of stimulator to police trainings will enable complete stuff preparation to achieve its tasks, creating potential of knowledge and experience in many areas, far exceeding the capabilities of conventional training.

  13. Migrating mule deer: effects of anthropogenically altered landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick E Lendrum

    Full Text Available Migration is an adaptive strategy that enables animals to enhance resource availability and reduce risk of predation at a broad geographic scale. Ungulate migrations generally occur along traditional routes, many of which have been disrupted by anthropogenic disturbances. Spring migration in ungulates is of particular importance for conservation planning, because it is closely coupled with timing of parturition. The degree to which oil and gas development affects migratory patterns, and whether ungulate migration is sufficiently plastic to compensate for such changes, warrants additional study to better understand this critical conservation issue.We studied timing and synchrony of departure from winter range and arrival to summer range of female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus in northwestern Colorado, USA, which has one of the largest natural-gas reserves currently under development in North America. We hypothesized that in addition to local weather, plant phenology, and individual life-history characteristics, patterns of spring migration would be modified by disturbances associated with natural-gas extraction. We captured 205 adult female mule deer, equipped them with GPS collars, and observed patterns of spring migration during 2008-2010.Timing of spring migration was related to winter weather (particularly snow depth and access to emerging vegetation, which varied among years, but was highly synchronous across study areas within years. Additionally, timing of migration was influenced by the collective effects of anthropogenic disturbance, rate of travel, distance traveled, and body condition of adult females. Rates of travel were more rapid over shorter migration distances in areas of high natural-gas development resulting in the delayed departure, but early arrival for females migrating in areas with high development compared with less-developed areas. Such shifts in behavior could have consequences for timing of arrival on birthing areas

  14. Trends of fresh green food for lactating roe deer females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Annette; Stahl, Benjamin; Laube, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Increasing temperatures, changed precipitation patterns as well as more intense and frequent extreme events will alter the phenology of both flora and fauna and shift species distributions. Moreover, farmers respond to climate change by adapting land use and management, and thus the cultural landscape is changing. Therefore, the health and fitness of wild animals will be largely affected by factors directly and indirectly linked to climate change. Familiar examples of mismatch due to loss of temporal synchrony in food webs are known from birds (timing of migration or egg laying in relation to food resources) and insect pollination (timing of first flights in relation to plant flowering). However, also large herbivory mammals may suffer from climate change induced phenological mismatch if they are not able to "surf on the green wave" any more. Taking roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) as key example, we studied changes in the spring phenology of potential food plants during the last four decades in southern Germany. Our analysis is based on the phenological observations of the German Meteorological Service as well as on the comprehensive multi-species dataset of a dedicated citizen scientist. Roe deer is sensitive to slight phenological changes of food plants, since only the first fresh green contains maximal protein contents which are needed by the females to suckle their fawns born mid of May till mid of June. We find indications for an increasing number of food plant species available in the lactation period, however probably with a decreasing food quality over the decades. Since females have delayed implantation it may be difficult to well synchronise the postnatal period to the vegetation development. A unique dataset of marked fawns suggests that also the timing of birth has slightly advanced in recent decades. We discuss these changes in the match-mismatch of lactation period of roe deer and spring leaf phenology and their driving factors in detail.

  15. A roe deer from the Pliocene of Hidalgo, central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jiménez-Hidalgo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexican Pliocene cervids are very poorly known. We report on new fossil material of the roe deer Capreolus constantini recovered from the Pliocene Atotonilco El Grande Formation of Santa María Amajac, Hidalgo (central Mexico. The specimens were collected from a series of layers of friable to moderately indurated polymictic conglomerate supported by a sandstone-tuffaceous-calcareous matrix. This species was formerly known only from the late Pliocene of Udunga, Russia, thus implying a dispersal event to North America around 4.0 Ma. This cervid is one of the very small number of mammals recorded from the poorly sampled Pliocene temperate deposits of Mexico.

  16. Linking Hunter Knowledge with Forest Change to Understand Changing Deer Harvest Opportunities in Intensively Logged Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Brinkman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the relationship between forest change and opportunities to harvest Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. We used data collected through interviews with local deer hunters and GIS analysis of land cover to determine relationships among landscape change, hunter access, and habitat for deer hunting over the last 50 yr. We then used these relationships to predict how harvest opportunities may change in the future. Intensive logging from 1950 into the 1990s provided better access to deer and habitat that facilitated deer hunting. However, successional changes in intensively logged forests in combination with a decline in current logging activity have reduced access to deer and increased undesirable habitat for deer hunting. In this new landscape, harvest opportunities in previously logged landscapes have declined, and hunters identify second-growth forest as one of the least popular habitats for hunting. Given the current state of the logging industry in Alaska, it is unlikely that the logging of the remaining old-growth forests or intensive management of second-growth forests will cause hunter opportunities to rebound to historic levels. Instead, hunter opportunities may continue to decline for at least another human generation, even if the long-term impacts of logging activity and deer harvest on deer numbers are minimal. Adapting hunting strategies to focus on naturally open habitats such as alpine and muskeg that are less influenced by external market forces may require considerably more hunting effort but provide the best option for

  17. Shoot multiplication of Paphiopedilum orchid through in vitro cutting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    waraporn

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... regulators could remain higher shoot multiplication than in other media. The micropropagation ... stalk nodes, buds, root tips and rhizome segments. For mass ... plants, the future mass-market orchids will most likely be.

  18. Preventing School Shootings: A Public Health Approach to Gun Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    pedagogical goals. The incidents of school shootings on college campuses can be prevented through the collaboration and application of whole-of...interesting accompaniment to school violence. 26 Date Place Outcome May 16, 1986 Cokeville Elementary School, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

  19. 76 FR 1339 - Pine Shoot Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Domestic Programs, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 26, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231; (301) 734-5705... distorted growth in host trees. Large infestations of PSB typically kill most of the lateral shoots near the...

  20. Effect of benzylaminopurine (BAP) pulsing on in vitro shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... Research Cluster, Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Accepted 12 ... number of bud formation in shoot cultures of Musa acuminata cv. ... In tissue culture, plant growth regulators (PGR) are.

  1. Roots & Shoots: A model for active environmental protection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar is facing severe environmental problems. One approach to engage possible future stakeholders and to raise awareness for environmental concerns is the Roots & Shoots program. On the following the program and its philosophy are presented.

  2. In vitro shoot multiplication and conservation of Caralluma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-03-30

    Burm. f.) Merrill. In Vitro Cell Deve. Biol. Plant. 41: 124-128. Thomas TD, Shankar S (2009). Multiple shoot induction and callus regeneration in Sarcostemma brevistigma Wight & Arnott, a rare medicinal plant. Plant Biotechnol.

  3. The Hidden Advantage in Shoot/Don’t Shoot Simulation Exercises for Police Recruit Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Davies

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past thirty-five years, developments in computer-related technology have been providing increasingly more sophisticated simulation alternatives for training law enforcement officers. Such developments have leveraged on the back of progress achieved in the aviation, military and medical professions as law enforcement educators seek to address the challenges of training for high-risk, high-stakes professional environments. While globally, simulation based learning exercises are at the forefront in use-of-force training with firearms for police recruits there is limited published research which views the influence of these exercises on operational practice through the lens of the police recruit as they engage with the demands of their volatile, unpredictable workplace. This paper discusses a case study of a cohort of 372 police recruits whose police academy education program included participation in simulation based learning exercises centred on decision making in use-of-force. The pivotal inclusion in the study was the opportunity for the police recruits to reflect on the influence of the simulation exercise experience from an operational perspective. The study revealed an unvoiced advantage—while trainers are focusing on the amount of ammunition used, the marksmanship accuracy, and the justification for the use-of-force, the students are unconsciously building a repertoire of realistic experiences as a reference library for the moment of decision in real life shoot/don’t shoot incidents.

  4. In-vitro morphogenesis of corn (Zea mays L.) : I. Differentiation of multiple shoot clumps and somatic embryos from shoot tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, H; Srinivasan, C; Sticklen, M B

    1992-07-01

    In-vitro methods have been developed to regenerate clumps of multiple shoots and somatic embryos at high frequency from shoot tips of aseptically-grown seedlings as well as from shoot apices of precociously-germinated immature zygotic embryos of corn (Zea mays L.). About 500 shoots were produced from a shoot tip after eight weeks of culture (primary culture and one subculture of four weeks) in darkness on Murashige and Skoog basal medium (MS) supplemented with 500 mg/L casein hydrolysate (CH) and 9 μM N(6)-benzyladenine (BA). In this medium, shoots formed in shoot tips as tightly packed "multiple shoot clumps" (MSC), which were composed of some axillary shoots and many adventitious shoots. When the shoot tips were cultured on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH, 9 μM BA and 2.25 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), most of the shoots in the clumps were adventitious in origin. Similar shoot tips cultured on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH, 4.5 μM BA and 2.25 μM 2,4-D regenerated many somatic embryos within eight weeks of culture. Somatic embryos were produced either directly from the shoot apical meristems or from calli derived from the shoots apices. Both the MSC and the embryos produced normal shoots on MS medium containing 2.25 μM BA and 1.8 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). These shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 3.6 μM IBA, and fertile corn plants were grown in the greenhouse. The sweet-corn genotype, Honey N Pearl, was used for the experiments described above, but shoot-tip cultures from all of 19 other corn genotypes tested also formed MSC on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH and 9 μM BA.

  5. DETECTING LASER SPOT IN SHOOTING SIMULATOR USING AN EMBEDDED CAMERA

    OpenAIRE

    Soetedjo, Aryuanto; Mahmudi, Ali; Ibrahim Ashari, M.; Ismail Nakhoda, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the application of an embedded camera system for detecting laser spot in the shooting simulator. The proposed shooting simulator uses a specific target box, where the circular pattern target is mounted. The embedded camera is installed inside the box to capture the circular pattern target and laser spot image. To localize the circular pattern automatically, two colored solid circles are painted on the target. This technique allows the simple and fast color tracking to trac...

  6. Coumarins and alkaloids in shoot culture of Ruta graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Ekiert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A shoot culture of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae was maintained in the stationary liquid phase. From the cultured shoots seven compounds were isolated and identified as psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin (linear furanocoumarins, rutamarin (linear dihydrofuranocoumarin, kokusaginine and skimmianine (furanoquinoline alkaloids by spectral methods. The compounds are known as secondary metabolites of the intact plant, as well as its cell and tissue cultures.

  7. Direct shoot organogenesis of Digitalis trojana Ivan., an endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... An efficient protocol for in vitro propagation of Digitalis trojana Ivan. was developed via adventitious shoot regeneration. Leaf explants were cultured on MS which were supplemented with different concentrations of NAA (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mg/ml) and BAP (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/ml) for shoot formation.

  8. Solar Radiation Determines Site Occupancy of Coexisting Tropical and Temperate Deer Species Introduced to New Zealand Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B Allen

    Full Text Available Assemblages of introduced taxa provide an opportunity to understand how abiotic and biotic factors shape habitat use by coexisting species. We tested hypotheses about habitat selection by two deer species recently introduced to New Zealand's temperate rainforests. We hypothesised that, due to different thermoregulatory abilities, rusa deer (Cervus timorensis; a tropical species would prefer warmer locations in winter than red deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus; a temperate species. Since adult male rusa deer are aggressive in winter (the rut, we also hypothesised that rusa deer and red deer would not use the same winter locations. Finally, we hypothesised that in summer both species would prefer locations with fertile soils that supported more plant species preferred as food. We used a 250 × 250 m grid of 25 remote cameras to collect images in a 100-ha montane study area over two winters and summers. Plant composition, solar radiation, and soil fertility were also determined for each camera location. Multiseason occupancy models revealed that direct solar radiation was the best predictor of occupancy and detection probabilities for rusa deer in winter. Multistate, multiseason occupancy models provided strong evidence that the detection probability of adult male rusa deer was greater in winter and when other rusa deer were present at a location. Red deer mostly vacated the study area in winter. For the one season that had sufficient camera images of both species (summer 2011 to allow two-species occupancy models to be fitted, the detection probability of rusa deer also increased with solar radiation. Detection probability also varied with plant composition for both deer species. We conclude that habitat use by coexisting tropical and temperate deer species in New Zealand likely depends on the interplay between the thermoregulatory and behavioural traits of the deer and the abiotic and biotic features of the habitat.

  9. Micropropagation of Asparagus by in vitro shoot culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is most extensively studied species within the genus Asparagus, which is well known as garden asparagus. This species is dioecious with unisexual flowers, which means that generative propagation gives roughly equal number of male and female plants. Male plants are high yielders and preferred commercially over female plants. Tissue culture techniques could efficiently promote vegetative propagation of male plants and pave the way for efficient plant breeding.This chapter describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for developing rapid growing in vitro Asparagus shoot cultures. The source of explants, inoculation, and shoot proliferation, followed by shoot propagation, rooting, and acclimatization is described. The optimal medium for Asparagus micropropagation described in this chapter is composed of MS macro- and microelements and a combination of auxins and cytokinins. Plant growth regulators NAA, kinetin, and BA were used in various concentrations. Three different media representing the whole micropropagation protocol of Asparagus are described; medium for shoot initiation, medium for shoot multiplication, and medium for root formation. By in vitro propagation of Asparagus, root initiation is difficult, but can be promoted by adding growth retardant ancymidol which also greatly promotes shoot development and suppresses callus formation.

  10. Ferns: the missing link in shoot evolution and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Robert George Plackett

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shoot development in land plants is a remarkably complex process that gives rise to an extreme diversity of forms. Our current understanding of shoot developmental mechanisms comes almost entirely from studies of angiosperms (flowering plants, the most recently diverged plant lineage. Shoot development in angiosperms is based around a layered multicellular apical meristem that produces lateral organs and/or secondary meristems from populations of founder cells at its periphery. In contrast, non-seed plant shoots develop from either single apical initials or from a small population of morphologically distinct apical cells. Although developmental and molecular information is becoming available for non-flowering plants, such as the model moss Physcomitrella patens, making valid comparisons between highly divergent lineages is extremely challenging. As sister group to the seed plants, the monilophytes (ferns and relatives represent an excellent phylogenetic midpoint of comparison for unlocking the evolution of shoot developmental mechanisms, and recent technical advances have finally made transgenic analysis possible in the emerging model fern Ceratopteris richardii. This review compares and contrasts our current understanding of shoot development in different land plant lineages with the aim of highlighting the potential role that the fern C. richardii could play in shedding light on the evolution of underlying genetic regulatory mechanisms.

  11. In vitro regeneration of Salix nigra from adventitious shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyyra, Satu; Lima, Amparo; Merkle, Scott A

    2006-07-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is the largest and only commercially important willow species in North America. It is a candidate for phytoremediation of polluted soils because it is fast-growing and thrives on floodplains throughout eastern USA. Our objective was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of black willow plants that could serve as target material for gene transformation. Unexpanded inflorescence explants were excised from dormant buds collected from three source trees and cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with one of: (1) 0.1 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ); (2) 0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzoaminopurine (BAP); or (3) 1 mg l(-1) BAP. All plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments induced direct adventitious bud formation from the genotypes. The percentage of explants producing buds ranged from 20 to 92%, depending on genotype and treatment. Although most of the TDZ-treated inflorescences produced buds, these buds failed to elongate into shoots. Buds on explants treated with BAP elongated into shoots that were easily rooted in vitro and further established in potting mix in high humidity. The PGR treatments significantly affected shoot regeneration frequency (P < 0.01). The highest shoot regeneration frequency (36%) was achieved with Genotype 3 cultured on 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. Mean number of shoots per explant varied from one to five. The ability of black willow inflorescences to produce adventitious shoots makes them potential targets for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with heavy-metal-resistant genes for phytoremediation.

  12. Characteristics of schools in which fatal shootings occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Apodaca, Roberto Flores; Brighton, Lauren M; Perkins, Ashley N; Jackson, Kiana N; Steege, Jessica R

    2012-04-01

    School-based violence, and fatal school shootings in particular, have gained increased attention in the media and psychological literature. Most reports have focused on the characteristics of perpetrators, but there is a growing awareness that school-related factors may also influence the occurrence of fatal school shootings. The current study examined several key characteristics of all schools where random (38) and targeted (96) fatal shootings occurred in the United States between 1966 and 2009. These were compared with a group (138) of schools randomly selected to represent the population of all schools in the United States. The size of a school's enrollment, urban or suburban locale, public funding, and predominantly non-white enrollment were positively associated with fatal shootings. Universities and colleges were disproportionately associated with random shootings and high schools with targeted ones. It was proposed that characteristics of schools that allow feelings of anonymity or alienation among students may help create environmental conditions associated with fatal school shootings. Implications for future research and interventions are considered.

  13. Beliefs and attitudes toward lethal management of deer in Cuyahoga Valley National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, D.C.; Skerl, K.; Shank, E.M.; Lime, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    We used the theory of reasoned action to help understand attitudes and beliefs about lethal management of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Cuyahoga Valley National Park (CVNP), Ohio. We used a mail-back survey to collect data from Ohio residents in the surrounding 9-county area. Two strata were defined: residents control of deer was acceptable (near 71%??4.7%, far 62%??5.5%) and taking no action to reduce deer populations was unacceptable (near 75%??4.5%, far 72%??5.1%). Beliefs about outcomes of lethal control and evaluation of those outcomes proved to be strong predictors of the acceptability of lethal control of deer in CVNP. Lethal control was more acceptable if it was done to prevent severe consequences for humans (e.g., spread of disease, car collisions) or the natural environment (e.g., maintain a healthy deer herd) than to prevent negative aesthetic impacts or personal property damage. Results from the study can be used to assist managers at CVNP as they make decisions regarding alternatives for deer management in the park and to inform others managing abundant deer populations of socially relevant impacts of management actions.

  14. Establishment rate of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Doesschate, S J; Pomroy, W E; Tapia-Escárate, D; Scott, I; Wilson, P R

    2017-08-30

    Red deer can be infected with some gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of cattle but it is unknown to what extent. An indoor study was conducted to determine the establishment rate of cattle GIN in young deer. Five young calves and 5 young red deer were used. They were effectively treated with anthelmintics when housed and then infected 2 weeks later. After four weeks they were killed for total worm counts. Establishment rates were assessed comparing worm counts to the infective dose which were identified morphologically, and to the relative establishment rate of different species. The establishment rates (%) in cattle and deer respectively were H. contortus (8.0, 18.7, p=0.18), Ostertagia ostertagi (30.8, 0.7, p98%) of Trichostrongylus spp. were Trichostrongylus axei in both hosts and there were no differences between hosts for this species (p=0.11). In cattle >98% of Cooperia were Cooperia oncophora and the mean burden was much higher than in deer (pcattle (pcattle-origin GIN can establish in red deer. In particular, the establishment of H. contortus and T. axei could allow sufficient burdens to build up to be clinically significant. Importantly, almost no cattle Ostertagia species or small intestinal species established in deer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. First Report of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Sika Deer in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV, a single stranded RNA, nonenveloped virus, belongs to the genus Hepevirus, in the family of Hepeviridae. In this study, 46 (5.43% out of the 847 serum samples from sika deer (Cervus nippon were detected as seropositive with hepatitis E virus (HEV by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. These samples were collected from Inner Mongolia and Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces in China, between October 2012 and October 2013. Seroprevalence of HEV infection in male and female deer was 4.82% and 6.52%, respectively. HEV seroprevalence in sika deer from different geographical locations varied from 3.13% to 6.73%. There was no significant difference in HEV seroprevalence between sika deer collected in autumn (5.65% and winter (4.85%. This is the first report of HEV seroprevalence in sika deer in China, which will provide foundation information for estimating the effectiveness of future measures to control HEV infection in sika deer in China and assessing the potential risk of humans infected with HEV after consumption of undercooked or raw meat from infected sika deer.

  16. First report of hepatitis E virus infection in sika deer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Qin, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yuan; Meng, Qing-Feng; Jiang, Jing; Yang, Gui-Lian; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a single stranded RNA, nonenveloped virus, belongs to the genus Hepevirus, in the family of Hepeviridae. In this study, 46 (5.43%) out of the 847 serum samples from sika deer (Cervus nippon) were detected as seropositive with hepatitis E virus (HEV) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These samples were collected from Inner Mongolia and Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces in China, between October 2012 and October 2013. Seroprevalence of HEV infection in male and female deer was 4.82% and 6.52%, respectively. HEV seroprevalence in sika deer from different geographical locations varied from 3.13% to 6.73%. There was no significant difference in HEV seroprevalence between sika deer collected in autumn (5.65%) and winter (4.85%). This is the first report of HEV seroprevalence in sika deer in China, which will provide foundation information for estimating the effectiveness of future measures to control HEV infection in sika deer in China and assessing the potential risk of humans infected with HEV after consumption of undercooked or raw meat from infected sika deer.

  17. Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus in the Helan Mountains, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes in forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833. The use of vegetation types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (<10° but the use of slope gradient categories varied seasonally. Red deer avoidance of human disturbance in the Helan Mountains varied significantly by season. Information on red deer habitat selection can help understand the factors affecting seasonal movements and also support decision making in the management and conservation of red deer and their habitats.

  18. Forage Food of Timor Deer (Cervus timorensis in Manokwari, West Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYS Arobaya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, back yard deer husbandry is well developed in some parts in Papua, though information on deer husbandry has not been provided yet. Therefore, this study was aimed at highlighting the diet provided to the deer in back yard husbandry model in Manokwari. Survey method was approached by visiting eight deer back yard farmer respondents. Direct observation to the feeding site and semi-structured interview were carried out to learn about the deer management system, and identify the forage diet species consumed and served to the animals. The results indicated five most common forage species consumed in the study; they were field grass, Imperata (Imperata cylindrica, elephant grass (Penisetum purpureum, king grass (Penisetum purpureopoidhes and Melinis minutiflora depending on the location of farmed deer. Drinking water was offered and feed supplement such as various leafs, food and vegetable left over and banana peel was provided by 62.5% of the respondents. Food supplement was given two times per day (morning, evening and (afternoon, evening. Forage food species consumed in the study sites were relatively more similar to the food in the natural habitat. (Animal Production 12(2: 91-95 (2010Key Words: forage, food, Timor deer, Manokwari

  19. The role of landscape characteristics for forage maturation and nutritional benefits of migration in red deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysterud, Atle; Vike, Brit Karen; Meisingset, Erling L; Rivrud, Inger Maren

    2017-06-01

    Large herbivores gain nutritional benefits from following the sequential flush of newly emergent, high-quality forage along environmental gradients in the landscape, termed green wave surfing. Which landscape characteristics underlie the environmental gradient causing the green wave and to what extent landscape characteristics alone explain individual variation in nutritional benefits remain unresolved questions. Here, we combine GPS data from 346 red deer ( Cervus elaphus ) from four partially migratory populations in Norway with the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), an index of plant phenology. We quantify whether migratory deer had access to higher quality forage than resident deer, how landscape characteristics within summer home ranges affected nutritional benefits, and whether differences in landscape characteristics could explain differences in nutritional gain between migratory and resident deer. We found that migratory red deer gained access to higher quality forage than resident deer but that this difference persisted even after controlling for landscape characteristics within the summer home ranges. There was a positive effect of elevation on access to high-quality forage, but only for migratory deer. We discuss how the landscape an ungulate inhabits may determine its responses to plant phenology and also highlight how individual behavior may influence nutritional gain beyond the effect of landscape.

  20. Water Extract of Deer Bones Activates Macrophages and Alleviates Neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seok Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from deer bones, called nok-gol in Korean, have long been used to invigorate Qi. While neutropenia is not well detected in normal physiological condition, it could be a cause of severe problems to develop diseases such as infectious and cancerous diseases. Thus, a prevention of neutropenia in normal physiology and pathophysiological states is important for maintaining Qi and preventing disease progress. In cell biological aspects, activated macrophages are known to prevent neutropenia. In this study, we demonstrate that water extract of deer bone (herein, NG prevents neutropenia by activating macrophages. In mouse neutropenia model system in vivo where ICR mice were treated with cyclophosphamide to immunosuppress, an oral administration of NG altered the number of blood cells including lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils. This in vivo effect of NG was relevant to that of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF that was known to improve neutropenia. Our in vitro studies further showed that NG treatment increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and promoted macrophagic differentiation of mouse monocytic Raw264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, NG enhanced nitric oxide (NO synthesis and secretions of cytokines including IL-6 and TNF-α. Consistently, NG treatment induced phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, IKK, IκBα, and NF-κB in Raw264.7 cells. Thus, our data suggest that NG is helpful for alleviating neutropenia.

  1. Experimental trichinellosis in fallow-deer (Dama dama L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbivora can play a very important role in spreading trichinellosis, as showed by the massive epidemics in man, caused by the consumption of horse meat in the last years. In this context, the present study has been undertaken to verify, through an experimental infection, the susceptibility, together with other biological parameters, of fallow-deer to Trichinella infection. The four animals, 8-9 months of age and 18-25 Kg body weight, were orally infected with low doses of Trichinella britovi and T. pseudospiralis (2,000 larvae/animal. After day 30 p.i,, the animals were necropsied and, using artificial digestion methods, larval burden of Trichinella in muscle tissues was determined. Histopathological, serological (lgG monoclonal blocking ELISA and biochemical data were assessed during the experiment. The results showed the susceptibility of fallow-deer to T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis infection; under the same inoculum size, the number of larvae/g was higher in group infected with T. britovi. The animals showed a higher immunological response to T. pseudospiralis infection. The results are discussed.

  2. The effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds in shoot cultures of Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Grzegorczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds (carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid in S. officinalis cultures grown on MS basal medium (agar solidified medium supplemented with 0.1 mg l-1 IAA, 0.45 mg l-1 BAP. It was found that shoot proliferation significantly increased when triacontanol at concentrations of 5, 10 or 20 µg l-1 was added to the medium. HPLC analysis of acetone and methanolic extracts of sage shoots showed that the production of diterpenoids, carnosic acid/carnosol ratio, as well as, contents of rosmarinic acid were also affected by the treatment with triacontanol. The highest stimulation effect of triacontanol was observed on the production of carnosol, where the treatment with 20 µg l l-1 increased the content of this diterpenoid 4.5-fold compared to that in the control (sage shoots growing on MS basal medium, only.

  3. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-10-16

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot.

  4. Water relations, gas exchange and growth of dominant and suppressed shoots of Arbutus unedo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, C; Terradas, J

    1995-06-01

    Basal shoots produced by Arbutus unedo L. after cutting at ground level vary in size and growth rate, and are classified accordingly as dominant or suppressed. The suppressed shoots eventually cease growth and die. In this study, we investigated the role of light and water in the competition among shoots of A. unedo. Dominant and suppressed shoots of A. unedo showed similar leaf water potentials and tissue water relations over the year, suggesting that water status is not responsible for the lack of flushing in suppressed shoots. Although suppressed shoots did not flush under low light, they showed many characteristics of shade-tolerant plants. Leaves of suppressed shoots had lower leaf conductance and light-saturated photosynthetic rate, and higher specific leaf area than leaves of dominant shoots. We conclude that light was the main resource determining competition among shoots and the death of suppressed shoots.

  5. Carcass and meat characteristics from farm-raised and wild fallow deer (Dama dama) and red deer (Cervus elaphus): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrnáčová, Eva; Bartoň, Luděk; Bureš, Daniel; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2018-07-01

    Deer species are utilised for food, hunting and other products throughout the world. Consumers are typically exposed to venison derived predominantly from both farm-raised or wild fallow (Dama dama) and red deer (Cervus elaphus). The production of venison under farm conditions, compared to the meat of deer hunted in the wild, allows for a regular supply of a consistently good meat. It is lean, tasty, and rich in proteins and minerals, with a low content of fat and cholesterol. Overall, the worldwide demand for meat is still growing, and both the potential of farming deer species and their use as meat producers have led to an increased interest in venison. The current knowledge about various factors (e.g. nutrition, age, sex, condition, season) affecting venison and game meat has significantly increased during past decades but information regarding the interaction between production system or pre- and post-slaughter handling and ultimate deer meat quality are still very limited. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Epidemiology of Chronic Wasting Disease: PrP(res) Detection, Shedding, and Environmental Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Randolph V

    2006-01-01

    ... from orally infected mule and white-tailed deer and elk. Finally these techniques will be applied to investigating the nature of environmental contamination that may be associated with CWD transmission...

  7. Epidemiology of Chronic Wasting Disease: PrPres Detection, Shedding and Environmental Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Randolph V

    2005-01-01

    ...) from orally infected mule and white-tailed deer and elk. Finally these techniques will be applied to investigating the nature of environmental contamination that may be associated with CND transmission...

  8. Epidemiology of Chronic Wasting Disease: PrP(res) Detection, Shedding, and Environmental Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Elizabeth S; Miller, Michael W; Lewis, Randolf V; Raisbeck, Merl F; Cook, Walter W

    2004-01-01

    ...) from orally infected mule and white-tailed deer and elk. Finally these techniques will be applied to investigating the nature of environmental contamination that may be associated with CWD transmission...

  9. Columbia River ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for beavers, otters, nutria, mink, muskrats, and Columbian white-tailed deer in the Columbia River area....

  10. Age determination in roe deer - a new approach to tooth wear evaluated on known age individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høye, Toke Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A novel, simple, and objective method is presented for ageing roe deer Capreolus capreolus (Linnaeus, 1758) evaluated on 471 lower jaws from roe deer of known age (351 with permanent premolars). It is based on tooth eruption patterns and presence/absence of wear characters in jaws from roe deer...... integrated in a scoring system. Permanent cheek teeth emerge in May-July in the year after birth, which enables precise age determination of individuals with deciduous premolars. For individuals with permanent cheek teeth, the method provides the correct age for all individuals younger than 13 months...... originate from two separated Danish roe deer populations exposed to contrasting habitats, but no difference in wear rate is found between populations. Thus, previous concern about the validity of age determination methods based on tooth wear may have been overstated. The findings demonstrate that objective...

  11. Pathogen analysis of NYSDOT road-killed deer carcass compost facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Composting of deer carcasses was effective in reducing pathogen levels, decomposing the : carcasses and producing a useable end product after 12 months. The composting process used in this project : involved enveloping the carcasses of road-killed de...

  12. Seasonality of 137Cs in roe deer from Austria and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielitz, U.; Klemt, E.; Strebl, F.; Tataruch, F.; Zibold, G.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical data on the 137 Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) roaming in 3 spruce forest areas and one peat bog area are presented and compared. They cover time series of nearly 20 years after a spike contamination in 1986 originating from Chernobyl. A model is presented which considers three soil compartments to describe the change of the availability of 137 Cs with time. The time-dependency of the 137 Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer is a combination of two components: (1) an exponential decay and (2) a peak in the second half of each year during the mushroom season. The exponential decay over the years can be described by a sum of two exponential functions. The additional transfer of 137 Cs into roe deer during the mushroom season depends on precipitation. On the peat bog the 137 Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher and more persistent than in spruce forest

  13. Home range and habitat use of reintroduced Javan Deer in Panaitan Island, Ujung Kulon National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pairah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Javan deer which inhabit Panaitan Island (± 175 Km2 were reintroduced from Peucang Island (± 4.5 Km2 during 1978–1982 (3 males: 13 females. The information of home range and habitat use of these animals were needed for wildlife habitat management especially in the small island habitat. We measured the home range size and habitat use of Javan deer in Peucang Island and Panaitan Island and compared them. The home range size was measured using Minimum Convex Polygon and then the polygon of home ranges were used to measure the habitat use. The results showed that in general the home range size in all age class of Javan deer between both islands did not differ significantly, only subadult males in Peucang Island which have a larger home range size than subadult males in Panaitan Island. Javan deer in Panaitan Island have found suitable conditions.

  14. Accumulation of polonium 210Po in tissues and organs of deer carvidae from Northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwarzec, Bogdan; Prucnal, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide information on accumulation of polonium in tissues and organs of deer carvidae in order to assess the potential transport of this element via food-chain to game meat consumers. Livers, kidneys and muscles of large herbivorous animals belonging to three species: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama), collected in Northern Poland, were the subject of the present investigation. Activities of (210)Po were determined by means of alpha spectrometry along with relevant radiochemical procedures. The concentration of (210)Po in analyzed animals decreased in the order kidney > liver > muscle tissue. The average activity concentrations of (210)Po ranged between 0.02 +/- 0.01 Bq. kg(- 1) w.w. in muscles and 7.15 +/- 0.12 Bq. kg(- 1) w.w. in kidneys. Levels of polonium were not influenced by sampling location, sex, age and species of animals.

  15. Differential lymphocyte and antibody responses in deer mice infected with Sin Nombre hantavirus or Andes hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schountz, Tony; Quackenbush, Sandra; Rovnak, Joel; Haddock, Elaine; Black, William C; Feldmann, Heinz; Prescott, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is a rodent-borne disease with a high case-fatality rate that is caused by several New World hantaviruses. Each pathogenic hantavirus is naturally hosted by a principal rodent species without conspicuous disease and infection is persistent, perhaps for life. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the natural reservoirs of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the etiologic agent of most HCPS cases in North America. Deer mice remain infected despite a helper T cell response that leads to high-titer neutralizing antibodies. Deer mice are also susceptible to Andes hantavirus (ANDV), which causes most HCPS cases in South America; however, deer mice clear ANDV. We infected deer mice with SNV or ANDV to identify differences in host responses that might account for this differential outcome. SNV RNA levels were higher in the lungs but not different in the heart, spleen, or kidneys. Most ANDV-infected deer mice had seroconverted 14 days after inoculation, but none of the SNV-infected deer mice had. Examination of lymph node cell antigen recall responses identified elevated immune gene expression in deer mice infected with ANDV and suggested maturation toward a Th2 or T follicular helper phenotype in some ANDV-infected deer mice, including activation of the interleukin 4 (IL-4) pathway in T cells and B cells. These data suggest that the rate of maturation of the immune response is substantially higher and of greater magnitude during ANDV infection, and these differences may account for clearance of ANDV and persistence of SNV. Hantaviruses persistently infect their reservoir rodent hosts without pathology. It is unknown how these viruses evade sterilizing immune responses in the reservoirs. We have determined that infection of the deer mouse with its homologous hantavirus, Sin Nombre virus, results in low levels of immune gene expression in antigen-stimulated lymph node cells and a poor antibody response. However, infection of deer mice with a

  16. Life in the Fast Lane: Road Crossing Behavior of Mule Deer in a Wildland-Urban Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Leslie A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Biggs, James [Northern New Mexico College; Bennett, Kathryn D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bare, Carey [Bare and Associates, LLC; Sherwood, Sherri R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-04

    In 2009, approximately 260,000 animal-vehicle collisions were reported in the United States, resulting in 12,000 human injuries and 173 human fatalities. Research has focused on identifying factors associated with high densities of animal-vehicle collisions, including variables such as traffic speed and volume, road design, topographic features, vegetative cover, and local deer or elk (Cervus elaphus) abundance. The purposes of this study were to document how often and where mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) crossed roads in a western United States wildland-urban interface area, and to relate deer road-crossing behavior to deer-vehicle collision locations. Seven adult mule deer (four males [M] and three females [F]) were captured and collared with GPS-enabled collars during December 2001 and January 2002. Five of the seven deployed collars were recovered. None of the roads in the study area appeared to act as a substantial barrier to deer passage. Deer home ranges straddled highways and primary, secondary, and tertiary arterial roads. Deer crossed all types of roads. The average number of times deer crossed road during 24 hours of monitoring ranged from 2.1 to 7.0. Deer in the Los Alamos townsite avoided crossing roads during day and before sunset. Deer-vehicle accidents occurred at 350 percent of the level expected after sunset. All other time periods had fewer accidents than expected. The distribution of accidents across time periods was not similar to the distribution of road crossings across time periods for any deer. Within Los Alamos County there was a clear trend for deer-vehicle collisions to occur on roads with speed limits > 35 mph. Deer in the townsite frequently crossed roads with lower speed limits; therefore, the reason for the paucity of accidents along these roads was evidently the ability of drivers to detect deer (or the ability of deer to detect vehicles) and respond before an accident occurred. There was a significant but not strong correlation

  17. Performance of immunochromatographic and ELISA tests for detecting fallow deer infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadella, M; Barasona, J A; Diaz-Sanchez, S; Lyashchenko, K P; Greenwald, R; Esfandiari, J; Gortazar, C

    2012-04-01

    Fallow deer (Dama dama) are widely distributed as natural or naturalised populations, as well as in game parks and deer farms. We used 157 fallow deer sampled in populations considered to be Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) free and 73 Mycobacterium bovis-infected fallow deer confirmed postmortem by culture to evaluate the diagnostic performance of two tests for the detection of anti-mycobacterial antibodies: the dual path platform (DPP) VetTB assay and the bovine purified protein derivative (bPPD) ELISA. We also compared their sensitivity with that of the skin test, analyzed the effect of haemolysis degree on the antibody detection and described the relationship between the test readings and presence/absence of gross tuberculosis (TB) compatible lesions. Sensitivity of bPPD ELISA was 51% at a specificity of 96%. Depending on the cut-off value selected, the sensitivity of DPP VetTB ranged from 62 to 71%, while its specificity was 88-95%. In the subgroup of M. bovis-infected deer for which the skin test data were available (33 of 73); this method detected 76% of culture-positive animals, although the specificity of the intradermal test was not determined in this study. When the DPP VetTB and skin test data were combined, the resulting sensitivity obtained in this sub-group of M. bovis-infected deer increased to 97%. Gross pathology identified TB compatible lesions (TBL) in 89% culture-confirmed fallow deer. The infected animals with visible lesions had significantly higher readings in the DPP VetTB, but not in the bPPD ELISA. Only high levels of haemolysis decreased antibody test sensitivity and this effect was more evident for the bPPD ELISA. The results allowed inferring a number of management recommendations for rapid detection of MTC infection in live fallow deer and in surveys on hunter-harvested cervids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Susceptible conditions for debarking by deer in subalpine coniferous forests in central Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Iijima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, deer have expanded their distribution to higher altitude ranges including subalpine forests. However, culling deer and construction of deer fence in subalpine forests are difficult because of steep slopes and complex topography. Thus it is necessary to clarify the factors which are associated with debarking by deer for the effective protection of subalpine forests. In this study, we examined which factors are associated with debarking by sika deer (Cervus nippon in subalpine coniferous forests. Methods: We conducted our survey in Minami-Alps National Park, central Japan. We established 24 10 m× 40 m plots and surveyed the occurrence of debarking on saplings >30 cm in height and 3 cm in DBH, as well as sapling density within each plot. Minimum distances to nearest grassland of plots were calculated (tentatively assuming grassland would attract deer and would cause high debarking pressure in the surrounding subalpine forests. Results: The mean percentage of debarked live saplings was higher than that of live trees. The mean percentage of debarked saplings which had already died was 81.6 %. Debarking of saplings increased with lower elevation, taller sapling size, and marginally increased near grassland. Sapling density was lower in plots with low basal area of conspecific trees near grassland and differed among species. Sapling density marginally decreased with decreasing elevation and increasing stand tree density. Debarking of trees was positively related to small DBH and low elevation, and marginally increased near grassland and differed among species. Conclusions: Our results suggest that tall saplings in subalpine forests of low elevation or near subalpine grassland were susceptible to debarking by deer and monitoring of these areas may permit the early detection of the impacts of deer in subalpine coniferous forests. Keywords: Abies, Cervus nippon, Debarking, Grassland, Picea, Sapling density, Subalpine region

  19. Is there adaptation of the exocrine pancreas in wild animal? The case of the Roe Deer

    OpenAIRE

    Guilloteau, Paul; Vitari, Francesca; Meuth, Valérie Metzinger-Le; Le Normand, Laurence; Romé, Véronique; Savary, Gérard; Delaby, Luc; Domeneghini, Cinzia; Morisset, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Physiology of the exocrine pancreas has been well studied in domestic and in laboratory animals as well as in humans. However, it remains quite unknown in wildlife mammals. Roe deer and cattle (including calf) belong to different families but have a common ancestor. This work aimed to evaluate in the Roe deer, the adaptation to diet of the exocrine pancreatic functions and regulations related to animal evolution and domestication. Results Forty bovine were distributed into...

  20. Cryopreservation of roe deer abomasal nematodes for morphological identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldo, Paola; Pascotto, Ernesto

    2014-02-01

    Conventional methods to preserve adult nematodes for taxonomic purposes involve the use of fixative or clearing solutions (alcohol, formaldehyde, AFA and lactophenol), which cause morphological alterations and are toxic. The aim of this study is to propose an alternative method based on glycerol-cryopreservation of nematodes for their subsequent identification. Adults of trichostrongylid nematodes from the abomasum of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus) were glycerol-cryopreserved and compared with those fixed in formaldehyde, fresh and frozen without cryoprotectans. Morphology, transparency and elasticity of the anterior and posterior portion of male nematodes were compared, especially the caudal cuticular bursa and genital accessories. The method presented is quick and easy to use, and the quality of nematode specimens is better than that of nematodes fixed by previously used fixatives. Moreover, glycerol cryopreserved nematodes can be stored for a long time at -20 degrees C in perfect condition and they could be suitable for further analyses, such as histological or ultrastructural examinations.

  1. Different hunting strategies select for different weights in red deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María; Rodríguez-Vigal, Carlos; Jones, Owen R; Coulson, Tim; Miguel, Alfonso San

    2005-01-01

    Much insight can be derived from records of shot animals. Most researchers using such data assume that their data represents a random sample of a particular demographic class. However, hunters typically select a non-random subset of the population and hunting is, therefore, not a random process. Here, with red deer (Cervus elaphus) hunting data from a ranch in Toledo, Spain, we demonstrate that data collection methods have a significant influence upon the apparent relationship between age and weight. We argue that a failure to correct for such methodological bias may have significant consequences for the interpretation of analyses involving weight or correlated traits such as breeding success, and urge researchers to explore methods to identify and correct for such bias in their data. PMID:17148205

  2. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting with Vision Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter M; Latham, Keziah; Mann, David L; Ravensbergen, Rianne H J C; Myint, Joy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, toward a regulation target placed at the end of a 10 m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of VI. Visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual's average score in every level of simulated VI and normalizing this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving 'expected' or 'below expected' shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR) is conservative, maximizing the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not actually have an impairment that impacts performance in the sport. An

  3. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting With Vision Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Allen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without vision impairment took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, towards a regulation target placed at the end of a 10m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of vision impairment. Visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual’s average score in every level of simulated vision impairment and normalising this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving ‘expected’ or ‘below expected’ shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR is conservative, maximising the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not

  4. Micropropagation of Vaccinium sp. by in vitro axillary shoot proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwińczuk, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The Vaccinium genus contains several valuable fruit and ornamental species, among others: highbush blueberry (Vaccinium × corymbosum L.), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.), and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). In some most popular and valuable cultivars, the conventional propagation methods, exploiting hard or soft wood cuttings, are inefficient. The demand for nursery plants could be fulfilled only by micropropagation. In principle cultivars are propagated in vitro through similar three-stage method, based on subculture of shoot explants on different culture media supplemented with IAA (0-4 mg/L) and 2iP (5-10 mg/L), and rooting shoots in vivo. The obtained plantlets are transferred to peat substrate and grown in the glasshouse until the end of growing period. The development of adventitious shoots should be monitored and controlled during in vitro stages. Many clones have specific requirements for growing conditions and/or are recalcitrant.

  5. Body condition, diet and ecosystem function of red deer (Cervus elaphus in a fenced nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Fløjgaard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Body condition, as a sign of animal welfare, is of management concern in rewilding projects where fenced animals are subject to winter starvation, which may conflict with animal welfare legislation. Investigating the relationship between body condition, age, sex, diet quality and diet composition is therefore relevant to increase understanding of herbivores' ecosystem function and to inform management. In this study, we focused on red deer, Cervus elaphus, in a fenced nature reserve in Denmark, where the deer are managed as ecosystem engineers to contribute to biodiversity conservation. We measured body mass and body size of 91 culled red deer, and determined diet composition using DNA metabarcoding and diet quality using fecal nitrogen on 246 fecal samples. We found that body condition was predicted by age and diet composition, but not diet quality. We also found that individuals of different body condition had different diets, i.e., the fecal samples of red deer in poorer body condition contained significantly more Ericaceae sequences than red deer in good body condition. This may imply that certain functions of red deer in ecosystems, such as regeneration of heather by grazing, may depend on variation in body condition within the population. Our findings call for the need to consider the consequences of management practices, including culling or supplemental feeding, on the outcomes of habitat restoration, and more broadly underline the importance of preserving the overall breath of herbivore ecosystem functions for effective biodiversity conservation.

  6. Cesium-137 in deer: Savannah River Plant vs. southeastern coastal plain herds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, J.R.; Rabon, E.W.; Dicks, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    The 137 Cs content in deer killed during programmed hunts at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has averaged 9.0 pCi/g. This value, based on measurements of 13,907 deer taken over 14 years (1965 to 1978), similar to the value obtained for 552 deer from other southeastern Coastal Plain locations, indicating the 137 Cs content is due to fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons rather than from SRP operations. The computerized SRP data base for each harvested deer includes age, sex, weight, cesium content, kill location, date, and the hunter's name. Analysis of these data enables the estimation of population dose from ingestion of the edible meat. Consumption of all edible meat from deer killed at SRP from 1965 to 1978 gives a whole body population dose of 196 man-rem from 137 Cs. Assuming an annual consumption rate of 20 kg gives an average individual whole body dose of 13 mrem, about 10% of local annual background level. The radiation dose from 40 K of natural potassium content of deer is comparable to the radiation dose from 137 Cs

  7. Grazing Habitat of the Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis in the Upland Kebar, Manokwari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUSTINA YOHANA SETYARINI AROBAYA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the study was to provide current information on grassland communities as deer habitat and its future development plan for a sustainable forage management in upland Kebar, Papua. Quantitative estimation of forage production was carried out by measuring a biomass harvest in fresh weight bases, while occasional observations on ranging deer were done within habitat range with the aid of 7x50 binoculars verified by actual visitation of grazed area. The study indicated that Kebar was the only grazing area of deer varies in low layer vegetation composition that comprised of eleven grass species and five legume species. Imperata cylindrica, Paspalum conjugatum, Themeda arguens, Melinis minutiflora and Cyperus rotundus were identified as food plant of deer in Kebar. Among these species T. arguens, M. minutiflora, C. rotundus and I. cylindrica were the most preferred species consumed by deer. The biomass harvest (species productivity was 30.36 kg/ha fresh weight, while deer food productivity in the grassland was slightly lower (26.70 kg/ha than total productivity of the grassland. The major drainage area is Kasi River, but two other rivers across this valley (Api River, Apriri River are also supply water to the swampy area.

  8. Decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, E.; Cross, P.C.; Beneria, M.; Ficapal, A.; Curia, J.; Marco, X.; Lavin, S.; Marco, I.

    2011-01-01

    When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180 individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually. From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of 97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.

  9. Handgun Acquisitions in California After Two Mass Shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studdert, David M; Zhang, Yifan; Rodden, Jonathan A; Hyndman, Rob J; Wintemute, Garen J

    2017-05-16

    Mass shootings are common in the United States. They are the most visible form of firearm violence. Their effect on personal decisions to purchase firearms is not well-understood. To determine changes in handgun acquisition patterns after the mass shootings in Newtown, Connecticut, in 2012 and San Bernardino, California, in 2015. Time-series analysis using seasonal autoregressive integrated moving-average (SARIMA) models. California. Adults who acquired handguns between 2007 and 2016. Excess handgun acquisitions (defined as the difference between actual and expected acquisitions) in the 6-week and 12-week periods after each shooting, overall and within subgroups of acquirers. In the 6 weeks after the Newtown and San Bernardino shootings, there were 25 705 (95% prediction interval, 17 411 to 32 788) and 27 413 (prediction interval, 15 188 to 37 734) excess acquisitions, respectively, representing increases of 53% (95% CI, 30% to 80%) and 41% (CI, 19% to 68%) over expected volume. Large increases in acquisitions occurred among white and Hispanic persons, but not among black persons, and among persons with no record of having previously acquired a handgun. After the San Bernardino shootings, acquisition rates increased by 85% among residents of that city and adjacent neighborhoods, compared with 35% elsewhere in California. The data relate to handguns in 1 state. The statistical analysis cannot establish causality. Large increases in handgun acquisitions occurred after these 2 mass shootings. The spikes were short-lived and accounted for less than 10% of annual handgun acquisitions statewide. Further research should examine whether repeated shocks of this kind lead to substantial increases in the prevalence of firearm ownership. None.

  10. In vitro binding of germanium to proteins of rice shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideaki; Takahashi, Eiichi

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of in vitro binding between proteins of rice shoots and germanium (Ge) was investigated. The proteins in mixtures of aqueous extracts of rice shoots and radioactive germanium ( 68 GeO 2 ) were fractionated. The binding of radioactivity to the proteins was observed even after 5 successive fractionation steps from the original mixtures. At the final fractionation step using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a constant proportionality between protein concentration and associated radioactivity was found in most samples although not all. These results indicate that the binding of 68 Ge to proteins is not due to the simple adsorption by proteins. (auth.)

  11. School shootings during 2013-2015 in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Lagast, Kinan; Villarreal, Marcos; Pino, Elizabeth; Fagan, Jeffrey; Galea, Sandro

    2017-10-01

    Data on the factors associated with school shootings in the USA are limited. The public conversation has often suggested several factors that may be linked to these events, however with little empirical support. Aiming to fill this gap, we describe the characteristics of school shooting incidents in the USA between 2013 and 2015 and explore whether four factors that represent domains of firearm policy, educational policy and epidemiological risk factors for intentional firearm injuries-background check (BC) policies, per capita mental health expenditures (MHE), K-12 education expenditure (KEE) and urbanicity-were associated with school shootings during this period. We searched LexisNexis, a newspaper and broadcast media databases for school shooting incidents from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015. Presence of BC laws was extracted from legal information in LexisNexis. State-level covariates of per capita MHE (2013), KEE (2013) and urbanicity (2010) rates were obtained from publicly available data sources. We used negative binomial regression models accounting for clustering by state to explore unadjusted associations between the BC laws, state-level covariates and school shootings to report IRR and 95% CI. We documented 154 school shootings (35, 55 and 64 each year). In unadjusted models, BC for firearm purchase (IRR=0.55, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.76), ammunition purchase (IRR=0.11, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.27), log per capita MHE (IRR=0.58, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.90), log per-capita KEE (IRR=0.09, 9% CI 0.02 to 0.29) and urbanicity (IRR=0.97, 95% CI 0.96 to 0.99) were associated with school shooting. School shootings are less likely in states with BC laws, higher MHE and KEE, and with greater per cent urban population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Iodine and Selenium Contents in Skeletal Muscles of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus, Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus and Wild Boar (Sus scrofa in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Kursa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine iodine and selenium contents in skeletal muscles of selected species of game animals living in regions with low iodine and selenium contents in the soil and water. Iodine content was determined in 66 samples of skeletal muscles of red deer cut out of the musculus gracilis, 32 samples and 27 samples from the same muscle of roe deer and wild boar, respectively. The shot game animals came from hunting grounds in western and southern regions of the Czech Republic and in Protected Landscape Area Šumava. In red deer muscles the average iodine content was 44.9 ± 15.2 μg I·kg-1 wet weight with the range of 6.9 to 82.0 μg I·kg-1. The lower concentration in roe deer meat with the average 39.3 ± 14.1 μg I·kg-1 and the range from 18.3 to 84.4 μg I·kg-1 may be due to differences between biotopes and food. The average iodine concentration in the musculus gracilis of wild boars was 55.9± 27.0 μg·kg-1 wet weight. Selenium content was determined in 22 samples of red deer, 51 samples of roe deer and 27 samples of wild boar skeletal muscles. The average values of selenium content in the meat of red deer, roe deer and wild boars were 16.2 ± 8.4, 36.9 ± 16.6 and 27.6 ± 19.8 μg Se·kg-1 wet weight, respectively. All three species of game animals are characterised by low content and high variability of selenium concentration in meat with the minimum value 3.9 µg and maximum value 83.3 μg·kg-1 wet weight. The study brings new data on iodine and selenium content in the muscle of game animals in the Czech Republic.

  13. Efficiency of semi-automated fluorescent multiplex PCRs with 11 microsatellite markers for genetic studies of deer populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, A; Thévenon, S; Maudet, F; Maillard, J C

    2002-10-01

    Thirty bovine and eight ovine microsatellite primer pairs were tested on four tropical deer species: Eld's and Swamp deer (highly threatened) and Rusa and Vietnamese Sika deer (economically important). Thirty markers gave an amplified product in all four species (78.9%). The number of polymorphic microsatellite markers varied among the species from 14 in Eld's deer (47%) to 20 in Swamp deer (67%). Among them, 11 microsatellite loci were multiplexed in three polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and labelled with three different fluorochromes that can be loaded in one gel-lane. To test the efficiency of the multiplex, primary genetic studies (mean number of alleles, expected heterozygosities and Fis values) were carried out on four deer populations. Parentage exclusion probability and probability of identity were computed and discussed on a Swamp deer population. These multiplexes PCRs were also tested on several other deer species and subspecies. The aim of this study is to establish a tool useful for genetic studies of population structure and diversity in four tropical deer species which with few modifications can be applied to other species of the genus Cervus.

  14. WildSense: Monitoring Interactions among Wild Deer in Harsh Outdoor Environments Using a Delay-Tolerant WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junho Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologists and ecologists often monitor the spread of disease among deer in the wild by using tracking systems that record their movement patterns, locations, and interaction behavior. The existing commercial systems for monitoring wild deer utilize collars with GPS sensors, deployed on captured and rereleased deer. The GPS sensors record location data every few hours, enabling researchers to approximate the interaction behavior of tracked deer with their GPS locations. However, the coarse granularity of periodically recorded GPS location data provides only limited precision for determining deer interaction behavior. We have designed a novel system to monitor wild deer interaction behavior more precisely in harsh wilderness environments. Our system combines the functionalities of both GPS and RF-radio sensors with low-cost and minimal-resource motes. We designed and built our system to be able to operate robustly for a period of up to several months for continual tracking and monitoring of the locations and interaction behaviors of wild deer in harsh environments. We successfully deployed six deer collars on six wild deer that were captured and rereleased in the Soapstone Prairie Natural Area of northern Colorado over a one-month period. In this paper, we describe how we designed and built this system and evaluate its successful operation in a wilderness area.

  15. PEMBELAJARAN LAY UP SHOOT MENGGUNAKAN MEDIA AUDIO VISUAL BASIC LAY UP SHOOT UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASILBELAJAR LAY UP SHOOT PADA SISWA KELAS VIIIA SMP KANISIUS PATI TAHUN 2013/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frendy Nurochwan Febryanto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the learning lay up shoot using basic audiovisual media shoot lay ups can improve learning outcomes shoot lay ups in class VIIIA Starch Canisius junior year 2013/2014 . This study uses Classroom Action Research ( CAR. The technique of collecting data through observation and assessment of learning outcomes shoot basketball lay up. Data analysis techniques used in this research is descriptive . At the end of the first cycle activity of teachers in teaching basic techniques lay up shoot using audio-visual media reaches 76.19%, whereas at the end of the first cycle of student activity during the learning process lay up shoot using audio-visualmediareaches78.57%. At the end of the second cycle of activity of teachers in teaching basic techniques lay up shoot using audio-visual media reaches 85.71%, whereas at the end of the second cycle of activity of students during the learning process lay up shoot using audio-visual media reaches 92.86%. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that learning the lay-up shoot using basic audiovisual media shoot lay ups can improve student learning outcomes at Canisius junior class VIIIA Pati year 2013/2014.

  16. Strontium 90 content in bone samples of deer and domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, K.; Pozhinarova, M.

    1993-01-01

    A comparative radioecological determination of 90 Sr content in leg bone samples of wild deer from Bulgaria (Veliko Tyrnovo), rain deer from Finland (Lapland) and domestic cows and pigs from Bulgaria have been carried out. The study includes four Finish rain deer, three of them 1-5 Y old, shut in 1991, and one - 13.5 Y old, shut in 1974, two Bulgarian deer, 5-6 Y old, shut in 1991, two cows and a pig killed in 1991. The samples have been prepared by a standard procedure. The fumic nitric acid method has been used for chemical separation of 90 Sr, and a low background beta plastic scintillation device - for counting, The results show that the contamination effect is better expressed in the wild animals due to their specific open air manner of life. The 90 Sr activities vary from 41,5 to 136.9 Bq/kg bone in the Bulgarian deer, from 219.5 to 386.1 Bq/kg bone in the three younger Finish deer, and from 1921.0 to 1967.9 Bq/kg bone in the oldest rain deer. The higher 90 Sr values in the samples of the Finish deer can be connected with the specific trophic chain of these animals and the important role in it of lichen. The quantity of 90 Sr in the investigated pig is 10-20 times lower than its content in the deer (2.1 - 4.4 Bq/kg bone). It is explained with the pig's age (10 months old) and the diet based on food grown about 5 years after Chernobyl. There is no significant difference in 90 Sr content of the cows' and deer's samples. This is due to their very similar zoological systems of eating and similar trophic chains (open pasture). The data obtained show a good reproducibility proved by the similar values of the radiochemical yields achieved (60-70%) in each of the analysis made. 1 tab., 1 refs

  17. The cross-ecosystem impact of deer on an endangered submerged macrophyte, Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hino Takafumi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes are a critical component of freshwater ecosystems and are often eaten by cervids. However, the impact of cervids on macrophytes is not well known. In this study, we investigated the effect of sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis on the endangered macrophyte Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus in a spring stream in southwestern Hokkaido, Japan. We monitored the frequency of stream habitat use by deer by using sensor cameras in photography mode for four seasons. We also monitored deer feeding behavior on R. nipponicus var. submersus using sensor cameras in movie mode. To quantitatively evaluate the impact of deer on R. nipponicus var. submersus, we conducted a field experiment in which deer were excluded from part of the stream. We selected 10 pairs of adjacent patches of R. nipponicus var. submersus and set up exclosures covering one patch in each pair. We assessed the frequency of deer feeding and trampling on the control patches using the sensor cameras in photography mode and measured the mean macrophyte stem length in the exclosure and control patches every month for four seasons. To compare abiotic conditions between the exclosure and control patches, we investigated canopy openness, water depth, water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, current velocity, and water quality at each patch during the growing season. The frequency of deer in the stream habitat was higher from spring to summer than in other seasons. Direct evidence of deer feeding behavior on R. nipponicus var. submersus was recorded using the sensor cameras. Deer often fed on and trampled on the control patches, particularly from spring to summer. The R. nipponicus var. submersus stem length was longer in the exclosure patches than in control patches (P 0.189. Stem growth of R. nipponicus var. submersus differed among seasons (P <0.001, and was low from winter to spring. In addition, exclosure and seasonality significantly affected stem length (P <0.001, and the

  18. Review of the 2012 Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in Domestic Ruminants in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Stevens

    Full Text Available An unusually large number of cases of Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD were observed in United States cattle and white-tailed deer in the summer and fall of 2012. USDA APHIS Veterinary Services area offices were asked to report on foreign animal disease investigations and state diagnostic laboratory submissions which resulted in a diagnosis of EHD based on positive PCR results. EHD was reported in the following species: cattle (129 herds, captive white-tailed deer (65 herds, bison (8 herds, yak (6 herds, elk (1 herd, and sheep (1 flock. A majority of the cases in cattle and bison were found in Nebraska, South Dakota, and Iowa. The majority of cases in captive white-tailed deer were found in Ohio, Iowa, Michigan, and Missouri. The most common clinical sign observed in the cattle and bison herds was oral lesions. The major observation in captive white-tailed deer herds was death. Average within-herd morbidity was 7% in cattle and bison herds, and 46% in captive white-tailed deer herds. The average within-herd mortality in captive white-tailed deer herds was 42%.

  19. The age of school shootings: a sociological interpretation on masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there has been a growing interest in the study of the horrendous massacres perpetrated by students at school premises. These massacres, known as school shootings, haven been predominantly analyzed by employing psychological approaches. Despite the fact that empirical research clearly reveals that school shooters tend not to present life-long histories of mental illness, these approaches usually put a strong emphasis on the perpetrator’s individual pathologies, ignoring the influence that social values such as masculinity exert on perpetrators’ actions. Consequently, perpetrators are viewed as lone wolf shooters and school shootings as isolated cases. Based on data derived from scholarly works published mainly in peer-review journals and the sociological theory of P. Berger and T. Luckmann, the aim of this essay is to offer a sociological interpretation on school shootings by explaining why school shooters commit violent actions against teachers and classmates as a form of retrieving their masculinity. In this regard, the essay finds that male rather than female students commit school shootings. At the same time, the majority of perpetrators have had parents who were gun collectors. It is no coincide that shooters mostly use family guns to commit the massacres. Additionally, shooters see school as a social entity that has diminished their masculinity, and the way to reaffirm their masculinity is to attack randomly students and teachers in full view of the rest of school members during school hours.

  20. Similarities of School Shootings in Rural and Small Town Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Scott T.; Meyer, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined characteristics common among young offenders from rural communities who were involved in multiple-fatality school shootings. Data on six cases involving eight offenders revealed six common offender characteristics: verbal threats, peer rejection, interest in violent media, previous violent behavior, suicidal ideation, and violent…

  1. High efficiency indirect shoot regeneration and hypericin content in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... opium poppy. Support of hormone-free medium on shoot regeneration from callus has also been underlined for sugarbeet (Doley and Saunders, 1989). In our study, obtained regenerants acclimatized readily, alived (94%) and are still continuing to grow in the greenhouse of our department. Cell or callus ...

  2. The Role of Leadership in Surviving a School Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carleton H.

    2018-01-01

    At a small rural middle school in the southern United States, two students murdered a teacher, four students, and injured 10 during a shooting spree. This case represents the lived experiences of a school principal, counselor, and community that survived the deadly rampage. The case highlights the challenges that school leaders may face such as…

  3. High frequency plant regeneration from shoot tip explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... 16/8-h (light/dark) photoperiod provided by cool white fluorescent light. Multiple .... formation from shoot tip explant of C. colocynthis on MS-medium. S. No. .... micropropagation of Musa sapientum L. (Cavendish Dwarf). Afr. J.

  4. Opposite metabolic responses of shoots and roots to drought

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gargallo-Garriga, A.; Sardans, J.; Pérez-Trujillo, M.; Rivas-Ubach, A.; Oravec, Michal; Večeřová, Kristýna; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, A.; Kreyling, J.; Beierkuhnlein, C.; Parella, T.; Penuelas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 6829 (2014), s. 1-7 ISSN 2045-2322 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200871201 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : shoot and roots * autotrophic and heterotrophic organs * environmental change * growth metabolism * water and nutirens Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.578, year: 2014

  5. Shoot and root biomass allocation and competitive hierarchies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoot and root biomass allocation and competitive hierarchies of four South African grass species on light, soil resources and cutting gradients. ... Aristida junciformis, produced nearly double the biomass of taller species such as Hyparrhenia hirta and Eragrostis curvula in the low-nutrient treatments, with the reverse being ...

  6. Thidiazuron-induced shoot organogenesis of Cleome viscosa (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBA

    2014-02-26

    Feb 26, 2014 ... J. Vijayakumar1*, G. Shobana Rathi1, S. M. Bhuvaneshwari1, B. D. ... propagation through callus culture of C. viscosa (Anburaj et al., 2011a,b), micropropagation and shoot organo- genesis from different explants of Cleome spinosa .... Figure 1. Effect of MS basal medium strength (a) and and GA, (b).

  7. Immobilization of lead in shooting range soil using biochar from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was pyrolyzed at 450°C for 2 hours and characterized using elemental analyzer and Boehm titration. Shooting range soil was incubated with 2.5% w/w and 5.0% w/w of SMSB for four weeks and the soil were characterized on the elemental composition, pH, electric conductivity (EC) and ...

  8. Radiocesium distribution in bamboo shoots after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Higaki

    Full Text Available The distribution of radiocesium was examined in bamboo shoots, Phyllostachys pubescens, collected from 10 sites located some 41 to 1140 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan, in the Spring of 2012, 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Maximum activity concentrations for radiocesium ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in the edible bamboo shoot parts, 41 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 15.3 and 21.8 kBq/kg (dry weight basis; 1.34 and 1.92 kBq/kg, fresh weight, respectively. In the radiocesium-contaminated samples, the radiocesium activities were higher in the inner tip parts, including the upper edible parts and the apical culm sheath, than in the hardened culm sheath and underground basal parts. The radiocesium/potassium ratios also tended to be higher in the inner tip parts. The radiocesium activities increased with bamboo shoot length in another bamboo species, Phyllostachys bambusoides, suggesting that radiocesium accumulated in the inner tip parts during growth of the shoots.

  9. Genetic relationship between plant growth, shoot and kernel sizes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) ear vascular tissue transports nutrients that contribute to grain yield. To assess kernel heritabilities that govern ear development and plant growth, field studies were conducted to determine the combining abilities of parents that differed for kernel-size, grain-filling rates and shoot-size. Thirty two hybrids ...

  10. Status of cocoa swollen shoot virus disease in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (17), pp. 2054-2061, 5 September 2007. Available online at ... Plant Pathology Division, Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 5244, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Accepted 9 August, 2007 ... economic importance of the disease in Nigeria. Key words: Cocoa, cocoa swollen shoot ...

  11. School Violence: Reported School Shootings and Making Schools Safer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplechain, Rosalind; Morris, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript consists of three sections. Section one provides historical data on some 310 documented shootings that have taken place on school property within the United States. Section two discusses numerous risk factors associated with school shooters. Section three discusses numerous strategies for creating safe schools.

  12. Supplementary data: Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum using SSR markers. D. B. Apotikar, D. Venkateswarlu, R. B. Ghorade, R. M. Wadaskar, J. V. Patil and P. L. Kulwal. J. Genet. 90, 59–66. Table 1. List of SSR primers for sorghum. Primer code. Forward and reverse. Annealing temperature (°C). Product.

  13. Creating aesthetic, institutional and symbolic boundaries in fashion photo shoots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, E.; Kuipers, G.

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a ‘bottom-up’, micro-sociological analysis of cultural production. Drawing on detailed observations of fashion photo shoots and interviews with fashion professionals in the Netherlands, we analyse how the division between ‘high’ (editorial) and ‘low’ (commercial) culture is

  14. The Oregon Shootings: Dealing with the Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Saylor; Godbold, Jim; Carter, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Presents three short articles dealing with ethical issues facing the Thornton High School (Oregon) newspaper staff as they dealt with the aftermath of an incident in which an armed student allegedly entered the school cafeteria and began shooting. Discusses how the local newspaper covered the tragedy, and policies on dealing with reporting of…

  15. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of the valuable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-10

    Aug 10, 2011 ... 2Department of Plant Biology and Plant Biotechnology, St. Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli – 620 002, South India. Accepted 28 March, 2011 .... Effect of cytokinins (KN and BAP) alone or in combination with NAA on direct shoot bud regeneration from leaf explants of P. barbatus. Plant growth regulator ...

  16. Cocoa swollen shoot virus in Ghana: A review of diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quick and more reliable diagnostic method has for a long time been identified as one input that will greatly enhance the control of the cocoa swollen shoot disease in Ghana. Many diagnostic procedures have been developed for detecting the virus that causes the disease; yet, the detection of latent infections is still ...

  17. Shooting responses of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at IRAD Bambui (Cameroon) to evaluate the rate of shooting in four improved IRAD potato varieties: Cipira, Tubira, Mafo and Bambui wonder. Liquid and solid media stocks prepared according to the International Potato Center (CIP)'s protocol were used. A randomized complete ...

  18. Genotype dependent callus induction and shoot regeneration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... tems have been used for improvement of sunflower, but these techniques are mainly limited by the tissue culture response of commercial varieties (Nestares et al., 2002). In sunflower, reports on shoot regeneration from hypocotyls, cotyledons, leaves and meristematic tissues of young plantlets are available ...

  19. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of the valuable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to develop an efficient protocol for adventitious shoot regeneration for Plectranthus barbatus Andrews using leaf explants. The explants were cultured on MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium containing various concentration of kinetin (KN), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and thidiazuron ...

  20. Shoot- and root-borne cytokinin influences arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Marco; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Franken, Philipp; Schmülling, Thomas; Wurst, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is functionally important for the nutrition and growth of most terrestrial plants. Nearly all phytohormones are employed by plants to regulate the symbiosis with AM fungi, but the regulatory role of cytokinin (CK) is not well understood. Here, we used transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) with a root-specific or constitutive expression of CK-degrading CKX genes and the corresponding wild-type to investigate whether a lowered content of CK in roots or in both roots and shoots influences the interaction with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. Our data indicates that shoot CK has a positive impact on AM fungal development in roots and on the root transcript level of an AM-responsive phosphate transporter gene (NtPT4). A reduced CK content in roots caused shoot and root growth depression following AM colonization, while neither the uptake of phosphorus or nitrogen nor the root transcript levels of NtPT4 were significantly affected. This suggests that root CK may restrict the C availability from the roots to the fungus thus averting parasitism by AM fungi. Taken together, our study indicates that shoot- and root-borne CK have distinct roles in AM symbiosis. We propose a model illustrating how plants may employ CK to regulate nutrient exchange with the ubiquitous AM fungi.