Kabak, Banu; Karanfilci, Muharrem; Ersöz, Taner; Kabak, Mehmet
Athletes typically maintain rigorous training and work programs to be able to participate in competitions. An injury that occurs during the competition that causes withdrawal from the competition and a possible departure from sports, can render results athletes' and their support staff's efforts as meaningless. The early detection of injuries in the competition and developing preventive training programs can help ensure that participating in competitions and the associated preparatory efforts are not wasted. In this study, the sports injuries discussed occurred during training and competition events of the Turkish Shooting Sportive group. Body parts of injuries are determined and exercise programs focused on the affected body parts are developed. A total of 729 athletes (285 female, 444 male) who participated in Turkish Shooting Sports Championship during the 2010-2011 competition period participated in the study. Athletes were given a questionnaire that was developed prior to the event, and the questionnaire was filled in during interviews conducted one-on-one. Data was collected from the questionnaire and SPSS v.16.0 was used to analyze the results. The study was completed in six months. The results showed that the most of the injuries that occurred during training were strain and muscle tears whereas most of the injuries occurred during the actual competition were strain, muscle tears, tendinitis, and sprain. The results also indicated that during training, the most frequently-occurring injuries were in shoulder, calf-thigh, hand and wrist; whereas during the competition, it was manifested in the shoulder, foot and ankle. Muscle strengthening, stretching and proprioception exercises for these body parts should be included as part of the athletic training program.
Yaydel Avila Gómez
Full Text Available The next album we set out a summary of the key technical elements for a good development of the prone position, bearing in mind that sometimes violate some methodological steps for teaching the same in athletes who play sports Shooting sports Rifle mode, which creates bad habits in the teaching of the position are difficult to eradicate later. We proceeded to perform the following steps. Criteria for experts to determine methodological steps to be taken into account in the teaching of technical pattern prone position; query bibliographic elements of the sport, the explanation of the basic technical elements; survey a group of coaches in the form of Rifle for the determination of the most common mistakes in the process of teaching the technical pattern of the prone position. It came to the conclusion that teaching the correct technical pattern that position must be taken into account methodological steps which do not allow making any error that would create a dynamic stereotype wrong in athletes who subsequently would be difficult to resolve.
White, David J.; Williver, S. Todd
Thirty years ago we would think nothing of driving to school with a jackknife in our pocket or rifle in the gun rack. Since then, the practices of possessing, transporting, and using firearms have been limited by laws, rules, and public perception. Despite restrictions on youth, the Youth Handgun Safety Act does afford 4-H shooting sports members…
Mercedes Miló Dubé
Full Text Available Sport shooting stands for a highly technical sport, and a competitive art. It is the target sight one of the more important technical elements because it favors the sport performance and it must be considered in the training sessions from the junior school categories. This research meets the goals of proposing a set of physical exercises to improve the stability of the target sight technique for the Shooting athletes, category 13-16, field Standard gun pistol in the Sport School “Ormani Arenado Llonch” in Pinar del Río, Cuba. To fulfill this objective it was applied scientific observation, surveys and interviews, theoretical methods were also used in this research adjusted to 11 athletes and 3 coaches as the sample of research belonging to this school under study. Based on the diagnosed weaknesses found along the training was selected a set of physical exercise to improve the target sight empowering the pedagogical implication and without breaking the planning process of the sport.
The paper took a look at some factors such as administration and funding that bedevil Nigeria‟s Sports development efforts and saw grass root sports as a veritable vehicle for the realization of our sports development objective. Grass root sport was seen as the exposure of young and old, male and female all over the ...
This article explores the initial steps in developing and presenting Sport Psychology in a leadership and sport curriculum at Stellenbosch University's (SU) Centre for Human Performance Sciences' (CHPS) Academy for Girls' Leadership and Sport Development. Sport Psychology does not feature within the South African school curriculum specifically,…
Andrew Robert George Plackett
Full Text Available Shoot development in land plants is a remarkably complex process that gives rise to an extreme diversity of forms. Our current understanding of shoot developmental mechanisms comes almost entirely from studies of angiosperms (flowering plants, the most recently diverged plant lineage. Shoot development in angiosperms is based around a layered multicellular apical meristem that produces lateral organs and/or secondary meristems from populations of founder cells at its periphery. In contrast, non-seed plant shoots develop from either single apical initials or from a small population of morphologically distinct apical cells. Although developmental and molecular information is becoming available for non-flowering plants, such as the model moss Physcomitrella patens, making valid comparisons between highly divergent lineages is extremely challenging. As sister group to the seed plants, the monilophytes (ferns and relatives represent an excellent phylogenetic midpoint of comparison for unlocking the evolution of shoot developmental mechanisms, and recent technical advances have finally made transgenic analysis possible in the emerging model fern Ceratopteris richardii. This review compares and contrasts our current understanding of shoot development in different land plant lineages with the aim of highlighting the potential role that the fern C. richardii could play in shedding light on the evolution of underlying genetic regulatory mechanisms.
Background: Sports talent in the Czech Republic is generally viewed as a static, stable phenomena. It stands in contrast with widespread praxis carried out in Anglo-Saxon countries that emphasise its fluctuant nature. This is reflected in the current models describing its development. Objectives: The aim is to introduce current models of talent development in sport. Methods: Comparison and analysing of the following models: Balyi - Long term athlete development model, Côté - Developmen...
The role of curricular activities for the formation of education, health and behavioural outcomes has been widely studied. Yet, the role of extra-curricular activities has received little attention. This study analyzes the effect of participation in sports clubs—one of the most popular extra-curricular activities among children. We use alternative datasets and flexible semi-parametric estimation methods with a specific way to use the panel dimension of the data to address selection into sports. We find positive and robust effects on children’s school performance and peer relations. Crowding out of passive leisure activities can partially explain the effects. PMID:27144474
Gaines, Stacey A.
The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…
Full Text Available Purpose : the study of the development of sport and technical and applied sports in the sports organizations of Ukraine. Material : the results of analysis of scientific and methodical literature, statistical reports of the Ministry of Youth and Sports, controls for Physical Culture and Sport, the governing bodies of education and science, society websites promoting Defence of Ukraine, the Sports Committee of Ukraine. Results : technical sports solve complex health and educational problems, promote patriotic education of children. In Ukraine today gaining popularity of sports-technical and applied sports. According to statistics the number of students enrolled in 2013 increased by 6% (1720 people in relation to 2012. Total 30484 person. The most popular among children and adolescents are: military-sport all-around (amount involved is 23.9% of the total number of pupils, fire-applied sports (8.8%, parachute (8.7%, automotive (8.1 %, model aircraft (7.8%, underwater (5.8%, radio sport (7.1%. The most abundant component in the number of sports clubs have engaged in occupations which covered 18264 children and adolescents. Conclusions : Implementation of measures for further development of sports engineering, aviation and military applied sports will foster a versatile development, hardened physically, technically trained people. As the formation of the younger generation of sustained interest and needs in the classroom technical creativity, provide training for young people for military service and active labor.
Full Text Available Background: Sports talent in the Czech Republic is generally viewed as a static, stable phenomena. It stands in contrast with widespread praxis carried out in Anglo-Saxon countries that emphasise its fluctuant nature. This is reflected in the current models describing its development. Objectives: The aim is to introduce current models of talent development in sport. Methods: Comparison and analysing of the following models: Balyi - Long term athlete development model, Côté - Developmental model of sport participation, Csikszentmihalyi - The flow model of optimal expertise, Bailey and Morley - Model of talent development. Conclusion: Current models of sport talent development approach talent as dynamic phenomenon, varying in time. They are based in particular on the work of Simonton and his Emergenic and epigenic model and of Gagné and his Differentiated model of giftedness and talent. Balyi's model is characterised by its applicability and impications for practice. Côté's model highlights the role of family and deliberate play. Both models describe periodization of talent development. Csikszentmihalyi's flow model explains how the athlete acquires experience and develops during puberty based on the structure of attention and flow experience. Bailey and Morley's model accents the situational approach to talent and development of skills facilitating its growth.
Månsson, Annegrete Gohr; Elmose, Mette; Dalsgaard, Søren; Roessler, Kirsten K
Practising target-shooting sport requires focused attention and motoric steadiness. A previous non-controlled pilot study suggests that children with impairing symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) benefit from participating in target-shooting sport in local shooting associations, as rated by parents and teachers. This study aims at examining if, and to which extent, target-shooting sport reduces parent- and teacher-reported severity of inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in children with attention difficulties, and if, and to which extend, target-shooting sport improves the children's wellbeing and quality of life. A mixed method approach is applied. A non-blinded, waiting list controlled study is combined with a case study, consisting of interviews and observations. The intervention consists of children practising target-shooting sport, by attending a local shooting association, once a week for six months, during regular school hours. Data from questionnaires (ADHD-RS, SDQ, Kidscreen-27), as well as a computerized continued performance test (Qb test), measure the children's activity and attention. The study includes 50 children in an intervention group and 50 children in a waiting list control group. The Qb test collects data from at least 20 children from the intervention group and at least 20 children from the waiting list control group. Data from the questionnaires and Qb-test is collected at baseline, and six months post intervention. In addition, a case study is carried out, consisting of interviews of at least five children from the intervention group, their parents, teachers and shooting instructors. Observations are carried out, when children are in school and while they are attending the local shooting association. The case study adds to an in-depth understanding of children's participation in target-shooting sports. At present, little is known about the effects and influence of practising target-shooting sport for
Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...
Kruse, P; Ladefoged, J; Nielsen, U; Paulev, P E; Sørensen, J P
In a double-blind cross-over study of 33 marksmen (standard pistol, 25 m) the adrenergic beta 1-receptor blocker, metoprolol, was compared to placebo. Metoprolol obviously improved the pistol shooting performance compared with placebo. Shooting improved by 13.4% of possible improvement (i.e., 600 points minus actual points obtained) as an average (SE = 4%, 2P less than 0.002). The most skilled athletes demonstrated the clearest metoprolol improvement. We found no correlation between the shooting improvement and changes in the cardiovascular variables (i.e., changes of heart rate and systolic blood pressure) and no correlation to the estimated maximum O2 uptake. The shooting improvement is an effect of metoprolol on hand tremor. Emotional increase of heart rate and systolic blood pressure seem to be a beta 1-receptor phenomenon.
Rex, Camille C.; Metzler, Jonathan N.
The purpose of this research was to develop a measure of sport injury anxiety (SIA), defined as the tendency to make threat appraisals in sport situations where injury is seen as possible and/or likely. The Sport Injury Anxiety Scale (SIAS) was developed in three stages. In Stage 1, expert raters evaluated items to determine their adequacy. In…
Kay, Tess; Bradbury, Steven
This paper analyses the capacity of youth sport volunteering to contribute to the development of social capital. Following a review of the emergence of social capital as a key theme in UK sport policy, the paper focuses on the ability of a structured sports volunteering programme to equip young people with skills for effective volunteering, and…
Full Text Available the authors believe that Russia today loses the strategic directions of sports development: effective interaction between the state and business, management of sports industry, sport propaganda, attraction of investments and innovative technologies, at the same time, the state is realistic about the sport today and is moving in the direction of changes for the better. According to the authors, an example of this can be the implementation of the strategy of development of physical culture and sport for the period up to 2020. The article notes that the state should increasingly focus on creating favorable conditions in the direction of decentralization of management activities, preferential tax treatment, to give place to business in the sports industry, promote healthy lifestyles and to strengthen control over the fulfillment of social functions of sport development.
Alcántara-Durán, Jaime; Moreno-González, David; Beneito-Cambra, Miriam; García-Reyes, Juan F
In this work, a sensitive nanoflow liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry screening method has been developed for the determination of multiclass drugs of abuse and sport drugs in human urine. 81 drugs belonging to different multiclass pharmaceuticals were targeted. The method is based on the use of a nanoLC column (75 µm × 150 mm, 3 µm particle size and 100 Å pore) with the nanospray emitter tip integrated so that dead volumes are significantly minimized. Data acquisition method included both full-scan and all ion fragmentation experiments using an Orbitrap analyser (Q-Exactive) operated in the positive ionization mode. To increase laboratory throughput, a dilute-and-shoot methodology has been tested and proposed, based solely on direct urine dilution without further sample workup. Matrix effects were evaluated, showing a negligible effect for all studied compounds when a dilution 1:50 was implemented. Despite this high-dilution factor, limits of quantification were still satisfactory, with values below 5 µg L -1 in most cases, being lower than their minimum required performance limits correspond established by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Therefore, the use of the dilute-and-shoot method with the enhanced sensitivity provided by nanoflow LC setup could be useful tool for the determination of studied compounds in drug testing, thus increasing laboratory performance, because a minimum sample treatment steps are required. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Skille, Eivind Å.; Hanstad, Dag Vidar
The original publication is available at: http://www.sportstudies.org/content/vol_1_2010/051-068_vol_1_2010_hanstad-skille.pdf The notion that elite sport generates mass sport,seems to be a social fact among many and influential members of the society. The issue is, however, under-researched, and the little research which actually exists does not confirm a causal link. In this article, we take as a point of departure the case of Norwegian biathlon, and its development, both as elite sp...
For years, strong claims have been made that sport builds character. Despite such claims, a "winning at all cost" mentality can frequently be seen within all of sport. The reason for this paradox may relate to confusion around what it means to demonstrate character. The purpose of this article is to show that there are indeed two distinct types of…
Pearce, David W; Hutt, Oliver E; Rood, Stewart B; Mander, Lewis N
Extracts of stems of growing shoots of Populus deltoides and P. trichocarpa, and developing capsules of P. deltoides were analysed for gibberellins (GAs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The following known GAs were identified by comparison of their Kovats retention indices (KRIs) and mass spectra with those of standards: GA1, GA8, GA9, GA19, GA20, 16 beta,17-dihydro-17-hydroxy GA20, GA23, GA28, GA29, GA34, GA44, and GA97. Several of these have not been previously reported from Populus. In addition, two new GAs were identified as 12 beta-hydroxy GA53 (GA127) and 16 beta,17-dihydro-17-hydroxy GA53 and their structures were confirmed by partial synthesis. Evidence was found of 16,17-dihydro-16,17-dihydroxy GA9, 16,17-dihydro-16,17-dihydroxy GA12, 12-hydroxy GA14, and GA34-catabolite by comparison of mass spectra and KRIs with published data. Several putative GAs (hydroxy- and dihydroxy-GA12-like) were also found. The catabolites of active GAs or of key precursors, hydroxylated at C-2 in stems and either C-2, C-12, C-17, or C-16,17 in capsules, were the major proportion of the GAs.
Sawyer, Thomas H.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Judge, Lawrence W.
"Sport Governance and Policy Development" is written with the sport management student in mind. Designed to address the curriculum standards set by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education and the North American Society for Sport Management, this book provides information to meet core and related competency areas required for the…
Harvey, Stephen; Kirk, David; O'Donovan, Toni M.
The purpose of this paper is to consider four pedagogical applications within the Sport Education model to examine the ways in which a young person can become a literate sports person and develop ethical behaviour through engagement in physical education and youth sport. Through a systematic review of the Sport Education research literature we…
A.H. Wiese; J.A. Zalesny; D.M. Donner; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny
The inadvertent removal and/or damage of buds during processing and planting of hardwood poplar (Populus spp.) cuttings are a concern because of their potential impact on shoot and root development during establishment. The objective of the current study was to test for differences in shoot dry mass, root dry mass, number of roots, length of the...
Chalikias, Miltiadis S.
The binomial distribution is used to predict the winner of the 49th International Shooting Sport Federation World Championship in double trap shooting held in 2006 in Zagreb, Croatia. The outcome of the competition was definitely unexpected.
This study is to research the current situation and the effect which is brought by the nutrition food of the green band development in sports nutrition food. Sports nutrition is the study and practice of nutrition and diet as it relates to athletic performance. It is concerned with the type and quantity of fluid and food taken by an athlete and deals with nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, supplements and organic substances such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Although an important pa...
Johri, M.M.; Coe, E.H. Jr.
The development of the tassel and the ear shoot has been investigated in corn (Zea mays L.). X irradiation of dry kernels and seedlings heterozygous for anthocyanin markers or for factors altering tassel and ear morphology results in the formation of clones (sectors) from cells of the apical meristem. Most tassels develop from 4 +/- 1 cells of the mature embryo. The expression of ramosa-1, tunicate, tassel seed-6, and vestigial is cell autonomous in the tassel. These genes act late in development and modify the developmental fate or decision of an individual clone and not of the whole group of cells producing a tassel. The ear shoot develops from lineages of one to three cells derived each from the L-I (outmost cell layer) and L-II (second cell layer) of the apical meristem. Typically the clones start in the ear shoot (in the husks and possibly in the cob), extend upward in an internode, continue along the margin of the leaf sheath or leaf blade at the node above, and terminate in this or the next higher leaf. The separation of lineages for ear shoot and internode occurs in the period around 13 days after sowing. The analysis of clonal boundaries shows that a small number of embryonic cells become isolated in their developmental capacity. This commitment process appears to be analogous to the process of compartmentation in the imaginal disks of fruit flies. The extent of proliferation of individual cells within a group of highly flexible and any particular clone does not generate a specific part of a tassel or an ear shoot. There must be cellular communication between various clones so that the overall size and morphology of an organ remain normal and more or less fixed. Thus the process of development in plants is also highly regulative in nature and shares many features in common with development in fruit flies
In the development of elite athletes, talent identification and education, is a complex and multidimensional process. It is difficult to predict the future performance depending on the increasing amount of technical, tactical, conditioning and psychological needs in a sport. Factors such as children’s developmental stages and levels, gender, athlete development programs, social support, the quality of coaches, access to equipment and facilities can affect talent development process.Phases of ...
Full Text Available Introduction: Young people who continue their education at universities do not have to give up their physical activity. The existence of Academic Sports Unions allows you to continue and develop your sporting career. A significant number of students regularly participating in AZS classes have a chance to develop their sporting career. The possibility of obtaining a sports scholarship is an additional motivation for students to pursue their own scientific and sporting goals. Sport through the process of self-improvement introduces a specific discipline to everyday life, teaches regularity, diligence and good organization of time.The aim of the study: 1 Did you start your education at a university by limiting or giving up sports?, 2 Do universities and AZS help develop a sports career? 3 Did the students of AZS influence the development of their sports career? Material and methods: 204 students participated in the study, an original questionnaire consisting of 26 questions was used. The questions concerned, among others: forms of physical activity and training experience, the impact of undertaking education at a university on the development of a sports career. Results and conclusions: Over 80% of respondents did not give up their sport before starting their studies. Over 50% of respondents believe that AZS and universities support the development of young athletes, giving the opportunity to get better and better results.
Wang, Ming-Te; Chow, Angela; Amemiya, Jamie
Although sport involvement has the potential to enhance psychological wellbeing, studies have suggested that motivation to participate in sports activities declines across childhood and adolescence. This study incorporated expectancy-value theory to model children's sport ability self-concept and subjective task values trajectories from first to twelfth grade. Additionally, it examined if sport motivation trajectories predicted individual and team-based sport participation and whether sport participation in turn reduced the development of depressive symptoms. Data were drawn from the Childhood and Beyond Study, a cross-sequential longitudinal study comprised of three cohorts (N = 1065; 49% male; 92% European American; M ages for youngest, middle, and oldest cohorts at the first wave were 6.42, 7.39, and 9.36 years, respectively). Results revealed four trajectories of students' co-development of sport self-concept and task values: congruent stable high, incongruent stable high, middle school decreasing, and decreasing. Trajectory membership predicted individual and team-based sports participation, but only team-based sport participation predicted faster declines in depressive symptoms. The use of a person-centered approach enabled us to identify heterogeneity in trajectories of sport motivation that can aid in the development of nuanced strategies to increase students' motivation to participate in sports.
An efficient method has been developed for In vitro regeneration of shoot and microcorm from corm explants of Crocus vernus. Corms were cut into 0.5-1.0 cm long segments and cultured on the SH medium supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg L-1 2-isopentyl adenine (2-iP), N6-benzyladenine (BA), and N6-furfuryladenine (kinetin, Kin) alone or combination with 0.5 or 1.0 mg L-1 alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) for shoot regeneration. Of the three cytokinins tested, BA was found to be the most effective cytokinin for shoot formation. The number of shoots induced per explant was more when BA was combined with 0.5 mg L-1 NAA than with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA. The greatest percentage of shoot induction (97.2) with the mean number of 11.8 shoots per explant was obtained when the SH medium was supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 BA and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA. The frequency of microcorm induction was significantly affected by the concentrations of sucrose.The greatest number of 6.1 microcorms per explant was obtained when the SH medium was supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 BA, 0.5 mg L-1 NAA and 6.0% sucrose. The microcorms formed In vitro developed daughter corms when they were cultured on this medium. Microcorms were separated from the culture and planted out in acclimatization boxes containing a commercial medium. About 85% of corms developed shoot and root after 30 days. This protocol could be utilized for genetic transformation and mass clonal propagation of C. (author)
Eddie T. C. Lam
Full Text Available Hong Kong is well-known for its beautiful natural harbor, vibrant nightlife, as well as tremendous entertainment and shopping opportunities. It is a paradise for outdoor activities such as golfing, hiking, fishing, and water sports. Throughout the city, there are extensive hiking trails that are over 30 miles long and navigate through beautiful scenic areas and parks. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the sport culture of Hong Kong, including the development and administration of sports and sporting events. After a thorough review on the sports development of Hong Kong, it was found that the following three main themes would guide the direction of future sports development: (a promoting “Sports for All,” (b fostering high performance sports, and (c equipping Hong Kong to host international sports events. In this regard, the Hong Kong Government provides a wide range of sports facilities and funding to support the development of sports. In addition, sport development is also supported by the business sector in Hong Kong. Among those different departments, the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD takes an active role in promoting sports in the community and administers funding support for relevant organizations under the established sports policy. The LCSD not only develops and manages a wide range of sports and recreational facilities for use by the general public, but also supports and organizes sports and recreational programs for the community. For instance, the most exciting projects people cannot wait to see their completion are the HK$19.7 billion Kai Tak Sports Complex and the Tseung Kwan O Football Training Centre that is supported with a grant of HK$133 million from the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.
Dionigi, Rylee A; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; Stone, Rachael C; Gayman, Amy M
Although sport participation is encouraged throughout the lifespan, little research has been conducted on the role of sport in development later in life. This qualitative study explored adults' experiences of development within the context of Masters sport. We interviewed 14 adults (nine men and five women) aged 46-61 years involved in Masters sport. Data was interpreted drawing upon frameworks from youth sport (i.e., Personal Assets Framework for Sport; Côté, J., Bruner, M., Strachan, L., Erickson, K., & Fraser-Thomas, J. (2010). Athletes' development and coaching. In J. Lyle & C. Cushion (Eds.), Sport coaching: Professionalism and practice (pp. 63-83). Oxford, UK: Elsevier, Côté, J., Turnnidge, J., & Evans, M. B. (2014). The dynamic process of development through sport. Kinesiologia Slovenica, 20(3), 14-26, Côté, J., Turnnidge, J., & Vieerima, M. (2016). A personal assets approach to youth sport. In K. Green & A. Smith (Eds.), Routledge handbook of youth sport (pp. 243-255). New York, NY: Routledge; 4/5Cs of positive youth development; Lerner, R. M., Fisher, C. B., & Weinberg, R. A. (2000). Toward a science for and of the people: Promoting civil society through the application of developmental science. Child Development, 71(1), 11-20. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00113; Vierimaa, M., Erickson, K., Côté, J., & Gilbert, W. (2012). Positive youth development: A measurement framework for sport. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 7(3), 601-614. doi:10.1260/1747-9518.104.22.1681), combined with past research on mid-life and older athletes. Six key themes emerged as contributing to adults' personal development through sport: competence and confidence, character, commitment, connection, cognition, and challenge. Masters sport contexts appeared to facilitate changes in assets (i.e., 6Cs) similar to those within youth sport, but assets often held different meanings within the context of later life. Applying frameworks from youth sport and developmental
L. Van Den Berg; J. Surujlal
Sport organisations face serious challenges such as technological, economic, social and organisational change in a competitive environment. One of the ways in which sport organisations can address these challenges is through the implementation of a talent development environment. For such an environment to exist, sport organisations need to identify, develop and retain talent. Talent identification involves a process of recognising athletes with the potential to excel in a particular sport, r...
then their self-respect and social interaction skills in preparation for .... Generally Sport Psychology is not presented in teacher education faculties (Le Roux, .... from smaller groups of approximately 10 to larger groups of 20 participants. ..... and scaffolding the cognitive and metacognitive developmental phases that charac-.
Li, Baohai; Li, Qing; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming
A plastic root system is a prerequisite for successful plant acclimation to variable environments. The normally functioning root system is the result of a complex interaction of root-borne signals and shoot-derived regulators. We recently demonstrated that AUX1, a well-studied component of auxin transport, mediates shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) inhibition of lateral root (LR) formation in Arabidopsis. By contrast, the response did not involve ABA pathways, via which several other abiotic stresses affect LR formation. We proposed that SSA regulates LR emergence by interrupting AUX1-mediated auxin transport from shoot to root. Here, by analyzing both ABA- and auxin-related mutants, we show that AUX1 is also required for SSA-mediated suppression of primary root growth. Ammonium content in shoots was furthermore shown to increase linearly with shoot-, but not root-supplied, ammonium, suggesting it may represent the internal trigger for SSA inhibition of root development. Taken together, our data identify AUX1-mediated auxin transport as a key transmission step in the sensing of excessive ammonium exposure and its inhibitory effect on root development.
The importance of operational competencies of sport coaches is widely acknowledged in the literature, yet there appears to be a lack of research in this field. The purpose of this research study was to develop a competency scale for sport coaches. Based on literature regarding operational competencies of sport coaches, ...
Maassoumeh Barghchi; Dasimah B. Omar; Mohd S. Aman
Problem statement: One major issue on sports facilities construction is the question of their funding and justification for investment. Due to, requirement of huge money for construction, constant maintenance costs and ancillary needs, which are almost certainly with substantial public investment, therefore, sports facilities have been considered. Further, sports facilities construction boom have been started for more than two decades. Approach: Recent sports facilities construction was not p...
Development of NutriSportExTM-interactive sport nutrition based mobile application software. B.S. Pushpa, N.S. Safii, S.H. Hamzah, N Fauzi, W.K. Yeo, P.B. Koon, C.Y. Tsin, M.I. Mohamad, A.H.A. Rahman, C.L. Ming, R.A. Talib, M.R. Shahril ...
Full Text Available Sport is widely recognised for the contribution it can make to international development goals. More specifically, the value of sport as a tool for development gained its impetus through the HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. The institutionalized relationship between sport and development has mainly focussed on sport-for-development (SfD non-governmental organisations (NGOs. This study proposed to examine the response of National Sports Associations (NSAs towards the multisectoral approach for HIV/AIDS prevention in Zambia. The study draws on lessons learnt from how NSAs within a resource-scarce or low-income country responded to a health pandemic. While public health was previously a state and health sector preserve, the impact of HIV/AIDS pandemic influenced not only the way that a pandemic is managed but also other public health issues. A case study approach was adopted comprising of three National Sports Associations (NSAs as units of analysis. The study utilised semi-structured interviews, documentary analysis and field observations to gain perspectives on how each NSA mainstreamed and implemented work-based health programmes. Using governance and policy network theories, the paper discusses each NSAs’ role in the governance and implementation of a multisectoral approach to a health pandemic. The findings identified lack of engagement of sports agencies at strategic decision-making level, marginalisation of sport by other sectors, and variations in implementation patterns among sports agencies. Further findings indicate that lack of resources among government sport agencies or departments limited their involvement with other state or non-state actors in strategic level meetings or health policy networks. Resource-scarce conditions placed limitations on the political steer of state actors while non-state actors with foreign resources attracted collaboration from other public health policy networks.
Thomas, Katherine Thomas
Contributions of motor skill and cognition to sport performance change across age, expertise, and sports. Knowledge and decision making should not limit the development of expertise. Specific strategies for teachers may help students develop expertise. The paper discusses the contribution of knowledge and skill to expertise and its development.…
Full Text Available In assume that there is insufficient physical angagement in children, insufficient teachers`, parents`, and childs`„sport entelligence“, it was decided to realize the project „Communication and culture in sport“. Previous aim of project was growing up the health level in children, growing up the level of sport culture, giving educative and entertaining contents to familly, children, and teachers, such as opening kindergardens to local society. To satisfaction and happiness of children, it was find friends which understood ideas and which supported in financial way. At the end of 2007. year it was start to build sport outdoor grass terrains in kindergarden yard ’’Cvrčak’’ in Niš. It was build athlet track, outdoor mini foodball, basketball and voleyball. After that more interested was sport clubs in town to work with children at their own fields, which contributed greather affirmation an growing health and sport culture level in children. In one year lasted ciclus, sport clubs afirmated their work, showing and training children the bases of sports elements, such as attracted children in sport clubs in cooperation with physical education expert service Office. In that way clubs reached a lot of members, parents had painless favor, teachers varies work contents, and in children it was growen up health and sport culture level. In cooperation with coatches many of them could find and induced tallent to sport activities right choise. It was more intensive cooperated with parents. To many of them it was the first small-great step in sport world
Sports helps an individual much more than in the physical aspects alone. It builds character, teaches and develops strategic thinking, analytical thinking, leadership skills, goal setting and risk taking, just to name a few. PMID:25838736
Sports helps an individual much more than in the physical aspects alone. It builds character, teaches and develops strategic thinking, analytical thinking, leadership skills, goal setting and risk taking, just to name a few.
Sports helps an individual much more than in the physical aspects alone. It builds character, teaches and develops strategic thinking, analytical thinking, leadership skills, goal setting and risk taking, just to name a few.
No one has ever been able to create a running shoe that can make one run faster, but in other sports the design of equipment has the potential to offer considerable enhancement. Judgement has to be made as to whether such advantage becomes unfair. This article indicates many possible sports in which the equipment plays an important part in the…
Full Text Available Background: By studying various sources, we can assume that the history of mankind, the history of civilizations and historical existence of sport are not historically overlapped. The origins of civilization and the beginnings of sports in human existence are far from each other. History of sport is part of the higher stages of civilization development of humankind. Objectives: The object and purpose of our qualitative research and comparative thinking is the search of context of sport especially in the context of civilization (civilized and cultural stage of mankind. Methods: The essence of the methodology of this article is a qualitative research. It is applied analysis of the texts and documents, which discloses the essence of civilization and label exploratory trial, which defines sport as part of civilizations. Results: The emergence of civilizations and the emergence of sport are relatively two independent historical processes. The existence of sport is historically linked to the higher stages of civilization development of humankind. A typical characteristic of sport as deduced from the theory of civilization speaks of sport as a cultural and social phenomenon. This argument implies in particular the thesis that sport is a civilization phenomenon in two aspects: (1 Sports, or rather some of its discipline, originated on the base of particular civilization in its historical period as some prehistoric form of this discipline. It carries many essential symbols of this particular civilization. (2 Sports disciplines which etiquette and ethos are based on the values of fair play, decency, justice, equality, friendship, peacefulness and assertiveness refuse "barbarism" and ribaldry, despite the fact that they fully accept aggressiveness of sport. Sport is primarily a cultural coordinated movement. We explain manifestations of "savagery and barbarism" which are shadowy fads of certain sports disciplines as precivilization atavism coming
Rossato, C.J.L.; Uphill, M.A.; Swain, J.; Coleman, D.
This paper outlines the development and preliminary validation of a sport-specific measure of\\ud athletes’ experience of challenge and threat. Three independent studies assess the content\\ud validity, factor structure, criterion validity and internal consistency of the Challenge and\\ud Threat in Sport (CAT-Sport) Scale. In study 1, a group of 25 athletes and 2 experts assessed\\ud the content validity of items derived from existing measures of challenge and threat.\\ud Participants examined a p...
Janet Njelesani; Lauren Fehlings; Amie Tsang; Helene Polatajko
Sport-for-development (SFD) is a growing phenomenon involving engagement in sport activities to achieve international development goals. Kicking AIDS Out is one sport for development initiative that raises HIV/AIDS awareness through sport. Despite sport-for-development’s global prevalence, there is a paucity of literature exploring how activities are selected for use in differing contexts. An occupational perspective can illuminate the selection of activities, sport or otherwise, in sport-for...
Pennington, Colin G.
The purpose of this article is to explore to what degree the subject of sportsmanship, morality and character development is addressed in physical education (PE) and youth sport. It also presents the effect of formal education programs designed to address the issue of character in sport, and lays out recommendations for current PE practitioners…
Full Text Available Aboveground organs of plants are ultimately derived/generated from the shoot apical meristem (SAM, which is the proliferative tissue located at the apex of the stem. The SAM contains a population of stem cells that provide new cells for organ/tissue formation. The SAM is composed of distinct cell layers and zones with different properties. Primordia of lateral organs develop at the periphery of the SAM. The shoot apex is a dynamic and complex tissue, and as such intercellular communications among cells, layers and zones play significant roles in the coordination of cell proliferation, growth and differentiation to achieve elaborate morphogenesis. Recent findings have highlighted the importance of a number of singling molecules acting in the cell wall space for the intercellular communication, including classic phytohormones and secretory peptides. Moreover, accumulating evidences reveal that cell wall properties and their modifying enzymes modulate hormone actions. In this review, we overview how behaviors of singling molecules and changes of cell wall properties are integrated for the shoot meristem regulation.
Zoran Jonić; Jadranka Kocić; Mirjana Petrović
In assume that there is insufficient physical angagement in children, insufficient teachers`, parents`, and childs`„sport entelligence“, it was decided to realize the project „Communication and culture in sport“. Previous aim of project was growing up the health level in children, growing up the level of sport culture, giving educative and entertaining contents to familly, children, and teachers, such as opening kindergardens to local society. To satisfaction and happiness of children, it was...
Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the degree of influence of factors of macro- and microenvironment on the development of sports tourism in Kharkiv region. Materials and Methods: the paper uses the methods of analysis of literary sources and documents, system and organizational analysis, methods of marketing analysis (PEST and SWOT analysis, methods of mathematical statistics. The study was conducted in 4 children and youth sports schools of Kharkiv region, where it is cultivated sports tourism, only 124 respondents. Results: the degree of dependence of the functioning and development of sports tourism from the marketing environment. Conclusions: sport tourism is a relatively new socio-economic phenomenon. Promotion of non-Olympic sports, develop relevant marketing programs for their development is necessary to attract more children and teenagers to a systematic practice of physical fitness and sports activities.
Martindale, Russell J J; Collins, Dave; Wang, John C K; McNeill, Michael; Lee, Kok Sonk; Sproule, John; Westbury, Tony
As sporting challenge at the elite level becomes ever harder, maximizing effectiveness of the talent development pathway is crucial. Reflecting this need, this paper describes the development of the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire, which has been designed to facilitate the development of sporting potential to world-class standard. The questionnaire measures the experiences of developing athletes in relation to empirically identified "key features" of effective talent development environments. The first phase involved the generation of questionnaire items with clear content and face validity. The second phase explored the factor structure and reliability. This was carried out with 590 developing athletes through application of exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotation, principal axis factoring extraction and cronbach alpha tests. This yielded a 59-item, seven-factor structure with good internal consistency (0.616-0.978). The Talent Development Environment Questionnaire appears to be a promising psychometric instrument that can potentially be useful for education and formative review in applied settings, and as a measurement tool in talent development research.
Francisco J. Ortin-Montero
Full Text Available This introduction should serve as a framework for the following monograph. While it is true that other authors have examined the discipline of sport psychology, the majority of them have done so from a very generalist perspective. For possibly the first time, there has been an attempt to rely on specialists who, from a very precise proposal, have offered us unique approaches with a wide scientific foundation applied to this area of study. A theoretical framework that adequately delimits the structure of this proposal regarding sport psychology is presented.
Vivancos, Julien; Spinner, Lara; Mazubert, Christelle; Charlot, Florence; Paquet, Nicolas; Thareau, Vincent; Dron, Michel; Nogué, Fabien; Charon, Céline
The shoot represents the basic body plan in land plants. It consists of a repeated structure composed of stems and leaves. Whereas vascular plants generate a shoot in their diploid phase, non-vascular plants such as mosses form a shoot (called the gametophore) in their haploid generation. The evolution of regulatory mechanisms or genetic networks used in the development of these two kinds of shoots is unclear. TERMINAL EAR1-like genes have been involved in diploid shoot development in vascular plants. Here, we show that disruption of PpTEL1 from the moss Physcomitrella patens, causes reduced protonema growth and gametophore initiation, as well as defects in gametophore development. Leafy shoots formed on ΔTEL1 mutants exhibit shorter stems with more leaves per shoot, suggesting an accelerated leaf initiation (shortened plastochron), a phenotype shared with the Poaceae vascular plants TE1 and PLA2/LHD2 mutants. Moreover, the positive correlation between plastochron length and leaf size observed in ΔTEL1 mutants suggests a conserved compensatory mechanism correlating leaf growth and leaf initiation rate that would minimize overall changes in plant biomass. The RNA-binding protein encoded by PpTEL1 contains two N-terminus RNA-recognition motifs, and a third C-terminus non-canonical RRM, specific to TEL proteins. Removal of the PpTEL1 C-terminus (including this third RRM) or only 16-18 amino acids within it seriously impairs PpTEL1 function, suggesting a critical role for this third RRM. These results show a conserved function of the RNA-binding PpTEL1 protein in the regulation of shoot development, from early ancestors to vascular plants, that depends on the third TEL-specific RRM.
Full Text Available Purpose: In order to better understand how certain sports tourism professionals have overcome the economic crisis, this paper focuses on how they have innovated on technical, managerial and marketing levels. Analyzing these strategies in the sector of “recreational white-water sports tourism” appears as a way to prospect.Design/methodology/approach: The offer of white-water sports tourism does not fall under tradition forms of organization known to work in the tourism sector. Since the end of the nineties its mode of development seems to have enabled this sector to avoid undergoing the economic crisis. The methodology, based on interviews withentrepreneurs in the sector of white-water sports tourism in the Southern Alps, addresses their managerial strategies and strategic modes of operation in the development of their businesses. The aim is to explore the managerial factors that have resulted in both economic and environmental sustainability. The concept of sustainable development is employed to understand how these entrepreneurial activities are embedded in the social, economic and natural environments of the Southern Alps valleys. Findings: The investigation shows that, rather than focusing on business strategy, professionals in this sector focus primarily on community relations. The supply of white-water sports tourism is presented in a lattice form which develops as a community. The modes of development of this sector, far from corresponding to standard business rationale, amount to a form of sustainable development which may explain the relative success of sport tourism in this period of crisis.
These days, in the developed world, sport tourism fast becoming a lleisure experience. As much as it is popular, it has also become a very important economic activity as well as a marketing tool to boost a destination’s tourism potentials. Current research has proven that sport and tourism contributes about 1 to 2% of the gross domestic products of industrialized economies. Thus from the above statistics, it is no doubt that sport and tourism has great impact on a destination, it can altogeth...
Gosal, S.S.; Jitender Kaur, Adas; Minocha, J.L.
In vitro shoot cultures of two potato varieties viz., Kufri jyoti and Kufri Chandramukhi were gamma irradiated at 20 Gy and 40 Gy. Micro tubers were induced in micro propagated M1V3 generation. For heat tolerance micro tubers were induced at elevated (28 C ) incubation temperature (optimum being 20 1C ) and were characterized by early sowing, chlorophyll persistence and harvest index. The number of micro tubers/plant was highly reduced at elevated temperature and the resulting tubers exhibited distorted shapes and growth of apical buds. Thus obtained micro tubers exhibited better germination (62.3%) even in early sowing at relatively higher temperature. The progenies from putative heat tolerant plants were grown in the field by sowing at higher temperature for four subsequent generations. Heat tolerant plants segregated in each generation but the frequency of heat tolerant plants increased in the advanced generation. For developing late blight resistance micro tubers produced from irradiated shoot cultures were sown in pots and resulting plants were screened using detached leaf method. The progenies of putative resistant plants grown in the field were artificially inoculated with sporangial inoculum of Phytophthora infection's. Field grown plants exhibited segregation with respect to disease reaction and about 56 per cent plants showed resistance. Segregation was reduced during following generation and the frequency of resistant plants was increased up to 72.3 per cent. Thus, repeated selections has helped in developing stable mutants in both the varieties
Hazra, D.K.; Shukla, A.K.; Arvind, B.; Khandelwal, S.; Singh, R.; Lahiri, V.L.
The logistics of national radioimmunoassay services are analysed in regard to: applications of immunoassays in developing countries; provision of matched reagents; collection, storage and transport of patient samples, particularly from rural areas; development of robust new immunoassay systems, especially those using non-isotopic labels; quality control; and interrelation with international agencies and commercial suppliers. The effect of using different methods and temperatures of sample storage on representative glycoprotein, steroid, thyroid and communicable disease analytes is examined. The need for stratification of assay services (district, state and national/regional levels) for various tests is discussed in relation to their clinical urgency. A trouble shooting guide suited to developing countries has been written. Starting from various symptoms of assay failure, it describes the differential diagnosis of likely causes, lists appropriate tests to confirm the diagnosis and finally suggests remedial action to prevent future similar mishaps or to salvage the assay. (author)
Burgess, Darren J; Naughton, Geraldine A
Traditional talent development pathways for adolescents in team sports follow talent identification procedures based on subjective games ratings and isolated athletic assessment. Most talent development models are exclusive rather than inclusive in nature. Subsequently, talent identification may result in discontentment, premature stratification, or dropout from team sports. Understanding the multidimensional differences among the requirements of adolescent and elite adult athletes could provide more realistic goals for potential talented players. Coach education should include adolescent development, and rewards for team success at the adolescent level should reflect the needs of long-term player development. Effective talent development needs to incorporate physical and psychological maturity, the relative age effect, objective measures of game sense, and athletic prowess. The influences of media and culture on the individual, and the competing time demands between various competitions for player training time should be monitored and mediated where appropriate. Despite the complexity, talent development is a worthy investment in professional team sport.
Schwebel, David C; Brezausek, Carl M
In 2010, 8.6 million children were treated for unintentional injuries in American emergency departments. Child engagement in sports and recreation offers many health benefits but also exposure to injury risks. In this analysis, we consider possible developmental risk factors in a review of age, sex, and incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries. To assess (1) how the incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries changed through each year of child and adolescent development, ages 1 to 18 years, and (2) sex differences. Design : Descriptive epidemiology study. Emergency department visits across the United States, as reported in the 2001-2008 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Data represent population-wide emergency department visits in the United States. Main Outcome Measure(s) : Pediatric sport- and recreation-related injuries requiring treatment in hospital emergency departments. Almost 37 pediatric sport or recreational injuries are treated hourly in the United States. The incidence of sport- and recreation-related injuries peaks at widely different ages. Team-sport injuries tend to peak in the middle teen years, playground injuries peak in the early elementary ages and then drop off slowly, and bicycling injuries peak in the preteen years but are a common cause of injury throughout childhood and adolescence. Bowling injuries peaked at the earliest age (4 years), and injuries linked to camping and personal watercraft peaked at the oldest age (18 years). The 5 most common causes of sport and recreational injuries across development, in order, were basketball, football, bicycling, playgrounds, and soccer. Sex disparities were common in the incidence of pediatric sport and recreational injuries. Both biological and sociocultural factors likely influence the developmental aspects of pediatric sport and recreational injury risk. Biologically, changes in perception, cognition, and motor control might influence injury risk. Socioculturally
Marcelis-van Acker, C.A.M.
The ontogeny of an axillary bud (in the middle region of a shoot) from initiation up to flowering of the subsequent shoot was studied. The first secondary buds appeared in the axillary bud (primary bud) when the leaf subtending the primary bud unfolded. By that time, the primary bud contained seven
Charles G. Shaw; Thomas H. Laurent; Spencer. Israelson
Shoot mortality from Sirococcus strobilinus Preuss. and other causes was recorded by crown position from April 1978 through October 1979 in younggrowth western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) crop trees released in a 1977 thinning at Thomas Bay, Alaska. All study trees contained some infected shoots, but no terminal...
Burks, Jason E.; Smith, Matthew; McGrath, Kevin M.
The National Weather Service (NWS) is deploying its next-generation decision support system, called AWIPS II (Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System II). NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed several software 'plug-ins' to extend the capabilities of AWIPS II. SPoRT aims to continue its mission of improving short-term forecasts by providing NASA and NOAA products on the decision support system used at NWS weather forecast offices (WFOs). These products are not included in the standard Satellite Broadcast Network feed provided to WFOs. SPoRT has had success in providing support to WFOs as they have transitioned to AWIPS II. Specific examples of transitioning SPoRT plug-ins to WFOs with newly deployed AWIPS II systems will be presented. Proving Ground activities (GOES-R and JPSS) will dominate SPoRT's future AWIPS II activities, including tool development as well as enhancements to existing products. In early 2012 SPoRT initiated the Experimental Product Development Team, a group of AWIPS II developers from several institutions supporting NWS forecasters with innovative products. The results of the team's spring and fall 2013 meeting will be presented. Since AWIPS II developers now include employees at WFOs, as well as many other institutions related to weather forecasting, the NWS has dealt with a multitude of software governance issues related to the difficulties of multiple remotely collaborating software developers. This presentation will provide additional examples of Research-to-Operations plugins, as well as an update on how governance issues are being handled in the AWIPS II developer community.
Full Text Available Tea products made from purple leaves are highly preferred by consumers due to the health benefits. This study developed a proteome reference map related to color changes during leaf growth in tea (Camellia sinensis plant with purple young shoots using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE. Forty-six differentially expressed proteins were detected in the gel and successfully identified by using MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The pronounced changes in the proteomic profile between tender purple leaves (TPL and mature green leaves (MGL included: 1 the lower activity of proteins associated with CO2 assimilation, energy metabolism and photo flux efficiency and higher content of anthocyanins in TPL than those in MGL may protect tender leaves against photo-damage; 2 the higher abundance of chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI and flavonol synthase (FLS likely contributes to the synthesis of anthocyanins, catechins and flavonols in TPL tissues; 3 higher abundance of stress response proteins, such as glutathione S-transferases (GST and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx, could enhance the tolerance of TPL tissues to adverse condition in; and 4 the increased abundance of proteins related to protein synthesis, nucleic acids and cell wall proteins should be beneficial for the proliferation and expansion of leaf cell in TPL tissues. qPCR analysis showed that the expression of differentially abundant proteins was regulated at the transcriptional level. Therefore, the results indicated that higher abundance of CHI and CHS may account for the production of the purple-shoot phenotype in Wuyiqizhong 18 and thereby, enhancing the anthocyanin biosynthesis. The higher abundance of glutamine synthetase (GS proteins related to the theanine biosynthesis may improve the flavor of tea products from TPL materials. Thus, this work should help to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the changes in leaf color alteration.
Sep 28, 2011 ... 2Department of Crop Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. ... various aspects of the insect's life and activity with a view to evolving .... of brinjal shoot and fruit borer is still a difficult job. Many.
Full Text Available Considered and grounded priority directions of perfection of control the system by modern olympic sport. Expert estimations are resulted on the problems of management the olympic types of sport and his influence on a modern economy. Practice of introduction of foreign experience is investigational in a management olympic sport. Problems, impedimental development of olympic sport in a region, are exposed. It is set that the basic obstacles of eleemosynary activity in Ukraine it is been absence of economic stimuli for encouragement of sponsors and sportsmen. Also absence of standards of eleemosynary and sponsor activity. The necessity of effective support of olympic sport is grounded from the side of local-authority. It is set that the most essential directions of development of olympic motion in a region is development: economic basis, sporting infrastructure, transport infrastructure. Also medical service of sportsmen.
Li, Baohai; Li, Qing; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming
A plastic root system is a prerequisite for successful plant acclimation to variable environments. The normally functioning root system is the result of a complex interaction of root-borne signals and shoot-derived regulators. We recently demonstrated that AUX1, a well-studied component of auxin transport, mediates shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) inhibition of lateral root (LR) formation in Arabidopsis. By contrast, the response did not involve ABA pathways, via which several other abiotic stre...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop an organisational team sport scale (OTSS. A series of projects was undertaken before the development of this organisational team sport scale. The initial phase, which consisted of a qualitative study, was done to get an in-depth understanding of how employees perceive organisational team sport interventions in their organisations through focus group interviews and individual interviews (n = 72 and through the literature review. In phase 2, information obtained from phase 1 was used to develop a scale which consisted of 53 items. In phase 3, a total of 209 respondents completed the scale. The number of items was reduced to 52 through principal component analyses and a five-factor structure was suggested. The final version of the OTSS contains 52 items that assess coping skills or achieve goals, relationships among participants, physical activity and health, benefits of sport for the organisation and work/life balance. Specific issues with regard to the five-factor structure are discussed and suggestions for future research are made. The findings of this study will contribute valuable new knowledge to the literature on the development of the OTSS.
den Hartigh, Jan Rudolf
For decades, research on talent development in sports has attempted to detect the mechanisms explaining excellent performance. Although researchers generally agree that different personal and environmental factors play a role (e.g., genetic endowment, practice, family support), how these factors
Li, Chunxiao; Wang, Chee Keng John; Pyun, Do Young; Martindale, Russell
Given the significance of monitoring the critical environmental factors that facilitate athlete performance, this two-phase research aimed to validate and refine the revised talent development environment questionnaire (TDEQ). The TDEQ is a multidimensional self-report scale that assesses talented athletes' environmental experiences. Study 1 (the first phase) involved the examination of the revised TDEQ through an exploratory factor analysis (n = 363). This exploratory investigation identified a 28-item five-factor structure (i.e., TDEQ-5) with adequate internal consistency. Study 2 (the second phase) examined the factorial structure of the TDEQ-5, including convergent validity, discriminant validity, and group invariance (i.e., gender and sports type). The second phase was carried out with 496 talented athletes through the application of confirmatory factor analyses and multigroup invariance tests. The results supported the convergent validity, discriminant validity, and group invariance of the TDEQ-5. In conclusion, the TDEQ-5 with 25 items appears to be a reliable and valid scale for use in talent development environments.
Loy, John W.; And Others
Sport sociology as an academic specialty and its stages of development are described. Problems confronting future developments in sport sociology include critical mass, academic status, and ideological orientation, both in physical education and in sociology. (CJ)
Strafford, Ben William; van der Steen, Pawel; Davids, Keith; Stone, Joseph Antony
Analyses of talent development in sport have identified that skill can be enhanced through early and continued involvement in donor sports which share affordances (opportunities for action) with a performer's main target sport. Aligning key ideas of the Athletic Skills Model and ecological dynamics theory, we propose how the sport of parkour could provide a representative and adaptive platform for developing athletic skill (e.g. coordination, timing, balance, agility, spatial awareness and muscular strength). We discuss how youth sport development programmes could be (re) designed to include parkour-style activities, in order to develop general athletic skills in affordance-rich environments. It is proposed that team sports development programmes could particularly benefit from parkour-style training since it is exploratory and adaptive nature shapes utilisation of affordances for innovative and autonomous performance by athletes. Early introduction to varied, relevant activities for development of athleticism and skill, in a diversified training programme, would provide impetus for a fundamental shift away from the early specialisation approach favoured by traditional theories of skill acquisition and expertise in sport.
Gulbin, Jason P; Croser, Morag J; Morley, Elissa J; Weissensteiner, Juanita R
This paper introduces a new sport and athlete development framework that has been generated by multidisciplinary sport practitioners. By combining current theoretical research perspectives with extensive empirical observations from one of the world's leading sport agencies, the proposed FTEM (Foundations, Talent, Elite, Mastery) framework offers broad utility to researchers and sporting stakeholders alike. FTEM is unique in comparison with alternative models and frameworks, because it: integrates general and specialised phases of development for participants within the active lifestyle, sport participation and sport excellence pathways; typically doubles the number of developmental phases (n = 10) in order to better understand athlete transition; avoids chronological and training prescriptions; more optimally establishes a continuum between participation and elite; and allows full inclusion of many developmental support drivers at the sport and system levels. The FTEM framework offers a viable and more flexible alternative for those sporting stakeholders interested in managing, optimising, and researching sport and athlete development pathways.
Park, J. W.; Jeong, H. H.; Kim, J. S.; Choi, C. U.
Recently, aerial photography with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system uses UAV and remote controls through connections of ground control system using bandwidth of about 430 MHz radio Frequency (RF) modem. However, as mentioned earlier, existing method of using RF modem has limitations in long distance communication. The Smart Camera equipments's LTE (long-term evolution), Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi to implement UAV that uses developed UAV communication module system carried out the close aerial photogrammetry with the automatic shooting. Automatic shooting system is an image capturing device for the drones in the area's that needs image capturing and software for loading a smart camera and managing it. This system is composed of automatic shooting using the sensor of smart camera and shooting catalog management which manages filmed images and information. Processing UAV imagery module used Open Drone Map. This study examined the feasibility of using the Smart Camera as the payload for a photogrammetric UAV system. The open soure tools used for generating Android, OpenCV (Open Computer Vision), RTKLIB, Open Drone Map.
J. W. Park
Full Text Available Recently, aerial photography with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV system uses UAV and remote controls through connections of ground control system using bandwidth of about 430 MHz radio Frequency (RF modem. However, as mentioned earlier, existing method of using RF modem has limitations in long distance communication. The Smart Camera equipments’s LTE (long-term evolution, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi to implement UAV that uses developed UAV communication module system carried out the close aerial photogrammetry with the automatic shooting. Automatic shooting system is an image capturing device for the drones in the area’s that needs image capturing and software for loading a smart camera and managing it. This system is composed of automatic shooting using the sensor of smart camera and shooting catalog management which manages filmed images and information. Processing UAV imagery module used Open Drone Map. This study examined the feasibility of using the Smart Camera as the payload for a photogrammetric UAV system. The open soure tools used for generating Android, OpenCV (Open Computer Vision, RTKLIB, Open Drone Map.
Full Text Available The aspects of development of physical culture and Olympic types of sport are considered from positions of approach of the systems. The structure of the socio-economic system is presented: global, international, national level of administrative mechanism. The basic going is investigational near management. The role of international organizations is certain in a management development of Olympic types of sport. The role of the National Olympic committees which regulate the processes of management development of physical culture and sport a sphere at state level is exposed. The tendencies of bringing in of off-budget facilities Olympic organizations of the separate European countries are marked.
Full Text Available Plant hormone auxin regulates most, if not all aspects of plant growth and development, including lateral root formation, organ pattering, apical dominance and tropisms. Peptide hormones are peptides with hormone activities. Some of the functions of peptide hormones in regulating plant growth and development are similar to that of auxin, however, the relationship between auxin and peptide hormones remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of OsCLE48, a rice (Oryza sativa CLE (CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION gene, as an auxin response gene, and the functional characterization of OsCLE48 in Arabidopsis and rice. OsCLE48 encodes a CLE peptide hormone that is similar to Arabidopsis CLEs. RT-PCR analysis showed that OsCLE48 was induced by exogenously application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid, a naturally occurred auxin. Expression of integrated OsCLE48p:GUS reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was also induced by exogenously IAA treatment. These results indicate that OsCLE48 is an auxin responsive gene. Histochemical staining showed that GUS activity was detected in all the tissue and organs of the OsCLE48p:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis inhibited shoot apical meristem development. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the CLV3 native regulatory elements almost completely complemented clv3-2 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that OsCLE48 is functionally similar to CLV3. On the other hand, expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis has little, if any effects on root apical meristem development, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsCLE48 are morphologically indistinguishable from wild type plants, suggesting that the functions of some CLE peptides may not be fully conserved in Arabidopsis and rice.
Vierimaa, Matthew; Bruner, Mark W; Côté, Jean
Competence, confidence, connection, and character are regarded as outcomes of positive youth development (PYD) in sport. However, the specific athlete behaviors associated with different PYD profiles are not well understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between athletes' observed behavior during sport competitions and their perceptions of PYD outcomes. Cross-sectional study with systematic behavioral observation. Sixty-seven youth athletes were observed during basketball games near the end of their season, and the content of their behavior was systematically coded. Athletes also completed measures of the 4 Cs (competence, confidence connection, and character). A person-centered analysis approach was used to examine the relationship between PYD profiles and observed behavior. A cluster analysis identified two homogenous groups of athletes characterized by relatively high and low perceptions of confidence, connection, and character. A MANCOVA revealed that after controlling for gender and years of playing experience, the high Cs group engaged in more frequent sport communication with their coaches. Results re-affirm the critical role that coaches play in the developmental experiences of young athletes, and highlight the importance of contextual factors of the youth sport environment.
Full Text Available Competence, confidence, connection, and character are regarded as outcomes of positive youth development (PYD in sport. However, the specific athlete behaviors associated with different PYD profiles are not well understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between athletes' observed behavior during sport competitions and their perceptions of PYD outcomes.Cross-sectional study with systematic behavioral observation.Sixty-seven youth athletes were observed during basketball games near the end of their season, and the content of their behavior was systematically coded. Athletes also completed measures of the 4 Cs (competence, confidence connection, and character. A person-centered analysis approach was used to examine the relationship between PYD profiles and observed behavior.A cluster analysis identified two homogenous groups of athletes characterized by relatively high and low perceptions of confidence, connection, and character. A MANCOVA revealed that after controlling for gender and years of playing experience, the high Cs group engaged in more frequent sport communication with their coaches.Results re-affirm the critical role that coaches play in the developmental experiences of young athletes, and highlight the importance of contextual factors of the youth sport environment.
sports policies and implementations of these policies in Primary and ... time assumed an influential status. In the .... Management of sports facilities and equipment d. .... Youth and Sports scarcely provide funds, the schools usually turn to the.
Indriyanti; Tri Nur Harsono; Rumini
The purpose of this research is to make product design development of stick and ball sports in gateball. The approach used in this study is a method of Research and Development. The subject of this research is the Central Java on gateball club event gateball in Semarang and Yogyakarta. Experts and expert expert gateball expert in mechanical engineering. The data analysis phase the work field, and the data analysis stage include observation, observation, interviews, and documentation of the te...
Delay, Christina; Imin, Nijat; Djordjevic, Michael A
The manifestation of repetitive developmental programmes during plant growth can be adjusted in response to various environmental cues. During root development, this means being able to precisely control root growth and lateral root development. Small signalling peptides have been found to play roles in many aspects of root development. One member of the CEP (C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE) gene family has been shown to arrest root growth. Here we report that CEP genes are widespread among seed plants but are not present in land plants that lack true branching roots or root vasculature. We have identified 10 additional CEP genes in Arabidopsis. Expression analysis revealed that CEP genes are regulated by environmental cues such as nitrogen limitation, increased salt levels, increased osmotic strength, and increased CO2 levels in both roots and shoots. Analysis of synthetic CEP variants showed that both peptide sequence and modifications of key amino acids affect CEP biological activity. Analysis of several CEP over-expression lines revealed distinct roles for CEP genes in root and shoot development. A cep3 knockout mutant showed increased root and shoot growth under a range of abiotic stress, nutrient, and light conditions. We demonstrate that CEPs are negative regulators of root development, slowing primary root growth and reducing lateral root formation. We propose that CEPs are negative regulators that mediate environmental influences on plant development.
Therese M. Poland; Peter de Groot; Stephen Burke; David Wakarchuk; Robert A. Haack; Reginald Nott; Taylor Scarr
1) The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), is an exotic pest of pine, Pinus spp., and was first discovered in North America in 1992. 2) Although primary attraction to host volatiles has been clearly demonstrated for T. piniperda, the existence and role of secondary attraction to...
Windt, C.W.; van Hasselt, P.R
Winter wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Urban), grown in nutrient solution, were exposed to differential shoot/root temperatures (i.e., 4/4, 4/20, 20/4 and 20/20 degrees C) for six weeks. Leaves grown at 4 degrees C showed an increase in frost tolerance from - 4 degrees C down to -11 degrees
Mackintosh, Chris; Liddle, Joyce
International interest in developing mass sports participation through systems of school and community sports development has become a growing field of public leisure policy interest. This research paper considers the policy change from School Sport Partnerships to the new 2012 School Games model of networked partnerships to establish…
Allen, Peter M; Latham, Keziah; Mann, David L; Ravensbergen, Rianne H J C; Myint, Joy
The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, toward a regulation target placed at the end of a 10 m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of VI. Visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual's average score in every level of simulated VI and normalizing this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving 'expected' or 'below expected' shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR) is conservative, maximizing the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not actually have an impairment that impacts performance in the sport. An
Peter M Allen
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without vision impairment took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, towards a regulation target placed at the end of a 10m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of vision impairment. Visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual’s average score in every level of simulated vision impairment and normalising this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving ‘expected’ or ‘below expected’ shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR is conservative, maximising the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not
Understanding Social Dynamics and School Shootings Requires Larger Context. Commentary on: "Bullying, Romantic Rejection, and Conflicts with Teachers: The Crucial Role of Social Dynamics in the Development of School Shootings--A Systematic Review"
Jessie Klein begins her commentary on "Bullying, Romantic Rejection, and Conflicts with Teachers: The Crucial Role of Social Dynamics in the Development of School Shootings--A Systematic Review" (Sommer, Leuschner, and Scheithauer," International Journal of Developmental Science" v 8, n1-2, p3-24, 2014) by saying that to…
Maurette, M.; Hammer, C.
A shooting star passage -even a star shower- can be sometimes easily seen during moonless black night. They represent the partial volatilization in earth atmosphere of meteorites or micrometeorites reduced in cosmic dusts. Everywhere on earth, these star dusts are searched to be gathered. This research made one year ago on the Greenland ice-cap is this article object; orbit gathering projects are also presented [fr
Baker, Thomas A., III.; Byon, Kevin K.
A scale was developed to measure perceptions of sexual abuse in youth sports by assessing (a) the perceived prevalence of sexual abuse committed by pedophilic youth sport coaches, (b) the perceived likelihood that a coach is a pedophile, (c) perceptions on how youth sport organizations should manage the risk of pedophilia, and (d) media influence…
Choi, Hong Suk; Johnson, Britton; Kim, Young K.
Sports competition can play an important role for children because it contributes to developmental outcomes for a healthy lifestyle. Through sports competition, children can learn about physical, social, and cognitive skills. Sports competition can be either positive or negative in terms of development, depending on how experiences are perceived…
Tiemessen, Ivo J. H.; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
ABSTRACT: Background The onset of jumper's knee is generally associated with sports and sporting activities. Employees in certain professions might be at risk as well for developing jumper's knee. Therefore, it is of interest to identify risk factors in sport and/or occupation. Findings A systematic
In this study, it takes the interpretation of internationalization brand of sports nutrition food as the cutting point, by means of explaining the difficulties that Chinese sports nutrition food brand encountered at the present stage to explore the route of realizing the internationalization brand of sports nutrition food. With the rapid development of Chinese economic growth, the brand of Chinese sports nutrition food is also facing the fierce global market competition.
R Yashina, E R; Kurashvili, V A; Turzin, P S
Modern technologies of aerospace medicine develop at rapid pace pulling on its orbit all spheres of the human activity, including sport. Innovations play a major role in the progress of sport medicine areas related to the biomedical support of precontest training. Overview of the most important aerospace medicine achievements and their methodical implications for sport medicine is presented. Discussion is devoted to how the aerospace medicine technologies can raise effectiveness of the biomedical support to different sectors of sport and fitness.
Ewald, J. A.
Full Text Available The scientific basis of wild grey partridge management has been known for a generation. This includes controlling nest predators, providing nesting cover, having sufficient insect food for chicks and appropriate rates of shooting. More recently, measures such as providing food for adult birds and habitats for protection from birds of prey have also been considered important. Habitat provision can be expensive, but in the UK costs can be partially recovered through governmental agri–environment schemes. The landowner still needs to pay for the essential gamekeeper. Since 2003/04, one part of the Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust’s (GWCT Sussex Study area has put these principles of environmental management into practice with the aim of restoring a wild grey partridge shoot to this part of Southern England. Results have been impressive, with the spring pair density increasing from 0.3 pairs/100 ha in 2003 to nearly 20 pairs/100 ha in 2010 on an area of just over 10 km2. Over the past two years a wild grey partridge shoot has taken place, and the landowner and his team have gained national recognition for their conservation work.
Megan A. Horst
Full Text Available This study addressed the research question, “What is meaningful to Hispanic girls about their organized sports participation during the first year of high school?” Purposeful sampling (Maxwell, 1996 was used to select 15 9th-grade girls to participate in individual interviews about their organized sport participation. Transcripts were analyzed via inductive coding. Findings showed that organized sports offered Hispanic girls in this sample a venue for healthy youth development, including opportunities for the “5 C’s” – competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring (Lerner, Fisher, & Weinberg, 2000. This article highlights the salience of connection, caring, and competence in adolescent Hispanic girls’ organized sports experiences. Insights from girls’ narratives may help coaches and other educators structure athletic programs to best meet the needs of Hispanic girls during adolescence (AAUW, 1991; Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Erkut, Fields, Sing, & Marx, 1996; Gil & Vazquez, 1996; Sadker & Sadker, 1994.
Full Text Available The paper presents characteristics of the Olympic movement as a real self-sufficient socio-economic phenomenon, with its inherent internal mechanism of self-development. There are identified the main problems of improving the mechanism of self-development, the modernization of the distribution of income from the sale of commercial programs between the participants of Olympic sports and enhance the fight against "piracy" marketing. The objectives of the NOC assistance program implemented by "Olympic Solidarity" fund are defined, the structure of expenditures on the IOC "Olympic Solidarity" program implementation are presented.
María de la Caridad Veloso Pérez
Full Text Available The proposal to the problematic solution dealt with in the present investigation is constituted by competitive sport activities, which respond to its totality to the integral diagnosis and therefore, to the individual and group characteristics of the selected students as it is shown, being of this form in the heat of correspondence with their real necessities. This activities were developed during the partaking sport time and three stages framed during the course to the competitions. Its organization was based on the same principles on which the Program of the Special Olympic Games is fomented, extracting from the quarries of the base sport the sport talent, it is for that reason so important the work of preparation and participation in the bases, as from the whole scale practice it is that the quality is obtained or the sport talent within the ample range of sport disciplines. The work's objective is to apply competitive sport activities to improve the participation of late mental development children in the systematic training. These activities, proposed as solution, were very effective, since it was obtained a favorable atmosphere in all the school in students, teachers, specialists, family, community, making possible these children to improved their participation in the systematic training, their technical level improved a lot and, mainly, they demonstrated that the sport is one of the fundamental routes to the formation of values in this population group. The results thrown by the investigation are considered valuable since it is the base for the profit of good results in the competence.
Yermahanova, Amina; Nurmakhambetova, Dinara; Bozhig, Zhanbolat; Imanbetov, Amanbek
Bachelor educational program "Physical culture and sport" must master special, substantive and core competencies, not only in the chosen specialization, but also in the basic sports, including "Swimming." It is a necessity due to the fact that the graduate program in order to protect their health and life should own at least…
At present, both the sports and the tourism industries are developing by leaps and by bounds around the world, and at the same time the Chinese government has also issued some leisure sports-related policies and documents. Under the guidance of symbol consumption theory and drawing from the sports tourism mode of the foreign countries, the thesis attempts to throw light upon the Chinese leisure sports tourism, aiming to provide a theoretical support for the development of the leisure sports tourism sector in china.
To highlight and discuss the considerations for the future development of equipment standards for Winter Paralympic sports. Literature searches were performed (in English) during May 2011 using the key words "technology, winter sport, Olympic, and Paralympic" in the computerized databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. In addition, personal scientific observations were made at several Winter Paralympic Games. The retrieved articles were screened and assessed for relevance to the biological, biomechanical, and sport medicine aspects of equipment. There are 3 key areas in which technology has influenced sports performance in Paralympic winter sports, namely, specialized prostheses, crutch skis or outriggers (in lieu of poles), and sport-specific wheelchairs (such as the sit-ski). From a sport medicine perspective, a crucial factor not considered in the standard laboratory test of mechanical efficiency is the influence of the human-equipment connection, such as the stump-to-prosthesis interface or the required human-to-wheelchair control. This connectivity is critical to the effective operation of the assistive device. When assessing the efficiency of this equipment, the not-so-obvious, holistic, compensatory factors need to be considered. Assistive equipment is fundamental for a person with a disability to participate and compete in winter sport activities. Although there have been improvements in the mechanical function of some assistive devices, the key issue is matching the residual function of the person with the assistive equipment. Equitable access to this technology will also ensure that the fundamental spirit of fair play that underpins the Paralympic Games is maintained.
Alan S. Kornspan
Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to present information regarding the development of networking skills to enhance the career development of sport management students. Specifically, literature is reviewed which supports the importance of networking in the attainment of employment and career advancement in the sport industry. This is followed by an overview of emerging networking activities that allow opportunities for sport management students to expand their network. Sport industry career fairs and career conferences that students can attend are discussed. Additionally, sport industry professional associations that students can become involved with are presented. This is then followed with information related to the development of sport management clubs and various events that can be promoted to enhance the networking process. Specifically, activities provided by university faculty to enhance the educational experience of sport management students are detailed. Finally, a sample schedule of semester activities focused on student engagement and networking activities is provided.
the history and culture of the society in which it is created. Second, policy is seen as discourses that are articulated by specific institutions, and third, the anthropological perspective focuses on the ways in which policy is a applied and interpreted in practice. The first part of this article therefore...... explores Danish immigration history and the development of an integration policy that currently focuses on adaptation of the cultural values and norms of immigrants. The second part of this article looks at current state funds that aim to promote this kind of adaptation through sports. It becomes clear......-Danish ethnic background) appropriate these political assumptions....
Hastie, P A
The purpose of this study was to examine the development of skill competence and tactical sophistication during a games unit conducted following the features of sport education provided by Siedentop (1994). One team of six players was followed through a 30-lesson season of "Ultimate." Using Gréhaigne, Godbout, and Bouthier's (1997) formula for an efficiency index, together with a number of other measures of skill and tactical competence, it was determined that these students made significant improvements in selection and execution dimensions of the game. Furthermore, lower skilled students did not feel marginalized within their teams and believed they had equal opportunities for improvement. The key reasons for developing competence in this setting were the sufficient length of the season to allow for significant practice opportunities and the consistent team membership throughout season, which allowed all players to develop a sense of usefulness. This curriculum model provides one way students can develop skills through a system of game playing, provided sport education units are structured to prevent the more skillful players from dominating the games.
Phillips, Elissa; Davids, Keith; Renshaw, Ian; Portus, Marc
Research on expertise, talent identification and development has tended to be mono-disciplinary, typically adopting genocentric or environmentalist positions, with an overriding focus on operational issues. In this paper, the validity of dualist positions on sport expertise is evaluated. It is argued that, to advance understanding of expertise and talent development, a shift towards a multidisciplinary and integrative science focus is necessary, along with the development of a comprehensive multidisciplinary theoretical rationale. Here we elucidate dynamical systems theory as a multidisciplinary theoretical rationale for capturing how multiple interacting constraints can shape the development of expert performers. This approach suggests that talent development programmes should eschew the notion of common optimal performance models, emphasize the individual nature of pathways to expertise, and identify the range of interacting constraints that impinge on performance potential of individual athletes, rather than evaluating current performance on physical tests referenced to group norms.
Full Text Available Sport-for-development (SFD is a growing phenomenon involving engagement in sport activities to achieve international development goals. Kicking AIDS Out is one sport for development initiative that raises HIV/AIDS awareness through sport. Despite sport-for-development’s global prevalence, there is a paucity of literature exploring how activities are selected for use in differing contexts. An occupational perspective can illuminate the selection of activities, sport or otherwise, in sport-for-development programming and the context in which they are implemented. The purpose of the study was to understand how context influences the selection of sport activities in Kicking AIDS Out programs. Thematic analysis was used to guide the secondary analysis of qualitative data gathered with Kicking AIDS Out leaders in Lusaka, Zambia and Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. Findings include that leaders strive to balance their activity preferences with those activities seen as feasible and preferential within their physical, socio-historical, and cultural contexts, and that leader’s differing understandings of sport as a development tool influences their selection of activities. To enable a better fit of activities chosen for the particular context and accomplishment of international development goals, sport-for-development programmes might consider how leaders are trained to select such activities.
Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter
Abstract Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...
Abbott, Angela; Button, Chris; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Collins, Dave
The early identification of talented individuals has become increasingly important across many performance domains. Current talent identification (TI) schemes in sport typically select on the basis of discrete, unidimensional measures at unstable periods in the athlete's development. In this article, the concept of talent is revised as a complex, dynamical system in which future behaviors emerge from an interaction of key performance determinants such as psychological behaviors, motor abilities, and physical characteristics. Key nonlinear dynamics concepts are related to TI approaches such as sensitivity to initial conditions, transitions, and exponential behavioral distributions. It is concluded that many TI models place an overemphasis on early identification rather than the development of potentially talented performers. A generic model of talent identification and development is proposed that addresses these issues and provides direction for future research.
Adams, Henry D; Collins, Adam D; Briggs, Samuel P; Vennetier, Michel; Dickman, L Turin; Sevanto, Sanna A; Garcia-Forner, Núria; Powers, Heath H; McDowell, Nate G
Higher temperatures associated with climate change are anticipated to trigger an earlier start to the growing season, which could increase the terrestrial C sink strength. Greater variability in the amount and timing of precipitation is also expected with higher temperatures, bringing increased drought stress to many ecosystems. We experimentally assessed the effects of higher temperature and drought on the foliar phenology and shoot growth of mature trees of two semiarid conifer species. We exposed field-grown trees to a ~45% reduction in precipitation with a rain-out structure ('drought'), a ~4.8 °C temperature increase with open-top chambers ('heat'), and a combination of both simultaneously ('drought + heat'). Over the 2013 growing season, drought, heat, and drought + heat treatments reduced shoot and needle growth in piñon pine (Pinus edulis) by ≥39%, while juniper (Juniperus monosperma) had low growth and little response to these treatments. Needle emergence on primary axis branches of piñon pine was delayed in heat, drought, and drought + heat treatments by 19-57 days, while secondary axis branches were less likely to produce needles in the heat treatment, and produced no needles at all in the drought + heat treatment. Growth of shoots and needles, and the timing of needle emergence correlated inversely with xylem water tension and positively with nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations. Our findings demonstrate the potential for delayed phenological development and reduced growth with higher temperatures and drought in tree species that are vulnerable to drought and reveal potential mechanistic links to physiological stress responses. Climate change projections of an earlier and longer growing season with higher temperatures, and consequent increases in terrestrial C sink strength, may be incorrect for regions where plants will face increased drought stress with climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Craig M. Ross
Full Text Available The USPORT-Kyrgyzstan project was an ambitious initiative of public diplomacy, sports diplomacy, cross-cultural exchange, in-country grassroots projects, and international cooperation. The project consisted of three phrases which included youth recreational sport programming, youth leadership and development training, and youth tolerance training. Overall, it proved to be an extremely effective form of intervention that provided youth in this region of the Middle East with many positive and constructive youth sports and leadership development opportunities.
M.Phil. (Sport Management) This study is strengthened by several studies that have indicated that the dualist nature of student-athletes is problematic, as well as the management thereof. The study aimed to identify the sociological implications of the main aspects affecting the optimal sporting career development in athletics (throwers) at University of Johannesburg Sport, and offers recommendations for managing student-athletes. The methods utilized for this study included: i) self-desig...
Mega sporting meets constitute major event attractions which pool large numbers of people to host destinations. Sport-motivated travel contributes sustantially to the business of tourism. Host nations stand good chances of capturing the lion share of this business. The present study examines Africa's position in the hosting of ...
This paper aims to stimulate the development of a scientific body of knowledge for sport marketing in Africa. A review of current journals indicates that African academics are not devoting sufficient attention to the development of a body of knowledge for sport marketing. In this paper three scenarios are formulated that ...
Whitley, Meredith A.; McGarry, Jennifer Bruening; Martinek, Thomas; Mercier, Kevin; Quinlan, Melissa
In recent years, a substantial surge has occurred in the number of initiatives, events and organizations focused on using sport as a tool for development, peacebuilding and humanitarian efforts. This has created a growing need for educated leaders in the sport-based youth development field as the job market in this field continues to expand. The…
Hermens, N.J.; Super, Sabina; verkooijen, kirsten; Koelen, Maria
Purpose: Despite the strong belief in sports programs as a setting in which socially vulnerable youth can develop life skills, no overview exists of life skill development in sports programs serving this youth group. Therefore, the present systematic review provides an overview of the evidence on
Hermens, Niels; Super, Sabina; Verkooijen, Kirsten T.; Koelen, Maria A.
Despite the strong belief in sports programs as a setting in which socially vulnerable youth can develop life skills, no overview exists of life skill development in sports programs serving this youth group. Therefore, the present systematic review provides an overview of the evidence on life skill
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to make product design development of stick and ball sports in gateball. The approach used in this study is a method of Research and Development. The subject of this research is the Central Java on gateball club event gateball in Semarang and Yogyakarta. Experts and expert expert gateball expert in mechanical engineering. The data analysis phase the work field, and the data analysis stage include observation, observation, interviews, and documentation of the test kefektifan products, expert judgment expert expert gateball and expert mechanical engineering expert. The results of this research are stick and ball exercise for beginner players gateball gateball. The result of the validator 3 expert expert from the expert gateball and expert mechanical engineering product validation data beginning the first phase obtained a score above 73 definitions of the criteria of “good”, on the second stage of the product validation data obtained a score above the 81 criteria for “excellent”. The results of the interviews to the development of gateball players 19 stick and ball gateball can not be used to play in a match and can be used for subsequent exercises but for beginners a product development tool model stick and ball gateball “ INC. “can be used to enhance the ability of basic techniques in motion game for players, gateball.
Belinda Wheaton; Georgina Roy; Rebecca Olive
While competition-based team sports remain dominant in community and sport-for-development programs, researchers are exploring the value of alternative, less “sportized” activities such as lifestyle/action sports. In this paper, we explore the ways in which surfing is being used in development programs in Aotearoa/New Zealand, examining the perceived social benefits and impact. Our methods involved: (a) mapping the range of surfing projects; and (b) 8 in-depth interviews with program personne...
Gonçalves, R M
This paper describes the stages of development of a machine to perform impact tests in sport seats, seats for spectators and multiple seats. This includes reviews and recommendations for testing laboratories that have needs similar to the laboratory where unfolded this process.The machine was originally developed seeking to meet certain impact tests in accordance with the NBR15925 standards; 15878 and 16031. The process initially included the study of the rules and the election of the tests for which the machine could be developed and yet all reports and outcome of interaction with service providers and raw materials.For operating facility, it was necessary to set entirely the machine control, which included the concept of dialogue with operator, the design of the menu screens and the procedures for submission and registration of results. To ensure reliability in the process, the machine has been successfully calibrated according to the requirements of the Brazilian network of calibration.The criticism to this enterprise covers the technical and economic aspects involved and points out the main obstacles that were needed to overcome. (paper)
Shariffah Noor Khamseah Al Idid
The effect of seed orientation on germination time and on shoot and root growth patterns is studied. Neutron radiography is used to observe the development of 4 types of plants, maize, greenpea, soya bean and padi. These plants were grown in varying orientations; sand sizes, sand thicknesses, and level of water content. Radiography of the seeds and plants were obtained for time exposure ranging from 3-12 hours and at reactor thermal power level, ranging from 500-750 kilowatts. Results obtained showed that seeds planted in varying orientations need different length of time for shoot emergence. Neutron radiography is now developed to other areas of non-industrial applications in Malaysia. (A.J.)
The thesis deals with the impact of sports and physical activity on human physical and mental development in various developmental stages of life. It contains a brief description of the stages of life and presents the possibilities, nature and influence of sports and physical activity on human physical and mental state.
Wahrman, Hillel; Zach, Sima
This paper demonstrates the value of researching the emic perceptions expressed by participants of sport for development and peace (SDP) programs about their program. An Israeli SDP program was chosen which addresses Arab children's educational needs through sport. Ten semi-structured interviews were held with participants: two Jewish male…
Bruner, Mark W.; Balish, Shea M.; Forrest, Christopher; Brown, Sarah; Webber, Kristine; Gray, Emily; McGuckin, Matthew; Keats, Melanie R.; Rehman, Laurene; Shields, Christopher A.
An emerging area of research has focused on understanding how the group dynamics of a sport team influence positive youth development (PYD). The identities that youth form through their membership in sport teams (i.e., social identities) have been found to influence teammate behavior and team performance. Yet, minimal work exists on social…
Spaaij, R.; Jeanes, R.
Background: The previous two decades have witnessed an increasing number of policymakers and practitioners using sport programmes to achieve broader social development aims, particularly in countries in the Global South. A core element of these programmes has been the use of sport as a context to
Turnnidge, Jennifer; Côté, Jean; Hancock, David J.
While previous studies indicate that participation in sport has the potential to facilitate positive developmental outcomes, there is a lack of consensus regarding the possible transfer of these outcomes to other environments (i.e., school or work). An important issue within the positive development literature concerns how sport programs should…
Tedesqui, Rafael A. B.; Young, Bradley W.
Grit, the tendency to work hard toward long-term goals, maintaining effort and interest over years despite failure and adversity, has predicted several achievement outcomes. However, minimal work has examined grit within a sport expertise development framework, and specifically its association with deliberate practice (DP) in sport. Participants,…
Li, Yuhua; Coleman, Diane; Ransdell, Mary; Coleman, Lyndsie; Irwin, Carol
This study examined the impact of a 12-wk. sport stacking intervention on reaction time (RT), manual dexterity, and hand-eye coordination in elementary school-aged children. 80 Grade 2 students participated in a 15-min. sport stacking practice session every school day for 12 wk., and were tested on psychomotor performance improvement. Tests for choice RT, manual dexterity, and photoelectric rotary pursuit tracking were conducted pre- and post-intervention for both experimental group (n = 36) and the controls (n = 44) who did no sport stacking. Students who had the intervention showed a greater improvement in two-choice RT. No other group difference was found. Such sport stacking activities may facilitate children's central processing and perceptual-motor integration.
Full Text Available The sporting event, unlike the broadcast from the sports event - which called a videogram, is not subject to copyright protection. Copyright for the videogram, that is the recording, is formed when the work - a recording (videogram - is being made. There is no legal basis that would establish the right to broadcast sports broadcasts before the broadcast itself is done. Consequently, all and any contracts concerning the sale of sports broadcasting rights have no legal basis for the subject matter of those contracts. The consequences of this legal gap and the risks it brings are particularly evident in the context of technological development and the widespread possibility of recording of a sports events (in whole or in part using commonly available tools such as a mobile phone by a common viewer. Apart from the issue of compensation for infringement of the stadium regulations, which still remains disputable for imprecise content, the author of the recording (a common viewer equipped with just a mobile phone is entitled by virtue of the law to own copyrights to the resulting work. The copyrights of the viewer-creator are in conflict with the rights of entities acquiring "broadcasting rights" on the basis of appropriate agreements. Moreover it should be noted that, in business practice, the distribution of sports events broadcasting rights is dealt with by national or international sports organizations, and not by sports facility owners, who distribute tickets for sporting events. As a consequence of the above, the concept of granting the related rights, which subject of which are sporting event, in relation to the so called "Law of the Stadium" as unsatisfactory. The above concept, as well as any other ideas given in the literature of this subject do not offer satisfactory solutions, especially considering the dynamically changing conditions of organizing and broadcasting sports events. Accordingly, as a model of solutions introduced in the legal
Hall, Stacey A
The US Department of Homeland Security identified college sport venues as terrorist targets due to the potential for mass casualties and catastrophic social and economic impact. Therefore, it is critical for college sport safety and security personnel to implement effective risk management practices. However, deficiencies have been identified in the level of preparedness of college sport event security personnel related to risk management training and effective emergency response capabilities. To address the industry need, the National Center for Spectator Sports Safety and Security designed, developed, and evaluated a national sport event risk management training program for National Collegiate Athletic Association command groups. The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of the design, development, and evaluation process.
Conclusion: This systematic yet pragmatic and iterative intervention development process is potentially applicable to any injury prevention topic across all sports settings and levels. It will guide researchers wishing to undertake intervention development.
Jonathan Michael Normand
Full Text Available Background: The overall physical and psychological development of a young athlete is crucial for the enjoyment of physical activity for a lifetime. Children, as well as parents, tend to focus on individual accomplishment in sport despite any other aspect of physical development or appropriate training. Objective: the pressure to excel in sport has all too often brought about negative consequences through specialization at an early age. Method: A review and commentary report on the impact of early sport specialization on the physical and psychological development of a young athlete. Conclusion: A long-term, activity and age-appropriate developmental model is essential to those involved in training young athletes. Sport specialization may be appropriate in unique situations but only after the development of specific skills, abilities, and psychological maturity. As sport professionals, parents and coaches should be educated the pros/cons of early sport specialization. Ultimately, the focus on sport participation should be to increase physical activity, psychological development, and appreciation for a lifetime.
Full Text Available Sport Tourism is a form of relaxation and active leisure based on motric activities that contribute to health maintenance. The social dimension of sport tourism results from its ability to mobilize large masses of the population to participate in recreational activities and to contribute to the pursuit of project development and exploiting potentially attractive regions (tourist resorts, recreational complexes, etc.. At the level of Bistriţa-Năsăud County, organising and pursuing sport tourism is based on three fundamental elements: natural resources, infrastructure, and tourism sport tradition. Among sport tourism activities, following are noteworthy: cycling tourism, hiking, horseback riding, swimming, navigation, skiing, paragliding, alpine skiing, ski touring, enduro, etc.
The role of the state in sport for development: A South African scenario. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... rendered the triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data in terms of 470 interviews; 479 case studies; ...
Human beings are inseparable from conflicts. The intervention of sports in conflict resolved provide meaningful life of an early stage of young people who are usually being used causing problems, thereby reduced the risk of involvement in anti-social behaviour. A survey research was carried out of expo-facto design, with ...
A Foucauldian lens of governmentality provides a conceptual framework for a multi-agency model of good governance, and illuminates crucial insights in terms of how sport, as a dominant paradigm, perpetuates a persuasive framework for neoliberal thinking and practices. Many such practices are entrenched in competitive ...
Eloon Kashkuli Fatemeh
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the role of advertisement factors in development of sport tourism industry of Fars province. Materials and methods : Present study is descriptive and functional. We used marketing indices questionnaire for collecting data. Statistical population was all the responsible managers and experts in tourism and sport which through purposeful non-random sampling method 170 of them were selected as samples. To calculate reliability by Cronbach's Alpha in a pilot study on a 40 people sample, marketing factors were α=0.82. Data were analyzed after collecting in respect of study hypotheses through Chi 2 tests. Results: Study findings show that from managers and experts views the most effective advertisement factors to develop sport tourism industry are respectively: written activities, investigate and understand tourists motivations to provide their requirements, promote the province parks and green fields by making health stations, develop sport-cultural centers for doing creative plans related to native and regional culture; all of advertisement factors with significance level of 0.000 are effective in developing of Fars province sport tourism industry. Conclusions: Propaganda methods necessary for effective marketing for sports tourism. It should be noted that closely tied to tourism development and promotion each other in a specified process, Because the tourism development process, part of the production structure of the economy that can income generation and job creation in developing countries have a major role.
Hall, Marianne; Räntfors, Mats; Slaney, Michelle; Linder, Sune; Wallin, Göran
Effects of ambient and elevated temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) on CO2 assimilation rate and the structural and phenological development of shoots during their first growing season were studied in 45-year-old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) enclosed in whole-tree chambers. Continuous measurements of net assimilation rate (NAR) in individual buds and shoots were made from early bud development to late August in two consecutive years. The largest effect of elevated temperature (TE) was manifest early in the season as an earlier start and completion of shoot length development, and a 1-3-week earlier shift from negative to positive NAR compared with the ambient temperature (TA) treatments. The largest effect of elevated [CO2] (CE) was found later in the season, with a 30% increase in maximum NAR compared with trees in the ambient [CO2] treatments (CA), and shoots assimilating their own mass in terms of carbon earlier in the CE treatments than in the CA treatments. Once the net carbon assimilation compensation point (NACP) had been reached, TE had little or no effect on the development of NAR performance, whereas CE had little effect before the NACP. No interactive effects of TE and CE on NAR were found. We conclude that in a climate predicted for northern Sweden in 2100, current-year shoots of P. abies will assimilate their own mass in terms of carbon 20-30 days earlier compared with the current climate, and thereby significantly contribute to canopy assimilation during their first year.
MUNTEANU SEBASTIAN MADALIN
Full Text Available Focussing on the consideration of the multivariate relationship between sport and economics, the present study is based on the sport potential of supporting economic growth through the enhancement of the relatively new domain of “sport entrepreneurship”. The brief revision of the specialized literature regarding the development of sport entrepreneurship in general terms is followed by a series of fundamental factors for the innovative proposal of a sport entrepreneurship index (SEI in the European Union member countries. The methodological issues concerning the structure of the index represent the main novelty aspect of this research, which aims to be a prerequisite of a future thorough analysis regarding the micro- and macro-economic implications of developing a sport entrepreneurship index (SEI in EU countries. The main identified challenge is a scientific one and it resides in the summative assessment of the elements representing entrepreneurship, sport and culture in the SEI, whereas the necessity of determining such an index appears because of economic and social reasons.
Full Text Available Nowadays more and more attention is devoted to the spatial development of the location of sports facilities within cities. The main aim of our paper is to observe the most important spatial characteristics of their development in Hungarian cities of county rank. In these cities three main periods of development of sports facilities can be observed. Larger sports facilities were constructed especially on the edge of cities or in the suburbs, while in the case of smaller facilities a bigger role was played by locations within the city boundaries. As regards the factors influencing the location of sports facilities, the most important role was played by the location of available land areas, besides accessibility and from the mid-1960s links to existing facilities can be mentioned as well.
Møller, Rasmus Bysted; Møller, Verner
The relationship between sport and technology is close and can be both fruitful and destructive. Technology has a constitutive function in sport as it makes the activity possible and it can enhance performance as well as the sporting experience. The use of football boots is clearly more comfortable...... and effective than playing in bare feet in a game of football. However, sport challenges its athletes by demanding the employment of less efficient means rather than more efficient means in pursuit of sport specific goals. Therefore technology can potentially subtract from the sporting experience and even...... threaten the internal logic of sport. If as an example very efficient hail cartridges were allowed for use in double trap shooting it would reduce the skills required to excel at that discipline reducing its value for participants and spectators alike. The use of forbidden performance enhancing substances...
Thomas H. Nicholls; Kathryn Robbins
Sirococcus shoot blight, caused by the fungus Sirococcus strobilinus Preuss, affects conifers in the Northern United States and southern Canada. The fungus infects the new shoots; diseased seedlings and saplings are especially affected. In the United States, sirococcus shoot blight has become increasingly widespread since the early 1970's. When favorable...
Full Text Available Purpose: to work out conceptual principles for successful and dynamic development of fencing in children’s sports schools in Ukraine. Material: the researches were conducted on material of children’s sports school Dynamo in Kiev. In this work we used SWOT analysis - method of strategic planning, which implies determination of external and internal factors of organization and their dividing into four categories: strengths (strong sides, weaknesses (weak sides, opportunities and threats. For determination of experts’ opinion concordance in SWOT analysis we used concordance coefficient. Results: we worked out conception of fencing development in children’s sports schools in Ukraine in modern conditions. The specificity of this conception implies determination of strategic approaches to further fencing progressing in children’s sports schools in Ukraine. The conception can serve as bench mark for development and realization of program documents in sphere of fencing progressing or its different branches. Conclusions: we have worked out conception of fencing progressing in children’s sports schools in Ukraine, which is based on achievements and traditions of fencing in Ukraine and in the world. Its development is based on systemic analysis of internal and external factors, which influence on development of fencing in sports schools and on choice of its progressing strategy in new social economical conditions.
M. I. Trujillo
Full Text Available We report diminution and/or elimination of browning exudate followed by in vitro establishment of in Pistacia vera cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica explants. Soaking P. vera cv. mateur explants prior to culture in L-cysteine HCl for 15 min (100 µM inhibits blackening of the modified Murashige and Skoog medium - MS + 400 mg/l NH4NO3 - and of the explants; while shoot formation was increased. The browning in P. vera cv. mateur and P. atlantica explants dissolved when modified MS and Quoirin and Lepoivre - QL.4 - media were supplemented with activated charcoal (from 1 to 3 g l-1 and with 4 and 8 days of darkness. These treatments were enough to eliminate browning from the explants and to improve the shoots elongation, but symptoms of chlorosis were detected. On the other hand, AgNO3 (from 15 to 40 µ1V1 showed a very strong antibrowning effect on the medium and explants of P. atlantica. Thus shoot organogenesis was best achieved and the developing sturdy shoots had large and green leaves.
Humphries, David; Jaques, Rod; Dijkstra, Hendrik Paulus
Training in the medical specialty of sport and exercise medicine is now available in many, but not all countries. Lack of resources may be a barrier to the development of this important specialty field and the International Syllabus in Sport and Exercise Medicine Group was convened to reduce one potential barrier, the need to develop a syllabus. The group is composed of 17 sport and exercise medicine specialists residing in 12 countries (Australia, Canada, India, Ireland, Malaysia, the Netherlands, Qatar, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, the UK and USA). This paper presents the first phase of this project covering the domains and general learning areas of a specialist training syllabus in sport and exercise medicine. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of sorbitol on the development of the in vitro culture of D. serotinus in the multiplication phase. The obtained results showed that sorbitol generally had a positive effect, depending on its concentration and explant type. In addition, the presence of sorbitol affected the change of pH value of the media after autoclaving and after 25 days of in vitro culture, which could affect the availability of certain ions to plants. Therefore, the obtained results indicate that sorbitol can be used as an energy source for the in vitro culture of D. serotinus, but this should be further investigated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007
Bulley, Catherine; Donaghy, Marie
In a world of rapidly developing knowledge it is important that professions describe their roles and capabilities. The need for a thorough description of sports physiotherapy was addressed through collaboration between the International Federation of Sports Physiotherapy (IFSP) and five European higher education institutions. This resulted in the Sports Physiotherapy for All Project, which has been successful in developing internationally accepted competencies and standards for sports physiotherapists. This article describes and reflects on the process to communicate useful lessons. A competency model was chosen to facilitate differentiation and communication of aspects of sports physiotherapy practice. Documentation relating to sports physiotherapy practice was collected from 16 countries and analysed thematically. A cut and paste method was used by a panel of experts to allocate themes to areas of practice within the competency model. Theme groups were used to select areas of practice for description in competency form. Standards were derived from competencies following in depth discussion with the expert panel, and triangulation with themes derived from international documentation. A rigorous process of international review and revision led to the final list of 11 competencies and related standards, both accepted by the IFSP. This work provides a foundation for the development of an audit toolkit to guide demonstration and evaluation of competencies and standards. This provides a foundation for targeted career development activities, appropriate provision of training opportunities, and quality enhancement. The experiences gained during this project can inform other health professions and their specialisms when embarking on a similar journey.
Allen, Mark S; Vella, Stewart A; Laborde, Sylvain
This investigation explored the contribution of extracurricular sport and screen time viewing (television viewing and electronic gaming) to personality trait stability and change during childhood. Two independent samples of 3,956 young children (age 6) and 3,862 older children (age 10) were taken from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Parent-reported child sport participation, screen time, and personality traits were measured at baseline and again 24 months later. Young children who were more active recorded more of a decrease in introversion, less of a decrease in persistence, and less of an increase in reactivity, than those who were less active. Older children who were more active recorded less of an increase in introversion and more of an increase in persistence than those who were less active. In addition, young children who continued participation in extracurricular sport had greater intra-individual stability of personality for introversion. These finding suggest that an active lifestyle might help to facilitate desirable personality trait stability and change during childhood. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Warsta, L.; Karvonen, T.
There are currently 25 shooting and training areas in Finland managed by The Finnish Defence Forces (FDF), where military activities can cause contamination of open waters and groundwater reservoirs. In the YMPYRÄ project, a computer software framework is being developed that combines existing open environmental data and proprietary information collected by FDF with computational models to investigate current and prevent future environmental problems. A data centric philosophy is followed in the development of the system, i.e. the models are updated and extended to handle available data from different areas. The results generated by the models are summarized as easily understandable flow and risk maps that can be opened in GIS programs and used in environmental assessments by experts. Substances investigated with the system include explosives and metals such as lead, and both surface and groundwater dominated areas can be simulated. The YMPYRÄ framework is composed of a three dimensional soil and groundwater flow model, several solute transport models and an uncertainty assessment system. Solute transport models in the framework include particle based, stream tube and finite volume based approaches. The models can be used to simulate solute dissolution from source area, transport in the unsaturated layers to groundwater and finally migration in groundwater to water extraction wells and springs. The models can be used to simulate advection, dispersion, equilibrium adsorption on soil particles, solubility and dissolution from solute phase and dendritic solute decay chains. Correct numerical solutions were confirmed by comparing results to analytical 1D and 2D solutions and by comparing the numerical solutions to each other. The particle based and stream tube type solute transport models were useful as they could complement the traditional finite volume based approach which in certain circumstances produced numerical dispersion due to piecewise solution of the
Sherwin, Ian; Campbell, Mark J; Macintyre, Tadhg Eoghan
Coaches are central to the development of the expert performer and similarly to continued lifelong participation in sport. Coaches are uniquely positioned to deliver specific technical and tactical instruction and mentoring programmes that support the psychological and social development of athletes in a challenging, goal-oriented and motivational environment. The current study aimed to qualitatively investigate current coach learning sources and coaches' educational backgrounds in team sports in Ireland. Coaches from five team sports in Ireland were asked to complete an online questionnaire. Subsequently male coaches (n = 19) from five team sports who completed the questionnaire and met the inclusion criteria were invited to attend a follow-up semi-structured interview. Inclusion criteria for coaches were that they possess at least 10 years' experience coaching their sport and were coaching more than 4 hours per week. Formal coach education does not meet the needs of high performance coaches who rely more on self-directed learning and coaching experience as their main sources of CPD. Although prior playing experience at a high level is both valuable and desirable, there are concerns about fast-tracking of ex-players into high performance coaching roles. Preferred sources of education and the best learning environment for coaches of team sports in Ireland are more informal than formal. Further research is needed to examine how this learning is applied in a practical manner by examining coaching behaviours and the impact it has on the athlete development process.
Jelica J. MARKOVIĆ
Full Text Available In contemporary tourism, sport and recreation are increasingly becoming the dominant motives for undertaking the journey, and as a result of modern living, active holidays are more frequent. Mountain areas have always been attractive to deal with the various sports activities. Winter sports were the initiators of the development of mountain resorts. Mountain resorts invest in construction of hotels, ski lifts, snowmaking equipment, for the sake of attracting a growing number of tourist clientele. On the other hand, sport and recreation also serve to promote summer mountain tourism. Tennis, golf, swimming, horseback riding are key tools to attract visitors in the summer months toward the resorts facilities. The main problems regarding the development of mountain tourism centers come in the form of the growing concern for the preservation of the environment, of the human and traffic congestion in the mountains and the intensive use of natural resources by tourists. This paper aims to highlight the positive and negative impacts of sport and recreation in the development of mountain tourism and to present possible solutions to reduce negative impacts. Methodology is based on document review of many bibliographic resources, which are related with skiing and mountain biking as examples of winter and summer sport activities on mountains.
Full Text Available Polytechnic as a higher educational institution trains students to be capable of becoming independent human. It is also responsible for equipping students with competence to compete in the workplace. Sport serves as a means of character and life skills development in students. It is well supported by the infrastructure management in Polytechnic. Based on the formulation of the problem mentioned above, the general purpose of this study is to determine the effect of infrastructure management on sports development in the State Polytechnic of Bandung. This study employed quantitative approach with survey method to obtain data from questionnaires and physical fitness test. The participants of the study are 77 students from two state polytechnics in Bandung. The result from data processing and analysis showed that 95.7% of sports participation rate is influenced by infrastructure management and the rest of 4.35 is influenced by other unexplainable variables, which means that facility and infrastructure management give positive influence on sports participation. In addition, other results showed that 93.0% of physical fitness figures are influenced by infrastructure management and 7.0% is influenced by other unexplainable variable, which means that infrastructure gives significant influence on physical fitness. It shows that if sports infrastructure is managed well, then it will greatly influence sports development.
Full Text Available Anna L Waterbrook,1 T Gail Pritchard,2 Allison D Lane,1 Lisa R Stoneking,1 Bryna Koch,2 Robert McAtee,1 Kristi H Grall,1 Alice A Min,1 Jessica Prior,1 Isaac Farrell,1 Holly G McNulty,1 Uwe Stolz1 1Department of Emergency Medicine, 2Office of Medical Student Education, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: Musculoskeletal complaints are the most common reason for patients to visit a physician, yet competency in musculoskeletal medicine is invariably reported as a deficiency in medical education in the USA. Sports medicine clinical rotations improve both medical students' and residents' musculoskeletal knowledge. Despite the importance of this knowledge, a standardized sports medicine curriculum in emergency medicine (EM does not exist. Hence, we developed a novel sports medicine rotation for EM residents to improve their musculoskeletal educational experience and to improve their knowledge in musculoskeletal medicine by teaching the evaluation and management of many common musculoskeletal disorders and injuries that are encountered in the emergency department. The University of Arizona has two distinct EM residency programs, South Campus (SC and University Campus (UC. The UC curriculum includes a traditional 4-week orthopedic rotation, which consistently rated poorly on evaluations by residents. Therefore, with the initiation of a new EM residency at SC, we replaced the standard orthopedic rotation with a novel sports medicine rotation for EM interns. This rotation includes attendance at sports medicine clinics with primary care and orthopedic sports medicine physicians, involvement in sport event coverage, assigned reading materials, didactic experiences, and an on-call schedule to assist with reductions in the emergency department. We analyzed postrotation surveys completed by residents, postrotation evaluations of the residents completed by primary care sports medicine faculty and orthopedic chief residents, as well as the
Waterbrook, Anna L; Pritchard, T Gail; Lane, Allison D; Stoneking, Lisa R; Koch, Bryna; McAtee, Robert; Grall, Kristi H; Min, Alice A; Prior, Jessica; Farrell, Isaac; McNulty, Holly G; Stolz, Uwe
Musculoskeletal complaints are the most common reason for patients to visit a physician, yet competency in musculoskeletal medicine is invariably reported as a deficiency in medical education in the USA. Sports medicine clinical rotations improve both medical students' and residents' musculoskeletal knowledge. Despite the importance of this knowledge, a standardized sports medicine curriculum in emergency medicine (EM) does not exist. Hence, we developed a novel sports medicine rotation for EM residents to improve their musculoskeletal educational experience and to improve their knowledge in musculoskeletal medicine by teaching the evaluation and management of many common musculoskeletal disorders and injuries that are encountered in the emergency department. The University of Arizona has two distinct EM residency programs, South Campus (SC) and University Campus (UC). The UC curriculum includes a traditional 4-week orthopedic rotation, which consistently rated poorly on evaluations by residents. Therefore, with the initiation of a new EM residency at SC, we replaced the standard orthopedic rotation with a novel sports medicine rotation for EM interns. This rotation includes attendance at sports medicine clinics with primary care and orthopedic sports medicine physicians, involvement in sport event coverage, assigned reading materials, didactic experiences, and an on-call schedule to assist with reductions in the emergency department. We analyzed postrotation surveys completed by residents, postrotation evaluations of the residents completed by primary care sports medicine faculty and orthopedic chief residents, as well as the total number of dislocation reductions performed by each graduating resident at both programs over the last 5 years. While all residents in both programs exceeded the ten dislocation reductions required for graduation, residents on the sports medicine rotation had a statistically significant higher rate of satisfaction of their educational
Cairney, John; Clark, Heather J; Kwan, Matthew Y W; Bruner, Mark; Tamminen, Katherine
Despite the proliferation of studies examining youth sport participation, there are significant gaps in knowledge regarding the impact of youth sport participation on health and development. These gaps are not new, but have persisted due to limitations with how sport participation is measured. Much of the research to date has measured sport participation as binary (yes/no) or count measures. This has been especially true in survey-based research. Yet, at the same time, research has investigated youths' experiences in sport such as the influence of coaches, teammates, and parents. The ability to measure these experiences is constrained by the need to use a number of measures along with gaps in the content covered in existing measures. We propose to develop and test the Sport Experiences Measure: Children and Youth (SEM:CY) as a population survey-based measure that captures the salient aspects of youths' experience in sport. The SEM:CY will be developed and tested across three phases. Phase I includes qualitative research with members of the sport community and engagement with an expert group to generate and obtain feedback on the initial item pool. In Phase II will recruit two consecutive samples of students from schools to complete the draft measure. Analysis will focus on assessing the items and factor structure of the measure. Factor structure will be assessed first with exploratory factor analysis and then confirmatory factor analysis. In phase III we will test the association between the SEM:CY with a measure of perceived competence, sport anxiety, and positive youth development to assess construct validity. We will also examine whether the structure of the measure varies by age or gender. The SEM:CY measure will provide a meaningful contribution to the measurement and understanding of youth sport participation. The SEM:CY can be used as a stand-alone measure to understand youth experiences in sport programs, or in combination with other health and development
MacNamara, Aine; Collins, Dave
Gulbin and colleagues (Gulbin, J. P., Croser, M. J., Morley, E. J., & Weissensteiner, J. R. (2013). An integrated framework for the optimisation of sport and athlete development: A practitioner approach. Journal of Sports Sciences) present a new sport and athlete development framework that evolved from empirical observations from working with the Australian Institute of Sport. The FTEM (Foundations, Talent, Elite, Mastery) framework is proposed to integrate general and specialised phases of development for participants within the active lifestyle, sport participation and sport excellence pathways. A number of issues concerning the FTEM framework are presented. We also propose the need to move beyond prescriptive models of talent identification and development towards a consideration of features of best practice and process markers of development together with robust guidelines about the implementation of these in applied practice.
Li, Yuge; Ouyang, Jie; Wang, Ya-Yun; Hu, Rui; Xia, Kuaifei; Duan, Jun; Wang, Yaqin; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Mingyong
Plants have evolved to express some members of the nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter family (NPF) to uptake and transport nitrate. However, little is known of the physiological and functional roles of this family in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here, we characterized the vascular specific transporter OsNPF2.2. Functional analysis using cDNA-injected Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed that OsNPF2.2 is a low-affinity, pH-dependent nitrate transporter. Use of a green fluorescent protein tagged OsNPF2.2 showed that the transporter is located in the plasma membrane in the rice protoplast. Expression analysis showed that OsNPF2.2 is nitrate inducible and is mainly expressed in parenchyma cells around the xylem. Disruption of OsNPF2.2 increased nitrate concentration in the shoot xylem exudate when nitrate was supplied after a deprivation period; this result suggests that OsNPF2.2 may participate in unloading nitrate from the xylem. Under steady-state nitrate supply, the osnpf2.2 mutants maintained high levels of nitrate in the roots and low shoot:root nitrate ratios; this observation suggests that OsNPF2.2 is involved in root-to-shoot nitrate transport. Mutation of OsNPF2.2 also caused abnormal vasculature and retarded plant growth and development. Our findings demonstrate that OsNPF2.2 can unload nitrate from the xylem to affect the root-to-shoot nitrate transport and plant development. PMID:25923512
ROBERT C. SCHNEIDER
Full Text Available Moral policy can be developed and maintained in sport organizations through an approach that incorporates act-utilitarianism (AU based on Jeremy Bentham’s hedonic calculus (HC. Sport managers’ effective application of AU based on HC takes on the form of a holistic approach to moral policy development and maintenance and requires an under-standing of the parts and process of a strict adherence to AU based on HC. The traits of common sense, habits, and past experience are supported by the utilitarian views held by Bentham and Mill to accurately predict happiness and un-happiness that result from actions (Beauchamp, 1982 and are also necessary to drive a holistic approach of AU based on HC that develops and maintains moral policy in sport organizations.
Full Text Available The papers published in this book of abstracts / proceedings were submitted to the Scientific Commission of the International Congress of Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences & Human Development, held on 11 and 12 November 2016, at the University of Évora, Évora, Portugal, under the topic of Exercise and Health, Sports and Human Development. The content of the abstracts is solely and exclusively of its authors responsibility. The editors and the Scientific Committee of the International Congress of Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences & Human Development do not assume any responsibility for the opinions and statements expressed by the authors. Partial reproduction of the texts and their use without commercial purposes is allowed, provided the source / reference is duly mentioned.
El-Khateeb, M.A.; El-Sharnouby, M.E.; Ragab, E.A.
In-Vitro propagated plant lets of Yucca elephantipes were placed under different photo periods (24/0, 16/8, and 0/24 L/D) for two months after cultured on MS medium supplemented with 40 g/l sucrose. Growing explants of Yucca elephantipes cultured on MS medium placed under photo period 24/0 L/D gave the highest shoot length and best proliferation than other treatments especially in subculture 3. Exposure to gamma irradiation at doses 0.0, 5 ,10, 20 and 40 Gy, and placed on the same conditions .Irradiated plantlets exhibited changes in shoot growth especially on photo period at 16/8 L/D than others, also with gamma irradiation at dose 20 Gy. Using gamma irradiation at level of 20 and 40 Gy stimulated both leaf shape and thickness of stem. The contents of total phenol, total saponin and some unsap contents were increased with increasing gamma irradiation
Background The definition of health incorporates the physical, social and mental domains, however the Physical Activity (PA) guidelines do not address social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by adults. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model of Health through Sport. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 11 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being wellbeing and reduced distress and stress. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health in addition to improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, club-based or team-based sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. Notwithstanding this, individuals who prefer to participate in sport by themselves can still derive mental health benefits which can enhance the development of true-self-awareness and personal growth which is essential for social health. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is
Eime, Rochelle M; Young, Janet A; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Payne, Warren R
The definition of health incorporates the physical, social and mental domains, however the Physical Activity (PA) guidelines do not address social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by adults. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model of Health through Sport. A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 11 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being wellbeing and reduced distress and stress. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health in addition to improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, club-based or team-based sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. Notwithstanding this, individuals who prefer to participate in sport by themselves can still derive mental health benefits which can enhance the development of true-self-awareness and personal growth which is essential for social health. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the cross
Romann, Michael; Rössler, Roland; Javet, Marie; Faude, Oliver
Relative age effects (RAE) generate consistent participation inequalities and selection biases in sports. The study aimed to investigate RAE across all sports of the national Swiss talent development programme (STDP). In this study, 18 859 youth athletes (female N = 5353; mean age: 14.8 ± 2.5 y and male N = 13 506; mean age: 14.4 ± 2.4 y) in 70 sports who participated in the 2014 competitive season were evaluated. The sample was subdivided by sex and the national level selection (NLS, N = 2464). Odds ratios (ORs) of relative age quarters (Q1-Q4) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. In STDP, small RAE were evident for females (OR 1.35 (95%-CI 1.24, 1.47)) and males (OR 1.84 (95%-CI 1.74, 1.95)). RAE were similar in female NLS athletes (OR 1.30 (95%-CI 1.08, 1.57)) and larger in male NLS athletes (OR 2.40 (95%-CI 1.42, 1.97)) compared to athletes in the lower selection level. In STDP, RAE are evident for both sexes in several sports with popular sports showing higher RAE. RAE were larger in males than females. A higher selection level showed higher RAE only for males. In Switzerland, talent identification and development should be considered as a long-term process.
Pedersen, Sara; Seidman, Edward
In this study we investigate the contribution of achievement in team sports to adolescent girls' self-esteem development. Adolescent girls (N = 247) from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds were surveyed as part of a larger study investigating the development of poor urban youth. Participants responded to items tapping global self-esteem,…
Claessen, Guido; Colyn, Erwin; La Gerche, André; Koopman, Pieter; Alzand, Becker; Garweg, Christophe; Willems, Rik; Nuyens, Dieter; Heidbuchel, Hein
To evaluate whether in a population of patients with 'lone atrial flutter', the proportion of those engaged in long-term endurance sports is higher than that observed in the general population. An age and sex-matched retrospective case-control study. A database with 638 consecutive patients who underwent ablation for atrial flutter at the University of Leuven. Sixty-one patients (55 men, 90%) fitted the inclusion criteria of 'lone atrial flutter', ie, aged 65 years or less, without documented atrial fibrillation and without identifiable underlying disease (including hypertension). Sex, age and inclusion criteria-matched controls, two for each flutter patient, were selected in a general practice in the same geographical region. Sports activity was evaluated by detailed questionnaires, which were available in 58 flutter patients (95%). A transthoracic echocardiogram was performed in all lone flutter patients. Types of sports, number of years of participation and average number of hours per week. The proportion of regular sportsmen (≥3 h of sports practice per week) among patients with lone atrial flutter was significantly higher than that observed in the general population (50% vs 17%; pendurance sports (participation in cycling, running or swimming for ≥3 h/week) was also significantly higher in lone flutter patients than in controls (31% vs 8%; p=0.0003). Those flutter patients performing endurance sports had a larger left atrium than non-sportsmen (p=0.04, by one-way analysis of variance). A history of endurance sports and subsequent left atrial remodelling may be a risk factor for the development of atrial flutter.
Bruner, Mark W; Balish, Shea M; Forrest, Christopher; Brown, Sarah; Webber, Kristine; Gray, Emily; McGuckin, Matthew; Keats, Melanie R; Rehman, Laurene; Shields, Christopher A
An emerging area of research has focused on understanding how the group dynamics of a sport team influence positive youth development (PYD). The identities that youth form through their membership in sport teams (i.e., social identities) have been found to influence teammate behavior and team performance. Yet, minimal work exists on social identity and PYD in youth sport. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social identity and PYD in sport. Youth engaged in recreational sport (N = 219; M age = 11.61 years, SD = 1.39 years) completed measures of social identity and PYD in sport. The social identity measure assessed 3 dimensions including ingroup ties (IGT; perceptions of similarity, bonding, belongingness), cognitive centrality (importance of being a team member), and ingroup affect (IGA; feelings associated with group membership). A regression analysis was performed separately for 4 PYD outcomes (personal and social skills, goal setting, initiative, negative experiences) with the 3 dimensions of social identity entered as predictors. Regression analyses revealed that IGT and IGA were positively associated with personal and social skills (R 2 Adj. = .29). Further, IGT predicted initiative (R 2 Adj. = .16), whereas IGA was positively associated with goal setting (R 2 Adj. = .17) and negatively associated with negative experiences (R 2 Adj. = .08). The findings extend previous research highlighting the benefits of social identity on teammate behavior and team performance and demonstrate how social identity may contribute to PYD through sport.
Kubayi, Alliance; Toriola, Abel; Didymus, Faye
The aim of this series of studies was to develop and initially validate an instrument to assess stressors among South African sports coaches. In study one, a preliminary pool of 45 items was developed based on existing literature and an expert panel was employed to assess the content validity and applicability of these items. In study two, the 32 items that were retained after study one were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA). The resultant factorial structure comprised four components: environmental stressors, performance stressors, task-related stressors, and athlete stressors. These four components were made up of 26 items and, together, the components and items comprised the provisional Stressors in Sports Coaching Questionnaire (SSCQ). The results show that the SSCQ demonstrates acceptable internal consistency (.73-.89). The findings provide preliminary evidence that SSCQ is a valid tool to assess stressors among South African sports coaches.
Cunquan YUAN,Lin XI,Yaping KOU,Yu ZHAO,Liangjun ZHAO
Full Text Available Shoot branching is regulated by the complex interactions among hormones, development, and environmental factors. Recent studies into the regulatory mecha-nisms of shoot branching have focused on strigolactones, which is a new area of investigation in shoot branching regulation. Elucidation of the function of the D53 gene has allowed exploration of detailed mechanisms of action of strigolactones in regulating shoot branching. In addition, the recent discovery that sucrose is key for axillary bud release has challenged the established auxin theory, in which auxin is the principal agent in the control of apical dominance. These developments increase our understan-ding of branching control and indicate that regulation of shoot branching involves a complex network. Here, we first summarize advances in the systematic regulatory network of plant shoot branching based on current information. Then we describe recent developments in the synthesis and signal transduction of strigolactones. Based on these considerations, we further summarize the plant shoot branching regulatory network, including long distance systemic signals and local gene activity mediated by strigolactones following perception of external envi-ronmental signals, such as shading, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of plant shoot branching.
Sakes, Aimée; Wiel, van der Marleen; Henselmans, Paul W.J.; Leeuwen, van Johan L.; Dodou, Dimitra; Breedveld, Paul
Background In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these
Full Text Available While competition-based team sports remain dominant in community and sport-for-development programs, researchers are exploring the value of alternative, less “sportized” activities such as lifestyle/action sports. In this paper, we explore the ways in which surfing is being used in development programs in Aotearoa/New Zealand, examining the perceived social benefits and impact. Our methods involved: (a mapping the range of surfing projects; and (b 8 in-depth interviews with program personnel. Widespread conviction in the positive developmental benefits of surfing was evident, and that surfing had a “special” capacity to reform or heal those who participate in it. However, the ways in which individuals’ self-developments were promoted appear to be following the traditional sport/youth development path. They focus on policies aimed at improved life chances, equipping youth with the tools for self-improvement and self-management, inculcating self-governance and self-reliance. However, a counter narrative co-existed, highlighting surfing as a freeing experience, which, rather than restoring social order, works to instigate a personal transformation or awakening. Despite the range of challenges presented by surfing as a tool for positive development, surfing presents a potentially “critical alternative” which if sport-for-development programs are to be a form of social change, we should remain open to exploring.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...
Tiemessen, Ivo JH; Kuijer, P Paul FM; Hulshof, Carel TJ; Frings-Dresen, Monique HW
Background The onset of jumper's knee is generally associated with sports and sporting activities. Employees in certain professions might be at risk as well for developing jumper's knee. Therefore, it is of interest to identify risk factors in sport and/or occupation. Findings A systematic search of the international scientific literature was performed until November 2008 in the scientific databases (a) Medline, (b) Embase, and (c) SportDiscus. All types of studies were included. The search strategy retrieved ten articles about risk factors in sport that met the inclusion criteria. Risk factors that could be identified are; playing volleyball (4 studies), playing basketball (3 studies), training and playing volleyball/basketball more than 12 hours per week (2 studies), in combination with weight-bearing activities of at least 5 hours per week (1 study) and playing or training on a hard surface (1 study). No studies were found regarding occupation that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Conclusion Playing volleyball and basketball has a positive association with the onset or worsening of jumper's knee. Other risk factors are training and playing hours of at least 12 hours per week and/or in combination with weight training of at least 5 hours per week, and/or with playing or training on a hard surface. We did not find a specific occupational risk factor. PMID:19586529
Frings-Dresen Monique HW
Full Text Available Abstract Background The onset of jumper's knee is generally associated with sports and sporting activities. Employees in certain professions might be at risk as well for developing jumper's knee. Therefore, it is of interest to identify risk factors in sport and/or occupation. Findings A systematic search of the international scientific literature was performed until November 2008 in the scientific databases (a Medline, (b Embase, and (c SportDiscus. All types of studies were included. The search strategy retrieved ten articles about risk factors in sport that met the inclusion criteria. Risk factors that could be identified are; playing volleyball (4 studies, playing basketball (3 studies, training and playing volleyball/basketball more than 12 hours per week (2 studies, in combination with weight-bearing activities of at least 5 hours per week (1 study and playing or training on a hard surface (1 study. No studies were found regarding occupation that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Conclusion Playing volleyball and basketball has a positive association with the onset or worsening of jumper's knee. Other risk factors are training and playing hours of at least 12 hours per week and/or in combination with weight training of at least 5 hours per week, and/or with playing or training on a hard surface. We did not find a specific occupational risk factor.
Lonsdale, Chris; Hodge, Ken; Rose, Elaine A
The purpose of the four studies described in this article was to develop and test a new measure of competitive sport participants' intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation (self-determination theory; Deci & Ryan, 1985). The items for the new measure, named the Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), were constructed using interviews, expert review, and pilot testing. Analyses supported the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and factorial validity of the BRSQ scores. Nomological validity evidence was also supportive, as BRSQ subscale scores were correlated in the expected pattern with scores derived from measures of motivational consequences. When directly compared with scores derived from the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS; Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand, Tuson, & Blais, 1995) and a revised version of that questionnaire (SMS-6; Mallett, Kawabata, Newcombe, Otero-Forero, & Jackson, 2007), BRSQ scores demonstrated equal or superior reliability and factorial validity as well as better nomological validity.
Full Text Available this article describes physical culture and sport as factors, playing a very important role in the development of society. According to the author there is a situation of decline in physical health-improving activity of the people all around the world. Obviously, it can lead to poor health and reduced productivity. The author believes that it is possible to increase productivity of the active working population by increasing investments in mass sport. Numerous empirical and experimental data confirm that there is a disease reduction, the increase of useful Fund of working time, the increase of intellectual and manual labor. Investments in physical activity and sport reduce the state expenses on medical care and increase of working age, which in turn reduces the cost of pension provision. This article investigates the problem of investments in physical culture influence on the increase of labor productivity.
Super, S.; Verkooijen, K.T.; Koelen, M.A.
Sport is widely recognised as having the potential to enhance the personal development of socially vulnerable youth, yet there is very limited knowledge on how community sports coaches can create optimal social conditions for life skill development and transferability. We adopt a salutogenic
Megheirkouni, Majd; Roomi, Muhammad Azam
Purpose: This study explores the positive and negative factors influencing transformational learning experiences of female leaders in women's leadership development programmes in sports and examines the differences in learning/change factors cited by those who successfully addressed them and those who failed. Design/methodology/approach: The study…
Buelens, Evi; Theeboom, Marc; Vertonghen, Jikkemien; De Martelaer, Kristine
A considerable number of adolescents in Western societies live in socially vulnerable situations. Approaches to improve this situation ultimately aim to make institutional changes through a focus on individual development. With regard to the latter, there have been high expectations regarding sport
Sherry, Emma; Schulenkorf, Nico
League Bilong Laif (LBL) is a sport-for-development (SFD) programme that was established in 2013 as a three-way partnership between the Australian Government, the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Government (Department of Education) and the Australian Rugby League Commission (National Rugby League). As a contribution to addressing low rates of school…
Panachev, Valery D.; Zelenin, Leonid A.; Opletin, Anatoly A.; Verbytskyi, Sergei A.
Problems of formation, development and introduction of the modern pedagogical selfdevelopment system in university educational process by means of physical culture and sport have been considered in this article. Such generated pedagogical system reflects practical implementation of social order on the modern educational paradigm aimed at creation…
VanSickle, Jennifer; Schaumleffel, Nathan A.
The goal of many universities is to prepare students for professional careers, especially in the applied field of recreation, leisure, and sport (Smith, O'Dell, & Schaumleffel, 2002). While some universities continue to use traditional knowledge-transfer methods to accomplish this goal, others have developed service engagement projects that…
Hutter, R. I. (Vana); Oldenhof-Veldman, Tanja; Pijpers, J. R. (Rob); Oudejans, Raôul R.D.
To enhance the training of sport psychology consultants, it is important to know which learning experiences are useful for which components of professional development. We interviewed 15 novice consultants on their learning experiences related to 13 different topics. Traditional learning experiences
Development of previously disadvantaged communities was identified in South Afria (SA) as a national priority and sport was indicated to be part of such a strategy. Farm schools are among the poorest with regards to financial resources and physical structures in SA and consequently learners are confronted with many ...
Hall, Stacey L.; Forrester, Scott; Borsz, Melissa
This constructivist case study examined undergraduate student leadership development. Twenty-one student leaders, 13 females and 8 males, in a campus recreational sports department were interviewed using a semi-structured interview protocol. Seven broad themes: organizing, planning, and delegating; balancing academic, personal and professional…
This article reports on the "uptake" dynamics and resultant manifestations of a school-based, incentive-driven, sport-for-development programme in the South African context of poverty. The ecological systems theory of Brofenbrenner, the theory of complexity and a neo-liberal framework underpin the social constructions of local meanings…
Full Text Available With the growing trend of globalization, the contact between countries is also strengthening. Under the background of cultural prosperity and communication, our national traditional sports are still in a marginalized position, in which the patriotism and cultural value are also ignored. Furthermore, national traditional sports and traditional culture are in the danger of dying off. Therefore, this article has strategic thought on the inheritance and development of national traditional sport in the view of globalization, and finds a reasonable measure to resolve the existing problems. Dig deep into the national traditional resource, build a good cultural image of China, and promote the cultural competitiveness of sports to extend influence.
Full Text Available A considerable number of adolescents in Western societies live in socially vulnerable situations. Approaches to improve this situation ultimately aim to make institutional changes through a focus on individual development. With regard to the latter, there have been high expectations regarding sport volunteering’s contribution to human capital development. Nevertheless, little understanding of the underlying conditions for, and possible outcomes of sport volunteering exists. This study’s aim was twofold: (1 to assess the conditions necessary to develop the human capital of disadvantaged adolescents through volunteering in community sport, and (2 to assess to what extent human capital can be developed. A qualitative research design was used to attain deeper insight into these conditions within eight community sport programs in Flanders (Northern Dutch-speaking region of Belgium, a setting that is not often used for youth developmental practices. Data were collected on repeated occasions over the course of each program through qualitative methods with local sport services and social partner organizations (N = 26 and participating adolescents (N = 26. Inductive analysis identified two categories of necessary conditions, (1 valuing and recognizing adolescents, and (2 informal and experiential learning. Results further showed the achievement of two types of perceived human capital developmental outcome (i.e., personal and interpersonal competences through the fulfilment of these conditions. Findings also showed that although two of these programs made use of a more critical pedagogical approach to youth development by encouraging participants, not only to reflect on, but also to critically take part in the transformation of their own position within society; critical youth empowerment was not reached in the majority of the programs.
Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla plantlets were regenerated via indirect organogenesis. Histological assessment of their development focused on identifying the calli, the differentiation of shoots from the calli and the shoot-root junction from the nascent shoots. Vascular tissue formation within the callus preceded that of ...
Flannery, Daniel J; Modzeleski, William; Kretschmar, Jeff M
Multiple-homicide school shootings are rare events, but when they happen they significantly impact individuals, the school and the community. We focus on multiple-homicide incidents and identified mental health issues of shooters. To date, studies of school shootings have concluded that no reliable profile of a shooter exists, so risk should be assessed using comprehensive threat assessment protocols. Existing studies primarily utilize retrospective case histories or media accounts. The field requires more empirical and systematic research on all types of school shootings including single victim incidents, those that result in injury but not death and those that are successfully averted. We discuss current policies and practices related to school shootings and the role of mental health professionals in assessing risk and supporting surviving victims.
Little, Stefan A; Jacobs, Brooke; McKechnie, Steven J; Cooper, Ranessa L; Christianson, Michael L; Jernstedt, Judith A
Ginkgo, centrally placed in seed plant phylogeny, is considered important in many phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Shoot dimorphism of Ginkgo has been long noted, but no work has yet been done to evaluate the relationships between overall branch architecture and wood ring characters, shoot growth, and environmental conditions. • Branches, sampled from similar canopy heights, were mapped with the age of each long shoot segment determined by counting annual leaf-scar series on its short shoots. Transverse sections were made for each long shoot segment and an adjacent short shoot; wood ring thickness, number of rings, and number of tracheids/ring were determined. Using branch maps, we identified wood rings for each long shoot segment to year and developmental context of each year (distal short shoot growth only vs. at least one distal long shoot). Climate data were also analyzed in conjunction with developmental context. • Significantly thicker wood rings occur in years with distal long shoot development. The likelihood that a branch produced long shoots in a given year was lower with higher maximum annual temperature. Annual maximum temperature was negatively correlated with ring thickness in microsporangiate trees only. Annual minimum temperatures were correlated differently with ring thickness of megasporangiate and microsporangiate trees, depending on the developmental context. There were no significant effects associated with precipitation. • Overall, developmental context alone predicts wood ring thickness about as well as models that include temperature. This suggests that although climatic factors may be strongly correlated with wood ring data among many gymnosperm taxa, at least for Ginkgo, correlations with climate data are primarily due to changes in proportions of shoot developmental types (LS vs. SS) across branches.
Orosz, Robert; Mezo, Ferenc
This study presents a new, integrative model of sports talent. Following the theoretical part of the study a football-talent research is presented, in which a theoretical framework is provided by this new theory of sports talent. This research examines the role of psychological factors in football talent development. The sample was N = 425…
AMADOR J. LARA-SÁNCHEZ
Full Text Available Physical Education teachers have been using some very classic team sports, like football, basketball, handball, volleyball, etc. for many years in order to develop their education work at school. As a consequence of this, the benefits of this kind of activities on Physical Education lessons have not been as notable as we mighthave expected, since, even if they are increasing, their development and application are still low. There are many and very varied new non-traditional sports that have emerged and extended across Spain in recent years. To mention an example, we could refer to a newly created non-traditional sport such as kin-ball. This sport wascreated for the purpose of achieving a way to combine several factors such as health, team-work and competitiveness. Three teams of four players each participate. This way, every player can participate to a great extent in all the moves of the match, for each of them must defend one area of their half in order to achieve a common objective. Besides, kin-ball helps to develop motor skills at school in an easy way; that is, coordination, balance and perception. There is a large variety of non-traditional games and sports that are similar to kin-ball, such as floorball, intercrosse, mazaball, tchoukball, ultimate, indiaca, shuttleball... All of them show many physical, psychic and social advantages, and can help us to make the Physical Education teaching-learning process more motivating, acquiring the recreational component that it showed some years ago and which hasnow disappeared
Background There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. Conclusion It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a
Eime, Rochelle M; Young, Janet A; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Payne, Warren R
There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a form of leisure time PA for children
the best style of parenting to achieve these goals? Many athletes performing ... in supporting children in their quest to develop their athletic talent. During the foundation ... not have a major effect on the development of talent'. In a society such.
Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel
Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not least because of the growing awareness of the positive effect that sport can have on health, social cohesion and the economy. Sport is now an integral part of society and has developed into the biggest infor...
Vaeyens, Roel; Lenoir, Matthieu; Williams, A Mark; Philippaerts, Renaat M
Many children strive to attain excellence in sport. However, although talent identification and development programmes have gained popularity in recent decades, there remains a lack of consensus in relation to how talent should be defined or identified and there is no uniformly accepted theoretical framework to guide current practice. The success rates of talent identification and development programmes have rarely been assessed and the validity of the models applied remains highly debated. This article provides an overview of current knowledge in this area with special focus on problems associated with the identification of gifted adolescents. There is a growing agreement that traditional cross-sectional talent identification models are likely to exclude many, especially late maturing, 'promising' children from development programmes due to the dynamic and multidimensional nature of sport talent. A conceptual framework that acknowledges both genetic and environmental influences and considers the dynamic and multidimensional nature of sport talent is presented. The relevance of this model is highlighted and recommendations for future work provided. It is advocated that talent identification and development programmes should be dynamic and interconnected taking into consideration maturity status and the potential to develop rather than to exclude children at an early age. Finally, more representative real-world tasks should be developed and employed in a multidimensional design to increase the efficacy of talent identification and development programmes.
Arce, Constantino; Torrado, Julio; Andrade, Elena; Garrido, Javier; de Francisco, Cristina
This study describes the process of developing a scale to measure the leadership capacity of players in sports teams. Research into sports leadership has focused almost exclusively on the formal leadership of the coach, in which the studies by Chelladurai, with his five-factor model, have become an essential point of reference. Nevertheless, hardly any research has been carried out into the leadership that certain players exercise over the other team members. For this purpose, a sample of 143 male basketball players was used; these participants were asked to evaluate the characteristics of the sports leader over a total of 54 indicators. Firstly, explanatory factor analysis was performed with participants' responses, using principal axis and oblique rotation methods. The factor structure obtained was then subjected to confirmatory factorial analysis, enabling us to propose a Sports Leader Evaluation Scale (EELD, in Spanish) with 18 items grouped into 3 factors, denominated empathy and responsibility, assertiveness, and impulsiveness. Satisfactory fit indices were obtained for the model, for the reliability of items and for the internal consistency of factors.
Tourism in Croatia is on the turning point of its development. War devastation in Croatia negatively affected tourism. The process of restoration of Croatian tourism should not only renovate the ruined tourist facilities, but it should also overcome the disadvantages of the past development of tourism. One of the important factors of the variety and quality of tourist offer are sports-recreational activities and programmes which provide the possibility of active rest and recreation. In Cro...
Wikman, Johan Michael
introduction to current talent development theories and models is given. Here, the Theory of Deliberate Practice (Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Römer, 1993), the Developmental Model of Sport Participation (Côté, Baker, & Abernethy, 2007), the Lifespan Model (Wylleman & Reints, 2010), and the normative transitions.......This thesis investigates sport psychological training for young elite athletes through two approaches. First, three reviews are performed: a review of psychological skills and characteristics needed for successful talent development, a review of current talent development theories and models, and a review...... by an introduction to mixed methods, namely the ontology, epistemology, and methodology of using both quantitative and qualitative methods to obtain data about the phenomenon under scrutiny, and it is defined, which methodological standpoint has supported the methods of this thesis, namely the pragmatic standpoint...
Addresses junior sport and sport culture in New Zealand, recommending that it receive serious consideration for its crucial role in the future of New Zealand's sport culture. The paper presents three goals for junior sport programs (educative, public health, and elite development), describes characteristics of junior sport (e.g., youth want to…
Decroos, Steven; Lines, Robin L. J.; Morgan, Paul B. C.; Fletcher, David; Sarkar, Mustafa; Fransen, Katrien; Boen, Filip; Vande Broek, Gert
This multistudy paper reports the development and initial validation of an inventory for the Characteristics of Resilience in Sports Teams (CREST). In 4 related studies, 1,225 athletes from Belgium and the United Kingdom were sampled. The first study provided content validity for an initial item set. The second study explored the factor structure of the CREST, yielding initial evidence but no conclusive results. In contrast, the third and fourth study provided evidence for a 2-factor measure,...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop the new wheel-chair which had the function to drive straight by one-hand operation. To perform this purpose, the driving force transmission axis (DFTA which had transmitted the driving force from the one side of wheel to another side of that was developed. The wheel-chair could drive straight by one-hand operation by the DFTA. The large torque, however, was generated in the DFTA, because the DFTA transmitted the driving force from the one side of wheel to another side by the axis of small diameter. Furthermore, the shear stress in the DFTA generated by this torque would lead to the DFTA break. The shear stress in the DFTA was calculated to examine the axial strength and durability. On the DETA of the wheelchair, the maximum shear stress calculated from the torque in driving was 39.53 MP and this was defined as the standard of the demand specifications as a strength and durability of the DFTA.
Larissa Rafaela Galatti
Full Text Available The overall aim of this article was to present a positive case study about how a sport club can foster both elite athlete development in parallel with offering a diverse range of sport activities to attract and maintain a greater number of children and youth for continued participation in a long term sport program. To this end, an in-depth case study was conducted of a model Spanish Basketball Club, considered an example of success in achieving consistent level of performance and high rates of participation among their youth. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with administrators, setting observation, and analysis of current and archived club documents. The results show that the club has created changes over the years that have led to a clear organizational structure with a philosophy that connects its youth development teams and elite teams. An increase focus on youth development, the addition of recreational activities, and the implementation of a coach education program have been linked to enhanced participation rate and performance.
Rongen, Fieke; McKenna, Jim; Cobley, Stephen; Till, Kevin
Talent identification and development systems (TIDS) are commonly used in professional sport to convert youth athletes into sporting stars of the future. Acknowledging that only a few athletes can "make it," the necessity and healthiness of TIDS have recently been questioned based on their increased professionalism, high training, and competition volumes, but limited effectiveness. In this short communication, we suggest that the key issues associated with TIDS are not due to their overall concept, but with how they are designed and implemented. It is recommended that researchers and practitioners determine the worth and value of TIDS by also evaluating the positive health of the athlete rather than solely focusing on performance outcomes. To achieve this, TIDS staff should shape and develop their values, expectations, and day-to-day routines to achieve positive health outcomes focusing on personal development and an athlete-centered culture. In business, this has been termed the concept of "Deliberately Developmental Organisation." TIDS can deploy the factors (e.g., high-quality staff, expert support services, quality facilities, and learning routines) characteristic of such organizations, to concurrently ensure positive impacts and minimize predictable negative outcomes without losing focus on a drive for sporting performance.
S. A. Novoselov
Full Text Available The new context competence system of vocational training requires the system-creating interdisciplinary link. However, the lack of such interrelation between the humanities, social, economic disciplines and professional subjects badly affects the training results. The quality of training process can be improved by introducing the interdisciplinary principle. In this regard, the authors carried out the research aimed at solving the above problem by developing the method of interdisciplinary correlation and analyzing its system-creating basis.The paper substantiates the possibility of developing students’ technological thinking by means of sports and physical education activity corresponding to a particular professional one according to the universal morphology classification. It is demonstrated that technological thinking can be developed in the context of sports games under several organizational and methodical conditions. One of the proposed conditions concerns the project of a sport game improvement. The given method can find its application in designing the training process related to physical education of students of different profiles.
Agans, Jennifer P.; Geldhof, G. John
In order to examine youth experiences in athletic activities with different characteristics, the present study explored the developmental outcomes associated with participation in three different types of sport (individual sports, team sports, and dance-type sports) as well as across six identified patterns of participation (no participation,…
Dreisbach, W; Arnold, B
The intention of the present report is to show that particularly the negative self-assessment of older people produces disturbing developments even in their social relations. We proceed from the thesis that movement and game, i.e. the development of motor abilities forms the basis of the whole system of man. For this reason a socio-political education of the aged should include sports since it offers opportunities for developing a subjective and social awareness; in this context didactic-methodological approaches are developed.
Saengchantr, Dhanaj; Chueinta Siripone
Full text: Software of data logging and graphical presentation on gamma scanning for trouble shooting and process evaluation of the petroleum refinery column was developed. While setting the gamma source and gamma detector at the opposite orientation along side the column and recording the transmitted radiation through the column at several elevations, the relative density gamma intensity vs. vertical elevation could be obtained in the graphical mode. In comparison with engineering drawing, the physical and process abnormalities could be clearly evaluated during field investigation. The program could also accumulate up to 8 data sets, each of 1,000 points allowing with convenience, the comparison of different operational parameters adjustment during remedy of the problem and/or process optimization. Incorporated with this development and other factors, the technology capability of the TINT Service Center to the petroleum refinery was also enhanced
In this essay two paintings by the French artist Jean-Francois Millet are described. These paintings, Les Etoiles Filantes and Nuit Etoilée are particularly interesting since they demonstrate the rare artistic employment of the shooting-star image and metaphor.
Post, W.M.; Bogaard, S.A.A. van den; Rasker, P.C.
When knowledge, required for trouble-shooting at sea, can be supplied real-time but from a distance, problems, such as with the limited availability of specialists, and the high costs of maintenance, may be tackled. Unclear is, however, how this redistribution of knowledge will work in practice. We
Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean
This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…
José Pereira, Rui Araújo, Cláudio Farias, Cristiana Bessa, Isabel Mesquita
Full Text Available This study conducted a comparative analysis of students’ knowledge development on athletics in Sport Education and in a Direct Instruction unit taking into account sex and initial skill level. The participants were an experienced Physical Education teacher and two sixth-grade classes totaling 47 students (25 boys and 22 girls. Each class was randomly placed in either Sport Education or Direct Instruction classes and participated in 20, 45-minutes lessons focused on shot put, hurdles and triple jump. Knowledge on athletics was assessed through a 25-items written and video-based test. The inter-group differences and improvements across time in the knowledge test were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, respectively. There were significant knowledge improvements in both instructional approaches irrespective of students’ gender and skill level. In Direct Instruction, the type of task organization, the high rates of repetition of movement patterns and feedback by the teacher were beneficial to student learning. In Sport Education, the autonomy granted to students in the control of the pace of task transitions by making on-going judgments on achievement of performance criteria, implicated students affectively and cognitively with the learning content. It was further supported that several models and teaching strategies should be taken into consideration when teaching Physical Education. Different approaches should be perceived as alternatives and teachers should retain the best in each according with the moment in the unit, student developmental stage, and the specific learning objectives in the task.
Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Hettinga, Florentina J
Pacing has been characterized as a multifaceted goal-directed process of decision making in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy during the race, a process essential for optimal performance. Both physiological and psychological characteristics associated with adequate pacing and performance are known to develop with age. Consequently, the multifaceted skill of pacing might be under construction throughout adolescence, as well. Therefore, the authors propose that the complex skill of pacing is a potential important performance characteristic for talented youth athletes that needs to be developed throughout adolescence. To explore whether pacing is a marker for talent and how talented athletes develop this skill in middle-distance and endurance sports, they aim to bring together literature on pacing and literature on talent development and self-regulation of learning. Subsequently, by applying the cyclical process of self-regulation to pacing, they propose a practical model for the development of performance in endurance sports in youth athletes. Not only is self-regulation essential throughout the process of reaching the long-term goal of athletic excellence, but it also seems crucial for the development of pacing skills within a race and the development of a refined performance template based on previous experiences. Coaches and trainers are advised to incorporate pacing as a performance characteristic in their talent-development programs by stimulating their athletes to reflect, plan, monitor, and evaluate their races on a regular basis to build performance templates and, as such, improve their performance.
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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the shooting activity on the environment. The studies were conducted in the area of the sports shooting range. The invertebrates assemblages were identified to the family level as well as morphospecies. The second method do not require the proficiency in identification. The following indices of the biodiversity were used for the assessment of the impact of sports shooting ranges: Simpson, Shannon-Wiener, Margalef, Berger-Parker and Menhinick. A decreased biodiversity was observed at two studied sites comparing to the reference site what proves the influence of shooting activity on the biodiversity and suggest disturbance of the ecosystem integrity because of shooting activity.
Robert OROSZ; Ferenc MEZO
This study presents a new, integrative model of sports talent. Following the theoretical part of the study a football-talent research is presented, in which a theoretical framework is provided by this new theory of sports talent. This research examines the role of psychological factors in football talent development. The sample was N=425 football-players of the First Division Men’s Junior and Adolescent Football Championships of the Hungarian Football League, and their coaches (N=21). The app...
In the last few years, amok-like killings and especially so-called "school shootings" have received a great deal of public attention both in the Old and the New world. Meanwhile, criminal psychological research has gained a thorough insight into this dangerous development in young people. Thus, the possibility to assess the concrete threat of such a multiple killing before it is carried out has been considerably improved, as many prognostic criteria have been worked out in the meantime. The case report presented shows that it is possible to exercise a favourable influence on this critical negative trend.
Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.
Panu Poutvaara; Olli Ropponen
In this paper, we study how high school students reacted to the shocking news of a school shooting. The shooting coincided with national high-school matriculation exams. As there were exams both before and after the shooting, we can use a difference-in-differences analysis to uncover how the school shooting affected the test scores compared to previous years. We find that the average performance of young men declined due to the school shooting, whereas we do not observe a similar pattern for ...
Full Text Available Purpose : to develop theoretically and experimentally justify the methodology of development of coordination abilities of athletes aged 7-9 years involved in sports aerobics. Material : the study involved 20 participants (7-9 years. 8 athletes performed the test tasks. The choice of tests carried out on the basis of the analysis of the dominant motor mode competition exercises. Results : It was found that the coordination abilities are necessary in the development of speed, density, and the number of running technical elements. With more than a significant increase in performance test tasks that characterize: musicality, coordination, dynamic balance. The basic tools, methods, techniques, and requirements for the exercises. The level of development of coordination abilities. Conclusions : the author's method of development of coordination abilities include: rational choice of means and methods of training impact on their similarities and differences with the target competitive activity.
Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon
Adolescent mass shootings are a special subset of mass killings, which continue despite significant preventative public health efforts. It is often held that these individuals have few salient warning signs that could have been identified. This piece proposes that mass shootings committed by adolescent and post-adolescent young males must be understood from a developmental perspective. The hypothesis proposed in this paper is that such killings occur as the result of the adolescent's frustrated effort to progress along normative development. The goal of normative separation from maternal figures by the boy is presented as a potential risk factor when this goal is thwarted. Childhood case material from the perpetrator of a recent adolescent mass shooting, the Sandy Hook shooting, is discussed as an illustration of this hypothesis. Implications for public health measures and for individualized treatment are presented and developed.
Raittila, Pentti; Koljonen, Kari; Väliverronen, Jari
Two school shootings in Finland (Jokela in 2007 and Kauhajoki in 2008) resulted in the death of 20 people, and they shook not only the foundations of Finnish society but also of the profession that reported about the tragedies. This report is based on research conducted on school shootings at the University of Tampere Journalism Research and Development Centre between 2008 and 2009. The analysis concentrates on both the journalistic texts published on the shootings and journalists' actions...
Fatma ÇELİK KAYAPINAR
Full Text Available Aim: The study is to develop a scale on the attitudes of 12-16 year-old athletes towards the combat sports. Material and Methods: In order to develop a scale; creating items, taking the expert’s opinions, pretesting, statistics of the validity and the reliability were done. In order to create item pool, two open-ended questions were asked to 60 licensed athletes dealing with combat sports. According to the answers given by athletes, the item pool consisting of 53 items was created. Taking the 3 domain experts, 1 educational specialist and 1 linguist’s opinions, trial scale consisting of 32 items were created for the pretesting step. The clarity and the intelligibility of the scale were tested by 60 athletes .The trial scale in the pretesting step was filled in by 251 licensed athletes (1-7 sports age consisting of 85 judo, 84 taekwondo and 82 karate athletes. Derived data were coded to the packaged software for statistical process and as a last step; the validity and reliability studies were done. Results: According to the results taken from the trial scale, taking the result of that the parameters of the 9 items should be less than r≤30, a scale of 23 items and 9 aspects remained. As the number of items in the aspects are a few, it was gathered in the 3 sub-aspects by the research team. These aspects were named as satisfaction, pleasure and fomentation. The internal consistency parameters of the aspects; satisfaction Cronbach’s Alpha=0.59, pleasure Cronbach’s Alpha=0.48 and fomentation Cronbach’s Alpha=0.44 were determined. The total reliability point Cronbach’s Alpha=.731 was determined. Conclusion: Scales having enough qualities to test the attitudes of 12-16 year-old athletes towards combat sports was gained. It can be determined whether the attitudes of the athletes are negative or positive by applying to the licensed combat athletes or the students at school for skill analysis.
A.S. Teletov; V.I. Karpets
The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the concept of «sport tourism marketing», to examine the state of its objects and to determine prospects for development of sport tourism in Ukraine. The paper singles out the role of sport in life; compares different types of cities in terms of provision the infrastructure for tourism development in the field of sports. Authors show the example of the campaign. The results of the analysis. The article deals with sport tourism as...
Pereira, José; Araújo, Rui; Farias, Cláudio; Bessa, Cristiana; Mesquita, Isabel
This study conducted a comparative analysis of students’ knowledge development on athletics in Sport Education and in a Direct Instruction unit taking into account sex and initial skill level. The participants were an experienced Physical Education teacher and two sixth-grade classes totaling 47 students (25 boys and 22 girls). Each class was randomly placed in either Sport Education or Direct Instruction classes and participated in 20, 45-minutes lessons focused on shot put, hurdles and triple jump. Knowledge on athletics was assessed through a 25-items written and video-based test. The inter-group differences and improvements across time in the knowledge test were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, respectively. There were significant knowledge improvements in both instructional approaches irrespective of students’ gender and skill level. In Direct Instruction, the type of task organization, the high rates of repetition of movement patterns and feedback by the teacher were beneficial to student learning. In Sport Education, the autonomy granted to students in the control of the pace of task transitions by making on-going judgments on achievement of performance criteria, implicated students affectively and cognitively with the learning content. It was further supported that several models and teaching strategies should be taken into consideration when teaching Physical Education. Different approaches should be perceived as alternatives and teachers should retain the best in each according with the moment in the unit, student developmental stage, and the specific learning objectives in the task. Key points The results in this study showed that regardless of students’ sex, both DI and SE were efficient in the promotion of improvements in students’ content knowledge of athletics. Both boys and girls improved from the pre-test to the post-test in SE and DI. SE was particularly beneficial to lower skill-level. On the contrary, in the DI unit
Ho, Frederick Ka Wing; Louie, Lobo Hung Tak; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Chow, Chun Bong; Ho, Walter; Wong, William; Chan, Meanne; Chen, Eric Yu Hai; Cheung, Yiu Fai; Ip, Patrick
To assess the effectiveness of a positive youth development (PYD)-based sports mentorship program on the physical and mental well-being of adolescents recruited in a community setting. This is a randomized controlled trial in which we recruited students from 12 secondary schools in Hong Kong, China. Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to an intervention or a control arm after stratification for school from October 2013 to June 2014. Participants were not blinded to allocation because of the nature of the intervention. Students in the intervention arm received an after-school, PYD-based sports mentorship for 18 weeks. Each weekly session lasted 90 minutes. Students in the control arm received exclusive access to a health education Web site. Six hundred and sixty-four students (mean age 12.3 years [SD 0.76]; 386 girls [58.1%]) completed baseline and postintervention assessments. The intervention improved students' mental well-being (Cohen's d , 0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.10 to 0.40; P = .001), self-efficacy (Cohen's d , 0.22; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.37; P = .01), resilience (Cohen's d , 0.19; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.34; P = .02), physical fitness (flexibility [Cohen's d , 0.28; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.43; P = .02], lower limb muscle strength [Cohen's d , 0.18; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.33; P = .03], and dynamic balance [Cohen's d , 0.21; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.37; P = .01]), and physical activity levels (Cohen's d , 0.39; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.55; P sports mentorship intervention improved healthy adolescents' mental well-being, psychological assets, physical fitness, and physical activity levels. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available The modern sports movement is going through a process of differentiation. New activities have developed and are still developing. New values and new organizational forms and methods of sports training can replace older ones. Sport is a part of modern lifestyle and various subcultures show the diversity of modern sport. In this paper we try to introduce some experiences about the new philosophy of changing values in modern society and try to give a description of process of value differentiation in sport. We used the methods, methodological principles and means of experienced learning through the pedagogical experiment (special training camps that were a part of long time preparation of some groups of young athletes in Wild water slalom. The used programmes (icebreakers, contact games, trust games, initiative and team games, strategic games, social and dramatic games, communication and cooperation games, environmental games, overcoming obstacles, rope courses….. were firstly opportunities for self-development as well as for learning a great deal about teamwork. There are not exact quantitative results but our experiences show a considerable qualitative development in cohesion of the whole team and positive communication among team and coaches. The success of the Czech team at Junior World and European Championships probably reflects the personal development (selfconfidence, self-respect, self-fulfilment, high spirit of competitors.
Eys, Mark; Loughead, Todd; Bray, Steven R; Carron, Albert V
The purpose of the current study was to initiate the development of a psychometrically sound measure of cohesion for youth sport groups. A series of projects were undertaken in a four-phase research program. The initial phase was designed to garner an understanding of how youth sport group members perceived the concept of cohesion through focus groups (n = 56), open-ended questionnaires (n = 280), and a literature review. In Phase 2, information from the initial projects was used in the development of 142 potential items and content validity was assessed. In Phase 3, 227 participants completed a revised 87-item questionnaire. Principal components analyses further reduced the number of items to 17 and suggested a two-factor structure (i.e., task and social cohesion dimensions). Finally, support for the factorial validity of the resultant questionnaire was provided through confirmatory factor analyses with an independent sample (n = 352) in Phase 4. The final version of the questionnaire contains 16 items that assess task and social cohesion in addition to 2 negatively worded spurious items. Specific issues related to assessing youth perceptions of cohesion are discussed and future research directions are suggested.
Zhong, H; Srinivasan, C; Sticklen, M B
In-vitro methods have been developed to regenerate clumps of multiple shoots and somatic embryos at high frequency from shoot tips of aseptically-grown seedlings as well as from shoot apices of precociously-germinated immature zygotic embryos of corn (Zea mays L.). About 500 shoots were produced from a shoot tip after eight weeks of culture (primary culture and one subculture of four weeks) in darkness on Murashige and Skoog basal medium (MS) supplemented with 500 mg/L casein hydrolysate (CH) and 9 μM N(6)-benzyladenine (BA). In this medium, shoots formed in shoot tips as tightly packed "multiple shoot clumps" (MSC), which were composed of some axillary shoots and many adventitious shoots. When the shoot tips were cultured on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH, 9 μM BA and 2.25 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), most of the shoots in the clumps were adventitious in origin. Similar shoot tips cultured on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH, 4.5 μM BA and 2.25 μM 2,4-D regenerated many somatic embryos within eight weeks of culture. Somatic embryos were produced either directly from the shoot apical meristems or from calli derived from the shoots apices. Both the MSC and the embryos produced normal shoots on MS medium containing 2.25 μM BA and 1.8 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). These shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 3.6 μM IBA, and fertile corn plants were grown in the greenhouse. The sweet-corn genotype, Honey N Pearl, was used for the experiments described above, but shoot-tip cultures from all of 19 other corn genotypes tested also formed MSC on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH and 9 μM BA.
Mass shooting events are relatively underresearched, and most study comes from the United States. Despite significant international interest, little is known about other countries' experiences of these events. The current study examines Australian mass shooting incidents and offenders, with emphasis on mental illness, life strains, and offenders' life histories. Australia had 14 mass shootings between 1964 and 2014. Most offenders experienced acute life stressors and/or chronic strains leading up to the event; however, diagnosed mental illness was less commonly documented. These observations provide new information about mass shooting incidents and offenders, and can help to inform international policy development.
Sebastiana Mederos Molina
Full Text Available During the establishment of shoots of Salvia canariensis L., five environmental factor treatments were applied. For each axillary node two shoots grew well when explants were incubated at continued ligth for 15 days followed by 16 hrs photoperiod by 30 days. Shoots multiplication was improved on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium - MS + 825 mg/l NH4NO3 - supplemented with 10-7 M BA and 10-7 M NAA. The shoots produced well developed root systems within three weeks after transfer to the same culture medium supplemented with 5x 10-7 M NAA.
David R. Mottram
Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420
Jayanthi, Neeru; Esser, Stephen
Tennis may be considered a static and dynamic form of exercise with many well-demonstrated health benefits. Tennis has similar rates of injury to other individual recreational sports and junior competitive sports, without the catastrophic risk of contact/collision sports. Classifying tennis players into junior and elite categories versus adult recreational players may help in outlining volume of play recommendations, exposure risk, and types of injuries. Junior and elite players tend to tolerate higher volumes, have more acute and lower extremity injuries, and have more serious overuse stress injuries. Adult recreational players tend to tolerate lower volumes, have more overuse and upper extremity injuries, and more conditions that are degenerative. Many tennis players also develop asymmetric musculoskeletal adaptations, which may increase risk of specific injury. Tennis-specific evaluations may identify these at-risk segments, help guide preventive strategies including technical errors, and assist in developing return-to-play recommendations. Other racket sports such as squash, badminton, and racquetball have less data available but report both acute and traumatic injuries less commonly seen in tennis.
Full Text Available Harmonious development of sports deals with the development of sports centres, buildings and training grounds in the built environment. Their basic objective is to provide to needs of professional and top quality sports, sports recreation and sports education in space. The methodological basis for establishing a spatial sports scheme was the Steinitz-Rogers model of planning sports-recreation centres, buildings and training grounds. One of the results of the scheme is a cartographically and digitally supported data base that can be complemented.
Full Text Available The research aimed to see how the family members’ involvement in the practice of leisure movement games (tennis raises the children’s movement wish and psychomotor skills: coordination, balance, rhythm, precision of movement. In conducting this research were used the survey method, the observation method, the measurement-evaluation method and the statistical-mathematical method. Data was collected during 10 months from 76 children, aged from 10 to 13 years (±3 months and enrolled in a leisure movement game program. Descriptive statistics indicate a significant effect of the variables: medicine ball throwing, speed running, endurance running and throwing target with the tennis ball. One can see a positive effect due to the Evaluation – Intervention interaction: medicine ball throwing η²=0.12, speed running η² = 0.13, endurance running η²=0.16, throwing target with the tennis ball η²=0.21. Educational leisure time sport movement games raise the level of driving skill development and psychomotor qualities, based on a greater involvement in the correct performance of sport activities.
Breitbach, Sarah; Tug, Suzan; Simon, Perikles
The purpose of talent identification (TI) is the earliest possible selection of auspicious athletes with the goal of systematically maximizing their potential. The literature proposes excellent reviews on various facets of talent research on different scientific issues such as sports sciences or genetics. However, the approaches of conventional and genetic testing have only been discussed separately by and for the respective groups of interest. In this article, we combine the discoveries of these disciplines into a single review to provide a comprehensive overview and elucidate the prevailing limitations. Fundamental problems in TI reside in the difficulties of defining the construct ‘talent’ or groups of different performance levels that represent the target variable of testing. Conventional and genetic testing reveal a number of methodological and technical limitations, and parallels are summarised in terms of the test designs, the point in time of testing, psychological skills or traits and unknown interactions between different variables. In conclusion, many deficiencies in the current talent research have gained attention. Alternative solutions include the talent development approach, while genetic testing is re-emphasised as a tool for risk stratification in sport participation. Future research needs to clearly define the group of interest and comprehensively implement all methodological improvement suggestions.
Hulme, Adam; Thompson, Jason; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M
There have been recent calls for the application of the complex systems approach in sports injury research. However, beyond theoretical description and static models of complexity, little progress has been made towards formalising this approach in way that is practical to sports injury scientists and clinicians. Therefore, our objective was to use a computational modelling method and develop a dynamic simulation in sports injury research. Agent-based modelling (ABM) was used to model the occurrence of sports injury in a synthetic athlete population. The ABM was developed based on sports injury causal frameworks and was applied in the context of distance running-related injury (RRI). Using the acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR), we simulated the dynamic relationship between changes in weekly running distance and RRI through the manipulation of various 'athlete management tools'. The findings confirmed that building weekly running distances over time, even within the reported ACWR 'sweet spot', will eventually result in RRI as athletes reach and surpass their individual physical workload limits. Introducing training-related error into the simulation and the modelling of a 'hard ceiling' dynamic resulted in a higher RRI incidence proportion across the population at higher absolute workloads. The presented simulation offers a practical starting point to further apply more sophisticated computational models that can account for the complex nature of sports injury aetiology. Alongside traditional forms of scientific inquiry, the use of ABM and other simulation-based techniques could be considered as a complementary and alternative methodological approach in sports injury research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Hogan, Anna; Stylianou, Michalis
The focus of this paper is on "Sporting Schools", a $100 million policy initiative intended to increase children's sport participation in Australia. Our account seeks to proffer a critical analysis of this federal policy, and the way it functions as part of the new heterarchical or networked form of sports governance in Australia. Using…
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to analyze the perception of physical education teachers on job opportunities of key competences of a particular teaching model. To this end, 12 teachers, Secondary and Primary, conducted an in-service education course on the model, and once completed, implemented a teaching unit in their respective schools. It was then through a questionnaire, they were asked about their perception of the development of key competences. To check whether there were differences in the perception of teachers on the development of each of the core competencies, it was calculated means and standard deviations of all variables recorded, and used the Mann-Whitney U test for independent samples. Teachers see great potential to work competence through Sport Education Model primarily on social and civic competence, lifelong learning, and autonomy and personal initiative.
Hambrick, Marion E; Hums, Mary A; Bower, Glenna G; Wolff, Eli A
Elite athletes require the most advanced sports equipment to maintain their competitive edge, but manufacturers cannot always satisfy these athletes' specific equipment needs. Sport involvement can influence sports-equipment selections and is described as the process by which individuals rely on attitudes and belief systems to make sports-related consumption decisions. This study involved semistructured interviews with 5 elite Parasport athletes to identify and analyze the role of sport involvement in their selection of sports equipment. The results revealed that the athletes identified product limitations, created a collaborative environment, and promoted a culture of innovation to develop new sports products and address existing limitations. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Full Text Available At the Faculty of Sports and Physical Education from Niksic, in cooperation with the Ministry of Education and Sports, the Government of Montenegro, a one-day seminar was organized for professors of physical education from all Montenegrin towns. The seminar, attended by 86 professors, was held on October 26, 2011 with actual topics in the field of sports, monitoring and control of growth and development of children, as well as new methodology in the field of physical education. Taking into account that there are about 200 primary and secondary schools in Montenegro, the number of the seminar attendees was very representative and it represented by accident chosen sample in research of professors of physical education. Method of the questionnaire was implemented in this research and the used questionnaire consisted of three group of questions for testing attitudes about: development of Montenegrin sports, personal expert specialization and work satisfaction. This questionnaire represents a part of the research done at the Faculty of Sports and Physical Education whose aim is to get directions for organization of similar seminars in the next time period through monitoring and insight into attitudes of professors of physical education and that way to give a contribution to permanent specialization of professors of physical education.
Lo, Hung-Jen; Lin, Chun-Hung; Tung-Hsing, Lin; Tu, Peng-Fei
This paper explored the relationships among career development, personality trait, and organizational commitment and examines whether career development mediates the relationship between personality trait and organizational commitment. The sample was 275 sport communication technology talents in Taiwan. The instrument included the Personality…
de Haan, D.M.
The aim of this paper was to use a case study approach to review the appropriateness of existing micro- and meso-level models of athlete development within the sport specific context of equestrianism. At a micro-level the Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model was chosen. At a meso-level, the
Longitudinally dissected shoot apices of Grand Nain, Williams and Maghrabi banana cultivars were exposed to gamma irradiation with Cobalt 60 source at the doses of 0, 20, 40 and 60 Gy and immediately placed into proliferation medium. A number of micropropagation cycles after irradiation were necessary up to M1 V2 to M1 V4 stage to let mutated sectors developing into non-chimeric shoots. Radiosensitivity was evaluated by the rate of shoot proliferation and by the shoot fresh weight increase. Increasing gamma doses caused reduction in survival rates and average number of shoots. Grand Nain exhibited the highest multiplication- rate (3.1). The lower dose (20 Gy) enhanced shoot multiplication ratio specially in Williams and Maghrabi, which however decreased with increased doses. The doses of 20-40 Gy yielded Ld50, with sensible degree of shoot multiplication, which occurred hardly ever beyond 40 Gy. The dose of 60 Gy resulted 80% lethal shoot growth. Linear decrease in fresh weight was observed in post-irradiation recovery, notably in the Maghrabi. In contradictory vulnerable damage was observed in Williams which showed the highest fresh weight value. Shoot proliferation appeared generally on the surface of the corm. Root formation was observed without additional hormone. The roots were dark colored and was decreased with the increased of dosage
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this page, ... routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find out ...
Hall, Randon; Barber Foss, Kim; Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D
To determine if sport specialization increases the risk of anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes. Retrospective cohort epidemiology study. Female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players (N = 546) were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of 5 middle schools and 4 high schools. A total of 357 multisport and 189 single-sport (66 basketball, 57 soccer, and 66 volleyball) athlete subjects were included due to their diagnosis of patellofemoral pain (PFP) on physical exam. Testing consisted of a standardized history and physician-administered physical examination to determine the presence of PFP. This study compared self-reported multisport athletes with sport-specialized athletes participating in only 1 sport. The sports-participation data were normalized by sport season, with each sport accounting for 1 season of exposure. Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and used to determine significant differences between athletes who specialized in sport in early youth and multisport athletes. Specialization in a single sport increased the relative risk of PFP incidence 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.0-2.2, P = .038) for cumulative PFP diagnoses. Specific diagnoses such as Sinding Larsen Johansson/ patellar tendinopathy (95% CI 1.5-10.1, P = .005) and Osgood Schlatter disease (95% CI 1.5-10.1, P = .005) demonstrated a 4-fold greater relative risk in single-sport compared with multisport athletes. Incidence of other specific PFP diagnoses such as fat pad, plica, trauma, pes anserine bursitis, and iliotibial-band tendonitis was not different between single-sport and multisport participants (P > .05). Early sport specialization in female adolescents is associated with increased risk of anterior knee-pain disorders including PFP, Osgood Schlatter, Sinding Larsen-Johansson compared with multisport athletes.
S. Schmidt Zipp (Sarah)
markdownabstractThe field of sport for development and peace (SDP) has flourished in recent decades, with development programmes around the world using sport as a mechanism to support social, economic and health-related development efforts. However, the academic literature on SDP is limited in
Full Text Available During the develomental stages, tourism acqured new forms, to meet increasingly stringent criteria of tourism consumers. The tourism market, enriching the ofer, changingthe metod and content of vacation, outsade of housing. The basis of modern tourism is a comprehensive offer of selective forms of tourism, as a step towards meeting the requirements and needs of a demanding tourist consumers, of the twenty-first century. While in the past the sport was associated with tourism and travel in a variety of sports events, in modern, sports tourism has a much broader role. Today, the relationship of sport and tourism industry is considered, which is the consequence of sports tourism that is designed by considering the sport as a touristic attraction, or by highlighting and defining the quality of sport, which together represent a unique contribution to the tourism industry. From the aspect of sports tourism, fitness is an essential component for tourism, improving health, getting fit and improving relations between people. Fitness can be a major motivation for consuming commitment to appropriate tourism product. A possible idea could be the presentation of fitness boot camps, especially those that are performed in the open air, because it does not require additional, large, tangible assets, and provide the opportunity for existing recreational facilities, with minimal refreshments. One of the possibilities of progress fitness camps as a form of sport tourism is their involvement in other forms of tourism.
Adenosma glutinosum (Linn.) Druce is an important aromatic plant, but no information is available regarding its regeneration, callus induction and proliferation from leaf explants. In this study, an in vitro shoot regeneration procedure was developed for native A. glutinosum using leaf explants. Callus induction and shoots ...
Hong, Jun Sung; Cho, Hyunkag; Lee, Alvin Shiulain
School shooting cases since the late 1990s have prompted school officials and legislators to develop and implement programs and measures that would prevent violence in school. Despite the number of explanations by the media, politicians, organizations, and researchers about the etiology of school shootings, we are not united in our understanding…
Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...
Nicholls, Adam R.; Taylor, Natalie J.; Carroll, Sean; Perry, John L.
There is an ever growing coping and sports performance literature, with researchers using many different methods to assess performance and different classifications of coping. As such, it makes it difficult to compare studies and therefore identify how coping is related to performance. Furthermore, there are no quantitative syntheses of the results from these studies. A quantitative synthesis would facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of how coping is associated with athletic performance. In order to accurately compare studies, our first aim was to develop a new coping classification that would make this possible. Firstly, we reviewed the strengths and limitations of the different coping classifications and then identified the commonalities and differences between such classifications. We opted for a three-factor classification of coping, because the evidence suggests that a three-factor classification provides a superior model fit to two-factor approaches. Our new classification of coping was based on an existing model from the developmental literature, which received an excellent model fit. We made some adaptations, however, as our classification was intended for an athletic population. As such, we classified coping as mastery (i.e., controlling the situation and eliminating the stressor), internal regulation (i.e., managing internal stress responses), or goal withdrawal (i.e., ceasing efforts toward goal attainment). Undertaking a meta-analysis, our second aim was to identify which coping strategies correlated with sports performance and whether this relationship varied according to moderator variables. Articles were sourced from online electronic databases and manual journal searches. PRISMA guidelines were used to search, select, and synthesize relevant studies. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to identify associations between coping classification and sport performance. Q, I2, and R2 values assessed heterogeneity. Eighteen published
Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Oz, Mali; Barak, Sharon
Based on social-learning and self-determination motivational theories, the purpose of this study was to determine the sources of motivation in youth and young adults with intellectual disability (ID) who participate in Special Olympics (SO) competitions and those of typically developed (TD) age- and activity-matched athletes. A convenience sample of 63 SO (25 females and 38 males) and 59 TD (16 females and 43 males) athletes was retrieved through communication with local club coaches. Three sub-groups of SO athletes were identified based on disability, including non specified intellectual disability (NSID=39), Down syndrome (DS=17), and Autism (Aut=7). Mean SO and TD athlete ages were 20.35 (SD=7) and 18.8 (SD=8), respectively. For analysis purposes four age groups were created (20 years). Participants completed the 13-item, two-factor Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and a 16-item four-factor abridged version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS). SO and TD athletes were active in swimming (54 and 48, respectively) and basketball (9 and 11, respectively). Groups with and without ID were compared by means of t-tests in the dichotomized variables gender and activity, as well as by 1-way ANOVA with Tukey HSD post hoc comparisons across disability and age groups. Gender distribution was the same in both groups. Participants with DS and NSID scored significantly higher than TD athletes in most motivational scales. Participants with ID increased their external motivation with increasing age, while a reversed pattern was observed in TD. In summary, significant differences between motivational patterns of SO athletes with ID and TD athletes can be observed. These differences should be considered when developing training and competition programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Corrion, K; Scoffier, S; Gernigon, C; Cury, F; d'Arripe-Longueville, F
According to Bandura, individuals are able to violate their personal standards, without self-sanction, by using the psychological operations of moral disengagement. For Bandura et al., moral disengagement is characterized by eight mechanisms belonging to one of the following four groups: (a) reconstructing conduct; (b) reconsideration of negative effects; (c) disqualification of the victim; and (d) obscuring of personal causal agency. Other researchers have measured moral disengagement in various contexts of everyday life using Bandura et al.'s scale and suggested that moral disengagement mechanisms would fall into two or three groups according to context. One context in which moral issues have a major role is sport. Three complementary studies were carried out on a total of 1305 young French adult athletes to develop and validate a Short French Questionnaire of Moral Disengagement in Sport (SFQMDS) and to test its invariance according to gender. STUDY 1: With reference to the existing literature, an initial French version of the SFQDMS was developed. French university students (n=220) then voluntarily completed the questionnaire. The validity of this preliminary version and the clarity of the items were examined and ascertained, and factorial analyses identified 10 items that loaded onto two factors (i.e., projecting fault onto others or sharing of responsibility; minimization of transgression and their consequences). Each factor displayed good internal consistency. STUDY 2: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted using AMOS 7.0 software. The sample included 1021 French university students (M(age)=21.52; SD=2.34). The first analysis of the data from 298 French students suggested that four items should be eliminated. The six-item model was then tested with a CFA of the data from 723 other participants (M(age)=21.51; SD=2.34) and exhibited acceptable fit indices: (χ² [8, 723]=1.54; p>0.09; GFI=0.97; TLI=0.97; CFI=0.97; RMSEA=0.03; RMSEA LO/HI=0
Full Text Available Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an economical process of connecting produktion (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. Sport marketing is the reality in sport today, and cannot be observed as fashionabless of capitalistic production. Today is almost impossible for sport organization to make business without its business part called sport marketing if it wants to survive in sport arena.
Fernando Marinho Mezzadri
Full Text Available This article presents a method of mixed research for the study of Sport public policy in Brazil. To reach the result, the text was divided into two phases. In the first, it presents a conceptual model for the qualitative analysis of Brazilian public policies directed to the sport. This phase will still be divided into two stages. The first is the construction of a theoretical framework for the interpretation of the study on public policies and the other one demonstrates a conceptual methodological contribution based on the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu. In the second phase it is developed an analysis of the quantitative part which aims to interpret the data that were collected in the empirical part of the research. Later, it will be possible to produce a model of assessment, monitoring, and, especially, the improvement of public policies for Brazilian sport.
Allen, P.M.; Latham, K.; Mann, D.L.; Ravensbergen, H.J.C.; Myint, J.
The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle,
Liu, Liu; Wang, Yong-Shun; Wu, Tung-Ju
Student satisfaction is a primary indicator for college and university organizational self-assessment in European and American countries. Professional sport universities are the major institution cultivating sports talents in China. Nevertheless, it appears the problem in past years that the talent cultivation and management is not suitable for…
WOERDENBAG, HJ; LUERS, JFJ; VANUDEN, W; PRAS, N; MALINGRE, TM; ALFERMANN, AW
From aseptically grown Artemisia annua plantlets, shoot cultures were initiated. Using different concentrations of auxine, cytokinine and sucrose, a suitable culture medium was developed, with respect to the growth of the shoots and their artemisinin accumulation. Nitrate concentration and
Swezey, James A.; Thorp, Kimberly A.
Dinkes, Cataldi, and Lin-Kelly (2007) claims that 78% of public schools reported one or more violent incidents during the 2005/2006 school year. School shootings are a rare but real threat on school campuses. Shootings at private schools are even less frequent with only a few recorded examples in the United States. This case study examines how a…
Super, Sabina; Verkooijen, Kirsten; Koelen, Maria
Sport is widely recognised as having the potential to enhance the personal development of socially vulnerable youth, yet there is very limited knowledge on how community sports coaches can create optimal social conditions for life skill development and transferability. We adopt a salutogenic approach in order to study whether and how community…
This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.
Hayhurst, Lyndsay M C; MacNeill, Margaret; Kidd, Bruce; Knoppers, Annelies
In this study we discuss how gender relations are influenced by a 'girls only' martial arts-based sport, gender and development (SGD) programme that aims to improve young women's discipline, leadership skills and self-defence capabilities in a rural Ugandan community with widespread domestic and
This paper considers the pedagogical properties and subsequent impact of sport-for-development programs across a variety of sites in Australia. Moreover, this research adopts a socio-personal account of learning in an attempt to examine the contributions of the social and physical worlds related to surfing programs as well as the individuals' role…
Bendíková, Elena; Dobay, Beáta
The study explains the importance and the role of physical and sport education in development of a positive attitude toward physical activity and health in adulthood. The empirical study was aimed at finding the factor that contributed to the transfer of respondents' physical activity into their adulthood with regard to their health status. The…
Bender, M.H.M.; Schep, G.; Vries, de W.R.; Hoogeveen, A.R.; Wijn, P.F.F.
Approximately one in five top-level cyclists will develop sports-related flow limitations in the iliac arteries. These flow limitations may be caused by a vascular lumen narrowing due to endofibrotic thickening of the intima and/or by kinking of the vessels. In some athletes, extreme vessel length
Jacobs, Jennifer M.; Wright, Paul M.
Research has demonstrated that many quality sport-based youth development programs promote life skill acquisition (e.g., leadership, self-control) with the ultimate goal of facilitating positive outcomes in youth participants' social and academic environments. Researchers call this "transfer of life skills" (i.e., the idea that physical,…
Sports management and its development is closely linked to the development of modern society and modern rationality. This article applies sociological theories and practical management philosophy to shed light on how sports management and its rationality in Denmark (Europe) and the United States...... have changed and undergone different phases for more than a century, and to show that, in late modernity, they are entering a new phase in which they seem to be more reflexive and communicative. This trend is evident in American sports management and will also soon be reflected in Danish sports...... management. My analysis of this development will also be based on a specific case study from the American world of sports, namely the story of Oakland Athletics baseball club’s reorganisation in the 1990s, because it both provides a rare insight into a modern sports organisation and demonstrates...
Full Text Available Adventitious root formation in plant cuttings is influenced by many endogenous and environmental factors. Leaf photosynthesis during rooting of leafy cuttings in hard to root species can contribute to supply carbohydrates to the intensive metabolic processes related to adventious root formation. Light intensity during rooting is artificially kept low to decrease potential cutting desiccation, but can be limiting for photosynthetic activity. Furthermore, leafy cuttings collected from different part of the shoot can have a different ability to fuel adventitious root formation in cutting stem. The aim of this work was to determine the role of leaf photosynthesis on adventitious root formation in hazelnut (Corylus avellana L (a hard-to-root specie leafy cuttings and to investigate the possible influence of the shoot developmental stage on cutting rooting and survival in the post-rooting phase. Cutting rooting was closely related to carbohydrate content in cutting stems during the rooting process. Cutting carbohydrate status was positively influenced by leaf photosynthesis during rooting. Non saturating light exposure of leafy cuttings can contribute to improve photosynthetic activity of leafy cuttings. Collection of cuttings from different part of the mother shoots influenced rooting percentage and this appear related to the different capability to concentrate soluble sugars in the cutting stem during rooting. Adventitious root formation depend on the carbohydrate accumulation at the base of the cutting. Mother shoot developmental stage and leaf photosynthesis appear pivotal factors for adventitious roots formation.
Rice germplasm with an inherent ability to suppress weeds can potentially improve the economics and sustainability of weed control in rice. We devised a simple, rapid, and inexpensive digital imaging system to quantify several shoot and root growth characteristics in field-grown rice plants that ha...
Sommer, Friederike; Leuschner, Vincenz; Scheithauer, Herbert
A plethora of studies have appeared which argue that, prior to their attack, the perpetrators of school shootings had experienced intense conflicts and problematic relations (e.g. bullying) with peers and teachers, and were on the periphery of the schools' social life. This in turn resulted in the perpetrators' view of themselves as marginalized…
Greer, Dennis H; Wünsche, Jens N; Norling, Cara L; Wiggins, Harry N
We investigated the effects of root-zone temperature on bud break, flowering, shoot growth and gas exchange of potted mature apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.)) trees with undisturbed roots. Soil respiration was also determined. Potted 'Braeburn' apple trees on M.9 rootstock were grown for 70 days in a constant day/night temperature regime (25/18 degrees C) and one of three constant root-zone temperatures (7, 15 and 25 degrees C). Both the proportion and timing of bud break were significantly enhanced as root-zone temperature increased. Rate of floral cluster opening was also markedly increased with increasing root-zone temperature. Shoot length increased but shoot girth growth declined as root-zone temperatures increased. Soil respiration and leaf photosynthesis generally increased as root-zone temperatures increased. Results indicate that apple trees growing in regions where root zone temperatures are or = 15 degrees C. The effect of root-zone temperature on shoot performance may be mediated through the mobilization of root reserves, although the role of phytohormones cannot be discounted. Variation in leaf photosynthesis across the temperature treatments was inadequately explained by stomatal conductance. Given that root growth increases with increasing temperature, changes in sink activity induced by the root-zone temperature treatments provide a possible explanation for the non-stomatal effect on photosynthesis. Irrespective of underlying mechanisms, root-zone temperatures influence bud break and flowering in apple trees.
Full Text Available In 2007, the Intergovernmental Organization, the World Sports Alliance (IGO-WSA, was founded with the support of international civil society (AICESIS, UN-NGO-IRENE and the United Nations. It is entrusted with the mission of educating youth and training the executives of the national sports system to deal with human development issues (education, equity, health, gender, environment while also contributing to the economic development of its Member States (partnerships, poverty reduction.A number of lessons can be drawn from this experience about support to national sports policies in a globalized world, more generally about the contribution to national development by and through sport. We identify seven engines of an integrated approach to a sustainable development of sport in the developing countries.For the foreseeable future, the WSA-IGO faces six challenges, as tools for a renewed program: sustainability, infrastructures, education, equity, employment and training.Key words:
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID
Full Text Available There are several important inter- and intra-individual variations in individual alpha peak frequency (IAPF in the cognitive domain. The rationale for the present study was to extend the research on IAPF in the cognitive domain to IAPF in the sport domain. Specifically, the purpose of the present study was twofold: (a to explore whether baseline IAPF is related to performance in an ice hockey shooting task and (b to explore whether a shooting task has an effect on IAPF variability. The present investigation is one of the first studies to examine links between IAPF and sport performance. Study results did not show significant changes in IAPF when comparing baseline IAPF and pre- to post-task IAPF across three performance levels. The findings support previous literature in the cognitive domain suggesting that IAPF is a stable neurophysiological marker. Future research should consider the following methodological suggestions: (a measuring IAPF during sport performance instead of at a resting state, (b changing the pre-performance resting baseline instructions to take into account sport-specific mental preparation, (c exploring an expert-novice paradigm to accentuate performance ability differences between groups (d comparing tasks with different levels of complexity, and (e analyzing the possible correlation between IAPF and performance on different days.
Trakman, Gina Louise; Forsyth, Adrienne; Hoye, Russell; Belski, Regina
Appropriate dietary intake can have a significant influence on athletic performance. There is a growing consensus on sports nutrition and professionals working with athletes often provide dietary education. However, due to the limitations of existing sports nutrition knowledge questionnaires, previous reports of athletes' nutrition knowledge may be inaccurate. An updated questionnaire has been developed based on a recent review of sports nutrition guidelines. The tool has been validated using a robust methodology that incorporates relevant techniques from classical test theory (CTT) and Item response theory (IRT), namely, Rasch analysis. The final questionnaire has 89 questions and six sub-sections (weight management, macronutrients, micronutrients, sports nutrition, supplements, and alcohol). The content and face validity of the tool have been confirmed based on feedback from expert sports dietitians and university sports students, respectively. The internal reliability of the questionnaire as a whole is high (KR = 0.88), and most sub-sections achieved an acceptable internal reliability. Construct validity has been confirmed, with an independent T-test revealing a significant ( p < 0.001) difference in knowledge scores of nutrition (64 ± 16%) and non-nutrition students (51 ± 19%). Test-retest reliability has been assured, with a strong correlation ( r = 0.92, p < 0.001) between individuals' scores on two attempts of the test, 10 days to 2 weeks apart. Three of the sub-sections fit the Rasch Unidimensional Model. The final version of the questionnaire represents a significant improvement over previous tools. Each nutrition sub-section is unidimensional, and therefore researchers and practitioners can use these individually, as required. Use of the questionnaire will allow researchers to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of nutrition education programs, and differences in knowledge across athletes of varying ages, genders, and athletic
Full Text Available This study aims to develop mushroom gymnastic instrument for men’s artistic gymnastic athletes of junior and senior levels. The instrument is aimed at improving movement skills on horse saddle. Aside from its use as an exercise instrument for beginner, junior and senior levels of men’s artistic gymnastic athletes, this instrument can also be used for beginners’ level competition. This study used qualitative approach in which the data are collected from the initial step to the trial. The main procedure involved five steps: (1 the analysis of product development; (2 the development of initial product; (3 the expert validation; (4 the trial; and (5 the product revision. This study found that the mushroom gymnastic instrument can be used for men’s artistic gymnastic sport, particularly (1 for improving movement skill development on horse saddle for junior and senior athletes; (2 as an exercise instrument for beginner, junior and senior level of men’s artistic gymnastic athletes; (3 as an instrument used in competition for men’s artistic gymnastic for beginners’ level.
Full Text Available We can say that sports are continuously evolving. To improve the quality of this work, changes are being made in all of these segments: development and selection of athletes, the improvement of technology for preparation and performance tactics, training methods for relaxation. On the other hand these are followed by rule changes, modern sports facilities, as well as legal regulations. One direction in the improvement of sports results is an attempt at rational spending of existing resources for athletes, regardless of whether in team or individual sports. Nanotechnology is also contributioning toward this direction. This paper points out the appearance of nanotechnology, its essence, i.e., the way it may effect the development of sports. Of course, it also points to the potential risk of applying nanotechnology to sports.
Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia
Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport... previously accepted consensus standards relating to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport... Light Sport Aircraft developed the revised standards with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...
Faust, J.E.; Heins, R.D.
An energy-balance model is described that predicts vinca (Catharanthus roseus L.) shoot-tip temperature using four environmental measurements: solar radiation and dry bulb, wet bulb, and glazing material temperature. The time and magnitude of the differences between shoot-tip and air temperature were determined in greenhouses maintained at air temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, or 35 °C. At night, shoot-tip temperature was always below air temperature. Shoot-tip temperature decreased from 0.5 to 5 °C below air temperature as greenhouse glass temperature decreased from 2 to 15 °C below air temperature. During the photoperiod under low vapor-pressure deficit (VPD) and low air temperature, shoot-tip temperature increased ≈4 °C as solar radiation increased from 0 to 600 W·m -2 . Under high VPD and high air temperature, shoot-tip temperature initially decreased 1 to 2 °C at sunrise, then increased later in the morning as solar radiation increased. The model predicted shoot-tip temperatures within ±1 °C of 81% of the observed 1-hour average shoot-tip temperatures. The model was used to simulate shoot-tip temperatures under different VPD, solar radiation, and air temperatures. Since the rate of leaf and flower development are influenced by the temperature of the meristematic tissues, a model of shoot-tip temperature will be a valuable tool to predict plant development in greenhouses and to control the greenhouse environment based on a plant temperature setpoint. (author)
Jahagirdar, Ishanee; Venditti, Laura Anne; Duncan, Andrea; Reed, Nick; Fleming, Sean
This study looked at the relationship between participation in a structured sports program and gross-motor-skills development in children aged 3 to 6 years. Twenty-seven children participated in the study, with 16 children receiving an eight-week sports program intervention. Children were assessed at pre- and postintervention using a modified…
D.Phil. (Sport Science) Socialisation is an interactive reciprocal process that shapes the way individuals think, act and make decisions. Through the sport socialisation process, over time individuals acquire beliefs and behaviours that affect other areas of their life, including education, family relations and peer interactions. Socialisation affects the lives of the participant’s significant others and socialising agents, who demonstrate changes in the way they view women’s football, int...
Longstaff, Fran; Gervis, Misia
This study examined how practitioners who provide sport psychology support use counselling principles and skills to develop practitioner-athlete relationships. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirteen competent practitioners (Mean age = 41.2 ± 10.9 years old, five men, eight women). Thematic analysis revealed that the participants used a range of counselling principles to develop practitioner-athlete relationships including: the facilitative conditions, self-disclosure, counsel...
Gems, Gerald R.; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula
The authors describe, analyze and evaluate sport related globalization processes with a focus on transnationalism, colonialism, imperialism, and, more generally, geopolitical developments. They provide a variety of theoretical frameworks as they explore the emergence of modern sport and its...... dissemination around the world. In spite of resistance by the adherents of gymnastics or traditional movement cultures, sport with its focus on competition and records became popular all over the world. Both Great Britain and the United States induced their political and cultural hegemony via the soft power...... of modern sport which caused reactions, e.g. resistances or adaptations of indigenous, colonized, and other affected populations....
Laoruengthana, Artit; Poosamsai, Paisan; Fangsanau, Tharinee; Supanpaiboon, Pattrawan; Tungkasamesamran, Kasame
Prevention of injury among athletes is of paramount importance for sport events. The incidence of injury differs depending on many factors, such as level of competition, type of sport, and standard of surveillance systems. It is our purpose to provide a descriptive epidemiology of a national level competition multi-sports event. During the 2008 Thailand National "Phitsanulok" Games, official medical teams of the various sports completed a report form after each match or competition. The demographic data, type of sport, details of injury or illness, diagnosis, and treatment were collected from the PLKGames 2008 program and analyzed by the Medical Surveillance Committee. There were 14,429 athletes and staff participating in the "Phitsanulok" games. A total of 496 injuries were reported during the competition, of which 300 male and 196 female athletes sustained injuries, resulting in an incidence rate of 4.1 injuries per 100 registered athletes. For all sports, 71, 50 and 38 injuries occurred during Rugby, Handball and Basketball, respectively, which accounted for 32% of all injuries. No injury was reported from many sports, such as table tennis, shooting, dancing, and golf The most common diagnoses were sprains and strains. About half of injuries were caused by contact with another athlete, followed by noncontact (28.6%) and limited-contact incidences (27.6%). According to the number of athletes, the risk of incurring an injury was highest in Pencak Silat, handball, basketball, and rugby football. About half of injuries affected lower extremities, while 135, 53, and 49 injuries involved upper extremity, head & neck, and axial body parts, respectively. The knee and ankle were the most common sites of injury. The data demonstrates a potential risk of injury occurring predominately in full-contact sports and limited-contact sports. The data is potentially useful in developing injury surveillance systems for future sporting events.
This article explains how and why stress mechanisms operate in students who participate in sports. Students respond to different sport situations with various physical, psychological, and social reactions. When developing and supervising sports, school personnel should take into consideration the physical and psychological development of…
Full Text Available One of the characteristics of contemporary sport is certainly a wide array of sports and sport discliplines young people can choose among. This is particularly obvious through establishment of numerous schools of sport as places where people can acquire fundamental sport knoweldge and skills. The point of selection for such an engagement is the school, or, in other words, primary school children. The development of young athletes starts at a very early stage. They are faced with high demands and exposed to training sessions of different scope and intensity. In order to direct complex processes in sport efficiently and well, various factors need to be considered that affect it to a lesser or higher degree. One of those factors is indisputably the family, i.e. the influence parents have on meeting the children’s need for physical (sport activity. In the process of children’s socialization that factor is given the greatest prominence. Therefore, parents are a crucial factor in young people’s sport engagement and, thus, cannot be taken as a constituent part of a sports organization’s surroundings, but as a partner in their development.
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
Full Text Available Sport marketing involves marketing fundamentals applied in one industry, the sport business industry. The development of sport marketing fundamentals is therefore based on basic marketing principles. The practice and activities of sport marketing are also based on basic marketing activities, but are modified and adapted to the sport business industry. Therefore, sport marketing is based on its primary and parent discipline - marketing. Sport marketing is one of the most important functions of a sport business. This is because the sport marketing activities will define the business. The growth of the sport industry is phenomenal and shows no signs of slowing. Also, sport marketing is a process. A process is a continuous cycle. Therefore, marketing is a function that never ends. The sport marketing management model is an illustration of the elements and process of sport marketing. It should serve as a guide for managing the company’s marketing functions. The model illustrates the elements of marketing, the succession of elements and functions, the process of managing, and the interdependence of the elements This paper presents an overview of the model, sport marketing management, each element and the process.
Vlad Ionut Dumitrache
Full Text Available Smart economy implies the development of key factors like global economy growth, competition, economic progress, economic prosperity, innovation. In the European top-level football, like the case of the British Premier League, financial indicators have demonstrated that the factors that define smart economy can be identified. The new rules of the financial fair-play policies and the ever growing revenues for television rights have created a new market in sports economy, one that identifies itself with the criteria identifies in studies regarding smart economy. This paper comparatively examines the determinants of four indicators of the football team quality in the British Premier League, in order to find out whether a common set of potential determinants could be effective in improving all four indicators of quality, without worsening any of them. This allows finding what measures undertaken at the level of football teams could raise the football team quality. Considering the subjective and multidimensional nature of the football team quality, we first propose four indicators that might be appropriate to define this latent summative measure. Then we select a number of four potentially common determinants of the football team quality, and finally discuss the empirical results, based on panel generalized least squares regression models. The television broadcasting rights are found to be the most important determinant of the football team quality.
Nässi, Anu; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael
The Acute Recovery and Stress Scale (ARSS) and the Short Recovery and Stress Scale were first established in German for the purposes of monitoring athletes' current recovery-stress states in an economical and multidimensional manner. The aim of this paper is to document the development and initial validation of the English versions of these two psychometric monitoring tools. A total of 267 English-speaking athletes from a variety of team and individual sports participated in the study. The English versions demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency for both instruments (Cronbach α of .74-.89). Furthermore, good model fit was found for the eight scales of the ARSS, matching the structure and results of the German counterparts. Correlations among and between the scales reciprocate the theoretical constructs of stress and recovery, supporting the construct validity of the scales. Correlation coefficients within stress and recovery ranged between r s = .29 and .68. The correlations between stress and recovery varied between r s = -.29 and -.64. These constructs were further supported by correlations with the scores of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes, thereby showing convergent validity. The findings demonstrate initial validity and reliability of the two measures and reflect the results of the German versions. However, further research is needed before applying these scales in practical settings.
Negrón, Claudia; Contador, Loreto; Lampinen, Bruce D; Metcalf, Samuel G; Guédon, Yann; Costes, Evelyne; DeJong, Theodore M
Shoot characteristics differ depending on the meristem tissue that they originate from and environmental conditions during their development. This study focused on the effects of plant water status on axillary meristem fate and flowering patterns along proleptic and epicormic shoots, as well as on shoot growth rates on 'Nonpareil' almond trees (Prunus dulcis). The aims were (1) to characterize the structural differences between proleptic and epicormic shoots, (2) to determine whether water deficits modify shoot structures differently depending on shoot type, and (3) to determine whether shoot structures are related to shoot growth rates. A hidden semi-Markov model of the axillary meristem fate and number of flower buds per node was built for two shoot types growing on trees exposed to three plant water status treatments. The models segmented observed shoots into successive homogeneous zones, which were compared between treatments. Shoot growth rates were calculated from shoot extension measurements made during the growing season. Proleptic shoots had seven successive homogeneous zones while epicormic shoots had five zones. Shoot structures were associated with changes in growth rate over the season. Water deficit (1) affected the occurrence and lengths of the first zones of proleptic shoots, but only the occurrence of the third zone was reduced in epicormic shoots; (2) had a minor effect on zone flowering patterns and did not modify shoot or zone composition of axillary meristem fates; and (3) reduced growth rates, although patterns over the season were similar among treatments. Two meristem types, with different latency durations, produced shoots with different growth rates and distinct structures. Differences between shoot type structure responses to water deficit appeared to reflect their ontogenetic characteristics and/or resource availability for their development. Tree water deficit appeared to stimulate a more rapid progression through ontogenetic states.
Full Text Available This study investigates the possibilities of various development areas (transport, energy, building to make the cost-efficient realisation of high-profile investments, and organising and holding international sports events possible. Using a case study, the paper introduces development routes based on the evaluation of environmental and economic perspectives. The current research introduces the investment characteristics based on the development of the Hungarian building, energy and transport sectors for the 2017-2030 period. The main criterion is the integration of ‘circular economy’. For sectors which operate with high material and energy consumption, the consideration of circular economy principles may prove to be important for sustainable development. Through planning highvolume sports and worldwide events, the usual development strategy for traffic systems focuses on public transport and rentable vehicles (f. e. electric scooter, or bicycle which can decrease CO2 emissions via modern technological solutions. Regarding the buildings, sports arenas and related facilities, besides the existing low-carbon solutions, the functions of buildings must be expanded and their usage prolonged. The management of waste left after the life cycle is expended has to be pre-planned. These are the options for making the sector’s GHG emissions decrease apart from circular tenders, which can be further combined with SMART energetic solutions.
There are a number of ways to divide this market sector, but broadly speaking the sports market essentially relates to products used in the pursuit of active team or individual sports. This would include team sports, equipment for fitness, gym, snow sports, equipment for water sports, golf, tennis and skating. There is also the „outdoor“ market. This would include camping goods, fishing and horse sports. There are a number of inter- related trends, which impact on the future development of th...
Newman, Tarkington J.; Kim, Melissa; Tucker, Anita R.; Alvarez, M. Antonio G.
Background: Participation in youth sport is often associated with a variety of positive development outcomes. In order to effectively utilize sport as a context of learning and development, the sport must be intentionally designed and programed. One often-used approach is known as sport-based positive youth development (PYD). Recently, to further…
After the 29th Olympic Games,our country put forward the objective to strive for a sports power in the new era.Mass sports and competitive sports should be developed harmoniously in order to fulfill this strategic target.Organizations of folk sports are the footstones to improve work of mass sports.Based on methods of document,logical analysis,etc.,the essay analyzes the important roles of mass sports organizations and current difficulties in the process of building a sports power.To achieve the goal,the essay suggests that the government should work hard to change its ideas to cultivate and develop mass sports organizations.At the same time,mass sports organizations should pay more atten-tion on self discipline,increase and perfect its management level continually.They should adopt the strategies of win win cooperation to consolidate and strengthen the partnership relationship.In a word, we wish it can provide some benefits in the process of turning our country into a sports power.%29届奥运会后，国家提出了向体育强国迈进的新时期体育工作目标，群众体育与竞技体育协调发展是实现这个战略目标的重要保障。民间体育组织是提高群众体育工作的基石。运用文献资料、逻辑分析等研究方法，分析了民间体育组织在建设体育强国进程中的重要作用及面临的现实困境，提出政府要转变观念，着力培育和发展民间体育组织；民间体育组织要强化自律，不断提高和完善自身管理水平；合作共赢，持续巩固和夯实合作伙伴关系等策略，以加快体育强国进程。
Jeckell, Aaron S; Brett, Benjamin L; Totten, Douglas J; Solomon, Gary S
Identification of modifying factors that influence the development of post-concussion syndrome (PCS) following sport-related concussion (SRC) has drawn considerable interest. In this pilot study, we investigate the effect of team vs. individual sport participation on the development of PCS in a sample of 136 high school and college student-athletes. Controlling for several confounding variables, we employed a binary logistic regression and chi-squared test. Results of this pilot study indicate that participation in team versus individual sport is not a significant factor in the development of PCS. The identification of other forms of protective mechanisms is discussed.
Playing sports can be fun, but it can also be dangerous if you are not careful. You can help ... you are healthy before you start playing your sport Wearing the right shoes, gear, and equipment Drinking ...
... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...
van Dalfsen, Gerco; van Hoecke, Jo; Westerbeek, Hans
This research is part of a comprehensive PhD research project that focuses on the existence and development of leadership in sport management practices. The underpinning factors that are associated with successfully leading top teams in sport are often used as an example in regard to being
Ian M. Franks; Mike Hughes
This book addresses and appropriately explains the notational analysis of technique, tactics, individual athlete/team exercise and work-rate in sport. The book offers guidance in: developing a system, analyzes of data, effective coaching using notational performance analysis and modeling sport behaviors. It updates and improves the 1997 edition
Ian M. Franks
Full Text Available This book addresses and appropriately explains the notational analysis of technique, tactics, individual athlete/team exercise and work-rate in sport. The book offers guidance in: developing a system, analyzes of data, effective coaching using notational performance analysis and modeling sport behaviors. It updates and improves the 1997 edition
Full Text Available The objective is to systematize and adapt the basic definitions and concepts of the systems approach, mathematical modeling and information technologies to sports science. Materials and methods. The research has studied the availability of appropriate terms in shooting sports, which would meet the requirements of modern sports science. It has examined the compliance of the shooting sports training program for children and youth sports schools, the Olympic reserve specialized children and youth schools, schools of higher sports skills, and sports educational institutions with the modern requirements and principles. Research results. The paper suggests the basic definitions adapted to the requirements of technical sports and sports science. The research has thoroughly analyzed the shooting sports training program for children and youth sports schools, the Olympic reserve specialized children and youth schools, schools of higher sports skills, and sports educational institutions. The paper offers options to improve the training program in accordance with the modern tendencies of training athletes. Conclusions. The research suggests to systematize and adapt the basic definitions and concepts of the systems approach, mathematical modeling and information technologies using the example of technical sports.
Wlodzimierz S. Erdmann
Full Text Available This paper presents many common areas of interest of different specialists. There are problems described from sport, biomechanics, sport biomechanics, sport engineering, robotics, biomechanics and robotics, sport biomechanics and robotics. There are many approaches to sport from different sciences and engineering. Robotics is a relatively new area and has had moderate attention from sport specialists. The aim of this paper is to present several areas necessary to develop sport robots based on biomechanics and also to present different types of sport robots: serving balls, helping to provide sports training, substituting humans during training, physically participating in competitions, physically participating in competitions against humans, serving as models of real sport performance, helping organizers of sport events and robot toys. Examples of the application of robots in sports communities are also given.
Sport supplementation is essential for athletes performance and achievements. The well balanced and structured supplementation is a challenge for sport medicine because must be done a balance between potential benefits and potential risks (anti-doping rule violations and others). In this review are structured the most used categories sport supplementations. Nutritional supplements used in sport could be divided in some main categories like: amino acids, vitamins, proteins and antioxidants. Fo...
Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović
Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...
Shamonin Andrey Valentinovich
Full Text Available Increase of sports-technical skill in sports occurs on the basis of last achievements of the theory and physical training and sports practice. Development of football isn't possible without search and introduction in training process of optimum pedagogical models of perfection of physical and technical readiness of football players. Such pedagogical models should be applied, as in groups of initial preparation, so at the subsequent grade levels, including in student's football. Modern training process (pedagogical model, should be under construction on objective indicators of physical, technical and special readiness (so-called feedback. However, the estimation of sports-technical readiness at sports schools on football is reduced only to testing of speed, jumps, juggling, dribbling and a shoot for goal. The same criteria are applied and in student's football. Unfortunately, the given control exercises not in a condition to the full to reflect level of physical and technical readiness of the football player. For more objective estimation of special readiness it is necessary to use the test tasks revealing a level of development of coordination abilities of game structure game and competitive activity (game in football. It will allow trainers to have fuller picture of readiness of the football player, in respect of its professional (football skills. As a result coach have possibility to trace level of a condition of the various parties of sports readiness (physical, technical and coordination student's youth engaged in football at each stage of long-term preparation.
Kakorina, E P; Rudiakova, S E
Provision of proper conditions for the creation of healthy life style is a priority of the state policy in this country with special attention given to the development of the mass physical culture and sports. The present paper contains information on the proportion of the population of the Russian Federation regularly engaged in physical culture and sports, provision of necessary sport facilities, and budgetary expenditures for the purpose in different constituent entities of the country. Public satisfaction with the conditions available for mass physical education and sports is discussed. Taking into account the low average life expectancy of the country's population and the increasing morbidity and traumaticity rates among the younger generation, it appears impossible to address the global challenge of improving the health of the nation without promotion of mass physical culture and sports and renewal of interest in these activities among the general population.
Sports play a very important and diverse role in the present-day global culture. On the occasion of the 105th anniversary of Coubertin’s Ode we would like to wish sports to return to the main words of the Ode and to correspond with them: “Oh sport, you are the peace”.
Timpka, Toomas; Jacobsson, Jenny; Bickenbach, Jerome; Finch, Caroline F; Ekberg, Joakim; Nordenfelt, Lennart
Current sports injury reporting systems lack a common conceptual basis. We propose a conceptual foundation as a basis for the recording of health problems associated with participation in sports, based on the notion of impairment used by the World Health Organization. We provide definitions of sports impairment concepts to represent the perspectives of health services, the participants in sports and physical exercise themselves, and sports institutions. For each perspective, the duration of the causative event is used as the norm for separating concepts into those denoting impairment conditions sustained instantly and those developing gradually over time. Regarding sports impairment sustained in isolated events, 'sports injury' denotes the loss of bodily function or structure that is the object of observations in clinical examinations; 'sports trauma' is defined as an immediate sensation of pain, discomfort or loss of functioning that is the object of athlete self-evaluations; and 'sports incapacity' is the sidelining of an athlete because of a health evaluation made by a legitimate sports authority that is the object of time loss observations. Correspondingly, sports impairment caused by excessive bouts of physical exercise is denoted as 'sports disease' (overuse syndrome) when observed by health service professionals during clinical examinations, 'sports illness' when observed by the athlete in self-evaluations, and 'sports sickness' when recorded as time loss from sports participation by a sports body representative. We propose a concerted development effort in this area that takes advantage of concurrent ontology management resources and involves the international sporting community in building terminology systems that have broad relevance.
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, and ended on 2/6/2007, totalizing 144 days of evaluation. During the 2008/2009 cycle, phenology and shoot growth for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' were assessed from grape development (1/13/2009 (pea-sized grapes until shoot vegetative growth had ceased. Budburst occurred in the second half of September, and shoot-growth cessation occurred during ripening. Higher growth rates (about 4 cm per day were observed in pre- and post-flowering, followed by reduction due to the competition for photosynthates for the formation of flowers and bunches. Temperature and photoperiod induce grapevine shoots to cease growth in the highland regions of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.
Full Text Available This study presents a new, integrative model of sports talent. Following the theoretical part of the study a football-talent research is presented, in which a theoretical framework is provided by this new theory of sports talent. This research examines the role of psychological factors in football talent development. The sample was N=425 football-players of the First Division Men’s Junior and Adolescent Football Championships of the Hungarian Football League, and their coaches (N=21. The applied instruments were: Sporting Background Questionnaire, The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS – Hungarian version, Psychological Immune Competence Inventory (PICI, Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI, Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM, Co-Player Questionnaire, and Coach Questionnaire. As a result, significant differences were found between talented and control groups in the case of 27 variables out of 48 (6 scales of the SBQ, 5 scales of the ACSI-28, 9 scales of the PISI, 5 subscales and the Total self-concept scale of the TSCS, and in APM. More talented players showed more favourable values in each of the 27 intra-, and interpersonal dimensions. According to our results, the development of psychological factors (e.g. concentration, lack of anxiety, self-confidence, coping skills, and social skills within an integrative approach can enhance personal efficiency in developing football giftedness.
Full Text Available At present, the sports dance has entered every stage of the people’s life, has become the public’s favorite sport. Sports dance has been well developed. This article mainly uses the literature material law to carry on the detailed analysis to the sports dance constitution, elaborated in detail the sports dance artistic expression. The composition of sports dance elements; sports dance is a form of dance art show; sports dance through the dance art can be divided into three aspects, namely, form, music, shape of the expressive force. In this paper, the study will be more in-depth excavation of the cultural connotation of sports dance, and promote the development of sports dance can be more comprehensive. In 20s of last century, Chinese Sports Dance Association officially joined the International Sports Dance Association, which also makes our country’s sports dance and international exchange more frequent. However, due to China’s sports dance sports dance learning time is not long, while learning is influenced by Chinese traditional culture, the sports dance movements are too conservative, there is a very large gap and international enthusiasm, bold and unrestrained, the pursuit of individual sports dance in the dance style, music and performance hand. Sports dance originated from abroad, it is produced in the daily life of people in foreign countries. China’s domestic sports dance players in learning dance at the same time, the production and the connotation of dance is not very understanding, therefore, it is difficult to better reflect the emotional expression of sports dance. Although the sports dance is a kind of similar to the competitive projects, but it is also a kind of dance culture, and to constitute a force from the dance art show a detailed study, detailed mining playing officer of sports dance performance further, reducing China’s sports dance and international sports dance gap.
At present, the sports dance has entered every stage of the people’s life, has become the public’s favorite sport. Sports dance has been well developed. This article mainly uses the literature material law to carry on the detailed analysis to the sports dance constitution, elaborated in detail the sports dance artistic expression. The composition of sports dance elements; sports dance is a form of dance art show; sports dance through the dance art can be divided into three aspects, namely, fo...
Sebastian Madalin MUNTEANU
This paper tries to capture the importance it holds the project management in socio-cultural sector which stands out when we refer to the sport. So when we talk about project management in sport, to consider a much larger vision, a new project management perspective, they involve a responsibility for the implementation of an event with global impact on very long term. Sports projects, as history shows us, played a significant role in developing societies. Also, all major sports industry proje...
Sponsorship, as a very successful form of marketing, is quite common in sports. Thanks to the financial means which come from sponsorship, sports teams and individuals achieve top results. In return for that, sponsors take advantage by enhancing their brand and image for longer period. An extensive influence of sponsorship over sports development has been achieved through properly selected elements of sports strateg.y
Full Text Available Sponsorship, as a very successful form of marketing, is quite common in sports. Thanks to the financial means which come from sponsorship, sports teams and individuals achieve top results. In return for that, sponsors take advantage by enhancing their brand and image for longer period. An extensive influence of sponsorship over sports development has been achieved through properly selected elements of sports strateg.y
Full Text Available The sport for development and peace (SDP sector is made up of various development-focused policies and programs that seek to engage, stabilise, empower and create social and economic change. SDP projects, most often run by non-governmental organisations (NGOs, have been implemented in regions enduring physical conflicts, health pandemics, major gender divisions and other social crises that have a great impact on youth. In this context, sport has been accorded the difficult task of facilitating greater access for marginal, vulnerable or community groups whilst positively contributing to the attainment of diverse development objectives. While the ‘where’ and ‘why’ of SDP has been largely accounted for, the attention in this article is on the ‘who’ of SDP in relation to the notion of inclusion. Drawing on extensive research conducted in Jamaica, Kosovo, Rwanda and Sri Lanka, the idea of SDP as an inclusionary practice is critically investigated. While SDP may ‘give voice’ to participants, especially to individuals with athletic ability or sporting interests, the extent to which this creates social contexts that are fundamentally inclusive remains open to discussion. In this sense, while targeting populations, groups or individuals remains an attractive strategy to achieve specific goals, for example youth empowerment or gender equality, empirical assessments complicate the presumption that SDP programming leads to inclusion, particularly at a larger societal level. The article considers a matrix of inclusion criteria, potential outcomes, and the tensions arising between targeted SDP programming and the often-exclusionary dimensions of sport more broadly, with a focus on youth and gender issues.
Almobasher, H. A. A.; Osman, M. G.; Said, A. E.
This study was conducted with the objective of modifying the composition of MS medium for the clonal propagation of pineapple using shoot tips of Smooth Cayenne cultivar. Modification were made on various medium components. Results showed that both MS salts at the full or half strength were optimal, and there was on significant difference between them. Sucrose concentrations of 3% and 6% were better than other concentrations tested for growth and development of plant lets. The cultures responded positively to the increase of adenine sulfate and 80 mg/1 was the optimal. As for the additions of NAA and BA , alone or in combinations, the best results were recorded with the combination of NAA at 0.01 mg/1, and BA at 3.0 mg/1 where the largest number of shoots was obtained. Better explants performance was achieved on liquid medium with cotton support compared to solid medium. (Author)
Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian
evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement. Despite such trends, research on sports digitalization in the IS discipline is surprisingly still nascent. This paper aims at establishing...... a discourse on sports digitalization within the discipline. Toward this, we first provide an understanding of the institutional characteristics of the sports industry, establishing its theoretical importance and relevance in our discipline; second, we reveal the latest trends of digitalization in the sports...
Becker-Larsen, Astrid; Gregersen, Jón
Athletes are faced with a large range of challenges throughout their careers. To help athletes cope with these challenges, sport psychology offers a number of different approaches. The third wave approach of Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) deals with existential questions such as: “Who am I......, the third wave aims to change the relation to thoughts and feelings by developing psychological flexibility rather than to reduce the actual symptoms (e.g., unpleasant thoughts and emotions) (Hayes et al., 2004). This involves approaches such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (Training) (ACT; Hayes, 2004......) and Mindfulness Acceptance Commitment (MAC; Gardner & Moore, 2007) along with existential psychology (Nesti, 2004). In our work as sport psychology consultants, we are inspired by the third wave and specifically the work with values. We believe that an athlete who can answer these “big questions” will often have...
Full Text Available Majority of studies on the impact of the sports events on country's development are produced before the events take place and as such are in favour of the bidding process. When comparing these ex ante analyses to the ex post evidence, it has been in most cases obvious that they have been overly optimistic. This paper analyses the ex ante analysis provided by the Croatian bidding committee for the European Football Championship 2012. In addition to that, the ex ante study for the World Handball Championship 2009 in Croatia and (insufficient data for the handball championships that took place in Serbia were analysed as well. This paper contributes both to the debate on the realistic approach of several failed and won bids, and the debate on the future bids for the other sport events.
Full Text Available The current study presents initial validation statistics for the Italian Mood Scale (ITAMS, a culturally- and linguistically-validated Italian version of the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS: Terry and Lane, 2010. The ITAMS was administered to 950 sport participants (659 females, who ranged in age from 16 to 63 years (M = 25.03, SD = 7.62. In the first stage of the validation process, statistical procedures in Mplus were used to evaluate the measurement model. Multigroup exploratory structural equation modeling supported the hypothesized 6-factor measurement model for males and females separately and for the combined sample. Analysis of the scale scores using SPSS provided further support for the construct validity of the ITAMS with hypothesized relationships observed between ITAMS scores and measures of depression and affect. The development and validation of the ITAMS opens the way for mood-related research and sport or exercise interventions requiring mood assessments, in an Italian-language context.
Full Text Available The submitted article deals with the evaluation of the somatotype of persons and determination of a suitable somatotype for selected sports. In the introduction the method for determining and evaluating a somatotype according to Carter and Heath is characterised. The processes used for calculating the individual components - endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy - are presented as well as a description of these elements. The calculated components are subsequently put into a somatograph. The evaluation of a somatotype is of great benefit and offers a guideline with the selection of sporting activities; it subsequently helps assign athletes into a suitable position where they will be able to best develop their talents in view of their bodily construction. In this work two types of sports are evaluated - basketball and bodybuilding. With each sport the measurements which give the prerequisites for the given sport are presented. The selection of the presented sports was made with regard to the different requirements and demands in the scope of bodily constitution. The aim of the presented paper is to assess physical parameters of subjects groups in relation to selected sports (basketball and bodybuilding. Based on the body constitution to determine the conditions for developing the physical condition and success in the appointed sports. Another objective is to compare the rating form and equation methods for somatotype determination. The sample consist 32 subjects with age between 22-28 years of both sexes, who are dedicated to basketball, or bodybuilding at amateur level.
MAUSETH, JAMES D.
• Background and Aims Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. • Scope Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus ‘flower’ is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels. PMID:16820405
Mauseth, James D
Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus 'flower' is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels.
Full Text Available The relationship between coach- and peer-created motivational climates and Positive Youth Development is largely unexplored. This is especially true for the latter and in particular with regard to disadvantaged girls. The present study was designed to examine the relationships between perceived coach- and peer-created climates and reported developmental gains among disadvantaged girls participating in sports programmes, and to determine whether these relationships were moderated by personal characteristics. Two hundred young women aged between 12 and 22 completed a questionnaire which included the ‘Youth Experience Survey for Sport’ (MacDonald, Côté, Eys, & Deakin, 2012, the ‘Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports’ (Smith, Cumming, & Smoll, 2008, the ‘Peer Motivational Climate in Youth Sport Questionnaire’ (Ntoumanis & Vazou, 2005, and questions regarding participants’ socio-economic characteristics. Multilevel regression analyses were performed to take into account the hierarchical data structure. The analysis revealed that a mastery-oriented coach climate is a very strong predictor of perceived Positive Youth Development. This is based on both the number of developmental domains on which it had a significant impact and the explained variance based on the PRV values of the multi-level models. Unlike previous research on disadvantaged youth in general and disadvantaged girls in particular, the observed interaction effects did not show that disadvantaged girls necessarily gain more from their involvement in organised activities such as sport.
Feddersen, Arne; Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.
This study analyses the sports infrastructure of Hamburg, Germany, from the residents’ perspective. Empirical evidence is provided for the Sports Place Theory developed by BALE (2003) using a micro-level dataset of 1,319 sports facilities, which is merged with highly disaggregated data......, locations’ endowment of sports infrastructure is captured by potentiality variables, while accounting for natural and unnatural barriers. Given potential demand, central areas are found to be relatively underprovided with a sports infrastructure compared to peripheral areas where opportunity cost...... in the form of price of land is lower. The determinants of spatial distribution vary systematically across types of sports facilities. Publicly provided open sports fields and sport halls tend to be concentrated in areas of relatively low income which is in line with their social infrastructure character...
South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 32, No 1 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Schinke, Robert J.; Hanrahan, Stephanie J.; Eys, Mark A.; Blodgett, Amy; Peltier, Duke; Ritchie, Stephen Douglas; Pheasant, Chris; Enosse, Lawrence
When sport psychology researchers from the mainstream work with people from marginalized cultures, they can be challenged by cultural differences as well as mistrust. For this article, researchers born in mainstream North America partnered with Canadian Aboriginal community members. The coauthors have worked together for 5 years. What follows is…
Ryom, Knud Eske; Wikman, Johan Michael; Stelter, Reinhard
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and experience of a team sport and coaching intervention upon self-concept in a sample of male school students with primarily migrant background. A convergent parallel mixed method design was used to compare and relate a questionnaire study ...... and more supportive social environment, as the result of their participation. Implications of the presented results are discussed, as well as strategies for working with team sport and coaching in a school setting in deprived areas or beyond.......The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and experience of a team sport and coaching intervention upon self-concept in a sample of male school students with primarily migrant background. A convergent parallel mixed method design was used to compare and relate a questionnaire study...... (SDQ-II & YSEQ) and an interview study in a quasi-experimental design. A two-year intervention period was conducted with students in 7th, 8th and 9th grade. The interventions were a two-stringed effort with team sport and group coaching introduced to the participants. Quantitative results showed...
Mar 15, 2010 ... An efficient protocol for in vitro propagation of Digitalis trojana Ivan. was developed via adventitious shoot regeneration. Leaf explants were cultured on MS which were supplemented with different concentrations of NAA (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mg/ml) and BAP (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/ml) for shoot formation.
Akademickie Związki Sportowe jako droga do rozwoju aktywności sportowej wśród studentów śląskich uczelni = University Sports Association as the way to sport activity development among Silesian students
Abstract Introduction. There are two fundaments of healthy lifestyle philosophy: regular physical activity and proper diet. The development of physical activity among students is determined by many complex factors. We can distinguish certain aspects such as university profile, access to the sport facilities and the opportunity to participate in sport activities which are organized by sport clubs or University Sports Association. The aim of the study. The aim of the study was to analyze the factors that affect self-assessment of students physical activity. The following questions have been asked: 1.Is the choice of the university related to the access to sport activities which are organized by University Sport Association? 2.Does the participating in activities, which are organized by University Sport Association, help in physical development? 3.Is there any relation between the location, time, type, the way of sport activities which are offered by University Sport Association and participating in them? Material and methods. 395 students took part in research: 257 women (18-27 years old (x=20,7 ; SD=1,4 and 108 men (18-26 years old (x=21; SD=1,45. All the students are from five Silesian universities. Method used for the research was the anonymous questionnaire consisting of 37 questions which concerned: the way of the physical activity taken by students, the issue of University Sport Association and the influence of the university profile on physical activity development. The Likert scale was used in 21 questions. Statistical description included descriptive statistics. Degree of difference was defined by ANOVA analysis. Results. Descriptive analysis showed significant dependence between the type of the university and the location of sport facilities (p=0,04. The type of the university has no influence on the factors like: time (p=0,07 and type of sport activities offered by University Sport Association (p=0,39. There is also an important connection between the type
I Gusti Ngurah Agung Cahya Prananta; N. Adiputra; I P G Adiatmika
The effectiveness of jump-shoot technique step jump shoot and still jump shoot in a game is still questionable, because many different assumptions arise. One opinion stated that step jump shoot was more effective and the other stated that and still jump shoot was more efective. Therefore it is necessary to do research on the analysis of the results of step jump shoot and and still jump shoot to improve the accuracy of shooting in a basketball. The experimental research had been conducted on...
Full Text Available A sporting spectacle is an important cultural event, essentially influencing social and individual lives. In spite of this, there does not yet exist a monograph that analyzes, describes, and explains sporting performance from the point of view of aleatorism as part of the theory of sport and physical culture. Unfortunately, no monograph has developed this issue in a multi-aspectual, holistic, culturological, and philosophical way, dealing with its axiological values (aesthetic and praxeological. This applies to the relations between this phenomenon and the mechanisms that bring about the development and growth of interest in the social dimension.
Full Text Available This paper draws upon the findings of an evaluation of “More than a Game”, a sport-focused youth mentoring program in Melbourne, Australia that aimed to develop a community-based resilience model using team-based sports to address issues of identity, belonging, and cultural isolation amongst young Muslim men in order to counter forms of violent extremism. In this essay we focus specifically on whether the intense embodied encounters and emotions experienced in team sports can help break down barriers of cultural and religious difference between young people and facilitate experiences of resilience, mutual respect, trust, social inclusion and belonging. Whilst the project findings are directly relevant to the domain of countering violent extremism, they also contribute to a growing body of literature which considers the relationship between team-based sport, cross-cultural engagement and the development of social resilience, inclusion and belonging in other domains of youth engagement and community-building.
Asparagus officinalis is most extensively studied species within the genus Asparagus, which is well known as garden asparagus. This species is dioecious with unisexual flowers, which means that generative propagation gives roughly equal number of male and female plants. Male plants are high yielders and preferred commercially over female plants. Tissue culture techniques could efficiently promote vegetative propagation of male plants and pave the way for efficient plant breeding.This chapter describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for developing rapid growing in vitro Asparagus shoot cultures. The source of explants, inoculation, and shoot proliferation, followed by shoot propagation, rooting, and acclimatization is described. The optimal medium for Asparagus micropropagation described in this chapter is composed of MS macro- and microelements and a combination of auxins and cytokinins. Plant growth regulators NAA, kinetin, and BA were used in various concentrations. Three different media representing the whole micropropagation protocol of Asparagus are described; medium for shoot initiation, medium for shoot multiplication, and medium for root formation. By in vitro propagation of Asparagus, root initiation is difficult, but can be promoted by adding growth retardant ancymidol which also greatly promotes shoot development and suppresses callus formation.
By nearly all accounts, the staff and students at Sandy Hook Elementary School did everything right on Dec. 14--and with the security measures they took before that day--when a young man armed with powerful weapons blasted his way into the school. But the deadliest K-12 school shooting in American history, a day that President Barack Obama has…
Fox, Cybelle; Harding, David J.
This article argues that rampage school shootings in American public schools can be understood as instances of organizational deviance, which occurs when events created by or in organizations do not conform to an organization's goals or expectations and produce unanticipated and harmful outcomes. Drawing on data from qualitative case studies of…
Maxwell, Lesli A.
The three school shootings that left a principal and six students dead in less than a week have sparked a barrage of pledges from national and state political leaders to tighten campus security. School safety experts urged caution against overreacting to the horrific, but rare, incidents in rural schools in Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.…
What has been left out of studying school violence and shootings is a comprehensive look at the culture that creates violence and the lack of support for those deemed "different" in an educational setting that promotes and rewards competition. If parents, teachers, and other adults associated with children were teaching the values of…
This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This thesis has attempted to advance knowledge and understanding of giftedness and talent in sport. Difficulties concerning conceptual clarity and issues concerning the origin of talent have slowed the advancement of this field of inquiry. By recognising the divisions that have occurred within the literature due to approach and presupposition, Gagne's (2000) Differentiated Model Of Giftedness...
Full Text Available At the end of 19 centuries tenis like popular game has srarted to play in Vojvodina. At 1880 tennis grassy courts was built in Senta and from that year it started to play in Vojvodina. Austrohungarion officers propageted tennis who were built tennis courts in their barracks but they was built courts in city parks. At 1892 the first tennis competition organised which mean that the first clubs probably had establishment befor thet year. Later at 1894 tennis started to play at palace of greand duke Nikola in Cetinje. Later tennis started to play in srbia at 1900. At that year people organised the first tennis tournament in vrsac. Momcilo Tapavica the first sout slovenion who was montegrion descent who was participat at first modern olimpic’s games in atina at 1896 he gave great countrabucsion developeted tennis sport in Montenegro. Momcilo Tapavica come to palase of graund duke’s Nikola at 1902 and ofter thet date his all family moved to Herceg-Novi and they spent all time to secound world war. At first olimpic’s games Momcilo Tapavica took parr in these sports/tennis, life weights, wrestling. Certain thet like talented sportman he gave great contabution not only in tennis than he gave contribution in the other sports in Montenegro.
The article reveals and analyses external and internal (nation-wide and regional) factors which have affected the holding of the First Russian Olympic Games of 1913 in Kiev and the Second Russian Olympic Games of 1914 in Riga are analyzed. It was determined that sports activity in the state was considerably stirred up during 1913–1914 years. It was found that the first Russian Olympic Games directly affected development of governmental-public structure of physical training and sports, creatio...
Lyyra, Satu; Lima, Amparo; Merkle, Scott A
Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is the largest and only commercially important willow species in North America. It is a candidate for phytoremediation of polluted soils because it is fast-growing and thrives on floodplains throughout eastern USA. Our objective was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of black willow plants that could serve as target material for gene transformation. Unexpanded inflorescence explants were excised from dormant buds collected from three source trees and cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with one of: (1) 0.1 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ); (2) 0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzoaminopurine (BAP); or (3) 1 mg l(-1) BAP. All plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments induced direct adventitious bud formation from the genotypes. The percentage of explants producing buds ranged from 20 to 92%, depending on genotype and treatment. Although most of the TDZ-treated inflorescences produced buds, these buds failed to elongate into shoots. Buds on explants treated with BAP elongated into shoots that were easily rooted in vitro and further established in potting mix in high humidity. The PGR treatments significantly affected shoot regeneration frequency (P < 0.01). The highest shoot regeneration frequency (36%) was achieved with Genotype 3 cultured on 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. Mean number of shoots per explant varied from one to five. The ability of black willow inflorescences to produce adventitious shoots makes them potential targets for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with heavy-metal-resistant genes for phytoremediation.
Full Text Available The rapid change experienced in the field of Information Technologies makes the informati cs more tangible in daily life. Today, it became possible to encounter with the informatics applications almost all the disciplines. As a matter of course, many informatics applications are put into the practice regarding the sports discipline. Because of the condition that the power of information processing has increased and the studies on wearable technol ogies in addition to the expert system design, augmented reality (AR has become a topic which gains imp ortance in the field of sports. There are many studies that are conducted with the aim of increasing the efficiency of physical activities done in many sports branches, ensuring a more fair management of competitions and providing the opportunity for spectators to watch the competitions in a more comfortable and efficient way. In this study; the information about the current augmented reality practices th at are used in various sports branches has been given and the mobile and interactive augmented reality practices which are possible to be seen in future have been mentioned. In addition, there is an augmented reality practice which is designed with the aim of ensuring that the shoots of sports people who are interested in archery, are more stable and of ensuring that the trainings and exercises are more efficient by stating to the sports people whether he or she is in the right position for shoot which is c alled as T shape seen at the time of releasing the arrow.
Full Text Available The aim of the research was to establish the effects of the diverse kinesiology program on the motor abilities development on a random sample of an unselected population of six-year old boys and girls, i.e. 34 regular attendants of the Universal Sports School Dubrovnik, within the period of 8 months (initial and final state. The variable sample consisted of 8 motor ability evaluation tests. Seriously changes positively established of tests of explosive and repetitive strength, coordination and frequency of movement hand.
Johannes A. Wiid; Michael C. Cant
Every individual or group consume sporting events for different reasons and are therefore motivated in different ways. People consuming sport events can be referred to as sport fans, someone who is enthusiastic about a particular sport, an athlete or someone who is motivated to make the effort to attend a live sporting event. Research on sport consumption motivation had led to the development of the Sport Fan Motivation Scale (SFMS), which consists of eight motives namely, eustress, self-este...
Hulme, Adam; Finch, Caroline F
The science of sports injury control, including both its cause and prevention, has largely been informed by a biomedical and mechanistic model of health. Traditional scientific practice in sports injury research has routinely involved collapsing the broader socioecological landscape down in order to analyse individual-level determinants of injury - whether biomechanical and/or behavioural. This approach has made key gains for sports injury prevention research and should be further encouraged and allowed to evolve naturally. However, the public health, Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics, and injury epidemiological literature more broadly, has accepted the value of a socioecological paradigm for better understanding disease and injury processes, and sports injury research will fall further behind unless it does the same. A complementary and alternative conceptual approach towards injury control known as systems thinking that builds on socioecological science, both methodologically and analytically, is readily available and fast developing in other research areas. This review outlines the historical progression of causal concepts in the field of epidemiology over the course of the modern scientific era. From here, causal concepts in injury epidemiology, and models of aetiology as found in the context of sports injury research are presented. The paper finishes by proposing a new research agenda that considers the potential for a systems thinking approach to further enhance sports injury aetiological understanding. A complementary systems paradigm, however, will require that sports injury epidemiologists bring their knowledge and skillsets forwards in an attempt to use, adapt, and even refine existing systems-based approaches. Alongside the natural development of conventional scientific methodologies and analyses in sports injury research, progressing forwards to a systems paradigm is now required.
Oudejans, R.R.D.; Heubers, S.; Ruitenbeek, J-R.J.A.C.; Janssen, T.W.J.
We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use
Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.
We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…
Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.
Parkhouse, Bonnie L., Ed.; And Others
Traditional teaching and coaching positions have become scarce but the expanding field of sport management has created its own job market, demanding new skills and preparation. Three articles are offered that explore different aspects and possibilities for a sport management career. (DF)
Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.
This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…
Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker
Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen
Shoot regeneration and embryogenesis were, for the first time, achieved directly in shoot tips of Lilium Oriental hybrid ‘Siberia’ following cryopreservation by droplet-vitrification. Shoot tips (2 mm in length) including 2-3 leaf primordia were excised from 4-week-old adventitious shoots directly r...
Fusani, Pietro; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Zidorn, Christian; Kiss, Anna K; Scartezzini, Fabrizio; Granica, Sebastian
Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald is an herbaceous plant belonging to the Rosaceae family. In the northern regions of Italy young shoots of A. dioicus are collected and used as vegetable. No studies on the chemical composition of young shoots of A. dioicus have been reported so far. Thus, the aim of the present paper was to develop and validate a comprehensive chromatographic method allowing the identification and quantification of chemical compounds occurring in A. dioicus shoots harvested at different developmental stages. The results showed that shoots contain mainly polyphenols. Twenty-four compounds were detected. Caffeoylglucose derivatives were recognized as major compounds. It was also confirmed that shoots contain the cyanogenic compound prunasin at all investigated vegetation stages. It was shown that the prunasin content significantly increases during plant development, thus justifying the belief that after the development of the first green leaves, shoots should not be used for culinary purposes any longer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Okseon; Park, Mirim; Jang, Kyunghwan; Park, Yongnam
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an afterschool sport program on adolescents' life skills development and to identify which characteristics of the program would have an influence on their life skills acquisition. The participants were six children (4 boys, 2 girls) who participated in a 12-week afterschool program implemented in two elementary schools, as well as the two program instructors who implemented the afterschool sport program. Data were collected from individual interviews with program participants and instructors. The inductive analysis of data revealed four categories of life skills developed through program participation: (1) playing well and being more active, (2) connecting well and having better social skills, (3) coping well and becoming a better problem solver, and (4) dreaming well and having a better sense of purpose. Regarding the characteristics of the program that influenced life skills development, three themes emerged: (1) having a clear goal and building consensus with stakeholders, (2) establishing a firm yet flexible structure, and (3) instructors' use of effective strategies for teaching life skills.
Lee, Okseon; Park, Mirim; Jang, Kyunghwan; Park, Yongnam
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an afterschool sport program on adolescents’ life skills development and to identify which characteristics of the program would have an influence on their life skills acquisition. The participants were six children (4 boys, 2 girls) who participated in a 12-week afterschool program implemented in two elementary schools, as well as the two program instructors who implemented the afterschool sport program. Data were collected from individual interviews with program participants and instructors. The inductive analysis of data revealed four categories of life skills developed through program participation: (1) playing well and being more active, (2) connecting well and having better social skills, (3) coping well and becoming a better problem solver, and (4) dreaming well and having a better sense of purpose. Regarding the characteristics of the program that influenced life skills development, three themes emerged: (1) having a clear goal and building consensus with stakeholders, (2) establishing a firm yet flexible structure, and (3) instructors’ use of effective strategies for teaching life skills. PMID:28367697
Rees, Tim; Hardy, Lew; Güllich, Arne; Abernethy, Bruce; Côté, Jean; Woodman, Tim; Montgomery, Hugh; Laing, Stewart; Warr, Chelsea
The literature base regarding the development of sporting talent is extensive, and includes empirical articles, reviews, position papers, academic books, governing body documents, popular books, unpublished theses and anecdotal evidence, and contains numerous models of talent development. With such a varied body of work, the task for researchers, practitioners and policy makers of generating a clear understanding of what is known and what is thought to be true regarding the development of sporting talent is particularly challenging. Drawing on a wide array of expertise, we address this challenge by avoiding adherence to any specific model or area and by providing a reasoned review across three key overarching topics: (a) the performer; (b) the environment; and (c) practice and training. Within each topic sub-section, we review and calibrate evidence by performance level of the samples. We then conclude each sub-section with a brief summary, a rating of the quality of evidence, a recommendation for practice and suggestions for future research. These serve to highlight both our current level of understanding and our level of confidence in providing practice recommendations, but also point to a need for future studies that could offer evidence regarding the complex interactions that almost certainly exist across domains.
Spasic, Miodrag; Krolo, Ante; Zenic, Natasa; Delextrat, Anne; Sekulic, Damir
There is no current study that examined sport-specific tests of reactive-agility and change-of-direction-speed (CODS) to replicate real-sport environment in handball (team-handball). This investigation evaluated the reliability and validity of two novel tests designed to assess reactive-agility and CODS of handball players. Participants were female (25.14 ± 3.71 years of age; 1.77 ± 0.09 m and 74.1 ± 6.1 kg) and male handball players (26.9 ± 4.1 years of age; 1.90 ± 0.09 m and 93.90±4.6 kg). Variables included body height, body mass, body mass index, broad jump, 5-m sprint, CODS and reactive-agility tests. Results showed satisfactory reliability for reactive-agility-test and CODS-test (ICC of 0.85-0.93, and CV of 2.4-4.8%). The reactive-agility and CODS shared less than 20% of the common variance. The calculated index of perceptual and reactive capacity (P&RC; ratio between reactive-agility- and CODS-performance) is found to be valid measure in defining true-game reactive-agility performance in handball in both genders. Therefore, the handball athletes' P&RC should be used in the evaluation of real-game reactive-agility performance. Future studies should explore other sport-specific reactive-agility tests and factors associated to such performance in sports involving agile maneuvers. Key pointsReactive agility and change-of-direction-speed should be observed as independent qualities, even when tested over the same course and similar movement templateThe reactive-agility-performance of the handball athletes involved in defensive duties is closer to their non-reactive-agility-score than in their peers who are not involved in defensive dutiesThe handball specific "true-game" reactive-agility-performance should be evaluated as the ratio between reactive-agility and corresponding CODS performance.
Toxicopathology, also referred to as toxicologic pathology, can be defined as the study of structural and functional changes in cells, tissues, and organs that are induced by toxicants (such as drugs, industrial and agricultural chemicals), toxins (chemicals of biological origin such as mycotoxins and phycotoxins), and physical agents (such as heat and radiation); the investigation of the mechanisms by which these changes are induced; and the development of risk assessment and risk management policies based on such information. Toxicologic pathology primarily deals with the morphologic or structural effects of the toxicant and the mechanism by which this structural effect is induced. This article highlights some of the problems that toxicologic pathologists may encounter in obtaining and interpreting pathology lesions. By alerting toxicologists to some of these issues, it is hoped that a better understanding of the use and limitations of toxicologic pathology data will occur
Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Schaefer, Daniel A; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A; Watson, Andrew M; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R
Overuse injuries in youth athletes are becoming increasingly common which may be a result of the prevalence of year-round specialized sport participation. Previous research has identified sport volume recommendations related to months per year, hours per week, and simultaneous participation in multiple sports leagues. Coaches are a primary influence on a youth athlete's decision to specialize in a single sport. Therefore, identifying coaches' baseline beliefs and perceptions is important for developing strategies to educate coaches about safe sport participation. A total of 253 youth sport coaches (207 males) completed an anonymous online questionnaire regarding knowledge of sport volume recommendations and attitudes and beliefs regarding sport specialization. Eligible participants were required to serve as a head or assistant coach of a youth sport team in the past 12 months whose members were between the ages of 12 and 18. Most coaches were unaware of recommendations regarding the maximum number of months per year (79.4%), hours per week in one sport (79.3%), or number of simultaneous leagues for an athlete to participate in to reduce injury (77.6%). Fewer than half (43.2%) of all coaches were "very" or "extremely" concerned about the risk of injury in youth sports. A majority (60.1%) believed that sport specialization was either "quite a bit" or "a great deal" of a problem. Two-thirds (67.2%) responded that year-round participation in a single sport was either "very" or "extremely" likely to increase an athlete's risk of injury. Although the responses to this survey were predominantly from coaches from one state, our results suggest that coaches are unaware of sport volume recommendations but are concerned about specialization. Future efforts are needed to communicate these recommendations to coaches in order to reduce the risk of overuse injury in youth sports.
Full Text Available Micropropagation is a proper approach to rapid and large-scale propagation of rootstocks and rose cultivars for huge demand of flower market. Proliferation rate of shoot is decreased drastically following several subcultures. Growth regulators have remarkable effects on the key phase of proliferation in micropropagation of this popular crop. In this research the effects of BAP and antiauxin of TIBA on quality and quantity of developed shoots in Rosa hybrida cv. Full House were studied. BAP and TIBA were applied at three concentrations of 0, 2.2 and 8.8 µmol in proliferation phase of micropropagation. The experiment was conducted based on factorial and completely randomized design with four replications. After two months, the percentage of proliferated explants, survived main and lateral shoot number, length of the main and lateral shoots, number of green leaves on the shoots, the average number of shoots with chlorotic and necrotic leaves, the average axillary shoot base diameter, fresh weight of shoots and number of shoots with necrotic tip were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that BAP was ineffective on the number of the main shoot green leaves and decreasing number of shoots with necrotic tip, but enhanced other traits. The concentration of 8.8 µmol of BAP had greater effect than 2.2 µmol of this growth regulator on mentioned traits. The higher concentration of TIBA resulted to more shoot with necrotic tip. This antiauxin had anegative impact on shoot fresh weight, but the other parameters were not significantly affected.
Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J
Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.
Full Text Available Based on the McKinsey Capacity Assessment Grid (McKinsey Company,2001, we generated79 items to represent 14 dimensionsof organizationalcapacity of national sport governing bodies in Ghana. The respondents (n = 226from the regional branches of 22 national sport governing bodies in Ghana scoredtheir level of agreement on a seven-point scale with each of the 79 items. Thoseitems that did not correlate well with the total for the respective subscale andthose subscales with reliability estimates lower than .6 were eliminated. Further,each subscale was subjected to factor analysis extracting only one factor. The toploading four items were retained to represent the subscale. The resulting 48 itemsrepresenting 12 dimensions of organizational capacity were subjected toconfirmatory factor analysis. As the fit indices did not meet with acceptablestandards, we resorted to item parceling creating two parcels of two items each torepresent a factor. The CFA of the parceled items showed that the fit indices wereacceptable ( #967;2/df =382.971/177 = 2.164 (p lower than 0.001; RMSEA = .072 (.062-.082;TLI = .93; CFI = .952.If the stability of the subscale structure of this instrumentcould be confirmed with a new data set from another national context, the scalewould be a valuable tool to evaluate the organizational capacity of national sportgoverning bodies around the world.
Andrews, Daniel R.
This story is about an unlikely NASA mission to the Moon. It was unlikely because it was started with far too little time and too-little money to complete. It was unlikely because it was able to take chances to accept risk of failure. It was unlikely because it was searching for the unthinkable: water-ice on the moon... Figure 1-1: LCROSS Mission. The mission of the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was to investigate the possibility of water ice in craters on the Moon s poles. This is certainly an interesting scientific topic in itself, but I intend to focus on the compelling experience of managing the LCROSS Project in the context of this storied Agency. Perhaps most interesting are the implications this story has for managing any development effort, lunar or not, and working a balance to achieve success. NASA is by design a risk-taking agency within the US Government. It could be argued that NASA s purpose in the aerospace community is to take on the really big challenges that either the corporate world can t afford, are not yet profitable endeavors, or are just too risky for private corporations to entertain. However, expectations of the Agency have evolved. A combination of grim human tragedies and some very public cost and schedule overruns have challenged the public s and Congress s tolerance for risk-taking within the Agency. NASA, which is supposed to be in the business of taking risks to do bold, difficult things, has become less and less able to do so within its cost framework. Yet effectively replacing prudent risk management with attempts to "risk-eliminate" is completely unaffordable. So where does risk-taking fit within the Agency, or within private/corporate organizations for that matter? Where astronauts play there is clearly concern about risk. When an organization puts humans in harm s way, it is understandably going to take extra effort to assure nobody gets hurt. Doing so, of course, costs money - a lot of money to pay for
Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport
This article explores the arguments surrounding the use of human enhancement technologies in sport, arguing for a reconceptualization of the doping debate. First, it develops an overview and critique of the legislative structures on enhancement. Subsequently, a conceptual framework for understanding the role of technological effects in sport is advanced. Finally, two case studies (hypoxic chambers and gene transfer) receive specific attention, through which it is argued that human enhancement technologies can enrich the practice of elite sports rather than diminish them. In conclusion, it is argued that elite sports are at a pivotal moment in their history as an increasing range of enhancements makes less relevant the protection of the natural human through anti-doping.
Schwesig, R; Kluttig, A; Leuchte, S; Becker, S; Schmidt, H; Esperer, H D
Previous work has suggested that both the level of activity and the type of sport may have a major impact on postural control. However, no systematic investigation has been performed regarding the various types of professional sports. Particularly, the impact of competitional sports on the postural subsystems has not been elucidated so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the major professional sport types, such as handball, gymnastics, swimming, and shooting, on the subsystems of postural control. We also tested the hypothesis that specific types of sport have specific effects on postural regulation. 155 competitive male and female athletes (handball: n = 30; gymnastics: n = 44; swimming: n = 50; shooting: n = 31), and 34 age- and gender-matched controls were investigated using the Interactive Balance System (IBS; Tetrax Inc., Ramat Gan, Israel). The following spectral and time-domain indices were determined: power in the following frequency bands: P(F1) (0.03 - 0.1 Hz), P(F)(2 - 4) (0.1 - 0.5 Hz), P(F)(5 - 6) (0.5 - 1.0 Hz), P(F)(7 - 8) (> 1.0 Hz), stability index (STABI), and synchronisation index (SYN). Shooting athletes exhibited significantly smaller values of P(F1) (p = 0.003), P(F)(2 - 4) (p sports exert different effects on the various subsystems of posture control, where especially shooting competitors demonstrate a significantly better posture regulation. Those effects can be parameterised and quantified with the IBS which thus enables an efficient and purposeful training. Furthermore, the IBS is highly suitable for aptitude screening in sports with high posture regulatory demands (shooting competitions, gymnastics, diving etc.). Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York .
Fitness has become one of the most popular kinds of the mass sport and has completely replaced the traditional “physical culture”. Dozens of variations of fitness and millions of participants pose a great challenge to contemporary architecture. The articles of our issue show the present and the future of architecture for fitness. We present a topical collection with a wide geographical range, including the Irkutsk Agglomeration, Tomsk, Krasnodar, sports in the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers, and the anthology of the top foreign sports venues.
Holt, Nicholas L.; Neely, Kacey C.; Slater, Linda G.; Camiré, Martin; Côté, Jean; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; MacDonald, Dany; Strachan, Leisha; Tamminen, Katherine A.
ABSTRACT The overall purpose of this study was to create a model of positive youth development (PYD) through sport grounded in the extant qualitative literature. More specifically, the first objective was to review and evaluate qualitative studies of PYD in sport. The second objective was to analyze and synthesize findings from these studies. Following record identification and screening, 63 articles were retained for analysis. Meta-method analysis revealed strengths of studies were the use of multiple data collection and validity techniques, which produced high-quality data. Weaknesses were limited use of ‘named’ methodologies and inadequate reporting of sampling procedures. Philosophical perspectives were rarely reported, and theory was used sparingly. Results of an inductive meta-data analysis produced three categories: PYD climate (adult relationships, peer relationships, and parental involvement), life skills program focus (life skill building activities and transfer activities), and PYD outcomes (in personal, social, and physical domains). A model that distinguishes between implicit and explicit processes to PYD is presented. PMID:27695511
Ronkainen, Noora; Lee, Sae-Mi; Serra de Queiroz, Fernanda
of transnational careers. Sharing our experiences revealed that we faced similar difficulties as well as similar growth experiences. We found that, being alone in another country for the purpose of education often caused us to bury ourselves in work. Moreover, gaining cultural awareness was imperative to our...... limited, but the experiences of students who pursue transnational careers have also never been addressed. All three authors received the majority of their education in sport psychology abroad; in Australia, Finland, Denmark, Germany, the United Kingdom, United States of America and Greece. By reflecting....... Fernanda’s story will depict her challenges in adapting to both the academic and the national culture of Australia. Noora’s story will explore how her international experiences challenged her approach to research. Sae-Mi’s story will tie these experiences together by reflecting on the future trajectories...
Oldfield, T E E; Smith, R J; Harrop, S R; Leader-Williams, N
Many natural habitats exist on privately owned land outside protected areas, but few governments can afford to enforce or subsidize conservation of this biodiversity. Even in some developed countries, conservation subsidy schemes have only achieved limited success. Fortunately, some landowners may be willing to accept management costs in return for other benefits, although this remains controversial when it involves the killing of charismatic species. For example, participants in British field sports, such as fox hunting and game-bird shooting, may voluntarily conserve important habitats that are required by quarry species. Here we report results from a multidisciplinary study that addressed this issue by focusing on three sites across central England. We found that landowners participating in field sports maintained the most established woodland and planted more new woodland and hedgerows than those who did not, despite the equal availability of subsidies. Therefore, voluntary habitat management appears to be important for biodiversity conservation in Britain. Current debates on the future of field sports in Britain, and similar activities globally, may benefit from considering their utility as incentives to conserve additional habitat on private land.
Bullying, Romantic Rejection, and Conflicts with Teachers: A Finnish Perspective. Commentary on: "Bullying, Romantic Rejection, and Conflicts with Teachers: The Crucial Role of Social Dynamics in the Development of School Shootings--A Systematic Review"
Oksanen, Atte; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Kiilakoski, Tomi; Lindberg, Nina
The systematic review by Sommer, Leuschner, and Scheithauer ("International Journal of Developmental Science" v8, n1-2, p3-24, 2014) includes 126 school shooting cases from 13 countries. This comprehensive review provides a valuable synthesis of a topic largely discussed in school shooting research: The role of bullying and peer…
When Rejection Kills: The Central Role of Low Relational Value in School Violence. Commentary on: "Bullying, Romantic Rejection, and Conflicts with Teachers: The Crucial Role of Social Dynamics in the Development of School Shootings--A Systematic Review"
Leary, Mark R.; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P.
The authors begin their commentary by saying that Sommer, Leuschner, and Scheithauer (2014) did an admirable job of reviewing and integrating research on school shootings across a broad array of studies that relied on varied conceptualizations, operational definitions, coding strategies, and samples of shootings. The authors agree with Sommer et…
Miyagawa, H; Fujioka, N; Kohda, H; Yamasaki, K; Taniguchi, K; Tanaka, R
Shoot primordia, which were able to propagate vegetatively with a very high rate and to redifferentiate easily to new plants, were induced from shoot tips of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni on Gamborg B5 medium containing 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) under light. The propagation of the shoot primordia of Stevia rebaudiana is rapid, and they are highly stable in chromosome number and karyotype. The shoot primordia can propagate at a high rate for a long time without differentiation. At any time, the shoot primordia readily developed into plantlets with shoots and roots within 2 or 3 weeks in static culture on B5 medium containing 0.02 mg/l BAP and 2% sucrose. The plantlets were transplanted to sterilized soil to grow to normal adult plants.
Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst
Sport boeit. Sport bindt. Sport bevordert de gezondheid. En sport betaalt. Sport is anno 2008 ongekend populair. Tweederde van de Nederlanders doet aan sport. Na zwemmen en fietsen is fitness de meest populaire sport geworden. Daarnaast zetten anderhalf miljoen Nederlanders zich als vrijwilliger
Recreational or regular physical and sport activities may be responsible for a wide range of cutaneous complications. Among them, "sports purpura" is a peculiar symptom that can occur during a large number of sports. "Effort purpura" defines any purpura occurring within the context of physical exercise irrespective of its cause. Therefore this clinical diagnosis includes various aetiologies. Diagnosis of traumatic purpura is often easy if the sport is mentioned in the anamnesis; cutaneous exercise - induced vasculitis must be also noted. Purpura can reveal systemic diseases or internal haemorrhage, such as spleen rupture, thrombopathies or systemic vasculitis, and other effort purpuras must be taken into account, including those related to the environment (cold, sun exposure...). Knowledge of a physical activity before the occurrence of purpura should be known by practitioner to avoid unnecessary and costly explorations in most of the cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...
Full Text Available Due to higher energy consumption, physically active people have higher nutritional requirements. In addition to other important factors for sports, such as good health and physical predisposition, adequate nutrition is a fundamental component. Sports nutrition must be well planned and individually adapted based on physical characteristics, tendencies towards gaining or losing weight, frequency, duration and intensity of training sessions. Studies have shown that a well-balanced ratio of macro and micronutrients, with the support of supplements and adequate hydration, can significantly improve athletic performance and plays a key role in achieving better results. An optimally designed nutritional program, with realistic and achievable goals, which complements a well-planned training program, is the basis for success in sports. Only when nutritional requirements are met, deficits can be prevented and performance in sport pushed to the limit.
Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.
Full Text Available Sport and politic are two big appearance and human activities which have as difference so the same segments. New society, democratic society necessity cultivate realization of sport-politic.We could say they are dominates phenomens of modern society. Like this they are manifestationed on the different necessity ways and have different roles. They are sa different as same. Everybody who take part in one or other sphere know from society from sociolog aspect how are two society components connected and reservationed beetwen. Why I am telling it: because the future of sportsmen depend from the future of politics will. Its needed to show how politic manage or give s the hope for development and animate possibility that young people during their evolution can do sport. Politic also depend from sports instutitions on creation mood of young people that their cadres got general and society dope. These two concepts can be near define. Sport as activity and as a appeal represent specific sights orientation of young people in aim curing knight games and evervthing in aim of health formation and effort of results, but they are not only meanings, through the sport can progress and big number acquaintance, friendship and intimacy, through sport ali cultural heredity can be keeping and the lands vvhich belong. Sport sociological looking is important element society life people. Second concept-politic, according to the famous politicians we can definite as a action that direct with another activities and business. Politic is substance, process of manifestation, manner, and it mean that politic has its subject activities vvhich is consist on behavour other social groups.
Full Text Available In this paper we investigate to which measure sport is developed among young people in Montenegro and what should be done to improve and spread physical culture among young people and beyond school systems in order to infl uence their proper development and to create opportunities for choosing potential talents for certain sports disciplines, who would later grow into top athletes and members of national teams. In addition to the theoretical framework set out from referent literature on sports, we will analyze the indicators - the existing regulation and strategy, and analyze the structured interviews conducted among sports professionals, based on which we will form the theory and sublimate the conclusions of work, as recommendations for improving sports among young people. Disadvantages are inadequate realization of teaching in schools, lack of adequate infrastructure in schools, lack of athletic stadium in the capital of Montenegro and lack of sports schools beyond classes. Advantages are great sports potential in youth, youth interest in sport and generations of educated professors in physical culture. The recommendations are related to addressing the shortcomings that exist and the adoption of laws that will stimulate the development of sports among young people.
Dennis J. Caine
Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to
Onal, Halil; Inan, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Sinan
The aim of this research is to examine the mathematical thinking skills of licensed athletes engaged in individual and team sports. The research is designed as a survey model. The sample of the research is composed of 59 female and 170 male licensed athletes (n = 229) and (aged 14 to 52) licensed who do the sports of shooting, billiards, archery,…
Shiraki, Yoshiya; Takeda, Hajime; Okamoto, Tamotsu; Kita, Nobuhiro
We conducted this study to analyze the correlation between 137 Cs concentration of new shoots harvested in the first crop of tea in 2012, and new shoots harvested in the shuto-bancha in 2011 and old leaves harvested at the same time respectively. In the first crop of tea in 2012, the 137 Cs concentration of new shoots was related to that of old leaves, and the correlation of the coefficient was 0.663(p 137 Cs concentration(new shoots/old leaves) was related to the days until harvest of the first crop of tea in 2012, and the correlation coefficient was -0.771(p 137 Cs concentration was derived from the dilution effect due to growth and development of tea plants. Regression analysis was performed to forecast the 137 Cs concentration of the new shoots in the first crop of tea. The 137 Cs concentration of new shoots in the harvested first crop of tea(Y) was related to the 137 Cs concentration of old leaves harvested the previous winter(X). The correlation of the coefficient was 0.783(p 137 Cs concentration of new shoots of the first crop of tea in 2012 decreased about 1/6 to 1/25 compared with that of new shoots of the first crop of tea in 2011. (author)
... submit" value="Submit" /> HEADS UP to School Sports Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir To help ... organizations, developed the HEADS UP: Concussion in School Sports initiative and materials. Specific Concussion Information for... Coaches ...
Nagar, Durga Singh; Jha, Suman Kumar; Jani, Jigar
A reproducible protocol developed for in vitro regeneration of Milletia pinnata using hypocotyl segments. Multiple shoots were induced from hypocotyl explants through direct adventitious shoot bud regeneration. The proximal end of hypocotyls was responsive for shoot bud induction. Silver nitrate and adenine sulphate had a positive effect on shoot bud induction and elongation. The maximum response and number of shoot bud produced in media supplemented with 8.88 μM BAP with 108.6 μM adenine sul...
The Vaccinium genus contains several valuable fruit and ornamental species, among others: highbush blueberry (Vaccinium × corymbosum L.), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.), and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). In some most popular and valuable cultivars, the conventional propagation methods, exploiting hard or soft wood cuttings, are inefficient. The demand for nursery plants could be fulfilled only by micropropagation. In principle cultivars are propagated in vitro through similar three-stage method, based on subculture of shoot explants on different culture media supplemented with IAA (0-4 mg/L) and 2iP (5-10 mg/L), and rooting shoots in vivo. The obtained plantlets are transferred to peat substrate and grown in the glasshouse until the end of growing period. The development of adventitious shoots should be monitored and controlled during in vitro stages. Many clones have specific requirements for growing conditions and/or are recalcitrant.
Full Text Available The Olympics will be held in Tokyo in 2020, and the training of the athlete using technology has been gaining attention. In an effort to refine the competitive ability of top athletes by evaluating their performance objectively, we have focused on eye movement and head movement. Since the field of view moves according to the athlete’s head movement, which is a problem for the conventional method of measuring eye movement, we proposed a new method of analysis of lines of sight which can record head movement during a competition and make it easier to analyze by superimposing the lines of sight on an externally recorded fixed image. With the goal of measuring the lines of sight of an athlete during an actual competition, we made a video during a competition and had an athlete observe the video in a laboratory. First we compared the video in which only the eye movement was measured and the field-of-view image moved according to the head movement with another video in which the head movement and eye movement were measured and the image did not move in spite of the occurrence of head movement. The results of the experiment, which involved baseball as the competitive sport, showed the effectiveness of our proposed system. Furthermore, we showed the difference between the lines of sight of an experienced and an inexperienced catcher.
Full Text Available Sport was used to complement therapy in original form, improve of motor patterns and reeducate functions of people with disabilities. With a passing of time, sport evolved to integrated part of rehabilitation as an element of improvement. Moreover, he became as a tool to improve the social integration of people which finished the treatment or/and have deficits. We can notice the huge sport development of people with disabilities, which was initiated by Sir Ludwig Guttmann’s who claimed that view of sport is equal for people with disabilities and able-bodied people. The quality of physical activity of people with disabilities is indicated by motor preparation, training and sport (wellness, nutritionist, sport and exercise psychologist which currently is all the same except individual approach to particular dysfunction of the person with disability. Sport allow to develop not only physical sphere, but also teaches social integration, teamwork skills, self-discipline, improves the quality of life and outcome of the ADL scale (activities of daily living scale of people with disabilities which do sport actively. The variety of sports disciplines and ability to use appropriate orthopedic stuff allows to activate people with every kind of disabilities and dysfunction.
Eime, Rochelle M; Casey, Meghan M; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Young, Janet A; Payne, Warren R
Many children are not physically active enough for a health benefit. One avenue of physical activity is modified sport programs, designed as an introduction to sport for young children. This longitudinal study identified trends in participation among children aged 4-12 years. Outcomes included continuation in the modified sports program, withdrawal from the program or transition to club sport competition. De-identified data on participant membership registrations in three popular sports in the Australian state of Victoria were obtained from each sport's state governing body over a 4-year period (2009-2012 for Sport A and 2010-2013 for Sports B and C). From the membership registrations, those who were enrolled in a modified sports program in the first year were tracked over the subsequent three years and classified as one of: transition (member transitioned from a modified sport program to a club competition); continue (member continued participation in a modified sport program; or withdraw (member discontinued a modified program and did not transition to club competition). Many modified sports participants were very young, especially males aged 4-6 years. More children withdrew from their modified sport program rather than transitioning. There were age differences between when boys and girls started, withdrew and transitioned from the modified sports programs. If we can retain children in sport it is likely to be beneficial for their health. This study highlights considerations for the development and implementation of sport policies and programming to ensure lifelong participation is encouraged for both males and females.
Full Text Available Critical scholars have indicated that the assumptions underlying most sport-for-development (SFD initiatives tend to align with a ‘deficit model’ of youth: young people from disadvantaged areas are uniformly deficient and in need of development, which can be achieved through sport (Coakley, 2011; Coalter, 2013. In this article, we investigated these assumptions within six urban SFD initiatives that work with young people in socially vulnerable situations in a ‘first’ world nation, Belgium. We conducted a survey at two moments in time amongst 14- to 25-year-old participants in order to test two assumptions: i ‘participants are deficient and in need of development’; and ii ‘participation in SFD initiatives leads to positive personal development’. We operationalised ‘development’ as the commonly used outcomes of perceived self-efficacy and self-esteem. These are ‘household words’ both inside and outside SFD research, practice, and policy and carry the assumption that boosting them will by itself foster positive outcomes. The findings refute the supposition that young people from disadvantaged urban areas are uniformly in need of more perceived self-efficacy and self-esteem and show that there is no simple and predictable change in participants’ ‘development’. We suggest that, in designing and researching programs, SFD stakeholders start from an open-ended bottom-up approach which is tailored to the actual life situations of young people and their individual differences and consider more interpersonal and critical conceptualisations of ‘development’.
Full Text Available There are a number of ways to divide this market sector, but broadly speaking the sports market essentially relates to products used in the pursuit of active team or individual sports. This would include team sports, equipment for fitness, gym, snow sports, equipment for water sports, golf, tennis and skating. There is also the „outdoor“ market. This would include camping goods, fishing and horse sports. There are a number of inter- related trends, which impact on the future development of this market sector
Full Text Available Background: Ardent sports watching will lead an individual to engage in sports and recreational activities continuously, while it also creates a sports culture among Malaysians. Sports watching culture is actually an intellectual activity. It is capable of evaluating behaviour, moral values and the level of appreciation of every spectator. Methods: This survey was conducted to identify the sports viewing culture among Malaysians. A cluster sampling method was used to select 6000 respondents from 30 million Malaysian population. Respondents were selected from urban (50% and rural areas (50%. Ethnically 56% were Malays, Sarawak and Sabah natives were 11%, Chinese 25% and finally Indians 7%. The respondents age categories were 12 to 19 years (30%, 20 to 25 years (50%, 56 and above (20%. A questionnaire developed by the research team was used to collect data. The quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 21.0 for windows. Results: The findings indicate that from 5864 respondents who answered the questionnaire in full, a total of 4553 people or 77.6% watch sporting events, while a total of 1311 people or 22.4% have stated not watching any sports activities. Comparison by gender showed that 85.2% of the 2482 males watch sports events while among the female 70.2% of the 2071 watch sports events. In the category of those who do not watch, the female are higher at 29.8% than the males at 14.8%. In terms of ethnicity the Malays 80.2%. Chinese 64.6%, Indians 81.9%, natives of Sabah 94.0%, natives of Sarawak 77.6% like to watch sports events. Residential locations showed no significant differences as 78.7% of urban respondents watch sports events compared to 76.8% of rural communities. Conclusion: The findings indicated that majority of Malaysians having fun in watching sports activities. Gender still plays a role in the involvement and enjoyment of sports events either as a player or supporter. Ethnicity
Full Text Available Purpose: to develop and validate methods for quantifying qualitative indicators special physical preparedness of sportsmen in fitness-aerobics and sports aesthetic orientation. Materials and Methods: an analytical synthesis of these scientific and methodical literature, the use of the theory of similarity and dimensionality, biomechanical analysis of motor activity, processing of video. Results: based on the use of similarity theory presents the methods of quantitative evaluation of qualitative characteristics of motor activity in special physical training, which allow an assessment of motor talent of the athlete and to provide objective guidance to training in particular sport. Conclusions: the presented methods quantify the qualitative indicators of the special motor preparation allow us to estimate a measure of motor gifted individual and his susceptibility to training in particular sport
Sanders, Ben; Phillips, Julie; Vanreusel, Bart
Post-apartheid South Africa manifests poor social indicators with over half the population living below the poverty line and the worst levels of inequality in the world, with much work needed to overcome the skewed legacy of apartheid. Sport suffered in this system resulting in unequal access to sporting facilities and opportunities, meaning many…
Griffiths, Mark A.; Armour, Kathleen M.; Cushion, Christopher J.
This paper reports data from the evaluation of a coach education programme provided by a major national governing body of sport (NGB) in the UK. The programme was designed for youth sport coaches based on research evidence that suggests that CPD is most effective in supporting practitioner learning when it is interactive, collaborative and located…
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... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...
Full Text Available It has been suggested that group composition can influence the experiences of individual group members in social programmes (Weiss, 1998. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between peer group composition in sports programmes and positive youth development (PYD in disadvantaged girls, as well as to determine whether it was moderated by personal characteristics. Two hundred young women aged between 10 and 24 completed a questionnaire including, among others, the “Youth Experience Survey for Sport” (YES-S (MacDonald, Côté, Eys, & Deakin, 2012 and questions regarding participants’ socio-economic characteristics (i.e., nationality, education, family situation. Multilevel regression analyses were performed to take into account the hierarchical data structure. At the group level, a higher percentage of girls from a low educational track and with a migration background predicted greater PYD, as indicated by higher levels of personal and social skills, cognitive skills and goal setting. Results showed interaction effects between the respondents’ family structures on the participant and team levels. The overall statistical models for the different developmental domains accounted for variance ranging from 14.7% (personal and social skills to 30.3% (cognitive skills. Results indicated that the extent to which disadvantaged girls derive benefits from their participation in sport also depends on the group composition. The interaction effects between the group composition and individual characteristics suggest that when girls participate in a group of similar peers, those from non-intact families will derive more benefits than their counterparts from intact families.
"众筹"是一种以互联网为平台的新型融资模式.在商业和金融领域得到了飞速发展.近年来,随着"众筹"的逐步成熟,开始拓展到包括体育在内的诸多领域.为现代体育的发展带来了新的机遇和挑战.分析当前体育发展中的"众筹"模式,总结相关经验,有助于体育"众筹"发展抓住机遇,规避风险.%"Crowdfunding" is a kind of new financing mode with internet as platform.In the commercial and financial areas have been rapid development.In recent years, with the "Crowdfunding" gradually mature, began to expand to include sports, including many areas.For the development of modern sports has brought new opportunities and challenges.It is helpful to analyze the current "Crowdfunding" mode of sports development and summarize the relevant experience, which is helpful to the development of sports "Crowdfunding" and seize the opportunity to avoid risks.
Bantjes, Jason; Swartz, Leslie; Conchar, Lauren; Derman, Wayne
Adolescents with disabilities in developing countries frequently have limited access to sporting opportunities and comparatively little is known of their lived experiences and preferences. We set out to understand what a group of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) living in South Africa perceive to be important components of programmes developed…
Cauthen, Hillary Ayn
The purpose of this study was to develop a sport-based life skills scale that assesses 20 life skills: goal setting, time management, communication, coping, problem solving, leadership, critical thinking, teamwork, self-discipline, decision making, planning, organizing, resiliency, motivation, emotional control, patience, assertiveness, empathy,…
This article reports on a case study that inquired into the influence of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association competitive swimming structure on the development of talented 12-year old female swimmers. The study focused on ten 12-year old girls in the New South Wales team that contested the 2009 national swimming championships…
Whitley, Meredith A.; Forneris, Tanya; Barker, Bryce
Many community-based sport and physical activity programs take a positive youth development approach when operating in underserved communities around the world (Forneris, Whitley, & Barker, 2013). However, one of the biggest challenges for these programs is sustainability (Lindsey, 2008). The purpose of this article is to present the 3…
Artuso, Paola; Santiangeli, Adriano [CIRPS: Inter-University Research Centre for Sustainable Development, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Eudossiana, 18, Rome (Italy)
The sports facilities are characterized by special energy needs different from any other user and they are characterized by high heat and electricity loads. For this reason, the aim of this work has been to propose a tool to provide a preliminary estimation of the power and energy required by the sports centres. In addition, the possibility to make the building self-energy sufficient has been considered, thanks to the exploitation of renewable energy sources (RES). The overall work has been performed following three steps: energy needs analysis; local RES availability analysis; energy balance of Sport Centres. Considering that each sport facility is characterized by different energy needs depending on the sport typology itself, the analysis started from the features established by the CONI (National Italian Olympic Committee) standardization. For calculations a program in LabVIEW has been developed to evaluate the energy requirements of the sports centre considering as inputs the sport halls, the playgrounds and the supporting rooms, the level of the sport activity (e.g. agonistic) and the climatic conditions of the area where the facilities are located. The locally available RES are evaluated in order to decide which one can be exploited to feed the Sport Centre. The proposed solution for the energy production refers to a combination of different and innovative technologies which involve, in particular, hydrogen technologies. The energy and costs analysis has been finally carried out for an application case in Dubai. (author)
Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Jos de Haan; with contributions from Remco van den Dool
Original title: Versterking data-infrastructuur sport Sports research in the Netherlands has developed rapidly over the last ten years; strengthening the data infrastructure will facilitate its further growth in the future. Currently, however, there is no clear overall picture of the available
Maize (Zea mays L.) ear vascular tissue transports nutrients that contribute to grain yield. To assess kernel heritabilities that govern ear development and plant growth, field studies were conducted to determine the combining abilities of parents that differed for kernel-size, grain-filling rates and shoot-size. Thirty two hybrids ...
A quick and more reliable diagnostic method has for a long time been identified as one input that will greatly enhance the control of the cocoa swollen shoot disease in Ghana. Many diagnostic procedures have been developed for detecting the virus that causes the disease; yet, the detection of latent infections is still ...
The objective of this study was to develop an efficient protocol for adventitious shoot regeneration for Plectranthus barbatus Andrews using leaf explants. The explants were cultured on MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium containing various concentration of kinetin (KN), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and thidiazuron ...
Background. Lead exposure constitutes a major public health concern globally. Relative to developed nations, lead exposure is understudied and poorly addressed in Africa, and there is a dearth of information available to inform lead poisoning prevention strategies, even in highrisk groups such as workers in shooting ...
Nagar, Durga Singh; Jha, Suman Kumar; Jani, Jigar
A reproducible protocol developed for in vitro regeneration of Milletia pinnata using hypocotyl segments. Multiple shoots were induced from hypocotyl explants through direct adventitious shoot bud regeneration. The proximal end of hypocotyls was responsive for shoot bud induction. Silver nitrate and adenine sulphate had a positive effect on shoot bud induction and elongation. The maximum response and number of shoot bud produced in media supplemented with 8.88 μM BAP with 108.6 μM adenine sulphate and 11.84 μM silver nitrate. Elongated shoots were harvested and successful rooting of microshoots achieved on MS media supplemented with 9.84 μM IBA, with 81.1 % rooting. Remaining shoot buds sub-cultured for further multiplication and elongation. Each subculture produced eight to nine elongated microshoots up to four subcultures. The rooted microshoots were successfully hardened and transferred to field.
Sakes, A.; van der Wiel, M.; Henselmans, P.W.J.; van Leeuwen, J.L.; Dodou, D.; Breedveld, P.
In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these
Prof. Adipala Ekwamu
Induction of adventitious buds and shoots from intact leaves and stem internode segments of two recalcitrant. Ugandan sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivars was investigated in vitro on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, supplemented with 3 different levels (0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 µM) of Thidiazuron (TDZ). Shoots were.
Warnick, Bryan R.; Johnson, Benjamin A.; Rocha, Samuel
School shootings are traumatic events that cause a community to question itself, its values, and its educational systems. In this article Bryan Warnick, Benjamin Johnson, and Samuel Rocha explore the meanings of school shootings by examining three recent books on school violence. Topics that grow out of these books include (1) how school shootings…
Feb 4, 2009 ... Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transplanted to soil. Key words: shoot organogenesis, callus, ... saline and alkaline soils (Economou and Maloupa, 1995). Its fruits have been used as a .... cally inert compounds as reported by Kaminek (1992). Direct shoot organogenesis without ...
Cobley, Stephen; Baker, Joseph; Wattie, Nick; McKenna, Jim
Annual age-grouping is a common organizational strategy in sport. However, such a strategy appears to promote relative age effects (RAEs). RAEs refer both to the immediate participation and long-term attainment constraints in sport, occurring as a result of chronological age and associated physical (e.g. height) differences as well as selection practices in annual age-grouped cohorts. This article represents the first meta-analytical review of RAEs, aimed to collectively determine (i) the overall prevalence and strength of RAEs across and within sports, and (ii) identify moderator variables. A total of 38 studies, spanning 1984-2007, containing 253 independent samples across 14 sports and 16 countries were re-examined and included in a single analysis using odds ratios and random effects procedures for combining study estimates. Overall results identified consistent prevalence of RAEs, but with small effect sizes. Effect size increased linearly with relative age differences. Follow-up analyses identified age category, skill level and sport context as moderators of RAE magnitude. Sports context involving adolescent (aged 15-18 years) males, at the representative (i.e. regional and national) level in highly popular sports appear most at risk to RAE inequalities. Researchers need to understand the mechanisms by which RAEs magnify and subside, as well as confirm whether RAEs exist in female and more culturally diverse contexts. To reduce and eliminate this social inequality from influencing athletes' experiences, especially within developmental periods, direct policy, organizational and practitioner intervention is required.
Full Text Available Marketing developed close relation with sponsorship since the beginnings of the industrial era of sports. The relation has transformed in a stable relation, the two forces – the sponsor and the sponsored – transforming into two companions of journey. The effort undertaken in this work was focused on analyzing the modern aspects of the partnership generated through sports sponsorship.The current issue and sport sponsorship has come a long way since the first action of its kind until now. Based on the presentation of new concepts on the development efforts in sport sponsorship, content provides a detailed analysis of the actual specifics of this type of activity. Analysis of influence vectors sponsorship process gives us a picture of the forces that can act on this. At the end of our research we focused attention on elements that empowers sports portfolio in terms of corporate interest, the potentiation commercial message and image association. This technique of promotional community for and through sports is maybe the one that manifests the most “laic” status among the promotional forms. This epithet implies a metaphorical approach given by the possibility of accomplishing some objectives that can have some more obvious “corporality” than in the case of the other forms of promotion used in the sports industry. Sports sponsorship has been an early ally of sports, and has remained a basic communicational technique. This fact is due to some determination in double sense: on the one hand, sport has adapted permanently to the dynamics of the range of sponsorship techniques and, on the other hand, the sponsorship tried to use the chameleon-like offer of the sports potential.
Siesmaa, Emma J; Blitvich, Jennifer D; White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F
Despite the health benefits associated with children's sport participation, the occurrence of injury in this context is common. The extent to which sport injuries impact children's ongoing involvement in sport is largely unknown. Surveys have been shown to be useful for collecting children's injury and sport participation data; however, there are currently no published instruments which investigate the impact of injury on children's sport participation. This study describes the processes undertaken to assess the validity of two survey instruments for collecting self-reported information about child cricket and netball related participation, injury history and injury risk perceptions, as well as the reliability of the cricket-specific version. Face and content validity were assessed through expert feedback from primary and secondary level teachers and from representatives of peak sporting bodies for cricket and netball. Test-retest reliability was measured using a sample of 59 child cricketers who completed the survey on two occasions, 3-4 weeks apart. Based on expert feedback relating to face and content validity, modification and/or deletion of some survey items was undertaken. Survey items with low test-retest reliability (κ≤0.40) were modified or deleted, items with moderate reliability (κ=0.41-0.60) were modified slightly and items with higher reliability (κ≥0.61) were retained, with some undergoing minor modifications. This is the first survey of its kind which has been successfully administered to cricketers aged 10-16 years to collect information about injury risk perceptions and intentions for continued sport participation. Implications for its generalisation to other child sport participants are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M
Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to show the role of sport in American society against the background of a very important—for many reasons—period of great social transformation in the United States, one which visibly gathered pace in the 1920s. The author presents different aspects of popular culture, which was in full bloom on account of the following factors: the joy after World War I, a sense of optimism, the development of the economy and industry, the growth of big cities, and the greater affluence of the citizens. The analysis of that unusual decade corroborates the role of sport and its great power of influence on society. In an age when technology and mass production had robbed experiences and objects of their uniqueness, sports provided some of the unpredictability and drama that people craved when looking for romance and adventure. The reasons for the popularity of sport in the USA are presented, as well as the major sports diciplines and heroes of American sport who, in a time when mass production seemed to be making individuals less significant, met with a favorable response—people clung to the heroic personalities of sports figures. The analysis of the beginnings of professionalism in sport, the beginnings of organized support, and sports broadcasting, leaves no doubt as to the significance of the period. As the article demonstrates, it was a time of rapid and profound transformation in the realm of sport. Every serious examination of phenomena in contemporary American sport—and this is also true in the case of other countries—without a knowledge of the specificity of sport in the 1920s, would be far from perfect.
Timpka, Toomas; Finch, Caroline F; Goulet, Claude; Noakes, Tim; Yammine, Kaissar
Sports and physical activity are transforming, and being transformed by, the societies in which they are practised. From the perspectives of both competitive and non-competitive sports, the complexity of their integration into today's society has led to neither sports federations nor governments being able to manage the safety problem alone. In other words, these agencies, whilst promoting sport and physical activity, deliver policy and practices in an uncoordinated way that largely ignores the need for a concurrent overall policy for sports safety. This article reviews and analyses the possibility of developing an overall sports safety policy from a global viewpoint. Firstly, we describe the role of sports in today's societies and the context within which much sport is delivered. We then discuss global issues related to injury prevention and safety in sports, with practical relevance to this important sector, including an analysis of critical policy issues necessary for the future development of the area and significant safety gains for all. We argue that there is a need to establish the sports injury problem as a critical component of general global health policy agendas, and to introduce sports safety as a mandatory component of all sustainable sports organizations. We conclude that the establishment of an explicit intersection between science and policy making is necessary for the future development of sports and the necessary safety gains required for all participants around the world. The Safe Sports International safety promotion programme is outlined as an example of an international organization active within this arena.
Andersen, Tem Frank
This study tries to map out the possible interplay between interactive digital media (including mobile and wearable technologies) and sport as performance and participation. The ambition is to create a model providing the analytical framework for understanding questions like "are we running...
Clumpner, Roy A.
This book, which is primarily for secondary physical education teachers, presents a sequential approach to teaching skills that are essential to eight sports. The activities and lead-up games included in the book put beginning students directly into game-like situations where they can practice skills. Each chapter begins with a background of the…
In the wake of the Stoneman Douglas School shooting, Republican and Democratic leaders-like the American electorate they represent-remain sharply divided in their responses to gun violence. They are united in their condemnation of these mass shootings, but they disagree about whether stricter or looser gun control laws are the answer. Those on the right side of the political aisle suggest that the issue is one of mental illness rather than gun control. Conversely, those who are more liberal or progressive in their political learnings are quick to condemn attempts to reframe the issue of mass shootings as a mental health problem. Both sides are wrong. Mass shootings are indeed partially a mental health problem, albeit one poorly addressed by our current laws and policies. But the solution to mass shootings also needs to consider strategies that may reduce gun violence in general. © 2018 The Hastings Center.
The uniqueness of this article is that it deals with long-distance bike commuting in pro-cycling Copenhagen and its environs. Informed by practice theory and sensuous studies of urban and sport practices, I discuss the ‘things and environments’, ‘meanings’ and ‘competences and biological bodies......’ that typify long-distance commuter cycling. This article develops cycling literature and the ‘mobilities paradigm’ in the following ways: by outlining a practice approach to cycling; challenging the idea that commuter cycling is only for short distances; undermining the distinction between utility and sport...... cycling; and lastly by connecting the ‘mobilities paradigm’ with literature on active travel and sport studies....
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
Full Text Available In sport marketing, the word promotion covers a range of interrelated activities. All of these activities are designed to attract attention, stimulate the interest and awareness of consumers, and of course, encourage them to purchase a sport product. Promotion is about communicating with and educating consumers. The purpose of a sport promotional strategy is to build brand loyalty and product credibility, develop image, and position the brand. A promotional strategy is similar to a marketing strategy, but the promotional strategy seeks short-term objectives, both direct and indirect. Promotional objectives usually include increased sales, stimulate impulse buying, raise customer traffic, and present and reinforce image. It also provides information about products and services, publicizes new stores or websites, and creates and enhances customer satisfaction.
Overbye, Marie Birch
Doping testing is a key component enforced by anti-doping authorities to detect and deter doping in sport. Policy is developed to protect athletes' right to participate in doping-free sport; and testing is a key tool to secure this right. Accordingly, athletes' responses to anti-doping efforts...... are important. This article explores how the International Standards for Testing, which face different interpretations and challenges when policy is implemented, are perceived by elite athletes. Particularly, this article aims to investigate how elite athletes perceive the functioning of the testing system (i.......e., the efforts of stakeholders involved in testing) in their own sport both nationally and worldwide. Moreover, it seeks to identify whether specific factors such as previous experience of testing and perceived proximity of doping have an impact on athletes' perceptions of the testing system. The study comprises...
During the First World War, the life of a soldier was not just reduced to the trenches. In daily military life behind the lines, soldiers had recreational activities, some of which were seen as a test of virility, such as visiting brothels, and also, as we want to show in this paper, sport practices. For most of the French citizen-soldiers, who were working class and mainly from the countryside, the contact with allied soldiers has to be understood as a significant step in the social construction of gender. Educated in gymnastics, shooting and military exercises, French infantrymen (Poilus) and civilians saw allied sports and soldier-sportsmen as models of a modern masculinity. In a descriptive study of the development of football in the French army, our article tries to demonstrate firstly, that football learnt in the army by workers and the French rural society extended the influence of sport and its part in the construction of masculinity in France. Secondly, we show that the official recognition of sport in 1917 by the French army led to the definition of a modern French masculinity and to the recognition of the sportsmen-soldier as the model of hegemonic masculinity.
Full Text Available Core shooting process is the most widely used technique to make sand cores and it plays an important role in the quality of sand cores. Although numerical simulation can hopefully optimize the core shooting process, research on numerical simulation of the core shooting process is very limited. Based on a two-fluid model (TFM and a kinetic-friction constitutive correlation, a program for 3D numerical simulation of the core shooting process has been developed and achieved good agreements with in-situ experiments. To match the needs of engineering applications, a graphics processing unit (GPU has also been used to improve the calculation efficiency. The parallel algorithm based on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA platform can significantly decrease computing time by multi-threaded GPU. In this work, the program accelerated by CUDA parallelization method was developed and the accuracy of the calculations was ensured by comparing with in-situ experimental results photographed by a high-speed camera. The design and optimization of the parallel algorithm were discussed. The simulation result of a sand core test-piece indicated the improvement of the calculation efficiency by GPU. The developed program has also been validated by in-situ experiments with a transparent core-box, a high-speed camera, and a pressure measuring system. The computing time of the parallel program was reduced by nearly 95% while the simulation result was still quite consistent with experimental data. The GPU parallelization method can successfully solve the problem of low computational efficiency of the 3D sand shooting simulation program, and thus the developed GPU program is appropriate for engineering applications.
Bird, Anne Marie; Ross, Diane
A brief history of research in sport psychology based on Lander's (1982) analysis is presented. A systematic approach to theory building is offered. Previous methodological inadequacies are identified using examples of observational learning and anxiety. (Author/DF)
Kiyomi Cerezo Takahash
Full Text Available This article aims to explain the development of an application whose function is to predict the results of different sporting encounters. To do this an analysis of the influential factors, algorithms and technology implemented, will be carried out.
Full Text Available The influence of sports on the development of motor qualities of students is researched. The study involved two groups of students by 12 people with various illnesses. They were asked to perform a set of exercises to develop their motoric qualities. The results of students' physical qualities testing before and after the teaching experiment are illustrated. The considerable improvement of the testing results after applying the set of exercises with elements of sports games for the motoric qualities development was marked. The results of the experiment confirmed that the level of students' physical fitness was increased and the development of the basic physical qualities: speed, dexterity and speed-force qualities was accelerated to the extent possible. To improve the working capacity of students who have limited physical activity it is necessary to use special means of physical education.
This volume comprises scientific contributions in the context of the 5th annual conference of the European Association of Sports Economics (ESEA), which took place in September 2013 in Esbjerg, Denmark. It contains five articles on UEFA’s financial fair play regulation in European football, written...... by internationally renowned sports economists like Stefan Szymanski, Joel Maxcy and Sean Hamil. Moreover, a further three chapters deal with football topics like the dismissal of coaches or competitive balance. Furthermore, the economics of sports events – the Olympics as well as local events – are analyzed by well......-known scholars like Wladimir Andreff and Plácido Rodríguez. Next to team sports, new developments of the economics of individual sports like cycling, ski-jumping and motor-racing are explored....
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to (1 investigate locals’ perceptions of the positive and negative impacts of the XVII Mediterranean Games; (2 identify which perceptions of these impacts would predict locals’ intention to support future sporting events and (3 discussing locals’ support intentions towards future sporting events within the context of altruistic surplus phenomenon. The data was obtained through stratified sampling by gathering one on one questionnaire from 422 participants, which were then analyzed by exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. The results show that while locals mostly benefit from the XVII Mediterranean Games in the areas of “tourism infrastructure development” and ‘image enhancement-consolidation’, they are complaining about uncovered economic expectations. As a result of regression analysis “tourism resource development and urban revitalization” and “image enhancement and consolidation” variables have significantly predicted the locals’ support intentions for the future sporting events. It is understood that the locals’ positive perceptions far outweighed the effects of negative perceptions in terms of intentions to support hosting future sport events. When it comes to local’s positive outlooks, effects of negative perceptions on support intention become insignificant which could be explained by the altruistic surplus phenomenon.
Liu, Joseph; Wang, Ximing; Verma, Sneha; McNitt-Gray, Jill; Liu, Brent
The main goal of sports science and performance enhancement is to collect video and image data, process them, and quantify the results, giving insight to help athletes improve technique. For long jump in track and field, the processed output of video with force vector overlays and force calculations allow coaches to view specific stages of the hop, step, and jump, and identify how each stage can be improved to increase jump distance. Outputs also provide insight into how athletes can better maneuver to prevent injury. Currently, each data collection site collects and stores data with their own methods. There is no standard for data collection, formats, or storage. Video files and quantified results are stored in different formats, structures, and locations such as Dropbox and hard drives. Using imaging informatics-based principles we can develop a platform for multiple institutions that promotes the standardization of sports performance data. In addition, the system will provide user authentication and privacy as in clinical trials, with specific user access rights. Long jump data collected from different field sites will be standardized into specified formats before database storage. Quantified results from image-processing algorithms are stored similar to CAD algorithm results. The system will streamline the current sports performance data workflow and provide a user interface for athletes and coaches to view results of individual collections and also longitudinally across different collections. This streamlined platform and interface is a tool for coaches and athletes to easily access and review data to improve sports performance and prevent injury.
Olivares, Pedro R.; Andronikos, Georgios; Martindale, Russell J. J.
This study aimed to translate the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire into Spanish and provide an initial validation. A recommended methodology for translation and cultural adaptation of questionnaires was applied. Once this had been completed, three hundred and thirty-two young athletes completed the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire. The results revealed that the five factor solution Talent Development Environment Questionnaire was confirmed. With the exclusion of one item due to low factor loading, the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had robust statistical support for its factor structure (χ2 (df = 305) = 499.64, pTalent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had a Cronbach α score of .877, and the reliability scores for individual factors 1–5 were .622; .761; .658; .605; .602 respectively. As such, it is recommended that the Spanish Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 can be used with confidence in Spain in both applied and research settings. PMID:28582387
Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R; Andronikos, Georgios; Martindale, Russell J J
This study aimed to translate the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire into Spanish and provide an initial validation. A recommended methodology for translation and cultural adaptation of questionnaires was applied. Once this had been completed, three hundred and thirty-two young athletes completed the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire. The results revealed that the five factor solution Talent Development Environment Questionnaire was confirmed. With the exclusion of one item due to low factor loading, the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had robust statistical support for its factor structure (χ2 (df = 305) = 499.64, pTalent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had a Cronbach α score of .877, and the reliability scores for individual factors 1-5 were .622; .761; .658; .605; .602 respectively. As such, it is recommended that the Spanish Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 can be used with confidence in Spain in both applied and research settings.
Full Text Available During the past thirty-five years, developments in computer-related technology have been providing increasingly more sophisticated simulation alternatives for training law enforcement officers. Such developments have leveraged on the back of progress achieved in the aviation, military and medical professions as law enforcement educators seek to address the challenges of training for high-risk, high-stakes professional environments. While globally, simulation based learning exercises are at the forefront in use-of-force training with firearms for police recruits there is limited published research which views the influence of these exercises on operational practice through the lens of the police recruit as they engage with the demands of their volatile, unpredictable workplace. This paper discusses a case study of a cohort of 372 police recruits whose police academy education program included participation in simulation based learning exercises centred on decision making in use-of-force. The pivotal inclusion in the study was the opportunity for the police recruits to reflect on the influence of the simulation exercise experience from an operational perspective. The study revealed an unvoiced advantage—while trainers are focusing on the amount of ammunition used, the marksmanship accuracy, and the justification for the use-of-force, the students are unconsciously building a repertoire of realistic experiences as a reference library for the moment of decision in real life shoot/don’t shoot incidents.
A standing debate in philosophy of sport concerns whether sport can count as art in some sense. But the debate is often conducted at cross purposes. Naysayers insist that no sport is an artform while proponents insist that certain sport performances count as artworks – but these are entirely consistent claims. Both sides make unwarranted assumptions: naysayers are purists about sport and art (no transaesthetic purposes) whereas proponents are tokenists about artforms. Naysayers admit that fig...
Cosme, Marco; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Franken, Philipp; Schmülling, Thomas; Wurst, Susanne
The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is functionally important for the nutrition and growth of most terrestrial plants. Nearly all phytohormones are employed by plants to regulate the symbiosis with AM fungi, but the regulatory role of cytokinin (CK) is not well understood. Here, we used transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) with a root-specific or constitutive expression of CK-degrading CKX genes and the corresponding wild-type to investigate whether a lowered content of CK in roots or in both roots and shoots influences the interaction with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. Our data indicates that shoot CK has a positive impact on AM fungal development in roots and on the root transcript level of an AM-responsive phosphate transporter gene (NtPT4). A reduced CK content in roots caused shoot and root growth depression following AM colonization, while neither the uptake of phosphorus or nitrogen nor the root transcript levels of NtPT4 were significantly affected. This suggests that root CK may restrict the C availability from the roots to the fungus thus averting parasitism by AM fungi. Taken together, our study indicates that shoot- and root-borne CK have distinct roles in AM symbiosis. We propose a model illustrating how plants may employ CK to regulate nutrient exchange with the ubiquitous AM fungi.
Liu, Shengjie; Gao, Jiadong; Chen, Zhongjian; Qiao, Xiaoyan; Huang, Hualin; Cui, Baiyuan; Zhu, Qingfeng; Dai, Zhangyan; Wu, Hualing; Pan, Yayan; Yang, Chengwei; Liu, Jun
evergrowing tea cultivar "Dongcha11" to low temperature and light conditions. Histone H4, Histone H2A.1, putative In2.1 protein and protein lin-28 homologs may also regulate the development of winter shoots and their response to adverse conditions.
Li, Xiaojuan; Cai, Wenguo; Liu, Yanlin; Li, Hui; Fu, Liwen; Liu, Zengyu; Xu, Lin; Liu, Hongtao; Xu, Tongda; Xiong, Yan
The developmental plasticity of plants relies on the remarkable ability of the meristems to integrate nutrient and energy availability with environmental signals. Meristems in root and shoot apexes share highly similar molecular players but are spatially separated by soil. Whether and how these two meristematic tissues have differential activation requirements for local nutrient, hormone, and environmental cues (e.g., light) remain enigmatic in photosynthetic plants. Here, we report that the activation of root and shoot apexes relies on distinct glucose and light signals. Glucose energy signaling is sufficient to activate target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase in root apexes. In contrast, both the glucose and light signals are required for TOR activation in shoot apexes. Strikingly, exogenously applied auxin is able to replace light to activate TOR in shoot apexes and promote true leaf development. A relatively low concentration of auxin in the shoot and high concentration of auxin in the root might be responsible for this distinctive light requirement in root and shoot apexes, because light is required to promote auxin biosynthesis in the shoot. Furthermore, we reveal that the small GTPase Rho-related protein 2 (ROP2) transduces light-auxin signal to activate TOR by direct interaction, which, in turn, promotes transcription factors E2Fa,b for activating cell cycle genes in shoot apexes. Consistently, constitutively activated ROP2 plants stimulate TOR in the shoot apex and cause true leaf development even without light. Together, our findings establish a pivotal hub role of TOR signaling in integrating different environmental signals to regulate distinct developmental transition and growth in the shoot and root.
Rovere, Gabriel Alejandro
The general goal of this thesis was to provide information useful for the breeding programme of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) in relation with the ongoing specialisation of the population. Data provided by KWPN consisted of records from studbook-first inspection, competition performan....... Constructing separate selection indexes would allow for optimal weighting of information sources such as studbook-entry inspection traits in accordance to the breeding goal of each sports discipline....
Laux, T; Mayer, K F
The shoot meristem is a proliferative centre containing pluripotent stem cells that are the ultimate source of all cells and organs continuously added to the growing shoot. The progeny of the stem cells have two developmental options, either to renew the stem cell population or to leave the meristem and to differentiate, possibly according to signals from more mature tissue. The destiny of each cell depends on its position within the dynamic shoot meristem. Genetic data suggest a simple model in which graded positional information is provided by antagonistic gene functions and is interpreted by genes which regulate cell fate.
Glöckner, Andreas; Heinen, Thomas; Johnson, Joseph G; Raab, Markus
This paper focuses on a model comparison to explain choices based on gaze behavior via simulation procedures. We tested two classes of models, a parallel constraint satisfaction (PCS) artificial neuronal network model and an accumulator model in a handball decision-making task from a lab experiment. Both models predict action in an option-generation task in which options can be chosen from the perspective of a playmaker in handball (i.e., passing to another player or shooting at the goal). Model simulations are based on a dataset of generated options together with gaze behavior measurements from 74 expert handball players for 22 pieces of video footage. We implemented both classes of models as deterministic vs. probabilistic models including and excluding fitted parameters. Results indicated that both classes of models can fit and predict participants' initially generated options based on gaze behavior data, and that overall, the classes of models performed about equally well. Early fixations were thereby particularly predictive for choices. We conclude that the analyses of complex environments via network approaches can be successfully applied to the field of experts' decision making in sports and provide perspectives for further theoretical developments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The new economy has brought new meaning to the brand, which is characterized by a brand, but also has a human touch, turning into an emotional brand. Alternative branding strategies put emphasis on brand experience in terms of emotional, holistic and socially responsible. Bottled water has become the world's "liquid gold" in the last 40 years, because it is a natural product, which is made with minimal costs. The paper develops the idea to perform a kind of humanization and the introduction of a new emotional brand of bottled water on the market, which will bear the name "Aqua F.I.F.A" designed label of FIFA international organizations, as well as the roof of the organizers of the most important football events in the world and the label of the national team. This paper will analyze in detail the market opportunities and prospects of introducing a unique sports brand, on the emotional aspect, with the use of effective marketing communication strategy.
Full Text Available This study aimed to translate the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire into Spanish and provide an initial validation. A recommended methodology for translation and cultural adaptation of questionnaires was applied. Once this had been completed, three hundred and thirty-two young athletes completed the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire. The results revealed that the five factor solution Talent Development Environment Questionnaire was confirmed. With the exclusion of one item due to low factor loading, the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had robust statistical support for its factor structure (χ2 (df = 305 = 499.64, p<0.01, CFI = 0.90, RMSEA = 0.045, SRMR = 0.055. It also demonstrated adequate convergent and discriminant validity. While the internal reliability was lower than in previous studies, it revealed acceptable levels. Specifically the overall 27 item Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had a Cronbach α score of .877, and the reliability scores for individual factors 1-5 were .622; .761; .658; .605; .602 respectively. As such, it is recommended that the Spanish Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 can be used with confidence in Spain in both applied and research settings.
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport... to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the new and...
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport... relating to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the new and...
Plancher, K D; Minnich, J M
Injuries to the upper extremities can happen in any sport. Injury patterns are common to specific sports. Understanding which injuries occur with these sports allows the examiner to diagnose and treat the athlete easily. This article reviews some of the injuries common in sports such as bicycling, golf, gymnastics, martial arts, racquet sports, and weightlifting.
Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel
Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not
Full Text Available Fundrising is the kind of marketing strategy, which the main gool is to provide the money and the other resources. It is the moust important tasks of nonprofit organizacio( sport organiyation and the other organiyation which need money for development project. Fundraising is independent and sistematical way of compilation the financial resource and anather keind of help in nonprofit organization from the private persone, the enterprice, the associate ect.Fundraising enable the activity and realization projects. Aim of this working paper is to givs contibution these important problem of menagement, to explain it and apply it in sport. Today it we haven`t enought the financial resourceies, without activity to provide it, we will very quickly loss sympathy and support who could help as. Financial problems are present not only in the sport organization , but in the culture, social, eco, education and other organizations. Todey there is strong competition at the fundraising market. Sport has advantages in the mass actions frequently and in his places in the psyche and body development people in all of growth, rather then the another nonprofit organization. Fundraising provide a lot of many and create pozitive image in public environment
I Gusti Ngurah Agung Cahya Prananta
Full Text Available The effectiveness of jump-shoot technique step jump shoot and still jump shoot in a game is still questionable, because many different assumptions arise. One opinion stated that step jump shoot was more effective and the other stated that and still jump shoot was more efective. Therefore it is necessary to do research on the analysis of the results of step jump shoot and and still jump shoot to improve the accuracy of shooting in a basketball. The experimental research had been conducted on 20samples of people whowere selected randomly from the men's basketball club of the Faculty of Physical Educationand Health of Teacher Training Institute PGRI Bali. Samples were divided into two groups each consisting of 10 people. Group I was given training step jump shoot four sets of 10 reps and Group II training still jump shoot four sets of 10 reps. The data before and after treatment were tested by SPSS computer program. The data were normally distributed and homogeneous so further tested using pairedt-test to compare the average values?? before and after training between each group, while the independent t-test was used to determine differences in mean values?? between the two groups. Paired t-test resulted the obtained data were significantly increased in both treatment groups p=0,001 in Group I and p=0,000 in Group II (p <0.05. Results of independent t-test found that both groups before training did not differ significantly p=0,926 (p>0.05 and after training both groups equally improve the accuracy of shooting because p=0,133 (p>0.05. It was concluded that botht raining improved the shooting accuracy and there was no difference between the effect of step jumps hoot and still jump shoot toward the shooting accuracy. It was suggested to improve the shooting accuracy in basketball used step jump shoot training and still jump shoot training four sets of 10 reps with a training frequency of 4 times a week for 6 weeks
Full Text Available ... Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety ... Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports ...
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Full Text Available ... padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life ... Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) ...
Caine, Mike; Blair, Kim; Vasquez, Mike
An evolution from natural to highly engineered materials has drastically changed the way in which athletes train and compete. Thanks to challenging technological problems and unconventional commercialization pathways, universities can make a direct impact on the development of sporting goods.
Full Text Available ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness ... to fuel both their sports performance and their growth. Depending on how active they are, teen athletes ...
Fang, J-G; Chao, C T
DNA methylation plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. In this study, the extent and patterns of DNA methylation were assessed in date palm mother-plants and their off-shoots using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique. Three types of bands were generated using 12 pairs of primers. Type I were present in both ECOR I + HPA II and ECOR I + MSP I lanes; type II were present in ECOR I + HPA II lanes, but not in ECOR I + MSP I lanes; and type III bands were present in ECOR I + MSP I lanes, but not in ECOR I + HPA II lanes. The total numbers of these three types of bands were 782, 55, and 34, respectively. Among these three types of bands, the polymorphic bands were, respectively, 37, 10, and 0. The distribution of polymorphic bands among mother-plants and off-shoots suggests the methylation variation was present in both the mother-plants and off-shoots. Forty- four out of these 47 polymorphic bands show clear difference between mother-plant and off-shoots: 38 were present only in off-shoots and 6 in both mother-plants and off-shoots. Compared to methylation status in mother-plants, the methylation variation during off-shoot growth of date palm can be characterized as a process involving primarily de-methylation. Hypomethylation of DNA in off-shoots, compared with mother-plants, reflects the marked expression of this molecular feature, which may be related to gene expression during off-shoot development. The methylation or de-methylation status of specific loci in the mother-plants and their off-shoots were probably random events.
Agung Wahyu Soesilo
Full Text Available Vascular-streak dieback (Oncobasidium theobromae is a serious disease on cocoa damaging the vegetative tissue especially on the branches and leaves. This research was aimed to identify the relationship between characteristics of sprouting ability and VSD resistance to confirm the response of cocoa to pruning treatment on VSD control and developing criteria for selection. Trial was carried out at Kaliwining Experimental Station of ICCRI, a VSD-endemic area by using 668 plants of hybrid populayion which were derivated from intercrossing among seven clones performing different response to VSD. The resistance was evaluated by scoring the plant damage with the scale of 0-6 on drought season in the year of 2009 and 2011. The characteristics of sprouting ability was assessed by recording the pruned trees for the variables of the number of re-growth shoot, shoot height, number of new shoot per pruned branches, shoot diameter and number of leaves per shoot. It was analyzed that the variables of the number of shoot per pruned branches, shoot diameter, shoot height and number of leaves per shoot were not significantly correlated to the score of VSD damage. Grouping of the resistance also performed similar results whereas mean of the sprouting variables were not different among group but the percentage of sprouted branches tend to be higher with the higher of the resistance (lower score. This result confirmed any mechanism of tolerance on VSD resistance by accelerating shoot rejuvenation on resistant plant. Key words : vascular-streak diaback, cocoa, resistance, characteristics of sprouting
Whitley, Meredith A.; Farrell, Kelly; Maisonet, Cindy; Hoffer, Andrew
Service-learning courses provide students with practical opportunities to enhance their learning and development in the field, along with getting students engaged in different communities and settings. However, there are still many challenges to designing and offering effective service-learning courses, such as requiring all students to…
After Gardner had introduced the Multiple Intelligence (MI) theory, many researchers tried to find out the possibilities of applying this theory in the education domain. Moreover, the effects of different kinds of athletic applications on intelligence development within the framework of this theory have also been under investigation. This study…
Voelker, Dana K.
Leadership is a powerful life skill that influences the future of our local, national and global communities. Despite the many positive and productive changes observed in the leadership opportunities for women and girls, they remain highly under-represented in positional leadership roles. The leadership development and empowerment of women and…
The talented children in both groups then underwent a specific test battery designed for sprinting and long jump. Maturity was determined by means of a maturity questionnaire. The development programme contributed statistically significant to the improvement in flexibility, muscle endurance, 0-40 meter speed and ...
Holt, Nicholas L.; Sehn, Zoe L.; Spence, John C.; Newton, Amanda S.; Ball, Geoff D. C.
Background: School-based recreational opportunities for youth from low-income inner-city neighbourhoods are often lacking. School programs represent an ideal location for promoting youth development in low-income areas because they can provide safe, supervised, and structured activities. Such activities should include not only physical education…
Gulbin, Jason P; Croser, Morag J; Morley, Elissa J; Weissensteiner, Juanita R
The Foundations, Talent, Elite and Mastery (FTEM) framework was designed through the lens of a world leading high-performance sport agency to assist sporting stakeholders operationalise and research their whole of sport development pathways (Gulbin, J. P., Croser, M. J., Morley, E. J., & Weissensteiner, J. R. (2013). An integrated framework for the optimisation of sport and athlete development: A practitioner approach. Journal of Sport Sciences, 31, 1319-1331). In response to the commentary by MacNamara and Collins (2013) (Journal of Sports Sciences, doi:10.1080/02640414.2013. 855805), it was possible to document many inaccurate, false and misleading statements based on inattentive reading of the original article. We reinforce that: FTEM is a holistic framework of sport and athlete development and not a surrogate for a talent identification ( TID) model; bio-psycho-social components of development are liberally embedded throughout the FTEM framework; and the combined research and applied insights of development practitioners provide strong ecological validity for the consideration of stakeholders looking to explore applied approaches to athlete pathway management.
Full Text Available The necessity of application of technical devices is grounded for development of level of physical preparedness and психофизиологических possibilities of children. Technical devices are developed with the elements of basket-ball, sporting tourism and by the analogues of the system of M.Montessori. In research 52 children of age-dependent group of 1-2 years, 56 children of 3-4 years, 56 children of 4-5 years took part. It is set that application of methods with the use of technical devices with the elements of sport is instrumental there are 1-5 years in the increase of indexes of physical preparedness and psychophysiological possibilities of children.
Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Barker, Alan R; Ubago-Guisado, Esther
OBJECTIVES: Research investigating the longitudinal effects of the most popular sports on bone development in adolescent males is scarce. The aim is to investigate the effect of 12-month participation in osteogenic and non-osteogenic sports on bone development. DESIGN: A 12-month study...... by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and bone stiffness was measured by quantitative ultrasound. Bone outcomes at 12 months were adjusted for baseline bone status, age, height, lean mass and moderate to vigorous physical activity. RESULTS: Footballers had higher improvement in adjusted BMC at the total...... body, total hip, shaft, Ward's triangle, legs and bone stiffness compared to cyclists (6.3-8.0%). Footballers had significantly higher adjusted BMC at total body, shaft and legs compared to swimmers (5.4-5.6%). There was no significant difference between swimmers and cyclists for any bone outcomes...
Haines, Sara; Baker, Tricia
Purpose/Background: To develop a consensus on the critical constructs necessary to be included in a physical performance assessment checklist (PPAC) to assess an athlete's ability for return to sport following a lower extremity injury. Methods: The study used a 3‐round Delphi method to finalize the PPAI originally developed by a panel of experts. Fourteen Delphi representative sample participants were randomly derived from the authors of peer‐reviewed publications of lower extremity injuries. Nine participants completed all 3 rounds. Results: Throughout the 3 rounds, the 10 initial constructs were modified and revised to produce the finalized PPAC consisting of 12 constructs necessary to consider for an athlete's return to sport after a lower extremity injury. Conclusions: This instrument can be used as a checklist to advocate for prospective batteries of physical performance tests to incorporate the elements identified by this study. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:23439809
Full Text Available Introduction: Several sports demand an early start into long-term athlete development (LTAD because peak performances are achieved at a relatively young age (e.g., gymnastics. However, the challenging combination of high training volumes and academic demands may impede youth athletes' cognitive and academic performances. Thus, the aims of this study were to examine the effects of a 1-year sport-specific training and/or physical education on physical fitness, body composition, cognitive and academic performances in youth athletes and their non-athletic peers.Methods: Overall, 45 prepubertal fourth graders from a German elite sport school were enrolled in this study. Participating children were either youth athletes from an elite sports class (n = 20, age 9.5 ± 0.5 years or age-matched peers from a regular class (n = 25, age 9.6 ± 0.6 years. Over the 1-year intervention period, the elite sports class conducted physical education and sport-specific training (i.e., gymnastics, swimming, soccer, bicycle motocross [BMX] during school time while the regular class attended physical education only. Of note, BMX is a specialized form of cycling that is performed on motocross tracks and affords high technical skills. Before and after intervention, tests were performed for the assessment of physical fitness (speed [20-m sprint], agility [star agility run], muscle power [standing long jump], flexibility [stand-and-reach], endurance [6-min-run], balance [single-leg stance], body composition (e.g., muscle mass, cognitive (d2-test and academic performance (reading [ELFE 1–6], writing [HSP 4–5], calculating [DEMAT 4]. In addition, grades in German, English, Mathematics, and physical education were documented.Results: At baseline, youth athletes showed better physical fitness performances (p < 0.05; d = 0.70–2.16, less relative body fat mass, more relative skeletal muscle mass (p < 0.01; d = 1.62–1.84, and similar cognitive and academic achievements
Engebretsen, Lars; Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Budgett, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri; Jegathesan, Manikavasagam; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Mountjoy, Margo; Palmer-Green, Debbie; Vanhegan, Ivor; Renström, Per A
The Olympic Movement Medical Code encourages all stakeholders to ensure that sport is practised without danger to the health of the athletes. Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses is the foundation for developing preventive measures in sport. To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games of the XXX Olympiad, held in London in 2012. We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games' (LOCOG) medical staff. In total, 10 568 athletes (4676 women and 5892 men) from 204 NOCs participated in the study. NOC and LOCOG medical staff reported 1361 injuries and 758 illnesses, equalling incidences of 128.8 injuries and 71.7 illnesses per 1000 athletes. Altogether, 11% and 7% of the athletes incurred at least one injury or illness, respectively. The risk of an athlete being injured was the highest in taekwondo, football, BMX, handball, mountain bike, athletics, weightlifting, hockey and badminton, and the lowest in archery, canoe slalom and sprint, track cycling, rowing, shooting and equestrian. 35% of the injuries were expected to prevent the athlete from participating during competition or training. Women suffered 60% more illnesses than men (86.0 vs 53.3 illnesses per 1000 athletes). The rate of illness was the highest in athletics, beach volleyball, football, sailing, synchronised swimming and taekwondo. A total of 310 illnesses (41%) affected the respiratory system and the most common cause of illness was infection (n=347, 46%). At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games and 7% of the athletes' an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially among sports. Future initiatives should include the development of preventive measures tailored for each specific sport and the
Al'bert, E V; Ezhova, T A
This article describes the main features of plant stem cells and summarizes the results of studies of the genetic control of stem cell maintenance in the apical meristem of the shoot. It is demonstrated that the WUS-CLV gene system plays a key role in the maintenance of shoot apical stem cells and the formation of adventitious buds and somatic embryos. Unconventional concepts of plant stem cells are considered.
In December 2012, twenty elementary school children and six adult staff members were shot and killed by a single individual at a school in Connecticut. Although this horrific event was met with widespread shock, Americans are sadly all too familiar with such mass shootings. From Columbine in 1999, to Virginia Tech in 2007, to the Colorado cinema shootings earlier in 2012, mass shootings seem to occur with alarming regularity. And although they appear to afflict the United States more than mos...
Boykin, Derrecka M; Dunn, Qweandria T; Orcutt, Holly K
Experiencing repeated trauma can have increasingly detrimental effects on psychosocial functioning after subsequent stressors. These effects may be intensified for victims of interpersonal traumas given that these events are often associated with heightened risk for adverse outcomes. To better understand this relationship, the present study prospectively examined the effect of pre-shooting trauma exposure (i.e., interpersonal vs. non-interpersonal trauma) on psychological functioning (i.e., posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression) following a mass campus shooting. Based on previous research, it was expected that negative appraisals and social support would mediate this relationship. A sample of 515 college women reporting prior trauma exposure was assessed at four time points following the shooting (i.e., pre-shooting, 1-month, 6-months, and 12-months post-shooting). Bootstrap analyses with bias-corrected confidence intervals were conducted. Contrary to expectation, pre-shooting trauma exposure was unrelated to 12-month post-shooting outcomes and neither negative appraisals nor social support at 6-months post-shooting emerged as mediators. Interestingly, a history of non-interpersonal trauma was associated with greater post-shooting family and friend support than a history of interpersonal trauma. Ad hoc analyses showed that pre-shooting symptom severity and level of exposure to the shooting had indirect effects on post-shooting outcomes via post-shooting negative appraisals. These findings support that cumulative trauma, regardless of type, may not have an additive effect unless individuals develop clinically significant symptoms following previous trauma. Trauma severity also appears to play a meaningful role.
The complexity of wheelchair sports provides the scientist with a unique challenge. There are two major components that contribute towards 'wheeled sports' performance: the athlete and the chair. It is the interaction of these two components that enable wheelchair propulsion and the sporting movements required within a given sport. This article will describe three discrete case studies on how sport scientists have worked with Great Britain coaches and practitioners to help optimise training leading to a major competition through evidence base practise. A fourth area will describe on-going work designed to address the optimisation of wheelchair configurations for wheelchair court sports. It will focus on four sports: wheelchair racing, wheelchair tennis, wheelchair basketball and wheelchair rugby. The first topic will discuss the concept of pushing economy and mechanical efficiency of wheelchair propulsion. The second topic will show how technology assists the coaching process. The third topic will illustrate the concept of sports classification, and show how training volume 'in terms of basketball shooting' may need to be individually assigned and finally future research within wheelchair team sports and chair configurations will be examined.
Ortega, E; Wang, C J K
Heart rate variability (HRV) is commonly used in sport science for monitoring the physiology of athletes but not as an indicator of physiological state from a psychological perspective. Since HRV is established to be an indicator of emotional responding, it could be an objective means of quantifying an athlete's subjective physiological state before competition. A total of 61 sport shooters participated in this study, of which 21 were novice shooters, 19 were intermediate shooters, and 21 were advanced level shooters. HRV, self-efficacy, and use of mental skills were assessed before they completed a standard shooting performance task of 40 shots, as in a competition qualifying round. The results showed that HRV was significantly positively correlated with self-efficacy and performance and was a significant predictor of shooting performance. In addition, advanced shooters were found to have significantly lower average heart rate before shooting and used more self-talk, relaxation, imagery, and automaticity compared to novice and intermediate shooters. HRV was found to be useful in identifying the physiological state of an athlete before competing, and as such, coaches and athletes can adopt practical strategies to improve the pre-performance physiological state as a means to optimize performance.
Bria, S; Zeppilli, P
A regular sport activity involves physical and psychological benefits helping to improve the quality of life at any age. This aspect is even more important in the developing age, when the sport takes on a role of training and education. In this context, instances directed to allow adolescent and young adults with heart disease to practice sports seem justified, and they're becoming more pressing since when the diagnostic and therapeutic advances, especially in cardiac surgery and in interventional hemodynamics, allow an increasing number of patients, previously allocated to physical inactivity, to lead an active lifestyle. However, we have to keep in mind that congenital heart disease population is varied, not only by the nature of the malformation, but also because in the same cardiopathy you can find subjects in "natural history" or after surgery and, between them, subjects treated with several techniques and different outcomes. This justifies the need for a close collaboration between sports doctors, cardiologists and heart surgeons, particularly in the management of the most difficult and delicate problems.
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...
Sports creams are creams or ointments used to treat aches and pains. Sports cream overdose can occur if someone uses this ... Two ingredients in sports creams that can be poisonous are: Menthol Methyl salicylate
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports and Concussions KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports and Concussions ... skiers or snowboarders How Can I Prevent a Sports Concussion? Start With the Right Equipment Everyone should ...
Ingram, Anne G.
An aesthetic dimension of sport appreciation is found in the paintings and sculptures of great masters who were intrigued by the subject of sports. This article presents specifics on bringing sports art into the classroom. (Authors/JA)
MSc Lotte Salome; Drs. Maarten van Bottenburg
During the last twenty years, a remarkable new type of service has been developed in the world of sports, which can be described as the indoorisation of outdoor sports. Typical outdoor sports like climbing, skiing, surfing, rowing, and skydiving, which used to be exclusively practiced in a natural
van Bottenburg, M.; Salome, L.
During the last 20 years, a remarkable new type of service has been developed in the world of sports, which can be described as the indoorisation of outdoor sports. Typical outdoor sports like climbing, skiing, surfing, rowing and skydiving, which used to be exclusively practised in a natural
Ooms, L.; Veenhof, C.
Introduction: The Dutch government stimulates sport and physical activity opportunities in the neighborhood to make it easier for people to adopt a physically active lifestyle. Seven National Sports Federations (NSFs) were funded to develop easily accessible sporting programs, targeted at groups
N. V. Tikhonova
Purpose: determine the social significance and especially the development of youth and sports reserve in Ukraine. Material : a questionnaire survey of 50 experts in the sphere of physical culture and sports. Results : notes that children and youth and sports reserve three tasks: training of sports reserve, rehabilitation of children and youth, education of children and youth. Structure of youth and sports reserve in Ukraine in 1455 has youth sports schools, 184 specialized youth sports school...
Targeted School Violence and the Web of Causes: Risk Factors and the Problems of Specificity. Commentary on: "Bullying, Romantic Rejection, and Conflicts with Teachers: The Crucial Role of Social Dynamics in the Development of School Shootings--A Systematic Review"
Böckler, Nils; Roth, Viktoria; Stetten, Lina; Zick, Andreas
The authors begin their commentary by saying that looking at the phenotypical characteristics of a school shooting, which focus on the perpetrators' experiences in school contexts seems to be overdue. In spite of methodological problems, the studies involved in the review seem to paint a clear picture with regard to social ostracism and harassment…
Building a Systematic Data Base for the Future. Commentary on: "Bullying, Romantic Rejection, and Conflicts with Teachers: The Crucial Role of Social Dynamics in the Development of School Shootings--A Systematic Review"
Smith, Peter K.
In this commentary, Peter Smith questions how well we follow up after school shootings in order to diagnose causes and enhance future prevention. Sommer, Leuschner, and Scheithauer (2014) have assembled data from 126 cases available in the English and German research literature and suggested important risk categories. Notably, there are a large…
Elite guava (Psidium guajava L.) strains of cv. Safeda were explored in vitro for multiple shoot induction. Shoot induction was enhanced up to 83% with 3.5 to 4.25 shoots per single node cutting and shoot tip explants, respectively, using higher levels of benzyl amino purine (BAP) in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium.
The history of sport in Denmark mirrors conditions and patterns of body culture, sport and gymnastics specific to the country, among which the social organization of sport is characteristic. In modern history Danish gymnastics and sports have developed in connection with popular movements, social...... and cultural movements, which were at times in conflict with each other. This has been reflected in certain inner contradictions and controversies among historians. As Denmark is a small country, however, Danish sports historiography has also formed a sort of ‘family network’ spanning politico-cultural...... with political administration. Such interdisciplinary collaboration around Danish sports historiography has contributed to the generation of a more comprehensive conceptual framework to describe the broader relations of sports history, namely body culture studies. Die dänische Sportgeschichte spiegelt die...
Schüttoff, Ute; Pawlowski, Tim
This study explores indicators describing socio-demographics, sports participation characteristics and motives which are associated with variation in sports participation across seasons. Data were drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel which contains detailed information on the sports behaviour of adults in Germany. Overall, two different measures of seasonal variation are developed and used as dependent variables in our regression models. The first variable measures the coefficient of (seasonal) variation in sport-related energy expenditure per week. The second variable measures whether activity drops below the threshold as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Results suggest that the organisational setting, the intensity and number of sports practised, and the motive for participation are strongly correlated with the variation measures used. For example, both, participation in a sports club and a commercial facility, are associated with reduced seasonal variation and a significantly higher probability of participating at a volume above the WHO threshold across all seasons. These findings give some impetus for policymaking and the planning of sports programmes as well as future research directions.
Gender inequality in all areas of life remains a global problem despite efforts over the past twenty years in particular to address the situation. In physical activity and sport the inequality between women and men is particularly pronounced in almost all countries, although it differs in degree. Two of the main reasons why inequality between women and men physical activity and sport is more extreme than in many other areas of social life are the result of the close association between the attributes required for sport and those associated with traditional concepts of stereotypical, hegemonic masculinity, and a lack of understanding of the difference between sex and gender. In sport and physical activity physical differences between men and women have been confused with socially constructed differences i.e. physical differences have been confused with gender differences, and this confusion has been used to justify women's lesser and limited participation at all levels. To achieve equality between women and men in physical activity and sport it will be essential that gender is identified and understood as a socially constructed and fluid concept which is a product of the relations between women and men. The fact that women bear children or are generally less physically powerful than men is not sufficient to justify why it is not considered appropriate for women to participate in certain forms of physical activity or why their participation is less valued than the participation of men. An understanding of gender and of the construction of gender relations is an important pre-requisite to addressing the inequality between women and men in physical activity and sport and in developing policies and programs which include, and are of equal benefit to both sexes. While more research on the benefits of participation in physical activity is needed, there is currently sufficient information available to identify the health related and social value of participation to both
Full Text Available Introduction. Conducted research study is devoted to development of technological modes of desalination of natural mineral medical-table sodium chloride water for water treatment technologies in the production of beverages for athletes. Materials and methods. Samples of initial water and water that has been desalinated using the experimental installation with different modes were investigated. Measuring of temperature mode of crystallizer was carried out using temperature sensors and digital thermometer. Quality indicators of the water samples using Photometer Palintest 7500 and standard techniques weredetermined. Resultsand discussion.The influence of different factors of the process of freezing on the quality of desalinated natural mineral medical-table sodium chloride water "Kuyalnik" was investigated. The patterns of distribution of components of initial water between the frozen solid phase, and a concentrated solution in the process of freezing are identified. For the majority of the investigated factors order of traffic was such: Ca 2+ >HCO -3 >(Na+>Cl- >(Mg2+>SO2-4 >K+, and with a decrease in water salinity so: Ca2+>SO2-4 >(Na+>Cl- >(HCO-3 >Mg2+>K+. Summary of the study results allowed to recommend the following technological parameters of the carrying out the process of desalination of natural mineral sodium chloride water by freeze: operating temperature mode of crystallizer, which is changing in the process from -2 to -4 ° C, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the water at the beginning of the process of freezing - 3,7 g/dm 3, duration of the desalination process (process without cooling - 60 minutes, one step of freezing, melting of solid phase under ambient conditions without prior separation of the frozen solid phase. With such technological modes of the carrying out the process of freezing it is possible to obtain water with mineral composition, mainly with existing relevant recommendations to the mineral composition of
Amir Ali Narvani
Full Text Available Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1 Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2 Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3 Drugs in sport, 4 Exercise and health promotion, 5 Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6 The psychology of performance and injury. PURPOSE The Key Topics format provides extensive, concise information in an accessible, easy-to-follow manner. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the students and specialists in sports medicine and rehabilitation, athletic training, physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery. The editors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depends on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book contains the information for clinical guidance, rapid access to concise details and facts. It is composed of 99 topics which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Functional Anatomy, 2. Training Principles / Development of Strength and Power, 3. Biomechanical Principles, 4. Biomechanical Analysis, 5. Physiology of Training, 6. Monitoring of Training Progress, 7. Nutrition, 8. Hot and Cold Climates, 9. Altitude, 10. Sport and Travelling, 11. Principles of Sport Injury Diagnosis, 12. Principles of Sport and Soft Tissue Management, 13. Principles of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14. Principles of Sport Injury Prevention, 15. Sports Psychology, 16. Team Sports, 17. Psychological Aspects of Injury in Sport, 18. Injury Repair Process, 19. Basic Biomechanics of Tissue Injury, 20. Plain Film Radiography in Sport, 21. Nuclear Medicine, 22. Diagnostic Ultrasound, 23. MRI Scan, 24. Other Imaging, 5. Head Injury, 26. Eye