WorldWideScience

Sample records for shoot fly atherigona

  1. Three New Species of Shoot Fly, Atherigona spp., from Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moophayak, Kittikhun; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.

    2011-01-01

    Three new species of shoot fly, Atherigona Rondani (subgenus Acritochaeta Grimshaw) (Diptera: Muscidae), are described from northern Thailand, based on morphological characteristics of males. Unique features of A. komi sp. n. include a distinct spiral groove on the dorsal aspect of the fore femur and two dark apical wing spots, whereas A. chiangmaiensis sp. n. is recognized by the presence of one large patch on the apical wing spot, appearing as a large and smaller wave-shaped patch, and no distinct pattern on tergites. A. thailandica sp. n. displays a remarkable dark boomerang-shaped patch along the wing margin and fore femur, with two rows of long hairs on the dorsal surface. Male terminalia are also different in the new species, showing distinctive characteristics. This paper also presents five newly recorded species in Thailand; Atherigona maculigera Stein, Atherigona ovatipennis vietnamensis Shinonaga et Thinh, Atherigona pallidipalpis Malloch, Atherigona seticauda Malloch, and Atherigona setitarsus Shinonaga et Thinh. A key is provided for the adult males of Atherigona recorded in Thailand, all belonging to the subgenus Acritochaeta, except for A. soccata Rondani. PMID:22233520

  2. Inheritance of Resistance to Sorghum Shoot Fly, Atherigona soccata in Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed eRiyazaddin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Host plant resistance is one of the major components to control sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata. To understand the nature of gene action for inheritance of shoot fly resistance, we evaluated 10 parents, 45 F1’s and their reciprocals in replicated trials during the rainy and postrainy seasons. Genotypes ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146 and IS 18551 exhibited resistance to shoot fly damage across seasons. Crosses between susceptible parents were preferred for egg laying by the shoot fly females, resulting in a susceptible reaction. ICSV 700, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146 and IS 18551 exhibited significant and negative general combining ability (gca effects for oviposition, deadheart incidence, and overall resistance score. The plant morphological traits associated with expression of resistance/ susceptibility to shoot fly damage such as leaf glossiness, plant vigor, and leafsheath pigmentation also showed significant gca effects by these genotypes, suggesting the potential for use as a selection criterion to breed for resistance to shoot fly, A. soccata. ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, IS 2146 and IS 18551 with significant positive gca effects for trichome density can also be utilised in improving sorghums for shoot fly resistance. The parents involved in hybrids with negative specific combining ability (sca effects for shoot fly resistance traits can be used in developing sorghum hybrids with adaptation to postrainy season. The significant reciprocal effects of combining abilities for oviposition, leaf glossy score and trichome density suggested the influence of cytoplasmic factors in inheritance of shoot fly resistance. Higher values of variance due to sca (σ2s, dominance variance (σ2d, and lower predictability ratios than the variance due to gca (σ2g and additive variance (σ2a for shoot fly resistance traits indicated the predominance of dominance type of gene action, whereas trichome density, leaf

  3. Screening of different insecticides against maize shoot fly atherigona soccata (Rond.) and maize borer. chilo partellus (swinh.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.; Rana, Z.A.; Haq, I.; Tariq, H.

    2010-01-01

    Field studies were carried out in the research area of the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad to determine the most effective maize seed treatment against maize shoot fly Atherigona soccata (Rond.) and insecticide against maize borer Chilo partellus (Swinh.) Trials were conducted following RCBD and replicated three times during 2005-2006. Two seed treatments Confider (imidacloprid) 70 WS and pensidor 72% WP (5 and 7 mg/kg seed) along with Confider (imidaclorid) 200 SC at the rate 40 ml/acre in the trial against maize shoot fly whereas, flubendiamide 48%, emamection 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC. carbofuran 3 G, indoxacarb 150 SC, alphacypermethrine 20 EC, monomehypo 5 G, bifenthrin 10 EC, cartap 4G, cyhalothrine 2.5 EC, cypermethrin 10 EC at the rate 20 ml, 150 ml, 40 ml, 8 kg, 150 ml, 200 ml, 5 kg, 150 ml, 6 kg. 250 ml and 300 ml per acre against maize borer were treated keeping one plo ast untreated check. Treatments were repeated as borer infestation reached above 5% level. All the seed treatments showed significant control of maize shoot fly in spite of dose 5 or 7 mg/kg seed along with foliar spray of confider 200 SC. The insecticides viz. flubendiamide 48% SC. emamectin 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC and carbofuran 3 G. indoxacarb 150 SC. alpha cypermethrin 20 EC, not only responded highest yield 5765, 5294, 5289, 5215, 5168 and 5025 kg/ha respectively but also manage the maize borer below ETL. (author)

  4. Morphology of immature stages of Atherigona reversura (Diptera: Muscidae), with notes on the recent invasion of North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzywacz, Andrzej; Pape, Thomas; Hudson, William G.

    2013-01-01

    The muscid shoot-fly Atherigona reversura Villeneuve (Diptera: Muscidae), recently introduced to North America, is reported for the first time from the Neotropical Region: Mexico, Chiapas, Chiapa de Corzo. Information about distribution throughout the continent is summarized. Morphology of the se......The muscid shoot-fly Atherigona reversura Villeneuve (Diptera: Muscidae), recently introduced to North America, is reported for the first time from the Neotropical Region: Mexico, Chiapas, Chiapa de Corzo. Information about distribution throughout the continent is summarized. Morphology...

  5. Supplementary data: Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum using SSR markers. D. B. Apotikar, D. Venkateswarlu, R. B. Ghorade, R. M. Wadaskar, J. V. Patil and P. L. Kulwal. J. Genet. 90, 59–66. Table 1. List of SSR primers for sorghum. Primer code. Forward and reverse. Annealing temperature (°C). Product.

  6. First record of Atherigona reversura Villeneuve (Diptera: Muscidae feeding on Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv. Jiggs, Poaceae in Brazil: morphological and molecular tools for identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro do Prado Ribeiro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv. Jiggs is an important food source for dairy cattle in the semi-intensive milk production systems most often used in southern Brazil. Although many insect pests are associated with feed grasses, we report here the first occurrence of the fly Atherigona (Atherigona reversura Villeneuve, 1936 (Diptera: Muscidae feeding on bermudagrass in Brazil. This potential pest was observed in April 2015 in three localities (Abelardo Luz, Palmitos, and Videira in western Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil. The infested plants had senescent and necrotic terminal leaves that reduced plant growth. New growth had to sprout new tillers from basal nodes, which resulted in a reduced plant growth rate. We also provide a morphological identification key (with figures for A. (Atherigona reversura and A. (Acritochaeta orientalis Schiner, 1868. A molecular identification based on COI is also provided to better differentiate species. Keywords: COI gene, Insect pest, Pastures, Plant–insect interaction

  7. A revision of Ichneumonopsis Hardy, 1973 (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae: Gastrozonini, Oriental bamboo-shoot fruit flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnon Freidberg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ichneumonopsis Hardy,1973, a genus of oriental fruit flies, is revised and two new species, I. hancocki sp. nov. (from Peninsular Malaysia and I. taiwanensis sp. nov. (from Taiwan, are described. A key to the three species of Ichneumonopsis is presented. In northern Thailand larvae of I. burmensis Hardy, 1973 develop in bamboo shoots of Pseudoxytenanthera albociliata (Munro Nguyen and Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxburgh Nees (Poaceae, not Melocalamus compactiflorus as previously reported. The recently discovered association of I. burmensis with bamboo substantiates our previous assumption assigning Ichneumonopsis to the primarily bamboo-inhabiting tribe Gastrozonini. Hence, we synonymize Ichneumonopsidini under Gastrozonini (syn. nov..

  8. Shooting stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurette, M.; Hammer, C.

    1985-01-01

    A shooting star passage -even a star shower- can be sometimes easily seen during moonless black night. They represent the partial volatilization in earth atmosphere of meteorites or micrometeorites reduced in cosmic dusts. Everywhere on earth, these star dusts are searched to be gathered. This research made one year ago on the Greenland ice-cap is this article object; orbit gathering projects are also presented [fr

  9. Capture of Caliptrate flies with different breeding substrates on beaches in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mário D'Almeida

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscidae flies belonging to four Familia and 13 species in a total number of 3.652 specimens were collected from beaches at Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil using different breeding substrates, and subsequently bred in the laboratory. Captures were done from April to November 1989, using in a first phase different substrates: fruits (banana and papaya, vegtable (tomato, animal viscera (bovine liver, marine animals (fish, crab, shrimp, squid, mouse carcass and feaces (human and canine. The species collected more often were: Fannia sp. (subgroup pusio, Chrysomya megacephala, Phaenicia eximia, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Peckya chrysostoma, Musca domestica and Atherigona orientalis. In a later phase, only fish was used, as bait and placed directly on the beach sand. From a total of 189 pupae, the following adult specimen were obtained: Peckia chrysostoma (58.06%, Chrysomya megacephala (30.64% and in lesser numbers Synthesiomyia nudiseta and Phaenicia eximia.

  10. Sirococcus Shoot Blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Nicholls; Kathryn Robbins

    1984-01-01

    Sirococcus shoot blight, caused by the fungus Sirococcus strobilinus Preuss, affects conifers in the Northern United States and southern Canada. The fungus infects the new shoots; diseased seedlings and saplings are especially affected. In the United States, sirococcus shoot blight has become increasingly widespread since the early 1970's. When favorable...

  11. Shooting mechanisms in nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakes, Aimée; Wiel, van der Marleen; Henselmans, Paul W.J.; Leeuwen, van Johan L.; Dodou, Dimitra; Breedveld, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these

  12. Violence and school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Daniel J; Modzeleski, William; Kretschmar, Jeff M

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-homicide school shootings are rare events, but when they happen they significantly impact individuals, the school and the community. We focus on multiple-homicide incidents and identified mental health issues of shooters. To date, studies of school shootings have concluded that no reliable profile of a shooter exists, so risk should be assessed using comprehensive threat assessment protocols. Existing studies primarily utilize retrospective case histories or media accounts. The field requires more empirical and systematic research on all types of school shootings including single victim incidents, those that result in injury but not death and those that are successfully averted. We discuss current policies and practices related to school shootings and the role of mental health professionals in assessing risk and supporting surviving victims.

  13. Synanthropic flies of Asir Province, southwest of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kenawy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of synanthropic flies was carried out in 11 slaughter houses in 8 localities representing different altitudes in Asir. Flies were sampled twice a month from December 2008 to November 2009 by Final Flight Fly Traps. A total of 11,737 flies consisting of 19 species, belonging to 7 families were collected, of which those of family Muscidae predominated (94.88% followed by Calliphoridae (3.12%, Sarcophagidae (1.22% and Fanniidae (0.55%. The other 5 families (Piophilidae, Oestridae, Phoridae, Ulidiidae and Lonchaeidae totally represented 0.79%. Of the identified species, Musca domestica was predominant (94.26% followed by Lucilia sericata (1.51%, Sarcophaga carnaria (1.01%, Chrysomya albiceps (0.67%, Fannia canicularis (0.55%, Chrysomya marginalis (0.54%, Muscina stabulans (0.52%, Calliphora vicina (0.39%, Wohlfahrtia nuba (0.14%, Megaselia scalaris (0.08%, Lonchaea sp. (0.06, Bercaea cruentata (0.05, Ophyra sp. and Oestrus ovis (0.04% each, Atherigona sp., Piophila casie and Physiphora demandala (0.03% each and Parasarcophaga ruficornis (0.01. Flies altogether were more common (16 spp., 84.21% and abundant (36.45 fly/trap in highlands than in the other altitude levels. The highlands were found with the maximum Simpson (1-D=0.18 and Shannon (H=0.49, P<0.001 diversity indices. Likewise, the highest density of M. domestica was in the highlands (P<0.05. Regression analysis confirmed that house fly density was directly related to the altitude level (P<0.05. In all altitude levels, housefly was active during the whole year with higher activities during months of low and moderate temperatures (spring, autumn and winter seasons. Analysis revealed that fly density had inverse relation with temperature.

  14. Millet's Shooting Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, M.

    1988-12-01

    In this essay two paintings by the French artist Jean-Francois Millet are described. These paintings, Les Etoiles Filantes and Nuit Etoilée are particularly interesting since they demonstrate the rare artistic employment of the shooting-star image and metaphor.

  15. Distributed trouble-shooting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.M.; Bogaard, S.A.A. van den; Rasker, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    When knowledge, required for trouble-shooting at sea, can be supplied real-time but from a distance, problems, such as with the limited availability of specialists, and the high costs of maintenance, may be tackled. Unclear is, however, how this redistribution of knowledge will work in practice. We

  16. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  17. The Binomial Distribution in Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikias, Miltiadis S.

    2009-01-01

    The binomial distribution is used to predict the winner of the 49th International Shooting Sport Federation World Championship in double trap shooting held in 2006 in Zagreb, Croatia. The outcome of the competition was definitely unexpected.

  18. Radiographing roots and shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariffah Noor Khamseah Al Idid

    1985-01-01

    The effect of seed orientation on germination time and on shoot and root growth patterns is studied. Neutron radiography is used to observe the development of 4 types of plants, maize, greenpea, soya bean and padi. These plants were grown in varying orientations; sand sizes, sand thicknesses, and level of water content. Radiography of the seeds and plants were obtained for time exposure ranging from 3-12 hours and at reactor thermal power level, ranging from 500-750 kilowatts. Results obtained showed that seeds planted in varying orientations need different length of time for shoot emergence. Neutron radiography is now developed to other areas of non-industrial applications in Malaysia. (A.J.)

  19. Ship and Shoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.

  20. School Shootings and Student Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Panu Poutvaara; Olli Ropponen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study how high school students reacted to the shocking news of a school shooting. The shooting coincided with national high-school matriculation exams. As there were exams both before and after the shooting, we can use a difference-in-differences analysis to uncover how the school shooting affected the test scores compared to previous years. We find that the average performance of young men declined due to the school shooting, whereas we do not observe a similar pattern for ...

  1. A School Shooting Plot Foiled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, James A.; Thorp, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Dinkes, Cataldi, and Lin-Kelly (2007) claims that 78% of public schools reported one or more violent incidents during the 2005/2006 school year. School shootings are a rare but real threat on school campuses. Shootings at private schools are even less frequent with only a few recorded examples in the United States. This case study examines how a…

  2. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  3. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...

  4. PERBANDINGAN JUMP SHOOT DENGAN AWALAN DAN TANPA AWALAN TERHADAP PENINGKATAN KETEPATAN SHOOTING DALAM PERMAINAN BOLABASKET

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Ngurah Agung Cahya Prananta; N. Adiputra; I P G Adiatmika

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of  jump-shoot technique step jump shoot and still jump shoot in a game is still questionable,  because many different assumptions arise. One opinion stated that step jump shoot was more effective and the other stated that and still jump shoot was more efective. Therefore it is necessary to do research on the analysis of the results of step jump shoot and and still jump shoot to improve the accuracy of shooting in a basketball. The experimental research had been conducted on...

  5. Shootings Revive Debates on Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    By nearly all accounts, the staff and students at Sandy Hook Elementary School did everything right on Dec. 14--and with the security measures they took before that day--when a young man armed with powerful weapons blasted his way into the school. But the deadliest K-12 school shooting in American history, a day that President Barack Obama has…

  6. School Shootings as Organizational Deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Cybelle; Harding, David J.

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that rampage school shootings in American public schools can be understood as instances of organizational deviance, which occurs when events created by or in organizations do not conform to an organization's goals or expectations and produce unanticipated and harmful outcomes. Drawing on data from qualitative case studies of…

  7. School Shootings in Policy Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2006-01-01

    The three school shootings that left a principal and six students dead in less than a week have sparked a barrage of pledges from national and state political leaders to tighten campus security. School safety experts urged caution against overreacting to the horrific, but rare, incidents in rural schools in Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.…

  8. School Shootings and Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Juliet

    2013-01-01

    What has been left out of studying school violence and shootings is a comprehensive look at the culture that creates violence and the lack of support for those deemed "different" in an educational setting that promotes and rewards competition. If parents, teachers, and other adults associated with children were teaching the values of…

  9. Training visual control in wheelchair basketball shooting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.; Heubers, S.; Ruitenbeek, J-R.J.A.C.; Janssen, T.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use

  10. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

  11. Shoot regeneration and embryogenesis in lily shoot tips cryopreserved by droplet vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoot regeneration and embryogenesis were, for the first time, achieved directly in shoot tips of Lilium Oriental hybrid ‘Siberia’ following cryopreservation by droplet-vitrification. Shoot tips (2 mm in length) including 2-3 leaf primordia were excised from 4-week-old adventitious shoots directly r...

  12. Risk factors in school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J

    2000-01-01

    Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.

  13. [School shooting in statu nascendi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, amok-like killings and especially so-called "school shootings" have received a great deal of public attention both in the Old and the New world. Meanwhile, criminal psychological research has gained a thorough insight into this dangerous development in young people. Thus, the possibility to assess the concrete threat of such a multiple killing before it is carried out has been considerably improved, as many prognostic criteria have been worked out in the meantime. The case report presented shows that it is possible to exercise a favourable influence on this critical negative trend.

  14. 2D flight shooting game design and implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Yunqing

    2016-01-01

    The game, which is already one of the most popular entertainment, brings us a lot of fun.A lot of big games are great (plot, graphics, sound effects, etc.), but it takes time. So a simple, playable game is also very popular.This game is in Windows 7, with Visual Studio 2013 as the editor, in c + + as the scripting language, and a flying shooter game designed by the Unity3D game engine. Mainly implements a simple flight shooting, recruit, UI text display function, but not too much pains in the interface and the picture and sound effects, can realize the basic function of the game, and game for hardware requirement is not high also, entertainment and games also is beter. It's a casual game that is simple and fun to play, and it's a great way to bring happiness to people.

  15. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...

  16. Soybean growth on fly ash-amended strip mine soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fail, Jr, J L; Wochok, Z S

    1977-01-01

    The use of fly ash as an amendment for strip mine soils has been studied under field conditions. Soils ranging in pH from 4.0 to 6.0 were tested. The addition of fly ash in all cases was effective as an acid soil neutralizer and substantially enhanced the growth and development of all experimental plants. The parameters used in growth analyses were plant height, dry weight, root/shoot ratios, nodulation, pod production, and nitrogen fixing capacity for legumes.

  17. Shooting mechanisms in Nature : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakes, A.; van der Wiel, M.; Henselmans, P.W.J.; van Leeuwen, J.L.; Dodou, D.; Breedveld, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these

  18. Current perspectives on shoot branching regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunquan YUAN,Lin XI,Yaping KOU,Yu ZHAO,Liangjun ZHAO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching is regulated by the complex interactions among hormones, development, and environmental factors. Recent studies into the regulatory mecha-nisms of shoot branching have focused on strigolactones, which is a new area of investigation in shoot branching regulation. Elucidation of the function of the D53 gene has allowed exploration of detailed mechanisms of action of strigolactones in regulating shoot branching. In addition, the recent discovery that sucrose is key for axillary bud release has challenged the established auxin theory, in which auxin is the principal agent in the control of apical dominance. These developments increase our understan-ding of branching control and indicate that regulation of shoot branching involves a complex network. Here, we first summarize advances in the systematic regulatory network of plant shoot branching based on current information. Then we describe recent developments in the synthesis and signal transduction of strigolactones. Based on these considerations, we further summarize the plant shoot branching regulatory network, including long distance systemic signals and local gene activity mediated by strigolactones following perception of external envi-ronmental signals, such as shading, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of plant shoot branching.

  19. thidiazuron improves adventitious bud and shoot regeneration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Induction of adventitious buds and shoots from intact leaves and stem internode segments of two recalcitrant. Ugandan sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivars was investigated in vitro on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, supplemented with 3 different levels (0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 µM) of Thidiazuron (TDZ). Shoots were.

  20. Tragedy and the Meaning of School Shootings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Johnson, Benjamin A.; Rocha, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    School shootings are traumatic events that cause a community to question itself, its values, and its educational systems. In this article Bryan Warnick, Benjamin Johnson, and Samuel Rocha explore the meanings of school shootings by examining three recent books on school violence. Topics that grow out of these books include (1) how school shootings…

  1. Shoot organogenesis in oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transplanted to soil. Key words: shoot organogenesis, callus, ... saline and alkaline soils (Economou and Maloupa, 1995). Its fruits have been used as a .... cally inert compounds as reported by Kaminek (1992). Direct shoot organogenesis without ...

  2. Mass Shootings, Mental Illness, and Gun Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott-Jones, Sean

    2018-03-01

    In the wake of the Stoneman Douglas School shooting, Republican and Democratic leaders-like the American electorate they represent-remain sharply divided in their responses to gun violence. They are united in their condemnation of these mass shootings, but they disagree about whether stricter or looser gun control laws are the answer. Those on the right side of the political aisle suggest that the issue is one of mental illness rather than gun control. Conversely, those who are more liberal or progressive in their political learnings are quick to condemn attempts to reframe the issue of mass shootings as a mental health problem. Both sides are wrong. Mass shootings are indeed partially a mental health problem, albeit one poorly addressed by our current laws and policies. But the solution to mass shootings also needs to consider strategies that may reduce gun violence in general. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  3. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    Artist talk / Work-in-progress What is the purpose of a machine or an artifact, like the Fly Printer, that is dislocated, that produces images that have no meaning, no instrumentality, that depict nothing in the world? The biological and the cultural are reunited in this apparatus as a possibility...... to break through a common way of depicting the world, trying to find different surfaces and using strange apparatus to insist in the interstice of visibility. The Fly Printer is a printing apparatus in a form of a closed environment that contains a flock of fruit flies. The flies eat special food...... that is prepared for them that is mixed with laser jet printer inks. The flies digest the food and gradually print different color dots onto the paper that is placed under the fly habitat. In the Fly Printer biological organisms are used for replacing a standard part of our common printer technology. The work...

  4. Can E. coli fly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin

    2018-01-01

    , and the numbers of flies landing on the exposed rice were counted. Following exposure, the surface of the rice was microbiologically and molecularly analysed for the presence of E. coli and genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella strains. RESULTS: Rice was at greater risk (p ... with E. coli if flies landed on the rice than if no flies landed on the rice (odds ratio 5·4 (p ...-landings, the average CFU per fly-landing was > 0·6 x 103 CFU. Genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella species were detected in 39 of 60 (65%) of exposed rice samples. Two fly species were identified; the common housefly (Musca domestica) and the oriental latrine fly (Chrysomya megacephala). CONCLUSION: Flies may...

  5. Clonal analysis of corn plant development. I. The development of the tassel and the ear shoot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johri, M.M.; Coe, E.H. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the tassel and the ear shoot has been investigated in corn (Zea mays L.). X irradiation of dry kernels and seedlings heterozygous for anthocyanin markers or for factors altering tassel and ear morphology results in the formation of clones (sectors) from cells of the apical meristem. Most tassels develop from 4 +/- 1 cells of the mature embryo. The expression of ramosa-1, tunicate, tassel seed-6, and vestigial is cell autonomous in the tassel. These genes act late in development and modify the developmental fate or decision of an individual clone and not of the whole group of cells producing a tassel. The ear shoot develops from lineages of one to three cells derived each from the L-I (outmost cell layer) and L-II (second cell layer) of the apical meristem. Typically the clones start in the ear shoot (in the husks and possibly in the cob), extend upward in an internode, continue along the margin of the leaf sheath or leaf blade at the node above, and terminate in this or the next higher leaf. The separation of lineages for ear shoot and internode occurs in the period around 13 days after sowing. The analysis of clonal boundaries shows that a small number of embryonic cells become isolated in their developmental capacity. This commitment process appears to be analogous to the process of compartmentation in the imaginal disks of fruit flies. The extent of proliferation of individual cells within a group of highly flexible and any particular clone does not generate a specific part of a tassel or an ear shoot. There must be cellular communication between various clones so that the overall size and morphology of an organ remain normal and more or less fixed. Thus the process of development in plants is also highly regulative in nature and shares many features in common with development in fruit flies

  6. Fly ash aggregates. Vliegaskunstgrind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    A study has been carried out into artificial aggregates made from fly ash, 'fly ash aggregates'. Attention has been drawn to the production of fly ash aggregates in the Netherlands as a way to obviate the need of disposal of fly ash. Typical process steps for the manufacturing of fly ash aggregates are the agglomeration and the bonding of fly ash particles. Agglomeration techniques are subdivided into agitation and compaction, bonding methods into sintering, hydrothermal and 'cold' bonding. In sintering no bonding agent is used. The fly ash particles are more or less welded together. Sintering in general is performed at a temperature higher than 900 deg C. In hydrothermal processes lime reacts with fly ash to a crystalline hydrate at temperatures between 100 and 250 deg C at saturated steam pressure. As a lime source not only lime as such, but also portland cement can be used. Cold bonding processes rely on reaction of fly ash with lime or cement at temperatures between 0 and 100 deg C. The pozzolanic properties of fly ash are used. Where cement is applied, this bonding agent itself contributes also to the strength development of the artificial aggregate. Besides the use of lime and cement, several processes are known which make use of lime containing wastes such as spray dry absorption desulfurization residues or fluid bed coal combustion residues. (In Dutch)

  7. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  8. Technical note: Vetiver can grow on coal fly ash without DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2011-02-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to open lands or ash ponds located near power plants and this has lain to waste thousands of hectares all over the world. Wind and leaching are often the causes of off-site contamination from fly ash dumpsites. Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) grown on fly ash for three months showed massive, mesh-like growth of roots which could have a phytostabilizing effect. The plant achieved this without any damage to its nuclear DNA as shown by comet assay done on the root nuclei, which implies the long-term survival of the plant on the remediation site. Also, when Vetiver is used for phytoremediation of coal fly ash, its shoots can be safely grazed by animals as very little of heavy metals in fly ash were found to be translocated to the shoots. These features make planting of Vetiver a practical and environmentally compatible method for restoration of fly ash dumpsites. Lack of DNA damage in Vetiver has been compared to that in a sensitive plant i.e. Allium cepa. Our results suggested that apart from traditional end-points viz. growth parameters like root length, shoot length and dry weight, comet assay could also be included in a battery of tests for initial, rapid and effective selection of plants for restoration and phytoremediation of polluted sites.

  9. Cell fate regulation in the shoot meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, T; Mayer, K F

    1998-04-01

    The shoot meristem is a proliferative centre containing pluripotent stem cells that are the ultimate source of all cells and organs continuously added to the growing shoot. The progeny of the stem cells have two developmental options, either to renew the stem cell population or to leave the meristem and to differentiate, possibly according to signals from more mature tissue. The destiny of each cell depends on its position within the dynamic shoot meristem. Genetic data suggest a simple model in which graded positional information is provided by antagonistic gene functions and is interpreted by genes which regulate cell fate.

  10. PERBANDINGAN JUMP SHOOT DENGAN AWALAN DAN TANPA AWALAN TERHADAP PENINGKATAN KETEPATAN SHOOTING DALAM PERMAINAN BOLABASKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Agung Cahya Prananta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of  jump-shoot technique step jump shoot and still jump shoot in a game is still questionable,  because many different assumptions arise. One opinion stated that step jump shoot was more effective and the other stated that and still jump shoot was more efective. Therefore it is necessary to do research on the analysis of the results of step jump shoot and and still jump shoot to improve the accuracy of shooting in a basketball. The experimental research had been conducted on 20samples of people whowere selected randomly from the men's basketball club of the Faculty of Physical Educationand Health of Teacher Training Institute PGRI Bali. Samples were divided into two groups each  consisting of 10 people. Group I was given training step  jump shoot four sets of 10 reps  and Group II training still jump shoot four sets of 10 reps. The data before and after treatment were tested by SPSS computer program. The data were normally distributed and homogeneous so further tested using pairedt-test to compare the average values?? before and after training between each group, while the independent t-test was used to determine differences in mean values?? between the two groups. Paired t-test resulted the obtained data were significantly increased in both treatment groups p=0,001 in Group I and p=0,000 in Group II (p <0.05. Results of independent t-test found that both groups before training did not differ significantly p=0,926 (p>0.05 and after training both groups equally improve the accuracy of shooting because p=0,133 (p>0.05. It was concluded that botht raining improved the shooting accuracy and there was no difference between the effect of step jumps hoot and still jump shoot toward the shooting accuracy. It was suggested to improve the shooting accuracy in basketball used step jump shoot training and still jump shoot training four sets of 10 reps with a training frequency of 4 times a week for 6 weeks

  11. [Genetic regulation of plant shoot stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'bert, E V; Ezhova, T A

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the main features of plant stem cells and summarizes the results of studies of the genetic control of stem cell maintenance in the apical meristem of the shoot. It is demonstrated that the WUS-CLV gene system plays a key role in the maintenance of shoot apical stem cells and the formation of adventitious buds and somatic embryos. Unconventional concepts of plant stem cells are considered.

  12. Mass shooting and mass media : does media coverage of mass shootings inspire copycat crimes?

    OpenAIRE

    Mesoudi, A.

    2013-01-01

    In December 2012, twenty elementary school children and six adult staff members were shot and killed by a single individual at a school in Connecticut. Although this horrific event was met with widespread shock, Americans are sadly all too familiar with such mass shootings. From Columbine in 1999, to Virginia Tech in 2007, to the Colorado cinema shootings earlier in 2012, mass shootings seem to occur with alarming regularity. And although they appear to afflict the United States more than mos...

  13. Branch architecture in Ginkgo biloba: wood anatomy and long shoot-short shoot interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Stefan A; Jacobs, Brooke; McKechnie, Steven J; Cooper, Ranessa L; Christianson, Michael L; Jernstedt, Judith A

    2013-10-01

    Ginkgo, centrally placed in seed plant phylogeny, is considered important in many phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Shoot dimorphism of Ginkgo has been long noted, but no work has yet been done to evaluate the relationships between overall branch architecture and wood ring characters, shoot growth, and environmental conditions. • Branches, sampled from similar canopy heights, were mapped with the age of each long shoot segment determined by counting annual leaf-scar series on its short shoots. Transverse sections were made for each long shoot segment and an adjacent short shoot; wood ring thickness, number of rings, and number of tracheids/ring were determined. Using branch maps, we identified wood rings for each long shoot segment to year and developmental context of each year (distal short shoot growth only vs. at least one distal long shoot). Climate data were also analyzed in conjunction with developmental context. • Significantly thicker wood rings occur in years with distal long shoot development. The likelihood that a branch produced long shoots in a given year was lower with higher maximum annual temperature. Annual maximum temperature was negatively correlated with ring thickness in microsporangiate trees only. Annual minimum temperatures were correlated differently with ring thickness of megasporangiate and microsporangiate trees, depending on the developmental context. There were no significant effects associated with precipitation. • Overall, developmental context alone predicts wood ring thickness about as well as models that include temperature. This suggests that although climatic factors may be strongly correlated with wood ring data among many gymnosperm taxa, at least for Ginkgo, correlations with climate data are primarily due to changes in proportions of shoot developmental types (LS vs. SS) across branches.

  14. Enhanced in vitro multiple shoot induction in elite Pakistani guava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elite guava (Psidium guajava L.) strains of cv. Safeda were explored in vitro for multiple shoot induction. Shoot induction was enhanced up to 83% with 3.5 to 4.25 shoots per single node cutting and shoot tip explants, respectively, using higher levels of benzyl amino purine (BAP) in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium.

  15. The onion fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loosjes, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the origin, practical application, problems in application and prospects of control of the onion fly, Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), in the Netherlands by the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The larva of the onion fly is a severe pest in onions in temperate regions. Development of resistance of the onion fly against insecticides caused research on the SIT to be started by the Dutch Government in 1965. This research was on mass-rearing, long-term storage of pupae, sterilization, and release and ratio assessment techniques. By 1979 sufficient information had been turned over to any interested private company. In the case of the onion fly the SIT can be applied like a control treatment instead of chemical control to individual onion fields. This is due to the limited dispersal activity of the flies and the scattered distribution of onion fields in the Netherlands, with 5-10% of the onion growing areas planted with onions

  16. Shooting Mechanisms in Nature: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée Sakes

    Full Text Available In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these mechanisms fulfill.We systematically searched the literature using Scopus and Web of Knowledge to retrieve articles about solid projectiles that either are produced in the body of the organism or belong to the body and undergo a ballistic phase. The shooting mechanisms were categorized based on the energy management prior to and during shooting.Shooting mechanisms were identified with projectile masses ranging from 1·10-9 mg in spores of the fungal phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota to approximately 10,300 mg for the ballistic tongue of the toad Bufo alvarius. The energy for shooting is generated through osmosis in fungi, plants, and animals or muscle contraction in animals. Osmosis can be induced by water condensation on the system (in fungi, or water absorption in the system (reaching critical pressures up to 15.4 atmospheres; observed in fungi, plants, and animals, or water evaporation from the system (reaching up to -197 atmospheres; observed in plants and fungi. The generated energy is stored as elastic (potential energy in cell walls in fungi and plants and in elastic structures in animals, with two exceptions: (1 in the momentum catapult of Basidiomycota the energy is stored in a stalk (hilum by compression of the spore and droplets and (2 in Sphagnum energy is mainly stored in compressed air. Finally, the stored energy is transformed into kinetic energy of the projectile using a catapult mechanism delivering up to 4,137 J/kg in the osmotic shooting mechanism in cnidarians and 1,269 J/kg in the muscle-powered appendage strike of the mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus. The launch accelerations range from 6.6g in the frog Rana pipiens to 5,413,000g in

  17. The Mental Health Consequences of Mass Shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Galea, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Mass shooting episodes have increased over recent decades and received substantial media coverage. Despite the potentially widespread and increasing mental health impact of mass shootings, no efforts to our knowledge have been made to review the empirical literature on this topic. We identified 49 peer-reviewed articles, comprised of 27 independent samples in the aftermath of 15 mass shooting incidents. Based on our review, we concluded that mass shootings are associated with a variety of adverse psychological outcomes in survivors and members of affected communities. Less is known about the psychological effects of mass shootings on indirectly exposed populations; however, there is evidence that such events lead to at least short-term increases in fears and declines in perceived safety. A variety of risk factors for adverse psychological outcomes have been identified, including demographic and pre-incident characteristics (e.g., female gender and pre-incident psychological symptoms), event exposure (e.g., greater proximity to the attack and acquaintance with the deceased), and fewer psychosocial resources (e.g., emotion regulation difficulties and lower social support). Further research that draws on pre-incident and longitudinal data will yield important insights into the processes that exacerbate or sustain post-incident psychological symptoms over time and provide important information for crisis preparedness and post-incident mental health interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Photosynthesis of a scots pine shoot: the effect of shoot inclination on the photosynthetic response of a shoot subjected to direct radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oker-Blom, P.; Kellomaki, S.; Smolander, H.

    1983-01-01

    A set of photosynthetic responses of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoot to light was derived from the shoot geometry and the photosynthetic response of a single needle. Computations showed that the shape of the photosynthesis light-curves varies substantially depending on the direction of radiation relative to the shoot position. Differences in the initial and maximum rates of photosynthesis were due to changes in the effective projection area and the irradiated fraction of the shoot, respectively

  19. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry Towers

    Full Text Available Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts.Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed. We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event.We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015. We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001. All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings.

  20. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event. We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015). We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001). All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings.

  1. Youth Responses to School Shootings: A Reviw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, Áine

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This paper aims to synthesize research relating to youth responses to school shootings between 2014 and 2017. The main questions it addresses are how such events impact young people psychologically, and what risk or protective factors may contribute to different trajectories...... of recovery? RECENT FINDINGS:Recent research suggests that most young people exposed to school shootings demonstrate resilience, exhibiting no long-term dysfunction. However, a minority will experience severe and chronic symptoms. The likelihood of experiencing clinically significant reactions is influenced...

  2. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  3. Lead Pollution of Shooting Range Soils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    range. Most of the shooting range soils contained high levels of Pb in the range above 2000 mg kg–1 far exceeding the United States ... N. Sehube, R. Kelebemang, O. Totolo, M. Laetsang, O. Kamwi and P. Dinake,. 21 ..... Eng. Sci., 1999, 16,.

  4. Improving adventitious shoot regeneration from cultured leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of various concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ) with or without 2.7 μM of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation of two Petunia hybrida cultivars was studied. Seeds from 'Daddy Blue' and 'Dreams White' cultivars were germinated in vitro. Expanded leaves from both seedlings and ...

  5. Adventitious shoots induction and plant regeneration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A highly efficient regeneration system is a prerequisite step for successful genetic transformation of watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus L.). The objective of this study was to establish efficient in vitro plant regeneration for three watermelon cultivars. To achieve optimal conditions for adventitious shoot induction, the ...

  6. School Shootings; Standards Kill Students and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angert, Betsy L.

    2008-01-01

    School shootings have been in the news of late. People ponder what occurs in classrooms today. Why would a young person wish to take a life? Within educational institutions, the killings are a concern. In our dire attempt to teach the children and ensure student success, it seems many of our offspring are lost. Some students feel separate from…

  7. Adolescent mass shootings: developmental considerations in light of the Sandy Hook shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon

    2015-05-01

    Adolescent mass shootings are a special subset of mass killings, which continue despite significant preventative public health efforts. It is often held that these individuals have few salient warning signs that could have been identified. This piece proposes that mass shootings committed by adolescent and post-adolescent young males must be understood from a developmental perspective. The hypothesis proposed in this paper is that such killings occur as the result of the adolescent's frustrated effort to progress along normative development. The goal of normative separation from maternal figures by the boy is presented as a potential risk factor when this goal is thwarted. Childhood case material from the perpetrator of a recent adolescent mass shooting, the Sandy Hook shooting, is discussed as an illustration of this hypothesis. Implications for public health measures and for individualized treatment are presented and developed.

  8. Germination, seedling growth and relative water content of shoot in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... (mg), root : shoot length (R:S) ratio, and relative water content of shoot (RWC, %) were investigated in this study. The results ... seedlings may provide an advantage by allowing access ... Residual chlorine was eliminated by.

  9. The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter, shoot P and Zn concentrations in wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.)wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.) grown in a calcareous soil.

  10. High Frequency Multiple Shoot Induction of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.: Shoot Tip V/S Rhizome Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Nagesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. is an endangered medicinal plant with anticancer properties. The rhizome and tuberous roots of the plant have been used extensively in India in indigenous medicine. Due to its multiple uses, the demand for Curculigo orchioides is constantly on the rise; however, the supply is rather erratic and inadequate. Destructive harvesting, combined with habitat destruction in the form of deforestation has aggravated the problem. The plant is now considered ‘endangered’ in its natural habitat. Therefore, the need for conservation of this plant is crucial. Here, we describe a successful protocol for multiple shoot induction of C. orchioides using shoot tip and rhizome disc. We find that proximal rhizome discs are optimal for high frequency shoot bud formation than shoot tip and distal rhizome disc. We observed a synergistic effect between 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and kinetin (KN (each at 1 mg/L on the regeneration of shoot buds from proximal rhizome disc than shoot tip explant. Optimum root induction was achieved on half-strength MS liquid medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized in green house and successfully transplanted to natural condition with 90% survival.

  11. Multiple shoot regeneration of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... Induction of multiple shoots of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plant in two commercial varieties (Sahel and Varamin) using shoot apex was done. Explants were isolated from 3 - 4 days old seedlings, then they were cultured on a shoot induction media, modified MS nutrient agar with combinations: 1- ...

  12. Root~Shoot Growth Interactions of Sorghmn (Sorghwn Bicolor L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth. Studies on root-shoot intera'ctions in relation to mechanical impedance have only investigated the effect on shoots of ... growth regulators that may be responsible. Studies of root-shoot ... of germinating seeds to MI leaving roots in rela-.

  13. Sound propagation from a semi-open shooting range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Berg, F. van den

    2011-01-01

    Semi-open shooting ranges, in contrast to a fully open shooting range, are often used in the densely populated area of the Netherlands. The Ministry of Defense operates a number of these ranges. In these shooting ranges above the line of fire a number of screens are situated for safety precautions

  14. Lead pollution of shooting range soils | Sehube | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atotal of eight military shooting ranges were used for this study. Soil samples were collected at each of the eight shooting ranges at the berm, target line, 50 and 100 m from berm. In all of the shooting ranges investigated the highest total lead (Pb) concentrations were found in the bermsoils. Elevated Pb concentrations of 38 ...

  15. Effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on controlling shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro shoot necrosis is a quite widespread disorder affecting raspberry micropropagation. This study was conducted to investigate effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on shoot necrosis and dieback of raspberry shoots during micropropagation. Nodal segments of primocane-fruiting raspberry cultivars 'Allgold', ...

  16. Shoot and root morphogenesis from Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla plantlets were regenerated via indirect organogenesis. Histological assessment of their development focused on identifying the calli, the differentiation of shoots from the calli and the shoot-root junction from the nascent shoots. Vascular tissue formation within the callus preceded that of ...

  17. Production of polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus globulus were produced by treatment with colchicine. Results showed that the combination of 0.5% colchicine and treating multiple shoot clumps for 4 days was the most appropriate conditions for E. globulus polyploidy induction and the effect of the use of multiple shoot ...

  18. Protocol optimization for in vitro shoot multiplication of Jackfruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jemal

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... Protocol optimization for in vitro shoot multiplication of ... shoot length and leaf number, whereby 2 mg/L BAP alone was found to be the best with a mean shoot .... Analysis of variance showed that the interaction between.

  19. Regeneration of okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus L.) via apical shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. Monech) via apical shoot culture system. The study of apical shoot culture system was found effective for regeneration of apical shoots. The okra (A. esculentus L. Monech) N-550 line evolved at R&D, Nirmal Seeds Pvt. Ltd., ...

  20. Flies without centrioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto, Renata; Lau, Joyce; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Gardiol, Alejandra; Woods, C Geoffrey; Khodjakov, Alexey; Raff, Jordan W

    2006-06-30

    Centrioles and centrosomes have an important role in animal cell organization, but it is uncertain to what extent they are essential for animal development. The Drosophila protein DSas-4 is related to the human microcephaly protein CenpJ and the C. elegans centriolar protein Sas-4. We show that DSas-4 is essential for centriole replication in flies. DSas-4 mutants start to lose centrioles during embryonic development, and, by third-instar larval stages, no centrioles or centrosomes are detectable. Mitotic spindle assembly is slow in mutant cells, and approximately 30% of the asymmetric divisions of larval neuroblasts are abnormal. Nevertheless, mutant flies develop with near normal timing into morphologically normal adults. These flies, however, have no cilia or flagella and die shortly after birth because their sensory neurons lack cilia. Thus, centrioles are essential for the formation of centrosomes, cilia, and flagella, but, remarkably, they are not essential for most aspects of Drosophila development.

  1. Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Geiger, Michael; Körkel, Stefan; Rannacher, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive collection of the most advanced numerical techniques for the efficient and effective solution of simulation and optimization problems governed by systems of time-dependent differential equations. The contributions present various approaches to time domain decomposition, focusing on multiple shooting and parareal algorithms.  The range of topics covers theoretical analysis of the methods, as well as their algorithmic formulation and guidelines for practical implementation. Selected examples show that the discussed approaches are mandatory for the solution of challenging practical problems. The practicability and efficiency of the presented methods is illustrated by several case studies from fluid dynamics, data compression, image processing and computational biology, giving rise to possible new research topics.  This volume, resulting from the workshop Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods, held in Heidelberg in May 2013, will be of great interest to applied...

  2. Propagation of pineapple by shoot tip culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almobasher, H. A. A.; Osman, M. G.; Said, A. E.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted with the objective of modifying the composition of MS medium for the clonal propagation of pineapple using shoot tips of Smooth Cayenne cultivar. Modification were made on various medium components. Results showed that both MS salts at the full or half strength were optimal, and there was on significant difference between them. Sucrose concentrations of 3% and 6% were better than other concentrations tested for growth and development of plant lets. The cultures responded positively to the increase of adenine sulfate and 80 mg/1 was the optimal. As for the additions of NAA and BA , alone or in combinations, the best results were recorded with the combination of NAA at 0.01 mg/1, and BA at 3.0 mg/1 where the largest number of shoots was obtained. Better explants performance was achieved on liquid medium with cotton support compared to solid medium. (Author)

  3. Date of shoot collection, genotype, and original shoot position affect early rooting of dormant hardwood cuttings of Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S., Jr. Zalesny; A.H. Wiese

    2006-01-01

    Identifying superior combinations among date of dormant- season shoot collection, genotype, and original shoot position can increase the rooting potential of Populus cuttings. Thus, the objectives of our study were to: 1) evaluate variation among clones in early rooting from hardwood cuttings processed every three weeks from shoots collected...

  4. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings

    OpenAIRE

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Methods Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent dat...

  5. Chlordecone Transfer and Distribution in Maize Shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Létondor, Clarisse; Liber, Yohan; Jamin, Emilien L; Laurent, François

    2016-01-20

    Chlordecone (CLD) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that was mainly used as an insecticide against banana weevils in the French West Indies (1972-1993). Transfer of CLD via the food chain is now the major mechanism for exposure of the population to CLD. The uptake and the transfer of CLD were investigated in shoots of maize, a C4 model plant growing under tropical climates, to estimate the exposure of livestock via feed. Maize plants were grown on soils contaminated with [(14)C]CLD under controlled conditions. The greatest part of the radioactivity was associated with roots, nearly 95%, but CLD was detected in whole shoots, concentrations in old leaves being higher than those in young ones. CLD was thus transferred from the base toward the plant top, forming an acropetal gradient of contaminant. In contrast, results evidenced the existence of a basipetal gradient of CLD concentration within leaves whose extremities accumulated larger amounts of CLD because of evapotranspiration localization. Extractable residues accounted for two-thirds of total residues both in roots and in shoots. This study highlighted the fact that the distribution of CLD contamination within grasses resulted from a conjunction between the age and evapotranspiration rate of tissues. CLD accumulation in fodder may be the main route of exposure for livestock.

  6. Structuring agreements for seismic group shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeping, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    Sigma Explorations Inc. sells licenses to use Sigma owned seismic data. The company participates with exploration and production companies in the joint acquisition of semi-private participation surveys. This paper discusses three major types of seismic group shoots and the essential elements of the agreements that govern or should govern them. They are: (1) exploration and production company joint ventures, (2) publicly offered spec shoots, and (3) semi-private participation surveys. The key issue with the exploration and production company joint ventures is that the companies are owners of the seismic data in proportion to their contribution towards the cost of the program. Their use of the data should be restricted to those situations permitted by the other owners. These are not often well documented, and there is much concern in the industry as a result. The key issue with publicly offered spec shoots is that the seismic company ultimately owns the data and the client exploration and production company is a licensee and must behave as such. In most such cases the rights and responsibilities are well documented in formal agreements that are signed in advance of the program's beginning date

  7. Rampage shootings: an historical, empirical, and theoretical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocque, Michael; Duwe, Grant

    2018-02-01

    Rampage shootings is a relatively new term to describe a phenomenon that has a long history. Rampage shootings are mass shootings (generally defined as involving four or more victims), taking place in a public location, with victims chosen randomly or for symbolic purposes. These shootings are isolated events, meaning they are not connected to another criminal act (such as robbery or terrorism). Research suggests that rampage shootings are not a new phenomenon, but have occurred throughout the US since the early 1900s. There is some evidence of an increase in recent years, but definitional differences across studies and data sources make interpreting trends somewhat tenuous. Theories regarding the perpetration of rampage shootings center on masculinity, mental illness, and contagion effects. Policies aimed at preventing rampage shootings remain somewhat controversial and not well-tested in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Turbulence and Flying Machines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    other to make the aircraft roll. For example, a downward dis- placement of the left aileron causes the airplane to roll to the right. In Figure 4 the elevators have been deflected downwards, giving rise to a 'nose-down' moment about the pitch axis. Delaying Turbulence. In the last few decades, flying machines have proliferated ...

  9. Physiology Flies with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Amita

    2017-11-30

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for elucidating molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. From studies beginning in fruit flies, we now know that circadian regulation pervades most biological processes and has strong ties to human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum using SSR markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Identification of the genomic regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for ... Journal of Genetics, Vol. .... gant analysis were utilized further for genotyping of the ran- ..... Financial support to PLK in the form of research grants from Indian.

  11. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. In vitro shoot multiplication of Ziziphus spina-christi by shoot tip culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... Key words: Clonal propagation, cidir, shoot tip culture, Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. INTRODUCTION. Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf., locally known as cidir, is a multipurpose tree species belonging to the botanical family Rhamnaceae. It is an important cultivated tree and one of the few truly native tree ...

  13. Light Requirement for Shoot Regeneration in Horseradish Hairy Roots 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Tsutomu; Kamada, Hiroshi; Harada, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Hairy roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) were induced by inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring Ri plasmid and cultured on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium after eliminating the bacteria. Hairy roots grew vigorously and sometimes formed yellowish calli under dark conditions. On the other hand, growth of hairy roots stopped after several weeks of culture with light, then shoots were regenerated. Frequency of shoot formation from hairy roots increased as the culture period in light lengthened and the light intensity increased. The shoot regeneration was induced by treatment with white or red light, but not with far-red light. Shoot regeneration by red light was inhibited by following treatment with far-red light. Red and far-red light reversibly affected shoot regeneration. Excised roots of nontransformed plants grew quite slowly on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium and occasionally formed shoots under white light conditions. PMID:16669041

  14. Light requirement for shoot regeneration in horseradish hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, T; Kamada, H; Harada, H

    1992-08-01

    Hairy roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) were induced by inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring Ri plasmid and cultured on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium after eliminating the bacteria. Hairy roots grew vigorously and sometimes formed yellowish calli under dark conditions. On the other hand, growth of hairy roots stopped after several weeks of culture with light, then shoots were regenerated. Frequency of shoot formation from hairy roots increased as the culture period in light lengthened and the light intensity increased. The shoot regeneration was induced by treatment with white or red light, but not with far-red light. Shoot regeneration by red light was inhibited by following treatment with far-red light. Red and far-red light reversibly affected shoot regeneration. Excised roots of nontransformed plants grew quite slowly on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium and occasionally formed shoots under white light conditions.

  15. Accuracy of Skill Performance in the Basketball Free Throw Shooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igawa Shoji

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal and shot timing. Shot timing was not significant difference. Shooting successful rate of skilled players was higher than unskilled players. Offtarget distance of skilled players was significant smaller than naive player. Consequently, skilled player is possible to aim at the center of the goal and shooting near the center of goal.

  16. Youth Responses to School Shootings: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Áine; McDonagh, Tracey; Elklit, Ask

    2018-05-19

    This paper aims to synthesize research relating to youth responses to school shootings between 2014 and 2017. The main questions it addresses are how such events impact young people psychologically, and what risk or protective factors may contribute to different trajectories of recovery? Recent research suggests that most young people exposed to school shootings demonstrate resilience, exhibiting no long-term dysfunction. However, a minority will experience severe and chronic symptoms. The likelihood of experiencing clinically significant reactions is influenced by pre-trauma functioning as well as peri-traumatic and post-traumatic factors. These include proximity to the trauma, peri-traumatic dissociation, post-traumatic emotional regulation difficulties, social support, and flexibility of coping styles. Research that separates the distinguishing features of young people with differing recovery styles is vital to tailor intervention. But methodological and design issues associated with such research necessitates caution in drawing conclusions. Variation in definitions and measures and the self-report nature of many of the studies are potential sources of bias. Greater uniformity across designs would enhance confidence and allow for improved evidence-based intervention.

  17. Journalism and School Shootings in Finland 2007 -2008

    OpenAIRE

    Raittila, Pentti; Koljonen, Kari; Väliverronen, Jari

    2010-01-01

    Two school shootings in Finland (Jokela in 2007 and Kauhajoki in 2008) resulted in the death of 20 people, and they shook not only the foundations of Finnish society but also of the profession that reported about the tragedies. This report is based on research conducted on school shootings at the University of Tampere Journalism Research and Development Centre between 2008 and 2009. The analysis concentrates on both the journalistic texts published on the shootings and journalists' actions...

  18. Mass propagation of shoots of Stevia rebaudiana using a large scale bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, M; Shigeoka, T; Koizumi, Y; Kawamura, M

    1994-01-01

    A procedure for the mass propagation of multiple shoots of Stevia rebaudiana is described. Isolated shoot primordia were used as the inoculum to obtain clusters of shoot primordia. Such clusters were grown in a 500 liter bioreactor to obtain shoots. A total of 64.6 Kg of shoots were propagated from 460 g of the inoculated shoot primordia. These shoots were easily acclimatized in soil.

  19. Radiosensitivity of in vitro Cultured Banana Shoot-Tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagamawy, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Longitudinally dissected shoot apices of Grand Nain, Williams and Maghrabi banana cultivars were exposed to gamma irradiation with Cobalt 60 source at the doses of 0, 20, 40 and 60 Gy and immediately placed into proliferation medium. A number of micropropagation cycles after irradiation were necessary up to M1 V2 to M1 V4 stage to let mutated sectors developing into non-chimeric shoots. Radiosensitivity was evaluated by the rate of shoot proliferation and by the shoot fresh weight increase. Increasing gamma doses caused reduction in survival rates and average number of shoots. Grand Nain exhibited the highest multiplication- rate (3.1). The lower dose (20 Gy) enhanced shoot multiplication ratio specially in Williams and Maghrabi, which however decreased with increased doses. The doses of 20-40 Gy yielded Ld50, with sensible degree of shoot multiplication, which occurred hardly ever beyond 40 Gy. The dose of 60 Gy resulted 80% lethal shoot growth. Linear decrease in fresh weight was observed in post-irradiation recovery, notably in the Maghrabi. In contradictory vulnerable damage was observed in Williams which showed the highest fresh weight value. Shoot proliferation appeared generally on the surface of the corm. Root formation was observed without additional hormone. The roots were dark colored and was decreased with the increased of dosage

  20. Australian Mass Shootings: An Analysis of Incidents and Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, Samara

    2017-06-01

    Mass shooting events are relatively underresearched, and most study comes from the United States. Despite significant international interest, little is known about other countries' experiences of these events. The current study examines Australian mass shooting incidents and offenders, with emphasis on mental illness, life strains, and offenders' life histories. Australia had 14 mass shootings between 1964 and 2014. Most offenders experienced acute life stressors and/or chronic strains leading up to the event; however, diagnosed mental illness was less commonly documented. These observations provide new information about mass shooting incidents and offenders, and can help to inform international policy development.

  1. School shootings: law enforcement and school district networking

    OpenAIRE

    Topadzhikyan, Tigran

    2013-01-01

    CHDS State/Local School shootings have happened in the past and will happen again. The history of school shootings prompts all stakeholders to look at ways to prevent them from happening, and if they do happen, to be resilient. Change is needed in the prevention of school shootings. The case studies of Virginia Tech, Sandy Hook, E. O. Green Junior High, and Beslan school shootings reveal that the lack of information sharing and lack of communication were flaws; and the incidents might have...

  2. In vitro mass propagation of Salvia canariensis by axillary shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiana Mederos Molina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the establishment of shoots of Salvia canariensis L., five environmental factor treatments were applied. For each axillary node two shoots grew well when explants were incubated at continued ligth for 15 days followed by 16 hrs photoperiod by 30 days. Shoots multiplication was improved on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium - MS + 825 mg/l NH4NO3 - supplemented with 10-7 M BA and 10-7 M NAA. The shoots produced well developed root systems within three weeks after transfer to the same culture medium supplemented with 5x 10-7 M NAA.

  3. SHOOT2.0: An indirect grid shooting package for optimal control problems, with switching handling and embedded continuation

    OpenAIRE

    Martinon , Pierre; Gergaud , Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The SHOOT2.0 package implements an indirect shooting method for optimal control problems. It is specifically designed to handle control discontinuities, with an automatic switching detection that requires no assumptions concerning the number of switchings. Special care is also devoted to the computation of the Jacobian matrix of the shooting function, using the variational system instead of classical finite differences. The package also features an embedded continuation method and an automati...

  4. The effect of fly ash on the quality of mortars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovy, M F [Blue Circle Cement (Pty) Ltd., Industria West (South Africa)

    1994-12-31

    A comparative study of the commercially available blends of the fly cement was made. The focus of the research was to determine the suitability of fly ash blends in mortars. A comparative evaluation was made to establish the differences between laboratory analysis and on site practice. These comparisons were made using 4 different building sands. The laboratory evaluations were confined to specified test methods to determine the suitability of the mortar. However, the in-situ tests required an innovative approach such as: conducting tests on mortar joints to determine the in-situ compressive strengths. (A new technique was developed, which involves shooting nails into the mortar joint, determining the penetration depth and its pull out strength. This is then calibrated against cube strengths); and conducting tests using the SABS approach to determine the resistance to water penetration through a brick wall. The trends in the laboratory evaluations were as expected in terms of improved water demands, water retention and reduced compressive strengths. The in-situ mortar compressive strengths were marginally lower when using fly ash blends compared to ordinary portland cement. The use of fly ash blends improved the resistance of water penetration through a brick wall. In-situ tests are probably the only meaningful way to determine the effectiveness of a mortar in fulfilling its functions in a wall as laid down by SABS 0164:1990. With this in mind, the same quality or an improved quality mortar will be obtained using fly ash blended cements rather than ordinary portland cement. 10 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Flying car design and testing

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, S.; Smrcek, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is primarily concerned with the inverted design process and manufacture of a flying car prototype which can overcome the problem of traffic management in the world today. A possible solution to the problem of overcrowded roads would be to design a flying or hovering car. Given technological advances in aircraft construction, navigation and operation, flying cars or personal aircraft are now a feasible proposition. The viability of such a concept was investigated in terms of produci...

  6. Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  7. Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  8. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  9. Analysis of sports injuries related with shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, Banu; Karanfilci, Muharrem; Ersöz, Taner; Kabak, Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    Athletes typically maintain rigorous training and work programs to be able to participate in competitions. An injury that occurs during the competition that causes withdrawal from the competition and a possible departure from sports, can render results athletes' and their support staff's efforts as meaningless. The early detection of injuries in the competition and developing preventive training programs can help ensure that participating in competitions and the associated preparatory efforts are not wasted. In this study, the sports injuries discussed occurred during training and competition events of the Turkish Shooting Sportive group. Body parts of injuries are determined and exercise programs focused on the affected body parts are developed. A total of 729 athletes (285 female, 444 male) who participated in Turkish Shooting Sports Championship during the 2010-2011 competition period participated in the study. Athletes were given a questionnaire that was developed prior to the event, and the questionnaire was filled in during interviews conducted one-on-one. Data was collected from the questionnaire and SPSS v.16.0 was used to analyze the results. The study was completed in six months. The results showed that the most of the injuries that occurred during training were strain and muscle tears whereas most of the injuries occurred during the actual competition were strain, muscle tears, tendinitis, and sprain. The results also indicated that during training, the most frequently-occurring injuries were in shoulder, calf-thigh, hand and wrist; whereas during the competition, it was manifested in the shoulder, foot and ankle. Muscle strengthening, stretching and proprioception exercises for these body parts should be included as part of the athletic training program.

  10. Highly efficient in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration of Adenosma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenosma glutinosum (Linn.) Druce is an important aromatic plant, but no information is available regarding its regeneration, callus induction and proliferation from leaf explants. In this study, an in vitro shoot regeneration procedure was developed for native A. glutinosum using leaf explants. Callus induction and shoots ...

  11. Efficient regeneration of plants from shoot tip explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dendrobium densiflorum Lindl. is one of the horticulturally important orchids of Nepal due to its beautiful yellowish flower and medicinal properties. The present study was carried out for plant regeneration from shoot tip explants of D. densiflorum by tissue culture technique. The shoot tip explants of this species, obtained ...

  12. Defense.gov Special Report: Fort Hood Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    identify possible insider threats, Army Secretary John M. McHugh told lawmakers. Story Obama: Soldiers ," Army Secretary John M. McHugh told lawmakers. Story President Praises Swift Response to Fort Hood Remarks on Fort Hood Shooting at White House McHugh, Odierno Address Fort Hood Shooting Before Congress

  13. Gene expression in arabidopsis shoot tips after liquid nitrogen exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabidopsis thaliana shoot tips can be successfully cryopreserved using either Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) or Plant Vitrification Solution 3 (PVS3) as the cryoprotectant. We used this model system to identify suites of genes that were either upregulated or downregulated as shoot tips recov...

  14. An Analysis of US School Shooting Data (1840-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradice, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and descriptive analysis of a data set of United States school shooting events. Three hundred forty-three shooting events are included, spanning 175 years of United States educational history. All levels of US educational institution are included. Events are included when a firearm is discharged, regardless of…

  15. How to talk (and not to talk) about school shootings

    OpenAIRE

    Scheper-Hughes, N

    2018-01-01

    © RAI 2018 In this guest editorial, the author addresses the latest school shootings at the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida. This event is weighed up against reports written by prominent academics, including anthropologists, during previous school shootings.

  16. Revisiting the Virginia Tech Shootings: An Ecological Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Cho, Hyunkag; Lee, Alvin Shiulain

    2010-01-01

    School shooting cases since the late 1990s have prompted school officials and legislators to develop and implement programs and measures that would prevent violence in school. Despite the number of explanations by the media, politicians, organizations, and researchers about the etiology of school shootings, we are not united in our understanding…

  17. The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting as tipping point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Muschert, Glenn W; Dingwall, Alison; Cohen, Alyssa M

    2013-01-01

    Among rampage shooting massacres, the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting on December 14, 2012 galvanized public attention. In this Commentary we examine the features of this episode of gun violence that has sparked strong reactions and energized discourse that may ultimately lead toward constructive solutions to diminish high rates of firearm deaths and injuries in the United States. PMID:28228989

  18. Shoot Differentiation in Callus Cultures of Datura Innoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1973-01-01

    promoted shoot differentiation. Gibberellic acid inhibited shoot formation weakly, but inhibited proper leaf blade formation. Root differentiation was rare. The callus cultures of Datura innoxia grew rapidly (100-fold in 4 weeks) on a slightly modified Murashige and Skoog medium (0.5 mg/l thiamin · HCl, p...

  19. Cryopreservation of in vitro -grown shoot tips of apricot ( Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro grown apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. El-Hamawey shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Shoot tips were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads before preculture on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations; 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, ...

  20. Initiation and growth of shoots of Gongronema latifolia Benth stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was significant reduction in number of days to shoot initiation and growth in sawdust medium in the wet season. Sawdust and soil gave a better performance of the cuttings in opening of apical buds, initiation of shoots, percentage of rooted cuttings, number of vines, vine length and number of opposite leaves on vines ...

  1. Physics of flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.

  2. The Flying University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  3. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  4. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat.

  5. Modeling shoot-tip temperature in the greenhouse environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, J.E.; Heins, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    An energy-balance model is described that predicts vinca (Catharanthus roseus L.) shoot-tip temperature using four environmental measurements: solar radiation and dry bulb, wet bulb, and glazing material temperature. The time and magnitude of the differences between shoot-tip and air temperature were determined in greenhouses maintained at air temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, or 35 °C. At night, shoot-tip temperature was always below air temperature. Shoot-tip temperature decreased from 0.5 to 5 °C below air temperature as greenhouse glass temperature decreased from 2 to 15 °C below air temperature. During the photoperiod under low vapor-pressure deficit (VPD) and low air temperature, shoot-tip temperature increased ≈4 °C as solar radiation increased from 0 to 600 W·m -2 . Under high VPD and high air temperature, shoot-tip temperature initially decreased 1 to 2 °C at sunrise, then increased later in the morning as solar radiation increased. The model predicted shoot-tip temperatures within ±1 °C of 81% of the observed 1-hour average shoot-tip temperatures. The model was used to simulate shoot-tip temperatures under different VPD, solar radiation, and air temperatures. Since the rate of leaf and flower development are influenced by the temperature of the meristematic tissues, a model of shoot-tip temperature will be a valuable tool to predict plant development in greenhouses and to control the greenhouse environment based on a plant temperature setpoint. (author)

  6. Plant growth on 'fly ash'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, R; Hodgson, D R; Townsend, W N; Wood, J W

    1958-04-12

    Plants were grown in plot and pot experiments to assess the toxicity of the fly ash. It was found that plants grouped into three classes: tolerant, moderately tolerant, and sensitive. Boron was found to be a major compoent of the toxic principle of fly ash.

  7. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting with Vision Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, P.M.; Latham, K.; Mann, D.L.; Ravensbergen, H.J.C.; Myint, J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle,

  8. The flying radiation case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, J.H.; Bowers, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Los Alamos foil implosion program has the goal of producing an intense, high-energy density x-ray source by converting the energy of a magnetically imploded plasma into radiation and material energy. One of the methods for converting the plasma energy into thermal energy and radiation and utilizing it for experiments is called the flying radiation case (FRC). In this paper the authors shall model the FRC and provide a physical description of the processes involved. An analytic model of a planar FRC in the hydrodynamic approximation is used to describe the assembly and shock heating of a central cushion by a conducting liner driver. The results are also used to benchmark a hydrodynamics code for modeling an FRC. They then use a radiation-hydrodynamics computational model to explore the effects of radiation production and transport when a gold plasma assembles on a CH cushion. Results are presented for the structure and evolution of the radiation hohlraum

  9. Disposal of fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Foley, C.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical arguments and pilot plant results have shown that the transport of fly-furnace ash from the power station to the disposal area as a high concentration slurry is technically viable and economically attractive. Further, lack of free water, when transported as a high concentration slurry, offers significant advantages in environmental management and rehabilitation of the disposal site. This paper gives a basis for the above observations and discusses the plans to exploit the above advantages at the Stanwell Power Station. (4 x 350 MWe). This will be operated by the Queensland Electricity Commission. The first unit is to come into operation in 1992 and other units are to follow progressively on a yearly basis

  10. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Borghezan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, and ended on 2/6/2007, totalizing 144 days of evaluation. During the 2008/2009 cycle, phenology and shoot growth for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' were assessed from grape development (1/13/2009 (pea-sized grapes until shoot vegetative growth had ceased. Budburst occurred in the second half of September, and shoot-growth cessation occurred during ripening. Higher growth rates (about 4 cm per day were observed in pre- and post-flowering, followed by reduction due to the competition for photosynthates for the formation of flowers and bunches. Temperature and photoperiod induce grapevine shoots to cease growth in the highland regions of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

  11. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references.

  12. Firearm Legislation and Fatal Police Shootings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J; Ray, Bradley; Phalen, Peter L

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether stricter firearm legislation is associated with rates of fatal police shootings. We used a cross-sectional, state-level design to evaluate the effect of state-level firearm legislation on rates of fatal police shootings from January 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016. We measured state-level variation in firearm laws with legislative scorecards from the Brady Center, and for fatal police shootings we used The Counted, an online database maintained by The Guardian. State-level firearm legislation was significantly associated with lower rates of fatal police shootings (incidence rate ratio = 0.961; 95% confidence interval = 0.939, 0.984). When we controlled for sociodemographic factors, states in the top quartile of legislative strength had a 51% lower incidence rate than did states in the lowest quartile. Laws aimed at strengthening background checks, promoting safe storage, and reducing gun trafficking were associated with fewer fatal police shootings. Legislative restrictions on firearms are associated with reductions in fatal police shootings. Public Health Implications. Although further research is necessary to determine causality and potential mechanisms, firearm legislation is a potential policy solution for reducing fatal police shootings in the United States.

  13. Exposure to lead in South African shooting ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathee, Angela; Jager, Pieter de; Naidoo, Shan; Naicker, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Lead exposure in shooting ranges has been under scrutiny for decades, but no information in this regard is available in respect of African settings, and in South Africa specifically. The aim of this study was to determine the blood lead levels in the users of randomly selected private shooting ranges in South Africa's Gauteng province. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted, with participants recruited from four randomly selected shooting ranges and three archery ranges as a comparator group. Results: A total of 118 (87 shooters and 31 archers) were included in the analysis. Shooters had significantly higher blood lead levels (BLL) compared to archers with 36/85 (42.4%) of shooters versus 2/34 (5.9%) of archers found to have a BLL ≥10 μg/dl (p<0.001). Conclusion: Shooting ranges may constitute an import site of elevated exposure to lead. Improved ventilation, low levels of awareness of lead hazards, poor housekeeping, and inadequate personal hygiene facilities and practices at South African shooting ranges need urgent attention. - Highlights: • This is the first study, to our knowledge, of lead exposure in shooting ranges in an African setting. • This study indicates highly elevated lead exposure amongst the users of certain private shooting ranges in South Africa. • Lead exposure may be a serious, yet under-studied, source of adult lead exposure in South Africa, and possibly elsewhere on the African continent.

  14. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in [U- 14 C]sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with [U- 14 C]sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references

  15. Exposure to lead in South African shooting ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathee, Angela [South African Medical Research Council, Environment & Health Research Unit, PO Box 87373, Houghton 2041 (South Africa); University of the Witwatersrand (School of Public Health), PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); University of Johannesburg (Environmental Health Department, Faculty of Health Sciences), PO Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Jager, Pieter de [University of the Witwatersrand (School of Public Health), PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); National Health Laboratory Service (Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit, National Institute for Occupational Health), PO Box 4788, Johannesburg 2000 (South Africa); Naidoo, Shan [University of the Witwatersrand (School of Public Health), PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Naicker, Nisha [South African Medical Research Council, Environment & Health Research Unit, PO Box 87373, Houghton 2041 (South Africa); University of the Witwatersrand, School of Public Health, PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); University of Johannesburg, Environmental Health Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa)

    2017-02-15

    Introduction: Lead exposure in shooting ranges has been under scrutiny for decades, but no information in this regard is available in respect of African settings, and in South Africa specifically. The aim of this study was to determine the blood lead levels in the users of randomly selected private shooting ranges in South Africa's Gauteng province. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted, with participants recruited from four randomly selected shooting ranges and three archery ranges as a comparator group. Results: A total of 118 (87 shooters and 31 archers) were included in the analysis. Shooters had significantly higher blood lead levels (BLL) compared to archers with 36/85 (42.4%) of shooters versus 2/34 (5.9%) of archers found to have a BLL ≥10 μg/dl (p<0.001). Conclusion: Shooting ranges may constitute an import site of elevated exposure to lead. Improved ventilation, low levels of awareness of lead hazards, poor housekeeping, and inadequate personal hygiene facilities and practices at South African shooting ranges need urgent attention. - Highlights: • This is the first study, to our knowledge, of lead exposure in shooting ranges in an African setting. • This study indicates highly elevated lead exposure amongst the users of certain private shooting ranges in South Africa. • Lead exposure may be a serious, yet under-studied, source of adult lead exposure in South Africa, and possibly elsewhere on the African continent.

  16. Structure–Function Relationships in Highly Modified Shoots of Cactaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAUSETH, JAMES D.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. • Scope Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus ‘flower’ is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels. PMID:16820405

  17. Structure-function relationships in highly modified shoots of cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauseth, James D

    2006-11-01

    Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus 'flower' is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels.

  18. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Borghezan; Olavo Gavioli; Hamilton Justino Vieira; Aparecido Lima da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, ...

  19. Methodology of shooting training using modern IT techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudzbeler, Grzegorz; Struniawski, Jarosław

    2017-08-01

    Mastering, improvement, shaping and preservation of skills of safe, efficient and effective use of the firearm requires the use of relevant methodology of conducting the shooting training. However reality of police trainings does not usually allow for intensive training shooting with the use of ammunition. An alternative solution is the use of modern training technologies. Example of this is the "Virtual system of improvement tactics of intervention services responsible for security and shooting training." Introduction of stimulator to police trainings will enable complete stuff preparation to achieve its tasks, creating potential of knowledge and experience in many areas, far exceeding the capabilities of conventional training.

  20. Africa and the tsetse fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  1. Africa and the tsetse fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-31

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  2. Shoot multiplication of Paphiopedilum orchid through in vitro cutting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    waraporn

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... regulators could remain higher shoot multiplication than in other media. The micropropagation ... stalk nodes, buds, root tips and rhizome segments. For mass ... plants, the future mass-market orchids will most likely be.

  3. Preventing School Shootings: A Public Health Approach to Gun Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    pedagogical goals. The incidents of school shootings on college campuses can be prevented through the collaboration and application of whole-of...interesting accompaniment to school violence. 26 Date Place Outcome May 16, 1986 Cokeville Elementary School, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

  4. 76 FR 1339 - Pine Shoot Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Domestic Programs, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 26, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231; (301) 734-5705... distorted growth in host trees. Large infestations of PSB typically kill most of the lateral shoots near the...

  5. Effect of benzylaminopurine (BAP) pulsing on in vitro shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... Research Cluster, Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Accepted 12 ... number of bud formation in shoot cultures of Musa acuminata cv. ... In tissue culture, plant growth regulators (PGR) are.

  6. Roots & Shoots: A model for active environmental protection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar is facing severe environmental problems. One approach to engage possible future stakeholders and to raise awareness for environmental concerns is the Roots & Shoots program. On the following the program and its philosophy are presented.

  7. In vitro shoot multiplication and conservation of Caralluma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-03-30

    Burm. f.) Merrill. In Vitro Cell Deve. Biol. Plant. 41: 124-128. Thomas TD, Shankar S (2009). Multiple shoot induction and callus regeneration in Sarcostemma brevistigma Wight & Arnott, a rare medicinal plant. Plant Biotechnol.

  8. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the Mysteries of Ageing. Amitabh Joshi. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 51-63 ...

  9. Integrated management of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This film introduces species of fruit-flies and their reproduction cycle and suggests various methods for controlling insect pests (insect traps, treatment of infested fruits, chemical, legal, and biological control -sterile male technique

  10. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    definition of ageing?), and that the word ageing (or senescence) has a fairly precise .... Populations that evolved increased longevity and egg production late in life, as a .... life-span exceeding 120 days whereas flies from control populations ...

  11. The Hidden Advantage in Shoot/Don’t Shoot Simulation Exercises for Police Recruit Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Davies

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past thirty-five years, developments in computer-related technology have been providing increasingly more sophisticated simulation alternatives for training law enforcement officers. Such developments have leveraged on the back of progress achieved in the aviation, military and medical professions as law enforcement educators seek to address the challenges of training for high-risk, high-stakes professional environments. While globally, simulation based learning exercises are at the forefront in use-of-force training with firearms for police recruits there is limited published research which views the influence of these exercises on operational practice through the lens of the police recruit as they engage with the demands of their volatile, unpredictable workplace. This paper discusses a case study of a cohort of 372 police recruits whose police academy education program included participation in simulation based learning exercises centred on decision making in use-of-force. The pivotal inclusion in the study was the opportunity for the police recruits to reflect on the influence of the simulation exercise experience from an operational perspective. The study revealed an unvoiced advantage—while trainers are focusing on the amount of ammunition used, the marksmanship accuracy, and the justification for the use-of-force, the students are unconsciously building a repertoire of realistic experiences as a reference library for the moment of decision in real life shoot/don’t shoot incidents.

  12. In-vitro morphogenesis of corn (Zea mays L.) : I. Differentiation of multiple shoot clumps and somatic embryos from shoot tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, H; Srinivasan, C; Sticklen, M B

    1992-07-01

    In-vitro methods have been developed to regenerate clumps of multiple shoots and somatic embryos at high frequency from shoot tips of aseptically-grown seedlings as well as from shoot apices of precociously-germinated immature zygotic embryos of corn (Zea mays L.). About 500 shoots were produced from a shoot tip after eight weeks of culture (primary culture and one subculture of four weeks) in darkness on Murashige and Skoog basal medium (MS) supplemented with 500 mg/L casein hydrolysate (CH) and 9 μM N(6)-benzyladenine (BA). In this medium, shoots formed in shoot tips as tightly packed "multiple shoot clumps" (MSC), which were composed of some axillary shoots and many adventitious shoots. When the shoot tips were cultured on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH, 9 μM BA and 2.25 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), most of the shoots in the clumps were adventitious in origin. Similar shoot tips cultured on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH, 4.5 μM BA and 2.25 μM 2,4-D regenerated many somatic embryos within eight weeks of culture. Somatic embryos were produced either directly from the shoot apical meristems or from calli derived from the shoots apices. Both the MSC and the embryos produced normal shoots on MS medium containing 2.25 μM BA and 1.8 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). These shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 3.6 μM IBA, and fertile corn plants were grown in the greenhouse. The sweet-corn genotype, Honey N Pearl, was used for the experiments described above, but shoot-tip cultures from all of 19 other corn genotypes tested also formed MSC on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH and 9 μM BA.

  13. DETECTING LASER SPOT IN SHOOTING SIMULATOR USING AN EMBEDDED CAMERA

    OpenAIRE

    Soetedjo, Aryuanto; Mahmudi, Ali; Ibrahim Ashari, M.; Ismail Nakhoda, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the application of an embedded camera system for detecting laser spot in the shooting simulator. The proposed shooting simulator uses a specific target box, where the circular pattern target is mounted. The embedded camera is installed inside the box to capture the circular pattern target and laser spot image. To localize the circular pattern automatically, two colored solid circles are painted on the target. This technique allows the simple and fast color tracking to trac...

  14. Coumarins and alkaloids in shoot culture of Ruta graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Ekiert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A shoot culture of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae was maintained in the stationary liquid phase. From the cultured shoots seven compounds were isolated and identified as psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin (linear furanocoumarins, rutamarin (linear dihydrofuranocoumarin, kokusaginine and skimmianine (furanoquinoline alkaloids by spectral methods. The compounds are known as secondary metabolites of the intact plant, as well as its cell and tissue cultures.

  15. Direct shoot organogenesis of Digitalis trojana Ivan., an endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... An efficient protocol for in vitro propagation of Digitalis trojana Ivan. was developed via adventitious shoot regeneration. Leaf explants were cultured on MS which were supplemented with different concentrations of NAA (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mg/ml) and BAP (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/ml) for shoot formation.

  16. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  17. Growth and physiological response of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.) under different levels of fly ash-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Debabrata; Panda, Dibyajyoti; Padhan, Bandana; Biswas, Meghali

    2018-05-12

    Revegetation with metal tolerant plants for management of fly ash deposits is an important environmental perspective nowadays. Growth performance, photosynthesis, and antioxidant defense of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.) were evaluated under various combination of fly ash amended with garden soil in order to assess its fly ash tolerance potential. Under low level of fly ash (25%) amended soil, the plant growth parameters such as shoot, root, and total plant biomass as well as metal tolerance index were increased compared to the control plants grown on garden soil, followed by decline under higher concentration of fly ash (50%, 75% and 100%). In addition, leaf photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and photosystem (PS) II activity were not significantly changed under low level of fly ash (25%) amended soil compared to the garden soil but these parameters were significantly decreased further with increase of fly ash concentrations. Furthermore, increase of activities of some antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and guaiacol peroxidase over control were noticed in lemongrass under all fly ash treatments. Taken together, the study suggests that lemongrass can be used for phytoremediation of fly ash at 25% amended soil.

  18. Micropropagation of Asparagus by in vitro shoot culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is most extensively studied species within the genus Asparagus, which is well known as garden asparagus. This species is dioecious with unisexual flowers, which means that generative propagation gives roughly equal number of male and female plants. Male plants are high yielders and preferred commercially over female plants. Tissue culture techniques could efficiently promote vegetative propagation of male plants and pave the way for efficient plant breeding.This chapter describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for developing rapid growing in vitro Asparagus shoot cultures. The source of explants, inoculation, and shoot proliferation, followed by shoot propagation, rooting, and acclimatization is described. The optimal medium for Asparagus micropropagation described in this chapter is composed of MS macro- and microelements and a combination of auxins and cytokinins. Plant growth regulators NAA, kinetin, and BA were used in various concentrations. Three different media representing the whole micropropagation protocol of Asparagus are described; medium for shoot initiation, medium for shoot multiplication, and medium for root formation. By in vitro propagation of Asparagus, root initiation is difficult, but can be promoted by adding growth retardant ancymidol which also greatly promotes shoot development and suppresses callus formation.

  19. Ferns: the missing link in shoot evolution and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Robert George Plackett

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shoot development in land plants is a remarkably complex process that gives rise to an extreme diversity of forms. Our current understanding of shoot developmental mechanisms comes almost entirely from studies of angiosperms (flowering plants, the most recently diverged plant lineage. Shoot development in angiosperms is based around a layered multicellular apical meristem that produces lateral organs and/or secondary meristems from populations of founder cells at its periphery. In contrast, non-seed plant shoots develop from either single apical initials or from a small population of morphologically distinct apical cells. Although developmental and molecular information is becoming available for non-flowering plants, such as the model moss Physcomitrella patens, making valid comparisons between highly divergent lineages is extremely challenging. As sister group to the seed plants, the monilophytes (ferns and relatives represent an excellent phylogenetic midpoint of comparison for unlocking the evolution of shoot developmental mechanisms, and recent technical advances have finally made transgenic analysis possible in the emerging model fern Ceratopteris richardii. This review compares and contrasts our current understanding of shoot development in different land plant lineages with the aim of highlighting the potential role that the fern C. richardii could play in shedding light on the evolution of underlying genetic regulatory mechanisms.

  20. In vitro regeneration of Salix nigra from adventitious shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyyra, Satu; Lima, Amparo; Merkle, Scott A

    2006-07-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is the largest and only commercially important willow species in North America. It is a candidate for phytoremediation of polluted soils because it is fast-growing and thrives on floodplains throughout eastern USA. Our objective was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of black willow plants that could serve as target material for gene transformation. Unexpanded inflorescence explants were excised from dormant buds collected from three source trees and cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with one of: (1) 0.1 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ); (2) 0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzoaminopurine (BAP); or (3) 1 mg l(-1) BAP. All plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments induced direct adventitious bud formation from the genotypes. The percentage of explants producing buds ranged from 20 to 92%, depending on genotype and treatment. Although most of the TDZ-treated inflorescences produced buds, these buds failed to elongate into shoots. Buds on explants treated with BAP elongated into shoots that were easily rooted in vitro and further established in potting mix in high humidity. The PGR treatments significantly affected shoot regeneration frequency (P < 0.01). The highest shoot regeneration frequency (36%) was achieved with Genotype 3 cultured on 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. Mean number of shoots per explant varied from one to five. The ability of black willow inflorescences to produce adventitious shoots makes them potential targets for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with heavy-metal-resistant genes for phytoremediation.

  1. Characteristics of schools in which fatal shootings occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Apodaca, Roberto Flores; Brighton, Lauren M; Perkins, Ashley N; Jackson, Kiana N; Steege, Jessica R

    2012-04-01

    School-based violence, and fatal school shootings in particular, have gained increased attention in the media and psychological literature. Most reports have focused on the characteristics of perpetrators, but there is a growing awareness that school-related factors may also influence the occurrence of fatal school shootings. The current study examined several key characteristics of all schools where random (38) and targeted (96) fatal shootings occurred in the United States between 1966 and 2009. These were compared with a group (138) of schools randomly selected to represent the population of all schools in the United States. The size of a school's enrollment, urban or suburban locale, public funding, and predominantly non-white enrollment were positively associated with fatal shootings. Universities and colleges were disproportionately associated with random shootings and high schools with targeted ones. It was proposed that characteristics of schools that allow feelings of anonymity or alienation among students may help create environmental conditions associated with fatal school shootings. Implications for future research and interventions are considered.

  2. The effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds in shoot cultures of Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Grzegorczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds (carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid in S. officinalis cultures grown on MS basal medium (agar solidified medium supplemented with 0.1 mg l-1 IAA, 0.45 mg l-1 BAP. It was found that shoot proliferation significantly increased when triacontanol at concentrations of 5, 10 or 20 µg l-1 was added to the medium. HPLC analysis of acetone and methanolic extracts of sage shoots showed that the production of diterpenoids, carnosic acid/carnosol ratio, as well as, contents of rosmarinic acid were also affected by the treatment with triacontanol. The highest stimulation effect of triacontanol was observed on the production of carnosol, where the treatment with 20 µg l l-1 increased the content of this diterpenoid 4.5-fold compared to that in the control (sage shoots growing on MS basal medium, only.

  3. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-10-16

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot.

  4. Water relations, gas exchange and growth of dominant and suppressed shoots of Arbutus unedo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, C; Terradas, J

    1995-06-01

    Basal shoots produced by Arbutus unedo L. after cutting at ground level vary in size and growth rate, and are classified accordingly as dominant or suppressed. The suppressed shoots eventually cease growth and die. In this study, we investigated the role of light and water in the competition among shoots of A. unedo. Dominant and suppressed shoots of A. unedo showed similar leaf water potentials and tissue water relations over the year, suggesting that water status is not responsible for the lack of flushing in suppressed shoots. Although suppressed shoots did not flush under low light, they showed many characteristics of shade-tolerant plants. Leaves of suppressed shoots had lower leaf conductance and light-saturated photosynthetic rate, and higher specific leaf area than leaves of dominant shoots. We conclude that light was the main resource determining competition among shoots and the death of suppressed shoots.

  5. Monostatic radar cross section of flying wing delta planforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevoor Meenakshisundaram Vaitheeswaran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The design of the flying wing and its variants shapes continues to have a profound influence in the design of the current and future use of military aircraft. There is very little in the open literature available to the understanding and by way of comparison of the radar cross section of the different wing planforms, for obvious reasons of security and sensitivity. This paper aims to provide an insight about the radar cross section of the various flying wing planforms that would aid the need and amount of radar cross section suppression to escape detection from surveillance radars. Towards this, the shooting and bouncing ray method is used for analysis. In this, the geometric optics theory is first used for launching and tracing the electromagnetic rays to calculate the electromagnetic field values as the waves bounce around the target. The physical optics theory is next used to calculate the final scattered electric field using the far field integration along the observation direction. For the purpose of comparison, all the planform shapes are assumed to be having the same area, and only the aspect ratio and taper ratio are varied to feature representative airplanes.

  6. XMM flying beautifully

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The early orbit phase came to an end on 16 December after XMM had been manoeuvred to its final orbit. This required four firings of its thrusters, on successive passages at apogee, in order to increase XMM's velocity, thus elongating its orbit and raising the perigee from 826 km to 7,365 km. One burn was then made to fine tune the apogee to around 114,000km. The spacecraft, being tracked by ground stations in Perth, Kourou and Villafranca, is now circling the Earth in this highly elliptical orbit once every 48 hours. The XMM flight operations staff have found themselves controlling a spacecraft that responds exceptionally well. During these first orbits, the satellite has been oriented several times with razor-sharp precision. On board systems have responded without incident to several thousand instructions sent by controllers. "XMM is flying so beautifully" says Dietmar Heger, XMM Spacecraft Operations Manager. "The satellite is behaving better in space than all our pre-launch simulations and we have been able to adjust our shifts to this more relaxed situation". On his return from French Guiana, Robert Lainé, XMM Project Manager immediately visited the Darmstadt Mission Control Centre, at ESOC. "The perfect behaviour of XMM at this early stage reflects the constructive cooperation of European industrial companies and top scientists. Spacecraft operations are in the hands of professionals who will endeavour to fulfill the expectations of the astronomers and astrophysicists of the world. I am very happy that ESA could provide them with such a wonderful precision tool". During the early orbit phase, controllers have activated part of XMM's science payload. The three EPIC X-ray cameras have been switched on and vented. On 17 December the telescope doors were opened allowing the spacecraft's golden X-ray Multi Mirror modules to see the sky. The Optical Monitor telescope door was opened on 18 December. During this last weekend, XMM's Radiation Monitor which records

  7. Tsetse flies and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D J; Hendrickx, G; Slingenbergh, J H

    1994-12-01

    The authors use a quantitative modelling framework to describe and explore the features of the biology of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) which are important in determining the rate of transmission of the African trypanosomiases between hosts. Examples are presented of the contribution of previous research on tsetse to quantified epidemiological and epizootiological understanding, and areas of current ignorance are identified for future study. Spatial and temporal variations in risk are important (but rarely-studied) determinants of the impact of trypanosomiasis on humans, domestic animals and agricultural activities. Recent grid-based sampling surveys to Togo provide valuable data sets on tsetse, cattle and trypanosomiasis throughout the country. A combination of ground-based meterological and remotely-sensed satellite data, within linear discriminant analytical models, enables description of the observed distributions of the five species of tsetse occurring in Togo, with accuracies of between 72% (Glossina palpalis and G. tachinoides) and 98% (G. fusca). Abundance classes of the two most widespread species, G. palpalis and G. tachinoides, are described with accuracies of between 47% and 83%. This is especially remarkable given the relatively small differences between the average values of the predictor variables in areas of differing fly abundance. Similar analyses could be used to predict the occurrence and abundance of flies in other areas, which have not been surveyed to date, in order to plan tsetse control campaigns or explore development options. Finally, some recent tsetse control campaigns are briefly reviewed. The shift of emphasis from fly eradication to fly control is associated with a devolution of responsibility for control activities from central government to local areas, communities or even individuals. The future role of central governments will remain crucial, however, in determining the areas in which different control options are practised, in

  8. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting with Vision Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter M; Latham, Keziah; Mann, David L; Ravensbergen, Rianne H J C; Myint, Joy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, toward a regulation target placed at the end of a 10 m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of VI. Visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual's average score in every level of simulated VI and normalizing this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving 'expected' or 'below expected' shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR) is conservative, maximizing the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not actually have an impairment that impacts performance in the sport. An

  9. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting With Vision Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Allen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without vision impairment took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, towards a regulation target placed at the end of a 10m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of vision impairment. Visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual’s average score in every level of simulated vision impairment and normalising this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving ‘expected’ or ‘below expected’ shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR is conservative, maximising the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not

  10. Micropropagation of Vaccinium sp. by in vitro axillary shoot proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwińczuk, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The Vaccinium genus contains several valuable fruit and ornamental species, among others: highbush blueberry (Vaccinium × corymbosum L.), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.), and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). In some most popular and valuable cultivars, the conventional propagation methods, exploiting hard or soft wood cuttings, are inefficient. The demand for nursery plants could be fulfilled only by micropropagation. In principle cultivars are propagated in vitro through similar three-stage method, based on subculture of shoot explants on different culture media supplemented with IAA (0-4 mg/L) and 2iP (5-10 mg/L), and rooting shoots in vivo. The obtained plantlets are transferred to peat substrate and grown in the glasshouse until the end of growing period. The development of adventitious shoots should be monitored and controlled during in vitro stages. Many clones have specific requirements for growing conditions and/or are recalcitrant.

  11. Handgun Acquisitions in California After Two Mass Shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studdert, David M; Zhang, Yifan; Rodden, Jonathan A; Hyndman, Rob J; Wintemute, Garen J

    2017-05-16

    Mass shootings are common in the United States. They are the most visible form of firearm violence. Their effect on personal decisions to purchase firearms is not well-understood. To determine changes in handgun acquisition patterns after the mass shootings in Newtown, Connecticut, in 2012 and San Bernardino, California, in 2015. Time-series analysis using seasonal autoregressive integrated moving-average (SARIMA) models. California. Adults who acquired handguns between 2007 and 2016. Excess handgun acquisitions (defined as the difference between actual and expected acquisitions) in the 6-week and 12-week periods after each shooting, overall and within subgroups of acquirers. In the 6 weeks after the Newtown and San Bernardino shootings, there were 25 705 (95% prediction interval, 17 411 to 32 788) and 27 413 (prediction interval, 15 188 to 37 734) excess acquisitions, respectively, representing increases of 53% (95% CI, 30% to 80%) and 41% (CI, 19% to 68%) over expected volume. Large increases in acquisitions occurred among white and Hispanic persons, but not among black persons, and among persons with no record of having previously acquired a handgun. After the San Bernardino shootings, acquisition rates increased by 85% among residents of that city and adjacent neighborhoods, compared with 35% elsewhere in California. The data relate to handguns in 1 state. The statistical analysis cannot establish causality. Large increases in handgun acquisitions occurred after these 2 mass shootings. The spikes were short-lived and accounted for less than 10% of annual handgun acquisitions statewide. Further research should examine whether repeated shocks of this kind lead to substantial increases in the prevalence of firearm ownership. None.

  12. In vitro binding of germanium to proteins of rice shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideaki; Takahashi, Eiichi

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of in vitro binding between proteins of rice shoots and germanium (Ge) was investigated. The proteins in mixtures of aqueous extracts of rice shoots and radioactive germanium ( 68 GeO 2 ) were fractionated. The binding of radioactivity to the proteins was observed even after 5 successive fractionation steps from the original mixtures. At the final fractionation step using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a constant proportionality between protein concentration and associated radioactivity was found in most samples although not all. These results indicate that the binding of 68 Ge to proteins is not due to the simple adsorption by proteins. (auth.)

  13. School shootings during 2013-2015 in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Lagast, Kinan; Villarreal, Marcos; Pino, Elizabeth; Fagan, Jeffrey; Galea, Sandro

    2017-10-01

    Data on the factors associated with school shootings in the USA are limited. The public conversation has often suggested several factors that may be linked to these events, however with little empirical support. Aiming to fill this gap, we describe the characteristics of school shooting incidents in the USA between 2013 and 2015 and explore whether four factors that represent domains of firearm policy, educational policy and epidemiological risk factors for intentional firearm injuries-background check (BC) policies, per capita mental health expenditures (MHE), K-12 education expenditure (KEE) and urbanicity-were associated with school shootings during this period. We searched LexisNexis, a newspaper and broadcast media databases for school shooting incidents from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015. Presence of BC laws was extracted from legal information in LexisNexis. State-level covariates of per capita MHE (2013), KEE (2013) and urbanicity (2010) rates were obtained from publicly available data sources. We used negative binomial regression models accounting for clustering by state to explore unadjusted associations between the BC laws, state-level covariates and school shootings to report IRR and 95% CI. We documented 154 school shootings (35, 55 and 64 each year). In unadjusted models, BC for firearm purchase (IRR=0.55, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.76), ammunition purchase (IRR=0.11, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.27), log per capita MHE (IRR=0.58, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.90), log per-capita KEE (IRR=0.09, 9% CI 0.02 to 0.29) and urbanicity (IRR=0.97, 95% CI 0.96 to 0.99) were associated with school shooting. School shootings are less likely in states with BC laws, higher MHE and KEE, and with greater per cent urban population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Flying Training Capacity Model: Initial Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Susan

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (1) Determine the flying training capacity for 6 bases: * Sheppard AFB * Randolph AFB * Moody AFB * Columbus AFB * Laughlin AFB * Vance AFB * (2) Develop versatile flying training capacity simulation model for AETC...

  15. Ommatidia of blow fly, house fly, and flesh fly: implication of their vision efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Piangjai, Somsak; Upakut, Sorawit; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Sukontason, Kom

    2008-06-01

    This work aims to elucidate the number of ommatidia or facets (the outwardly visible units of each ommatidium) for compound eyes in blow flies [Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann)], house flies (Musca domestica L.), and flesh flies (Liosarcophaga dux Thomson) by manual counts of the corneal spreads. The head of the fly in each species was soaked in 20% potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature for 7 days, and the clear compound eye was dissected into six small parts, each of which was placed onto a slide and flattened using a coverslip. Images of each part were obtained using a microscope connected to a computer. The printed images of each part were magnified, and the total number of ommatidia per eye was manually counted. For males, the mean number of ommatidia was statistically different among all flies examined: L. dux (6,032) > C. rufifacies (5,356) > C. nigripes (4,798) > C. megacephala (4,376) > L. cuprina (3,665) > M. domestica (3,484). Likewise, the mean number of facets in females was statistically different: L. dux (6,086) > C. megacephala (5,641) > C. rufifacies (5,208) > C. nigripes (4,774) > L. cuprina (3,608) > M. domestica (3433). Scanning electron microscopy analysis of adult flies revealed the sexual dimorphism in the compound eye. Male C. megacephala had large ommatidia in the upper two thirds part and small ommatidia in the lower one third part, whereas only small ommatidia were detected in females. Dense postulate appearance was detected in the external surface of the corneal lens of the ommatidia of C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, and C. nigripes, while a mix of dense postulate appearance and variable groove array length was detected in L. cuprina and M. domestica. The probable functions of ommatidia are discussed with reference to other literature.

  16. To Fly in the Sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests activities for students that focus on airplanes, famous pilots, and travel. Provides a list of suggested titles with the following topics: history of flight and airplanes; airplanes and flying information; paper and model airplanes; Charles Lindbergh; Amelia Earhart; the Wright Brothers; videos; and picture books. (AEF)

  17. Genetic control of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, J.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The sterile-insect technique for control of fruit-flies is studied. A brief historic of the technique is presented, as well as a short description of the methodology. Other aspects are discussed: causes of sterility in insects and the principles of insect population suppression by sterile-insect technique. (M.A.C.)

  18. The Spider and the Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Keith E.; Viglione, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The Spider and the Fly puzzle, originally attributed to the great puzzler Henry Ernest Dudeney, and now over 100 years old, asks for the shortest path between two points on a particular square prism. We explore a generalization, find that the original solution only holds in certain cases, and suggest how this discovery might be used in the…

  19. PEMBELAJARAN LAY UP SHOOT MENGGUNAKAN MEDIA AUDIO VISUAL BASIC LAY UP SHOOT UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASILBELAJAR LAY UP SHOOT PADA SISWA KELAS VIIIA SMP KANISIUS PATI TAHUN 2013/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frendy Nurochwan Febryanto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the learning lay up shoot using basic audiovisual media shoot lay ups can improve learning outcomes shoot lay ups in class VIIIA Starch Canisius junior year 2013/2014 . This study uses Classroom Action Research ( CAR. The technique of collecting data through observation and assessment of learning outcomes shoot basketball lay up. Data analysis techniques used in this research is descriptive . At the end of the first cycle activity of teachers in teaching basic techniques lay up shoot using audio-visual media reaches 76.19%, whereas at the end of the first cycle of student activity during the learning process lay up shoot using audio-visualmediareaches78.57%. At the end of the second cycle of activity of teachers in teaching basic techniques lay up shoot using audio-visual media reaches 85.71%, whereas at the end of the second cycle of activity of students during the learning process lay up shoot using audio-visual media reaches 92.86%. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that learning the lay-up shoot using basic audiovisual media shoot lay ups can improve student learning outcomes at Canisius junior class VIIIA Pati year 2013/2014.

  20. Louse flies on birds of Baja California

    OpenAIRE

    Tella, José Luis; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Blanco, Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (México). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  1. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter ...... infection of broiler flocks in summer....

  2. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extrageni...

  3. The age of school shootings: a sociological interpretation on masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there has been a growing interest in the study of the horrendous massacres perpetrated by students at school premises. These massacres, known as school shootings, haven been predominantly analyzed by employing psychological approaches. Despite the fact that empirical research clearly reveals that school shooters tend not to present life-long histories of mental illness, these approaches usually put a strong emphasis on the perpetrator’s individual pathologies, ignoring the influence that social values such as masculinity exert on perpetrators’ actions. Consequently, perpetrators are viewed as lone wolf shooters and school shootings as isolated cases. Based on data derived from scholarly works published mainly in peer-review journals and the sociological theory of P. Berger and T. Luckmann, the aim of this essay is to offer a sociological interpretation on school shootings by explaining why school shooters commit violent actions against teachers and classmates as a form of retrieving their masculinity. In this regard, the essay finds that male rather than female students commit school shootings. At the same time, the majority of perpetrators have had parents who were gun collectors. It is no coincide that shooters mostly use family guns to commit the massacres. Additionally, shooters see school as a social entity that has diminished their masculinity, and the way to reaffirm their masculinity is to attack randomly students and teachers in full view of the rest of school members during school hours.

  4. Similarities of School Shootings in Rural and Small Town Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Scott T.; Meyer, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined characteristics common among young offenders from rural communities who were involved in multiple-fatality school shootings. Data on six cases involving eight offenders revealed six common offender characteristics: verbal threats, peer rejection, interest in violent media, previous violent behavior, suicidal ideation, and violent…

  5. High efficiency indirect shoot regeneration and hypericin content in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... opium poppy. Support of hormone-free medium on shoot regeneration from callus has also been underlined for sugarbeet (Doley and Saunders, 1989). In our study, obtained regenerants acclimatized readily, alived (94%) and are still continuing to grow in the greenhouse of our department. Cell or callus ...

  6. The Role of Leadership in Surviving a School Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carleton H.

    2018-01-01

    At a small rural middle school in the southern United States, two students murdered a teacher, four students, and injured 10 during a shooting spree. This case represents the lived experiences of a school principal, counselor, and community that survived the deadly rampage. The case highlights the challenges that school leaders may face such as…

  7. High frequency plant regeneration from shoot tip explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... 16/8-h (light/dark) photoperiod provided by cool white fluorescent light. Multiple .... formation from shoot tip explant of C. colocynthis on MS-medium. S. No. .... micropropagation of Musa sapientum L. (Cavendish Dwarf). Afr. J.

  8. Opposite metabolic responses of shoots and roots to drought

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gargallo-Garriga, A.; Sardans, J.; Pérez-Trujillo, M.; Rivas-Ubach, A.; Oravec, Michal; Večeřová, Kristýna; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, A.; Kreyling, J.; Beierkuhnlein, C.; Parella, T.; Penuelas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 6829 (2014), s. 1-7 ISSN 2045-2322 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200871201 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : shoot and roots * autotrophic and heterotrophic organs * environmental change * growth metabolism * water and nutirens Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.578, year: 2014

  9. Shoot and root biomass allocation and competitive hierarchies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoot and root biomass allocation and competitive hierarchies of four South African grass species on light, soil resources and cutting gradients. ... Aristida junciformis, produced nearly double the biomass of taller species such as Hyparrhenia hirta and Eragrostis curvula in the low-nutrient treatments, with the reverse being ...

  10. Thidiazuron-induced shoot organogenesis of Cleome viscosa (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBA

    2014-02-26

    Feb 26, 2014 ... J. Vijayakumar1*, G. Shobana Rathi1, S. M. Bhuvaneshwari1, B. D. ... propagation through callus culture of C. viscosa (Anburaj et al., 2011a,b), micropropagation and shoot organo- genesis from different explants of Cleome spinosa .... Figure 1. Effect of MS basal medium strength (a) and and GA, (b).

  11. Immobilization of lead in shooting range soil using biochar from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was pyrolyzed at 450°C for 2 hours and characterized using elemental analyzer and Boehm titration. Shooting range soil was incubated with 2.5% w/w and 5.0% w/w of SMSB for four weeks and the soil were characterized on the elemental composition, pH, electric conductivity (EC) and ...

  12. Radiocesium distribution in bamboo shoots after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Higaki

    Full Text Available The distribution of radiocesium was examined in bamboo shoots, Phyllostachys pubescens, collected from 10 sites located some 41 to 1140 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan, in the Spring of 2012, 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Maximum activity concentrations for radiocesium ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in the edible bamboo shoot parts, 41 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 15.3 and 21.8 kBq/kg (dry weight basis; 1.34 and 1.92 kBq/kg, fresh weight, respectively. In the radiocesium-contaminated samples, the radiocesium activities were higher in the inner tip parts, including the upper edible parts and the apical culm sheath, than in the hardened culm sheath and underground basal parts. The radiocesium/potassium ratios also tended to be higher in the inner tip parts. The radiocesium activities increased with bamboo shoot length in another bamboo species, Phyllostachys bambusoides, suggesting that radiocesium accumulated in the inner tip parts during growth of the shoots.

  13. Genetic relationship between plant growth, shoot and kernel sizes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) ear vascular tissue transports nutrients that contribute to grain yield. To assess kernel heritabilities that govern ear development and plant growth, field studies were conducted to determine the combining abilities of parents that differed for kernel-size, grain-filling rates and shoot-size. Thirty two hybrids ...

  14. Status of cocoa swollen shoot virus disease in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (17), pp. 2054-2061, 5 September 2007. Available online at ... Plant Pathology Division, Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 5244, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Accepted 9 August, 2007 ... economic importance of the disease in Nigeria. Key words: Cocoa, cocoa swollen shoot ...

  15. School Violence: Reported School Shootings and Making Schools Safer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplechain, Rosalind; Morris, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript consists of three sections. Section one provides historical data on some 310 documented shootings that have taken place on school property within the United States. Section two discusses numerous risk factors associated with school shooters. Section three discusses numerous strategies for creating safe schools.

  16. Creating aesthetic, institutional and symbolic boundaries in fashion photo shoots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, E.; Kuipers, G.

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a ‘bottom-up’, micro-sociological analysis of cultural production. Drawing on detailed observations of fashion photo shoots and interviews with fashion professionals in the Netherlands, we analyse how the division between ‘high’ (editorial) and ‘low’ (commercial) culture is

  17. The Oregon Shootings: Dealing with the Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Saylor; Godbold, Jim; Carter, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Presents three short articles dealing with ethical issues facing the Thornton High School (Oregon) newspaper staff as they dealt with the aftermath of an incident in which an armed student allegedly entered the school cafeteria and began shooting. Discusses how the local newspaper covered the tragedy, and policies on dealing with reporting of…

  18. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of the valuable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-10

    Aug 10, 2011 ... 2Department of Plant Biology and Plant Biotechnology, St. Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli – 620 002, South India. Accepted 28 March, 2011 .... Effect of cytokinins (KN and BAP) alone or in combination with NAA on direct shoot bud regeneration from leaf explants of P. barbatus. Plant growth regulator ...

  19. Cocoa swollen shoot virus in Ghana: A review of diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quick and more reliable diagnostic method has for a long time been identified as one input that will greatly enhance the control of the cocoa swollen shoot disease in Ghana. Many diagnostic procedures have been developed for detecting the virus that causes the disease; yet, the detection of latent infections is still ...

  20. Shooting responses of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at IRAD Bambui (Cameroon) to evaluate the rate of shooting in four improved IRAD potato varieties: Cipira, Tubira, Mafo and Bambui wonder. Liquid and solid media stocks prepared according to the International Potato Center (CIP)'s protocol were used. A randomized complete ...

  1. Genotype dependent callus induction and shoot regeneration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... tems have been used for improvement of sunflower, but these techniques are mainly limited by the tissue culture response of commercial varieties (Nestares et al., 2002). In sunflower, reports on shoot regeneration from hypocotyls, cotyledons, leaves and meristematic tissues of young plantlets are available ...

  2. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of the valuable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to develop an efficient protocol for adventitious shoot regeneration for Plectranthus barbatus Andrews using leaf explants. The explants were cultured on MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium containing various concentration of kinetin (KN), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and thidiazuron ...

  3. Shoot- and root-borne cytokinin influences arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Marco; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Franken, Philipp; Schmülling, Thomas; Wurst, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is functionally important for the nutrition and growth of most terrestrial plants. Nearly all phytohormones are employed by plants to regulate the symbiosis with AM fungi, but the regulatory role of cytokinin (CK) is not well understood. Here, we used transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) with a root-specific or constitutive expression of CK-degrading CKX genes and the corresponding wild-type to investigate whether a lowered content of CK in roots or in both roots and shoots influences the interaction with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. Our data indicates that shoot CK has a positive impact on AM fungal development in roots and on the root transcript level of an AM-responsive phosphate transporter gene (NtPT4). A reduced CK content in roots caused shoot and root growth depression following AM colonization, while neither the uptake of phosphorus or nitrogen nor the root transcript levels of NtPT4 were significantly affected. This suggests that root CK may restrict the C availability from the roots to the fungus thus averting parasitism by AM fungi. Taken together, our study indicates that shoot- and root-borne CK have distinct roles in AM symbiosis. We propose a model illustrating how plants may employ CK to regulate nutrient exchange with the ubiquitous AM fungi.

  4. Training, Drills Pivotal in Mounting Response to Orlando Shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Eric; Bullard, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    Emergency providers at Orlando Regional Medical Center in Orlando. FL, faced multiple challenges in responding to the worst mass shooting in U.S. history. As the scene of the shooting was only three blocks away from the hospital, there was little time to prepare when notified that victims would begin arriving shortly after 2 a.m. on June 12. Also, fears of a gunman near the hospital briefly put the ED on lock down. However, using the incident command system, the hospital was able to mobilize quickly, receiving 44 patients, nine of whom died shortly after arrival. Administrators note that recent training exercises geared toward a mass shooting event facilitated the response and probably saved lives. Patients arrived at the hospital in two waves, with the initial surge occurring right after the hooting took place around 2 a.m., and the second surge occurring about three hours later. At one point, more than 90 patients were in the ED, more than half for reasons unrelated to the shooting. Clinicians contended with a much higher than usual noise level while treating patients, making it hard to hear reports from EMS personnel. Also, treatment had to commence prior to identification for some patients who arrived unconscious or unable to speak. While surgeons and other key specialists were called into the hospital to address identified needs, administrators actually called hospital personnel to tell them not to come in unless they were notified. This prevented added management hurdles.

  5. Lead poisoning in shooting-range workers in Gauteng Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Lead exposure constitutes a major public health concern globally. Relative to developed nations, lead exposure is understudied and poorly addressed in Africa, and there is a dearth of information available to inform lead poisoning prevention strategies, even in highrisk groups such as workers in shooting ...

  6. EPICORMIC SHOOTS INDUCTION AND ROOTING CUTTINGS OF Calophyllum brasiliense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagma Kratz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Calophyllum brasiliense is present in a wide natural distribution range in Brazil and its monopodial growth, with a rectilinear stem and a moderately dense timber has attracted the attention from the logging industry in recent decades. In the meantime, the lack of efficient rescue and vegetative propagation methods of adult plants has been a narrowing condition for the selection of superior genotypes in breeding programs of the species. Therefore, we evaluate epicormic shoots induction methods and the rooting cuttings of 14 year-old Calophyllum brasiliense trees. From this scope, three methods of epicormic shoots induction were evaluated: coppicing, girdling and partial girdling. We evaluate the number of produced sprouts and the percentage of sprouted trees at 06, 12 and 15 months’ after the experiment installation. Results have indicated the feasibility of Calophyllum brasiliense vegetative rescue by cuttings method using epicormic shoots induced by coppicing and girdling. In contrast, partial girdling was not effective in epicormic shoots emission. Concerning adventitious roots, the sprouting technique had no influence in the rooting of cuttings, showing variation among the different stock plants.

  7. Plant regeneration through organogenesis and shoot proliferation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Effect of 2,4-D, NAA and BA (in MS medium) on Trichodesma indicum callus induction and shoot .... Structure/activity relationships of the fenotoxic potentcies of sixteen pyrrolizidine ... In vitro propagation of Cordia verbe- ...

  8. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO43–125 or FliO1–95 was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO43–125, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO43–125-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners. PMID:20941389

  9. FliO regulation of FliP in the formation of the Salmonella enterica flagellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive S Barker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO₄₃-₁₂₅ or FliO₁-₉₅ was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO₄₃-₁₂₅, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO₄₃-₁₂₅-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners.

  10. Formation and utilization of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargyai, J

    1974-01-01

    General problems of slag and fly ash formation and utilization are discussed. The ever-increasing energy demand, and the comeback of coal as an energy carrier in power plants call for efficient solutions to the problem of slag and fly ash. Slag and fly ash are used for concrete in which they partly replace cement. Other possible uses are the amelioration of acid soils, fireclay manufacture, road construction, and tiles. It is possible to recover metals, such as vanadium, iron, aluminum, and radioactive materials from certain types of fly ash and slag. The utilization of fly ash is essential also with respect to the abatement of entrainment from dumps.

  11. Engineering properties of fly ash concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmi Mahmud

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents some of the engineering properties of Malaysian fly ash concrete. Workability, compressive, flexural, tensile splitting, drying shrinkage, elastic modulus and non destructive tests were performed on fly ash and control OPC concrete specimens. Data show that concrete containing 25% fly ash replacement of cement exhibit superior or similar engineering properties to that normal concrete without fly ash. These encouraging results demonstrated the technical merits of incorporating fly ash in concrete and should pave the way for wide scale use of this versatile material in the Malaysian construction industry. (author)

  12. Characterization of somatic embryogenesis initiated from the Arabidopsis shoot apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadokura, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Kaoru; Tarr, Paul; Suzuki, Takamasa; Matsunaga, Sachihiro

    2018-04-28

    Somatic embryogenesis is one of the best examples of the remarkable developmental plasticity of plants, in which committed somatic cells can dedifferentiate and acquire the ability to form an embryo and regenerate an entire plant. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the shoot apices of young seedlings have been reported as an alternative tissue source for somatic embryos (SEs) besides the widely studied zygotic embryos taken from siliques. Although SE induction from shoots demonstrates the plasticity of plants more clearly than the embryo-to-embryo induction system, the underlying developmental and molecular mechanisms involved are unknown. Here we characterized SE formation from shoot apex explants by establishing a system for time-lapse observation of explants during SE induction. We also established a method to distinguish SE-forming and non-SE-forming explants prior to anatomical SE formation, enabling us to identify distinct transcriptome profiles of these two explants at SE initiation. We show that embryonic fate commitment takes place at day 3 of SE induction and the SE arises directly, not through callus formation, from the base of leaf primordia just beside the shoot apical meristem (SAM), where auxin accumulates and shoot-root polarity is formed. The expression domain of a couple of key developmental genes for the SAM transiently expands at this stage. Our data demonstrate that SE-forming and non-SE-forming explants share mostly the same transcripts except for a limited number of embryonic genes and root genes that might trigger the SE-initiation program. Thus, SE-forming explants possess a mixed identity (SAM, root and embryo) at the time of SE specification. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. GPU based numerical simulation of core shooting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-zhong Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Core shooting process is the most widely used technique to make sand cores and it plays an important role in the quality of sand cores. Although numerical simulation can hopefully optimize the core shooting process, research on numerical simulation of the core shooting process is very limited. Based on a two-fluid model (TFM and a kinetic-friction constitutive correlation, a program for 3D numerical simulation of the core shooting process has been developed and achieved good agreements with in-situ experiments. To match the needs of engineering applications, a graphics processing unit (GPU has also been used to improve the calculation efficiency. The parallel algorithm based on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA platform can significantly decrease computing time by multi-threaded GPU. In this work, the program accelerated by CUDA parallelization method was developed and the accuracy of the calculations was ensured by comparing with in-situ experimental results photographed by a high-speed camera. The design and optimization of the parallel algorithm were discussed. The simulation result of a sand core test-piece indicated the improvement of the calculation efficiency by GPU. The developed program has also been validated by in-situ experiments with a transparent core-box, a high-speed camera, and a pressure measuring system. The computing time of the parallel program was reduced by nearly 95% while the simulation result was still quite consistent with experimental data. The GPU parallelization method can successfully solve the problem of low computational efficiency of the 3D sand shooting simulation program, and thus the developed GPU program is appropriate for engineering applications.

  14. Improved recovery of cryotherapy-treated shoot tips following thermotherapy of in vitro-grown stock shoots of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaochun; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2009-01-01

    Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) can be efficiently eradicated from raspberry plants (Rubus idaeus) by a procedure combining thermotherapy and cryotherapy. However, the bottleneck of this procedure is that, following thermotherapy, cryopreserved shoot tips become chlorotic during regrowth and eventually die after several subcultures. In addition, survival of heat-treated stock shoots and recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy are low. The present study focused towards improving regrowth of cryopreserved raspberry shoot tips following thermotherapy. Results showed that preconditioning stock shoots with salicylic acid (SA; 0.01-0.1 mM) markedly increased survival of stock shoots after 4 weeks of thermotherapy. Regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was also significantly enhanced when SA (0.05-0.1 mM) was used for preconditioning stock shoots. Addition of either Fe-ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (Fe-EDTA, 50 mg per L) or Fe-ethylenediaminedi(o)hydroxyphenylacetic acid (Fe-EDDHA, 50 mg per L) to post-culture medium strongly promoted regrowth and totally prevented chlorosis of shoots regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy. Using the parameters optimized in the present study, about 80 percent survival of heat-treated stock shoots and about 33 percent regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy were obtained. Morphology of plants regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was identical to that of control plants, based on observations of leaf shape and size, internode length and plant height. Optimization of the thermotherapy procedure followed by cryotherapy will facilitate the wider application of this technique to eliminate viruses which can invade meristems.

  15. PRODUCTION OF THE NEW ANTIMALARIAL DRUG ARTEMISININ IN SHOOT CULTURES OF ARTEMISIA-ANNUA L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOERDENBAG, HJ; LUERS, JFJ; VANUDEN, W; PRAS, N; MALINGRE, TM; ALFERMANN, AW

    From aseptically grown Artemisia annua plantlets, shoot cultures were initiated. Using different concentrations of auxine, cytokinine and sucrose, a suitable culture medium was developed, with respect to the growth of the shoots and their artemisinin accumulation. Nitrate concentration and

  16. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study. PMID:28075346

  17. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  18. Flying Qualities (Qualites de Vol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    CIIANAIT DUMINIIG MA𔃼I1 FXCURSIOH /~o --- ~A 0- /10 CMFIGURE 4 AL-PHA-JETr ELEVATOR CONTROL CINEMATIC ; LP HEINi" KINEMATIC HORIZONTAL STABILIZER...ih-flight simulation is the ultimale assessment techntque providing high realism , flexibility, and credibility. rhe utilization (,f an in-fli:,ht si...1london, UK ()PERATIONAL H-ELICOPTER IIN - FLIGHT SIMULATOR (HIGH REALISM ) I(HIGH FLEAiBILITY Fligt t A tehrtqueTechnology implementation Flight t

  19. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    al estudio de los Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psichodidae). Phlebotomus del grupo anthophorus en Guatemala. Rev. Colegio Mdd. Guatemala 22:187-193...studied in detail. A review of the North American Phiebotominae is in progress. Unclassie SECRIT CLASSFICTIO O TH PGE~ en om nteed 4[ AD_____ STUDIES OF...Diptera, Psychodidae) in Belize, Central America. Bull . Ent. Res. 65:595-599. Young, D.G. 1979. A review of the bloodsucking psychodid flies of Colombia

  20. The Effect of High School Shootings on Schools and Student Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Louis-Philippe Beland; Dongwoo Kim

    2015-01-01

    We analyze how fatal shootings in high schools affect schools and students using data from shooting databases, school report cards, and the Common Core of Data. We examine schools’ test scores, enrollment, and number of teachers, as well as graduation, attendance, and suspension rates at schools that experienced a shooting, employing a difference-in-differences strategy that uses other high schools in the same district as the comparison group. Our findings suggest that homicidal shootings s...

  1. Accumulation of heavy metals by chickpea grown in fly Ash treated soil: effect on antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Vimal Chandra; Singh, Jay Shankar [Department of Environmental Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar (Central) University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh (India); Kumar, Akhilesh; Tewari, D.D. [Department of Botany, Maharani Lal Kunwari Post Graduate College, Balrampur, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2010-12-15

    Chickpea grown in fly ash (FA) treated soil (25, 50, and 100% FA) was used to evaluate the effect of FA on antioxidants, metal concentration (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Cd), photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a (chl-a), chlorophyll b (chl-b), total chlorophyll (total chl), and carotenoids), growth and yield performance. All antioxidants in roots, shoots and leaves of chickpea increase with increasing FA doses to combat FA stress. The activities of antioxidants were more in the root tissues to cope with stress induced in the plants as compared to shoot and leaf. Concentration of metals was found maximum in roots than the shoots and seeds. The highest concentration of Fe and lowest level of Cd were recorded in all treatments of FA for different parts of the plant. The treated crop showed reduced level of chlorophyll but enhanced level of carotenoids and protein. However, root length, number of nodules and biomass in 25 and 50% FA treatments did not differ significantly in comparison to respective control plants. These results suggest that heavy metals of FA causes oxidative stress in this crop and the antioxidant enzymes could help a pivotal role against oxidative injury. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Producing zeolites from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayalu, S.; Labhestwar, N.K.; Biniwale, R.B.; Udhoji, J.S.; Meshram, S.U.; Khanna, P.

    1998-01-01

    Fly ash has virtually become a menace of thermal power generation, leading to its devastating effects on the environment. Development of alternate methods of its disposal - especially those with recourse to recovery of valuable materials-has thus become imperative. This paper deals with the utilisation of fly ash for the production of high value-added products, viz., commercial grade zeolites. The physico-chemical and morphological characteristics of fly ash based Zeolite-A (FAZ-A) compares well with commercial Zeolite-A. High calcium binding capacity, appropriate particle/pore size and other detergency characteristics of FAZ-A brings forth its potential as a substitute for phosphatic detergent builder. The technology is extremely versatile, and other products like Zeolite-X, Zeolite-Y, sodalite and mordenite are also amenable for cost effective production with modifications in certain reaction parameters. Low temperature operations, ready availability of major raw materials, simplicity of process and recycling of unused reactants and process water are special features of the process. (author)

  3. Morphological Evaluation of Shoots Regenerated from Hygromycin-Resistant Rice Callus (cv IACuba-28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylin Pérez Bernal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation system based on the morphological characteristics of regenerated hygromycin-resistant rice callus shoots was established for correlating such characteristics with shoot viability on hygromycin. Embryogenic rice calli were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (EHA105/ pCAMBIA1300, containing the hygromycin-phosphotransferase gene as selection marker. After two weeks on selection medium, hygromycin-resistant calli were transferred to regeneration medium. Regenerated shoots were extracted every 5 days (over a 30-day period and classified into three classes according to their morphological structure: class I: vigorous shoot having typical bipolar structure; class II: shoot having small root compared to apical length, or shoot without roots; class III: shoots having an abnormal appearance, such as malformed leaves or albinism. Individualised shoots were transferred to MS medium containing hygromycin for evaluating their resistance to antibiotics. A relationship was observed between regenerated shoots’ morphological characteristics and the percentage of shoots’ viability on hygromycin. Class I prevailed at early shoot extraction and was the most resistant to hygromycin. Drastic class I reduction was found with later shoot extraction, whilst classes II and III became increased. Likewise, shoot viability became radically reduced on MS medium containing hygromycin. This result might be applied for improving efficiency regarding obtaining transgenic rice plants, taking into account the best time for obtaining high percentages of hygromycin-resistant shoots having the best morphological characteristics.

  4. The Effect of High School Shootings on Schools and Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Louis-Philippe; Kim, Dongwoo

    2016-01-01

    We analyze how fatal shootings in high schools affect schools and students using data from shooting databases, school report cards, and the Common Core of Data. We examine schools' test scores, enrollment, number of teachers, graduation, attendance, and suspension rates at schools that experienced a shooting, employing a difference-in-differences…

  5. A Case Study of Two Chicago Suburban High Schools: Practices to Avoid a School Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Kevin G.

    2017-01-01

    Throughout 2015, there have been 52 school shootings within the United States that have left 30 individuals dead and another 53 injured (Reuters-USA, 2015). Since Friday, December 14, 2012, the date of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, in which 26 people lost their lives, there has been on average one school shooting per week. It is…

  6. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  7. Plantlets from encapsulated shoot buds of Catalpa ovata G. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Wysokińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot buds isolated from in vitro shoot cultures of Catalpa ovata G. Don were encapsulated using 3% sodium alginate with sucrose (3% and 50 mM calcium chloride. The morphogenic response of encapsulated buds was affected by such factors, like composition of the media and the presence of growth regulators. The highest frequency of plantlet germination from encapsulated buds (70% within 4 weeks was obtained on Woody Plant medium (WP (Lloyd and McCown 1980 containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA (1 mg/l. The process was substantially inhibited by cold-storage (4oC of encapsulated buds. In this case, the frequency response ranged from 3% to 22% dependent on storage period (28 or 42 days and the presence of the paraffin coat covering the alginate capsules. The plantlets developed from both unstored and stored encapsulated buds of C. ovata were transplanted to soil and grew in pots to phenotypically normal plants.

  8. Effect of multiple subcultures on Musa shoots derived from cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoot tip explants excised from in vitro plantlets of two Musa genotypes (TM3X 15108-6 and TMBX 612-74) were seeded singly into test tubes containing twenty milliliters each of Musa multiplication medium gelled differently in 60 and 70 gL-l cassava starch as well as 5 gL-l agar and placed on shelves under 14 h photo ...

  9. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Dynamic Simulated Shooting Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    differences between tasks. All pairwise comparisons were adjusted with a Sidak correction for multiple comparisons. TLX scores 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35...research at multiple sites. Specific to the question of MTBI-related balance, we recommend that future studies seek, when feasible, to quantify body sway...higher ratings of perceived workload. In addition, the alternate analyses yielded some preliminary evidence of shooting performance decrements

  10. Cytokinin Activity in Water-stressed Shoots 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Chanan; Vaadia, Yoash

    1971-01-01

    Water stress applied to the plant shoot through enhanced evaporative demands reduced cytokinin activity in extracts of xylem exudate and leaves. This reduction resembled the changes in cytokinin activity caused by water stress applied to the root. Cytokinin activity in detached wilting leaves decreased rapidly. Recovery took place after several hours in a humid chamber. Experiments with 14C-kinetin indicated that the mechanism of the inactivation and its reversal involve a chemical transformation of the cytokinin molecule. PMID:16657585

  11. School Shooting : Threat Detection and Classification in Textual Leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Ajmal

    2013-01-01

    The continual occurrence of school shooting incidents underscores the need of taking preventive measures. Inductive measures of threat assessment have proved to be a bad strategy to solve the problem and new research is focusing on deductive approaches. Deductive threat assessment approaches are gaining ground and efforts are underway to mine text for automatic detection of threats in written text. Automatic detection and classification of threats in the digital world can help the decision ma...

  12. Micropropagation of chokeberry by in vitro axillary shoot proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwińczuk, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The black chokeberry-aronia (Aronia melanocarpa Elliot) is a shrub native to North America although nowadays well known in Eastern Europe. The fruits are regarded as the richest source of antioxidant phytonutrients among fruit crops and vegetables. Chokeberries can be easily propagated by seeds but this method is not recommended. Micropropagation is far more efficient than other conventional cloning methods like layering or softwood cuttings. Aronia clones are propagated in vitro through four- or three-stage method based on subculturing of shoot explants. The double diluted MS or full strength MS medium with elevated 50% Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) content are used in the initiation and proliferation chokeberry in vitro cultures, respectively. They are supplemented with 0.5-1.0 mg LBA, and 0.05 mg LIBA. The double-phase medium is recommended in the last passage before shoot rooting. The regenerated shoots could be rooted both in vitro on double diluted MS with 0.05 mg L(-1) IBA or in vivo in peat and perlite substrate and subsequently grown in the greenhouse.

  13. Optoelectronics applications in multimedia shooting training systems: SPARTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogowski, Tomasz; Hlosta, Pawel; Stepniak, Slawomir; Swiderski, Waldemar

    2017-10-01

    Multimedia shooting training systems are increasingly being used in the training of security staff and uniformed services. An advanced practicing-training system SPARTAN for simulation of small arms shooting has been designed and manufactured by Autocomp Management Ltd. and Military Institute of Armament Technology for the Polish Ministry of National Defence. SPARTAN is a stationary device designed to teach, monitor and evaluate the targeting of small arms and to prepare soldiers for: • firing the live ammunition at open ranges for combat targets and silhouettes • detection, classification and engagement of real targets upon different terrains, weather conditions and periods during the day • team work as a squad during the mission by using different types of arms • suitable reactions in untypical scenarios. Placed in any room the training set consists of: • the projection system that generates realistic 3D imaging of the battlefield (such as combat shooting range) in high-resolution • system that tracks weapons aiming points • sound system which delivers realistic mapping of acoustic surroundings • operator station with which the training is conducted and controlled • central processing unit based on PC computers equipped with specialist software realizing individual system functions • units of smart weapons equipped with radio communication modules, injection laser diodes and pneumatic reloading system. The system make possible training by firing in dynamic scenarios, using combat weapons and live ammunition against visible targets moving on a screen. The use of infrared camera for detecting the position of impact of a projectile.

  14. Energetic exploitation of vine shoot by gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganan, J.; Al-Kassir Abdulla, A. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda de Elvas s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Cuerda Correa, E.M. [Dpto. Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda de Elvas s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Macias-Garcia, A. [Dpto. Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda de Elvas s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    In this study the energy potential generated by the biomass remnants of vine shoot produced in Extremadura (Spain) by a gasification process is evaluated. The raw material was characterised by elemental and proximate analysis, its Higher Heating Value (HHV) being evaluated as well. In order to determine the optimal gasification temperature for the production of gases, the vine shoots were treated at different temperatures, i.e., 650, 700, 750 and 800 {sup o}C in air atmosphere. The optimal temperature (800 {sup o}C) was selected and the vine shoot remnants were gasified in air stream (200 mL min{sup -1}) and for different times (8 and 50 min). The yield of the so-obtained phases was calculated and the study was focused on solid and gaseous phases. The solid phase was characterised by elemental and proximate analysis as well as by HHV. In order to determine their properties as precursors of activated carbons, the adsorption isotherms of N{sub 2} at 77 K were measured. Finally, the electric power that could be obtained by a combustion process in a vapor boiler was calculated. (author)

  15. Composites Based on Fly Ash and Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidancevska, E.; Jovanov, V.; Angusheva, B.; Srebrenkoska, V.

    2014-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste generated from the coal combustion during the production of electricity in the thermal power plants. It presents industrial by-product containing Technologically Enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) with the great potential for valorisation. Fly ash is successfully utilized in cement and concrete industry, also in ceramics industry as component for manufacturing bricks and tiles, and recently there are many investigations for production of glass-ceramics from fly ash. Although the utilization of fly ash in construction and civil engineering is dominant, the development of new alternative application for its further exploitation into new products is needed. This work presents the possibility for fly ash utilization for fabricating dense composites based on clay and fly ash with the potential to be used in construction industry

  16. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  17. Trace element toxicity in VA mycorrhizal cucumber grown on weathered coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosskey, M.G.; Adriano, D.C. (University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab.)

    1993-11-01

    Mycorrhizal colonization is widely recognized as enhancing plant growth on severely disturbed sites. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to determine if inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi will enhance vegetation establishment on abandoned coal fly ash basinss, Spores of Glomus intraradices (Schenck and Smith) and Glomus etunicatum (Becker and Gerdemann) were added to weathered precipitator ash (EC-0.91 dSm[sup -1], pH 5.0) and to a pasteurized soils of the same pH (Grossarenic Paleudult, 92% sand, 1% organic matter). Some soil and ash were left unamended as non-mycorrhizal controls. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Poinsette 76) seeds were sown, watered regularly, and fertilized periodically with macronutrient solution. By 8 weeks all ash-grown plants exhibited smaller leaves with leaf margin curl and necrosis, and plant biomass was significantly less (0.75x) than soil-grown plants. Based on analysis of 18 elements in plant tissues, toxicity to B, Mn, or Zn could have caused growth suppression, confirming trace element problems for plant growth on fly ash. For plants grown on fly ash, G. etunicatum was the only fungus that colonized roots (20% of root length reduced from 67% on soil) and it suppressed plant growth to 0.80 x that of uninoculated ash-grown plants. Correspondingly, shoot Zn concentration in G. etunicatum-inoculated plants was 3.5 x higher than in uninoculated plants and at generally toxic levels (273 mg kg[sup -1]). Glomus etunicatum had no other significant effects on elemental concentrations. These results indicate that VAM colonization in acid, weathered fly ash suppressed plant growth by facilitating uptake of Zn to toxic levels, and implies a limitation to successful use of VAM for vegetation establishment on abandoned coal fly ash basins.

  18. Correlation of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization with plant growth, nodulation, and shoot npk in legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, A.; Anjum, T.; Shah, M.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Correlation of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization with different root and shoot growth, nodulation and shoot NPK parameters was studied in three legumes viz. Trifolium alexandrianum, Medicago polymorpha and Melilotus parviflora. The three test legume species showed different patterns of root and shoot growth, nodulation, mycorrhizal colonization and shoot N, P and K content. Different mycorrhizal structures viz. mycelium, arbuscules and vesicles showed different patters of correlation with different studied parameters. Mycelial infection showed an insignificantly positive correlation with root and shoot dry biomass and total root length. Maximum root length was however, negatively associated with mycelial infection. Both arbuscular and vesicular infections were negatively correlated with shoot dry biomass and different parameters of root growth. The association between arbuscular infection and maximum root length was significant. All the three mycorrhizal structures showed a positive correlation with number and biomass of nodules. The association between arbuscular infection and nodule number was significant. Mycelial infection was positively correlated with percentage and total shoot N and P. Similarly percentage N was also positively correlated with arbuscular and vesicular infections. By contrast, total shoot N showed a negative association with arbuscular as well as vesicular infections. Similarly both percentage and total shoot P were negatively correlated with arbuscular and vesicular infections. All the associations between mycorrhizal parameters and shoot K were negative except between vesicular infection and shoot %K. (author)

  19. Mass Shootings: The Role of the Media in Promoting Generalized Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, James N; Ivy, Jonathan W

    2017-03-01

    Mass shootings are a particular problem in the United States, with one mass shooting occurring approximately every 12.5 days. Recently a "contagion" effect has been suggested wherein the occurrence of one mass shooting increases the likelihood of another mass shooting occurring in the near future. Although contagion is a convenient metaphor used to describe the temporal spread of a behavior, it does not explain how the behavior spreads. Generalized imitation is proposed as a better model to explain how one person's behavior can influence another person to engage in similar behavior. Here we provide an overview of generalized imitation and discuss how the way in which the media report a mass shooting can increase the likelihood of another shooting event. Also, we propose media reporting guidelines to minimize imitation and further decrease the likelihood of a mass shooting.

  20. Sensitizing pigment in the fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, K.; Kirschfeld, K.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitizing pigment hypothesis for the high UV sensitivity in fly photoreceptors (R1-6) is further substantiated by measurements of the polarisation sensitivity in the UV. The quantum yield of the energy transfer from sensitizing pigment to rhodopsin was estimated by electrophysiological measurements of the UV sensitivity and the rhabdomeric absorptance (at 490 nm) in individual receptor cells. The transfer efficiency is >=0.75 in receptors with an absorptance in the rhabdomeres of 0.55-0.95. This result suggests that the sensitizing pigment is bound in some way to the rhodopsin. A ratio of two molecules of sensitizing pigment per one rhodopsin is proposed. (orig.)

  1. Studies in Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-30

    Reporte de dos casos de [a ology of a sand fly, P/mlebolomu’,s diabolicuw Hall. in forma anergica difusa. Der matol. Rev. Mex. southwestern -Texas...Contribuiin al estudio de los Phmle- CDC, Veterinary Public Health Notes. USDHEW. bwmwnn de Costa Rica (Diptera, Psychodidae). Tesis. CDC. October. pp. 6- 7...janeiron R. j. 195 pp. the Unrited States (D1)pre ra: Psscfirdidae). j. Ortiz, 1. 1965a. Contribuci~in a! estudio tie los flebor- Partrsirtrl. 30:274-275

  2. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  3. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  4. Hydration of fly ash cement and microstructure of fly ash cement pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiyuan, H.

    1981-01-01

    The strength development and hydration of fly ash cement and the influence of addition of gypsum on those were studied at normal and elevated temperatures. It was found that an addition of a proper amount of gypsum to fly ash cement could accelerate the pozzolanic reaction between CH and fly ash, and as a result, increase the strength of fly ash cement pastes after 28 days.

  5. Spine micromorphology of normal and hyperhydric Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae) shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peharec, P; Posilović, H; Balen, B; Krsnik-Rasol, M

    2010-07-01

    Artificial conditions of tissue culture affect growth and physiology of crassulacean acid metabolism plants which often results in formation of hyperhydric shoots. In in vitro conditions Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae) growth switches from organized to unorganized way, producing a habituated organogenic callus which simultaneously regenerates morphologically normal as well as altered hyperhydric shoots. In this study, influence of tissue culture conditions on morphology of cactus spines of normal and hyperhydric shoots was investigated. Spines of pot-grown Mammillaria plants and of in vitro regenerated shoots were examined with stereo microscope and scanning electron microscope. The pot-grown plants had 16-17 spines per areole. In vitro grown normal shoots, even though they kept typical shoot morphology, had lower number of spines (11-12) and altered spine morphology. This difference was even more pronounced in spine number (six to seven) and morphology of the hyperhydric shoots. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed remarkable differences in micromorphology of spine surface between pot-grown and in vitro grown shoots. Spines of in vitro grown normal shoots showed numerous long trichomes, which were more elongated on spines of the hyperhydric shoots; the corresponding structures on spine surface of pot-grown plants were noticed only as small protrusions. Scanning electron microscopy morphometric studies showed that the spines of pot-grown plants were significantly longer compared to the spines of shoots grown in tissue culture. Moreover, transverse section shape varies from elliptical in pot-grown plants to circular in normal and hyperhydric shoots grown in vitro. Cluster and correspondence analyses performed on the scanning electron microscope obtained results suggest great variability among spines of pot-grown plants. Spines of in vitro grown normal and hyperhydric shoots showed low level of morphological variation among themselves despite the

  6. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  7. The correlation of the radiocaesium concentration of new shoots harvested in 2012 and old leaves, and new shoots harvested in 2011 grown in Kanagawa prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraki, Yoshiya; Takeda, Hajime; Okamoto, Tamotsu; Kita, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We conducted this study to analyze the correlation between 137 Cs concentration of new shoots harvested in the first crop of tea in 2012, and new shoots harvested in the shuto-bancha in 2011 and old leaves harvested at the same time respectively. In the first crop of tea in 2012, the 137 Cs concentration of new shoots was related to that of old leaves, and the correlation of the coefficient was 0.663(p 137 Cs concentration(new shoots/old leaves) was related to the days until harvest of the first crop of tea in 2012, and the correlation coefficient was -0.771(p 137 Cs concentration was derived from the dilution effect due to growth and development of tea plants. Regression analysis was performed to forecast the 137 Cs concentration of the new shoots in the first crop of tea. The 137 Cs concentration of new shoots in the harvested first crop of tea(Y) was related to the 137 Cs concentration of old leaves harvested the previous winter(X). The correlation of the coefficient was 0.783(p 137 Cs concentration of new shoots of the first crop of tea in 2012 decreased about 1/6 to 1/25 compared with that of new shoots of the first crop of tea in 2011. (author)

  8. Analysis of metal Bioleaching from thermal power plant fly ash by Aspergillus niger 34770 culture supernatant and reduction of phytotoxicity during the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Umesh U; Hocheng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus niger culture supernatant is used for bioleaching process. Before starting bioleaching process, fly ash was washed with distilled water. This removed 100 % sodium, 47 % (±0.45) boron, 38.07 % (±0.12) calcium, 29.89 % (±0.78) magnesium, and 11.8 % (±0.05) potassium. The pH was reduced from 10.5 to 8.5 after water washing. During bioleaching process, around 100 % metal removal was achieved in 4 h for all metals except chromium 93 % (±1.18), nickel 83 % (±0.32), arsenic 78 % (±0.52), and lead 70 % (±0.20). The process parameters including temperature, shaking speed, and solid/liquid ratio were optimized for bioleaching process. Experiments were conducted to evaluate effect of fly ash on growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata). At 20 g/100 ml fly ash concentration no germination of V. radiata seeds was observed. With an increasing concentration of untreated fly ash, a gradual decrease in root/shoot length was observed. After bioleaching process 78 % (±0.19) germination of V. radiata was observed with 20 g/100 ml fly ash. This study will help to develop an efficient process to remove the toxic metals from fly ash.

  9. Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    T. D. Gunneswara Rao; Mudimby Andal

    2014-01-01

    Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, as partial replacement to fine aggregates and as admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in any one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conven...

  10. Requirements for satisfactory flying qualities of airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilruth, R R

    1943-01-01

    Report discusses the results of an analysis of available data to determine what measured characteristics are significant in defining satisfactory flying qualities, what characteristics are reasonable to require of an airplane, and what influence the various design features have on the observed flying qualities.

  11. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  12. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomines sand fly populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An entomological survey of phlebotomine sand flies was conducted in the Moulay Yacoub province, central Morocco. An anthropic niche (Ouled Aid) and a wild niche (Zliligh) were selected. Sand flies were collected twice a month between April 2011 and March 2012, using sticky traps and CDC light traps. 3675 specimens ...

  13. Oblique-Flying-Wing Supersonic Transport Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Velden, Alexander J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Oblique-flying-wing supersonic airplane proposed as possible alternative to B747B (or equivalent). Tranports passengers and cargo as fast as twice speed of sound at same cost as current subsonic transports. Flies at same holding speeds as present supersonic transports but requires only half takeoff distance.

  14. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like us, without enough sleep, flies feel the effects of sleep deprivation. Cirelli has shown that they are a good model for researching human sleep. She has found fruit fly genes that seem to have a powerful effect on sleep. In time, her research could lead ...

  15. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  16. Uprooting an abscisic acid paradigm: Shoots are the primary source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Scott A M; Manzi, Matías; Ross, John J; Brodribb, Timothy J; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2016-06-02

    In the past, a conventional wisdom has been that abscisic acid (ABA) is a xylem-transported hormone that is synthesized in the roots, while acting in the shoot to close stomata in response to a decrease in plant water status. Now, however, evidence from two studies, which we have conducted independently, challenges this root-sourced ABA paradigm. We show that foliage-derived ABA has a major influence over root development and that leaves are the predominant location for ABA biosynthesis during drought stress.

  17. Superfluid helium on on-orbit transfer (SHOOT) flight experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiPirro, M.J.; Kittel, P.

    1988-01-01

    The SHOOT flight demonstration is being undertaken to verify component and system level technology necessary to resupply large superfluid helium dewars in space. The baseline configuration uses two identical 210 liter dewars connected by a transfer line which contains a quick disconnect coupling. The helium is transferred back and forth between the dewars under various conditions of flow rate, parasitic heat load, and temperature. An astronaut Extra-Vehicular Activity is also planned to manually mate and demate the coupling. The components necessary for the flight and currently being developed are described

  18. Shoot regeneration of limau purut (citrus hystrix) using shoot tip: assessment of calcium gluconate and silver nitrate in overcoming premature leaf senescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, W.H.; Aziz, M.A.; Sinniah, U.R.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to establish an optimum In vitro shoot multiplication system using shoot tip explants derived from 7 week-old seedlings of Citrus hystrix. In the first experiment, shoot tips were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0-13.33 mu M 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) for 8 weeks. Shoot tips cultured on 2.22 mu M BAP produced the highest mean number of shoots (3.42 shoots) but the shoots had low number of leaves (1.14 leaves) due to the occurrence of premature leaf senescence and callus formation. Meanwhile, the medium devoid of BAP produced the lowest mean number of shoots (1.50 shoots) but highest mean number of leaves (5.41 leaves) indicating that BAP was likely responsible for the premature leaf senescence. In order to overcome the occurrence of premature leaf senescence on medium with BAP, a second experiment was carried out whereby shoot tips were cultured on medium containing 2.22 micro M BAP fortified with 2.00, 4.00 and 6.00 mM calcium gluconate (Ca-glu) and a control treatment with 2.22 mu M BAP. The shoot and leaf numbers were increased with the addition of 4.00 and 6.00 mM Ca-glu. The presence of Ca-glu reduced premature leaf senescence and callus formation to some extent. In the third experiment, the addition of silver nitrate (AgNO/sub 3/) at 10-80 micro M in media with 2.22 micro M BAP and 2.22 micro M BAP + 4 mM Ca-glu could totally overcome premature leaf senescence and callus formation. Media supplemented with 2.22 mirco M BAP + 4 mM Ca-glu + 20 micro M AgNOsub 3/ significantly induced among the highest mean number of shoots and highest mean number of leaves per shoot. (author)

  19. Differences in proleptic and epicormic shoot structures in relation to water deficit and growth rate in almond trees (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón, Claudia; Contador, Loreto; Lampinen, Bruce D; Metcalf, Samuel G; Guédon, Yann; Costes, Evelyne; DeJong, Theodore M

    2014-02-01

    Shoot characteristics differ depending on the meristem tissue that they originate from and environmental conditions during their development. This study focused on the effects of plant water status on axillary meristem fate and flowering patterns along proleptic and epicormic shoots, as well as on shoot growth rates on 'Nonpareil' almond trees (Prunus dulcis). The aims were (1) to characterize the structural differences between proleptic and epicormic shoots, (2) to determine whether water deficits modify shoot structures differently depending on shoot type, and (3) to determine whether shoot structures are related to shoot growth rates. A hidden semi-Markov model of the axillary meristem fate and number of flower buds per node was built for two shoot types growing on trees exposed to three plant water status treatments. The models segmented observed shoots into successive homogeneous zones, which were compared between treatments. Shoot growth rates were calculated from shoot extension measurements made during the growing season. Proleptic shoots had seven successive homogeneous zones while epicormic shoots had five zones. Shoot structures were associated with changes in growth rate over the season. Water deficit (1) affected the occurrence and lengths of the first zones of proleptic shoots, but only the occurrence of the third zone was reduced in epicormic shoots; (2) had a minor effect on zone flowering patterns and did not modify shoot or zone composition of axillary meristem fates; and (3) reduced growth rates, although patterns over the season were similar among treatments. Two meristem types, with different latency durations, produced shoots with different growth rates and distinct structures. Differences between shoot type structure responses to water deficit appeared to reflect their ontogenetic characteristics and/or resource availability for their development. Tree water deficit appeared to stimulate a more rapid progression through ontogenetic states.

  20. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  1. Trapping tsetse flies on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveissière C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/”water-trap”/day, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than all the catches from other habitats where the classical trap had been used. In savannah, on the Comoe river of South Burkina Faso, the biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  2. Seasonal variation in secondary metabolites of edible shoots of Buck's beard [Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald (Rosaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusani, Pietro; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Zidorn, Christian; Kiss, Anna K; Scartezzini, Fabrizio; Granica, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald is an herbaceous plant belonging to the Rosaceae family. In the northern regions of Italy young shoots of A. dioicus are collected and used as vegetable. No studies on the chemical composition of young shoots of A. dioicus have been reported so far. Thus, the aim of the present paper was to develop and validate a comprehensive chromatographic method allowing the identification and quantification of chemical compounds occurring in A. dioicus shoots harvested at different developmental stages. The results showed that shoots contain mainly polyphenols. Twenty-four compounds were detected. Caffeoylglucose derivatives were recognized as major compounds. It was also confirmed that shoots contain the cyanogenic compound prunasin at all investigated vegetation stages. It was shown that the prunasin content significantly increases during plant development, thus justifying the belief that after the development of the first green leaves, shoots should not be used for culinary purposes any longer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies on the tissue culture of Stevia rebaudiana and its components; (II). Induction of shoot primordia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, H; Fujioka, N; Kohda, H; Yamasaki, K; Taniguchi, K; Tanaka, R

    1986-08-01

    Shoot primordia, which were able to propagate vegetatively with a very high rate and to redifferentiate easily to new plants, were induced from shoot tips of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni on Gamborg B5 medium containing 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) under light. The propagation of the shoot primordia of Stevia rebaudiana is rapid, and they are highly stable in chromosome number and karyotype. The shoot primordia can propagate at a high rate for a long time without differentiation. At any time, the shoot primordia readily developed into plantlets with shoots and roots within 2 or 3 weeks in static culture on B5 medium containing 0.02 mg/l BAP and 2% sucrose. The plantlets were transplanted to sterilized soil to grow to normal adult plants.

  4. Shoot-derived abscisic acid promotes root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Ross, John J

    2016-03-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a major role in regulating root growth. Most work to date has investigated the influence of root-sourced ABA on root growth during water stress. Here, we tested whether foliage-derived ABA could be transported to the roots, and whether this foliage-derived ABA had an influence on root growth under well-watered conditions. Using both application studies of deuterium-labelled ABA and reciprocal grafting between wild-type and ABA-biosynthetic mutant plants, we show that both ABA levels in the roots and root growth in representative angiosperms are controlled by ABA synthesized in the leaves rather than sourced from the roots. Foliage-derived ABA was found to promote root growth relative to shoot growth but to inhibit the development of lateral roots. Increased root auxin (IAA) levels in plants with ABA-deficient scions suggest that foliage-derived ABA inhibits root growth through the root growth-inhibitor IAA. These results highlight the physiological and morphological importance, beyond the control of stomata, of foliage-derived ABA. The use of foliar ABA as a signal for root growth has important implications for regulating root to shoot growth under normal conditions and suggests that leaf rather than root hydration is the main signal for regulating plant responses to moisture. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Genotypic diversity of root and shoot characteristics of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali ganjali

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Root and shoot characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. genotypes are believed to be important in drought tolerance. There is a little information about the response of genotypes root growth in hydroponics and greenhouse culture, also the relationships between root size and drought tolerance. This study was conducted to observe whether genotypes differ in root size, and to see that root size is associated with drought tolerance during early vegetative growth. We found significant differences (p0.01 in root dry weight, total root length, tap root length, root area, leaf dry weight, leaf area and shoot biomass per plant among 30 genotypes of chickpea grown in hydroponics culture for three weeks. Each of these parameters correlated with all others, positively. Among 30 genotypes, 10 genotypes with different root sizes were selected and were grown in a greenhouse in sand culture experiment under drought stress (FC %30 for three weeks. There were not linear or non-linear significant correlations between root characters in hydroponics and greenhouse environments. It seems that environmental factors are dominant on genetic factors in seedling stage and so, the expression of genotypics potential for root growth characteristics of genotypes are different in hydroponic and greenhouse conditions. In this study, the selection of genotypes with vigorous roots system in hydroponic condition did not lead to genotypes with the same root characters in greenhouse environment. The genotype×drought interactions for root characters of chickpea seedlings in 30 days were not significant (p

  6. Novel species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with shoot blight of pistachio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, ShuaiFei; Li, GuoQing; Liu, FeiFei; Michailides, Themis J

    2015-01-01

    Various species of phytopathogenic Botryosphaeriaceae were identified previously from pistachio trees worldwide. Disease symptoms caused by pathogens in Botryosphaeriaceae on pistachio include panicle and shoot blight, leaf defoliation, fruit discoloration and decay. In this study species of Botryosphaeriaceae were collected from blighted pistachio shoots in Arizona, USA, and Greece. The aims of this study were to identify these Botryosphaeriaceae isolates and to test their pathogenicity to pistachio. The fungi were identified based on comparisons of DNA sequence data of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), a partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (TEF1), a partial β-tubulin gene (TUB2) and morphological characteristics. Results indicated that some isolates collected from pistachio represent two previously undescribed species, which we described here as Lasiodiplodia americana sp. nov. from the United States and Neofusicoccum hellenicum sp. nov. from Greece. Field inoculations of L. americana and N. hellenicum on branches of four pistachio cultivars showed that both L. americana and N. hellenicum are pathogenic on pistachio. The four pistachio cultivars differed in their susceptibility to the Botryosphaeriaceae species. Results of this study suggested that the two new species of Botryosphaeriaceae need to be monitored carefully to determine the distribution of these pathogens and the possible spread to other areas. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  7. Plant root and shoot dynamics during subsurface obstacle interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Nathaniel; Aguilar, Jeffrey; Benfey, Philip; Goldman, Daniel

    As roots grow, they must navigate complex underground environments to anchor and retrieve water and nutrients. From gravity sensing at the root tip to pressure sensing along the tip and elongation zone, the complex mechanosensory feedback system of the root allows it to bend towards greater depths and avoid obstacles of high impedance by asymmetrically suppressing cell elongation. Here we investigate the mechanical and physiological responses of roots to rigid obstacles. We grow Maize, Zea mays, plants in quasi-2D glass containers (22cm x 17cm x 1.4cm) filled with photoelastic gel and observe that, regardless of obstacle interaction, smaller roots branch off the primary root when the upward growing shoot (which contains the first leaf) reaches an average length of 40 mm, coinciding with when the first leaf emerges. However, prior to branching, contacts with obstacles result in reduced root growth rates. The growth rate of the root relative to the shoot is sensitive to the angle of the obstacle surface, whereby the relative root growth is greatest for horizontally oriented surfaces. We posit that root growth is prioritized when horizontal obstacles are encountered to ensure anchoring and access to nutrients during later stages of development. NSF Physics of Living Systems.

  8. Individual Alpha Peak Frequency in Ice Hockey Shooting Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer Christie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There are several important inter- and intra-individual variations in individual alpha peak frequency (IAPF in the cognitive domain. The rationale for the present study was to extend the research on IAPF in the cognitive domain to IAPF in the sport domain. Specifically, the purpose of the present study was twofold: (a to explore whether baseline IAPF is related to performance in an ice hockey shooting task and (b to explore whether a shooting task has an effect on IAPF variability. The present investigation is one of the first studies to examine links between IAPF and sport performance. Study results did not show significant changes in IAPF when comparing baseline IAPF and pre- to post-task IAPF across three performance levels. The findings support previous literature in the cognitive domain suggesting that IAPF is a stable neurophysiological marker. Future research should consider the following methodological suggestions: (a measuring IAPF during sport performance instead of at a resting state, (b changing the pre-performance resting baseline instructions to take into account sport-specific mental preparation, (c exploring an expert-novice paradigm to accentuate performance ability differences between groups (d comparing tasks with different levels of complexity, and (e analyzing the possible correlation between IAPF and performance on different days.

  9. Hyperhydricity in micropropagated carnation shoots: the role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Shady; Piqueras, Abel; Hellin, Eladio; Olmos, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    The physiology of hyperhydricity in relation to oxidative stress, mineral nutrients, antioxidant enzymes and ethylene has been studied in three micropropagated carnation cultivars under experimentally induced hyperhydricity. A marked increase in Fe content in comparison with normal tissues was observed in the hyperhydric tissues from the three cultivars. The levels of ethylene, solute leakage and malondialdehyde content were also significantly higher in the hyperhydric tissues. In relation to the time course of H(2)O(2) production measured by fluorescence quenching, a similar trend could be observed for the three cultivars, with a clear increase in the generation of hydrogen peroxide in hyperhydric tissues. The activities of all the antioxidative enzymes studied, except lipoxygenase, were higher in the hyperhydric shoots. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) showed a significant decrease in activity in the hyperhydric tissues in comparison with the controls for the three cultivars. Soluble guaiacol peroxidase had a strong increase in activity in hyperhydric shoots of the three cultivars. These results provide, for the first time, direct evidence of H(2)O(2) generation in hyperhydric tissues, characterize the response of the antioxidant system to an oxidative stress during hyperhydricity in carnation leaves and point to the accumulation of toxic forms of oxygen as the inducer of some of the abnormalities observed.

  10. In vitro establishment of Vasconcellea x helbornii (Badillo Badillo shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Jadán Guerrero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Babaco [Vasconcellea x helbornii (Badillo Badillo] is a specie of commercial importance in Ecuador. The present work aimed to establish in vitro shoots of axillary buds from mother plants of babaco kept in greenhouse. Carbendazim and the biostimulant (GERMO-TB01 were applied to the plants. For the disinfection of the explants, three concentrations of Sodium Hypochlorite (1, 1.5 and 2% were evaluated during two times (5 and 10 minutes. In addition, the effect of the use of Gentamicin 50 mg l-1 and Streptomycin 25 mg l-1 in the culture medium was determined. The best results were achieved by using 1.5% Sodium Hypochlorite for 10 minutes and immersion in a solution with both antibiotics for 3 hours. A 68.5% in vitro establishment of the shoots was achieved at 21 days of culture. The results will contribute to in vitro mass propagation of this hybrid.   Key words: antibiotic mixture, babaco, disinfection, micropropagation

  11. Framing Mass Shootings: Fictional Depictions of Real-life Gun Massacres in American Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Tryggeseid, Ane Johannessen

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the concept of real-life mass shootings and its depiction in American fictional cinema. The issue of mass shootings is a highly controversial subject of discussion, both within the public and political sphere, as it necessarily touches upon rigid perceptions of civil liberties – specifically those of the Second Amendment – which further permeates the field of fictional cinema. As opposed to assessing the issue of mass shootings as a product of a prevailing culture of guns...

  12. Microclonal Multiplication of wild Cherry (Prunus avium L.) from Shoot Tips and Root Sucker Buds

    OpenAIRE

    Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka; Michler, Charles H.; Jelaska, Sibila

    1994-01-01

    The effects of different combinations and concentrations of the growth regulators: 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 6-furfurylaminopurine (KIN), N6- (2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on axillary shoot multiplication rates for wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) shoot explants were determined. Apical shoot tips and axillary buds from juvenile trees (5-year old) and from root suckers of mature trees (55-year old) were us...

  13. Schools under fire? : school shootings and the construction of a cultural discourse of emergency

    OpenAIRE

    Braselmann, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, rampage violence at suburban and rural schools occurred before the infamous Columbine High School shooting in April 1999. While school shootings — before Columbine gained international media attention — were treated as a local rather than a national or even international problem, they are now seen as an emergent phenomenon that has to be addressed with appropriate urgency. In this paper, I want to examine whether school shootings are in fact increasing and addre...

  14. Translocation of sorbitol and other photosynthates in golden delicious apple shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenkamp, J.; Terblanche, J.H.; De Villiers, O.T.

    1982-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine to what extent sorbitol and other photosynthates are translocated in Golden Delicious apple shoots. The distribution of radioactivity in the different fractions, after the leaves had been exposed to radiocarbon, was found in segment of the shoots directly below the treatment leaves. The highest 14 C activity was in the carbohydrate fraction. The results indicate that sorbitol is the principal carbohydrate transported in Golden Delicious apple shoots

  15. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... dorsalis), peach fruit fly (Anastrepha zonata), and sapote fruit fly (Anastrepha serpentina) in the... obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina, and Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico. J. Econ. Entomol...

  16. Comparative proteomics reveals the physiological differences between winter tender shoots and spring tender shoots of a novel tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivar evergrowing in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengjie; Gao, Jiadong; Chen, Zhongjian; Qiao, Xiaoyan; Huang, Hualin; Cui, Baiyuan; Zhu, Qingfeng; Dai, Zhangyan; Wu, Hualing; Pan, Yayan; Yang, Chengwei; Liu, Jun

    2017-11-20

    A recently discovered tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] cultivar can generate tender shoots in winter. We performed comparative proteomics to analyze the differentially accumulated proteins between winter and spring tender shoots of this clonal cultivar to reveal the physiological basis of its evergrowing character during winter. We extracted proteins from the winter and spring tender shoots (newly formed two leaves and a bud) of the evergrowing tea cultivar "Dongcha11" respectively. Thirty-three differentially accumulated high-confidence proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF / TOF MS). Among these, 24 proteins had increased abundance while nine showed were decreased abundance in winter tender shoots as compared with the spring tender shoots. We categorized the differentially accumulated proteins into eight critical biological processes based on protein function annotation including photosynthesis, cell structure, protein synthesis & destination, transporters, metabolism of sugars and polysaccharides, secondary metabolism, disease/defense and proteins with unknown functions. Proteins with increased abundance in winter tender shoots were mainly related to the processes of photosynthesis, cytoskeleton and protein synthesis, whereas those with decreased abundance were correlated to metabolism and the secondary metabolism of polyphenolic flavonoids. Biochemical analysis showed that the total contents of soluble sugar and amino acid were higher in winter tender shoots while tea polyphenols were lower as compared with spring tender shoots. Our study suggested that the simultaneous increase in the abundance of photosynthesis-related proteins rubisco, plastocyanin, and ATP synthase delta chain, metabolism-related proteins eIF4 and protease subunits, and the cytoskeleton-structure associated proteins phosphatidylinositol transfer protein and profilin may be because of the adaptation of the

  17. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  18. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  19. From gene manipulation to forest establishment: shoot cultures of woody plants can be a central tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCown, B.H.

    1985-05-01

    Establishing germplasm of woody plants in microculture as shoot cultures has proved to be an effective method of overcoming many of the obstacles in working with these crops. Shoot cultures eliminate the changes associated with seasonal growth cycles and phase change and put large plants into a more manageable form. Well-established shoot cultures are central to successful clonal propagation systems for forest trees as well as to genetic improvement based on the use of cellular techniques such as protoplast manipulation. The physiological basis as to why tissues from shoot cultures are so readily manipulated is not well understood.

  20. Effect of nitrogen salts on the growth of Ceratonia siliqua L. Shoot cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinterhalter Branka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of reduced nitrogen salt nutriton on the growth, lenticel hypertrophy and anthocyanin accumulation of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L. shoot cultures were investigated in conditions of light and darkness. Growth of shoot cultures was not significantly affected until nitrogen salts were reduced to less than ¼ of full-strength MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962 values. Cultures in darkness were less affected and their main shoots even increased in length. Appearance of hypertrophied lenticels in light decreased, while in darkness they were absent in all treatments. Reduced nitrogen salt nutrition strongly affected anthocyanin accumulation of shoots and leaves, which greatly increased in both light and darkness. .

  1. Adaptive L1/2 Shooting Regularization Method for Survival Analysis Using Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ying Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new adaptive L1/2 shooting regularization method for variable selection based on the Cox’s proportional hazards mode being proposed. This adaptive L1/2 shooting algorithm can be easily obtained by the optimization of a reweighed iterative series of L1 penalties and a shooting strategy of L1/2 penalty. Simulation results based on high dimensional artificial data show that the adaptive L1/2 shooting regularization method can be more accurate for variable selection than Lasso and adaptive Lasso methods. The results from real gene expression dataset (DLBCL also indicate that the L1/2 regularization method performs competitively.

  2. Lippia dulcis shoot cultures as a source of the sweet sesquiterpene hernandulcin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwein, M; Flores, H E; Yamazaki, T; Shimomura, K

    1991-04-01

    The axenic shoot culture of Lippia dulcis Trev., Verbenaceae, was established on hormone-free Murashige-Skoog solid medium containing 3% sucrose. Shoots were cultured in various liquid or solid media. Woody Plant liquid medium was best for shoot multiplication, but the production of hernandulcin was relatively low. The highest hernandulcin content (2.9% dry wt) was obtained after 28 days of culture on Murashige-Skoog solid medium containing 2% sucrose. The addition of chitosan to the culture media enhanced the growth of shoots as well as the production of hernandulcin, especially with the liquid medium.

  3. Multiple vantage points on the mental health effects of mass shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Thoresen, Siri; Flynn, Brian W; Muschert, Glenn W; Shaw, Jon A; Espinel, Zelde; Walter, Frank G; Gaither, Joshua B; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; O'Keefe, Kaitlin; Cohen, Alyssa M

    2014-09-01

    The phenomenon of mass shootings has emerged over the past 50 years. A high proportion of rampage shootings have occurred in the United States, and secondarily, in European nations with otherwise low firearm homicide rates; yet, paradoxically, shooting massacres are not prominent in the Latin American nations with the highest firearm homicide rates in the world. A review of the scientific literature from 2010 to early 2014 reveals that, at the individual level, mental health effects include psychological distress and clinically significant elevations in posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms in relation to the degree of physical exposure and social proximity to the shooting incident. Psychological repercussions extend to the surrounding affected community. In the aftermath of the deadliest mass shooting on record, Norway has been in the vanguard of intervention research focusing on rapid delivery of psychological support and services to survivors of the "Oslo Terror." Grounded on a detailed review of the clinical literature on the mental health effects of mass shootings, this paper also incorporates wide-ranging co-author expertise to delineate: 1) the patterning of mass shootings within the international context of firearm homicides, 2) the effects of shooting rampages on children and adolescents, 3) the psychological effects for wounded victims and the emergency healthcare personnel who care for them, 4) the disaster behavioral health considerations for preparedness and response, and 5) the media "framing" of mass shooting incidents in relation to the portrayal of mental health themes.

  4. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues...... related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system...

  5. Web Services Integration on the Fly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leong, Hoe W

    2008-01-01

    .... Given data, software agents and supporting software infrastructure, web services integration on the fly means that human coding is not required to integrate web services into a Web Service Architecture...

  6. Schlieren photography on freely flying hawkmoth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Roll, Jesse; Van Kooten, Stephen; Deng, Xinyan

    2018-05-01

    The aerodynamic force on flying insects results from the vortical flow structures that vary both spatially and temporally throughout flight. Due to these complexities and the inherent difficulties in studying flying insects in a natural setting, a complete picture of the vortical flow has been difficult to obtain experimentally. In this paper, Schlieren , a widely used technique for highspeed flow visualization, was adapted to capture the vortex structures around freely flying hawkmoth ( Manduca ). Flow features such as leading-edge vortex, trailing-edge vortex, as well as the full vortex system in the wake were visualized directly. Quantification of the flow from the Schlieren images was then obtained by applying a physics-based optical flow method, extending the potential applications of the method to further studies of flying insects. © 2018 The Author(s).

  7. Snowballing and flying under the radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2013-01-01

    management and venture development paths. More specifically, flying under radar in terms of operating under lower institutional requirements, and slowly accumulating resources (snowballing) are major leveraging strategies. We integrate our results into a hypothesized framework for resource management in East...

  8. The fly's eye camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, L.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.; Jaskó, A.; Vida, K.; Oláh, K.; Mezö, G.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the Fly's Eye Camera System, an all-sky monitoring device intended to perform time domain astronomy. This camera system design will provide complementary data sets for other synoptic sky surveys such as LSST or Pan-STARRS. The effective field of view is obtained by 19 cameras arranged in a spherical mosaic form. These individual cameras of the device stand on a hexapod mount that is fully capable of achieving sidereal tracking for the subsequent exposures. This platform has many advantages. First of all it requires only one type of moving component and does not include unique parts. Hence this design not only eliminates problems implied by unique elements, but the redundancy of the hexapod allows smooth operations even if one or two of the legs are stuck. In addition, it can calibrate itself by observed stars independently from both the geographical location (including northen and southern hemisphere) and the polar alignment of the full mount. All mechanical elements and electronics are designed within the confines of our institute Konkoly Observatory. Currently, our instrument is in testing phase with an operating hexapod and reduced number of cameras.

  9. Fruit flies and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, François V; Tully, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation--known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability--is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been used in the study of memory and cognition. Established paradigms in Drosophila have recently captured cognitive defects in fly mutants for orthologs of genes involved in human intellectual disability. We review here three protocols designed to understand the molecular genetic basis of learning and memory in Drosophila and the genes identified so far with relation to mental retardation. In addition, we explore the mental retardation genes for which evidence of neuronal dysfunction other than memory has been established in Drosophila. Finally, we summarize the findings in Drosophila for mental retardation genes for which no neuronal information is yet available. All in all, this review illustrates the impressive overlap between genes identified in human mental retardation and genes involved in physiological learning and memory.

  10. A School Experiment in Kinematics: Shooting from a Ballistic Cart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjc, T.; Razpet, N.

    2011-10-01

    Many physics textbooks start with kinematics. In the lab, students observe the motions, describe and make predictions, and get acquainted with basic kinematics quantities and their meaning. Then they can perform calculations and compare the results with experimental findings. In this paper we describe an experiment that is not often done, but is interesting and attractive to students—the ballistic cart, i.e., the shooting of a ball from a cart moving along a slope. For that, one has to be familiar with one-dimensional uniform motion and one-dimensional motion with constant acceleration, as well as curvilinear motion that is a combination of such motions.1,2 The experimental results confirm theoretical predictions.

  11. Manipulation of hemoglobin expression affects Arabidopsis shoot organogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaping; Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years non-symbiotic plant hemoglobins have been described in a variety of plant species where they fulfill several functions ranging from detoxification processes to basic aspects of plant growth and post-embryonic development. To date no information is available on the role...... of hemoglobins during invitro morphogenesis. Shoot organogenesis was induced in Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing class 1, 2 and 3 hemoglobins (GLB1, 2 and 3) and lines in which the respective genes were either downregulated by RNAi (GLB1) or knocked out (GLB2 and GLB3). The process was executed......, 15, and 16), feed-back repressors of the cytokinin pathway, was repressed in both hemoglobin over-expressors whereas that of several Type-B ARRs (ARR2, 12, and 13), transcription activators of cytokinin-responsive genes, was induced. Such changes enhanced the sensitivity of the root explants...

  12. OPTIMUM PROGRAMMABLE CONTROL OF UNMANNED FLYING VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. А. Lobaty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an analytical synthesis problem pertaining to programmable control of an unmanned flying vehicle while steering it to the fixed space point. The problem has been solved while applying a maximum principle which takes into account a final control purpose and its integral expenses. The paper presents an optimum law of controlling overload variation of a flying vehicle that has been obtained analytically

  13. Leaching of saltstones containing fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.W.; Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two types of fly ash were incorporated in saltstones designed for potential encapsulation of Savannah River Plant low level defense waste. These fly ashes have some cementitious properties while at the same time their presence in substitution for cement slows early hydration. Class C fly ash has a high calcium content and is considered cementitious; Class F fly ash has a low calcium content and is not classified as cementitious. Leach tests were performed and physical properties were measured for saltstones containing each class, to see the differences in the effect of the fly ashes. The four waste ions nitrate, nitrite, sodium and sulfate were shown to leach by diffusion. Effective diffusivities were determined for these ions. Data for nitrate, the most important species from the environmental point of view, are shown in Table A. Saltstones made with Class C fly ash have substantially lower leach rates than those made with Class F fly ash. The leach rates, and therefore the square roots of the effective diffusivities, have been found to be proportional to the pore surface area per unit volume (or the ratio of pore volume to pore radius), to the fraction of waste containing solution, and to the inverse of the fraction of calcium in the saltstone. Rates and diffusivities are not proportional to the water to cement ratio, because this number depends on whether the fly ash is counted as cementitious, as in Class C cement, or not cementitious, as in Class F cement. In fact the relatively small amount of calcium in Class F cement contributes to the cementitious properties overall, though not so much as Class C cement. 4 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Attracting the attention of a fly

    OpenAIRE

    Sareen, Preeti; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Organisms with complex visual systems rarely respond to just the sum of all visual stimuli impinging on their eyes. Often, they restrict their responses to stimuli in a temporarily selected region of the visual field (selective visual attention). Here, we investigate visual attention in the fly Drosophila during tethered flight at a torque meter. Flies can actively shift their attention; however, their attention can be guided to a certain location by external cues. Using visual cues, we can d...

  15. Suppressing Tsetse Flies to Improve Lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterton, Louise; Pavlicek, Petr; Parker, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the government-run Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP) in Ethiopia, with the support of the IAEA, started to carry out intensive activities to suppress the fly population using insecticides. The fly population is now down by 90%. The benefits of tsetse suppression can be seen all over the region. Diary produce is now widely available at markets and healthy animals can be seen everywhere in farming and transport

  16. Feeding and rearing behaviour in tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otieno, L.H.; Youdeowei, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Batwing membrane was used to study salivation and feeding behaviour of tsetse flies. Probing and salivation were observed to be stimulated by tarsal contact with the membrane. Salivation and feeding responses varied from day to day with characteristic alternating high and low responses. The feeding process was invariably accompanied by a resting period. Attempts to rear G. morsitans artificially through the use of batwing membrane showed that the flies needed an initial adjustment period to in vitro maintenance. (author)

  17. The profile of wounding in civilian public mass shooting fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward Reed; Shapiro, Geoff; Sarani, Babak

    2016-07-01

    The incidence and severity of civilian public mass shootings (CPMS) continue to rise. Initiatives predicated on lessons learned from military woundings have placed strong emphasis on hemorrhage control, especially via use of tourniquets, as means to improve survival. We hypothesize that both the overall wounding pattern and the specific fatal wounds in CPMS events are different from those in military combat fatalities and thus may require a new management strategy. A retrospective study of autopsy reports for all victims involved in 12 CPMS events was performed. Civilian public mass shootings was defined using the FBI and the Congressional Research Service definition. The site of injury, probable site of fatal injury, and presence of potentially survivable injury (defined as survival if prehospital care is provided within 10 minutes and trauma center care within 60 minutes of injury) was determined independently by each author. A total 139 fatalities consisting of 371 wounds from 12 CPMS events were reviewed. All wounds were due to gunshots. Victims had an average of 2.7 gunshots. Relative to military reports, the case fatality rate was significantly higher, and incidence of potentially survivable injuries was significantly lower. Overall, 58% of victims had gunshots to the head and chest, and only 20% had extremity wounds. The probable site of fatal wounding was the head or chest in 77% of cases. Only 7% of victims had potentially survivable wounds. The most common site of potentially survivable injury was the chest (89%). No head injury was potentially survivable. There were no deaths due to exsanguination from an extremity. The overall and fatal wounding patterns following CPMS are different from those resulting from combat operations. Given that no deaths were due to extremity hemorrhage, a treatment strategy that goes beyond use of tourniquets is needed to rescue the few victims with potentially survivable injuries. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level IV

  18. Studies on mating competition of irradiated melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, W.

    1994-01-01

    Mating competition is the key factor for fruit flies control by using sterile insect technique project. Mass rearing and irradiation can reduce the mating competition of fruit flies. This experiment has purpose to evaluate the mating competition of the irradiated melon fly. The results show that mating competition values of irradiated melon flies were 0.36 and 0.24 when they mated with normal and irradiated females. Both normal male and female can mate more frequency than irradiated flies. (Z=1.322, P<0.05; Z=1.851, P<0.05). The results show that quality of mass rearing and irradiated melon fly was lower than the normal flies. So that quality of irradiated fly must be improved and the number of released flies as less must be higher than natural flies 6 time

  19. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio [Comision Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas.

  20. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas

  1. Eradicating tsetse flies: Senegal nears first victory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2015-01-01

    After a four-year eradication programme including nuclear techniques, the Niayes region of Senegal is now almost free of the tsetse fly, which used to decimate livestock. “I have not seen a single tsetse fly for a year now,” said cattle farmer Oumar Sow. “This is in contrast to earlier, when they increased in numbers, especially during the cold season. The flies were really a nuisance to our animals and we had to carefully select the time for milking. Now, there is no problem with that.” The tsetse fly is a bloodsucking insect that kills more than three million livestock in sub-Saharan Africa every year, costing the agriculture industry more than US $4 billion annually. The tsetse fly transmits parasites that cause a wasting disease called nagana in cattle. In some parts of Africa the fly also causes over 75 000 cases of human ‘sleeping sickness’, which affects the central nervous system, and causes disorientation, personality changes, slurred speech, seizures, difficulty walking and talking, and ultimately death.

  2. Model Persamaan Massa Karbon Akar Pohon dan Root-Shoot Ratio Massa Karbon (Equation Models of Tree Root Carbon Mass and Root-Shoot Carbon Mass Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias .

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The case study was conducted in the area of Acacia mangium plantation at BKPH Parung Panjang, KPH Bogor. The objective of the study was to formulate equation models of tree root carbon mass and root to shoot carbon mass ratio of the plantation. It was found that carbon content in the parts of tree biomass (stems, branches, twigs, leaves, and roots was different, in which the highest and the lowest carbon content was in the main stem of the tree and in the leaves, respectively. The main stem and leaves of tree accounted for 70% of tree biomass. The root-shoot ratio of root biomass to tree biomass above the ground and the root-shoot ratio of root biomass to main stem biomass was 0.1443 and 0.25771, respectively, in which 75% of tree carbon mass was in the main stem and roots of tree. It was also found that the root-shoot ratio of root carbon mass to tree carbon mass above the ground and the root-shoot ratio of root carbon mass to tree main stem carbon mass was 0.1442 and 0.2034, respectively. All allometric equation models of tree root carbon mass of A. mangium have a high goodness-of-fit as indicated by its high adjusted R2.Keywords: Acacia mangium, allometric, root-shoot ratio, biomass, carbon mass

  3. Influence of shoot topping on yield and quality of Vitis vinifera L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Key words: Vitis vinifera L., shoot topping, yield, quality, canopy management, shoot topping, fruit set, yield components, fruit .... Sensory characteristics were under the interaction effect of year and topping level. Berry weight was influenced separately by the year and topping (Table 2 and 3). Yield per vine ...

  4. Unexpected Genome Variability at Multiple Loci Suggests Cacao Swollen Shoot Virus Comprises Multiple, Divergent Molecular Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) [Badnavirus, Caulimoviridae] causes swollen shoot disease of Theobroma cacao L. in West Africa. Since ~2000, various diagnostic tests have failed to detect CSSV in ~50-70% of symptomatic cacao plants, suggesting the possible emergence of new, previously uncharacteriz...

  5. 50 CFR 20.106 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sandhill cranes. 20.106 Section 20.106 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.106 Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes. This section provides for the annual hunting of sandhill cranes in designated portions of the 48 contiguous...

  6. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium in five Lolium perenne genes with putative role in shoot branching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazauskas, Gintaras; Pašakinskienė, Izolda; Asp, Torben

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge on nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns is prerequisite for association analyses. However, little is known about the nucleotide diversity in the evolutionary important ryegrass shoot morphology genes. Five candidate genes, LpIAA1, LpRUB1, LpBRI1, LpSHOOT1 and Lp...

  7. The Nutritional Facts of Bamboo Shoots and Their Usage as Important Traditional Foods of Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongdam, P.; Tikendra, Leimapokpam

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo shoots are considered as one of the useful health foods because of their rich contents of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibres, and minerals and very low fat. Though bamboo shoots provide lots of health benefits, their consumption is confined mostly to Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The acceptability of bamboo shoots as popular vegetable crop is very less due to their high pungent smell and bitter acidic taste. The use of bamboo as food in India is mainly restricted to Northeastern part of the country where they form an indispensable part of several traditional speciality dishes. The different ethnic communities take fresh or fermented bamboo shoot as one of most preferred traditional food items. Some of the important bamboo based traditional foods are ushoi, soibum, rep, mesu, eup, ekhung, hirring, and so forth. Bamboo shoots should be properly processed before they are consumed as freshly harvested shoots have high content of toxic cyanogenic glycosides which may pose serious health problems. The prospect of bamboo shoot industry in Northeast India is bright due to its rich genetic resources of bamboos. However, habitat destruction and extensive use of bamboos for food, handicraft, and construction purposes have resulted in severe depletion of natural bamboo resources. This review stresses upon the high nutritive values and health benefits of bamboo shoots and their usage as important traditional foods in Northeast India. The bamboo market potential of the region and use of in vitro plant micropropagation methods as effective means of bamboo conservation are also emphasized in this paper. PMID:27433496

  8. Developmental anatomy of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. ‘Aurora’) shoot regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The culture of Vaccinium corymbosum L. ’Aurora’ leaves on regeneration medium results in the regeneration of adventitious shoots. We present anatomical evidence that these new shoot apices are directly regenerated from the cultured blades. Mounds of densely staining cells, which formed from epidermi...

  9. Shooting method for solution of boundary-layer flows with massive blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.-M.; Nachtsheim, P. R.

    1973-01-01

    A modified, bidirectional shooting method is presented for solving boundary-layer equations under conditions of massive blowing. Unlike the conventional shooting method, which is unstable when the blowing rate increases, the proposed method avoids the unstable direction and is capable of solving complex boundary-layer problems involving mass and energy balance on the surface.

  10. Violent mass shootings in Sweden from 1960 to 1995: profiles, patterns, and motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, O; Lidberg, L

    1998-03-01

    During the past few decades, violent mass shooting in Sweden has increased rapidly. In the 36 years between 1960 and 1995, fourteen such occasions were recorded, during which 32 people were killed and 57 were wounded. The 14 offenders were men between the ages of 17 and 61 years. In the 20 years from 1960 to 1979, five shootings were committed by five offenders, leaving 10 dead and 13 wounded; in the 16 years between 1980 and 1995, there were nine different shootings committed by nine offenders, with 22 dead and 44 wounded. Seven of the shootings were classified as mass shootings, six as spree shootings, and one as a serial shooting. In all but four of these cases, the firearms used were illegal weapons. The four legal firearms belonged to an unemployed young laborer, an officer, a former United Nations (U.N.) soldier, and a member of the Swedish military volunteer corps. Of those killed, 68.8% were strangers to the offender; among the wounded, the corresponding figure was 89.5%. Profiles of the offenders and of the victims were studied. The psychiatric diagnoses among the offenders and the measures taken to prevent the increase in mass shooting in Sweden are presented.

  11. Determination of sink intensity of side shoots by the use of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, H.D.; Forche, E.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of side shoots in the source-sink system of tomato plants was demonstrated by following the translocation of 32 P and 14 C applied to different leaves. The results showed that the side shoots were important sinks for photosynthetic products until the growing fruits of adjoining inflorescences became predominant attraction centres. (orig.) [de

  12. Reality-based practice under pressure improves handgun shooting performance of police officers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether reality-based practice under pressure may help in preventing degradation of handgun shooting performance under pressure for police officers. Using a pre-post-test design, one group of nine police officers practised handgun shooting under pressure evoked by an

  13. Effects of anxiety on handgun shooting behavior of police officers: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuys, A.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2010-01-01

    The current pilot study aimed at providing an initial assessment of how anxiety influences police officers' shooting behavior. Seven police officers participated and completed an identical shooting exercise under two experimental conditions: low anxiety, against a non-threatening opponent, and high

  14. Growth and morphogenesis of shoot initials of Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    An optimalized method of micropropagation of Douglas fir is described. Seasonal changes were found in optima for nitrate and sucrose in the medium and in the optimum for the light intensity during the culture of shoot initials. Differences in morphogenesis were obtained from shoot initials that had

  15. performance routines followed by free throw shooting accuracy in secondary basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phelps Ashley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The purpose of the current study was to determine whether existing pre-performance routines had an effect on free throw shooting accuracy in high school pupils as compared to shooting without a pre-performance routine.

  16. Experts Appear to Use Angle of Elevation Information in Basketball Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rita Ferraz; Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Beek, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    For successful basketball shooting, players must use information about the location of the basket relative to themselves. In this study, the authors examined to what extent shooting performance depends on the absolute distance to the basket ("m") and the angle of elevation (alpha). In Experiment 1, expert players took jump shots under different…

  17. The effect of time constraints and running phases on combined event pistol shooting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadswell, Clare; Payton, Carl; Holmes, Paul; Burden, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The combined event is a crucial aspect of the modern pentathlon competition, but little is known about how shooting performance changes through the event. This study aimed to identify (i) how performance-related variables changed within each shooting series and (ii) how performance-related variables changed between each shooting series. Seventeen modern pentathletes completed combined event trials. An optoelectronic shooting system recorded score and pistol movement, and force platforms recorded centre of pressure movement 1 s prior to every shot. Heart rate and blood lactate values were recorded throughout the event. Whilst heart rate and blood lactate significantly increased between series (P  0.05). Thus, combined event shooting performance following each running phase appears similar to shooting performance following only 20 m of running. This finding has potential implications for the way in which modern pentathletes train for combined event shooting, and highlights the need for modern pentathletes to establish new methods with which to enhance shooting accuracy.

  18. A Hybrid Finite Element/Helmholtz-Kirchhoff-Integral Model for Shooting Range Sound Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    National legislation enforces a limit on the Sound Levels of outdoor military shooting ranges observed in nearby residential areas. These restrictions directly influence the number of shots that may be fired at a specific shooting range, which may conflict with the required/ scheduled training

  19. When the Exception Is the Rule: School Shootings, Bare Life, and the Sovereign Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    Much discourse on school shootings tends to imply a binary separation between what is considered normal and exceptional, between an expected course of human events and sociohistorical aberrations. In this article Harvey Shapiro suggests the need for new directions in our responses: First, he shows how responses to school shootings tend to…

  20. What Can Be Done about School Shootings? A Review of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borum, Randy; Cornell, Dewey G.; Modzeleski, William; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2010-01-01

    School shootings have generated great public concern and fostered a widespread impression that schools are unsafe for many students; this article counters those misapprehensions by examining empirical evidence of school and community violence trends and reviewing evidence on best practices for preventing school shootings. Many of the school safety…

  1. The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting as tipping point: "This Time Is Different".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Muschert, Glenn W; Dingwall, Alison; Cohen, Alyssa M

    2013-01-01

    Among rampage shooting massacres, the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting on December 14, 2012 galvanized public attention. In this Commentary we examine the features of this episode of gun violence that has sparked strong reactions and energized discourse that may ultimately lead toward constructive solutions to diminish high rates of firearm deaths and injuries in the United States.

  2. Bud removal affects shoot, root, and callus development of hardwood Populus cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.H. Wiese; J.A. Zalesny; D.M. Donner; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny

    2006-01-01

    The inadvertent removal and/or damage of buds during processing and planting of hardwood poplar (Populus spp.) cuttings are a concern because of their potential impact on shoot and root development during establishment. The objective of the current study was to test for differences in shoot dry mass, root dry mass, number of roots, length of the...

  3. Simulating the partitioning of biomass and nitrogen between roots and shoot in crop and grass plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Quantification of the assimilate partitioning between roots and shoot has been one of the components that need improvement in crop growth models. In this study we derived two equations for root-shoot partitioning of biomass and nitrogen (N) that hold for crops grown under steady-state conditions.

  4. Ontogeny of axillary buds and shoots in roses: Leaf initiation and pith development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis-van Acker, C.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The ontogeny of an axillary bud (in the middle region of a shoot) from initiation up to flowering of the subsequent shoot was studied. The first secondary buds appeared in the axillary bud (primary bud) when the leaf subtending the primary bud unfolded. By that time, the primary bud contained seven

  5. Effects of visual control training on the shooting performance of elite female basketball players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, a method was tested to train visual control in basketball shooting. Using a sender/receiver system, Plato liquid-crystal goggles were wirelessly and manually controlled by the experimenter to manipulate vision of players while they were shooting. During the training the goggles

  6. Long-term impact of shoot blight disease on red pine saplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda M. Haugen; Michael E. Ostry

    2013-01-01

    Damage from Sirococcus and Diplodia shoot blights of red pine is widespread and periodically severe in the Lake States. An outbreak of shoot blight occurred in red pine sapling plantations across northern Wisconsin, northern Minnesota, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan in 1993. We established monitoring plots in red pine sapling...

  7. Development of Sirococcus shoot blight following thinning in western hemlock regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Shaw; Thomas H. Laurent; Spencer. Israelson

    1981-01-01

    Shoot mortality from Sirococcus strobilinus Preuss. and other causes was recorded by crown position from April 1978 through October 1979 in younggrowth western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) crop trees released in a 1977 thinning at Thomas Bay, Alaska. All study trees contained some infected shoots, but no terminal...

  8. Effects of irradiation on physicochemical and sensory qualities of fermented shoot tip of sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Li; Liu Chunquan; Li Dajing; Song Jiangfeng; Jiang Ning; Liu Chunju; Wu Haihong; Zhu Danyu

    2011-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on sensory quality, physicochemical and functional prosperities of fermented shoot tips of sweet potatoes were studied. The results showed that total content of free amino acids in fermented shoot tips of sweet potato were not influenced at 4 kGy irradiation, but increased at 6 kGy. Total content of organic acids in shoot tips were not influenced by 2 ∼ 6 kGy of irradiation. The total viable cells of the tips was reduced from 7.35 to 4.67 log CFU/g at 2 kGy irradiation, and no growth of total viable cells was observed at 4 and 6 kGy irradiated fermented shoot tips. It is recommended that 4 kGy was the endurance irradiation dose for fermented shoot tips of sweet potato to ensure the maximum retention of taste quality and health-relevant functionality. (authors)

  9. THE PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON THE INFLUENCE OF SHOOTING RANGES ON ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Wodnik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the shooting activity on the environment. The studies were conducted in the area of the sports shooting range. The invertebrates assemblages were identified to the family level as well as morphospecies. The second method do not require the proficiency in identification. The following indices of the biodiversity were used for the assessment of the impact of sports shooting ranges: Simpson, Shannon-Wiener, Margalef, Berger-Parker and Menhinick. A decreased biodiversity was observed at two studied sites comparing to the reference site what proves the influence of shooting activity on the biodiversity and suggest disturbance of the ecosystem integrity because of shooting activity.

  10. Distribution of radiocesium in bamboo leaves, roots and shoots. Application of an imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minowa, Haruka; Ogata, Yoshimune; Satou, Yukihiko

    2012-01-01

    When radiocesium is taken into a wild plant accidentally, it will circulate for a certain period of time. Bamboo is that in some cases relative high concentration of radiocesium have been reported. Radiocesium is considered to be concentrated in bamboo shoot by translocation in plants from bamboo leaves or roots. In this study, to investigate the behavior of radiocesium, shoots, roots, branches and leaves of bamboo (Phyllostadhys edulis) were collected at Yamakiya area, Kawamata-machi, Date-gun, Fukushima Prefecture. Radiation image analysis was conducted using an imaging plate BAS 2040 (Fujifilm) and an image analyzer Typhoon FLA7000 (GE Healthcare Japan Corp.). The content of radiocesium was about 500 Bq for "1"3"4Cs and 700 Bq for "1"3"7Cs per the bamboo shoot (500 g approximately). In the edible parts of bamboo shoots, the skin of bamboo shoots and leaves of newly-grown, radiocesium uptake was in high concentration, especially at the tip. (author)

  11. THE EFFICIENCY OF SHOOT AND PLANTLET FORMATION OF Cephaelis ipecacuanha AFTER THREE SUBCULTURES IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Alves Lameira

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple adventitious shoot formed from internodal segments of Cephaelis ipecacuanha cultured 25 days on Gamborg basal medium (GAMBORG et al., 1968 supplemented with 6.66mM 6-benzylaminopurine there was a maximum of nine shoots per segment and an average of five shoots per segment formed. The presence of gibberellic acid in the subculture media promoted shoot elongation in all treatments. The shoots attained 3cm in height and rooting of 100% after 35 days of culturing upon Murashige and Skoog's basal medium (MS, added with 4.92mM indole-3-butyric acid, 0.87m gibberellic acid and 0.1% activated charcoal. Further growth was accelerated after the transfer to 1/2 MS without growth regulators. Rooted plantlets transferred to potting soil could be successfully established.

  12. Effects of BAP and TIBA on Shoot Proliferation of Rosa hybrida L. cv. Full House in in vitro Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hajian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation is a proper approach to rapid and large-scale propagation of rootstocks and rose cultivars for huge demand of flower market. Proliferation rate of shoot is decreased drastically following several subcultures. Growth regulators have remarkable effects on the key phase of proliferation in micropropagation of this popular crop. In this research the effects of BAP and antiauxin of TIBA on quality and quantity of developed shoots in Rosa hybrida cv. Full House were studied. BAP and TIBA were applied at three concentrations of 0, 2.2 and 8.8 µmol in proliferation phase of micropropagation. The experiment was conducted based on factorial and completely randomized design with four replications. After two months, the percentage of proliferated explants, survived main and lateral shoot number, length of the main and lateral shoots, number of green leaves on the shoots, the average number of shoots with chlorotic and necrotic leaves, the average axillary shoot base diameter, fresh weight of shoots and number of shoots with necrotic tip were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that BAP was ineffective on the number of the main shoot green leaves and decreasing number of shoots with necrotic tip, but enhanced other traits. The concentration of 8.8 µmol of BAP had greater effect than 2.2 µmol of this growth regulator on mentioned traits. The higher concentration of TIBA resulted to more shoot with necrotic tip. This antiauxin had anegative impact on shoot fresh weight, but the other parameters were not significantly affected.

  13. Shooting quasiparticles from Andreev bound states in a superconducting constriction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riwar, R.-P.; Houzet, M.; Meyer, J. S. [University of Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPSMS (France); Nazarov, Y. V., E-mail: Y.V.Nazarov@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Kavli Institute of NanoScience (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    A few-channel superconducting constriction provides a set of discrete Andreev bound states that may be populated with quasiparticles. Motivated by recent experimental research, we study the processes in an a.c. driven constriction whereby a quasiparticle is promoted to the delocalized states outside the superconducting gap and flies away. We distinguish two processes of this kind. In the process of ionization, a quasiparticle present in the Andreev bound state is transferred to the delocalized states leaving the constriction. The refill process involves two quasiparticles: one flies away while another one appears in the Andreev bound state. We notice an interesting asymmetry of these processes. The electron-like quasiparticles are predominantly emitted to one side of the constriction while the hole-like ones are emitted to the other side. This produces a charge imbalance of accumulated quasiparticles, that is opposite on opposite sides of the junction. The imbalance may be detected with a tunnel contact to a normal metal lead.

  14. Methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism in date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and their off-shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J-G; Chao, C T

    2007-07-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. In this study, the extent and patterns of DNA methylation were assessed in date palm mother-plants and their off-shoots using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique. Three types of bands were generated using 12 pairs of primers. Type I were present in both ECOR I + HPA II and ECOR I + MSP I lanes; type II were present in ECOR I + HPA II lanes, but not in ECOR I + MSP I lanes; and type III bands were present in ECOR I + MSP I lanes, but not in ECOR I + HPA II lanes. The total numbers of these three types of bands were 782, 55, and 34, respectively. Among these three types of bands, the polymorphic bands were, respectively, 37, 10, and 0. The distribution of polymorphic bands among mother-plants and off-shoots suggests the methylation variation was present in both the mother-plants and off-shoots. Forty- four out of these 47 polymorphic bands show clear difference between mother-plant and off-shoots: 38 were present only in off-shoots and 6 in both mother-plants and off-shoots. Compared to methylation status in mother-plants, the methylation variation during off-shoot growth of date palm can be characterized as a process involving primarily de-methylation. Hypomethylation of DNA in off-shoots, compared with mother-plants, reflects the marked expression of this molecular feature, which may be related to gene expression during off-shoot development. The methylation or de-methylation status of specific loci in the mother-plants and their off-shoots were probably random events.

  15. Differential TOR activation and cell proliferation in Arabidopsis root and shoot apexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojuan; Cai, Wenguo; Liu, Yanlin; Li, Hui; Fu, Liwen; Liu, Zengyu; Xu, Lin; Liu, Hongtao; Xu, Tongda; Xiong, Yan

    2017-03-07

    The developmental plasticity of plants relies on the remarkable ability of the meristems to integrate nutrient and energy availability with environmental signals. Meristems in root and shoot apexes share highly similar molecular players but are spatially separated by soil. Whether and how these two meristematic tissues have differential activation requirements for local nutrient, hormone, and environmental cues (e.g., light) remain enigmatic in photosynthetic plants. Here, we report that the activation of root and shoot apexes relies on distinct glucose and light signals. Glucose energy signaling is sufficient to activate target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase in root apexes. In contrast, both the glucose and light signals are required for TOR activation in shoot apexes. Strikingly, exogenously applied auxin is able to replace light to activate TOR in shoot apexes and promote true leaf development. A relatively low concentration of auxin in the shoot and high concentration of auxin in the root might be responsible for this distinctive light requirement in root and shoot apexes, because light is required to promote auxin biosynthesis in the shoot. Furthermore, we reveal that the small GTPase Rho-related protein 2 (ROP2) transduces light-auxin signal to activate TOR by direct interaction, which, in turn, promotes transcription factors E2Fa,b for activating cell cycle genes in shoot apexes. Consistently, constitutively activated ROP2 plants stimulate TOR in the shoot apex and cause true leaf development even without light. Together, our findings establish a pivotal hub role of TOR signaling in integrating different environmental signals to regulate distinct developmental transition and growth in the shoot and root.

  16. Relationship between the shoot characteristics and plant resistance to vascular-streak dieback on cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Soesilo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vascular-streak dieback (Oncobasidium theobromae is a serious disease on cocoa damaging the vegetative tissue especially on the branches and leaves. This research was aimed to identify the relationship between characteristics of sprouting ability and VSD resistance to confirm the response of cocoa to pruning treatment on VSD control and developing criteria for selection. Trial was carried out at Kaliwining Experimental Station of ICCRI, a VSD-endemic area by using 668 plants of hybrid populayion which were derivated from intercrossing among seven clones performing different response to VSD. The resistance was evaluated by scoring the plant damage with the scale of 0-6 on drought season in the year of 2009 and 2011. The characteristics of sprouting ability was assessed by recording the pruned trees for the variables of the number of re-growth shoot, shoot height, number of new shoot per pruned branches, shoot diameter and number of leaves per shoot. It was analyzed that the variables of the number of shoot per pruned branches, shoot diameter, shoot height and number of leaves per shoot were not significantly correlated to the score of VSD damage. Grouping of the resistance also performed similar results whereas mean of the sprouting variables were not different among group but the percentage of sprouted branches tend to be higher with the higher of the resistance (lower score. This result confirmed any mechanism of tolerance on VSD resistance by accelerating shoot rejuvenation on resistant plant. Key words : vascular-streak diaback, cocoa, resistance, characteristics of sprouting

  17. Disentangling the intertwined genetic bases of root and shoot growth in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bouteillé

    Full Text Available Root growth and architecture are major components of plant nutrient and water use efficiencies and these traits are the matter of extensive genetic analysis in several crop species. Because root growth relies on exported assimilate from the shoot, and changes in assimilate supply are known to alter root architecture, we hypothesized (i that the genetic bases of root growth could be intertwined with the genetic bases of shoot growth and (ii that the link could be either positive, with alleles favouring shoot growth also favouring root growth, or negative, because of competition for assimilates. We tested these hypotheses using a quantitative genetics approach in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana and the Bay-0 × Shahdara recombinant inbred lines population. In accordance with our hypothesis, root and shoot growth traits were strongly correlated and most root growth quantitative trait loci (QTLs colocalized with shoot growth QTLs with positive alleles originating from either the same or the opposite parent. In order to identify regions that could be responsible for root growth independently of the shoot, we generated new variables either based on root to shoot ratios, residuals of root to shoot correlations or coordinates of principal component analysis. These variables showed high heritability allowing genetic analysis. They essentially all yielded similar results pointing towards two regions involved in the root--shoot balance. Using Heterogeneous Inbred Families (a kind of near-isogenic lines, we validated part of the QTLs present in these two regions for different traits. Our study thus highlights the difficulty of disentangling intertwined genetic bases of root and shoot growth and shows that this difficulty can be overcome by using simple statistical tools.

  18. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An overview of quarantine for fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, E.R.

    2000-01-01

    What is meant by 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The Collins dictionary describes 'quarantine' as a period of isolation or detention, especially of persons or animals arriving from abroad, to prevent the spread of disease. In providing an overview of quarantine for fruit flies, a broader definition needs to be applied, that is, the combination of activities required to maintain the fruit fly status of a particular geographical area - perhaps better referred to as a 'quarantine system'. Familiarity with New Zealand's quarantine system for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provides a useful basis for subsequent comparison with other countries' systems where some fruit fly species may be present. But, why have 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The multivoltine life history of many species. combined with a relatively long-lived adult stage and highly fecund females, results in a high potential for rapid population increase (Bateman 1979, Fletcher 1987). These factors and the close association of fruit flies with harvested fruit or vegetables explain the high quarantine profile of these insects. However, there is no international requirement for a country to have a quarantine system and unless there are natural quarantine barriers (e.g., mountain range, oceans, deserts) that can be utilised, effective quarantine by an individual country may be an impossible task. The implementation of a successful quarantine system is very expensive and therefore, it would be expected that any benefits attained outweigh the costs (Ivess 1998). Ivess (1998) listed the following benefits from the implementation of an effective quarantine system: minimising production costs (including post harvest treatments), maintaining competitive advantages for market access due to the ongoing freedom from particular pests of quarantine significance, an environment free from many pests harmful to plant health, the maintenance of ecosystems

  20. Plant growth and trace-element uptake on acidic coal refuse amended with lime or fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jastrow, J.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Zimmerman, C.A.; Dvorak, A.J.; Hinchman, R.R.

    1981-04-01

    Two commonly used revegetation species, Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Lincoln smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.), were grown for 60 days in pots containing coarse coal mine refuse (referred to as gob, pH = 3.5) amended with either lime or alkaline powerplant fly ash. Both species were also grown in pots containing a silt loam surface soil as a control. Morphological growth parameters were measured over time; dry weights and shoot/root ratios were determined at harvest. Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn in the plant shoots were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plant growth of both species was not as good on either lime- or fly ash-amended gob as it was on surface soil; however, more vigorous growth occurred on lime-amended gob than on fly ash-amended gob. Significant differences (rho < 0.05) in the tissue concentrations of Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn were found among the plants grown on the three substrates. Except for Hg and Pb, these elements were higher in plants grown on at least one of the amended-gob substrates than in plants grown on surface soil. Significant substrate differences were not observed for Al, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Se. The tissue concentrations of some elements - notably Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, V, and Zn - were high enough in plants from one or more of the substrates to either approach or exceed concentrations which have been reported to be associated with toxic effects in some plant species.

  1. Fruit production and branching density affect shoot and whole-tree wood to leaf biomass ratio in olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Paoletti, Andrea; Al Hariri, Raeed; Famiani, Franco

    2018-02-14

    The amount of shoot stem (i.e., woody part of the shoot) dry matter per unit shoot leaf dry matter (i.e., the shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio) has been reported to be lower in short shoots than in long ones, and this is related to the greater and earlier ability of short shoots to export carbon. This is important in fruit trees, since the greater and earlier carbon export ability of shoots with a lower wood to leaf biomass ratio improves fruit production. This ratio may vary with cultivars, training systems or plant age, but no study has previously investigated the possible effect of fruit production. In this study on two olive cultivars (i.e., Arbequina, with low growth rate, and Frantoio, with high growth rate) subject to different fruit production treatments, we found that at increasing fruit production, shoot length and shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio were proportionally reduced in the new shoots growing at the same time as the fruit. Specifically, fruit production proportionally reduced total new-shoot biomass, length, leaf area and average shoot length. With decreasing shoot length, shoot diameter, stem mass, internode length, individual leaf area and shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio also decreased. This may be viewed as a plant strategy to better support fruit growth in the current year, given the greater and earlier ability of short shoots to export carbon. Moreover, at the whole-tree level, the percentage of total tree biomass production invested in leaves was closely correlated with branching density, which differed significantly across cultivars. By branching more, Arbequina concentrates more shoots (thus leaves) per unit of wood (trunk, branches and root) mass, decreasing wood to leaf biomass ratio at the whole-tree level. Therefore, while, at the shoot level, shoot length determines shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio, at the canopy level branching density is also an important determinant of whole-tree wood to leaf biomass ratio. Whole-tree wood to leaf

  2. Device for Automated Cutting and Transfer of Plant Shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipra, Raymond; Das, Hari; Ali, Khaled; Hong, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    A device that enables the automated cutting and transfer of plant shoots is undergoing development for use in the propagation of plants in a nursery or laboratory. At present, it is standard practice for a human technician to use a knife and forceps to cut, separate, and grasp a plant shoot. The great advantage offered by the present device is that its design and operation are simpler than would be those of a device based on the manual cutting/separation/grasping procedure. [The present device should not be confused with a prior device developed for partly the same purpose and described in Compliant Gripper for a Robotic Manipulator (NPO-21104), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 59.]. The device (see figure) includes a circular tube sharpened at its open (lower) end and mounted on a robotic manipulator at its closed (upper) end. The robotic manipulator simply pushes the sharpened open end of the tube down onto a bed of plants and rotates a few degrees clockwise then counterclockwise about the vertical axis, causing the tube to cut a cylindrical plug of plant material. Exploiting the natural friction between the tube and plug, the tube retains the plug, without need for a gripping mechanism and control. The robotic manipulator then retracts the tube, translates it to a new location over a plant-growth tray, and inserts the tube part way into the growth medium at this location in the tray. A short burst of compressed air is admitted to the upper end of the tube to eject the plug of plant material and drive it into the growth medium. A prototype has been tested and verified to function substantially as intended. It is projected that in the fully developed robotic plant-propagation system, the robot control system would include a machine- vision subsystem that would automatically guide the robotic manipulator in choosing the positions from which to cut plugs of plant material. Planned further development efforts also include more testing and

  3. Ge extraction from gasification fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriol Font; Xavier Querol; Angel Lopez-Soler; Jose M. Chimenos; Ana I. Fernandez; Silvia Burgos; Francisco Garcia Pena [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    Water-soluble germanium species (GeS{sub 2}, GeS and hexagonal-GeO{sub 2}) are generated during coal gasification and retained in fly ash. This fact together with the high market value of this element and the relatively high contents in the fly ashes of the Puertollano Integrated Gasification in Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant directed our research towards the development of an extraction process for this element. Major objectives of this research was to find a low cost and environmentally suitable process. Several water based extraction tests were carried out using different Puertollano IGCC fly ash samples, under different temperatures, water/fly ash ratios, and extraction times. High Ge extraction yields (up to 84%) were obtained at room temperature (25{sup o}C) but also high proportions of other trace elements (impurities) were simultaneously extracted. Increasing the extraction temperature to 50, 90 and 150{sup o}C, Ge extraction yields were kept at similar levels, while reducing the content of impurities, the water/fly ash ratio and extraction time. The experimental data point out the influence of chloride, calcium and sulphide dissolutions on the Ge extraction. 16 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  5. Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

  6. Investigation of gliding flight by flying fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2006-11-01

    The most successful flight capability of fish is observed in the flying fish. Furthermore, despite the difference between two medium (air and water), the flying fish is well evolved to have an excellent gliding performance as well as fast swimming capability. In this study, flying fish's morphological adaptation to gliding flight is experimentally investigated using dry-mounted darkedged-wing flying fish, Cypselurus Hiraii. Specifically, we examine the effects of the pectoral and pelvic fins on the aerodynamic performance considering (i) both pectoral and pelvic fins, (ii) pectoral fins only, and (iii) body only with both fins folded. Varying the attack angle, we measure the lift, drag and pitching moment at the free-stream velocity of 12m/s for each case. Case (i) has higher lift-to-drag ratio (i.e. longer gliding distance) and more enhanced longitudinal static stability than case (ii). However, the lift coefficient is smaller for case (i) than for case (ii), indicating that the pelvic fins are not so beneficial for wing loading. The gliding performance of flying fish is compared with those of other fliers and is found to be similar to those of insects such as the butterfly and fruitfly.

  7. 78 FR 69707 - Notice of Temporary Closure to Recreational and Target Shooting on Public Lands at Hartman Rocks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Temporary Closure to Recreational and Target Shooting on Public Lands at Hartman Rocks Recreation Area, CO... recreational shooting affects public lands at Hartman Rocks Recreation Area in Gunnison County, Colorado. The... Hartman Rocks in Gunnison County, Colorado. The area is unsafe for target shooting due to its proximity to...

  8. Soil pollution at outdoor shooting ranges: Health effects, bioavailability and best management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayiga, A O; Saha, U K

    2016-09-01

    The total lead (Pb) concentrations of the surface soil, sub surface soil, vegetation and surface waters of outdoor shooting ranges are extremely high and above regulatory limits. Lead is dangerous at high concentrations and can cause a variety of serious health problems. Shooters and range workers are exposed to lead dust and can even take Pb dust home to their families while some animals around the shooting range can ingest the Pb bullets. The toxicity of Pb depends on its bioavailability which has been determined to be influenced greatly by the geochemical properties of each site. The bioavailability of Pb in shooting ranges has been found to be higher than other metal contaminated soils probably because of its very low residual Pb (soil, migration of Pb within shooting ranges and offsite has been reported in literature. Best management practices to reduce mobility of Pb in shooting ranges involve an integrated Pb management program which has been described in the paper. The adoption of the non-toxic "green bullet" which has been developed to replace Pb bullets may reduce or prevent environmental pollution at shooting ranges. However, the contaminated soil resulting from decades of operation of several shooting ranges still needs to be restored to its natural state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolomic homeostasis shifts after callus formation and shoot regeneration in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Alka; Ray, Kamalika; Sadhna, Sadhna; Pandey, Arun Kumar; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2017-01-01

    Plants can regenerate from a variety of tissues on culturing in appropriate media. However, the metabolic shifts involved in callus formation and shoot regeneration are largely unknown. The metabolic profiles of callus generated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cotyledons and that of shoot regenerated from callus were compared with the pct1-2 mutant that exhibits enhanced polar auxin transport and the shr mutant that exhibits elevated nitric oxide levels. The transformation from cotyledon to callus involved a major shift in metabolite profiles with denser metabolic networks in the callus. In contrast, the transformation from callus to shoot involved minor changes in the networks. The metabolic networks in pct1-2 and shr mutants were distinct from wild type and were rewired with shifts in endogenous hormones and metabolite interactions. The callus formation was accompanied by a reduction in the levels of metabolites involved in cell wall lignification and cellular immunity. On the contrary, the levels of monoamines were upregulated in the callus and regenerated shoot. The callus formation and shoot regeneration were accompanied by an increase in salicylic acid in wild type and mutants. The transformation to the callus and also to the shoot downregulated LST8 and upregulated TOR transcript levels indicating a putative linkage between metabolic shift and TOR signalling pathway. The network analysis indicates that shift in metabolite profiles during callus formation and shoot regeneration is governed by a complex interaction between metabolites and endogenous hormones. PMID:28481937

  10. Glyphosate (Ab)sorption by Shoots and Rhizomes of Native versus Hybrid Cattail (Typha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianye; Sutton, Nora B; de Jager, Pim; Grosshans, Richard; Munira, Sirajum; Farenhorst, Annemieke

    2017-11-01

    Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America are integrated with farmland and contain mixtures of herbicide contaminants. Passive nonfacilitated diffusion is how most herbicides can move across plant membranes, making this perhaps an important process by which herbicide contaminants are absorbed by wetland vegetation. Prairie wetlands are dominated by native cattail (Typha latifolia) and hybrid cattail (Typha x glauca). The objective of this batch equilibrium study was to compare glyphosate absorption by the shoots and rhizomes of native versus hybrid cattails. Although it has been previously reported for some pesticides that passive diffusion is greater for rhizome than shoot components, this is the first study to demonstrate that the absorption capacity of rhizomes is species dependent, with the glyphosate absorption being significantly greater for rhizomes than shoots in case of native cattails, but with no significant differences in glyphosate absorption between rhizomes and shoots in case of hybrid cattails. Most importantly, glyphosate absorption by native rhizomes far exceeded that of the absorption occurring for hybrid rhizomes, native shoots and hybrid shoots. Glyphosate has long been used to manage invasive hybrid cattails in wetlands in North America, but hybrid cattail expansions continue to occur. Since our results showed limited glyphosate absorption by hybrid shoots and rhizomes, this lack of sorption may partially explain the poorer ability of glyphosate to control hybrid cattails in wetlands.

  11. Cell lineage patterns in the shoot meristem of the sunflower embryo in the dry seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegla, D.E.; Sussex, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    We mapped the fate of cells in the shoot meristem of the dry-seed embryo of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. cv. Peredovic, using irradiation-induced somatic sectors. We analyzed 249 chlorophyll-deficient or glabrous (hairless) sectors generated in 236 plants. Most sectors observed in the inflorescence extended into vegetative nodes. Thus cell lineages that ultimately gave rise to reproductive structures also contributed to vegetative structures. No single sector extended the entire length of the shoot. Thus the shoot is not derived from one or a few apical initials. Rather, the position, vertical extent, and width of the sectors at different levels of the shoot suggest that the shoot is derived from three to four circumferential populations of cells in each of three cell layers of the embryo meristem. Sectors had no common boundaries even in plants with two or three independent sectors, but varied in extent and overlapped along the length of the shoot. Thus individual cells in a single circumferential population behaved independently to contribute lineages of different vertical extents to the growing shoot. The predicted number of circumferential populations of cells as well as the apparent cell number in each population was consistent with the actual number of cells in the embryo meristem observed in histological sections

  12. Bamboo shoot preservation for enhancing its business potential and local economy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Lalit M; Singhal, Poonam; Satya, Santosh; Naik, S N; Kar, Abhijit

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo shoot as food has been used in traditional ways by the tribal community the world over. For enhancing its business potential, research on various aspects of bamboo shoot as food is being carried out in Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and Asian countries and several products are available in the market. Bamboo shoots are used as a delicacy in human food, are a good source of dietary fiber, low in fat and calories. The research studies included in this review paper focus on post-harvest preservation of bamboo shoot. In view of the seasonal availability of bamboo shoot, the post-harvest preservation system for handling cynogenic toxicity in raw shoot while keeping nutrients intact and enhancement of shelf life of the value added products assume great significance for the business potential of this natural product. A yardstick of assessing the "Shelf life-Quality Matrix" developed in this review paper would give a new perspective of quality control in case of preservation of bamboo shoot. Also, knowledge gaps identified in this paper would give impetus to new academic and R&D activities, in turn generating an innovative job profile in the food industry as well as rural entrepreneurship.

  13. Anomalous needle numbers on dwarf shoots of Pinus mugo and P. uncinata (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Boratyńska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of occurrence of abnormal, three- (or more needle dwarf shoots of most southern and central European two-needle pine (Pinus species were studied. No specimens with more than two-needle dwarf shoots were found in a population of P. nigra Arnold subsp. salzmannii (Dunal Franco from the Iberian Peninsula and in two populations of P. uliginosa Neumann from the Sudeten Mountains in Central Europe. Single specimens were found within one population of P. pinaster Aiton from the Iberian Peninsula and among six populations of P. sylvestris L. from the Iberian Peninsula and Central Europe. Abnormal dwarf shoots mostly with three, but also four, five or six needles were found among 24 of 25 surveyed populations of P. mugo Turra and P. uncinata Ramond. The average frequency of specimens with at least one three-needle dwarf shoot was 24% for P. mugo and 20% for P. uncinata. The frequencies of occurrence varied significantly among studied populations and were highest in samples collected from the upper elevational range limits of the species in the mountains and near the northern limits of their ranges. The frequency of abnormal dwarf shoots in the same populations was significantly high in 2-3 consecutive years. Needles from three-needle dwarf shoots were not significantly shorter than those of two-needle shoots.

  14. Induction of shoot regeneration in cotyledon explants of the oilseed crop Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masochon Zimik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sesamum indicum is an ancient oilseed crop known for its high quality edible oil and its medicinally important lignans. The crop is said to be recalcitrant to plant tissue culture thus limiting the use of modern biotechnology for its genetic improvement. We present here a protocol describing plant regeneration through adventitious shoot formation from cotyledons dissected from sesame seeds soaked for four hours in water. Subculturing of the cotyledons after two weeks of culture on to a fresh Murashige and Skoog medium leads to differentiation of adventitious shoots from the proximal cut end of the explant. Culture of cotyledons on a medium containing 9% sucrose for a couple of weeks prior to transfer to MS medium supplemented with 3% sucrose induced a higher frequency of shoot regeneration. The highest frequency of 25% adventitious shoot regeneration was observed for S. indicum variety UMA. This variety also turned out to be the best among the ten genotypes tested for shoot regeneration through tissue culture. While addition of IAA marginally improved regeneration, silver nitrate was found essential for enhancing the frequency of shoot regeneration. The regenerated shoots formed roots on full strength MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l IBA and the rooted plants were established in soil.

  15. Variation in shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Tilbrook, Joanne

    2017-09-27

    Soil salinity can severely reduce crop growth and yield. Many studies have investigated salinity tolerance mechanisms in cereals using phenotypes that are relatively easy to measure. The majority of these studies measured the accumulation of shoot Na+ and the effect this has on plant growth. However, plant growth is reduced immediately after exposure to NaCl before Na+ accumulates to toxic concentrations in the shoot. In this study, nondestructive and destructive measurements are used to evaluate the responses of 24 predominately Australian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines at 0, 150 and 250mMNaCl. Considerable variation for shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity (shoot ion-independent tolerance) was found, withsome lines being able to maintain substantial growth rates under salt stress, whereas others stopped growing. Hordeum vulgare spp. spontaneum accessions and barley landraces predominantly had the best shoot ion independent tolerance, although two commercial cultivars, Fathom and Skiff, also had high tolerance. The tolerance of cv. Fathom may be caused by a recent introgression from H. vulgare L. spp. spontaneum. This study shows that the most salt-tolerant barley lines are those that contain both shoot ion-independent tolerance and the ability to exclude Na+ from the shoot (and thus maintain high K+: Na+ ratios).

  16. Variation in shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Tilbrook, Joanne; Schilling, Rhiannon K.; Berger, Bettina; Garcia, Alexandre F.; Trittermann, Christine; Coventry, Stewart; Rabie, Huwaida; Brien, Chris; Nguyen, Martin; Tester, Mark A.; Roy, Stuart J.

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinity can severely reduce crop growth and yield. Many studies have investigated salinity tolerance mechanisms in cereals using phenotypes that are relatively easy to measure. The majority of these studies measured the accumulation of shoot Na+ and the effect this has on plant growth. However, plant growth is reduced immediately after exposure to NaCl before Na+ accumulates to toxic concentrations in the shoot. In this study, nondestructive and destructive measurements are used to evaluate the responses of 24 predominately Australian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines at 0, 150 and 250mMNaCl. Considerable variation for shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity (shoot ion-independent tolerance) was found, withsome lines being able to maintain substantial growth rates under salt stress, whereas others stopped growing. Hordeum vulgare spp. spontaneum accessions and barley landraces predominantly had the best shoot ion independent tolerance, although two commercial cultivars, Fathom and Skiff, also had high tolerance. The tolerance of cv. Fathom may be caused by a recent introgression from H. vulgare L. spp. spontaneum. This study shows that the most salt-tolerant barley lines are those that contain both shoot ion-independent tolerance and the ability to exclude Na+ from the shoot (and thus maintain high K+: Na+ ratios).

  17. Diagnostics aid for mass spectrometer trouble-shooting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filby, E.E.; Rankin, R.A.; Webb, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The ''MS Expert'' system provides problem diagnostics for instruments used in the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory (MSL). The most critical results generated on these mass spectrometers are the uranium concentration and isotopic content data used for process control and materials accountability at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The two purposes of the system are: (1) to minimize instrument downtime and thereby provide the best possible support to the Plant, and (2) to improve long-term data quality. This system combines the knowledge of several experts on mass spectrometry to provide a diagnostic tool, and can make these skills avilable on a more timely basis. It integrates code written in the Pascal language with a knowledge base entered into a commercial expert system ''shell.'' The user performs some preliminary status checks, and then selects from among several broad diagnostic categories. These initial steps provide input to the rule base. The overall analysis provides the user with a set of possible solutions to the observed problems, graded as to their probabilities. Besides the trouble-shooting benefits expected from this system, it will also provide structures diagnostic training for lab personnel. In addition, development of the system knowledge base has already produced a better understanding of instrument behavior. Two key findings are that a good user interface is necessary for full acceptance of the tool, and a development system should include standard programming capabilities as well as the expert system shell. 22 refs., 5 figs

  18. Gibberellins in shoots and developing capsules of Populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, David W; Hutt, Oliver E; Rood, Stewart B; Mander, Lewis N

    2002-03-01

    Extracts of stems of growing shoots of Populus deltoides and P. trichocarpa, and developing capsules of P. deltoides were analysed for gibberellins (GAs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The following known GAs were identified by comparison of their Kovats retention indices (KRIs) and mass spectra with those of standards: GA1, GA8, GA9, GA19, GA20, 16 beta,17-dihydro-17-hydroxy GA20, GA23, GA28, GA29, GA34, GA44, and GA97. Several of these have not been previously reported from Populus. In addition, two new GAs were identified as 12 beta-hydroxy GA53 (GA127) and 16 beta,17-dihydro-17-hydroxy GA53 and their structures were confirmed by partial synthesis. Evidence was found of 16,17-dihydro-16,17-dihydroxy GA9, 16,17-dihydro-16,17-dihydroxy GA12, 12-hydroxy GA14, and GA34-catabolite by comparison of mass spectra and KRIs with published data. Several putative GAs (hydroxy- and dihydroxy-GA12-like) were also found. The catabolites of active GAs or of key precursors, hydroxylated at C-2 in stems and either C-2, C-12, C-17, or C-16,17 in capsules, were the major proportion of the GAs.

  19. Diagnostics aid for mass spectrometer trouble-shooting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filby, E.E.; Rankin, R.A.; Webb, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The MS Expert system provides problem diagnostics for instruments used in the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory (MSL). The most critical results generated on these mass spectrometers are the uranium concentration and isotopic content data used for process control and materials accountability at the Idaho General Processing Plant. The two purposes of the system are: (1) to minimize instrument downtime and thereby provide the best possible support to the Plant, and (2) to improve long-term data quality. This system combines the knowledge of several experts on mass spectrometry to provide a diagnostic tool, and can make these skills available on a more timely basis. It integrates code written in the Pascal language with a knowledge base entered into a commercial expert system shell. The user performs some preliminary status checks, and then selects from among several broad diagnostic categories. These initial steps provide input to the rule base. The overall analysis provides the user with a set of possible solutions to the observed problems, graded as to their probabilities. Besides the trouble-shooting benefits expected from this system, it also provides structured diagnostic training for lab personnel. In addition, development of the system knowledge base has already produced a better understanding of instrument behavior. Two key findings are that a good user interface is necessary for full acceptance of the tool, and, a development system should include standard programming capabilities as well as the expert system shell

  20. Cryopreservation of in vitro shoot apices of Oxalis tuberosa Mol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benito, M E; Mendoza-Condori, V H; Molina-Garcia, A D

    2007-01-01

    Oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.) is an under-utilized tuber crop from the Andean region. Cryopreservation would allow the safe and long-term preservation of the genetic resources of this crop. A protocol for the cryopreservation of in vitro grown shoots has been developed using the vitrification solution PVS2. Two genotypes were studied (G1 and G27). Nodal segments were cultured on MS medium and incubated at 10 degree C with 16 h photoperiod and 10 mol per square meter per second irradiance, for two weeks. Apices were then excised and cultured on MS+0.15 M sucrose for 3 days at 5 degree C in darkness. Subsequently, apices were immersed in a loading solution (liquid MS medium+2 M glycerol+0.4 M sucrose), and then treated with the vitrification solution PVS2 for 0 to 40 minutes. Cryovials were then immersed in liquid nitrogen. Four weeks after rewarming and culture on recovery medium, genotype G1 showed approximately 60 percent recovery (normal growth) with 20 min PVS2 treatment. Genotype G27 showed lower recovery (30 percent). Differential scanning calorimetry yielded a Tg midpoint for PSV2 solution of ca. -120 degree C. Calorimetric studies on apices at different stages of the cryopreservation protocol showed a change in calorimetric parameters consistent with a decrease in the amount of frozen water as the protocol advanced.

  1. Entomopathogenic Fungi in Flies Associated with Pastured Cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2001-01-01

    Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included in the Entom......Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included...

  2. Carbon dioxide exchange in Norway spruce at the shoot, tree and ecosystem scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, G; Linder, S; Lindroth, A; Räntfors, M; Flemberg, S; Grelle, A

    2001-08-01

    Net CO2 exchange in a 35-year-old boreal Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forest in northern Sweden was measured at the shoot (NSE), tree (NTE) and ecosystem levels (NEE) by means of shoot cuvettes, whole-tree chambers and the eddy covariance technique, respectively. We compared the dynamics of gross primary production (GPP) at the three levels during the course of a single week. The diurnal dynamics of GPP at each level were estimated by subtracting half-hourly or hourly model-estimated values of total respiration (excluding light-dependent respiration) from net CO(2) exchange. The relationship between temperature and total respiration at each level was derived from nighttime measurements of NSE, NTE and NEE over the course of 1 month. There was a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.93) between the hourly estimates of GPP at the shoot and tree levels, but the correlation between shoot- and ecosystem-level GPP was weaker (r2 = 0.69). However, the correlation between shoot- and ecosystem-level GPP was improved (r2 = 0.88) if eddy covariance measurements were restricted to periods when friction velocity was > or = 0.5 m s(-1). Daily means were less dependent on friction velocity, giving an r2 value of 0.94 between shoot- and ecosystem-level GPP. The correlation between shoot and tree levels also increased when daily means were compared (r2 = 0.98). Most of the measured variation in carbon exchange rate among the shoot, tree and ecosystem levels was the result of periodic low coupling between vegetation and the atmosphere at the ecosystem level. The results validate the use of measurements at the shoot and tree level for analyzing the contribution of different compartments to net ecosystem CO2 exchange.

  3. Effect of Hormones on Direct Shoot Regeneration in Hypocotyl Explants of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan RASHID

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for developing a high frequency regeneration system in two genotypes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., �Punjab Upma� and �IPA-3� for direct shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants. The explants were excised from in vitro tomato seedlings and cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of hormones. Direct regeneration was significantly influenced by the genotype hormones combination and concentrations. The MS medium supplemented with (Kinetin 0.5 mg/l and (BAP 0.5 mg/l was found optimum for inducing direct shoot regeneration and number of shoots per explant from hypocotyl explants on this medium. Shoot regeneration per cent in �Punjab Upma� and �IPA-3� per cent was recorded to be highest i.e (86.02 and (82.57 respectively. Besides this, average number shoots per explant was also highest i.e (3.16 in case of �Punjab Upma� and (2.93 in case of �IPA-3�. A significant decline was observed in percent shoot regeneration and average number of shoots per explant with increase in the hormonal concentration. Shoots were obtained and transferred to the elongation medium (MS + BAP 0.3 mg/l. Hundred per cent rooting was induced in separated shoots upon culturing on MS and � MS basal media. Hardening on moist cotton showed maximum plantlet survival rate in case of both genotypes. After hardening, plants were transferred to soil. Thus, a tissue culture base line was established in tomato for obtaining direct regeneration using hypocotyl as explants.

  4. Effect of Hormones on Direct Shoot Regeneration in Hypocotyl Explants of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan RASHID

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for developing a high frequency regeneration system in two genotypes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Punjab Upma and IPA-3 for direct shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants. The explants were excised from in vitro tomato seedlings and cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of hormones. Direct regeneration was significantly influenced by the genotype hormones combination and concentrations. The MS medium supplemented with (Kinetin 0.5 mg/l and (BAP 0.5 mg/l was found optimum for inducing direct shoot regeneration and number of shoots per explant from hypocotyl explants on this medium. Shoot regeneration per cent in Punjab Upma and IPA-3 per cent was recorded to be highest i.e (86.02 and (82.57 respectively. Besides this, average number shoots per explant was also highest i.e (3.16 in case of Punjab Upma and (2.93 in case of IPA-3. A significant decline was observed in percent shoot regeneration and average number of shoots per explant with increase in the hormonal concentration. Shoots were obtained and transferred to the elongation medium (MS + BAP 0.3 mg/l. Hundred per cent rooting was induced in separated shoots upon culturing on MS and MS basal media. Hardening on moist cotton showed maximum plantlet survival rate in case of both genotypes. After hardening, plants were transferred to soil. Thus, a tissue culture base line was established in tomato for obtaining direct regeneration using hypocotyl as explants.

  5. Discriminating fever behavior in house flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Anderson

    Full Text Available Fever has generally been shown to benefit infected hosts. However, fever temperatures also carry costs. While endotherms are able to limit fever costs physiologically, the means by which behavioral thermoregulators constrain these costs are less understood. Here we investigated the behavioral fever response of house flies (Musca domestica L. challenged with different doses of the fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Infected flies invoked a behavioral fever selecting the hottest temperature early in the day and then moving to cooler temperatures as the day progressed. In addition, flies infected with a higher dose of fungus exhibited more intense fever responses. These variable patterns of fever are consistent with the observation that higher fever temperatures had greater impact on fungal growth. The results demonstrate the capacity of insects to modulate the degree and duration of the fever response depending on the severity of the pathogen challenge and in so doing, balance the costs and benefits of fever.

  6. In vitro propagation of Stevia rebaudina plants using multiple shoot culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepovím, A; Vanek, T

    1998-12-01

    A multiple shoot culture was induced from nodal segments on MS medium containing half concentration of macroelements, 1% sucrose, and supplemented with NAA (0.01 mg/l). A bioreactor with hormone-free MS medium (300 ml) was inoculated with 1.5 g of the multiple shoot culture and cultivated for a month. The cultivating process of the multiple shoot culture in the bioreactor and the transfer into ex vitro conditions took about 8-9 weeks and produced approx. 600 new seedlings, that could be transferred from greenhouse to field conditions.

  7. Mechanisms of waterlogging tolerance in wheat - a review of root and shoot physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Max; Striker, Gustavo G; Colmer, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    :shoot ratio. Genotypes differ in seminal root anoxia tolerance, but mechanisms remain to be established; ethanol production rates do not explain anoxia tolerance. Root tip survival is short-term, and thereafter, seminal root re-growth upon re-aeration is limited. Genotypes differ in adventitious root numbers....... Although photosynthesis declines, sugars typically accumulate in shoots of waterlogged plants. Mn or Fe toxicity might occur in shoots of wheat on strongly acidic soils, but probably not more widely. Future breeding for waterlogging tolerance should focus on root internal aeration and better N...

  8. Micropropagation of Plantago asiatica L. through culture of shoot-tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Makowczyńska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot-tip multiplication of the medicinal species - Plantago asiatica was carried on MS medium with IAA and BAP or kinetin. Best results in micropropagation were achieved by adding 0.1 mg/dm3 IAA and 1 mg/dm3 BAP. After 6 weeks shoots were transferred to MS medium for rooting. The resulting plantlets were transferred after 8 weeks into pots and after a period of adaptation into the ground (field culture. The species Plantago asiatica was propagated in vitro by shoot-tip multiplication for the first time.

  9. Shoot regeneration of callus culture from irradiated sheed of piper nigrum L by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak; Hutabarat, D.

    1988-01-01

    Shoot regeneration was obtained from callus that induced by irradiated seed with 25 and 50 Gy of gamma-rays and then on M.S. medium containing NAA 1 ppm and 2-ip 0.5 ppm. Irradiated seed with a dose of 25 Gy produced normal root and failed to produce shoot, but rice callus. Irradiated seed with a dose of 50 Gy pruduce callus only. Shoot differentiation occured after the callus were cultured on M.S., medium containing 2-ip 1 ppm and Kinetin 2.5 ppm. (authors). 9 refs, 3 figs

  10. Mercury release from fly ashes and hydrated fly ash cement pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wen; Zhang, Chao-yang; Kong, Xiang-ming; Zhuo, Yu-qun; Zhu, Zhen-wu

    2018-04-01

    The large-scale usage of fly ash in cement and concrete introduces mercury (Hg) into concrete structures and a risk of secondary emission of Hg from the structures during long-term service was evaluated. Three fly ashes were collected from coal-fired power plants and three blend cements were prepared by mixing Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) with the same amount of fly ash. The releasing behaviors of Hg0 from the fly ash and the powdered hydrated cement pastes (HCP) were measured by a self-developed Hg measurement system, where an air-blowing part and Hg collection part were involved. The Hg release of fly ashes at room temperature varied from 25.84 to 39.69 ng/g fly ash during 90-days period of air-blowing experiment. In contrast, the Hg release of the HCPs were in a range of 8.51-18.48 ng/g HCP. It is found that the Hg release ratios of HCPs were almost the same as those of the pure fly ashes, suggesting that the hydration products of the HCP have little immobilization effect on Hg0. Increasing temperature and moisture content markedly promote the Hg release.

  11. Radiation sterilization facility for melon fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danno, A.

    1985-01-01

    The melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett) has been observed in Amami Island since l975. Kagoshima Prefecture has had a melon fly eradication project underway since 1979. A mass-fearing facility and a radiation sterilization facility were constructed in Naze in March of l98l. In the early stages of the project, sterile insects were produced at the rate of 4 x l0/sup 6/ pupae/week. In the later stages, the activity of the project was enlarged by tenfold. The conditions for design of the radiation sterilization facility, which has been developed with a central control system for automated irradiation, are examined from an engineering standpoint

  12. A Flying Wire System in the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Buxton, W.; Mahler, G.; Marusic, A.; Roser, T.; Smith, G.; Syphers, M.; Williams, N.; Witkover, R.

    1999-01-01

    As the AGS prepares to serve as the injector for RHIC, monitoring and control of the beam transverse emittance become a major and important topic. Before the installation of the flying wire system, the emittance was measured with ionization profile monitors in the AGS, which require correction for space charge effects. It is desirable to have a second means of measuring profile that is less dependent on intensity. A flying wire system has been installed in the AGS recently to perform this task. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup and the capabilities of the system

  13. Influence of calcium content of tissue on hyperhydricity and shoot-tip necrosis of in vitro regenerated shoots of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Machado

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of two CaCl2.2H2O levels (440 and 1320 mg L-1 and two subcultures were evaluated on in vitro shoots of Lavandula angustifolia cv. Provence Blue. Ca2+ content of the apical, middle and basal portion of shoots was determined. Increasing CaCl2.2H2O level in the culture medium increased tissue Ca2+ content and decreased hyperhydricity. Shoot-tip necrosis also decreased with 1320 mg L-1 CaCl2.2H2O, but it did not occur in the second subculture. The middle and basal portion had higher Ca2+ content than apical portion. In non-hyperhydric tissues, there were smaller and more juxtaposed cells. Scanning electron microscopy of the leaves demonstrated that trichomes from in vitro leaf surface occurred in smaller quantities.

  14. Direct adventitious shoot bud formation on hypocotyls explants in Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi- a biodiesel producing medicinal tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Nagar, Durga Singh; Jha, Suman Kumar; Jani, Jigar

    2015-01-01

    A reproducible protocol developed for in vitro regeneration of Milletia pinnata using hypocotyl segments. Multiple shoots were induced from hypocotyl explants through direct adventitious shoot bud regeneration. The proximal end of hypocotyls was responsive for shoot bud induction. Silver nitrate and adenine sulphate had a positive effect on shoot bud induction and elongation. The maximum response and number of shoot bud produced in media supplemented with 8.88 μM BAP with 108.6 μM adenine sul...

  15. SU-E-T-614: Plan Averaging for Multi-Criteria Navigation of Step-And-Shoot IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, M; Gao, H [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Craft, D [Massachusetts General Hospital, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Step-and-shoot IMRT is fundamentally discrete in nature, while multi-criteria optimization (MCO) is fundamentally continuous: the MCO planning consists of continuous sliding across the Pareto surface (the set of plans which represent the tradeoffs between organ-at-risk doses and target doses). In order to achieve close to real-time dose display during this sliding, it is desired that averaged plans share many of the same apertures as the pre-computed plans, since dose computation for apertures generated on-the-fly would be expensive. We propose a method to ensure that neighboring plans on a Pareto surface share many apertures. Methods: Our baseline step-and-shoot sequencing method is that of K. Engel (a method which minimizes the number of segments while guaranteeing the minimum number of monitor units), which we customize to sequence a set of Pareto optimal plans simultaneously. We also add an error tolerance to study the relationship between the number of shared apertures, the total number of apertures needed, and the quality of the fluence map re-creation. Results: We run tests for a 2D Pareto surface trading off rectum and bladder dose versus target coverage for a clinical prostate case. We find that if we enforce exact fluence map recreation, we are not able to achieve much sharing of apertures across plans. The total number of apertures for all seven beams and 4 plans without sharing is 217. With sharing and a 2% error tolerance, this number is reduced to 158 (73%). Conclusion: With the proposed method, total number of apertures can be decreased by 42% (averaging) with no increment of total MU, when an error tolerance of 5% is allowed. With this large amount of sharing, dose computations for averaged plans which occur during Pareto navigation will be much faster, leading to a real-time what-you-see-is-what-you-get Pareto navigation experience. Minghao Guo and Hao Gao were partially supported by the NSFC (#11405105), the 973 Program (#2015CB856000

  16. SU-E-T-614: Plan Averaging for Multi-Criteria Navigation of Step-And-Shoot IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, M; Gao, H; Craft, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Step-and-shoot IMRT is fundamentally discrete in nature, while multi-criteria optimization (MCO) is fundamentally continuous: the MCO planning consists of continuous sliding across the Pareto surface (the set of plans which represent the tradeoffs between organ-at-risk doses and target doses). In order to achieve close to real-time dose display during this sliding, it is desired that averaged plans share many of the same apertures as the pre-computed plans, since dose computation for apertures generated on-the-fly would be expensive. We propose a method to ensure that neighboring plans on a Pareto surface share many apertures. Methods: Our baseline step-and-shoot sequencing method is that of K. Engel (a method which minimizes the number of segments while guaranteeing the minimum number of monitor units), which we customize to sequence a set of Pareto optimal plans simultaneously. We also add an error tolerance to study the relationship between the number of shared apertures, the total number of apertures needed, and the quality of the fluence map re-creation. Results: We run tests for a 2D Pareto surface trading off rectum and bladder dose versus target coverage for a clinical prostate case. We find that if we enforce exact fluence map recreation, we are not able to achieve much sharing of apertures across plans. The total number of apertures for all seven beams and 4 plans without sharing is 217. With sharing and a 2% error tolerance, this number is reduced to 158 (73%). Conclusion: With the proposed method, total number of apertures can be decreased by 42% (averaging) with no increment of total MU, when an error tolerance of 5% is allowed. With this large amount of sharing, dose computations for averaged plans which occur during Pareto navigation will be much faster, leading to a real-time what-you-see-is-what-you-get Pareto navigation experience. Minghao Guo and Hao Gao were partially supported by the NSFC (#11405105), the 973 Program (#2015CB856000

  17. Optimization of soil stabilization with class C fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Previous Iowa DOT sponsored research has shown that some Class : C fly ashes are cementitious (because calcium is combined as calcium : aluminates) while other Class C ashes containing similar amounts of : elemental calcium are not (1). Fly ashes fro...

  18. Properties of Fly Ash Blocks Made from Adobe Mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Alankrit; Divakar, B. S.; Jawalgi, Archana S.; Renukadevi, M. V.; Jagadish, K. S.

    2018-06-01

    Fly ash being one of the industrial waste products poses a serious disposal problem. This paper presents an experimental study of utilization of fly ash to produce blocks with varying proportions and mix combinations. Composition of fly ash blocks mainly consist of fly ash and sand, with cementitious product as either cement, lime or both, such as fly ash-sand-cement, fly ash-sand-lime and fly ash-sand-cement-lime are used. Four different proportions for each of the mix combinations are experimented. Compressive strength, water absorption, Initial rate of absorption, and dry density of fly ash blocks are studied. The influence of partial and complete replacement of cement by lime is examined.

  19. Properties of Fly Ash Blocks Made from Adobe Mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Alankrit; Divakar, B. S.; Jawalgi, Archana S.; Renukadevi, M. V.; Jagadish, K. S.

    2018-02-01

    Fly ash being one of the industrial waste products poses a serious disposal problem. This paper presents an experimental study of utilization of fly ash to produce blocks with varying proportions and mix combinations. Composition of fly ash blocks mainly consist of fly ash and sand, with cementitious product as either cement, lime or both, such as fly ash-sand-cement, fly ash-sand-lime and fly ash-sand-cement-lime are used. Four different proportions for each of the mix combinations are experimented. Compressive strength, water absorption, Initial rate of absorption, and dry density of fly ash blocks are studied. The influence of partial and complete replacement of cement by lime is examined.

  20. Citrus flush shoot ontogeny modulates biotic potential of Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-Arenas, Juan Camilo; de Goes, António; de Miranda, Marcelo Pedreira; Beattie, George Andrew Charles; Lopes, Silvio Aparecido

    2018-01-01

    The biology and behaviour of the psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Liviidae), the major insect vector of bacteria associated with huanglongbing, have been extensively studied with respect to host preferences, thermal requirements, and responses to visual and chemical volatile stimuli. However, development of the psyllid in relation to the ontogeny of immature citrus flush growth has not been clearly defined or illustrated. Such information is important for determining the timing and frequency of measures used to minimize populations of the psyllid in orchards and spread of HLB. Our objective was to study how flush ontogeny influences the biotic potential of the psyllid. We divided citrus flush growth into six stages within four developmental phases: emergence (V1), development (V2 and V3), maturation (V4 and V5), and dormancy (V6). Diaphorina citri oviposition and nymph development were assessed on all flush stages in a temperature controlled room, and in a screen-house in which ambient temperatures varied. Our results show that biotic potential of Diaphorina citri is not a matter of the size or the age of the flushes (days after budbreak), but the developmental stage within its ontogeny. Females laid eggs on flush V1 to V5 only, with the time needed to commence oviposition increasing with the increasing in flush age. Stages V1, V2 and V3 were most suitable for oviposition, nymph survival and development, and adult emergence, which showed evidence of protandry. Flush shoots at emerging and developmental phases should be the focus of any chemical or biological control strategy to reduce the biotic potential of D. citri, to protect citrus tree from Liberibacter infection and to minimize HLB dissemination.

  1. Localization of cells containing sedimented amyloplasts in the shoots of normal and lazy rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Takahashi, H; Suge, H

    1994-12-01

    We have examined the localization of the cells containing sedimented amyloplasts (putative statocytes) and its relation to the graviresponding sites in the shoots of normal and lazy rice seedlings. All graviresponsive organs of the shoots of normal rice seedlings, the mesocotyl, the coleoptile and the leaf-sheath base, were found to possess the statocytes. This is the first indication that mesocotyl senses gravity by its own cells in inducing gravitropic bending in rice seedlings. In lazy-Kamenoo, although the shoots lost their gravitropic response with the advance of age, sedimentation of amyloplasts itself might not be attributable to the agravitropic growth of the shoots, because, including those of the leaf-sheath bases that had lost their response to gravity, sedimented amyloplasts appeared to be identical to those of normal Kamenoo and of younger seedlings of lazy-Kamenoo whose gravitropism is still apparent.

  2. Study on the growth and development of brinjal shoot and fruit borer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... 2Department of Crop Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. ... various aspects of the insect's life and activity with a view to evolving .... of brinjal shoot and fruit borer is still a difficult job. Many.

  3. Solution of Constrained Optimal Control Problems Using Multiple Shooting and ESDIRK Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2012-01-01

    of this paper is the use of ESDIRK integration methods for solution of the initial value problems and the corresponding sensitivity equations arising in the multiple shooting algorithm. Compared to BDF-methods, ESDIRK-methods are advantageous in multiple shooting algorithms in which restarts and frequent...... algorithm. As we consider stiff systems, implicit solvers with sensitivity computation capabilities for initial value problems must be used in the multiple shooting algorithm. Traditionally, multi-step methods based on the BDF algorithm have been used for such problems. The main novel contribution...... discontinuities on each shooting interval are present. The ESDIRK methods are implemented using an inexact Newton method that reuses the factorization of the iteration matrix for the integration as well as the sensitivity computation. Numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the algorithm....

  4. Mass shootings: a meta-analysis of the dose-response relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C

    2014-12-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the dose-response theory as it relates to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) following mass shootings. It was hypothesized that greater exposure to a mass shooting would be associated with greater PTSSs. Trauma exposure in the current study was broadly defined as the extent to which a person experienced or learned about a mass shooting. The meta-analysis identified 11 qualifying studies that included 13 independent effect sizes from a total of 8,047 participants. The overall weighted mean effect size, based on a random effects model, was r = .19, p shooting on the relationship between exposure and PTSSs. Because so few studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, the present study also documents that this area of the literature is underresearched. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  5. Application of tape unit in data acquisition system and its maintenance and trouble shoot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Jianping; Qian Xicheng

    1995-01-01

    Application of magnetic tape unit in data acquisition system of DEC computer imported from German and its maintenance as well as trouble shoot is described. The system is used for nuclear data acquisition and processing

  6. Empirical models in the description of prickly pear shoot (Nopal drying kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel M. Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to describe the technological process involved in the drying kinetics of fresh-cut prickly pear shoots through numerical and analytical solutions. Shoots of two different prickly pear species were used, ‘Gigante’ and ‘Miúda’. Drying was performed at different temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C and weighing procedures were made continuously. The experimental data were expressed as moisture ratio. The Page model showed the best fit to the drying kinetics of minimally processed ‘Gigante’ and ‘Miúda’ prickly pear shoots, with the best coefficients of determination and Chi-square. Peleg and Wang & Singh models can not be used to simulate the drying of ‘Gigante’ and ‘Miúda’ prickly pear shoots within the evaluated range of temperatures, showing an incoherent graphic pattern.

  7. An Integrated Strategy to Identify Key Genes in Almond Adventitious Shoot Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant genetic transformation usually depends on efficient adventitious regeneration systems. In almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), regeneration of transgenic adventitious shoots was achieved but with low efficiency. Histological studies identified two main stages of organogenesis in almond explants that ...

  8. beta-Blockade used in precision sports: effect on pistol shooting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, P; Ladefoged, J; Nielsen, U; Paulev, P E; Sørensen, J P

    1986-08-01

    In a double-blind cross-over study of 33 marksmen (standard pistol, 25 m) the adrenergic beta 1-receptor blocker, metoprolol, was compared to placebo. Metoprolol obviously improved the pistol shooting performance compared with placebo. Shooting improved by 13.4% of possible improvement (i.e., 600 points minus actual points obtained) as an average (SE = 4%, 2P less than 0.002). The most skilled athletes demonstrated the clearest metoprolol improvement. We found no correlation between the shooting improvement and changes in the cardiovascular variables (i.e., changes of heart rate and systolic blood pressure) and no correlation to the estimated maximum O2 uptake. The shooting improvement is an effect of metoprolol on hand tremor. Emotional increase of heart rate and systolic blood pressure seem to be a beta 1-receptor phenomenon.

  9. Absence of Hg transpiration by shoot after Hg uptake by roots of six terrestrial plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria; Wang Yaodong; Neuschuetz, Clara

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we investigated if, and to what extent, six different plant species accumulate, translocate and emit mercury (Hg) into the air. The Hg uptake by roots, distribution of Hg to the shoot and release of Hg via shoots of garden pea, spring wheat, sugar beet, oil-seed rape, white clover and willow were investigated in a transpiration chamber. The airborne Hg was trapped in a Hopcalite trap or a gold trap. Traps and plant materials were analysed for content of Hg by CVAAS. The results show that all plant species were able to take up Hg to a large extent from a nutrient solution containing 200 μg L -1 Hg. However, the Hg translocation to the shoot was low (0.17-2.5%) and the Hg that reached the leaves was trapped and no release of the absorbed Hg to the air was detected. - Mercury translocation to shoots was low

  10. The effect of different doses of caffeine on cardiovascular variables and shooting performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Mohsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 3 mg and 5 mg per kg of body weight of caffeine on heart rate, blood pressure and shooting performance among elite shooters.

  11. Alginate-encapsulation of shoot tips of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] for germplasm exchange and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Rai, Manoj K; Singh, Narender; Mangal, Manisha

    2010-12-01

    Shoot tips excised from in vitro proliferated shoots derived from nodal explants of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads for germplasm exchange and distribution. A gelling matrix of 3 % sodium alginate and 100 mM calcium chloride was found most suitable for formation of ideal calcium alginate beads. Best response for shoot sprouting from encapsulated shoot tips was recorded on 0.8 % agar-solidified full-strength MS medium. Rooting was induced upon transfer of sprouted shoots to 0.8 % agar-solidified MS medium containing 1 mg l(-1) IBA. About 70 % of encapsulated shoot tips were rooted and converted into plantlets. Plants regenerated from encapsulated shoot tips were acclimatized successfully. The present encapsulation approach could also be applied as an alternative method of propagation of desirable elite genotype of jojoba.

  12. Direct adventitious shoot bud formation on hypocotyls explants in Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi- a biodiesel producing medicinal tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Durga Singh; Jha, Suman Kumar; Jani, Jigar

    2015-04-01

    A reproducible protocol developed for in vitro regeneration of Milletia pinnata using hypocotyl segments. Multiple shoots were induced from hypocotyl explants through direct adventitious shoot bud regeneration. The proximal end of hypocotyls was responsive for shoot bud induction. Silver nitrate and adenine sulphate had a positive effect on shoot bud induction and elongation. The maximum response and number of shoot bud produced in media supplemented with 8.88 μM BAP with 108.6 μM adenine sulphate and 11.84 μM silver nitrate. Elongated shoots were harvested and successful rooting of microshoots achieved on MS media supplemented with 9.84 μM IBA, with 81.1 % rooting. Remaining shoot buds sub-cultured for further multiplication and elongation. Each subculture produced eight to nine elongated microshoots up to four subcultures. The rooted microshoots were successfully hardened and transferred to field.

  13. Blow flies as urban wildlife sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Constanze; Merkel, Kevin; Sachse, Andreas; Rodríguez, Pablo; Leendertz, Fabian H; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien

    2018-05-01

    Wildlife detection in urban areas is very challenging. Conventional monitoring techniques such as direct observation are faced with the limitation that urban wildlife is extremely elusive. It was recently shown that invertebrate-derived DNA (iDNA) can be used to assess wildlife diversity in tropical rainforests. Flies, which are ubiquitous and very abundant in most cities, may also be used to detect wildlife in urban areas. In urban ecosystems, however, overwhelming quantities of domestic mammal DNA could completely mask the presence of wild mammal DNA. To test whether urban wild mammals can be detected using fly iDNA, we performed DNA metabarcoding of pools of flies captured in Berlin, Germany, using three combinations of blocking primers. Our results show that domestic animal sequences are, as expected, very dominant in urban environments. Nevertheless, wild mammal sequences can often be retrieved, although they usually only represent a minor fraction of the sequence reads. Fly iDNA metabarcoding is therefore a viable approach for quick scans of urban wildlife diversity. Interestingly, our study also shows that blocking primers can interact with each other in ways that affect the outcome of metabarcoding. We conclude that the use of complex combinations of blocking primers, although potentially powerful, should be carefully planned when designing experiments. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. FLY ASH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO POWDERED ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The peaks observed at 1546 and 1511 cm−1 correspond to CO3. 2- group. Symmetric .... The values of RL reported in Table 5 obtained were less than one, indicating that the adsorption of eosin dye ... This work. Coal fly ash. Crystal Violet.

  15. Calcium homeostasis in fly photoreceptor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberwinkler, J

    2002-01-01

    In fly photoreceptor cells, two processes dominate the Ca2+ homeostasis: light-induced Ca2+ influx through members of the TRP family of ion channels, and Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+ exchange.Ca2+ release from intracellular stores is quantitatively insignificant. Both, the light-activated channels and

  16. Letting Your Students "Fly" in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Students investigate the concept of motion by making simple paper airplanes and flying them in the classroom. Students are introduced to conversion factors to calculate various speeds. Additional activities include rounding decimal numbers, estimating, finding averages, making bar graphs, and solving problems. Offers ideas for extension such as…

  17. A Coincidental Sound Track for "Time Flies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    Sound tracks serve a valuable purpose in film and video by helping tell a story, create a mood, and signal coming events. Holst's "Mars" from "The Planets" yields a coincidental soundtrack to Eric Rohmann's Caldecott-winning book, "Time Flies." This pairing provides opportunities for upper elementary and…

  18. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  19. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    to attempt making zeolite from fly ash (Höller and Wir- sching 1985; Henmi ... thermal treatment method to synthesize low silica NaX- type zeolite from .... catalytic applications. Mixture of ... amount of Fe2O3 and the oxides of Mg, Ca, P, Ti etc. The chemical ..... This work is partly supported by the Ministry of Human. Resource ...

  20. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coal fly ash was used to synthesize X-type zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment. The synthesized zeolite was characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, BET method for surface area measurement etc.

  1. Unidentified Flying Objects, A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kay, Comp.

    This bibliography, intended for the general reader, provides selective coverage of the unidentified flying object (UFO) literature that has appeared since 1969. The coverage is limited to English language works, but does include translations and materials published abroad. Other bibliographies are listed, as are books, congressional and other…

  2. Lyssavirus in Indian Flying Foxes, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Panduka S; Marston, Denise A; Ellis, Richard J; Wise, Emma L; Karawita, Anjana C; Breed, Andrew C; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Johnson, Nicholas; Banyard, Ashley C; Fooks, Anthony R

    2016-08-01

    A novel lyssavirus was isolated from brains of Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus genome sequences, and geographic location and host species, provides strong evidence that this virus is a putative new lyssavirus species, designated as Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus.

  3. On Optical Crosstalk between Fly Rhabdomeres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaard, W.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    In a fly retinula light may be transferred among the rhabdomeres. It is estimated that the light from a point source imaged on the axis of a rhabdomere may eventually be transferred completely to a neighbouring rhabdomere. However, the effect on the sensitivity of this latter rhabdomere will remain

  4. Studies of Complex Behavior and Their Relation to Trouble Shooting in Electronic Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1957-06-01

    discussed. It has been concluded that the study of human problem • . solving, concept formation, probability learning, and so forth, has i. provided litt 1...five actions) used by men in trouble shooting radio problemson the MASTS , AUTOMI STS, arid a job—sample test . There were five L categories so defined...Defense Human Research Unit ’ s proposed Task MA INTRAIN• will be drawn upon as needed for the non—trouble —shooting topics. I

  5. Pre-hospital management of mass casualty civilian shootings: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Conor D. A.; Lockey, David J.; Rehn, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Background Mass casualty civilian shootings present an uncommon but recurring challenge to emergency services around the world and produce unique management demands. On the background of a rising threat of transnational terrorism worldwide, emergency response strategies are of critical importance. This study aims to systematically identify, describe and appraise the quality of indexed and non-indexed literature on the pre-hospital management of modern civilian mass shootings to guide future p...

  6. [Identifying transcription factors involved in Arabidopsis adventious shoot regeneration by RNA-Seq technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingchun; Chen, Zhao; Fan, Juan; He, Miaomiao; Han, Yuanhuai; Yang, Zhirong

    2015-04-01

    Transcriptional regulation is one of the major regulations in plant adventious shoot regeneration, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. In our study, the RNA-seq technology based on the IlluminaHiSeq 2000 sequencing platform was used to identify differentially expressed transcription factor (TF) encoding genes during callus formation stage and adventious shoot regeneration stage between wild type and adventious shoot formation defective mutant be1-3 and during the transition from dedifferentiation to redifferentiation stage in wildtype WS. Results show that 155 TFs were differentially expressed between be1-3 mutant and wild type during callus formation, of which 97 genes were up-regulated, and 58 genes were down-regulated; and that 68 genes were differentially expressed during redifferentiation stage, with 40 genes up-regulated and 28 genes down-regulated; whereas at the transition stage from dedifferentiation to redifferention in WS wild type explants, a total of 231 differentially expressed TF genes were identified, including 160 up-regualted genes and 71 down-regulated genes. Among these TF genes, the adventious shoot related transcription factor 1 (ART1) gene encoding a MYB-related (v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog) TF, was up-regulated 3 217 folds, and was the highest up-regulated gene during be1-3 callus formation. Over expression of the ART1 gene caused defects in callus formation and shoot regeneration and inhibited seedling growth, indicating that the ART1 gene is a negative regulator of callus formation and shoot regeneration. This work not only enriches our knowledge about the transcriptional regulation mechanism of adventious shoot regeneration, but also provides valuable information on candidate TF genes associated with adventious shoot regeneration for future research.

  7. Efficient regeneration of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, from shoot-tip explant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamala, D; Devi, Prathibha

    2003-12-01

    Novel protocols for production of multiple shoot-tip clumps and somatic embryos of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench were developed with long-term goal of crop improvement through genetic transformation. Multiple shoot-tip clumps were developed in vitro from shoot-tip explant of one-week old seedling, cultured on MS medium containing only BA (0.5, 1 or 2 mg/l) or both BA (1 or 2 mg/l) and 2,4-D (0.5 mg/l) with bi-weekly subculture. Somatic embryos were directly produced on the enlarged dome shaped growing structures that developed from the shoot-tips of one-week old seedling explants (without any callus formation) when cultured on MS medium supplemented with both 2,4-D (0.5 mg/l) and BA (0.5 mg/l). However, the supplementation of MS medium with only 2,4-D (0.5 mg/l) induced compact callus without any plantlet regeneration. Each multiple shoot-clump was capable of regenerating more than 80 shoots via an intensive differentiation of both axillary and adventitious shoot buds, the somatic embryos were capable of 90% germination, plant conversion and regeneration. The regenerated shoots could be efficiently rooted on MS medium containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA 1 mg/l). The plants were successfully transplanted to glasshouse and grown to maturity with a survival rate of 98%. Morphogenetic response of the explants was found to be genotypically independent.

  8. The FANTASTIC FOUR proteins influence shoot meristem size in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Vanessa; Brand, Luise H; Guo, Ya-Long; Schmid, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Throughout their lives plants produce new organs from groups of pluripotent cells called meristems, located at the tips of the shoot and the root. The size of the shoot meristem is tightly controlled by a feedback loop, which involves the homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) and the CLAVATA (CLV) proteins. This regulatory circuit is further fine-tuned by morphogenic signals such as hormones and sugars. Results Here we show that a family of four plant-specific pro...

  9. Roles of abscisic acid and auxin in shoot-supplied ammonium inhibition of root system development

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Baohai; Li, Qing; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2011-01-01

    A plastic root system is a prerequisite for successful plant acclimation to variable environments. The normally functioning root system is the result of a complex interaction of root-borne signals and shoot-derived regulators. We recently demonstrated that AUX1, a well-studied component of auxin transport, mediates shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) inhibition of lateral root (LR) formation in Arabidopsis. By contrast, the response did not involve ABA pathways, via which several other abiotic stre...

  10. Linking cases of illegal shootings of the endangered California condor using stable lead isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Myra E., E-mail: myraf@ucsc.edu [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kuspa, Zeka E. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Welch, Alacia [National Park Service, Pinnacles National Park, 5000 Highway 146, Paicines, CA 95043 (United States); Eng, Curtis; Clark, Michael [Los Angeles Zoo and Botanical Gardens, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Burnett, Joseph [Ventana Wildlife Society, 19045 Portola Dr. Ste. F-1, Salinas, CA 93908 (United States); Smith, Donald R. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Lead poisoning is preventing the recovery of the critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and lead isotope analyses have demonstrated that ingestion of spent lead ammunition is the principal source of lead poisoning in condors. Over an 8 month period in 2009, three lead-poisoned condors were independently presented with birdshot embedded in their tissues, evidencing they had been shot. No information connecting these illegal shooting events existed and the timing of the shooting(s) was unknown. Using lead concentration and stable lead isotope analyses of feathers, blood, and recovered birdshot, we observed that: i) lead isotope ratios of embedded shot from all three birds were measurably indistinguishable from each other, suggesting a common source; ii) lead exposure histories re-constructed from feather analysis suggested that the shooting(s) occurred within the same timeframe; and iii) two of the three condors were lead poisoned from a lead source isotopically indistinguishable from the embedded birdshot, implicating ingestion of this type of birdshot as the source of poisoning. One of the condors was subsequently lead poisoned the following year from ingestion of a lead buckshot (blood lead 556 µg/dL), illustrating that ingested shot possess a substantially greater lead poisoning risk compared to embedded shot retained in tissue (blood lead ∼20 µg/dL). To our knowledge, this is the first study to use lead isotopes as a tool to retrospectively link wildlife shooting events. - Highlights: • We conducted a case-based analysis of illegal shootings of California condors. • Blood and feather Pb isotopes were used to reconstruct the illegal shooting events. • Embedded birdshot from the three condors had the same Pb isotope ratios. • Feather and blood Pb isotopes indicated that the condors were shot in a common event. • Ingested shot causes substantially greater lead exposure compared to embedded shot.

  11. Fatal school shootings and the epidemiological context of firearm mortality in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Shultz, James M; Cohen, Alyssa M; Muschert, Glenn W; Flores de Apodaca, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Background The December 14, 2012 mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, USA, vaulted concerns regarding gun violence to the forefront of public attention. This high-visibility incident occurred within the epidemiological context of U.S. firearm mortality that claims more than 88 lives daily. Methods National epidemiologic data on firearm deaths over two decades were analyzed along with data registries on school shootings in order to place the tragedy at Sandy H...

  12. Differences between height- and light-dependent changes in shoot traits in five deciduous tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Noriyuki; Okabe, Yoshihiko; Hayashi, Daisuke; Katsuyama, Tomonori; Tokuchi, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of tree height on shoot traits may in some cases differ in magnitude and direction from the effects of light. Nevertheless, general patterns of change in shoot traits in relation to variations in height and light have not so far been revealed. A comprehensive analysis of the differences between the effects of height and light on a range of leaf and shoot traits is important for the scaling of these traits to individual trees. We investigated the biomass allocation and structure of current-year shoots at the top of the crowns of five deciduous tree species in Japan. Height effect was investigated by comparing shoot traits among trees of different heights growing under a high light environment. The effects of light were examined by comparing saplings growing in high- and low-light environments. The effects of light were significant for most traits, while those of height were not significant for some traits. The magnitudes of the effects of light were larger than those of height for most traits related to biomass allocation. There was an extreme difference between the effects of height and light in the direction of change in the length of current-year shoots and in the number of standing leaves. The measures of both parameters increased with the increase in light, but decreased with the increase in tree height. Thus, the effects of height and light on diverse traits at the level of current-year shoots were not always similar. These results suggest that great care must be taken when scaling shoot traits from small trees to tall trees because the effects of height and light can be complex.

  13. Upshot of Elevated Temperature on Performance Facet of Fly Ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effects of elevated temperature variation on the compressive strength of Fly Ash/Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) Laterized concrete ... and 10% Fly ash content at 2500C. This is an indication that the strength of Fly ash/OPC Laterized concrete is generally sufficient for use at elevated temperature ...

  14. Acetylcholinesterase mutations and organophosphate resistance in sand flies and mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishmaniasis is an insect-borne disease caused by several protozoan species in the genus Leishmania, which are vectored by sand fly species in the genera Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia, depending on the sand fly species geographic range. Sand fly bites and leishmaniasis significantly impacted U.S. milita...

  15. Giant panda foraging and movement patterns in response to bamboo shoot growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingchun; Zhang, Zhizhong; Li, Zhong; Hong, Mingsheng; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhou, Shiqiang; Zhang, Jindong; Hull, Vanessa; Huang, Jinyan; Zhang, Hemin

    2018-03-01

    Diet plays a pivotal role in dictating behavioral patterns of herbivorous animals, particularly specialist species. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is well-known as a bamboo specialist. In the present study, the response of giant pandas to spatiotemporal variation of bamboo shoots was explored using field surveys and GPS collar tracking. Results show the dynamics in panda-bamboo space-time relationships that have not been previously articulated. For instance, we found a higher bamboo stump height of foraged bamboo with increasing elevation, places where pandas foraged later in spring when bamboo shoots become more fibrous and woody. The time required for shoots to reach optimum height for foraging was significantly delayed as elevation increased, a pattern which corresponded with panda elevational migration patterns beginning from the lower elevational end of Fargesia robusta distribution and gradually shifting upward until the end of the shooting season. These results indicate that giant pandas can respond to spatiotemporal variation of bamboo resources, such as available shoots. Anthropogenic interference of low-elevation F. robusta habitat should be mitigated, and conservation attention and increased monitoring should be given to F. robusta areas at the low- and mid-elevation ranges, particularly in the spring shooting season.

  16. Shoot Organogenesis and Plant Regeneration from Leaf Explants of Lysionotus serratus D. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiansheng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The gesneriaceous perennial plant, Lysionotus serratus, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. It also has a great development potential as an ornamental plant with its attractive foliage and beautiful flowers. An efficient propagation and regeneration system via direct shoot organogenesis from leaf explant was established in this study. High active cytokinin (6-benzyladenine (BA or thidiazuron (TDZ was effective for direct organogenesis of initial induction. Murashige and Skoog (MS growth media containing 0.5 mg L−1 BA alone or with combination of 0.1 mg L−1  α-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA were the most effective for shoot proliferation. High BA concentration (1.0 mg L−1 in the media caused high percentage of vitrified shoots though they introduced high shoot proliferation rate. Histological observation indicated that adventitious shoot regeneration on the medium containing 0.5 mg L−1 BA alone occurred directly from leaf epidermal cells without callus formation. Regenerated shoots rooted well on medium containing half-strength MS medium with 0.5 mg L−1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, and the plantlets successfully acclimatized and grew vigorously in the greenhouse with a 94.2% and 92.1% survival rate.

  17. The impact of personality traits and professional experience on police officers' shooting performance under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Annemarie; Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Oudejans, Raôul R D

    2016-07-01

    We explored the impact of professional experience and personality on police officers' shooting performance under pressure. We recruited: (1) regular officers, (2) officers wanting to join a specialised arrest unit (AU) (expected to possess more stress-resistant traits; pre-AU) and (3) officers from this unit (expected to also possess more professional experience; AU) (all male). In Phase 1, we determined personality traits and experience. In Phase 2, state anxiety, shot accuracy, decision-making (shoot/don't shoot), movement speed and gaze behaviour were measured while officers performed a shooting test under low and high pressure. Results indicate minimal differences in personality among groups and superior performance of AU officers. Regression analyses showed that state anxiety and shooting performance under high pressure were first predicted by AU experience and second by certain personality traits. Results suggest that although personality traits attenuate the impact of high pressure, it is relevant experience that secures effective performance under pressure. Practitioner Summary: To obtain information for police selection and training purposes, we let officers who differed in personality and experience execute a shooting test under low and high pressure. Outcomes indicate that experience affected anxiety and performance most strongly, while personality traits of thrill- and adventure-seeking and self-control also had an effect.

  18. Cytokinin induced shoot regeneration and flowering of Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae)-an ethnomedicinal herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, G; Sankaranarayanan, R; Jeeva, S; Rajarathinam, K

    2011-06-01

    To develop an improved protocol for micropropagation of ethnomedicinally important Scoparia dulcis (S. dulcis) L. Explants were inoculated on MS basal medium supplemented with kinetin and 6-benzylaminopurine for shoot bud induction. To enhance the shoot induction, various auxins like 3-indoleacetic acid or 3-indolebutyric acid or α-naphthylacetic acid were tested along with 2.32 M KI and 4.44 µM BAP. The regenerated shoots were rooted in half strength MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of IAA, IBA or NAA. After roots were developed, the plantlets were transplanted to pots filled with vermiculate and sand and kept in growth chamber with 70%-80% humidity under 16 h photoperiod. After acclimatization, the plantlets were transferred to the garden and survival percentage was calculated. Data were statistically analyzed and means were compared using Duncan's multiple range test (Pdulcis. Shoot induction on young leaf explants was most successful in MS medium supplemented with combination of two cytokinins (2.32 µM KI and 4.44 µM BAP) 2.85 µM IAA, 10% CM and 1 483.79 µM adenine sulfate. A single young leaf explant was capable of producing 59 shoots after 13 days of culture. Flower was induced in medium supplemented with combination of KI and BAP. Cytokinins are the key factor to induce the direct shoot regeneration and flowering of S. dulcis.

  19. Strategies of copper tolerance in root and shoot of broad bean (Vicia faba L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latef, A.A.H.; Alhmad, M.F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dry mass and some physiological parameters were investigated in root and shoot of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) exposed to different concentrations of CuSO/sub 4/ (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg kg/sup -1/) for 15 days. Low Cu concentration did not affect dry mass of root and shoot. However, the negative effect of copper on dry mass was noticed in root than shoot especially at the higher concentrations of copper due to the accumulation of Cu was higher in root than that in shoot. Cu induced changes in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, Zn, K and Ca. Exposure to Cu induced the accumulation of organic solutes (soluble sugar, soluble protein and total free amino acids) in root than shoot. Level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was correlated with the concentration of Cu in broad bean tissues. Copper stimulated the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) and this stimulation was more obvious in shoot than root. (author)

  20. Capability and opportunity in hot shooting performance: Evidence from top-scoring NBA leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    In basketball games, whenever players successfully shoot in streaks, they are expected to demonstrate heightened performance for a stretch of time. Streak shooting in basketball has been debated for more than three decades, but most studies have provided little significant statistical evidence and have labeled random subjective judgments the “hot hand fallacy.” To obtain a broader perspective of the hot hand phenomenon and its accompanying influences on the court, this study uses field goal records and optical tracking data from the official NBA database for the entire 2015–2016 season to analyze top-scoring leaders’ shooting performances. We first reflect on the meaning of “hot hand” and the “Matthew effect” in actual basketball competition. Second, this study employs statistical models to integrate three different shooting perspectives (field goal percentage, points scored, and attempts). This study’s findings shed new light not only on the existence or nonexistence of streaks, but on the roles of capability and opportunity in NBA hot shooting. Furthermore, we show how hot shooting performances resulting from capability and opportunity lead to actual differences for teams. PMID:29432458

  1. Capability and opportunity in hot shooting performance: Evidence from top-scoring NBA leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shun-Chuan

    2018-01-01

    In basketball games, whenever players successfully shoot in streaks, they are expected to demonstrate heightened performance for a stretch of time. Streak shooting in basketball has been debated for more than three decades, but most studies have provided little significant statistical evidence and have labeled random subjective judgments the "hot hand fallacy." To obtain a broader perspective of the hot hand phenomenon and its accompanying influences on the court, this study uses field goal records and optical tracking data from the official NBA database for the entire 2015-2016 season to analyze top-scoring leaders' shooting performances. We first reflect on the meaning of "hot hand" and the "Matthew effect" in actual basketball competition. Second, this study employs statistical models to integrate three different shooting perspectives (field goal percentage, points scored, and attempts). This study's findings shed new light not only on the existence or nonexistence of streaks, but on the roles of capability and opportunity in NBA hot shooting. Furthermore, we show how hot shooting performances resulting from capability and opportunity lead to actual differences for teams.

  2. Capability and opportunity in hot shooting performance: Evidence from top-scoring NBA leaders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Chuan Chang

    Full Text Available In basketball games, whenever players successfully shoot in streaks, they are expected to demonstrate heightened performance for a stretch of time. Streak shooting in basketball has been debated for more than three decades, but most studies have provided little significant statistical evidence and have labeled random subjective judgments the "hot hand fallacy." To obtain a broader perspective of the hot hand phenomenon and its accompanying influences on the court, this study uses field goal records and optical tracking data from the official NBA database for the entire 2015-2016 season to analyze top-scoring leaders' shooting performances. We first reflect on the meaning of "hot hand" and the "Matthew effect" in actual basketball competition. Second, this study employs statistical models to integrate three different shooting perspectives (field goal percentage, points scored, and attempts. This study's findings shed new light not only on the existence or nonexistence of streaks, but on the roles of capability and opportunity in NBA hot shooting. Furthermore, we show how hot shooting performances resulting from capability and opportunity lead to actual differences for teams.

  3. Assessment of carbon sources on in vitro shoot regeneration in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.H.; Jan, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative approach for in vitro shoot regeneration by both direct and indirect means was developed in three tomato genotypes culturing hypocotyls and leaf discs explants on MS and N6 basal media fortified with various concentrations of carbon sources (sucrose and sorbitol) individually, accumulatively and also in amalgamation with various plant growth regulators. No response of in vitro shoot regeneration was recorded in all the genotypes by the individual application of carbon sources in both MS and N6 basal media. On the other hand, their accumulative effect rapidly enhanced the in vitro shoot regeneration frequency in all the genotypes. The highest shoot organogenesis frequency (100, 99.00 and 97.69%) was recorded in Rio Grande, Roma and Moneymaker, respectively on MS medium fortified with carbon sources (30: 30 g/l) culturing hypocotyls. Supplementation of sucrose: sorbitol (30: 30 g/l) in N6 medium along with different PGRs (0.1 mg/l IAA, 1.0 mg/l ZEA and 2.0 mg/l BAP) produced the highest shoot regeneration frequency (96.33, 92.69 and 88.74%) in Roma, Rio Grande and Moneymaker culturing leaf discs. Our findings suggest an alternative approach as hormone-free protocol for in vitro shoot regeneration in tomato that would save the resources with regard to hormonal costs and time. (author)

  4. Evolutionary potential of root chemical defense: genetic correlations with shoot chemistry and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J D; Salminen, J-P; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2012-08-01

    Root herbivores can affect plant fitness, and roots often contain the same secondary metabolites that act as defenses in shoots, but the ecology and evolution of root chemical defense have been little investigated. Here, we investigated genetic variance, heritability, and correlations among defensive phenolic compounds in shoot vs. root tissues of common evening primrose, Oenothera biennis. Across 20 genotypes, there were roughly similar concentrations of total phenolics in shoots vs. roots, but the allocation of particular phenolics to shoots vs. roots varied along a continuum of genotype growth rate. Slow-growing genotypes allocated 2-fold more of the potential pro-oxidant oenothein B to shoots than roots, whereas fast-growing genotypes had roughly equivalent above and belowground concentrations. Phenolic concentrations in both roots and shoots were strongly heritable, with mostly positive patterns of genetic covariation. Nonetheless, there was genotype-specific variation in the presence/absence of two major ellagitannins (oenothein A and its precursor oenothein B), indicating two different chemotypes based on alterations in this chemical pathway. Overall, the presence of strong genetic variation in root defenses suggests ample scope for the evolution of these compounds as defenses against root herbivores.

  5. Influence of fertilizer placements on the root and shoot growth of soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments have been carried out to obtain data of soybean growth in relation to fertilizer placements in the soil. Treatments in these two experiments were: fertilizer (N, P, and K) placements at the soil surface, 5, 10, and 15 cm beneath the soil surface and the plants were harvested at the age of 51, 58, and 65 days after seed planting, in the first experiment, and in the second experiment plants were harvested at the age of 37, 44, and 51 days after seed planting. The parameter for root growth was the percentage of roots in soil depths at: 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 cm, respectively, while for shoot growth the parameters were the dry weight of the shoot, plant height, and number of flowers and pods. Data obtained from these two experiments showed that fertilizer placements at several soil depths have no influence on the growth of root and shoot. The highest shoot growth was at 0-5 cm soil depth, but this does not cause highest shoot growth. Different harvest time do not effect root growth, but it has a highly siginificant on shoot growth. The soybean plants were planted in PVC pots with a 6 kg soil capacity, and the pots were placed outside the green house. (author)

  6. Vestibular schwannoma and fitness to fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Yoann; Raynal, Marc; Hunkemöller, Iris; Lepage, Pierre; Kossowski, Michel

    2010-10-01

    When a pilot is referred for vestibular schwannoma (VS), his or her fitness to fly may be questioned. The objective of this retrospective study was to describe a series of VS cases in a pilot population and to discuss their fitness to fly options. Between September 2002 and March 2010, the ENT/Head and Neck Surgery Department of the National Pilot Expertise Center conducted nearly 120,000 expert consultations for 40,000 pilots. We examined the files of 10 pilots who were referred to our 2 national experts for VS. At the time of the expert consultation, hypoacusis was present in nine cases (four with total deafness), tinnitus in one case, and vertigo in nine cases. In our series, only 2 of the 10 pilots experienced a negative impact on their fitness to fly. Decisions on fitness to fly were based on several factors: minimally disturbed audition, i.e., less than a 35-dB hearing loss with a good speech discrimination score; good balance, i.e., no reported difficulties; no spontaneous nystagmus recorded on videonystagmography (VNG); no postural deviation; and a normal head-shaking test. The delay and the VS's evolution between diagnosis and expert consultation are important because the selection of a treatment to control VS is critical in minimizing the possible associated complications. When a pilot is referred for VS, his or her fitness to fly is determined by the size of the tumor, balance, auditory status, and the follow-up results of these findings. The complications that may arise from VS treatments must also be considered.

  7. Effects of eucalyptol on house fly (Diptera: Muscidae and blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukontason Kabkaew L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of eucalyptol were evaluated against the house fly, Musca domestica L., and blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.. The bioassay of adults, using topical application, indicated that M. domestica males were more susceptible than females, with the LD50 being 118 and 177 mg/fly, respectively. A higher LD50 of C. megacephala was obtained; 197 mg/fly for males and 221 mg/fly for females. Living flies of both species yielded a shorter life span after being treated with eucalyptol. The bioassay of larvae, using the dipping method on the third instar, showed that M. domestica was more susceptible than C. megacephala, with their LC50 being 101 and 642 mg/ml, respectively. The emergence of adults, which had been treated with eucalyptol in larvae, decreased only in M. domestica. Having the volatile property, fumigation or impregnated paper test of eucalyptol or the efficacy of repellence or attractiveness merits further investigations to enhance bio-insecticidal efficacy.

  8. Effect of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation of house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several s...

  9. Fatal school shootings and the epidemiological context of firearm mortality in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Cohen, Alyssa M; Muschert, Glenn W; Flores de Apodaca, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Background The December 14, 2012 mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, USA, vaulted concerns regarding gun violence to the forefront of public attention. This high-visibility incident occurred within the epidemiological context of U.S. firearm mortality that claims more than 88 lives daily. Methods National epidemiologic data on firearm deaths over two decades were analyzed along with data registries on school shootings in order to place the tragedy at Sandy Hook in perspective. School shootings were classified as random or targeted. Results The U.S. has the highest rates of firearm deaths, suicides, and homicides among the world’s 34 “advanced economies.” Seventy percent of U.S. homicides and more than 50% of U.S. suicides are committed using a firearm. U.S. firearm homicide rates first declined, and then stabilized, during the past 23 years, 1990-2012. “Shooting massacres” in school settings, a new phenomenon within the past 50 years, are extremely rare events. Over 23 years, 1990-2012, 215 fatal school shooting incidents resulted in 363 deaths, equivalent to 0.12% of national firearm homicides during that time period. Most episodes were “targeted” shootings in which the perpetrator intentionally killed a specific individual in a school setting. Only 25 of these 215 events (11.6%) were “random” or “rampage” shootings, resulting in 135 deaths (0.04% of national firearm homicides). Among these, just three shooting rampages – Columbine High School, Virginia Tech University, and Sandy hook Elementary School – accounted for 72 (53.3%) of these 135 deaths. The frequency of random/rampage shooting incidents in schools has remained within the narrow range of 0 to 3 episodes per year. Conclusions Each year, more than 32,000 Americans die by firearms and more than 70,000 are wounded, representing a volume of preventable deaths and injuries that the U.S. government describes as a “public health crisis.” School

  10. Fatal school shootings and the epidemiological context of firearm mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Cohen, Alyssa M; Muschert, Glenn W; Flores de Apodaca, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Background The December 14, 2012 mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, USA, vaulted concerns regarding gun violence to the forefront of public attention. This high-visibility incident occurred within the epidemiological context of U.S. firearm mortality that claims more than 88 lives daily. Methods National epidemiologic data on firearm deaths over two decades were analyzed along with data registries on school shootings in order to place the tragedy at Sandy Hook in perspective. School shootings were classified as random or targeted. Results The U.S. has the highest rates of firearm deaths, suicides, and homicides among the world's 34 "advanced economies." Seventy percent of U.S. homicides and more than 50% of U.S. suicides are committed using a firearm. U.S. firearm homicide rates first declined, and then stabilized, during the past 23 years, 1990-2012. "Shooting massacres" in school settings, a new phenomenon within the past 50 years, are extremely rare events. Over 23 years, 1990-2012, 215 fatal school shooting incidents resulted in 363 deaths, equivalent to 0.12% of national firearm homicides during that time period. Most episodes were "targeted" shootings in which the perpetrator intentionally killed a specific individual in a school setting. Only 25 of these 215 events (11.6%) were "random" or "rampage" shootings, resulting in 135 deaths (0.04% of national firearm homicides). Among these, just three shooting rampages - Columbine High School, Virginia Tech University, and Sandy hook Elementary School - accounted for 72 (53.3%) of these 135 deaths. The frequency of random/rampage shooting incidents in schools has remained within the narrow range of 0 to 3 episodes per year. Conclusions Each year, more than 32,000 Americans die by firearms and more than 70,000 are wounded, representing a volume of preventable deaths and injuries that the U.S. government describes as a "public health crisis." School massacres, such as Sandy Hook

  11. Biolistic-mediated transient gene expression in shoot apical meristems of the prickly-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulo Marino Llamoca-Zárate

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated the transient expression of the GUS gene in cells of the meristematic apical dome of Opuntia ficus-indica. DNA delivery into the cells was achieved using a biolistic PDS-1000He instrument from Bio-Rad Laboratories. The transforming DNA was coated in tungsten particles with diameter of 1.3 m m and the distance between the flying disk and the target tissue was 7.5cm and the shooting pressure was adjusted to 1200 psi. This is the first demonstration that the biolistic transformation system can be used to express a transgene in a member of the Cactaceae.Nós demonstramos a expressão transiente do gene GUS nas células do meristema apical de Opuntia ficus-indica. A introdução do DNA nas células foi realizada através de um sistema de biolística PDS-1000He da Bio-Rad Laboratories. Para transformação, partículas de tungstenio com diâmetro de 1,3 µm foram cobertas com DNA e a distância entre o disco das partículas e o tecido alvo foi de 7,5cm, a pressão de tiro foi 1200 psi. Esta é a primeira demonstração que o sistema de biolística de transformação pode ser usado para a expressão de transgenes nas cactáceas.

  12. Future fly ash marketing; Flugaschevermarktung in der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauder, R.; Hugot, A. [Evonik Power Minerals GmbH, Dinslaken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    It can be assumed that the fly ash production volumes will undergo a marked increase over the next few years. The conditions of fly ash production will improve as a result of modern and refurbished power plants, yielding a positive effect on the quality of fly ashes. Other vital parameters of future fly ash marketing are fly ash logistics and the infrastructure of power plants. Basically, economic utilisation of the increased production volumes is possible; however, new and long-term strategies are necessary. (orig.)

  13. Norm in coal, fly ash and cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, K.; Upadhyay, S.B.; Sharma, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    Coal is technologically important materials being used for power generation and its cinder (fly ash) is used in manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. 222 Rn (radon) and its daughters are the most important radioactive and potentially hazardous elements, which are released in the environment from the naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) present in coal, fly ash and cement. Thus it is very important to carry out radioactivity measurements in coal, fly ash and cement from the health and hygiene point of view. Samples of coal and fly ash from different thermal power stations in northern India and various fly ash using establishments and commercially available cement samples (O.P.C. and P.P.C.) were collected and analyzed for radon concentration and exhalation rates. For the measurements, alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors were used. The radon concentration varied from 147 Bq/m 3 to 443 Bq/m 3 , the radium concentration varied from 1.5 to 4.5 Bq/kg and radon exhalation rate varied from 11.8 mBq.kg -1 .h -1 to 35.7 mBq.kg -1 .h -1 for mass exhalation rate and from 104.5 mBq.m -2 .h -1 to 314.8 mBq.m -2 .h -1 for surface exhalation rate in coal samples. The radon concentration varied from 214 Bq/m 3 to 590 Bq/m 3 , the radium concentration varied from 1.0 to 2.7 Bq/kg and radon exhalation rate varied from 7.8 mBq.kg -1 .h -1 to 21.6 mBq.kg -1 .h -1 for mass exhalation rate and from 138 mBq m -2 h -1 to 380.6 mBq.m -2 .h -1 for surface exhalation rate in fly ash samples. The radon concentration varied from 157.62 Bq/m 3 to 1810.48 Bq/m 3 , the radium concentration varied from 0.76 Bq/kg to 8.73 Bq/kg and radon exhalation rate varied from 6.07 mBq.kg -1 .hr -1 to 69.81 mBq.kg -1 .hr -1 for mass exhalation rate and from 107.10 mBq.m -2 .hr -1 to 1230.21 mBq.m -2 .hr -1 for surface exhalation rate in different cement samples. The values were found higher in P.P.C. samples than in O.P.C. samples. (authors)

  14. Cumulative Trauma and Adjustment in Women Exposed to a Campus Shooting: Examining the Role of Appraisals and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Derrecka M; Dunn, Qweandria T; Orcutt, Holly K

    2017-05-01

    Experiencing repeated trauma can have increasingly detrimental effects on psychosocial functioning after subsequent stressors. These effects may be intensified for victims of interpersonal traumas given that these events are often associated with heightened risk for adverse outcomes. To better understand this relationship, the present study prospectively examined the effect of pre-shooting trauma exposure (i.e., interpersonal vs. non-interpersonal trauma) on psychological functioning (i.e., posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression) following a mass campus shooting. Based on previous research, it was expected that negative appraisals and social support would mediate this relationship. A sample of 515 college women reporting prior trauma exposure was assessed at four time points following the shooting (i.e., pre-shooting, 1-month, 6-months, and 12-months post-shooting). Bootstrap analyses with bias-corrected confidence intervals were conducted. Contrary to expectation, pre-shooting trauma exposure was unrelated to 12-month post-shooting outcomes and neither negative appraisals nor social support at 6-months post-shooting emerged as mediators. Interestingly, a history of non-interpersonal trauma was associated with greater post-shooting family and friend support than a history of interpersonal trauma. Ad hoc analyses showed that pre-shooting symptom severity and level of exposure to the shooting had indirect effects on post-shooting outcomes via post-shooting negative appraisals. These findings support that cumulative trauma, regardless of type, may not have an additive effect unless individuals develop clinically significant symptoms following previous trauma. Trauma severity also appears to play a meaningful role.

  15. Fly ash dynamics in soil-water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Fulekar, M.H.; Jayalakshmi, C.P.

    1989-01-01

    Studies regarding the effluents and coal ashes (or fly ash) resulting from coal burning are numerous, but their disposal and interactions with the soil and water systems and their detailed environmental impact assessment with concrete status reports on a global scale are scanty. Fly ash dynamics in soil and water systems are reviewed. After detailing the physical composition of fly ash, physicochemical changes in soil properties due to fly ash amendment are summarized. Areas covered include texture and bulk density, moisture retention, change in chemical equilibria, and effects of fly ash on soil microorganisms. Plant growth in amended soils is discussed, as well as plant uptake and accumulation of trace elements. In order to analyze the effect of fly ash on the physicochemical properties of water, several factors must be considered, including surface morphology of fly ash, pH of the ash sluice water, pH adjustments, leachability and solubility, and suspended ash and settling. The dynamics of fly ash in water systems is important due to pollution of groundwater resources from toxic components such as trace metals. Other factors summarized are bioaccumulation and biomagnification, human health effects of contaminants, and the impact of radionuclides in fly ash. Future research needs should focus on reduction of the environmental impact of fly ash and increasing utilization of fly ash as a soil amendment. 110 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  16. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Analysis list: FLI1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FLI1 Blood,Bone,Muscle + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/targe...t/FLI1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedb...c.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Bone.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Muscle.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Bl

  18. In vitro shoot regeneration and microcorm development in crocus vernus (l.) hill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivanesan, I.

    2014-01-01

    An efficient method has been developed for In vitro regeneration of shoot and microcorm from corm explants of Crocus vernus. Corms were cut into 0.5-1.0 cm long segments and cultured on the SH medium supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg L-1 2-isopentyl adenine (2-iP), N6-benzyladenine (BA), and N6-furfuryladenine (kinetin, Kin) alone or combination with 0.5 or 1.0 mg L-1 alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) for shoot regeneration. Of the three cytokinins tested, BA was found to be the most effective cytokinin for shoot formation. The number of shoots induced per explant was more when BA was combined with 0.5 mg L-1 NAA than with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA. The greatest percentage of shoot induction (97.2) with the mean number of 11.8 shoots per explant was obtained when the SH medium was supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 BA and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA. The frequency of microcorm induction was significantly affected by the concentrations of sucrose.The greatest number of 6.1 microcorms per explant was obtained when the SH medium was supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 BA, 0.5 mg L-1 NAA and 6.0% sucrose. The microcorms formed In vitro developed daughter corms when they were cultured on this medium. Microcorms were separated from the culture and planted out in acclimatization boxes containing a commercial medium. About 85% of corms developed shoot and root after 30 days. This protocol could be utilized for genetic transformation and mass clonal propagation of C. (author)

  19. Shoot regeneration from cotyledonary leaf explants of jatropha curcas: A biodiesel plant

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish Chandramohana

    2010-03-07

    A simple, high frequency, and reproducible method for plant regeneration through direct organogenesis from cotyledonary leaf explants of Jatropha curcas was developed using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ) or 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP). Medium containing TDZ has greater influence on regeneration as compared to BAP. The induced shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 lM kinetin (Kn), 4.5 lM BAP, and 5.5 lM a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation. The proliferated shoots could be elongated on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of BAP, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), NAA, and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). MS medium with 2.25 lM BAP and 8.5 lM IAA was found to be the best combination for shoot elongation. However, significant differences in plant regeneration and shoot elongation were observed among the genotypes studied. Rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of elongated shoots were dipped in half strength MS liquid medium containing dif- ferent concentrations and combinations of IBA, IAA, and NAA for 4 days, followed by transfer to growth regulators free half strength MS medium supplemented 0.25 mg l-1 activated charcoal. Elongated shoot treated with 15 lM IBA, 5.7 lM IAA, and 11 lM NAA resulted in highest percent rooting. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% survival rate. The method developed may be useful in improvement of J. curcas through genetic modification. © Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2010.

  20. Shoot regeneration from cotyledonary leaf explants of jatropha curcas: A biodiesel plant

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish Chandramohana; Vijay Anand, K. G.; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2010-01-01

    A simple, high frequency, and reproducible method for plant regeneration through direct organogenesis from cotyledonary leaf explants of Jatropha curcas was developed using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ) or 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP). Medium containing TDZ has greater influence on regeneration as compared to BAP. The induced shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 lM kinetin (Kn), 4.5 lM BAP, and 5.5 lM a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation. The proliferated shoots could be elongated on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of BAP, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), NAA, and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). MS medium with 2.25 lM BAP and 8.5 lM IAA was found to be the best combination for shoot elongation. However, significant differences in plant regeneration and shoot elongation were observed among the genotypes studied. Rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of elongated shoots were dipped in half strength MS liquid medium containing dif- ferent concentrations and combinations of IBA, IAA, and NAA for 4 days, followed by transfer to growth regulators free half strength MS medium supplemented 0.25 mg l-1 activated charcoal. Elongated shoot treated with 15 lM IBA, 5.7 lM IAA, and 11 lM NAA resulted in highest percent rooting. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% survival rate. The method developed may be useful in improvement of J. curcas through genetic modification. © Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2010.

  1. Carbon utilization by fruit limits shoot growth in alternate-bearing citrus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Iglesias, Domingo J; Reig, Carmina; Mesejo, Carlos; Agustí, Manuel; Primo-Millo, Eduardo

    2015-03-15

    Fruit load in alternate-bearing citrus trees is reported to alter shoot number and growth during spring, summer, and autumn flushes, and the source-sink balance, which affects the storage and mobilization of reserve nutrients. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of shoot growth inhibition resulting from the presence of fruits in 'Moncada' mandarin trees loaded with fruit (ON) or with very light fruit load (OFF), and to identify the role of carbohydrates and nitrogenous compounds in the competition between fruits and shoots. Growth of reproductive and vegetative organs was measured on a monthly basis. (13)C- and (15)N-labeled compounds were supplied to trace the allocation of reserve nutrients and subsequent translocation from source to sink. At the end of the year, OFF trees produced more abundant flushes (2.4- and 4.9-fold higher in number and biomass, respectively) than ON trees. Fruits from ON trees accumulated higher C amounts at the expense of developing flushes, whereas OFF trees exhibited the opposite pattern. An inverse relationship was identified between the amount of C utilized by fruits and vegetative flush growth. (13)C-labeling revealed an important role for mature leaves of fruit-bearing branches in supporting shoot/fruit growth, and the elevated sink strength of growing fruits on shoots. N availability for vegetative shoots was not affected by the presence or absence of fruits, which accumulated important amounts of (15)N. In conclusion, our results show that shoot growth is resource-limited as a consequence of fruit development, and vegetative-growth inhibition is caused by photoassimilate limitation. The competence for N is not a decisive factor in limiting vegetative growth under the experimental conditions of this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Root-shoot growth responses during interspecific competition quantified using allometric modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David; Davidson, Hazel; Trinder, Clare; Brooker, Rob

    2010-12-01

    Plant competition studies are restricted by the difficulty of quantifying root systems of competitors. Analyses are usually limited to above-ground traits. Here, a new approach to address this issue is reported. Root system weights of competing plants can be estimated from: shoot weights of competitors; combined root weights of competitors; and slopes (scaling exponents, α) and intercepts (allometric coefficients, β) of ln-regressions of root weight on shoot weight of isolated plants. If competition induces no change in root : shoot growth, α and β values of competing and isolated plants will be equal. Measured combined root weight of competitors will equal that estimated allometrically from measured shoot weights of each competing plant. Combined root weights can be partitioned directly among competitors. If, as will be more usual, competition changes relative root and shoot growth, the competitors' combined root weight will not equal that estimated allometrically and cannot be partitioned directly. However, if the isolated-plant α and β values are adjusted until the estimated combined root weight of competitors matches the measured combined root weight, the latter can be partitioned among competitors using their new α and β values. The approach is illustrated using two herbaceous species, Dactylis glomerata and Plantago lanceolata. Allometric modelling revealed a large and continuous increase in the root : shoot ratio by Dactylis, but not Plantago, during competition. This was associated with a superior whole-plant dry weight increase in Dactylis, which was ultimately 2·5-fold greater than that of Plantago. Whole-plant growth dominance of Dactylis over Plantago, as deduced from allometric modelling, occurred 14-24 d earlier than suggested by shoot data alone. Given reasonable assumptions, allometric modelling can analyse competitive interactions in any species mixture, and overcomes a long-standing problem in studies of competition.

  3. Tea shoot production in relation to rainfall, solar radiation, and temperature in Pagilaran tea estate, Batang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudono, P.

    2000-01-01

    Tea shoot production pattern in PT Pagilaran tea estate, Batang, is studied in relation to rainfall, solar radiation, and temperature. Pagilaran tea estate is located at 700-1,500 m above the sea level, with temperature of 15-30 deg. C and rainfall ranging from 4,500 mm to 7,000 mm per year. However, the area is also characterized by two up to three dry months for every three years. Monthly data of rainfall, solar radiation, and temperature were collected and were related to tea shoot production using correlation and regression analysis. The results indicated that there was no significant different pattern of tea shoot production form the three estate units (Kayulandak, Pagilaran, and Andongsili). Monthly shoots production increases during October up to December, and then goes down in January up to February. It fluctuated at a lesser degree in the upper units (Kayulandak and Andongsili) which might be attributed to better soil moisture available in the area. They are right below a forests area which understandably serves as rainfall catchment area and maintains soil moisture of the area below in a better condition. Weak to moderate correlation was obtained when monthly tea shoot production was correlated to amount of rainfall (r = -0.3771), days of rainfall (r = -0.3512), maximum temperature (r = -0.3502), minimum temperature (r = -0.2786), and solar radiation (r=0.6607) of the same month. On regressing monthly tea shoot production to those variables, rainfall and duration of solar radiation turned out to be the two significant factors through the following equation y = 759.5616-0.1802 xi-1 + 0.1057 xi-2 + 0.5239 zi-1 (R at the power of 2 = 0.3398), where y = tea shoots production, x=amount of monthly rainfall, z=duration of solar radiation, and i refer to month [in

  4. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliJ, and FliH, do not deliver flagellin, the major filament protein, from the cytosol to the export gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajó, Ráchel; Liliom, Károly; Muskotál, Adél; Klein, Agnes; Závodszky, Péter; Vonderviszt, Ferenc; Dobó, József

    2014-11-01

    Flagella, the locomotion organelles of bacteria, extend from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior. External flagellar proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and exported by the flagellar type III secretion system. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliH, and FliJ, have been implicated to carry late export substrates in complex with their cognate chaperones from the cytoplasm to the export gate. The importance of the soluble components in the delivery of the three minor late substrates FlgK, FlgL (hook-filament junction) and FliD (filament-cap) has been convincingly demonstrated, but their role in the transport of the major filament component flagellin (FliC) is still unclear. We have used continuous ATPase activity measurements and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies to characterize interactions between the soluble export components and flagellin or the FliC:FliS substrate-chaperone complex. As controls, interactions between soluble export component pairs were characterized providing Kd values. FliC or FliC:FliS did not influence the ATPase activity of FliI alone or in complex with FliH and/or FliJ suggesting lack of interaction in solution. Immobilized FliI, FliH, or FliJ did not interact with FliC or FliC:FliS detected by QCM. The lack of interaction in the fluid phase between FliC or FliC:FliS and the soluble export components, in particular with the ATPase FliI, suggests that cells use different mechanisms for the export of late minor substrates, and the major substrate, FliC. It seems that the abundantly produced flagellin does not require the assistance of the soluble export components to efficiently reach the export gate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality characteristics of Greek fly ashes and potential uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodras, G.; Grammelis, P.; Kakaras, E. [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Ptolemais (Greece); Karangelos, D.; Anagnostakis, M.; Hinis, E. [Nuclear Engineering Section, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2007-01-15

    The main characteristics of fly ash from Greek coal-fired boilers are presented in this paper in relation to its exploitation potential. Both fuel and fly ash samples were collected and analyzed according to the ASTM Standards. Apart from the typical analyses (proximate, ultimate, ash analysis and calorific value), an ICP-AES spectrometer was used for the analysis of heavy metals in the ash. Experimental measurements in order to determine the radioactivity content of raw fuel and the fly ash were carried out as well. A representative fly ash sample from Ptolemais power plant was evaluated and tested as filler in Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC). Ashes from the Greek brown coal are classified in type C, most of the fly ash being produced in Ptolemais of Northern Greece, while the rest in Megalopolis. Ptolemais fly ash is rich in calcium compounds, while Megalopolis fly ash contains more pyrite. Increased heavy metal concentrations are observed in the fly ash samples of Greek coal. Greek fly ash appears to have not only pozzolanic but also hydraulic behaviour. Furthermore, Greek fly ash, depending on its origin, may have relatively high natural radioactivity content, reaching in the case of Megalopolis fly ash 1 kBq kg{sup -1} of {sup 226}Ra. The laboratory results showed that fly ashes can be a competitive substitute to conventional limestone filler material in SCC. Fly ash is mostly used in Greece in cement industry replacing cement clinker and aiming to the production of special types of Portland cements. However, a more aggressive utilisation strategy should be developed, since low quantities of the total produced fly ash are currently further utilised. (author)

  6. Plant nutrition on fly-ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, W J; Sidrak, G H

    1956-12-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the plant nutritional potential of fly ash. Chemical analysis indicates that it contains all the essential nutrients. It is deficient in nitrogen and only manganese and aluminum appear to be available in quantities toxic to plants. Barley and spinach grown on fly ash accumulate excessive quantities of Al and Mn in their leaves and exhibit symptoms of toxicities of these metals. Atriplex hastata grows vigorously on the ash, has a high Al and Mn leaf content, but does not show toxicity symptoms. Atriplex, barley and spinach grown at reduced N levels gave lower yields than the normal controls, but symptoms of N deficiency which were evident in barley and spinach were not observed in Atriplex. 17 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  7. Utah Fly's Eye detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltrusaitis, R.M.; Cady, R.; Cassiday, G.L.; Cooper, R.; Elbert, J.W.; Gerhardy, P.R.; Ko, S.; Loh, E.C.; Salamon, M.; Steck, D.; Sokolsky, P.

    1985-10-15

    We report the details of the design, operation and performance of the University of Utah Fly's Eye detector which was built to record the passage of ultra-high energy cosmic rays through the atmosphere via atmospheric fluorescence. Emphasized in the presentation are (1) light production by charged particles in the atmosphere, (2) kinematics of an EAS as seen by the Fly's Eye, (3) signal to noise considerations and its impact on detector design, (4) details of detector hardware and software, (5) detector calibration, (6) techniques employed in measurement of shower longitudinal development profiles and primary particle energy, and (7) assessment of detector performance by a comparison of Monte Carlo and real data distributions. (orig.).

  8. Pulse generation scheme for flying electromagnetic doughnuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasimakis, Nikitas; Raybould, Tim; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Tsai, Din Ping; Youngs, Ian; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2018-05-01

    Transverse electromagnetic plane waves are fundamental solutions of Maxwells equations. It is less known that a radically different type of solutions has been described theoretically, but has never been realized experimentally, that exist only in the form of short bursts of electromagnetic energy propagating in free space at the speed of light. They are distinguished from transverse waves by a doughnutlike configuration of electric and magnetic fields with a strong field component along the propagation direction. Here, we demonstrate numerically that such flying doughnuts can be generated from conventional pulses using a singular metamaterial converter designed to manipulate both the spatial and spectral structure of the input pulse. The ability to generate flying doughnuts is of fundamental interest, as they shall interact with matter in unique ways, including nontrivial field transformations upon reflection from interfaces and the excitation of toroidal response and anapole modes in matter, hence offering opportunities for telecommunications, sensing, and spectroscopy.

  9. Radiation dose to the global flying population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Luis E; Eastham, Sebastian D; Barrett, Steven R H

    2016-01-01

    Civil airliner passengers and crew are exposed to elevated levels of radiation relative to being at sea level. Previous studies have assessed the radiation dose received in particular cases or for cohort studies. Here we present the first estimate of the total radiation dose received by the worldwide civilian flying population. We simulated flights globally from 2000 to 2013 using schedule data, applying a radiation propagation code to estimate the dose associated with each flight. Passengers flying in Europe and North America exceed the International Commission on Radiological Protection annual dose limits at an annual average of 510 or 420 flight hours per year, respectively. However, this falls to 160 or 120 h on specific routes under maximum exposure conditions. (paper)

  10. Production of ceramics from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angjusheva Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense ceramics are produced from fly ash from REK Bitola, Republic of Macedonia. Four types of fly ash from electro filters and one from the collected zone with particles < 0.063 mm were the subject of this research. Consolidation was achieved by pressing (P= 133 MPa and sintering (950, 1000, 1050 and 11000C and heating rates of 3 and 100/min. Densification was realized by liquid phase sintering and solid state reaction where diopside [Ca(Mg,Al(Si,Al2O6] was formed. Ceramics with optimal properties (porosity 2.96±0.5%, bending strength - 47.01±2 MPa, compressive strength - 170 ±5 MPa was produced at 1100ºC using the heating rate of 10ºC/min.

  11. CFD Analysis of UAV Flying Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile PRISACARIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical methods for solving equations describing the evolution of 3D fluid experienced a significant development closely related to the progress of information systems. Today, especially in the field of fluid mechanics, numerical simulations allow the study of gas-thermodynamic confirmed by experimental techniques in wind tunnel conditions and actual flight tests for modeling complex aircraft. The article shows a case of numerical analysis of the lifting surface on the UAV type flying wing.

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: fruit fly [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Arthropoda Drosophila_melanogaster_L.png Drosophila_mela...nogaster_NL.png Drosophila_melanogaster_S.png Drosophila_melanogaster_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/...taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+mela...nogaster&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+mela...nogaster&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=NS ...

  13. Volunteer Flying Organizations: Law Enforcements Untapped Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    World War II, women in the United States turned manpower into woman power as housewives across the nation took manufacturing jobs building bombers...delineates responsibilities for the entire volunteer organization. Safety -first Flying Culture CHP CHP’s first- class safety program uses the most...civilian pilots to augment law enforcement based aviation operations. This thesis uses recommendations of the Public Safety Aviation Accreditation

  14. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Sebastian; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA). The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA) which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  15. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Koenig

    Full Text Available A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA. The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  16. Leaf position optimization for step-and-shoot IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersem, Werner de; Claus, Filip; Wagter, Carlos de; Duyse, Bart van; Neve, Wilfried de

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the theoretical basis, the algorithm, and implementation of a tool that optimizes segment shapes and weights for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy delivered by multileaf collimators. Methods and Materials: The tool, called SOWAT (Segment Outline and Weight Adapting Tool) is applied to a set of segments, segment weights, and corresponding dose distribution, computed by an external dose computation engine. SOWAT evaluates the effects of changing the position of each collimating leaf of each segment on an objective function, as follows. Changing a leaf position causes a change in the segment-specific dose matrix, which is calculated by a fast dose computation algorithm. A weighted sum of all segment-specific dose matrices provides the dose distribution and allows computation of the value of the objective function. Only leaf position changes that comply with the multileaf collimator constraints are evaluated. Leaf position changes that tend to decrease the value of the objective function are retained. After several possible positions have been evaluated for all collimating leaves of all segments, an external dose engine recomputes the dose distribution, based on the adapted leaf positions and weights. The plan is evaluated. If the plan is accepted, a segment sequencer is used to make the prescription files for the treatment machine. Otherwise, the user can restart SOWAT using the new set of segments, segment weights, and corresponding dose distribution. The implementation was illustrated using two example cases. The first example is a T1N0M0 supraglottic cancer case that was distributed as a multicenter planning exercise by investigators from Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The exercise involved a two-phase plan. Phase 1 involved the delivery of 46 Gy to a concave-shaped planning target volume (PTV) consisting of the primary tumor volume and the elective lymph nodal regions II-IV on both sides of the neck. Phase 2 involved a boost of

  17. Flying the Needles: Flight Deck Automation Erodes Fine-Motor Flying Skills Among Airline Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslbeck, Andreas; Hoermann, Hans-Juergen

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of practice and training on fine-motor flying skills during a manual instrument landing system (ILS) approach. There is an ongoing debate that manual flying skills of long-haul crews suffer from a lack of flight practice due to conducting only a few flights per month and the intensive use of automation. However, objective evidence is rare. One hundred twenty-six randomly selected airline pilots had to perform a manual flight scenario with a raw data precision approach. Pilots were assigned to four equal groups according to their level of practice and training by fleet (short-haul, long-haul) and rank (first officer, captain). Average ILS deviation scores differed significantly in relation to the group assignments. The strongest predictor variable was fleet, indicating degraded performance among long-haul pilots. Manual flying skills are subject to erosion due to a lack of practice on long-haul fleets: All results support the conclusion that recent flight practice is a significantly stronger predictor for fine-motor flying performance than the time period since flight school or even the total or type-specific flight experience. Long-haul crews have to be supported in a timely manner by adequate training tailored to address manual skills or by operational provisions like mixed-fleet flying or more frequent transitions between short-haul and long-haul operation. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  18. Zinc oxide nanoparticle exposure triggers different gene expression patterns in maize shoots and roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xun, Hongwei; Ma, Xintong; Chen, Jing; Yang, Zhongzhou; Liu, Bao; Gao, Xiang; Li, Guo; Yu, Jiamiao; Wang, Li; Pang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    The potential impacts of environmentally accumulated zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnOs) on plant growth have not been well studied. A transcriptome profile analysis of maize exposed to nZnOs showed that the genes in the shoots and roots responded differently. Although the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the roots was greater than that in the shoots, the number of up- or down-regulated genes in both the shoots and roots was similar. The enrichment of gene ontology (GO) terms was also significantly different in the shoots and roots. The “nitrogen compound metabolism” and “cellular component” terms were specifically and highly up-regulated in the nZnO-exposed roots, whereas the categories “cellular metabolic process”, “primary metabolic process” and “secondary metabolic process” were down-regulated in the exposed roots only. Our results revealed the DEG response patterns in maize shoots and roots after nZnO exposure. - Highlights: • The gene expression patterns of maize exposed to ZnO nanoparticles (nZnO) varied in the shoots and roots. • A majority of the differentially expressed genes induced by nZnO exposure were exclusive to either the shoots or roots. • A similar number of up- and down-regulated genes was observed in the exposed shoots. • More up-regulated than down-regulated genes were found in the exposed roots. • A greater number of GO processes were observed in the nZnO exposed maize roots than in the exposed shoots. • GO terms in the “nitrogen compound metabolic process” category were exclusively and highly expressed in the exposed roots. • GO terms in the “nutrient reservoir” category were exclusively and highly expressed in the exposed roots. • Term “small molecule metabolic process” was also exclusively up-regulated in the exposed roots. • Processes in “cellular metabolic”, “primary metabolic” and “secondary metabolic” were down-regulated in the exposed roots.

  19. Myo-inositol esters of indole-3-acetic acid are endogenous components of Zea mays L. shoot tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisnell, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters have been demonstrated to be endogenous components of etiolated Zea mays shoots tissue. This was accomplished by comparison of the putative compounds with authentic, synthetic esters. The properties compared were liquid and gas-liquid chromatographic retention times and the 70-ev mass spectral fragmentation pattern of the pentaacetyl derivative. The amount of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters in the shoots was determined to be 74 nanomoles per kilogram fresh weight as measured by isotope dilution, accounting for 19% of the ester indole-3-acetic acid of the shoot. This work is the first characterization of an ester conjugate of indole-3-acetate acid from vegetative shoot tissue using multiple chromatographic properties and mass spectral identification. The kernel and the seedling shoot both contain indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters, and these esters comprise approximately the same percentage of the total ester content of the kernel and of the shoot.

  20. Bringing sexy back: reclaiming the body aesthetic via self-shooting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiidenberg, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    ’s ‘technologies of the self’ to analyze self-shooting (taking photos of one-self). Constricting societal norms of sexuality, body shape and body practices influence how my participants (N=20, 10 female, 9 male, 1 transgender, ages 21 - 51, average age 34) live their embodied and sexual lives. Through self-shooting...... and by negotiating the community specific issues of control, power and the gaze, they are able to construct a new, empowered, embodied identity for themselves. I look at self-shooting and selfie-blogging as a practice of reclaiming control over one’s embodied self AND over the body-aesthetic, thus appropriating what...... is and is not ‘sexy’. The NSFW self-shooting community offers a safe space otherwise so hard to find within the body/sexuality-normative mainstream culture. This makes self-shooting a collective therapeutic activity. In their self-images participants construct themselves as ‘beautiful’, ‘sexy’, ‘devious’, ‘more than...

  1. Adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro cultured leaves of guava (Psidium guava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Concepción Laffitte

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious regeneration is a key step in the application of genetic engineering to the breeding programs of plants. In this work a method for adventitious shoot regeneration from leaves of micropropagated guava shoots has been developed and some of main factors to affect the shoot regeneration like, concentration of plant growth regulators (citoquinine, physiological state of explants and the wound are studied. Leaves from guava in vitro cultured of variety Cuban Red Dwarf 18-40 was used like explant in all experiments. The best re-sult was reached with MS basal medium supplemented with 0.75 mg/L of 6-benzylaminopurine. Was de-monstrated that for the leaves with more multiplication subculture number and taken from lower part of shoot (older; the morfogenetic potential falls significantly (p60% and the largest number of shoot per regenerating leaf (>3 were obtained with several wounds carried out in f orm of jabs to the central nerve of leaves. This regeneration protocol constitutes an important tool that can be applied for future studies of genetic transformation in this species. Key words: Tissue culture, leaf explants, growth regulators, organogenesis, guava

  2. Gibberellin Promotes Shoot Branching in the Perennial Woody Plant Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jun; Gao, Congcong; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Pan, Bang-Zhen; Ye, Kaiqin; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2015-08-01

    Strigolactone (SL), auxin and cytokinin (CK) interact to regulate shoot branching. CK has long been considered to be the only key phytohormone to promote lateral bud outgrowth. Here we report that gibberellin also acts as a positive regulator in the control of shoot branching in the woody plant Jatropha curcas. We show that gibberellin and CK synergistically promote lateral bud outgrowth, and that both hormones influence the expression of putative branching regulators, J. curcas BRANCHED1 and BRANCHED2, which are key transcription factors maintaining bud dormancy. Moreover, treatment with paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of de novo gibberellin biosynthesis, significantly reduced the promotion of bud outgrowth by CK, suggesting that gibberellin is required for CK-mediated axillary bud outgrowth. In addition, SL, a plant hormone involved in the repression of shoot branching, acted antagonistically to both gibberellin and CK in the control of lateral bud outgrowth. Consistent with this, the expression of JcMAX2, a J. curcas homolog of Arabidopsis MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 2 encoding an F-box protein in the SL signaling pathway, was repressed by gibberellin and CK treatment. We also provide physiological evidence that gibberellin also induces shoot branching in many other trees, such as papaya, indicating that a more complicated regulatory network occurs in the control of shoot branching in some perennial woody plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  3. Encapsulation of nodal cuttings and shoot tips for storage and exchange of cassava germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danso, K E; Ford-Lloyd, B V

    2003-04-01

    We report the encapsulation of in vitro-derived nodal cuttings or shoot tips of cassava in 3% calcium alginate for storage and germplasm exchange purposes. Shoot regrowth was not significantly affected by the concentration of sucrose in the alginate matrix while root formation was. In contrast, increasing the sucrose concentration in the calcium chloride polymerisation medium significantly reduced regrowth from encapsulated nodal cuttings of accession TME 60444. Supplementing the alginate matrix with increased concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid enhanced complete plant regrowth within 2 weeks. Furthermore, plant regrowth by encapsulated nodal cuttings and shoot tips was significantly affected by the duration of the storage period as shoot recovery decreased from almost 100% to 73.3% for encapsulated nodal cuttings and 94.4% to 60% for shoot tips after 28 days of storage. The high frequency of plant regrowth from alginate-coated micropropagules coupled with high viability percentage after 28 days of storage is highly encouraging for the exchange of cassava genetic resources. Such encapsulated micropropagules could be used as an alternative to synthetic seeds derived from somatic embryos.

  4. The FANTASTIC FOUR proteins influence shoot meristem size in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Luise H

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout their lives plants produce new organs from groups of pluripotent cells called meristems, located at the tips of the shoot and the root. The size of the shoot meristem is tightly controlled by a feedback loop, which involves the homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS and the CLAVATA (CLV proteins. This regulatory circuit is further fine-tuned by morphogenic signals such as hormones and sugars. Results Here we show that a family of four plant-specific proteins, encoded by the FANTASTIC FOUR (FAF genes, has the potential to regulate shoot meristem size in Arabidopsis thaliana. FAF2 and FAF4 are expressed in the centre of the shoot meristem, overlapping with the site of WUS expression. Consistent with a regulatory interaction between the FAF gene family and WUS, our experiments indicate that the FAFs can repress WUS, which ultimately leads to an arrest of meristem activity in FAF overexpressing lines. The finding that meristematic expression of FAF2 and FAF4 is under negative control by CLV3 further supports the hypothesis that the FAFs are modulators of the genetic circuit that regulates the meristem. Conclusion This study reports the initial characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana FAF gene family. Our data indicate that the FAF genes form a plant specific gene family, the members of which have the potential to regulate the size of the shoot meristem by modulating the CLV3-WUS feedback loop.

  5. The FANTASTIC FOUR proteins influence shoot meristem size in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Vanessa; Brand, Luise H; Guo, Ya-Long; Schmid, Markus

    2010-12-22

    Throughout their lives plants produce new organs from groups of pluripotent cells called meristems, located at the tips of the shoot and the root. The size of the shoot meristem is tightly controlled by a feedback loop, which involves the homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) and the CLAVATA (CLV) proteins. This regulatory circuit is further fine-tuned by morphogenic signals such as hormones and sugars. Here we show that a family of four plant-specific proteins, encoded by the FANTASTIC FOUR (FAF) genes, has the potential to regulate shoot meristem size in Arabidopsis thaliana. FAF2 and FAF4 are expressed in the centre of the shoot meristem, overlapping with the site of WUS expression. Consistent with a regulatory interaction between the FAF gene family and WUS, our experiments indicate that the FAFs can repress WUS, which ultimately leads to an arrest of meristem activity in FAF overexpressing lines. The finding that meristematic expression of FAF2 and FAF4 is under negative control by CLV3 further supports the hypothesis that the FAFs are modulators of the genetic circuit that regulates the meristem. This study reports the initial characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana FAF gene family. Our data indicate that the FAF genes form a plant specific gene family, the members of which have the potential to regulate the size of the shoot meristem by modulating the CLV3-WUS feedback loop.

  6. Roles of abscisic acid and auxin in shoot-supplied ammonium inhibition of root system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baohai; Li, Qing; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2011-10-01

    A plastic root system is a prerequisite for successful plant acclimation to variable environments. The normally functioning root system is the result of a complex interaction of root-borne signals and shoot-derived regulators. We recently demonstrated that AUX1, a well-studied component of auxin transport, mediates shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) inhibition of lateral root (LR) formation in Arabidopsis. By contrast, the response did not involve ABA pathways, via which several other abiotic stresses affect LR formation. We proposed that SSA regulates LR emergence by interrupting AUX1-mediated auxin transport from shoot to root. Here, by analyzing both ABA- and auxin-related mutants, we show that AUX1 is also required for SSA-mediated suppression of primary root growth. Ammonium content in shoots was furthermore shown to increase linearly with shoot-, but not root-supplied, ammonium, suggesting it may represent the internal trigger for SSA inhibition of root development. Taken together, our data identify AUX1-mediated auxin transport as a key transmission step in the sensing of excessive ammonium exposure and its inhibitory effect on root development. 

  7. Endogenous abscisic acid as a key switch for natural variation in flooding-induced shoot elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Pierik, Ronald; Peeters, Anton J M; Poorter, Hendrik; Visser, Eric J W; Huber, Heidrun; de Kroon, Hans; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J

    2010-10-01

    Elongation of leaves and stem is a key trait for survival of terrestrial plants during shallow but prolonged floods that completely submerge the shoot. However, natural floods at different locations vary strongly in duration and depth, and, therefore, populations from these locations are subjected to different selection pressure, leading to intraspecific variation. Here, we identified the signal transduction component that causes response variation in shoot elongation among two accessions of the wetland plant Rumex palustris. These accessions differed 2-fold in petiole elongation rates upon submergence, with fast elongation found in a population from a river floodplain and slow elongation in plants from a lake bank. Fast petiole elongation under water consumes carbohydrates and depends on the (inter)action of the plant hormones ethylene, abscisic acid, and gibberellic acid. We found that carbohydrate levels and dynamics in shoots did not differ between the fast and slow elongating plants, but that the level of ethylene-regulated abscisic acid in petioles, and hence gibberellic acid responsiveness of these petioles explained the difference in shoot elongation upon submergence. Since this is the exact signal transduction level that also explains the variation in flooding-induced shoot elongation among plant species (namely, R. palustris and Rumex acetosa), we suggest that natural selection results in similar modification of regulatory pathways within and between species.

  8. Who Shot Ya? How Emergency Departments Can Collect Reliable Police Shooting Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph B; St Vil, Christopher; Cooper, Carnell

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines an alternative solution for collecting reliable police shooting data. One alternative is the collection of police shooting data from hospital trauma units, specifically hospital-based violence intervention programs. These programs are situated in Level I trauma units in many major cities in USA. While the intent of these programs is to reduce the risk factors associated with trauma recidivism among victims of violent injury, they also collect reliable data on the number of individuals treated for gunshot wounds. While most trauma units do a great job collecting data on mode of injury, many do not collect data on the circumstances surrounding the injury, particularly police-involved shootings. Research protocol on firearm-related injury conducted in emergency departments typically does not allow researchers to interview victims of violent injury who are under arrest. Most victims of nonfatal police-involved shootings are under arrest at the time they are treated by the ED for their injury. Research protocol on victims of violent injury often excludes individuals under arrest; they fall under the exclusion criteria when recruiting potential participants for research on violence. Researchers working in hospital emergency departments are prohibited from recruited individuals under arrests. The trauma staff, particularly ED physicians and nurses, are in a strategic position to collect this kind of data. Thus, this paper examines how trauma units can serve as an alternative in the reliable collection of police shooting data.

  9. Bioconcentration of atrazine and chlorophenols into roots and shoots of rice seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yuhong; Zhu Yongguan

    2006-01-01

    Accumulation of o-chlorophenol (CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), and atrazine (ATR), as single and mixed contaminants, from hydroponic solutions into roots and shoots of rice seedlings was studied following 48-h exposure of the plant roots. As single contaminants at low levels, the observed bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of CP and DCP with roots approximated the equilibrium values according to the partition-limited model. The BCF of atrazine with roots was about half the partition limit for unknown reasons. The BCFs of CP and ATR with shoots also approximated the partition limits, while the BCF for more lipophilic DCP with shoots was about half the estimated limit, due to insufficient water transport into plants for DCP. As mixed contaminants at low levels, the BCFs with both roots and shoots were comparable with those for the single contaminants; at high levels, the BCFs generally decreased because of the enhanced mixed-contaminant phytotoxicity, as manifested by the greatly reduced plant transpiration rate. - Uptakes of o-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and atrazine at various levels from nutrient solution by roots and shoots of rice seedlings were investigated using a partition-limited model

  10. Zinc oxide nanoparticle exposure triggers different gene expression patterns in maize shoots and roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Hongwei; Ma, Xintong; Chen, Jing; Yang, Zhongzhou; Liu, Bao; Gao, Xiang; Li, Guo; Yu, Jiamiao; Wang, Li; Pang, Jinsong

    2017-10-01

    The potential impacts of environmentally accumulated zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnOs) on plant growth have not been well studied. A transcriptome profile analysis of maize exposed to nZnOs showed that the genes in the shoots and roots responded differently. Although the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the roots was greater than that in the shoots, the number of up- or down-regulated genes in both the shoots and roots was similar. The enrichment of gene ontology (GO) terms was also significantly different in the shoots and roots. The "nitrogen compound metabolism" and "cellular component" terms were specifically and highly up-regulated in the nZnO-exposed roots, whereas the categories "cellular metabolic process", "primary metabolic process" and "secondary metabolic process" were down-regulated in the exposed roots only. Our results revealed the DEG response patterns in maize shoots and roots after nZnO exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Decisions to Shoot in a Weapon Identification Task: The Influence of Cultural Stereotypes and Perceived Threat on False Positive Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Kevin K.; Bandy, Carole L.; Kimble, Matthew O.

    2009-01-01

    The decision to shoot engages executive control processes that can be biased by cultural stereotypes and perceived threat. The neural locus of the decision to shoot is likely to be found in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) where cognition and affect converge. Male military cadets at Norwich University (N=37) performed a weapon identification task in which they made rapid decisions to shoot when images of guns appeared briefly on a computer screen. Reaction times, error rates, and EEG activ...

  12. Racial and Mental Illness Stereotypes and Discrimination: An Identity-Based Analysis of the Virginia Tech and Columbine Shootings

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Charlene Y.; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Phelan, Jo C.; Yu, Gary; Yang, Lawrence H.

    2014-01-01

    The Virginia Tech and Columbine High shootings are 2 of the deadliest school massacres in the United States. The present study investigates in a nationally representative sample how White Americans’ causal attributions of these shooting moderate their attitudes toward the shooter’s race. White Americans shown a vignette based on the Virginia Tech shooting were more likely to espouse negative beliefs about Korean American men and distance themselves from this group the more they believed that ...

  13. Improved attractants for enhancing tsetse fly suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    At the initiation of this co-ordinated research project (CRP), the available visually attractant devices and odours for entomological monitoring and for suppression of tsetse fly populations were not equally effective against all economically important tsetse fly species. For species like G. austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. swynnertoni and some species of the PALPALIS-group of tsetse flies no sufficiently effective combinations of visual or odour attractants were available for efficient suppression and standardized monitoring as part of an operational integrated intervention campaign against the tsetse and trypanosomosis (T and T) problem. The Co-ordinated Research Project on Improved Attractants for Enhancing the Efficiency of Tsetse Fly Suppression Operations and Barrier Systems used in Tsetse Control/Eradication Campaigns involved (a) the identification, synthesis and provision of candidate kairomones, their analogues and of dispensers; (b) laboratory screening of synthesised candidate kairomones through electrophysiological studies and wind tunnel experiments; (c) field tests of candidate kairomones alone or as part of odour blends, in combination with available and or new trap designs; and (d) analysis of hydrocarbons that influence tsetse sexual behaviour. The CRP accomplished several main objectives, namely: - The screening of new structurally related compounds, including specific stereoisomers, of known tsetse attractants resulted in the identification of several new candidate odour attractants with promising potential. - An efficient two-step synthetic method was developed for the pilot plant scale production of 3-n-propyphenol, synergistic tsetse kairomone component. - Electrophysiological experiments complemented with wind tunnel studies provided an efficient basis for the laboratory screening of candidate attractants prior to the initiation of laborious field tests. - New traps were identified and modifications of existing traps were tested for some species

  14. House Fly (Musca domestica L. Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y Hung

    Full Text Available House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the

  15. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kim Y.; Michailides, Themis J.; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C.

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  16. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kim Y; Michailides, Themis J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  17. Behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Keng-Hong

    2000-01-01

    Many species of tephritid fruit flies have gained global status as pests of economic importance in fruit and vegetable cultivation. Bactrocera species are no exception. Males of most Bactrocera species are known to be attracted to either methyl eugenol (ME) or cuelure (CL)/raspberry ketone (RK) (Fletcher 1987, Metcalf 1987 and 1990). At the turn of the century, male fruit flies of both B. diversa (Coquillett) (formerly Dacus diversus) and B. zonata (Saunders) (formerly Dacus zonatus) were first observed to have a strong attraction to citronella oil (Howlett 1912). The chemical responsible for the attraction was discovered to be ME (Howlett 1915). Since that discovery, ME has been used successfully in monitoring and male annihilation programmes (Steiner et al. 1965), in estimating native population density and survival rates (Tan 1985, Tan and Jaal 1986, Tan and Serit 1994), and movements between ecosystems (Tan and Serit 1988). The unique characteristic of male Bactrocera flies is that not only are they strongly attracted to certain male attractants but they compulsively feed on them. This phenomenon was not fully understood (Fletcher 1987, Metcalf 1990, Metcalf and Metcalf 1992) until early this decade. Certain male attractants play a very important role in the behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies, and aid in the understanding of the intricate interrelationships between plants, fruit flies and their predators (Tan 1993). Every organism actively or passively secretes chemicals which act as a characteristic 'body odour'. This 'body odour' affects behaviour of individuals, both intraspecies and interspecies, within a community and it is here referred to as ecomone (ecohormone) under a large group of semiochemicals (behaviour modifying chemicals). To understand the different roles of chemicals acting as a medium in communication between individuals and affecting behaviour of a receptive organism, a brief classification of semiochemicals is essential

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on seed germination and organization of shoot apex in Solanum melongena and Capsicum annum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, J.D.; Shah, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    Seeds of S. melongena and C. annum were irradiated with 10, 20 and 30 kR exposures of gamma rays. All doses bring about morphological and structural changes in the shoot apex. Cytohistological zonation is absent in the shoot apex of treated seeds. Tunica and corpus cells become inactive. The plastochron period between the two successive leaf primordia is shorter in irradiated shoot apices than in unirradiated ones. In Capsicum certain shoot apices showed arrested internodes between the cotyledon and next leaf. (author)

  19. The influence of sex and fly species on the development of trypanosomes in tsetse flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Peacock

    Full Text Available Unlike other dipteran disease vectors, tsetse flies of both sexes feed on blood and transmit pathogenic African trypanosomes. During transmission, Trypanosoma brucei undergoes a complex cycle of proliferation and development inside the tsetse vector, culminating in production of infective forms in the saliva. The insect manifests robust immune defences throughout the alimentary tract, which eliminate many trypanosome infections. Previous work has shown that fly sex influences susceptibility to trypanosome infection as males show higher rates of salivary gland (SG infection with T. brucei than females. To investigate sex-linked differences in the progression of infection, we compared midgut (MG, proventriculus, foregut and SG infections in male and female Glossina morsitans morsitans. Initially, infections developed in the same way in both sexes: no difference was observed in numbers of MG or proventriculus infections, or in the number and type of developmental forms produced. Female flies tended to produce foregut migratory forms later than males, but this had no detectable impact on the number of SG infections. The sex difference was not apparent until the final stage of SG invasion and colonisation, showing that the SG environment differs between male and female flies. Comparison of G. m. morsitans with G. pallidipes showed a similar, though less pronounced, sex difference in susceptibility, but additionally revealed very different levels of trypanosome resistance in the MG and SG. While G. pallidipes was more refractory to MG infection, a very high proportion of MG infections led to SG infection in both sexes. It appears that the two fly species use different strategies to block trypanosome infection: G. pallidipes heavily defends against initial establishment in the MG, while G. m. morsitans has additional measures to prevent trypanosomes colonising the SG, particularly in female flies. We conclude that the tsetse-trypanosome interface works

  20. Shooting performance is related to forearm temperature and hand tremor size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakie, M; Villagra, F; Bowman, I; Wilby, R

    1995-08-01

    The changes in postural tremor of the hand and the subsequent effect on shooting performance produced by moderate cooling and heating of the forearm were studied in six subjects. Cooling produced a large decrease in tremor size of the ipsilateral hand, whereas warming the limb produced an increase in tremor size. Cooling or warming the forearm did not change the peak frequency of tremor significantly, which was quite stable for each subject. The improvement in shooting performance after cooling the forearm, as measured by grouping pattern of the shots, reached statistical significance and warming caused a significant worsening. This measure of performance was shown to correlate (r = 0.776) inversely with tremor size. The causes and implications of these changes are discussed. It is suggested that local cooling may be useful for people who wish temporarily to reduce tremor in order to improve dexterity for shooting and for other purposes.

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation on the shoot length of Cicer seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toker, Cengiz; Uzun, Bulent; Canci, Huseyin; Oncu Ceylan, F.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of radiation on the shoot and root lengths of germinated seedling of irradiated seeds of Cicer species, i.e. three kabuli types and four desi types of cultivated chickpea (Cicer arietinum Ladiz.) and 2 annual wild types (C. reticulatum Ladiz. and C. bijugum K.H. Rech.) were investigated. The seeds were irradiated with a 60 Co gamma source using 0, 200, 300 and 400 Gy doses at 1.66 kGy h -1 . At 200 Gy minor effects could be observed, but at 400 Gy an obvious depression of shoot length was observed. The kabuli types were more affected than the desi ones. The critical dose that prevented the shoot and root elongation varied among species and also ranged from genotypes to genotype within species

  2. Media Agenda Setting Regarding Gun Violence before and after a Mass Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashinsky, Jared Michael; Magnusson, Brianna; Hanson, Carl; Barnes, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Gun violence is related to substantial morbidity and mortality with surrounding discussions framed and shaped by the media. This study’s objective was to explore national news media’s reporting of gun violence around a mass shooting. National news pieces were coded according to categories of gun violence, media frames, entities held responsible, responses, and reporting of the public heath approach. Individuals were held responsible for gun violence in 63% of pieces before and 32% after the shooting. Lawmakers were held responsible in 30% of pieces before and 66% after. Background checks were a proposed gun violence prevention method in 18% of pieces before and 55% after Sandy Hook, and lethality reduction of firearms was in 9% before and 57% after. Following a mass shooting, the media tended to hold government, not individuals, primarily responsible. The media often misrepresented the real picture of gun violence and key public health roles. PMID:28119907

  3. Synergistic effects of altered salinity and temperature on estuarine eelgrass (Zostera marina) seedlings and clonal shoots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina Elina; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2014-01-01

    investigated experimentally how different combinations of salinity and temperature affect the physiological performance of adult eelgrass (Zostera marina) shoots and seedlings. Plants were exposed to different combinations of salinity (salinity 5, 12.5 and 20) and temperature (15, 20 and 25 °C) in a 5-week...... and temperature. Seedlings had higher absolute mortality, while adult shoots were relatively more sensitive to unfavorable levels of salinity. Leaf tissue sucrose concentrations in both life stages decreased at low salinity, whereas salinity and temperature resulted in contrasting starch concentrations between...... seedlings and adult shoots. Our results show that altered salinity and temperature may have negative synergistic effects on eelgrass performance. Future climate changes may thus have serious impacts on eelgrass survival and performance....

  4. Sexuality and school shootings: what role does teasing play in school massacres?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jessie

    2006-01-01

    Conventional explanations - lax gun control laws, media violence, single and working parents - do not adequately explain the recent spate of school shootings, and neither does bullying by itself, an explanation recently gaining more traction. A certain type of bullying, however, is revealed as particularly culpable. Many of the recent shootings share a disturbing component: The perpetrators were repeatedly, even relentlessly, accused by "preps and jocks" of being gay. Gay harassment is proposed as a point of departure for understanding the causes of school shootings. When boys who believe on some level that they warrant privilege, are instead harassed, they may feel driven to avenge the "wrong," and re-assert a more dominant, powerful, and victorious masculinity. These circumstances call for a cultural transformation such that "boys will be boys" is no longer used as an alibi for violence. The author presents implications for school-based social work practice, teacher and administrator interventions, as well as other prevention strategies.

  5. Three ancient hormonal cues co-ordinate shoot branching in a moss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudert, Yoan; Palubicki, Wojtek; Ljung, Karin; Novak, Ondrej; Leyser, Ottoline; Harrison, C Jill

    2015-03-25

    Shoot branching is a primary contributor to plant architecture, evolving independently in flowering plant sporophytes and moss gametophytes. Mechanistic understanding of branching is largely limited to flowering plants such as Arabidopsis, which have a recent evolutionary origin. We show that in gametophytic shoots of Physcomitrella, lateral branches arise by re-specification of epidermal cells into branch initials. A simple model co-ordinating the activity of leafy shoot tips can account for branching patterns, and three known and ancient hormonal regulators of sporophytic branching interact to generate the branching pattern- auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. The mode of auxin transport required in branch patterning is a key divergence point from known sporophytic pathways. Although PIN-mediated basipetal auxin transport regulates branching patterns in flowering plants, this is not so in Physcomitrella, where bi-directional transport is required to generate realistic branching patterns. Experiments with callose synthesis inhibitors suggest plasmodesmal connectivity as a potential mechanism for transport.

  6. Root-shoot relationships in four strains of field-grown Erianthus arundinaceus at seedling stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Shiotsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of cellulosic bioethanol from non-edible plants is a potential countermeasure against global warming. Erianthus species provide cellulosic raw material for bioethanol because they have high biomass productivity and high tolerance to environmental stress, associated with their large, deep root systems. However, it is difficult to select Erianthus species for breeding by direct observation of their root systems because the roots are widely dispersed in the soil. Instead, we examined shoot morphological traits that could be closely related to root morphology to find effective reference indices for selection. The potential to evaluate root structure and function in Erianthus according to bleeding rate was also examined. An analysis of root–shoot relationships in seedlings indicated that root number and mean length were closely related to stem number and diameter, respectively. These results suggest that root–shoot relationships may provide useful criteria for selective breeding of root systems in Erianthus.

  7. Comparison of treatments of steep and shoot generated by different inverse planning systems; Comparacion de tratamiento de steep and shoot generados por diferentes sistemas de planificacion inversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Moreno, J. M.; Zucca Aparicio, D.; Fernandez Leton, P.; Garcia Ruiz-Zorrilla, J.; Minambres Moro, A.

    2011-07-01

    The problem of IMRT treatments with the technique Steep and Shoot or static is the number of segments and monitor units used in the treatment. These parameters depend largely on the inverse planning system which determines treatment. Are evaluated three commercial planning systems, with each one performing clinical dosimetry for the same series of patients. Dosimetric results are compared, UM calculated and number of segments.

  8. Amyloplast displacement is necessary for gravisensing in Arabidopsis shoots as revealed by a centrifuge microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Masatsugu; Ikeda, Norifumi; Sawai-Toyota, Satoe; Kato, Takehide; Gilroy, Simon; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo Terao

    2013-11-01

    The starch-statolith hypothesis proposes that starch-filled amyloplasts act as statoliths in plant gravisensing, moving in response to the gravity vector and signaling its direction. However, recent studies suggest that amyloplasts show continuous, complex movements in Arabidopsis shoots, contradicting the idea of a so-called 'static' or 'settled' statolith. Here, we show that amyloplast movement underlies shoot gravisensing by using a custom-designed centrifuge microscope in combination with analysis of gravitropic mutants. The centrifuge microscope revealed that sedimentary movements of amyloplasts under hypergravity conditions are linearly correlated with gravitropic curvature in wild-type stems. We next analyzed the hypergravity response in the shoot gravitropism 2 (sgr2) mutant, which exhibits neither a shoot gravitropic response nor amyloplast sedimentation at 1 g. sgr2 mutants were able to sense and respond to gravity under 30 g conditions, during which the amyloplasts sedimented. These findings are consistent with amyloplast redistribution resulting from gravity-driven movements triggering shoot gravisensing. To further support this idea, we examined two additional gravitropic mutants, phosphoglucomutase (pgm) and sgr9, which show abnormal amyloplast distribution and reduced gravitropism at 1 g. We found that the correlation between hypergravity-induced amyloplast sedimentation and gravitropic curvature of these mutants was identical to that of wild-type plants. These observations suggest that Arabidopsis shoots have a gravisensing mechanism that linearly converts the number of amyloplasts that settle to the 'bottom' of the cell into gravitropic signals. Further, the restoration of the gravitropic response by hypergravity in the gravitropic mutants that we tested indicates that these lines probably have a functional gravisensing mechanism that is not triggered at 1 g. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Pre-hospital management of mass casualty civilian shootings: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Conor D A; Lockey, David J; Rehn, Marius

    2016-11-08

    Mass casualty civilian shootings present an uncommon but recurring challenge to emergency services around the world and produce unique management demands. On the background of a rising threat of transnational terrorism worldwide, emergency response strategies are of critical importance. This study aims to systematically identify, describe and appraise the quality of indexed and non-indexed literature on the pre-hospital management of modern civilian mass shootings to guide future practice. Systematic literature searches of PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Scopus were conducted in conjunction with simple searches of non-indexed databases; Web of Science, OpenDOAR and Evidence Search. The searches were last carried out on 20 April 2016 and only identified those papers published after the 1 January 1980. Included documents had to contain descriptions, discussions or experiences of the pre-hospital management of civilian mass shootings. From the 494 identified manuscripts, 73 were selected on abstract and title and after full text reading 47 were selected for inclusion in analysis. The search yielded reports of 17 mass shooting events, the majority from the USA with additions from France, Norway, the UK and Kenya. Between 1994 and 2015 the shooting of 1649 people with 578 deaths at 17 separate events are described. Quality appraisal demonstrated considerable heterogeneity in reporting and revealed limited data on mass shootings globally. Key themes were identified to improve future practice: tactical emergency medical support may harmonise inner cordon interventions, a need for inter-service education on effective haemorrhage control, the value of senior triage operators and the need for regular mass casualty incident simulation.

  10. Arsenic speciation in moso bamboo shoot - A terrestrial plant that contains organoarsenic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Rui [Department of Chemistry, Key laboratory for Atomic and Molecular Nanosciences of Education Ministry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P.R. China (China); Zhao Mengxia [Department of Chemistry, Key laboratory for Atomic and Molecular Nanosciences of Education Ministry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Hui [Department of Chemistry, Key laboratory for Atomic and Molecular Nanosciences of Education Ministry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Taneike, Yasuhito [Shimadzu Co Ltd, Spectroscopy Business Unit Analytical Instruments Div, Nakagyo Ku, Kyoto, 6048511 (Japan); Zhang Xinrong [Department of Chemistry, Key laboratory for Atomic and Molecular Nanosciences of Education Ministry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: xrzhang@chem.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2006-12-01

    Arsenic is predominantly found as an inorganic species in most terrestrial plants. However, we found that a significant proportion of organic arsenic was present in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel) shoot in a market survey of arsenic species in edible terrestrial plants. Moso bamboo shoots from different producing areas in China were collected for analysis to confirm the ubiquity of methylated arsenic species. The total arsenic concentrations of bamboo shoots were determined by hydride generation coupled atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS), ranging from 27.7 to 94.0 {mu}g/kg. Information about arsenic species was acquired from cold trap-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (CT-HG-AAS). Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was present in the amount of 13.9% to 44.9% of sum of the arsenic species in all these samples. Monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) were also detected in certain samples in the range of 4.2-16.5% and 11.8-18.4%, respectively. In addition, bamboo shoots collected in winter were found to have more total arsenic and organic arsenic than those collected in spring. To investigate the source of the organic arsenic in moso bamboo shoots, arsenic species in the rhizosphere soils of the plants were examined. The absence of organic arsenic in soils would suggest the possibility of formation of methylated arsenic in the plants. In addition, studies of arsenic speciation in the peel and core of winter bamboo shoots showed that all the cores contained organic arsenic while no organic arsenic was detected in the peels. The study provides useful information for better understanding of the distribution of arsenic species in terrestrial plants.

  11. Acidolysis of coal fly ash by Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E.; Singh, A.K. (EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Center for Biological Processing Technology)

    1993-12-01

    The kinetics of aluminium extraction were investigated, using as-received and calcined fly ash samples and a pure culture of [ital Aspergillus niger]. This fungus metabolized sucrose to citric and oxalic acids, which were involved in the acidolysis of fly ash. Aluminium extraction from as-received fly ash was only 5-8%, whereas from calcined fly ash it was up to 93.5%. The order of reaction and the overall reaction rate constant were determined by the van't Hoff technique with respect to the concentration of calcined fly ash. A linearized form of a modified Monod expression was applied to the experimental data to assess the kinetic constants for the acidolysis process. Statistically designed experiments were carried out with calcined fly ash and synthetic solutions containing citric and oxalic acids to determine the optimum leaching conditions. The acidolysis reaction mechanism is discussed. 28 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Distinction of Fly Artifacts from Human Blood using Immunodetection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, David B; Acca, Gillian; Fink, Marc; Brogan, Rebecca; Chen, Dorothy; Schoeffield, Andrew

    2018-02-21

    Insect stains produced by necrophagous flies are indistinguishable morphologically from human bloodstains. At present, no diagnostic tests exist to overcome this deficiency. As the first step toward developing a chemical test to recognize fly artifacts, polyclonal antisera were generated in rats against three distinct antigenic sequences of fly cathepsin D-like proteinase, an enzyme that is structurally distinct in cyclorrhaphous Diptera from other animals. The resulting rat antisera bound to artifacts produced by Protophormia terraenovae and synthetic peptides used to generate the polyclonal antisera, but not with any type of mammalian blood tested in immunoassays. Among the three antisera, anti-md3 serum displayed the highest reactivity for fly stains, demonstrated cross-reactivity for all synthetic peptides representing antigenic sequences of the mature fly enzyme, and bound artifacts originating from the fly digestive tract. Further work is needed to determine whether the antisera are suitable for non-laboratory conditions. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Inescapable Stress Changes Walking Behavior in Flies - Learned Helplessness Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsching, Sophie; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Like other animals flies develop a state of learned helplessness in response to unescapable aversive events. To show this, two flies, one 'master', one 'yoked', are each confined to a dark, small chamber and exposed to the same sequence of mild electric shocks. Both receive these shocks when the master fly stops walking for more than a second. Behavior in the two animals is differently affected by the shocks. Yoked flies are transiently impaired in place learning and take longer than master flies to exit from the chamber towards light. After the treatment they walk more slowly and take fewer and shorter walking bouts. The low activity is attributed to the fly's experience that its escape response, an innate behavior to terminate the electric shocks, does not help anymore. Earlier studies using heat pulses instead of electric shocks had shown similar effects. This parallel supports the interpretation that it is the uncontrollability that induces the state.

  14. Inescapable Stress Changes Walking Behavior in Flies - Learned Helplessness Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsching, Sophie; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Like other animals flies develop a state of learned helplessness in response to unescapable aversive events. To show this, two flies, one 'master', one 'yoked', are each confined to a dark, small chamber and exposed to the same sequence of mild electric shocks. Both receive these shocks when the master fly stops walking for more than a second. Behavior in the two animals is differently affected by the shocks. Yoked flies are transiently impaired in place learning and take longer than master flies to exit from the chamber towards light. After the treatment they walk more slowly and take fewer and shorter walking bouts. The low activity is attributed to the fly's experience that its escape response, an innate behavior to terminate the electric shocks, does not help anymore. Earlier studies using heat pulses instead of electric shocks had shown similar effects. This parallel supports the interpretation that it is the uncontrollability that induces the state. PMID:27875580

  15. Inescapable Stress Changes Walking Behavior in Flies - Learned Helplessness Revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Batsching

    Full Text Available Like other animals flies develop a state of learned helplessness in response to unescapable aversive events. To show this, two flies, one 'master', one 'yoked', are each confined to a dark, small chamber and exposed to the same sequence of mild electric shocks. Both receive these shocks when the master fly stops walking for more than a second. Behavior in the two animals is differently affected by the shocks. Yoked flies are transiently impaired in place learning and take longer than master flies to exit from the chamber towards light. After the treatment they walk more slowly and take fewer and shorter walking bouts. The low activity is attributed to the fly's experience that its escape response, an innate behavior to terminate the electric shocks, does not help anymore. Earlier studies using heat pulses instead of electric shocks had shown similar effects. This parallel supports the interpretation that it is the uncontrollability that induces the state.

  16. Analysis list: Fli1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Fli1 Blood,Embryo + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Fli1....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Fli1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyu...shu-u/mm9/target/Fli1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Fli1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Fli1.Embryo.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Embryo.gml ...

  17. Investigation of Aerodynamic Capabilities of Flying Fish in Gliding Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H.; Choi, H.

    In the present study, we experimentally investigate the aerodynamic capabilities of flying fish. We consider four different flying fish models, which are darkedged-wing flying fishes stuffed in actual gliding posture. Some morphological parameters of flying fish such as lateral dihedral angle of pectoral fins, incidence angles of pectoral and pelvic fins are considered to examine their effect on the aerodynamic performance. We directly measure the aerodynamic properties (lift, drag, and pitching moment) for different morphological parameters of flying fish models. For the present flying fish models, the maximum lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio are similar to those of medium-sized birds such as the vulture, nighthawk and petrel. The pectoral fins are found to enhance the lift-to-drag ratio and the longitudinal static stability of gliding flight. On the other hand, the lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio decrease with increasing lateral dihedral angle of pectoral fins.

  18. Accurate inference of shoot biomass from high-throughput images of cereal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tester Mark

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the establishment of advanced technology facilities for high throughput plant phenotyping, the problem of estimating plant biomass of individual plants from their two dimensional images is becoming increasingly important. The approach predominantly cited in literature is to estimate the biomass of a plant as a linear function of the projected shoot area of plants in the images. However, the estimation error from this model, which is solely a function of projected shoot area, is large, prohibiting accurate estimation of the biomass of plants, particularly for the salt-stressed plants. In this paper, we propose a method based on plant specific weight for improving the accuracy of the linear model and reducing the estimation bias (the difference between actual shoot dry weight and the value of the shoot dry weight estimated with a predictive model. For the proposed method in this study, we modeled the plant shoot dry weight as a function of plant area and plant age. The data used for developing our model and comparing the results with the linear model were collected from a completely randomized block design experiment. A total of 320 plants from two bread wheat varieties were grown in a supported hydroponics system in a greenhouse. The plants were exposed to two levels of hydroponic salt treatments (NaCl at 0 and 100 mM for 6 weeks. Five harvests were carried out. Each time 64 randomly selected plants were imaged and then harvested to measure the shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight. The results of statistical analysis showed that with our proposed method, most of the observed variance can be explained, and moreover only a small difference between actual and estimated shoot dry weight was obtained. The low estimation bias indicates that our proposed method can be used to estimate biomass of individual plants regardless of what variety the plant is and what salt treatment has been applied. We validated this model on an independent

  19. Agent-Based Simulation of Mass Shootings: Determining How to Limit the Scale of a Tragedy

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Hayes; Reginald Hayes

    2014-01-01

    An agent-based simulation was created to examine key parameters in mass shootings. The goal of the simulation was to examine the potential effectiveness of Senator Dianne Feinstein’s (D-Calif.) assault weapons and high-capacity magazines bill. Based on the analysis, the proposed law would have a negligible effect on the number of people shot during mass shootings. The assault weapons portion of the proposed bill will have no effect on the number of people killed or wounded in a mass shootin...

  20. PENGARUH GAYA MENGAJAR DAN MOTIVASI BELAJAR TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR LAY UP SHOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilang Ramadan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Reciprocal teaching styles and teaching styles Exercise as well as learning motivation towards learning outcomes Lay UpShoot.The research was conducted on students and SMA Negeri 1 Cigugur. This study uses a treatment by the level of 2 x 2. The sample consisted of 28 students as well as students. The data analysis technique is a two-track analysis of variance (ANOVA and then followed by Tukey's test at a significance level α = 0, 05. The results of this study indicate that (1. Value of learning outcomes Lay Up Shoot in the treatment higher Reciprocal teaching style with the results of 50% (14 above the average of the value style of teaching exercises that only 39.29% (11 above average in SMA 1 Cigugur. (2. Value learning outcomes Lay Up Shoot in the treatment of Reciprocal teaching style of learning motivation high (A1B1is higher than the value of teaching style Exercise high learning motivation (A2B1in SMA Negeri 1 Cigugur. (3. Value learning outcomes Lay Up Shoot in the treatment of Reciprocal teaching style low learning motivation (A1B2is lower than the value of teaching style Exercise low learning motivation (A2B2in SMA Negeri 1 Cigugur. Keyword: Reciprocal teaching styles, teaching styles Exercise, learning motivation Abstrak: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari gaya mengajar Resiprokal dan gaya mengajar Latihan serta motivasi belajar terhadap hasil belajar Lay Up Shoot. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada siswa maupun siswi SMA Negeri 1 Cigugur. Penelitian ini menggunakan treatment by level 2 x 2. Sampel terdiri dari 28 siswa maupun siswi. Teknik analisis data adalah analisis varians dua jalur (ANAVA dan selanjutnya dilanjutkan dengan uji Tukey pada tingkat signifikansi α = 0, 05. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa (1. Nilai hasil belajar Lay Up Shoot pada perlakuan gaya mengajar Resiprokal lebih tinggi dengan hasil 50% (14 orang di atas rata