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Sample records for shonkin sag ss

  1. NExSS/NAI Joint ExoPAG SAG 16 Report on Remote Biosignatures for Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Nancy Y.; Parenteau, Mary Nicole; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn

    2017-01-01

    Future exoplanet observations will soon focus on the search for life beyond the Solar System. Exoplanet biosignatures to be sought are those with global, potentially detectable, impacts on a planet. Biosignatures occur in an environmental context in which geological, atmospheric, and stellar processes and interactions may work to enhance, suppress or mimic these biosignatures. Thus biosignature scienceis inherently interdisciplinary. Its advance is necessary to inform the design of the next flagship missions that will obtain spectra of habitable extrasolar planets. The NExSS NAI Joint Exoplanet Biosignatures Workshop Without Walls brought together the astrobiology, exoplanet, and mission concept communities to review, discuss, debate, and advance the science of remote detection of planetary biosignatures. The multi-meeting workshop began in June 2016, and was a process that engaged a broad range of experts across the interdisciplinary reaches of NASA's Nexus for Exoplanet System Science (NExSS) program, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI), NASAs Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP), and international partners, such as the European Astrobiology Network Association (EANA) and Japans Earth Life Science Institute (ELSI). These groups spanned expertise in astronomy, planetary science, Earth sciences, heliophysics, biology, instrument mission development, and engineering.

  2. A Simple Sag Generator Using SSRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Hava, Ahmet M.

    2010-01-01

    conditions (critical loads) and this property often may not be accommodated inside the device itself and sag compensating power conditioners have been developed for such purposes. While in practice voltage sags are not wanted, generating sags becomes necessary for the purpose of experimentally verifying...... the performances of the equipment (both the equipment under sag condition and the sag compensating power conditioner) under sag conditions. In this work, a simple and economical, yet highly performing sag generator is developed, its design discussed, and its feasibility demonstrated by experiments. The proposed...... is evaluated and finally the utilization of the sag generator in the test of a series active filter based power quality conditioner is demonstrated. The proposed approach provides an effective solution for voltage sag generation....

  3. The Yin and Yang of SagS: Distinct Residues in the HmsP Domain of SagS Independently Regulate Biofilm Formation and Biofilm Drug Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Jozef; Poudyal, Bandita

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The formation of inherently drug-tolerant biofilms by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires the sensor-regulator hybrid SagS, with ΔsagS biofilms being unstructured and exhibiting increased antimicrobial susceptibility. Recent findings indicated SagS to function as a switch to control biofilm formation and drug tolerance independently. Moreover, findings suggested the periplasmic sensory HmsP domain of SagS is likely to be the control point in the regulation of biofilm formation and biofilm cells transitioning to a drug-tolerant state. We thus asked whether specific amino acid residues present in the HmsP domain contribute to the switch function of SagS. HmsP domain residues were therefore subjected to alanine replacement mutagenesis to identify substitutions that block the sensory function(s) of SagS, which is apparent by attached cells being unable to develop mature biofilms and/or prevent transition to an antimicrobial-resistant state. Mutant analyses revealed 32 residues that only contribute to blocking one sensory function. Moreover, amino acid residues affecting attachment and subsequent biofilm formation but not biofilm tolerance also impaired histidine kinase signaling via BfiS. In contrast, residues affecting biofilm drug tolerance but not attachment and subsequent biofilm formation negatively impacted BrlR transcription factor levels. Structure prediction suggested the two sets of residues affecting sensory functions are located in distinct areas that were previously described as being involved in ligand binding interactions. Taken together, these studies identify the molecular basis for the dual regulatory function of SagS. IMPORTANCE The membrane-bound sensory protein SagS plays a pivotal role in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and biofilm cells gaining their heightened resistance to antimicrobial agents, with SagS being the control point at which both pathways diverge. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the two

  4. Macroeconomic Assessment of Voltage Sags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Küfeoğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The electric power sector has changed dramatically since the 1980s. Electricity customers are now demanding uninterrupted and high quality service from both utilities and authorities. By becoming more and more dependent on the voltage sensitive electronic equipment, the industry sector is the one which is affected the most by voltage disturbances. Voltage sags are one of the most crucial problems for these customers. The utilities, on the other hand, conduct cost-benefit analyses before going through new investment projects. At this point, understanding the costs of voltage sags become imperative for planning purposes. The characteristics of electric power consumption and hence the susceptibility against voltage sags differ considerably among different industry subsectors. Therefore, a model that will address the estimation of worth of electric power reliability for a large number of customer groups is necessary. This paper introduces a macroeconomic model to calculate Customer Voltage Sag Costs (CVSCs for the industry sector customers. The proposed model makes use of analytical data such as value added, annual energy consumption, working hours, and average outage durations and provides a straightforward, credible, and easy to follow methodology for the estimation of CVSCs.

  5. A Simple Sag Generator Using SSRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Hava, Ahmet M.

    2012-01-01

    SSR (solid state relay, a semiconductor power module of triac characteristics) and variable transformer (variac) based sag generator is built for three-phase 10kVA ratings and balanced/imbalanced voltage sags are demonstrated in the laboratory. The performance under resistive and inductive loads...

  6. Traffic Flow at Sags : Theory, Modeling and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goni-Ros, B.

    2016-01-01

    Sag vertical curves (sags) are roadway sections along which the gradient increases gradually in the direction of traffic. Empirical observations show that, on freeways, traffic congestion often occurs at sags; actually, in some countries (e.g., Japan), sags are one of the most common types of

  7. Compensation for gravitational sag of bent mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Chengwen; Jiang, Hui; He, Yan; Liang, Dongxu; Lan, Xuying; Yan, Shuai [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shu, De-ming [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Li, Aiguo, E-mail: aiguo.li@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2017-05-01

    The gravitational sag of aspheric bent mirrors with face-up or face-down geometry produces a nonnegligible optical error. As an effective compensation, width optimization is used to match the combined effects of the gravitational and bending moments. This method is described by analytical expressions and two calculation algorithms. The results of theoretical simulations and finite element analysis have proved that this method can reduce the slope error resulting from gravitational sag to the level of nano radians.

  8. Compensation for gravitational sag of bent mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Chengwen; Jiang, Hui; He, Yan; Liang, Dongxu; Lan, Xuying; Yan, Shuai; Shu, De-ming; Li, Aiguo

    2017-01-01

    The gravitational sag of aspheric bent mirrors with face-up or face-down geometry produces a nonnegligible optical error. As an effective compensation, width optimization is used to match the combined effects of the gravitational and bending moments. This method is described by analytical expressions and two calculation algorithms. The results of theoretical simulations and finite element analysis have proved that this method can reduce the slope error resulting from gravitational sag to the level of nano radians.

  9. Installation of the sag compensator for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyungkyoo; Jung, Hoansung; Lim, Incheol; Ahn, Gukhoon

    2008-01-01

    Electric power is essential for all industrial plants and also for nuclear facilities. HANARO is a research reactor which produces a 30 MW thermal power. HANARO is designed to be tripped automatically when interruptions or some extent of sags occur. HANARO has the reactor regulation system(RRS) and reactor protection system(RPS). HANARO is designed so as to be tripped automatically by insertion of control absorber rods(CAR) and shut-off rods(SOR). When voltage sag or momentary interruption occurs, the reactor has an unwanted trip by insertion of CARs and SORs even though the process systems are still in operation. HANARO was experienced in a nuisance trip as often as the unexpected voltage sag and/or momentary interruption occurs. We installed the voltage sag compensator on the power supply for CARs and SORs so as to prevent an unwanted trip. We undertook voltage sag assessment of the AC coil contactor which is a component of the power supply unit for the SORs. The compensation time is determined to be less than 1 sec in consideration of the reactor safety. This paper is concerned with the impact of the momentary interruption on the reactor and the effect of the voltage sag compensator. (author)

  10. Installation of the sag compensator for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyoo; Jung, Hoan Sung; Lim, In Cheol; Ahn, Guk Hoon

    2008-01-01

    Electric power is essential for all industrial plants and also for nuclear facilities. HANARO is a research reactor which produces a 30MW thermal power. HANARO is designed to be tripped automatically when interruptions or some extent of sags occur. HANARO has the reactor regulation system(RRs) and reactor protection system(RPS). HANARO is designed so as to be tripped automatically by insertion of control absorber rods(CAR) and shut off rods(SOR). When voltage sag or momentary interruption occurs, the reactor has an unwanted trip by insertion of CARs and SORs even though the process systems are still in operation. HANARO was experienced in a nuisance trip as often as the unexpected voltage sag and/or momentary interruption occurs. We installed the voltage sag compensator voltage sag assessment of the AC coil contactor which is a component of the power supply unit for the SORs. The compensation time is determined to be less than 1 sec in consideration of the reactor safety. This paper is concerned with the impact of the momentary interruption on the reactor and the effect of the voltage sag compensator

  11. Installation of the sag compensator for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. K.; Jung, H. S.; Ahn, G. H.; Lim, I. C.

    2008-01-01

    Electric power is essential for all industrial plants and also for nuclear facilities. HANARO is a research reactor which produces a 30MW thermal power. HANARO is designed to be tripped automatically when interruptions or some extents of sags occur. HANARO has the reactor regulation system (RRS) and reactor protection system (RPS). HANARO is designed so as to tripped automatically by insertion of control absorber rods (CAR) and shut-off rods (SOR). When voltage or momentary interruption occurs, the reactor has an unwanted trip by insertion of CARs and SORs even though the process systems are still in operation. HANARO was experienced in a nuisance trip as often as the unexpected voltage sag and/or momentary interruption occurs. We installed the voltage sag compensator on the power supply for CARs and SORs so as to prevent an unwanted trip. We undertook voltage sag assessment of the AC coil contactor which is a component of the power supply unit for the SORs. The compensation time is determined to be less than 1 sec in consideration of the reactor safety. This paper is concerned with the impact of the momentary interruption on the reactor and the effect of the voltage sag compensator

  12. Transmission line sag calculations using interval mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaalan, H. [Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Washington, DC (United States)]|[US Merchant Marine Academy, Kings Point, NY (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Electric utilities are facing the need for additional generating capacity, new transmission systems and more efficient use of existing resources. As such, there are several uncertainties associated with utility decisions. These uncertainties include future load growth, construction times and costs, and performance of new resources. Regulatory and economic environments also present uncertainties. Uncertainty can be modeled based on a probabilistic approach where probability distributions for all of the uncertainties are assumed. Another approach to modeling uncertainty is referred to as unknown but bounded. In this approach, the upper and lower bounds on the uncertainties are assumed without probability distributions. Interval mathematics is a tool for the practical use and extension of the unknown but bounded concept. In this study, the calculation of transmission line sag was used as an example to demonstrate the use of interval mathematics. The objective was to determine the change in cable length, based on a fixed span and an interval of cable sag values for a range of temperatures. The resulting change in cable length was an interval corresponding to the interval of cable sag values. It was shown that there is a small change in conductor length due to variation in sag based on the temperature ranges used in this study. 8 refs.

  13. An Estimation Method of System Voltage Sag Profile using Recorded Sag Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Sakashita, Tadashi

    The influence of voltage sag to electric equipment has become big issues because of wider utilization of voltage sensitive devices. In order to reduce the influence of voltage sag appearing at each customer side, it is necessary to recognize the level of receiving voltage drop due to lightning faults for transmission line. However it is hard to measure directly those sag level at every load node. In this report, a new method of efficiently estimating system voltage sag profile is proposed based on symmetrical coordinate. In the proposed method, limited recorded sag data is used as the estimation condition which is recorded at each substation in power systems. From the point of view that the number of the recorded node is generally far less than those of the transmission route, a fast solution method is developed to calculate only recorder faulted voltage by applying reciprocity theorem for Y matrix. Furthermore, effective screening process is incorporated, in which the limited candidate of faulted transmission line can be chosen. Demonstrative results are presented using the IEEJ East10 standard system and actual 1700 bus system. The results show that estimation accuracy is sufficiently acceptable under less computation labor.

  14. Voltage sags: Their impact on the utility and industrial customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.; Beam, G.E.; Melhorn, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the impact of voltage sags on the utility and industrial customers. Several utility measures are presented to minimize the customer's exposure to voltage sags. However, these measures cannot completely eliminate the impact of voltage sags on sensitive equipment. A case study is presented in this paper that includes measurement results that were used to characterize the voltage sags experienced on the utility system and in the industrial facility, simulation results that were used to develop area of vulnerability curves for the industrial facility, mitigation equipment that was employed to improve the sensitive equipment's ride through capability, and the lessons learned from the systems approach analysis

  15. Voltage sags impact on CAR and SOR of HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyoo; Jung, Hoan Sung; Wu, Jong Sup

    2004-01-01

    The combination of the unstable electric power and sensitive equipment may cause the nuisance of reactor trip. The reactor is tripped by the RRS and RPS during the occurrence of the voltage sags or momentary interruptions. We tested the components of RRS and RPS for the immunity from voltage sags and momentary interruptions. The tested components are DC power supply for CAR (control absorbed rod) of RRS and AC coil contactor for SOR (shut off rod) of RPS. We briefly describe the power quality standard for the voltage sags. This paper summarizes the magnitudes and durations of the voltage sags which impact on the CAR and SOR system

  16. Model Predictive Control for an Industrial SAG Mill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohan, Valeriu; Steinke, Florian; Metzger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    identication. When applied to MIMO systems we call this controller a MIMO-ARX based MPC. We use an industrial Semi-Autogenous Grinding (SAG) mill to illustrate the performance of this controller. SAG mills are the primary units in a grinding chain and also the most power consuming units. Therefore, improved...... control of SAG mills has the potential to signicantly improve eciency and reduce the specic energy consumption for mineral processes. Grinding circuits involving SAG mills are multivariate processes. Commissioning of a control system based on a classical single-loop controllers with logic is time...

  17. SnSAG5 is an alternative surface antigen of Sarcocystis neurona strains that is mutually exclusive to SnSAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowdus, Carolyn A; Marsh, Antoinette E; Saville, Willliam J; Lindsay, David S; Dubey, J P; Granstrom, David E; Howe, Daniel K

    2008-11-25

    Sarcocystis neurona is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Previous work has identified a gene family of paralogous surface antigens in S. neurona called SnSAGs. These surface proteins are immunogenic in their host animals, and are therefore candidate molecules for development of diagnostics and vaccines. However, SnSAG diversity exists in strains of S. neurona, including the absence of the major surface antigen gene SnSAG1. Instead, sequence for an alternative SnSAG has been revealed in two of the SnSAG1-deficient strains. Herein, we present data characterizing this new surface protein, which we have designated SnSAG5. The results indicated that the protein encoded by the SnSAG5 sequence is indeed a surface-associated molecule that has characteristics consistent with the other SAGs identified in S. neurona and related parasites. Importantly, Western blot analyses of a collection of S. neurona strains demonstrated that 6 of 13 parasite isolates express SnSAG5 as a dominant surface protein instead of SnSAG1. Conversely, SnSAG5 was not detected in SnSAG1-positive strains. One strain, which was isolated from the brain of a sea otter, did not express either SnSAG1 or SnSAG5. Genetic analysis with SnSAG5-specific primers confirmed the presence of the SnSAG5 gene in Western blot-positive strains, while also suggesting the presence of a novel SnSAG sequence in the SnSAG1-deficient, SnSAG5-deficient otter isolate. The findings provide further indication of S. neurona strain diversity, which has implications for diagnostic testing and development of vaccines against EPM as well as the population biology of Sarcocystis cycling in the opossum definitive host.

  18. Antimicrobial Tolerance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Is Activated during an Early Developmental Stage and Requires the Two-Component Hybrid SagS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kajal; Marques, Cláudia N. H.; Petrova, Olga E.

    2013-01-01

    A hallmark characteristic of biofilms is their extraordinary tolerance to antimicrobial agents. While multiple factors are thought to contribute to the high level of antimicrobial tolerance of biofilms, little is known about the timing of induction of biofilm tolerance. Here, we asked when over the course of their development do biofilms gain their tolerance to antimicrobial agents? We demonstrate that in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biofilm tolerance is linked to biofilm development, with transition to the irreversible attachment stage regulated by the two-component hybrid SagS, marking the timing when biofilms switch to the high-level tolerance phenotype. Inactivation of sagS rendered biofilms but not planktonic cells more susceptible to tobramycin, norfloxacin, and hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, inactivation of sagS also eliminated the recalcitrance of biofilms to killing by bactericidal antimicrobial agents, a phenotype comparable to that observed upon inactivation of brlR, which encodes a MerR-like transcriptional regulator required for biofilm tolerance. Multicopy expression of brlR in a ΔsagS mutant restored biofilm resistance and recalcitrance to killing by bactericidal antibiotics to wild-type levels. In contrast, expression of sagS did not restore the susceptibility phenotype of ΔbrlR mutant biofilms to wild-type levels, indicating that BrlR functions downstream of SagS. Inactivation of sagS correlated with reduced BrlR levels in biofilms, with the produced BrlR being impaired in binding to the previously described BrlR-activated promoters of the two multidrug efflux pump operons mexAB-oprM and mexEF-oprN. Our findings demonstrate that biofilm tolerance is linked to early biofilm development and SagS, with SagS contributing indirectly to BrlR activation. PMID:23995639

  19. Computation and measurement of calandria tube sag in PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Ryong; Sohn, Seok Man

    2003-01-01

    Calandria tubes and liquid injection shutdown system (LISS) tubes in a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) is known to sag due to irradiation creep and growth during plant operation. When the sag of calandria tube becomes bigger, the calandria tube possibly comes in contact with LISS tube crossing beneath and calandria tube. The contact subsequently may cause the damage on the calandria tube resulting in unpredicted outage of the plant. It is therefore necessary to check the gap between the two tubes in order to periodically confirm no contact by using a proper measure during the plant life. An ultrasonic gap measuring probe assembly which can be inserted into two viewing ports of the calandria was developed in Korea and utilized to measure the sags of both tubes in the PHWR. It was found that the centerlines of calandria tubes and liquid injection shutdown system tubes can be precisely detected by ultrasonic wave. The gaps between two tubes were easily obtained from the relative distance of the measured centerline elevations of the tubes. Based on the irradiation creep equation and the measurement data, a computer program to calculate the sags was also developed. With the computer program, the sag at the end of plant life was predicted. (author)

  20. On the dopplars SS433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Li Zhi; Riffini, R.

    1979-07-01

    A new family of X-ray sources has recently been proposed including SS433. The general relativistic formula to fit the frequency dependence of Hsub(α) lines in SS433 as a function of the phase is presented here. Particularly relevant for the verification of the model are the observations at the phase of minimum shift. (author)

  1. Sarcocystis neurona merozoites express a family of immunogenic surface antigens that are orthologues of the Toxoplasma gondii surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Daniel K; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Mroz-Barrett, Meaghan; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Striepen, Boris; Stamper, Shelby

    2005-02-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the Apicomplexa that causes myelitis and encephalitis in horses but normally cycles between the opossum and small mammals. Analysis of an S. neurona expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed four paralogous proteins that exhibit clear homology to the family of surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences of Toxoplasma gondii. The primary peptide sequences of the S. neurona proteins are consistent with the two-domain structure that has been described for the T. gondii SAGs, and each was predicted to have an amino-terminal signal peptide and a carboxyl-terminal glycolipid anchor addition site, suggesting surface localization. All four proteins were confirmed to be membrane associated and displayed on the surface of S. neurona merozoites. Due to their surface localization and homology to T. gondii surface antigens, these S. neurona proteins were designated SnSAG1, SnSAG2, SnSAG3, and SnSAG4. Consistent with their homology, the SnSAGs elicited a robust immune response in infected and immunized animals, and their conserved structure further suggests that the SnSAGs similarly serve as adhesins for attachment to host cells. Whether the S. neurona SAG family is as extensive as the T. gondii SAG family remains unresolved, but it is probable that additional SnSAGs will be revealed as more S. neurona ESTs are generated. The existence of an SnSAG family in S. neurona indicates that expression of multiple related surface antigens is not unique to the ubiquitous organism T. gondii. Instead, the SAG gene family is a common trait that presumably has an essential, conserved function(s).

  2. Sarcocystis neurona Merozoites Express a Family of Immunogenic Surface Antigens That Are Orthologues of the Toxoplasma gondii Surface Antigens (SAGs) and SAG-Related Sequences†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Daniel K.; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y.; Mroz-Barrett, Meaghan; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Striepen, Boris; Stamper, Shelby

    2005-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the Apicomplexa that causes myelitis and encephalitis in horses but normally cycles between the opossum and small mammals. Analysis of an S. neurona expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed four paralogous proteins that exhibit clear homology to the family of surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences of Toxoplasma gondii. The primary peptide sequences of the S. neurona proteins are consistent with the two-domain structure that has been described for the T. gondii SAGs, and each was predicted to have an amino-terminal signal peptide and a carboxyl-terminal glycolipid anchor addition site, suggesting surface localization. All four proteins were confirmed to be membrane associated and displayed on the surface of S. neurona merozoites. Due to their surface localization and homology to T. gondii surface antigens, these S. neurona proteins were designated SnSAG1, SnSAG2, SnSAG3, and SnSAG4. Consistent with their homology, the SnSAGs elicited a robust immune response in infected and immunized animals, and their conserved structure further suggests that the SnSAGs similarly serve as adhesins for attachment to host cells. Whether the S. neurona SAG family is as extensive as the T. gondii SAG family remains unresolved, but it is probable that additional SnSAGs will be revealed as more S. neurona ESTs are generated. The existence of an SnSAG family in S. neurona indicates that expression of multiple related surface antigens is not unique to the ubiquitous organism T. gondii. Instead, the SAG gene family is a common trait that presumably has an essential, conserved function(s). PMID:15664946

  3. An impact analysis of the fault impedance on voltage sags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Alessandro Candido Lopes [CELG - Companhia Energetica de Goias, Goiania, GO (Brazil). Generation and Transmission. System' s Operation Center], E-mail: alessandro.clr@celg.com.br; Batista, Adalberto Jose [Federal University of Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil)], E-mail: batista@eee.ufg.br; Leborgne, Roberto Chouhy [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: rcl@ece.ufrgs.br; Emiliano, Pedro Henrique Mota, E-mail: ph@phph.com.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents an impact analysis of the fault impedance, in terms of its module and angle, on voltage sags caused by faults. Symmetrical and asymmetrical faults are simulated, at transmission and distribution lines, by using a frequency-domain fault simulation software called ANAFAS. Voltage sags are monitored at buses where sensitive end-users are connected. In order to overcome some intrinsic limitations of this software concerning its automatic execution for several cases, a computational tool was developed in Java programming language. This solution allows the automatic simulation of cases including the effect of the fault position, the fault type, and the proper fault impedance. The main conclusion is that the module and angle of the fault impedance can have a significant influence on voltage sag depending on the fault characteristics. (author)

  4. Voltage Sag Compensator for CAR and SOR of HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung-Kyoo; Jung, Hoan-Sung; Wu, Jong-Sup

    2007-01-01

    HANARO is designed so as to be tripped automatically by insertion of control absorber rods(CAR) and shut-off rods(SOR) and the process systems, such as primary cooling system, secondary cooling system and reflector cooling system, etc., stop whenever the off-site power failure occurs, the reactor trips automatically. When voltage sag or momentary interruption occurs, the process systems are in operation but the reactor has an unwanted trip by insertion of CARs and SORs. We installed the voltage sag compensator on the power supply for CARs and SORs so as to prevent a nuisance trip. The compensated time is decided not to exceed 1 sec in consideration of reactor safety. This paper is concerned with the impact of the momentary interruption on the reactor and the effect of the voltage sag compensator

  5. Responsive demand to mitigate slow recovery voltage sags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; da Silva, Luiz Carlos Pereira; Xu, Zhao

    2012-01-01

    , and reactive power reserve for peak load management through price responsive methods and also as energy providers through embedded generation technologies. This article introduces a new technology, called demand as voltagecontrolled reserve, which can help mitigation of momentary voltage sags. The technology...... faults. This article presents detailed models, discussion, and simulation tests to demonstrate the technical viability and effectiveness of the demand as voltage-controlled reserve technology for mitigating voltage sags....... can be provided by thermostatically controlled loads as well as other types of load. This technology has proven to be effective in distribution systems with a large composition of induction motors, when voltage sags present slow recovery characteristics because of the deceleration of the motors during...

  6. Allocation of Load-Loss Cost Caused by Voltage Sag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.

    2017-10-01

    This paper focuses on the allocation of load-loss cost caused by voltage sag in the environment of electricity market. To compensate the loss of loads due to voltage sags, the load-loss cost is allocated to both sources and power consumers. On the basis of Load Drop Cost (LDC), a quantitative evaluation index of load-loss cost caused by voltage sag is identified. The load-loss cost to be allocated to power consumers themselves is calculated according to load classification. Based on the theory of power component the quantitative relation between sources and loads is established, thereby a quantitative calculation method for load-loss cost allocated to each source is deduced and the quantitative compensation from individual source to load is proposed. A simple five-bus system illustrates the main features of the proposed method.

  7. Early Prediction of Transient Voltage Sags caused by Rotor Swings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Van Cutsem, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates various methods to predict voltage sags at load buses caused by large generator rotor swings and following a transient disturbance. Three different prediction methods are proposed, which all use real-time measurements from PMUs. One of the methods uses a slightly extended v...... version of the E-SIME method. The other two methods use Measurements and process them by recursive least square estimation. It is shown that the prediction method employing E-SIME allows the earliest detection of a critical voltage sag with satisfactory accuracy....

  8. Gravity sag of sandwich panel assemblies as applied to precision cathode strip chamber structural design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between gravity sag of a precision cathode strip chamber and its sandwich panel structural design is explored parametrically. An algorithm for estimating the dominant component of gravity sag is defined. Graphs of normalized gravity sag as a function of gap frame width and material, sandwich core edge filler width and material, panel skin thickness, gap height, and support location are calculated using the gravity sag algorithm. The structural importance of the sandwich-to-sandwich ''gap frame'' connection is explained

  9. The influence of motor re-acceleration on voltage sags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, M.H.J.

    1995-01-01

    The assumption that a voltage sag is rectangular is not correct in a power system with large induction motor loads. The motors decelerate during the short circuit. After fault-clearing, they will accelerate again, drawing a high reactive current from the supply, causing a prolonged postfault voltage

  10. A robust and fast generic voltage sag detection technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L. Dantas, Joacillo; Lima, Francisco Kleber A.; Branco, Carlos Gustavo C.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a fast and robust voltage sag detection algorithm, named VPS2D, is introduced. Using the DSOGI, the algorithm creates a virtual positive sequence voltage and monitories the fundamental voltage component of each phase. After calculating the aggregate value in the o:;3-reference fram...

  11. Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Control Under Voltage Sags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lima, K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new control technique to improve the fault-ride through capability of doubly fed induction generators (DFIG). In such generators the appearance of severe voltage sags at the coupling point make rise to high over currents at the rotor/stator windings, something that makes...

  12. Gravity sag view of lateral radiography of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Kuniyuki; Yanagawa, Yasuhiro; Kawamoto, Kiyosumi; Maeda, Daisuke; Komizu, Mitsuru

    2007-01-01

    The gravity sag view (GSV) is a lateral radiograph taken in the same position when the posterior sag sign is observed. The purpose of this study was to standardize the radiography technique for GSV by adjusting lateral rotation. To confirm the benchmark and correction angle (CA) for the GSV position, we assessed three-dimensional (3D) CT of the GSV position of the knee using normal volunteers. The benchmark is established at the 3-point of the leg and adjusting the CA of the knee is established by estimating from Rosenberg technique radiography. This helped not only to correct external rotation in the initial radiography but also to correct rotation for repeat radiography. Our method is quantitative and highly reproducible, and it increases the success rate in adjusting lateral radiography of the knee. (author)

  13. Voltage Sag Mitigation and Load Reactive Power Compensation by UPQC

    OpenAIRE

    Ajitha, P; Jananisri, D

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents Unified Power Quality Conditioner(UPQC) that consist of series inverter and shunt inverter in back to back configuration which simultaneously compensate the power quality(PQ) problems of both voltage sag and load reactive power compensation . In this paper ,Neural network is tool which is considered for solving power quality problems. The simulation results from MATLAB/SIMULINK are discussed to validate the proposed method.

  14. The sagging rope sign in achondroplasia - different from Perthes' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingade, Viraj U.; Song, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Seok-Hyun; Suh, Seung-Woo; Oh, Chang-Wug; Hong, Jun-Seok

    2006-01-01

    The sagging rope sign is a radio-opaque line, seen on radiographs of the hips, with Perthes' disease. The main purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, cause and importance of this sign in achondroplasia, and to reveal how it differs from in Perthes' disease. Serial radiograms, along with 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional CT images were studied in 42 achondroplasic patients. Forty-two achondroplasic patients, reported at our institute (for routine outpatient consultation, spine surgeries, deformity corrections, limb-lengthening procedures) were included in this study. There were 26 males and 16 females. The sign was observed bilaterally, in all patients. Evaluation of CT images revealed spherical heads, with presence of circumferential overhang in all hips. This circumferential overhang, seen on 3-D CT scan, corresponded to the sagging rope sign on radiographs. Presence of the sagging rope sign in bilateral hips is a characteristic feature of achondroplasia. It usually appears before epiphyseal closure. Its cause, incidence, and nature differ from Perthes' disease, and its presence does not carry a bad prognosis in achondroplasia. (orig.)

  15. Experimental testing of a SAG digital SILT application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Maskuniitty, M.; Heikkinen, J.; Korhonen, J.

    1995-10-01

    A prototype dynamic testing harness for programmable automation systems has been specified and implemented at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). In order to get experience on the methodology and equipment for the testing of systems important to the safety of nuclear power plants, where the safety and reliability requirements often are very high, two different pilot systems have been tested. One system was an ABB Master application, which was loaned for testing from ABB Atom by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). Another system, loaned from Siemens AG(SAG) by IVO International Oy (IVO), was an application realized with SAG's digital SILT technology. The report describes the testing of the SAG application. The purpose of the testing was not to assess the pilot system, but to get experience in the testing methodology and find out the further development needs and potentials of the test methodology and equipment. The experience show that dynamic testing is one feasible way to get more confidence about the safety and reliability of a programmable system that would be hard to achieve by other means. It also shows that more development of the test harness is still needed, especially concerning the comparison of the obtained test response to the expected response provided by the logical model of the system. Also the user interface of the on-line part of the test harness needs development. Methods for generation of the test cases also need further development eg. for achieving statistical significance for the reliability estimates. (10 refs., 90 figs., 9 tabs.)

  16. Mitigation of Voltage Sags in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Any problem in voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) etc. are commonly used for the mitigation of voltage p....... The compensation of voltage sags in the different parts of CIGRE distribution network is done by using the four STATCOM compensators already existing in the test grid. The simulations are carried out in DIgSILENT power factory software version 15.0.......Any problem in voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) etc. are commonly used for the mitigation of voltage...... problems in the distribution system. The voltage problems dealt with in this paper are to show how to mitigate voltage sags in the CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) test network and networks like this. The voltage sags, for the tested cases in the CIGRE LV test network are mainly due to three phase faults...

  17. Relativistic jets in SS 433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margon, B.

    1982-01-01

    The most unusual characteristic of the star SS 433 emerged in the late 1970's when a series of optical spectra showed intense, broad optical emission lines whose profiles and wavelengths changed drastically from night to night. These features are interpreted as strong Doppler-shifted Balmer and HeI lines. The modulation of the Doppler shifts are observed as being cyclic with a period of about 164 days. It was hypothesized that these phenomena were caused by two collimated, colinear, jets which were ejecting in opposite directions from SS 433. Most authors believe that velocity variations of the emission lines are caused by a cyclic rotation of jet axis inclined to line of sight. This rotation being the result of precession, which leads one to suspect SS 433 as a member of a close binary system. This hypothesis has been confirmed from recent optical, radio, and x-ray observations which are discussed in the article. The combination of optical and radio observations of SS 433, described in the article, gives an accurate measure of the Kinematics of the system and some confidence that the Kinematic equations are understood. However, the specific physical processes of this ejection are poorly understood. Some theoretical difficulties regarding this are given

  18. Quantifying the gantry sag on linear accelerators and introducing an MLC-based compensation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Weiliang; Gao Song; Wang Xiaochun; Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Gantry sag is one of the well-known sources of mechanical imperfections that compromise the spatial accuracy of radiation dose delivery. The objectives of this study were to quantify the gantry sag on multiple linear accelerators (linacs), to investigate a multileaf collimator (MLC)-based strategy to compensate for gantry sag, and to verify the gantry sag and its compensation with film measurements. Methods: The authors used the Winston-Lutz method to measure gantry sag on three Varian linacs. A ball bearing phantom was imaged with megavolt radiation fields at 10 deg. gantry angle intervals. The images recorded with an electronic portal imaging device were analyzed to derive the radiation isocenter and the gantry sag, that is, the superior-inferior wobble of the radiation field center, as a function of the gantry angle. The authors then attempted to compensate for the gantry sag by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to the MLC leaf positions. The gantry sag and its compensation were independently verified using film measurements. Results: Gantry sag was reproducible over a six-month measurement period. The maximum gantry sag was found to vary from 0.7 to 1.0 mm, depending on the linac and the collimator angle. The radiation field center moved inferiorly (i.e., away from the gantry) when the gantry was rotated from 0 deg. to 180 deg. After the MLC leaf position compensation was applied at 90 deg. collimator angle, the maximum gantry sag was reduced to <0.2 mm. The film measurements at gantry angles of 0 deg. and 180 deg. verified the inferior shift of the radiation fields and the effectiveness of MLC compensation. Conclusions: The results indicate that gantry sag on a linac can be quantitatively measured using a simple phantom and an electronic portal imaging device. Reduction of gantry sag is feasible by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to MLC leaf positions at 90 deg. collimator angle.

  19. Research on uncertainty evaluation measure and method of voltage sag severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. N.; Wei, J.; Ye, S. Y.; Chen, B.; Long, C.

    2018-01-01

    Voltage sag is an inevitable serious problem of power quality in power system. This paper focuses on a general summarization and reviews on the concepts, indices and evaluation methods about voltage sag severity. Considering the complexity and uncertainty of influencing factors, damage degree, the characteristics and requirements of voltage sag severity in the power source-network-load sides, the measure concepts and their existing conditions, evaluation indices and methods of voltage sag severity have been analyzed. Current evaluation techniques, such as stochastic theory, fuzzy logic, as well as their fusion, are reviewed in detail. An index system about voltage sag severity is provided for comprehensive study. The main aim of this paper is to propose thought and method of severity research based on advanced uncertainty theory and uncertainty measure. This study may be considered as a valuable guide for researchers who are interested in the domain of voltage sag severity.

  20. Effects of balanced and unbalanced voltage sags on DC adjustable-speed drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedra, Joaquin; Sainz, Luis; Corcoles, Felipe; Bergas, Joan [Department of Electrical Engineering, ETSEIB-UPC, Av. Diagonal, 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); de Blas, Alfredo [Department of Electrical Engineering, EUETIB-UPC, C. d' Urgell, 187, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    This paper analyzes the sensitivity of DC adjustable-speed drives to balanced and unbalanced voltage sags. The influence of sag type, depth, duration and phase-angle jump on DC drives is studied. The control of the DC drive has been taken into account to understand drive behavior in the presence of voltage sags. Two working modes of the DC motor are considered in the study: as a consumer load and as a regenerative load. When the DC motor works as a consumer load, the study shows that sag type and depth have a significant influence on drive behavior. However, the voltage sag can be ridden through if the rectifier firing angle is set correctly by the control. When the DC motor works as a regenerative load, the study shows the consequences of the three-phase rectifier commutation failure due to the voltage sag. (author)

  1. A new approach to voltage sag detection based on wavelet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gencer, Oezguer; Oeztuerk, Semra; Erfidan, Tarik [Kocaeli University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, Veziroglu Kampuesue, Eski Goelcuek Yolu, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2010-02-15

    In this work, a new voltage sag detection method based on wavelet transform is developed. Voltage sag detection algorithms, so far have proved their efficiency and computational ability. Using several windowing techniques take long computational times for disturbance detection. Also researchers have been working on separating voltage sags from other voltage disturbances for the last decade. Due to increasing power quality standards new high performance disturbance detection algorithms are necessary to obtain high power quality standards. For this purpose, the wavelet technique is used for detecting voltage sag duration and magnitude. The developed voltage sag detection algorithm is implemented with high speed microcontroller. Test results show that, the new approach provides very accurate and satisfactory voltage sag detection. (author)

  2. The influence of transformers, induction motors and fault resistance regarding propagation voltage sags

    OpenAIRE

    Jairo Blanco; Ruben Darío Leal; Jonathan Jacome; Johann F. Petit; Gabriel Ordoñez; Víctor Barrera

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of voltage sag propagation. The ATPDraw tool was selected for simulating the IEEE 34 node test feeder. It takes into account both voltage sags caused by electrical fault network, as well as voltage sag propagation characteristics caused by induction motor starting and transformer energising. The analysis was aimed at assessing the influence of transformer winding connections, the impedance of these transformers, lines and cables, summarising the...

  3. Voltage Sag due to Pollution Induced Flashover Across Ceramic Insulator Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy B, Subba; Goswami, Arup Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Voltage sag or voltage dips are significant to industrial reliability. There is a necessity to characterize the feeder level power quality (PQ) and the PQ performance among various utility companies. Contamination/pollution induced flashover is the ultimate consequence of the creeping discharges across the insulator strings which induce voltage sag. These have a severe threat on the safe and reliable operation of power systems. In the present work an attempt has been made to experimentally investigate the occurrence of voltage sag/dips during pollution induced flashovers. Results show significant dip/sag in the voltage magnitude during the flashover process.

  4. Bizarre spectrum of SS 433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margon, B.

    1980-01-01

    SS 433 is an emission-line star, a radio source, and an x-ray source centered in a supernova remnant, W50. Through observations and spectroscopic studies much has been learned of this object. The spectrum of SS 433 is characterized by Doppler-shifted emission lines of hydrogen and helium. This implies the presence of a gas. The wavelengths of these lines vary. Some of the moving lines of the spectrum are red-shifted and some are blue-shifted. Since the wavelengths of the Doppler-shifted features change rapidly with time, the velocity of both approaching gas and receding gas is changing. On any given night the average velocity is 12,000 km/sec. Also, the variations in velocity are periodic, with a 164-day period. These characteristics of the spectrum of SS 433 are explained by assuming the following hypothetical model. The object responsible for ejecting two jets in opposite directions is thought to be part of a binary system, consisting of a comparatively normal star bound in close orbit to a neutron star, which is in the process of pulling material away from the companion by virtue of its strong gravitational field. The gas streaming from the normal star forms a rotating accretion disk around the neutron star, and it is from the faces of this disk that the two jets are ejected in opposite directions. Precession of the plane of the disk is presumably what causes the axis of the jets to rotate, hence the 164-day period

  5. Optimum distributed generation placement with voltage sag effect minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Soma; Goswami, Swapan Kumar; Chatterjee, Amitava

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new optimal distributed generation placement algorithm is proposed. ► Optimal number, sizes and locations of the DGs are determined. ► Technical factors like loss, voltage sag problem are minimized. ► The percentage savings are optimized. - Abstract: The present paper proposes a new formulation for the optimum distributed generator (DG) placement problem which considers a hybrid combination of technical factors, like minimization of the line loss, reduction in the voltage sag problem, etc., and economical factors, like installation and maintenance cost of the DGs. The new formulation proposed is inspired by the idea that the optimum placement of the DGs can help in reducing and mitigating voltage dips in low voltage distribution networks. The problem is configured as a multi-objective, constrained optimization problem, where the optimal number of DGs, along with their sizes and bus locations, are simultaneously obtained. This problem has been solved using genetic algorithm, a traditionally popular stochastic optimization algorithm. A few benchmark systems radial and networked (like 34-bus radial distribution system, 30 bus loop distribution system and IEEE 14 bus system) are considered as the case study where the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is aptly demonstrated.

  6. Synthesis, morphological control, and antibacterial properties of hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, Maolin; Hu, Jiangyong; Zeng, Huachun

    2010-01-01

    of this highly asymmetric dipolar composite, photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 in the presence of the as-prepared Ag 2S/Ag heterodimers has been carried out under UV irradiation. The added Ag2S/Ag heterodimers show good chemical stability under

  7. Salivary agglutinin/DMBT1SAG expression is up-regulated in the presence of salivary gland tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikker, F J; van der Wal, J E; Ligtenberg, A J M

    2004-01-01

    Salivary agglutinin (SAG) is encoded by the gene Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) and represents the salivary variant of DMBT1 (DMBT1(SAG)). While SAG is a bona fide anti-caries factor, DMBT1 was proposed as a candidate tumor-suppressor for brain, digestive tract, and lung cancer. Thou...

  8. Improved detection of equine antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona using polyvalent ELISAs based on the parasite SnSAG surface antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargan, Michelle R; Howe, Daniel K

    2011-02-28

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a common neurologic disease of horses that is caused by the apicomplexan pathogen Sarcocystis neurona. To help improve serologic diagnosis of S. neurona infection, we have modified existing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the immunogenic parasite surface antigens SnSAG2, SnSAG3, and SnSAG4 to make the assays polyvalent, thereby circumventing difficulties associated with parasite antigenic variants and diversity in equine immune responses. Two approaches were utilized to achieve polyvalence: (1) mixtures of the individual recombinant SnSAGs (rSnSAGs) were included in single ELISAs; (2) a collection of unique SnSAG chimeras that fused protein domains from different SnSAG surface antigens into a single recombinant protein were generated for use in the ELISAs. These new assays were assessed using a defined sample set of equine sera and cerebrospinal fluids (CSFs) that had been characterized by Western blot and/or were from confirmed EPM horses. While all of the polyvalent ELISAs performed relatively well, the highest sensitivity and specificity (100%/100%) were achieved with assays containing the rSnSAG4/2 chimera (Domain 1 of SnSAG4 fused to SnSAG2) or using a mixture of rSnSAG3 and rSnSAG4. The rSnSAG4 antigen alone and the rSnSAG4/3 chimera (Domain 1 of SnSAG4 fused to Domain 2 of SnSAG3) exhibited the next best accuracy at 95.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Binding ratios and percent positivity (PP) ratios, determined by comparing the mean values for positive versus negative samples, showed that the most advantageous signal to noise ratios were provided by rSnSAG4 and the rSnSAG4/3 chimera. Collectively, our results imply that a polyvalent ELISA based on SnSAG4 and SnSAG3, whether as a cocktail of two proteins or as a single chimeric protein, can give optimal results in serologic testing of serum or CSF for the presence of antibodies against S. neurona. The use of polyvalent SnSAG ELISAs will

  9. Immunogenic Eimeria tenella glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored surface antigens (SAGs induce inflammatory responses in avian macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yock-Ping Chow

    Full Text Available At least 19 glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchored surface antigens (SAGs are expressed specifically by second-generation merozoites of Eimeria tenella, but the ability of these proteins to stimulate immune responses in the chicken is unknown.Ten SAGs, belonging to two previously defined multigene families (A and B, were expressed as soluble recombinant (r fusion proteins in E. coli. Chicken macrophages were treated with purified rSAGs and changes in macrophage nitrite production, and in mRNA expression profiles of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and of a panel of cytokines were measured. Treatment with rSAGs 4, 5, and 12 induced high levels of macrophage nitric oxide production and IL-1β mRNA transcription that may contribute to the inflammatory response observed during E. tenella infection. Concomitantly, treatment with rSAGs 4, 5 and 12 suppressed the expression of IL-12 and IFN-γ and elevated that of IL-10, suggesting that during infection these molecules may specifically impair the development of cellular mediated immunity.In summary, some E. tenella SAGs appear to differentially modulate chicken innate and humoral immune responses and those derived from multigene family A (especially rSAG 12 may be more strongly linked with E. tenella pathogenicity associated with the endogenous second generation stages.

  10. Power conditioning using dynamic voltage restorers under different voltage sag types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Ahmed M; Abdel Aleem, Shady H E; Ibrahim, Ahmed M; Balci, Murat E; El-Zahab, Essam E A

    2016-01-01

    Voltage sags can be symmetrical or unsymmetrical depending on the causes of the sag. At the present time, one of the most common procedures for mitigating voltage sags is by the use of dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs). By definition, a DVR is a controlled voltage source inserted between the network and a sensitive load through a booster transformer injecting voltage into the network in order to correct any disturbance affecting a sensitive load voltage. In this paper, modelling of DVR for voltage correction using MatLab software is presented. The performance of the device under different voltage sag types is described, where the voltage sag types are introduced using the different types of short-circuit faults included in the environment of the MatLab/Simulink package. The robustness of the proposed device is evaluated using the common voltage sag indices, while taking into account voltage and current unbalance percentages, where maintaining the total harmonic distortion percentage of the load voltage within a specified range is desired. Finally, several simulation results are shown in order to highlight that the DVR is capable of effective correction of the voltage sag while minimizing the grid voltage unbalance and distortion, regardless of the fault type.

  11. A sagging along the eastern Chianti Mts., Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltorti, M.; Ravani, S.; Cornamusini, G.; Ielpi, A.; Verrazzani, F.

    2009-11-01

    A deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DGSD) affects the eastern side of the Chianti Mts. Ridge. It develops in an N-S to NW-SE direction and is > 10 km wide and 3-4 km long. This area corresponds to the eastern side of a main antiform, characterised by east-verging folds and thrusts involving bedrock of the Mesozoic-Paleogene Tuscan Units, particularly sandstones containing interlayered highly fractured and deformed Ligurian rocks (shales and limestones with olistostromes). The foot of the slope is characterised by tilted Plio-Pleistocene deposits unconformably sealing the bedrock structures as folds, thrusts and faults. The most significant morphological features are a main escarpment, trenches, several secondary and counter-slope escarpments that together indicate large-scale gravitational phenomena. The main escarpment is responsible for the headward retreat of the slope, and is deeply segmented by numerous arcuate niches that reveal differential movements of single blocks. The DGSD is also dissected by SW-NE trending streams that often deepen inside the N-S trenches. Minor landslides due to local instability are also present. At the foot of the slope, the older continental Pliocene deposits of the Upper Valdarno Basin crop out. Although tilted by tectonic movements, the deposits have not been severely affected by gravitational deformations. This indicates that the movement is a typical sagging, a large landslide at an embryonic stage, affecting the upper part of the slope but not reaching the valley bottom. The deformations are absorbed in the rock mass which is also partially drained by stream incision that prevents high pore pressure. The occurrence of down-slope and down-movement facing escarpments and up-slope and up-movement facing counter-slope escarpments indicate a sagging characterised by a listric spoon-shaped geometry. The DGSD has a style similar to crustal extensional tectonics such as Morton and Black's crustal attenuation model. Although

  12. Effects of symmetrical voltage sags on squirrel-cage induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedra, Joaquin; Sainz, Luis; Corcoles, Felipe [Department of Electrical Engineering, ETSEIB-UPC, Av. Diagonal, 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    This paper analyzes the symmetrical voltage sag consequences on the induction motor behavior when single- and double-cage models are considered, namely current and torque peaks, and speed loss. These effects depend on several variables like sag type, duration and depth. Voltage sag effects are studied by using single- and double-cage models for three motors of different rated power. The double-cage model always predicts torque and current peaks higher than those of the single-cage model. The single-cage model predicts that voltage sags can produce motor instability, whereas the double-cage model is always stable. Therefore, the double-cage model must be used for the simulation of the squirrel-cage induction motor, because the single-cage model can give erroneous results in some situations. (author)

  13. A novel current mode controller for a static compensator utilizing Goertzel algorithm to mitigate voltage sags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, E.; Yatim, A.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We proposed a new current control method for STATCOM. → The current control method maintains a fixed switching frequency. → It also produces fewer harmonics compared to conventional hysteresis method. → A new voltage dip (sag) detection method was used in STATCOM. → The control method can mitigate voltage sag in each phase separately. -- Abstract: Static compensator (STATCOM) has been widely proposed for power quality and network stability improvement. It is easily connected in parallel to the electric network and has many advantages for electrical grids. It can improve network stability; power factor, power transfer rating and can avoid some disturbances such as sags and swells. Most of STATCOM controllers are based on voltage controllers that are based on balanced d-q transform. However, they are not thorough solutions for network disturbances since in most cases single-phase disturbances occur in electrical networks that cannot be avoided by the conventional controllers. Voltage mode controllers are also not capable of responding fast enough to the changes expected of a network system. This paper proposes a new current mode controller to overcome the mentioned problem. The approach uses a fixed frequency current controller to maintain voltage levels in voltage sags (dips). This approach is also simple and can be easily implemented by digitally. It has superior performance over conventional methods in terms of harmonic reduction in STATCOM output current. Another important factor for STATCOM effectiveness in sag mitigation is its sag detection method. This paper also introduces a new sag detection method based on Goertzel algorithm which is both effective and simple for practical applications. The simulation results presented illustrate the superiority of the proposed controller and sag detection algorithm to be utilized in the STATCOM.

  14. Effect of voltage sags on digitally controlled line connected switched-mode power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Different voltage disorders like voltage fluctuations, sags, frequency variations may occur in the power supply networks due to different fault conditions. These deviations from normal operation affects in different ways the line connected devices. Standards were developed to protect and ensure...... of voltage sags is analyzed. Fault tolerant control algorithm was designed, implemented and is discussed. The fault conditions and their effects were investigated at different power levels....

  15. Screening and identification of novel B cell epitopes of Toxoplasma gondii SAG1

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanhua; Wang, Guangxiang; Zhang, Delin; Yin, Hong; Wang, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Background The identification of protein epitopes is useful for diagnostic purposes and for the development of peptide vaccines. In this study, the epitopes of Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 were identified using synthetic peptide techniques with the aid of bioinformatics. Findings Eleven peptides derived from T. gondii SAG1 were assessed by ELISA using pig sera from different time points after infection. Four (PS4, PS6, PS10 and PS11), out of the eleven peptides tested were recognized by all sera. T...

  16. Management efficiency improvement promotion of SS; SS no unei koritsuka sokushin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    Full amount fund petroleum product marketer and Sumisyo petroleum of Sumitomo accelerate management efficiency improvement of service station (SS). National about 300 places have been developed in within the year Within SS, it aims at break-even point achievement of gasoline, coarse advantage 10 yen per light oil of 1 liter in 84 all tied SS stores. SS which has realized the system of 10 yen in the current is whole about 50%. But, by doing personnel configurations and operational procedures, that they reexamine the balance management, etc. in half remaining SS 12 yen-13 yen; the efficiency improvement is done thoroughly. (translated by NEDO)

  17. The negative temperature coefficient resistivities of Ag2S-Ag core–shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Mingming; Liu, Dongzhi; Li, Wei; Zhou, Xueqin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the conductivity of silver nanoparticle films protected by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (Ag/MPA) has been investigated. When the nanoparticles were annealed in air at 200 °C, they converted to stable Ag 2 S-Ag core–shell structures. The mechanism for the formation of the Ag 2 S-Ag core–shell structures along with the compositional changes and the microstructural evolution of the Ag/MPA nanoparticles during the annealing process are discussed. It is proposed that the Ag 2 S-Ag core–shell structure was formed through a solid-state reduction reaction, in which the Ag + ions coming from Ag 2 S were reduced by sulfonate species and sulfur ions. The final Ag 2 S-Ag films display an exponentially decreased resistivity with increasing temperature from 25 to 170 °C. The negative temperature coefficient resistivity of Ag 2 S-Ag films can be adjusted by changing the S/Ag molar ratio used for the synthesis of the Ag/MPA nanoparticles, paving the way for the preparation of negative temperature-coefficient thermistors via printing technology for use in the electronics.

  18. SagE induces highly effective protective immunity against Streptococcus iniae mainly through an immunogenic domain in the extracellular region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yun; Sun, Li; Xing, Ming-qing; Liu, Chun-sheng; Hu, Yong-hua

    2013-11-12

    Streptococcus iniae is a Gram-positive bacterium and a severe pathogen of a wide range of farmed fish. S. iniae possesses a virulence-associated streptolysin S cluster composed of several components, one of which is SagE. SagE a transmembrane protein with one major extracellular region named ECR. This study aimed to develop a SagE-based DNA candidate vaccine against streptococcosis and examine the immunoprotective mechanism of the vaccine. We constructed a DNA vaccine, pSagE, based on the sagE gene and examined its immunological property in a Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) model. The results showed that at 7 days post-vaccination, expression of SagE at transcription and translation levels was detected in the tissues of the vaccinated fish. After challenge with S. iniae at one and two months post-vaccination, pSagE-vaccinated fish exhibited relative percent survival (RPS) of 95% and 88% respectively. Immunological analysis showed that (i) pSagE significantly upregulated the expression of a wide range of immune genes, (ii) pSagE induced the production of specific serum antibodies that bound whole-cell S. iniae, and (iii) treatment of S. iniae with pSagE-induced antibodies blocked bacterial invasion of host cells. To localize the immunoprotective domain of SagE, the ECR-expressing DNA vaccine pSagEECR was constructed. Immunization analysis showed that flounder vaccinated with pSagEECR exhibited a RPS of 68%, and that pSagEECR induced serum antibody production and immune gene expression in a manner similar to, though to lower magnitudes than, those induced by pSagE. We in this study developed a DNA vaccine, pSagE, which induces highly protective immunity against S. iniae. The protective effect of pSagE is probably due to its ability to elicit systemic immune response, in particular that of the humoral branch, which leads to production of specific serum antibodies that impair bacterial infection. These results add insights to the immunoprotective mechanism

  19. Measurement and computation for sag of calandria tube due to irradiation creep in PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, S. M.; Lee, W. R.; Lee, S. K.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, T. R.; Na, B. K.; Namgung I.

    2003-01-01

    Calandria tubes and Liquid Injection Shutdown System(LISS) tubes in a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor(PHWR) are to sag due to irradiation creep and growth during plant operation. When the sag of calandria tube becomes bigger, the calandria tube possibly comes in contact with LISS tube crossing beneath the calandria tube. The contact subsequently may cause the damage on the calandria tube resulting in unpredicted outage of the plant. It is therefore necessary to check the gap between the two tubes in order to periodically confirm no contact by using a proper measure during the plant life. An ultrasonic gap measuring probe assembly which can be inserted into two viewing ports of the calandria was developed in Korea and utilized to measure the sags of both tubes in the PHWR. It was found that the centerlines of calandria tubes and liquid injection shutdown system tubes can be precisely detected by ultrasonic wave. The gaps between two tubes were easily obtained from the relative distance of the measured centerline elevations of the tubes. Based on the irradiation creep equation and the measurement data, a computer program to calculate the sags was also developed. With the computer program, the sag at the end of plant life was predicted

  20. Antigenic evaluation of a recombinant baculovirus-expressed Sarcocystis neurona SAG1 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G D; Lakritz, J; Saville, W J; Livingston, R S; Dubey, J P; Middleton, J R; Marsh, A E

    2004-10-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the primary parasite associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). This is a commonly diagnosed neurological disorder in the Americas that infects the central nervous system of horses. Current serologic assays utilize culture-derived parasites as antigen. This method requires large numbers of parasites to be grown in culture, which is labor intensive and time consuming. Also, a culture-derived whole-parasite preparation contains conserved antigens that could cross-react with antibodies against other Sarcocystis species and members of Sarcocystidae such as Neospora spp., Hammondia spp., and Toxoplasma gondii. Therefore, there is a need to develop an improved method for the detection of S. neurona-specific antibodies. The sera of infected horses react strongly to surface antigen 1 (SnSAG1), an approximately 29-kDa protein, in immunoblot analysis, suggesting that it is an immunodominant antigen. The SnSAG1 gene of S. neurona was cloned, and recombinant S. neurona SAG1 protein (rSnSAG1-Bac) was expressed with the use of a baculovirus system. By immunoblot analysis, the rSnSAG1-Bac antigen detected antibodies to S. neurona from naturally infected and experimentally inoculated equids, cats, rabbit, mice, and skunk. This is the first report of a baculovirus-expressed recombinant S. neurona antigen being used to detect anti-S. neurona antibodies in a variety of host species.

  1. Multipurpose Compensation Scheme for Voltage Sag/Swell and Selective Harmonics Elimination in Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Inci

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage harmonics, sag, and swell are the most harmful disturbances in distribution systems. This paper introduces a novel effective controller method for simultaneous compensation of both voltage sag/swell and voltage harmonics by using multifunctional dynamic voltage restorer. In proposed controller method called FFT with integrated ISRF, ISRF detects the magnitudes of voltage sag/swell quickly and precisely, and FFT extracts the selective components of voltage harmonics very effectively. The proposed method integrates the superior properties of ISRF and FFT methods. FFT integrated ISRF is applied for the first time to provide the compensation of both sag/swell and selective harmonics together. The proposed system has ability to compensate symmetrical/asymmetrical sag/swell and symmetrical/asymmetrical selective harmonics which are 5th, 7th, 11th and 13th. The controlled system is modelled in PSCAD/EMDTC and compared with conventional methods. The performance results verify that the proposed method compensates voltage disturbances effectively in the system.

  2. A rationale for the observed non-linearity in pressure tube creep sag with time in service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedran, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, a paper was presented at the CNS SGC Conference which included an explanation for measured non-linear trends in Pressure Tube (PT) creep sag. The section of the 2012 paper covering this topic was revised and is presented as the main subject of this paper. The practical applications for the prediction of long-term Fuel Channel (FC) creep sag include the analysis of Calandria Tube - Liquid Injection Nozzle (CT-LIN) contact, and fuel passage and PT replacement assessments. The current practice for predicting FC creep sag in life cycle management applications is to use a linear model for creep sag versus time in service. However, PT sag measurements from the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) and Gentilly-2 (G-2) have displayed a non-linear trend with a creep sag rate that is decreasing with time in service. As an example, for PT F06 in PLGS, a 60% reduction in the nominal creep sag rate was observed for measurements taken 18 years apart. Subsequently, it was found that a 56% reduction in the creep sag rate for F06 over 18 years could be attributed to a fundamental geometric property of the PT creep sag profile. In addition, a further 1.6% decrease in the creep sag rate of the CT over the same period could be attributed to bending stress reductions due to the deformation of the CT. The resultant reduction in the PT creep sag rate for F06 was predicted to be 57.6%, closely matching the observed PT creep sag rate reduction of 60%. Therefore, this paper provides a rationale to explain the observed non-linear trends in PT creep sag, the use of which could benefit stations engaging in asset management as a means of FC life extension. This paper presents a summary of the worked performed to correlate the observed reductions in PT creep sag rate to the geometrical properties of the PT creep sag profile and the predicted bending stress reductions in the CT. (author)

  3. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LUMINARIAS TIPO HALURO METÁLICO ANTE EVENTOS SAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonie Johana Restrepo Cuestas

    Full Text Available Este artículo plantea una metodología para la caracterización de luminarias de haluro metálico, ante eventos sag. Inicialmente, se diseñó y construyó un generador de eventos sag. Luego, se planteó un esquema de pruebas, que fue utilizado para analizar el comportamiento de un tipo de luminarias de alta densidad de descarga tipo Metal Halide, ante eventos sag. Finalmente, tomando como referente el estándar SEMI F-47, se realizó la construcción de una curva característica que muestra la región de operación de la luminaria.

  4. Advanced Control of the Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Mitigating Voltage Sags in Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung Vo Tien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a vector control with two cascaded loops to improve the properties of Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR to minimize Voltage Sags on the grid. Thereby, a vector controlled structure was built on the rotating dq-coordinate system with the combination of voltage control and the current control. The proposed DVR control method is modelled using MATLAB-Simulink. It is tested using balanced/unbalanced voltage sags as well as fluctuant and distorted voltages. As a result, by using this controlling method, the dynamic characteristics of the system have been improved significantly. The system performed with higher accuracy, faster response and lower distortion in the voltage sags compensation. The paper presents real time experimental results to verify the performance of the proposed method in real environments.

  5. Modelling voltage sag mitigation using dynamic voltage restorer and analyzing power quality issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nor Laili; Hidzir, Hizrin Dayana Mohd; Thanakodi, Suresh; Nazar, Nazatul Shiema Moh; Ibrahim, Pungut; Ali, Che Ku Muhammad Sabri Che Ku

    2018-02-01

    Power quality problem which are arise due to a fault or a pulsed load can have caused an interruption of critical load. The modern power systems are becoming more sensitive to the quality of the power supplied by the utility company. Voltage sags and swells, flicker, interruptions, harmonic distortion and other distortion to the sinusoidal waveform are the examples of the power quality problems. The most affected due to these problems is industrial customers who use a lot of sensitive equipment. There has suffered a huge loss to these problems. Resulting of broken or damage equipment if voltage sag exceeds the sensitive threshold of the equipment. Thus, device such as Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) and Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) has been created to solve this problem among users. DVR is a custom power device that most effective and efficient. This paper intended to report the DVR operations during voltage sag compensation.

  6. Synthesis, morphological control, and antibacterial properties of hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, Maolin

    2010-08-11

    Ag2S and Ag are important functional materials that have received considerable research interest in recent years. In this work, we develop a solution-based synthetic method to combine these two materials into hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers at room temperature. Starting from monodisperse Cu2O solid spheres, CuS hollow spheres can be converted from Cu2O through a modified Kirkendall process, and the obtained CuS can then be used as a solid precursor for preparation of the Ag2S/Ag heterodimers through ion exchange and photo-assisted reduction. We have found that formation of the Ag2S/Ag heterodimers is instantaneous, and the size of Ag nanocrystals on the hollow spheres of Ag2S can be controlled by changing the concentration and power of reducing agents in the synthesis. The growth of Ag nanoparticles on hollow spheres of Ag2S in the dimers is along the [111] direction of the silver crystal; the light absorption properties have also been investigated. Furthermore, coupling or tripling of Ag2S/Ag heterodimers into dumbbell-like trimers ((Ag 2S)2/Ag, linear) and triangular tetramers ((Ag 2S)3/Ag, coplanar) can also be attained at 60°C by adding the bidentate ligand ethylenediamine as a cross-linking agent. To test the applicability of this highly asymmetric dipolar composite, photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 in the presence of the as-prepared Ag 2S/Ag heterodimers has been carried out under UV irradiation. The added Ag2S/Ag heterodimers show good chemical stability under prolonged UV irradiation, and no appreciable solid dissolution is found. Possible mechanisms regarding the enhanced antibacterial activity have also been addressed. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  7. Complete characterization of voltage sags: an alternative to achieve energy quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga Medina, Edgar Andres; Vasco Garcia, Carlos Andres

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the meaning of the power quality and its negative influence in the automation processes are presented. Voltage sags, the problems they cause and a methodology to characterize the phenomenon are also presented. Once the problems associated with the different sensible loads connected to a power system are identified, the cause of the bad quality of the electrical energy provided those loads is then established; voltage sags are one of the most common phenomenon that requires characterization in order to diminish their negative impact on the industrial processes

  8. Mitigation of voltage sags in the distribution system with dynamic voltage restorer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viglas, D.; Belan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic voltage restorer is a custom power device that is used to improve voltage sags or swells in electrical distribution system. The components of the Dynamic Voltage Restorer consist of injection transformers, voltage source inverter, passive filters and energy storage. The main function of the Dynamic voltage restorer is used to inject three phase voltage in series and in synchronism with the grid voltages in order to compensate voltage disturbances. This article deals with mitigation of voltage sags caused by three-phase short circuit. Dynamic voltage restorer is modelled in MATLAB/Simulink. (Authors)

  9. The Early Cambrian Mianyang-Changning Intracratonic Sag and Its Control on Petroleum Accumulation in the Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shugen Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The older and deeper hydrocarbon accumulations receive increasing attention across the world, providing more technical and commercial challenges to hydrocarbon exploration. We present a study of an asymmetrical, N-S striking intracratonic sag which developed across the Sichuan basin, south China, from Late Ediacaran to Early Cambrian times. The Mianyang-Changning intracratonic sag is ~50 km wide, with its steepest part in the basin center. In particular the eastern margin shows its greatest steepness. Five episodes in the evolutions of the sag can be recognized. It begins in the Late Ediacaran with an uplift and erosion correlated to Tongwan movement. Initial extension occurred during the Early Cambrian Maidiping period, when more strata of the Maidiping Formation were deposited across the sag. Subsequently, maximum extension occurred during the Early Cambrian Qiongzhusi period that resulted in 450–1700 m thick Maidiping-Canglangpu Formations being deposited in the sag. Then, the sag disappeared at the Longwangmiao period, as it was infilled by the sediments. The intracratonic sag has significant influence on the development of high-quality reservoirs in the Dengying and Longwangmiao Formations and source-rock of the Niutitang Formation. It thus indicates that a high probability for oil/gas accumulation exists along the intracratonic sag, across the central Sichuan basin.

  10. The SnSAG merozoite surface antigens of Sarcocystis neurona are expressed differentially during the bradyzoite and sporozoite life cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, A; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J; Howe, D K

    2011-12-29

    Sarcocystis neurona is a two-host coccidian parasite whose complex life cycle progresses through multiple developmental stages differing at morphological and molecular levels. The S. neurona merozoite surface is covered by multiple, related glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked proteins, which are orthologous to the surface antigen (SAG)/SAG1-related sequence (SRS) gene family of Toxoplasma gondii. Expression of the SAG/SRS proteins in T. gondii and another related parasite Neospora caninum is life-cycle stage specific and seems necessary for parasite transmission and persistence of infection. In the present study, the expression of S. neurona merozoite surface antigens (SnSAGs) was evaluated in the sporozoite and bradyzoite stages. Western blot analysis was used to compare SnSAG expression in merozoites versus sporozoites, while immunocytochemistry was performed to examine expression of the SnSAGs in merozoites versus bradyzoites. These analyses revealed that SnSAG2, SnSAG3 and SnSAG4 are expressed in sporozoites, while SnSAG5 was appeared to be downregulated in this life cycle stage. In S. neurona bradyzoites, it was found that SnSAG2, SnSAG3, SnSAG4 and SnSAG5 were either absent or expression was greatly reduced. As shown for T. gondii, stage-specific expression of the SnSAGs may be important for the parasite to progress through its developmental stages and complete its life cycle successfully. Thus, it is possible that the SAG switching mechanism by these parasites could be exploited as a point of intervention. As well, the alterations in surface antigen expression during different life cycle stages may need to be considered when designing prospective approaches for protective vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The rice OsSAG12-2 gene codes for a functional protease that ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-07-11

    Jul 11, 2016 ... Senescence is the final stage of plant development. Although ... Down-regulation of OsSAG12-1 in transgenic rice .... Plants were germinated on soil and grown for 15 days under normal conditions before taking photograph.

  12. Inrush Transient Current Analysis and Suppression of Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Inverters During Voltage Sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhongyu; Zhao, Rende; Xin, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The Inrush Transient Current (ITC) in the output of the photovoltaic grid-connected inverters is usually generated when grid voltage sag occurs, which can trigger the protection of the grid-connected inverters, and even destroy the semiconductor switches. Then, the grid-connected inverters...

  13. The bacteria binding glycoprotein salivary agglutinin (SAG/gp340) activates complement via the lectin pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leito, Jelani T. D.; Ligtenberg, Antoon J. M.; van Houdt, Michel; van den Berg, Timo K.; Wouters, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Salivary agglutinin (SAG), also known as gp-340 and Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1, is a glycoprotein that is present in tears, lung fluid and mucosal surfaces along the gastrointestinal tract. It is encoded by the Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 gene, a member of the Scavenger Receptor

  14. Down-regulation of OsSAG12-1 results in enhanced senescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-07-22

    Jul 22, 2013 ... vides staple food nearly half of the world's population and accounts .... Healthy and fresh onion ... served domain comprising approximate 210 aa belongs to the peptidase ..... Lim PO, Kim HJ and Nam HG 2007 Leaf senescence. Annu. Rev. ... Effects of P(SAG12)-IPT gene expression on development and.

  15. SAG2 locus genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in meat products of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of SAG2 locus revealed that all of the samples belonged to genotype I. The detection of the parasite in uncooked meat and commercial meat products, and the high ratio of seropositive slaughtered animals, emphasis that the risk still exists for.

  16. Pitting Corrosion Behavior of 304 SS and 316 SS Alloys in Aqueous Chloride and Bromide Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtehal Kareem Shakir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the present work falls on the pitting corrosion behavior investigation of 304 SS and 316 SS alloys in 3.5 wt% of aqueous solution bearing with chloride and bromide anion at different solutions temperature range starting from (20-50oC due to the pitting corrosion tremendous effect on the economic, safety and materials loss due to leakage. The impact of solution temperatures on the pitting corrosion resistance at 3.5wt% (NaCl and NaBr solutions for the 304 SS and 316 SS has been investigated utilizing the cyclic polarization techniques at the potential range -400 to1000 mV vs. SCE at 40 mV/sec scan rate followed by the surface characterization employing Scanning Electron Microscope. The results show that a significant decline in the pitting corrosion potential Ep values of both stainless steel alloys in chloride and bromide solution during temperature increase attributed to the pitting corrosion potential decreased arises from the modification of the passive film properties. The surface examination using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope prove the occurring of higher pitting density over 304 SS in chloride solution than that observed in bromide solution with a non-circular lacy cover pitfall out at the center and falls inside the pits hall in comparison to the isolated circular lacy cover pit formed on 316 SS in 3.5wt% NaBr solution at 50 oC.

  17. A kinematic model for SS433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abell, G.O.; Margon, B.

    1979-01-01

    A model is suggested to explain the bizarre object SS433 which was first noted because of its H α emission and most recently because it is the optical counterpart of a variable radio and X-ray source and exhibits an extraordinary optical spectrum. It is considered that the radiation, with emission lines which show variable Doppler shift, is emitted by hot matter ejected by the central object at high but nearly constant velocity in oppositely directed narrow streams, possible along a magnetic axis. Rotation of the beam axis provides the observed radial velocity variations. The red and blue shifts of SS433 measured by a number of workers on 55 nights during 1978-79 and folded with a 164-d period are shown, from which it is predicted that on or about 1 July 1979 the two moving emission line systems in SS433 will briefly merge into one, similar to a previously reported episode, and that for the following 40 days the lines will separate again, but by an amount much less than previously observed. (author)

  18. Detection and correction for EPID and gantry sag during arc delivery using cine EPID imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; Sabet, Mahsheed; O'Connor, Daryl J; McCowan, Peter M; McCurdy, Boyd M C; Greer, Peter B

    2012-02-01

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) have been studied and used for pretreatment and in-vivo dosimetry applications for many years. The application of EPIDs for dosimetry in arc treatments requires accurate characterization of the mechanical sag of the EPID and gantry during rotation. Several studies have investigated the effects of gravity on the sag of these systems but each have limitations. In this study, an easy experiment setup and accurate algorithm have been introduced to characterize and correct for the effect of EPID and gantry sag during arc delivery. Three metallic ball bearings were used as markers in the beam: two of them fixed to the gantry head and the third positioned at the isocenter. EPID images were acquired during a 360° gantry rotation in cine imaging mode. The markers were tracked in EPID images and a robust in-house developed MATLAB code was used to analyse the images and find the EPID sag in three directions as well as the EPID + gantry sag by comparison to the reference gantry zero image. The algorithm results were then tested against independent methods. The method was applied to compare the effect in clockwise and counter clockwise gantry rotations and different source-to-detector distances (SDDs). The results were monitored for one linear accelerator over a course of 15 months and six other linear-accelerators from two treatment centers were also investigated using this method. The generalized shift patterns were derived from the data and used in an image registration algorithm to correct for the effect of the mechanical sag in the system. The Gamma evaluation (3%, 3 mm) technique was used to investigate the improvement in alignment of cine EPID images of a fixed field, by comparing both individual images and the sum of images in a series with the reference gantry zero image. The mechanical sag during gantry rotation was dependent on the gantry angle and was larger in the in-plane direction, although the patterns were not

  19. Time-Domain Voltage Sag State Estimation Based on the Unscented Kalman Filter for Power Systems with Nonlinear Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cisneros-Magaña

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a time-domain methodology based on the unscented Kalman filter to estimate voltage sags and their characteristics, such as magnitude and duration in power systems represented by nonlinear models. Partial and noisy measurements from the electrical network with nonlinear loads, used as data, are assumed. The characteristics of voltage sags can be calculated in a discrete form with the unscented Kalman filter to estimate all the busbar voltages; being possible to determine the rms voltage magnitude and the voltage sag starting and ending time, respectively. Voltage sag state estimation results can be used to obtain the power quality indices for monitored and unmonitored busbars in the power grid and to design adequate mitigating techniques. The proposed methodology is successfully validated against the results obtained with the time-domain system simulation for the power system with nonlinear components, being the normalized root mean square error less than 3%.

  20. Energy Storage Characteristic Analysis of Voltage Sags Compensation for UPQC Based on MMC for Medium Voltage Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchun Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The modular multilevel converter (MMC, as a new type of voltage source converter, is increasingly used because it is a distributed storage system. There are many advantages of using the topological structure of the MMC on a unified power quality controller (UPQC, and voltage sag mitigation is an important use of the MMC energy storage system for the power quality compensation process. In this paper, based on the analysis of the topology of the MMC, the essence of energy conversion in a UPQC of voltage sag compensation is analyzed; then, the energy storage characteristics are calculated and analyzed to determine the performance index of voltage sag compensation; in addition, the simulation method is used to verify the voltage sag compensation characteristics of the UPQC; finally, an industrial prototype of the UPQC based on an MMC for 10 kV of medium voltage distribution network has been developed, and the basic functions of UPQC have been tested.

  1. Control of hybrid fuel cell/energy storage distributed generation system against voltage sag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajizadeh, Amin; Golkar, Masoud Aliakbar [Electrical Engineering Department, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Seyedkhandan, Dr. Shariati Ave, P.O. Box 16315-1355, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-06-15

    Fuel cell (FC) and energy storage (ES) based hybrid distributed power generation systems appear to be very promising for satisfying high energy and high power requirements of power quality problems in distributed generation (DG) systems. In this study, design of control strategy for hybrid fuel cell/energy storage distributed power generation system during voltage sag has been presented. The proposed control strategy allows hybrid distributed generation system works properly when a voltage disturbance occurs in distribution system and hybrid system stays connected to the main grid. Hence, modeling, controller design, and simulation study of a hybrid distributed generation system are investigated. The physical model of the fuel cell stack, energy storage and the models of power conditioning units are described. Then the control design methodology for each component of the hybrid system is proposed. Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance including active power control and voltage sag ride-through capability of the hybrid distributed generation system. (author)

  2. Simulation and experiment of a YBCO SMES prototype in voltage sag compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiahui; Yuan Weijia; Coombs, T.A.; Ming, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → YBCO conductors are used in SMES. → The SMES is successfully used to compensate voltage sag by both simulation and experiment. → A new control strategy for the power converter in the SMES. - Abstract: This paper gives a introduction of a SMES unit using 2G HTS wires. A complete SMES system including both superconducting coils and control circuit has been designed to operate at 77 K. Three single-phase H-bridge converters have been used in the control circuit. A loop control signal is sent out by using 32 fixed point Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The complete circuit has been both modelled in simulation and built experimentally. The results validate that this SMES successfully compensates a voltage sag in a power system.

  3. Simulation and experiment of a YBCO SMES prototype in voltage sag compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Jiahui, E-mail: zhujiahui@epri.sgcc.com.c [China Electric Power Research Institute, No. 15 Xiaoying Rd(E), Qinghe, Beijing 100192 (China); Yuan Weijia; Coombs, T.A. [Electrical Engineering Division, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Ming, Q. [China Electric Power Research Institute, No. 15 Xiaoying Rd(E), Qinghe, Beijing 100192 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} YBCO conductors are used in SMES. {yields} The SMES is successfully used to compensate voltage sag by both simulation and experiment. {yields} A new control strategy for the power converter in the SMES. - Abstract: This paper gives a introduction of a SMES unit using 2G HTS wires. A complete SMES system including both superconducting coils and control circuit has been designed to operate at 77 K. Three single-phase H-bridge converters have been used in the control circuit. A loop control signal is sent out by using 32 fixed point Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The complete circuit has been both modelled in simulation and built experimentally. The results validate that this SMES successfully compensates a voltage sag in a power system.

  4. Analysis the Transient Process of Wind Power Resources when there are Voltage Sags in Distribution Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhu Y, Do

    2018-03-01

    Vietnam has many advantages of wind power resources. Time by time there are more and more capacity as well as number of wind power project in Vietnam. Corresponding to the increase of wind power emitted into national grid, It is necessary to research and analyze in order to ensure the safety and reliability of win power connection. In national distribution grid, voltage sag occurs regularly, it can strongly influence on the operation of wind power. The most serious consequence is the disconnection. The paper presents the analysis of distribution grid's transient process when voltage is sagged. Base on the analysis, the solutions will be recommended to improve the reliability and effective operation of wind power resources.

  5. Evolution of depositional system and uraniferous characteristics of Damoguaihe formation in Kelulun sag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhijie; Yu Xinghe; Zhang Chuanheng; Chen Zhankun

    2005-01-01

    Damoguaihe Formation, which is mainly of alluvial fan, fan delta and lacustrine depositional systems, is the target horizon for the prospecting of sandstone-type uranium deposit in Kelulun sag, Hailaer basin. According to the depositional environment and sediment characteristics, alluvial fan facies is subdivided into upper fan, middle fan and lower fan subfacies; the fan delta facies is subadivided into upper fan delta plain, lower fan delta plain, fan delta front and fan prodelta subfacies. At the northern edge of the sag occurred one fan delta and one alluvial fan, which can mutually transform one into another. The terrigenous coarse-grained clastic deposits in the study area provide favorable condition for the concentration of uranium and especially the main channels and distributary channels on the fan delta and alluvial fan are the most favorable sites for uranium concentration. (authors)

  6. Improving Energy Efficiency Via Optimized Charge Motion and Slurry Flow in Plant Scale Sag Mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj K. Rajamani

    2006-07-21

    A research team from the University of Utah is working to make inroads into saving energy in these SAG mills. In 2003, Industries of the Future Program of the Department of Energy tasked the University of Utah team to build a partnership between the University and the mining industry for the specific purpose of reducing energy consumption in SAG mills. A partnership was formed with Cortez Gold Mines, Outokumpu Technology, Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation, and Process Engineering Resources Inc. At Cortez Gold Operations the shell and pulp lifters of the semiautogenous grinding mill was redesigned. The redesigned shell lifter has been in operation for over three years and the redesigned pulp lifter has been in operation for over nine months now. This report summarizes the dramatic reductions in energy consumption. Even though the energy reductions are very large, it is safe to say that a 20% minimum reduction would be achieved in any future installations of this technology.

  7. Mitigation of Unbalanced Voltage Sags and Voltage Unbalance in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Any problem with voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) etc. can be used to mitigate the voltage problems in the distribution system...... to unbalanced faults. The compensation of unbalanced voltage sags and voltage unbalance in the CIGRE distribution network is done by using the four STATCOM compensators already existing in the test grid. The simulations are carried out in DIgSILENT power factory software version 15.0........ The voltage problems dealt with in this paper are to show how to mitigate unbalanced voltage sags and voltage unbalance in the CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) test network and net-works like this. The voltage unbalances, for the tested cases in the CIGRE LV test network are mainly due to single phase loads and due...

  8. Application of Boost Converter for Ride-through Capability of Adjustable Speed Drives during Sag and Swell Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    S. S. Deswal; Ratna Dahiya; D. K. Jain

    2008-01-01

    Process control and energy conservation are the two primary reasons for using an adjustable speed drive. However, voltage sags are the most important power quality problems facing many commercial and industrial customers. The development of boost converters has raised much excitement and speculation throughout the electric industry. Now utilities are looking to these devices for performance improvement and reliability in a variety of areas. Examples of these include sags,...

  9. Delayed expression of SAGs correlates with longevity in CMS wheat plants compared to its fertile plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, Vimal Kumar; Singh, Bhupinder; Khanna-Chopra, Renu

    2014-04-01

    Reproductive sinks regulate monocarpic senescence in crop plants. Monocarpic senescence was studied in wheat fertile (cv. HW 2041) and its isonuclear cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line. CMS plants exhibited slower rate of senescence accompanied by longer green leaf area duration and slower deceleration in chlorophyll, protein content, PN and rubisco content coupled with lower protease activities than fertile (F) plants. CMS plants also exhibited lower ROS levels and less membrane damage than F plants. CMS plants maintained better antioxidant defense, less oxidative damage in chloroplast and higher transcript levels of both rbcL and rbcS genes during senescence than F plants. F plants exhibited early induction and higher expression of SAGs like serine and cysteine proteases, glutamine synthetases GS1 and GS2, WRKY53 transcription factor and decline in transcript levels of CAT1 and CAT2 genes than CMS plants. Hence, using genetically fertile and its CMS line of wheat it is confirmed that delayed senescence in the absence of reproductive sinks is linked with slower protein oxidation, rubisco degradation and delayed activation of SAGs. Better antioxidant defense in chloroplasts at later stages of senescence was able to mitigate the deleterious effects of ROS in CMS plants. We propose that delayed increase in ROS in cytoplasmic male sterile wheat plants resulted in delayed activation of WRKY53, SAGs and the associated biochemical changes than fertile plants.

  10. Deriving Sight Distance on a Compound Sag and Circular Curve in a Three Dimensional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Liu, PhD, PE, PTOE

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient roadway sight distance (SD may become a contribution factor to traffic collisions or other unsafe traffic maneuvers. The sight distance (SD for a two-dimensional (2-d sag or circular curve has been addressed in detail in various traffic engineering literatures. Although three-dimensional (3-d compound sag and circular curves are often found along ramps, connectors, and mountain roads, the sight distances for these compound curves are yet to be analyzed on an exact analytic setting. By considering human-vehicle-roadway interaction, the formulas for computing the SD on a 3-d curve are derived the first time on a unified analytic framework. The 2-d sag curve SD can also be deduced from these derived formulas as special limiting cases. Practitioners can easily program these formulas or equations on a user-friendly Microsoft Excel spread sheet to calculate 3-d SD on most roadways with roadside clearance. This framework can be extended to estimate SD on roadways with obstacles partially blocking vehicle headlight beams. 6.

  11. The sagging rope sign in achondroplasia - different from Perthes' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shingade, Viraj U. [Korea University, Department of Paediatric Orthopaedics, College of Medicine, Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Song, Hae-Ryong [Korea University, Department of Paediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Seok-Hyun; Suh, Seung-Woo [Korea University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Oh, Chang-Wug [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Daegu (Korea); Hong, Jun-Seok [Ansan Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Korea University, Ansan, Gyeonggi do (Korea)

    2006-12-15

    The sagging rope sign is a radio-opaque line, seen on radiographs of the hips, with Perthes' disease. The main purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, cause and importance of this sign in achondroplasia, and to reveal how it differs from in Perthes' disease. Serial radiograms, along with 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional CT images were studied in 42 achondroplasic patients. Forty-two achondroplasic patients, reported at our institute (for routine outpatient consultation, spine surgeries, deformity corrections, limb-lengthening procedures) were included in this study. There were 26 males and 16 females. The sign was observed bilaterally, in all patients. Evaluation of CT images revealed spherical heads, with presence of circumferential overhang in all hips. This circumferential overhang, seen on 3-D CT scan, corresponded to the sagging rope sign on radiographs. Presence of the sagging rope sign in bilateral hips is a characteristic feature of achondroplasia. It usually appears before epiphyseal closure. Its cause, incidence, and nature differ from Perthes' disease, and its presence does not carry a bad prognosis in achondroplasia. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of doubly-fed induction machine operating at motoring mode subjected to voltage sag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Variable Speed (VS Pumped Storage Plants (PSP equipped with large asynchronous (Doubly-Fed Induction machines are emerging now in hydropower applications. Motoring mode of operation of Doubly-Fed Induction Machine (DFIM is essential and techno-economical in this application due to: (1 its uniqueness in active power controllability, (2 bulk power handing capability with less rated power converters in rotor circuit, and (3 integrating Renewable Energy Sources (RES. This paper investigates the performance of two DFIMs at different power ratings (2.2 kW and 2 MW under voltage sag with different attribute. The test results are analyzed in terms of the peaks in torque, speed, power taken and transient currents in rotor and stator circuits. During sag, stable region for DFIM operation along with speed and stator side reactive power input control is also illustrated. The negative effects of voltage sag are briefly discussed. MATLAB simulation is validated with experimentation. The various observations during simulation and experimental analysis are also supported by the theoretical explanations.

  13. Facile synthesis, structure, and properties of Ag{sub 2}S/Ag heteronanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadovnikov, S. I., E-mail: sadovnikov@ihim.uran.ru; Gusev, A. I. [Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Chemistry (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Ag{sub 2}S/Ag heteronanostructure has been produced by a simple one-stage chemical deposition from aqueous solutions of silver nitrate, sodium sulfide, and sodium citrate with the use of monochromatic light irradiation. For simultaneous synthesis of Ag{sub 2}S and Ag nanoparticles, deposition has been performed from reaction mixtures with reduced sodium sulfide concentration. The size of Ag{sub 2}S and Ag nanoparticles is 45–50 and 15–20 nm, respectively. It is established that in the contact layer between silver sulfide and silver, nonconducting α-Ag{sub 2}S acanthite transforms into superionic β-Ag{sub 2}S argentite under the action of external electric field. The scheme of the operation of a resistive switch based on an Ag{sub 2}S/Ag heteronanostructure is proposed. The UV–Vis optical absorption spectra of colloidal solutions of Ag{sub 2}S/Ag heteronanostructures have been studied.Graphical Abstract.

  14. SVC or VSC for reduction of voltage sags and flicker. Trends in power electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeusler, M; Schnettler, A [ABB Calor Emag Schaltanlagen AG, Mannheim (Germany); Halvarsson, P [ABB Power Systems AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    1997-07-01

    In the past complaints about insufficient power quality were often caused by flicker observed in the neighbourhood of industrial networks. Voltage sags due to faults in the power system pass, however, mostly unnoticed as not-so-common events. Now electronic controls are penetrating more and more in industry. Electronic controllers on factory machines - particularly those for variable speed motors - are vulnerable to voltage sags. A one-tenth second sag can cause a $200.000 downtime incident in a big factory. Therefore the demands on power quality are rising in industry as well. The costly separation in clean networks for residential areas and dirty networks for industrial grids is no perfect solution to avoid such problems. Static VAr Compensators (SVC) are traditionally one means to control the voltage in industrial networks. Because of the recent development of powerful gate turn-off semiconductor devices another type of converter has gained new interest for mitigation of system disturbances, the voltage-source converter (VSC). The characteristics of both types of power electronics in view of their possibilities for this application are presented. (orig.)

  15. Screening and identification of novel B cell epitopes of Toxoplasma gondii SAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Wang, Guangxiang; Zhang, Delin; Yin, Hong; Wang, Meng

    2013-04-30

    The identification of protein epitopes is useful for diagnostic purposes and for the development of peptide vaccines. In this study, the epitopes of Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 were identified using synthetic peptide techniques with the aid of bioinformatics. Eleven peptides derived from T. gondii SAG1 were assessed by ELISA using pig sera from different time points after infection. Four (PS4, PS6, PS10 and PS11), out of the eleven peptides tested were recognized by all sera. Then, shorter peptides that were derived from PS4, PS6, PS10 and PS11 were predicted using bioinformatics and tested by experimentation. Four out of nine shorter peptides were identified successfully (amino acids 106-120, 166-180, 289-300 and 313-332). We have precisely located the epitopes of T. gondii SAG1 using pig sera collected at different time points after infection. The identified epitopes may be useful for the further study of epitope-based vaccines and diagnostic reagents.

  16. A new trivalent SnSAG surface antigen chimera for efficient detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargan, Michelle; de Assis Rocha, Izabela; Morrow, Jennifer; Graves, Amy; Reed, Stephen M; Howe, Daniel K

    2015-05-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the SnSAG surface antigens of Sarcocystis neurona provide reliable detection of infection by the parasite. Moreover, accurate serodiagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is achieved with the SnSAG ELISAs by measuring antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to reveal active infection in the central nervous system. Two independent ELISAs based on recombinant (r)SnSAG2 or a chimeric fusion of SnSAG3 and SnSAG4 (rSnSAG4/3) are currently used together for EPM serodiagnosis to overcome varied antibody responses in different horses. To achieve reliable antibody detection with a single ELISA instead of 2 separate ELISAs, rSnSAG2 was fused with rSnSAG4/3 into a single trivalent protein, designated rSnSAG2/4/3. Paired serum and CSF from 163 horses were tested with all 3 ELISAs. When the consensus antibody titers obtained with the rSnSAG2 and rSnSAG4/3 ELISAs were compared to the single SAG2/4/3 ELISA titers, Spearman rank correlation coefficients of ρ = 0.74 and ρ = 0.90 were obtained for serum and CSF, respectively, indicating strong agreement between the tests. When the rSnSAG2 and rSnSAG4/3 consensus serum-to-CSF titer ratio was compared to the rSnSAG2/4/3 serum-to-CSF titer ratio, the Spearman correlation coefficient was ρ = 0.87, again signifying strong agreement. Importantly, comparing the diagnostic interpretation of the serum-to-CSF titer ratios yielded a Cohen kappa value of 0.77. These findings suggest that the single ELISA based on the trivalent rSnSAG2/4/3 will provide serologic and diagnostic results that are highly comparable to the consensus of the 2 independent ELISAs based on rSnSAG2 and rSnSAG4/3. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Recombinant vaccines against T. gondii: comparison between homologous and heterologous vaccination protocols using two viral vectors expressing SAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Érica Araújo; Fonseca, Flavio G; Casério, Bárbara M; Colina, Janaína P; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Caetano, Braulia C

    2013-01-01

    The use of recombinant viral vectors expressing T. gondii antigens is a safe and efficient approach to induce immune response against the parasite and a valuable tool for vaccine development. We have previously protected mice from toxoplasmosis by immunizing the animals with an adenovirus expressing the protein SAG1 (AdSAG1) of T. gondii. We are now looking for ways to improve the vaccination strategy and enhance protection. One limitation of homologous vaccinations (sequential doses of the same vector) is induction of anti-vector immune response that blocks cell transduction, restricts transgene expression and, consequently, compromises the overall outcome of vaccination. One way to avert the effects of anti-vector response is to use different viruses in prime and boost (heterologous vaccination). Bearing this in mind, we generated a modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara encoding SAG1 (MVASAG1), to be tested as boost agent after prime with AdSAG1. Although minor differences were observed in the magnitude of the anti-SAG1 immune response induced by each vaccination protocol, the heterologous immunization with AdSAG1 followed by MVASAG1 resulted in improved capacity to control brain cyst formation in a model of chronic toxoplasmosis in C57BL/6 mice.

  18. Recombinant vaccines against T. gondii: comparison between homologous and heterologous vaccination protocols using two viral vectors expressing SAG1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Araújo Mendes

    Full Text Available The use of recombinant viral vectors expressing T. gondii antigens is a safe and efficient approach to induce immune response against the parasite and a valuable tool for vaccine development. We have previously protected mice from toxoplasmosis by immunizing the animals with an adenovirus expressing the protein SAG1 (AdSAG1 of T. gondii. We are now looking for ways to improve the vaccination strategy and enhance protection. One limitation of homologous vaccinations (sequential doses of the same vector is induction of anti-vector immune response that blocks cell transduction, restricts transgene expression and, consequently, compromises the overall outcome of vaccination. One way to avert the effects of anti-vector response is to use different viruses in prime and boost (heterologous vaccination. Bearing this in mind, we generated a modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara encoding SAG1 (MVASAG1, to be tested as boost agent after prime with AdSAG1. Although minor differences were observed in the magnitude of the anti-SAG1 immune response induced by each vaccination protocol, the heterologous immunization with AdSAG1 followed by MVASAG1 resulted in improved capacity to control brain cyst formation in a model of chronic toxoplasmosis in C57BL/6 mice.

  19. Enormous periodic doppler shifts in SS 433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margon, B.; Ford, H.C.; Grandi, S.A.; Stone, R.P.S.

    1979-01-01

    We have previously reported prominent ''moving' emission lines in the visible spectrum of Stephenson-Sanduleak 433, the optical counterpart of a variable radio and X-ray source. Further observations show that despite the implausible velocities and changes in velocities implied if the moving features are interpreted as Doppler-shifted Balmer lines, this explanation is indeed correct. Spectroscopy of SS 433 on 51 mights in 1978--1979 reveals that the unidentified features are two sets of Balmer and He I lines, one with large and changing redshift, and the other with large and changing blueshift. Combining our data with published earlier observations, we obtain Doppler shifts on 80 nights in the period 1978 June to 1979 June. These data indicate that the velocity variations are cyclical, repeating in both the blueshift and redshift systems with a period of 164 +- 3 days. The two systems have thus far been observed to reach maximum positive and negative radial velocities of +50,000 and -35,000 km s -1 , respectively, are always symmetric about redshift z=0.04, and follow roughly sinusoidal velocity curves. We discuss in addition a variety of interesting short-term spectroscopic details, including minor but highly significant deviations of the radial velocity from the sinusoid, and nightly line profile changes, sometimes appearing as mirror-image events in the redshift and blueshift systems. The behavior of SS 433 is unprecedented

  20. Periodic and secular changes in SS 433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, G.W.; Newsom, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The recent history of SS 433 is reviewed with particular attention being given to the discovery of the periodic phenomena displayed by this object. Several periods ranging from days to months are established as being present in the spectrum of the ''moving'' lines as well as in other aspects of the emission from the object. In addition evidence for secular change in some of the defining parameters of the system is presented. Although these secular changes may eventually prove to be periodic on a rather long time scale, some interpretation of both the periodic and secular phenomena is possible. It is shown that it is possible to interpret all the known periodic phenomena in terms of a processing object responding to the time-varying torques that one would expect in a binary system

  1. DSCu/SS joining techniques development and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Satoshi; Hatano, Toshihisa; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Takatsu, Hideyuki

    1998-01-01

    Joining techniques of alumina dispersion strengthened copper alloy (DSCu) and type 316L stainless steel (SS) has been investigated aiming at applying to the fabrication of the ITER first wall/blanket. As the joining method, Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) of solid plates and/or blocks has been pursued. By a screening test including HIP temperatures of 980-1050degC, it was concluded that the HIP temperature of 1050degC would be optimum for the simultaneous HIPping of DSCu/DSCu, DSCu/SS and SS/SS. With DSCu/SS joint specimens HIPped at 1050degC, tensile, impact, fatigue, crack propagation, and fracture toughness tests were performed as well as mechanical test of structural model with one SS circular tube embedded. Typically, the properties of the joints were almost the same as those of DSCu or SS base metal with the same heat treatment of the HIP process, thus good joints were obtained, though parts of properties were decreased at elevated test temperature. Typical results of the mechanical test of structural mode indicated that a crack initiated at the inner surface of the SS tube under cyclic operation, and the lifetime of the first wall structure could be evaluated by existing SS fatigue data. Two HIPped first wall panel mock-ups were successfully fabricated with built-in coolant tubes: one was 300 mm long and the other 800 mm long. The former was thermo-mechanically tested with high heat fluxes corresponding to the ITER operation conditions. The mock-up showed good heat removal performance during the high heat flux tests. In addition, there were no cracks and delaminations found at HIPped interfaces by microscopic observation after all tests. Ultrasonic testing have been tried as a non-destructive examination method, and detectable defect size at SS/SS, DSCu/DSCu and DSCu/SS joint interfaces were estimated. (author)

  2. Cloning and characterisation of the sagA gene of Aspergillus nidulans: a gene which affects sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G W; Hooley, P; Farrington, S M; Shawcross, S G; Iwanejko, L A; Strike, P

    1999-03-01

    Mutations within the sagA gene of Aspergillus nidulans cause sensitisation to DNA-damaging chemicals but have no effect upon spontaneous or damage-induced mutation frequency. The sagA gene was cloned on a 19-kb cosmid-derived fragment by functional complementation of a sagA1 sagC3 double mutant; subsequently, a fragment of the gene was also isolated on a 3.9-kb genomic subclone. Initial sequencing of a small section of the 19-kb fragment allowed the design of primers that were subsequently used in RTPCR experiments to show that this DNA is transcribed. A 277-bp fragment derived from the transcribed region was used to screen an A. nidulans cDNA library, resulting in the isolation of a 1.4-kb partial cDNA clone which had sequence overlap with the genomic sagA fragment. This partial cDNA was incomplete but appeared to contain the whole coding region of sagA. The sagA1 mutant was shown to possess two mutations; a G-T transversion and a+ 1 frameshift due to insertion of a T. causing disruption to the C-terminal region of the SagA protein. Translation of the sagA cDNA predicts a protein of 378 amino acids, which has homology to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae End3 protein and also to certain mammalian proteins capable of causing cell transformation.

  3. Autoalan työssäoppiminen : Case: Autoalan merkkiliikkeet

    OpenAIRE

    Kalliomäki, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää Jyväskylän ammattiopiston autoalan työssäoppimista Jyväskylän autoalan merkkiliikkeissä työnantajien näkökulmasta. Työssä selvitettiin yhteistyön nykytilanne ja millaisia ongelmia yhteistyössä koetaan olevan. Mukaan otettiin myös oppilaitoksen näkemyksiä ja kokemuksia yhteistyöstä autoalan merkkiliikkeiden kanssa työssäoppimisesta. Tutkimustulosten perusteella rakennettiin kehittämissuunnitelma yhteistyön kehittämisen pohjaksi. Tutkimusaineisto saatii...

  4. Control Method Stretches Suspensions by Measuring the Sag of Strands in Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bętkowski, Piotr

    2017-10-01

    In the article is described the method that allows on evaluation and validation of measurement correctness of dynamometers (strain gauges, tension meters) used in systems of suspensions. Control of monitoring devices such as dynamometers is recommended in inspections of suspension bridges. Control device (dynamometer) works with an anchor, and the degree of this cooperation could have a decisive impact on the correctness of the results. Method, which determines the stress in the strand (cable), depending on the sag of stayed cable, is described. This method can be used to control the accuracy of measuring devices directly on the bridge. By measuring the strand sag, it is possible to obtain information about the strength (force) which occurred in the suspension cable. Digital camera is used for the measurement of cable sag. Control measurement should be made independently from the controlled parameter but should verify this parameter directly (it is the best situation). In many cases in practice the controlled parameter is not designation by direct measurement, but the calculations, i.e. relation measured others parameters, as in the method described in the article. In such cases occurred the problem of overlapping error of measurement of intermediate parameters (data) and the evaluation of the reliability of the results. Method of control calculations made in relation to installed in the bridge measuring devices is doubtful without procedure of uncertainty estimation. Such an assessment of the accuracy can be performed using the interval numbers. With the interval numbers are possible the analysis of parametric relationship accuracy of the designation of individual parameters and uncertainty of results. Method of measurements, relations and analytical formulas, and numerical example can be found in the text of the article.

  5. Cytokine Gene Expression in Response to SnSAG1 in Horses with Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jennifer A.; Deinnocentes, Patricia; Moyana, Edith M.; Guarino, Anthony J.; Ellison, Siobhan E.; Bird, R. Curtis; Blagburn, Byron L.

    2005-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a neurologic syndrome seen in horses from the Americas and is mainly caused by Sarcocystis neurona. Recently, a 29-kDa surface antigen from S. neurona merozoites was identified as being highly immunodominant on a Western blot. This antigen has been sequenced and cloned, and the expressed protein has been named SnSAG1. In a previous study, cell-mediated immune responses to SnSAG1 were shown to be statistically significantly reduced in horses with EPM in comparison to EPM-negative control horses. It therefore appears as though the parasite is able to induce immunosuppression towards parasite-derived antigens as parasite-specific responses are decreased. Isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes from 21 EPM (cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] Western blot)-negative horses with no clinical signs and 21 horses with clinical signs of EPM (CSF Western blot positive) were cocultured with SnSAG1 for 48 and 72 h, and the effect on cytokine production was investigated by means of reverse transcriptase PCR. Cytokines assayed include gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-6. β-Actin was used as the housekeeping gene. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test of the findings indicated that there was a statistically significant decrease in IFN-γ production after 48 h in culture for samples from horses with clinical disease. There was also a statistically significant increase in IL-4 production after 72 h in culture for samples from horses with EPM. These results further support the notion that this parasite is able to subvert the immune system in horses with clinical disease. PMID:15879026

  6. Continentward-dipping detachment fault system and asymmetric rift structure of the Baiyun Sag, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhichao; Mei, Lianfu; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Jinyun; Chen, Liang; Hao, Shihao

    2018-02-01

    The rift architecture and deep crustal structure of the distal margin at the mid-northern margin of the South China Sea have been previously investigated by using deep seismic reflection profiles. However, one fundamental recurring problem in the debate is the extensional fault system and rift structure of the hyperextended rift basins (Baiyun Sag and Liwan Sag) within the distal margin because of the limited amount of seismic data. Based on new 3D seismic survey data and 2D seismic reflection profiles, we observe an array of fault blocks in the Baiyun Sag, which were tilted towards the ocean by extensional faulting. The extensional faults consistently dip towards the continent. Beneath the tilted fault blocks and extensional faults, a low-angle, high-amplitude and continuous reflection has been interpreted as the master detachment surface that controls the extension process. During rifting, the continentward-dipping normal faults evolved in a sequence from south to north, generating the asymmetric rift structure of the Baiyun Sag. The Baiyun Sag is separated from the oceanic domain by a series of structural highs that were uplifted by magmatic activity in response to the continental breakup at 33 Ma and a ridge jump to the south at 26-24 Ma. Therefore, we propose that magmatism played a significant role in the continental extension and final breakup in the South China Sea.

  7. Study of southern CHAONAN sag lower continental slope basin deposition character in Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Northern South China Sea Margin locates in Eurasian plate,Indian-Australia plate,Pacific Plates.The South China Sea had underwent a complicated tectonic evolution in Cenozoic.During rifting,the continental shelf and slope forms a series of Cenozoic sedimentary basins,including Qiongdongnan basin,Pearl River Mouth basin,Taixinan basin.These basins fill in thick Cenozoic fluviolacustrine facies,transitional facies,marine facies,abyssal facies sediment,recording the evolution history of South China Sea Margin rifting and ocean basin extending.The studies of tectonics and deposition of depression in the Southern Chaonan Sag of lower continental slope in the Norther South China Sea were dealt with,based on the sequence stratigraphy and depositional facies interpretation of seismic profiles acquired by cruises of“China and Germany Joint Study on Marine Geosciences in the South China Sea”and“The formation,evolution and key issues of important resources in China marginal sea",and combining with ODP 1148 cole and LW33-1-1 well.The free-air gravity anomaly of the break up of the continental and ocean appears comparatively low negative anomaly traps which extended in EW,it is the reflection of passive margin gravitational effect.Bouguer gravity anomaly is comparatively low which is gradient zone extended NE-SW.Magnetic anomaly lies in Magnetic Quiet Zone at the Northern Continental Margin of the South China Sea.The Cenozoic sediments of lower continental slope in Southern Chaonan Sag can be divided into five stratum interface:SB5.5,SB10.5,SB16.5,SB23.8 and Hg,their ages are of Pliocene-Quaternary,late Miocene,middle Miocene,early Miocene,paleogene.The tectonic evolution of low continental slope depressions can be divided into rifting,rifting-depression transitional and depression stages,while their depositional environments change from river to shallow marine and abyssa1,which results in different topography in different stages.The topographic evolvement in the study

  8. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back Injectable Deoxycholic Acid Injectable Hyaluronic Acid Injectable Poly-l-lactic Acid Injectable Polymethylmethacrylate + Bovine Collagen Filler ... procedure? Does the treatment hurt? What are my pain management and anesthesia options? How long is the ...

  9. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turkey neck,” this occurs as skin loses its elasticity and in cases where individuals have lost a ... technique or procedure is appropriate for my skin type? Did the doctor show me before-and-after ...

  10. Two New Sharp Ostrowski-Grüss Type Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to use a variant of the Grüss inequality to derive two new sharp Ostrowski-Grüss type inequalities related to a perturbed trapezoidal type rule and a perturbed generalized interior point rule, respectively, which provide improvements of some previous results in the literatures.

  11. Mechanochemical regulations of RPA's binding to ssDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin; Le, Shimin; Basu, Anindita; Chazin, Walter J.; Yan, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a ubiquitous eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein that serves to protect ssDNA from degradation and annealing, and as a template for recruitment of many downstream factors in virtually all DNA transactions in cell. During many of these transactions, DNA is tethered and is likely subject to force. Previous studies of RPA's binding behavior on ssDNA were conducted in the absence of force; therefore the RPA-ssDNA conformations regulated by force remain unclear. Here, using a combination of atomic force microscopy imaging and mechanical manipulation of single ssDNA tethers, we show that force mediates a switch of the RPA bound ssDNA from amorphous aggregation to a much more regular extended conformation. Further, we found an interesting non-monotonic dependence of the binding affinity on monovalent salt concentration in the presence of force. In addition, we discovered that zinc in micromolar concentrations drives ssDNA to a unique, highly stiff and more compact state. These results provide new mechanochemical insights into the influences and the mechanisms of action of RPA on large single ssDNA.

  12. The SS-SCR Scheme for Dynamic Spectrum Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Thumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We integrate the two models of Cognitive Radio (CR, namely, the conventional Sense-and-Scavenge (SS Model and Symbiotic Cooperative Relaying (SCR. The resultant scheme, called SS-SCR, improves the efficiency of spectrum usage and reliability of the transmission links. SS-SCR is enabled by a suitable cross-layer optimization problem in a multihop multichannel CR network. Its performance is compared for different PU activity patterns with those schemes which consider SS and SCR separately and perform disjoint resource allocation. Simulation results depict the effectiveness of the proposed SS-SCR scheme. We also indicate the usefulness of cloud computing for a practical deployment of the scheme.

  13. Strains of Sarcocystis neurona exhibit differences in their surface antigens, including the absence of the major surface antigen SnSAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Daniel K; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Marsh, Antoinette E; Patil, Bhagyashree A; Saville, William J; Lindsay, David S; Dubey, J P; Granstrom, David E

    2008-05-01

    A gene family of surface antigens is expressed by merozoites of Sarcocystis neurona, the primary cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). These surface proteins, designated SnSAGs, are immunodominant and therefore excellent candidates for development of EPM diagnostics or vaccines. Prior work had identified an EPM isolate lacking the major surface antigen SnSAG1, thus suggesting there may be some diversity in the SnSAGs expressed by different S. neurona isolates. Therefore, a bioinformatic, molecular and immunological study was conducted to assess conservation of the SnSAGs. Examination of an expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed several notable SnSAG polymorphisms. In particular, the EST information implied that the EPM strain SN4 lacked the major surface antigen SnSAG1. The absence of this surface antigen from the SN4 strain was confirmed by both Western blot and Southern blot. To evaluate SnSAG polymorphisms in the S. neurona population, 14 strains were examined by Western blots using monospecific polyclonal antibodies against the four described SnSAGs. The results of these analyses demonstrated that SnSAG2, SnSAG3, and SnSAG4 are present in all 14 S. neurona strains tested, although some variance in SnSAG4 was observed. Importantly, SnSAG1 was not detected in seven of the strains, which included isolates from four cases of EPM and a case of fatal meningoencephalitis in a sea otter. Genetic analyses by PCR using gene-specific primers confirmed the absence of the SnSAG1 locus in six of these seven strains. Collectively, the data indicated that there is heterogeneity in the surface antigen composition of different S. neurona isolates, which is an important consideration for development of serological tests and prospective vaccines for EPM. Furthermore, the diversity reported herein likely extends to other phenotypes, such as strain virulence, and may have implications for the phylogeny of the various Sarcocystis spp. that undergo sexual stages

  14. OPNET simulation Signaling System No.7 (SS7) network interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ow, Kong Chung.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis presents an OPNET model and simulation of the Signaling System No.7 (SS7) network, which is dubbed the world's largest data communications network. The main focus of the study is to model one of its levels, the Message Transfer Part Level 3, in accordance with the ITU.T recommendation Q.704. An overview of SS7 that includes the evolution and basics of SS7 architecture is provided to familarize the reader with the topic. This includes the protocol stack, signaling points, signaling...

  15. Sosiaalisen median rooli kunnan viestinnässä

    OpenAIRE

    Selkämaa, Kati

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää sosiaalisen median roolia kunnan viestinnässä sekä tutkia, miten sosiaalista mediaa hyödynnetään kuntien viestinnässä. Teoriaosuudessa tarkasteltiin sosiaalista mediaa, tutustuttiin sen tunnetuimpiin sovelluksiin sekä perehdyttiin kuntien viestintään yleisesti. Työssä tarkasteltiin myös kuntien viestintään vaikuttavia ja sitä sääteleviä lakeja. Kuntien sosiaalisen median käyttöön tutustuttiin Kuntaliiton tekemän viestintätutkimuksen tulosten pohjalt...

  16. Clinical characteristics of RA patients with secondary SS and association with joint damage

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Lindsay E.; Frits, Michelle L.; Iannaccone, Christine K.; Weinblatt, Michael E.; Shadick, Nancy A.; Liao, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Secondary SS (sSS) is a common extra-articular manifestation of RA. There are conflicting data regarding the association of sSS with worse joint damage. This study aims to characterize sSS patients in an RA cohort and study the association between sSS and joint damage.

  17. Performance Improvement of DFIG Wind Turbine Using Series Grid-Side Converter under Unbalanced Grid Voltage and Voltage Sag Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shokri, Yunes; Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil; Lesani, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    under unbalanced grid voltage and small voltage sag conditions without needing additional DC link capacitor or energy storage unlike other methods. The control system includes negative and positive sequence controllers which make the stator voltage balanced and keep it constant at the nominal value...

  18. Comparison of the effects of SAG-M and whole-blood transfusions on postoperative suppression of delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F

    1991-01-01

    The influence of perioperative whole-blood transfusion and transfusion with erythrocyte suspension (SAG-M blood) on postoperative depression of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was investigated in 67 patients who underwent elective resection for colorectal cancer. Cell-mediated immunity was assessed...

  19. An Enhanced LVRT Scheme for DFIG-based WECSs under Both Balanced and Unbalanced Grid Voltage Sags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Jafar; Afsharnia, Saeed; Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    reactive power into the grid. The passive compensator is based on a three-phase stator damping resistor (SDR) located in series with the stator windings. The proposed scheme decreases the negative effects of grid voltage sags in the DFIG system including the rotor over-currents, electromagnetic torque...

  20. Optimal Cable Tension Distribution of the High-Speed Redundant Driven Camera Robots Considering Cable Sag and Inertia Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Su

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Camera robots are high-speed redundantly cable-driven parallel manipulators that realize the aerial panoramic photographing. When long-span cables and high maneuverability are involved, the effects of cable sags and inertias on the dynamics must be carefully dealt with. This paper is devoted to the optimal cable tension distribution (OCTD for short of the camera robots. Firstly, each fast varying-length cable is discretized into some nodes for computing the cable inertias. Secondly, the dynamic equation integrated with the cable inertias is set up regarding the large-span cables as catenaries. Thirdly, an iterative optimization algorithm is introduced for the cable tension distribution by using the dynamic equation and sag-to-span ratios as constraint conditions. Finally, numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effects of cable sags and inertias on determining tensions. The results justify the convergence and effectiveness of the algorithm. In addition, the results show that it is necessary to take the cable sags and inertias into consideration for the large-span manipulators.

  1. Semi-Active Control of Three-Dimensional Vibrations of an Inclined Sag Cable with Magnetorheological Dampers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Q.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Qu, W. L.

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional semi-active vibration control of an inclined sag cable with discrete magnetorheological (MR) dampers is investigated in this paper using the finite difference method (FDM). A modified Dahl model is used to describe the dynamic property of MR damper. The nonlinear equations...

  2. Extension of the Accurate Voltage-Sag Fault Location Method in Electrical Power Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Menchafou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate Fault location in an Electric Power Distribution System (EPDS is important in maintaining system reliability. Several methods have been proposed in the past. However, the performances of these methods either show to be inefficient or are a function of the fault type (Fault Classification, because they require the use of an appropriate algorithm for each fault type. In contrast to traditional approaches, an accurate impedance-based Fault Location (FL method is presented in this paper. It is based on the voltage-sag calculation between two measurement points chosen carefully from the available strategic measurement points of the line, network topology and current measurements at substation. The effectiveness and the accuracy of the proposed technique are demonstrated for different fault types using a radial power flow system. The test results are achieved from the numerical simulation using the data of a distribution line recognized in the literature.

  3. The role of fluid migration system in hydrocarbon accumulation in Maichen Sag, Beibuwan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Yang, Jinxiu; Wu, Feng; Chen, Wei; Liu, Qianqian

    2018-02-01

    Fluid migration system is of great significance for hydrocarbon accumulation, including the primary migration and secondary migration. In this paper, the fluid migration system is analysed in Maichen Sag using seismic, well logging and core data. Results show that many factors control the hydrocarbon migration process, including hydrocarbon generation and expulsion period from source rocks, microfractures developed in the source rocks, the connected permeable sand bodies, the vertical faults cutting into/through the source rocks and related fault activity period. The spatial and temporal combination of these factors formed an effective network for hydrocarbon expulsion and accumulation, leading to the hydrocarbon reservoir distribution at present. Generally, a better understanding of the hydrocarbon migration system can explain the present status of hydrocarbon distribution, and help select future target zones for oil and gas exploration.

  4. Sag compensation system for assembly of MDT-chambers for the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashkov, A.V.; Glonti, G.L.; Gongadze, A.L.; Evtukhovich, P.G.; Il'yushenko, E.N.; Kotov, S.A.; Kruchonok, V.G.; Tskhadadze, Eh.G.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Shelkov, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    The description of a system of the devices created for compensation of the gravitational deflection of the drift chamber during its assembly is presented. By means of this system during stage-by-stage gluing of layers of tube drift detectors to the chamber the transversal deflection considerably decreases and by that high accuracy of mutual position of separate tubes is provided. The devices were applied at assembly of 74 MDT-chambers of the ATLAS experiment. Design values of deformation of the chambers as well as the results of measurement of transversal deflections obtained during the assembly with the use of the system of sag compensation are given. Testing of chambers on the X-ray tomograph at CERN has shown that the accuracy of the positions of separate signal wires inside the assembled chambers is within the limits of the required 20 μm

  5. Voltage sag influence on fatigue life of the drivetrain of fixed speed wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veluri, Badrinath; Santos-Martin, David; Jensen, Henrik Myhre

    2011-01-01

    Occurrence of voltage sags due to electrical grid faults and other network disturbances generate transients of the generator electromagnetic torque which result in significant high stresses and noticeable vibrations for the wind turbine mechanical system and may also have a detrimental effect...... on the fatigue life of important drivetrain components. The high penetration of wind energy in the electrical grids demands new requirements for the operation of wind energy conversion systems. Although fixed speed wind turbine technology is nowadays replaced by variable speed wind turbines. In some countries...... by the stator flux oscillations which cause high transients of the generator electromagnetic torque. This paper focuses in estimating the resulting significant stresses transients due to the electromagnetic torque transients, which transmits to the wind turbine mechanical system that may have a detrimental...

  6. Mitigation of voltage sag, swell and power factor correction using solid-state transformer b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Banaei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel topology of solid-state transformer (SST. In the design process, the AC/DC, DC/AC and AC/AC converters have been integrated to achieve higher efficiency. To obtain higher efficiency from other SST with DC-link topologies, the AC/DC and DC/AC converters have been integrated in one matrix converter. The proposed SST performs typical functions and has advantages such as power factor correction, voltage sag and swell elimination, voltage flicker reduction and protection capability in fault situations. In addition, it has other benefits such as light weight, low volume and elimination of hazardous liquid dielectrics because it uses medium frequency transformer. The operation and some performances of the proposed SST have been verified by the simulation results.

  7. Design basis ground motion (Ss) required on new regulatory guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamae, Katsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    New regulatory guide is enforced on July 8. Here, it is introduced how the design basis ground motion (Ss) for seismic design of nuclear power reactor facilities was revised on the new guide. Ss is formulated as two types of earthquake ground motions, earthquake ground motions with site specific earthquake source and with no such specific source locations. The latter is going to be revised based on the recent observed near source ground motions. (author)

  8. Evidence that antibodies against recombinant SnSAG1 of Sarcocystis neurona merozoites are involved in infection and immunity in equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Siobhan; Witonsky, Sharon

    2009-07-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the principal etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). An immunodominant protein of S. neurona, SnSAG-1, is expressed by the majority of S. neurona merozoites isolated from spinal tissues of horses diagnosed with EPM and may be a candidate for diagnostic tests and prophylaxis for EPM. Five horses were vaccinated with adjuvanted recombinant SnSAG1 (rSnSAG1) and 5 control (sham vaccinated) horses were vaccinated with adjuvant only. Serum was evaluated pre- and post-vaccination, prior to challenge, for antibodies against rSnSAG1 and inhibitory effects on the infectivity of S. neurona by an in vitro serum neutralization assay. The effect of vaccination with rSnSAG1 on in vivo infection by S. neurona was evaluated by challenging all the horses with S. neurona merozoites. Blinded daily examinations and 4 blinded neurological examinations were used to evaluate the presence of clinical signs of EPM. The 5 vaccinated horses developed serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) titers of SnSAG1, detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), post-vaccination. Post-vaccination serum from vaccinated horses was found to have an inhibitory effect on merozoites, demonstrated by in vitro bioassay. Following the challenge, the 5 control horses displayed clinical signs of EPM, including ataxia. While 4 of the 5 vaccinated horses did not become ataxic. One rSnSAG-1 vaccinated horse showed paresis in 1 limb with muscle atrophy. All horses showed mild, transient, cranial nerve deficits; however, disease did not progress to ataxia in rSnSAG-1 vaccinated horses. The study showed that vaccination with rSnSAG-1 produced antibodies in horses that neutralized merozoites when tested by in vitro culture and significantly reduced clinical signs demonstrated by in vivo challenge.

  9. CellSs: Scheduling Techniques to Better Exploit Memory Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Bellens

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell Superscalar's (CellSs main goal is to provide a simple, flexible and easy programming approach for the Cell Broadband Engine (Cell/B.E. that automatically exploits the inherent concurrency of the applications at a task level. The CellSs environment is based on a source-to-source compiler that translates annotated C or Fortran code and a runtime library tailored for the Cell/B.E. that takes care of the concurrent execution of the application. The first efforts for task scheduling in CellSs derived from very simple heuristics. This paper presents new scheduling techniques that have been developed for CellSs for the purpose of improving an application's performance. Additionally, the design of a new scheduling algorithm is detailed and the algorithm evaluated. The CellSs scheduler takes an extension of the memory hierarchy for Cell/B.E. into account, with a cache memory shared between the SPEs. All new scheduling practices have been evaluated showing better behavior of our system.

  10. Accurate antemortem diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) based on detecting intrathecal antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona using the SnSAG2 and SnSAG4/3 ELISAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S M; Howe, D K; Morrow, J K; Graves, A; Yeargan, M R; Johnson, A L; MacKay, R J; Furr, M; Saville, W J A; Williams, N M

    2013-01-01

    Recent work demonstrated the value of antigen-specific antibody indices (AI and C-value) to detect intrathecal antibody production against Sarcocystis neurona for antemortem diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). The study was conducted to assess whether the antigen-specific antibody indices can be reduced to a simple serum : cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) titer ratio to achieve accurate EPM diagnosis. Paired serum and CSF samples from 128 horses diagnosed by postmortem examination. The sample set included 44 EPM cases, 35 cervical-vertebral malformation (CVM) cases, 39 neurologic cases other than EPM or CVM, and 10 non-neurologic cases. Antibodies against S. neurona were measured in serum and CSF pairs using the SnSAG2 and SnSAG4/3 (SnSAG2, 4/3) ELISAs, and the ratio of each respective serum titer to CSF titer was determined. Likelihood ratios and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were calculated based on serum titers, CSF titers, and serum : CSF titer ratios. Excellent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity was obtained from the SnSAG2, 4/3 serum : CSF titer ratio. Sensitivity and specificity of 93.2 and 81.1%, respectively, were achieved using a ratio cutoff of ≤100, whereas sensitivity and specificity were 86.4 and 95.9%, respectively, if a more rigorous cutoff of ≤50 was used. Antibody titers in CSF also provided good diagnostic accuracy. Serum antibody titers alone yielded much lower sensitivity and specificity. The study confirms the value of detecting intrathecal antibody production for antemortem diagnosis of EPM, and they further show that the antigen-specific antibody indices can be reduced in practice to a simple serum : CSF titer ratio. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Mesozoic to Cenozoic tectonic transition process in Zhanhua Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanjun; Wu, Zhiping; Lu, Shunan; Li, Xu; Lin, Chengyan; Huang, Zheng; Su, Wen; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Shouye

    2018-04-01

    The Zhanhua sag is part of the Bohai Bay intracontinental basin system that has developed since the Mesozoic in East China. The timing of this basin system coincides with the final assembly of East Asia and the development of Western Pacific-type plate margin. Here we use 3-D seismic and core log data to investigate the evolution of this basin and discuss its broad tectonic settings. Our new structural study of Zhanhua sag suggests that there are four major tectonic transitions occurred in the Bohai Bay Basin during Mesozoic and Cenozoic: (1) The first tectonic transition was from stable Craton to thrusting during the Triassic, mainly caused by the South China Block's subduction northward beneath the North China Block, which induced the formation of the NW-striking thrust faults. (2) The second tectonic transition was mainly characterized by a change from compression to extension, which can be further divided into two-stages. At the first stage, two episodes of NW-SE shortening occurred in East Asia during Early-Middle Jurassic and Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous, respectively. At the second stage, the extension and left-lateral shearing took place during Early Cretaceous while compression occurred during Late Cretaceous. The NW-striking thrust faults changed to normal faults and the NNE-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults started to influence the eastern part of the basin. (3) The third transition occurred when the NW-SE extension and NNE-striking right-lateral shearing started to form during Paleogene, and the peak deformation happen around 40 Ma due to the change of the subduction direction of Pacific Plate relative to Eurasia Plate. The NE-striking normal faults are the main structure, and the pre-existing NNE-striking strike-slip faults changed from left-lateral to right-lateral. (4) The fourth transition saw the regional subsidence during Neogene, which was probably caused by the India-Asia "Hard collision" between 25 and 20 Ma.

  12. Swelling and microstructure of neutrons irradiated 316 Ti SS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seran, J.L.; Le Naour, L.; Grosjean, P.; Hugon, M.P.; Carteret, Y.; Maillard, A.

    1984-06-01

    The analysis of the behaviour of fuel pins irradiated in the same RAPSODIE subassembly, shows that titanium has a marked beneficial effect on the swelling resistance of CW 316 SS in a large range of temperature. This effect is particularly visible at high temperature since CW 316 Ti SS does not swell above 550 0 C up to a dose of 100 French dpa. The results obtained on samples irradiated in a RAPSODIE experimental rig give us confirmation of the good behaviour of CW 316 Ti SS which swells less and at smaller temperature than the other steels of the 316 series such as SA 316 Ti or aged SA 316 Ti. The swelling differences between some of these materials can be associated to different microstructures which are also very different from the ones obtained on the irradiated steels aged in the same time and temperature conditions

  13. Modelling of V-Hz and vector controlled ASDs in PSCAD/EMTDC for voltage sag studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegunta, S.C. [TNEI Services Ltd, Manchester M1 2PW (United Kingdom); Milanovic, J.V. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering of The University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Djokic, S.Z. [School of Engineering of The University of Edinburgh, The King' s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    This paper deals with modelling and performance of adjustable speed drives (ASDs) subjected to voltage disturbances in electric supply. The aim of this study was to develop appropriate models of typical ASD and investigate their sensitivity to voltage disturbances under various practical modes of operation and control. Accordingly, scalar controlled open and closed loop volts-hertz (V-Hz) and vector controlled closed loop ASDs are modelled in PSCAD/EMTDC environment, and their performance in the presence of voltage disturbances is investigated under typical operating and loading conditions. The drive sensitivity to three-phase, two-phase and single-phase voltage sags and short interruptions was assessed, and the findings are discussed in the paper. Depending on the type of drive control, type of voltage sag, applied load torque and adjusted speed, various sensitivity curves were established and analyzed. (author)

  14. Acute viral hepatitis in adults. Comparison of the radioimmunoassay and counterimmunoelectrophoresis methods of detecting HB/sub s/Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, R.P.; Teates, C.D.; Galapon, Q.; Barczak, R.; Ling, C.M.; Overby, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay (RIA) and counterimmunoelectrophoretic (CIE) methods were compared in detecting hepatitis B antigen (HB/sub s/Ag) in 407 acute and 336 convalescent sera of adults with viral hepatitis. The CIE method demonstrated that 41 percent of acute and 28 percent of 14- to 17-day serum specimens were HB/sub s/Ag-positive. The RIA method demonstrated seropositivity in 60 percent of acute and 56 percent of convalescent specimens (P less than .001). Eighty-four percent of coded specimens initially positive for HB/sub s/Ag by RIA were found to have subtype antigenic determinants d or y; 92 percent of the HB/sub s/Ag-negative controls were negative for subtype antigens, confirming the specificity of the RIA test. RIA subtyping data corroborated earlier work with immunodiffusion techniques. (U.S.)

  15. The impacts of voltage sags in industrial electric systems; Os impactos dos afundamentos de tensao em sistemas eletricos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Reinaldo Moreira [Moinhos Vera Cruz, Santa Luzia, MG (Brazil); Silva, Selenio Rocha [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    The sensitiveness increasing of industrial equipment related to the perturbation of electric grid, resulting in losses to the productive chain, turns the energy quality in the subject more discussed by the electrical community. In this study case on the problems caused by voltage sags to equipment of an industrial plant from the food sector, it is presented the identification process and the adopted solutions. (author)

  16. Over-expression of 60s ribosomal L23a is associated with cellular proliferation in SAG resistant clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchita Das

    Full Text Available Sodium antimony gluconate (SAG unresponsiveness of Leishmania donovani (Ld had effectively compromised the chemotherapeutic potential of SAG. 60s ribosomal L23a (60sRL23a, identified as one of the over-expressed protein in different resistant strains of L.donovani as observed with differential proteomics studies indicates towards its possible involvement in SAG resistance in L.donovani. In the present study 60sRL23a has been characterized for its probable association with SAG resistance mechanism.The expression profile of 60s ribosomal L23a (60sRL23a was checked in different SAG resistant as well as sensitive strains of L.donovani clinical isolates by real-time PCR and western blotting and was found to be up-regulated in resistant strains. Ld60sRL23a was cloned, expressed in E.coli system and purified for raising antibody in swiss mice and was observed to have cytosolic localization in L.donovani. 60sRL23a was further over-expressed in sensitive strain of L.donovani to check its sensitivity profile against SAG (Sb V and III and was found to be altered towards the resistant mode.This study reports for the first time that the over expression of 60sRL23a in SAG sensitive parasite decreases the sensitivity of the parasite towards SAG, miltefosine and paramomycin. Growth curve of the tranfectants further indicated the proliferative potential of 60sRL23a assisting the parasite survival and reaffirming the extra ribosomal role of 60sRL23a. The study thus indicates towards the role of the protein in lowering and redistributing the drug pressure by increased proliferation of parasites and warrants further longitudinal study to understand the underlying mechanism.

  17. YouTube osuuskaupan markkinointiviestinnässä

    OpenAIRE

    Lindevall, Tytti

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on luoda toimeksiantaja Suur-Seudun Osuuskauppa SSO:lle suunnitelma YouTuben hyödyntämiseksi markkinointiviestinnässään. Työn avulla on tarkoitus löytää keino, miten SSO voisi hyödyntää YouTubea markkinointiviestinnässään ja mitä asioita tulisi huomioida omaa kanavaa perustettaessa. Tarkoituksena on tuottaa raportti mahdollisista käyttötarkoituksista sekä ohjeistus oman kanavan perustamiseen ja hallinnointiin liittyvistä asioista. Työn alkupuolella taustoite...

  18. History of the Balkan Stomatological Society (BaSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Ljubomir

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Some of the main activities of the Balkan Stomatological Society (BaSS over a rich 19-year history are presented. These activities have been aimed at improving oral health care provided by the dentists throughout the Balkans, and to establish ties of friendship and collaboration between researchers and clinicians in this region, creating a foundation for mutual understanding and peace. To accomplish these goals, the BaSS annually organizes congresses and publishes a scientific journal, beside many other activities, such as public oral health promotion, bringing into accordance study programmes and curricula, supporting student exchange programmes, etc.

  19. CoordSS: An Ontology Framework for Heterogeneous Networks Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nejkovic

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimenting with HetNets environments is of importance because of the role that such environments have in next-generation cellular networks. In this paper, the CoordSS ontology experimentation framework is proposed with an aim to support experimenting with HetNets environments on wireless networking testbeds. In the framework, domain and system ontologies are adopted for formal representation of the knowledge about the context of the problem. This paper outlines implementation details of ontologies in the CoordSS experimentation framework. The synergy between semantic and cognitive computing is introduced as the theoretical foundation of the paper.

  20. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of directors shall monitor planning and execution of the S&S business activities. 2. The S&S board of... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and Management...

  1. Precipitation formation in recrystallized nickel-plated non-sag tungsten wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Z.H.

    1994-01-01

    It is well established that some metals, such as palladium and nickel, can easily penetrate into tungsten by fast diffusion via crystal defects such as grain boundaries and dislocations. As a result of the fast penetration of these so called activators the recrystallization temperature of heavily drawn non-sag tungsten wire can be lower from about 2,000 C to about 1,000 C, thus the application of the tungsten wire, serving as reinforcement material in metal matrix composites used at high temperatures, is limited. An interesting question is in which form these activators exist in the recrystallized tungsten wire. It is generally believed that W-Ni intermediate compounds could form in the recrystallized material, presumably at grain boundaries. The free energy difference between the pure tungsten fibbers and the precipitating W(Ni) solid solution was suggested as the chemical driving force which governed the recrystallization process. The presence of nickel in small particles had also been observed in recrystallized grains of nickel plated tungsten wires using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. These particles were considered to be nickel rich precipitates. However, a detailed investigation of the precipitation process has not been reported. In the present work an investigation of the structure, composition and distribution of nickel rich particles precipitated in recrystallized grains of nickel plated heavily drawn non-sage tungsten wires was carried out using analytical electron microscopy (AEM)

  2. Comprehensive Reactive Power Support of DFIG Adapted to Different Depth of Voltage Sags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangwu Shen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The low voltage ride-through (LVRT capability of the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG significantly impacts upon the integration of wind power into the power grid. This paper develops a novel comprehensive control strategy to enhance the LVRT and reactive power support capacities of the DFIG by installing the energy storage system (ESS. The ESS is connected to the DC-link capacitor of the DFIG and used to regulate the DC-link voltage during normal or fault operations. The unbalanced power between the captured wind power and the power injected to the grid during the transient process is absorbed or compensated by the ESS. The rotor-side converter (RSC is used to control the maximum power production and the grid-side converter (GSC is used to control the reactive power before participating in the voltage support. When the supply voltage continues to drop, the rotor speed is increased by controlling the RSC to realize the LVRT capability and help the GSC further enhance the reactive power support capability. The capacity of the GSC is dedicated to injecting the reactive power to the grid. An auxiliary transient pitch angle controller is proposed to protect the generator’s over speed. Both RSC and GSC act as reactive power sources to further enhance the voltage support capability with serious voltage sags. Simulations based on a single-machine infinite-bus power system verify the effectiveness of the developed comprehensive control strategy.

  3. Design of a MEMS Capacitive Comb-drive Micro-accelerometer with Sag Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. PANT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents an optimization study for the designing of a highly sensitive inertial grade capacitive accelerometer based on comb-drive actuation and sensing. The proof mass, suspension system (beams or tethers, stators and rotors have to be realized through an HAR (high aspect ratio DRIE (deep reactive ion etching process for which process optimization has already been done at our laboratory. As the proof mass is a bulk micro-machined structure having a mass in milligram range, the optimum positioning of the tethers on the proof mass is important to have minimum sag, necessary to reduce the off-axis sensitivity. The optimization for the positioning of the tethers has been carried out using a commercial software tool ANSYSTM Multiphysics. The accelerometer has been modeled analytically to predict its characteristics. The dependency of sensitivity on the dimensions of the suspension beams (tethers has also been verified using the above FEM software tool. The present device has been designed to deliver a high sensitivity of 13.6 mV/g/V for low-g applications.

  4. Current source converter based D-STATCOM for voltage sag mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Moirangthem Deben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method of realizing one of the custom power controllers, the distribution static synchronous compensator (D-STATCOM using current source converter (CSC topology. Almost all the custom power controllers such as dynamic voltage restorer (DVR, unified power quality conditioner (UPQC including D-STATCOM are generally designed and implemented by using voltage source converters (VSC and not much research publications with CSC based approach has been reported over the last one decade. Since the D-STATCOM is a current injection device, its performance can be improved when realized by a current-source converter which can generate a controllable current directly at its output terminals and offers many advantageous features. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the performance of a CSC based D-STATCOM suitable for use in the power distribution system in order to mitigate voltage sag and improve power quality. The proposed model uses a three leg CSC whose switching strategy is based on sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM. The model has been simulated in the Matlab/Simulink environment. The results of the simulation runs under steady state and dynamic load perturbation provide excellent voltage and current waveforms that support the justification of the proposed model.

  5. DG Allocation Based on Reliability, Losses and Voltage Sag Considerations: an expert system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Abdel Moneim Moussa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Expert System (ES as a branch of Artificial Intelligence (AI methodology can potentially help in solving complicated power system problems. This may be more appropriate methodology than conventional optimization techniques when contradiction between objectives appears in reaching the optimum solution. When this contradiction is the hindrance in reaching the required system operation through the application of traditional methods ES can give a hand in such case. In this paper, the  knowledge- based ES technique is proposed to reach near-optimum solution which is further directed to the optimum solution through particle swarm optimization (PSO technique. This idea is known as Hybrid-Expert-System (HES. The proposed idea is used in getting the optimum allocation of a number of distributed generation (DG units on Distribution System (DS busbars taking into consideration three issues; reliability, voltage sag, and line losses. Optimality is assessed on the economic basis by calculating money benefits (or losses resulting from DG addition considering the three aforementioned issues. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is ascertained through example.

  6. A Force Method Model for Dynamic Analysis of Flat-Sag Cable Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new force method is proposed for analysing the dynamic behaviour of oscillating cables with small sags. The accepted dynamic model of such cables reduces to a partial differential equation (the equation of motion and an integral equation (the compatibility equation. In the paper, D’Alembert’s travelling wave solution is applied to the partial differential equation (PDE. Substituting the solution into the compatibility and boundary conditions, the governing equation is obtained in terms of the dynamic tension increment. This equation has been named the force method dynamic equation (FMDE. In this way the infinite-degree-of-freedom dynamic system is effectively simplified to a system with only one unknown. Explicit solutions for both single-span and multi-span cable systems are derived. The natural frequencies obtained from the FMDE are shown to be identical to those deduced using the conventional displacement method (DM. Nonlinear governing equations are developed by considering the effect of quadratic and cubic displacement terms. Finally, two examples are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the proposed force method for single and multi-span cable systems subjected to harmonic forces.

  7. Molecular analysis of Toxoplasma gondii Surface Antigen 1 (SAG1) gene cloned from Toxoplasma gondii DNA isolated from Javanese acute toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryati, Sri; Agung Prasetyo, Afiono; Sari, Yulia; Dharmawan, Ruben

    2018-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii Surface Antigen 1 (SAG1) is often used as a diagnostic tool due to its immunodominant-specific as antigen. However, data of the Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 protein from Indonesian isolate is limited. To study the protein, genomic DNA was isolated from a Javanese acute toxoplasmosis blood samples patient. A complete coding sequence of Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 was cloned and inserted into an Escherichia coli expression plasmid and sequenced. The sequencing results were subjected to bioinformatics analysis. The Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 complete coding sequences were successfully cloned. Physicochemical analysis revealed the 336 aa of SAG1 had 34.7 kDa of weight. The isoelectric point and aliphatic index were 8.4 and 78.4, respectively. The N-terminal methionine half-life in Escherichia coli was more than 10 hours. The antigenicity, secondary structure, and identification of the HLA binding motifs also had been discussed. The results of this study would contribute information about Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 and benefits for further works willing to develop diagnostic and therapeutic strategies against the parasite.

  8. RPA homologs and ssDNA processing during meiotic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jonathan; Abby, Emilie; Livera, Gabriel; Martini, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    Meiotic homologous recombination is a specialized process that involves homologous chromosome pairing and strand exchange to guarantee proper chromosome segregation and genetic diversity. The formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during meiotic recombination differs from those during mitotic recombination in that the homologous chromosome rather than the sister chromatid is the preferred repair template. The processing of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) formed on intermediate recombination structures is central to driving the specific outcomes of DSB repair during meiosis. Replication protein A (RPA) is the main ssDNA-binding protein complex involved in DNA metabolism. However, the existence of RPA orthologs in plants and the recent discovery of meiosis specific with OB domains (MEIOB), a widely conserved meiosis-specific RPA1 paralog, strongly suggest that multiple RPA complexes evolved and specialized to subdivide their roles during DNA metabolism. Here we review ssDNA formation and maturation during mitotic and meiotic recombination underlying the meiotic specific features. We describe and discuss the existence and properties of MEIOB and multiple RPA subunits in plants and highlight how they can provide meiosis-specific fates to ssDNA processing during homologous recombination. Understanding the functions of these RPA homologs and how they interact with the canonical RPA subunits is of major interest in the fields of meiosis and DNA repair.

  9. Katariina kirikus algab Geeniuste mäss / Kai Ilustrumm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilustrumm, Kai

    2004-01-01

    Briti Nõukogu toetusel Pärnus, Tartus ja Tallinnas toimuvatel inglise filmide päevadel "Geeniuste mäss" näidatakse ka 3 Lindsay Andersoni nn. Travise triloogia filmi "Kui..." (1968), "Oo, õnneseen!" (1973) ja "Ravila Britannia" (1982), kus Mick Travise rollis on Malcolm McDowell (1943). Lisatud kava

  10. Predictability of Joint Promotion Examinations in SS2 on Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research studied the predictability of joint SS2 promotion examinations of all the command secondary schools in Nigeria on academic performance of students in Senior School Certificate Examinations. The sample consists of 120 students selected at the Command Secondary School, Abakaliki and Command Day ...

  11. The Symbiotic System SS73 17 seen with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Randall K.; Mushotzky, Richard; Kallman, Tim; Tueller, Jack; Mukai, Koji; Markwardt, Craig

    2007-01-01

    We observed with Suzaku the symbiotic star SS73 17, motivated by the discovery by the INTEGRAL satellite and the Swift BAT survey that it emits hard X-rays. Our observations showed a highly-absorbed X-ray spectrum with NH > loz3 emp2, equivalent to Av > 26, although the source has B magnitude 11.3 and is also bright in UV. The source also shows strong, narrow iron lines including fluorescent Fe K as well as Fe xxv and Fe XXVI. The X-ray spectrum can be fit with a thermal model including an absorption component that partially covers the source. Most of the equivalent width of the iron fluorescent line in this model can be explained as a combination of reprocessing in a dense absorber plus reflection off a white dwarf surface, but it is likely that the continuum is partially seen in reflection as well. Unlike other symbiotic systems that show hard X-ray emission (CH Cyg, RT Cru, T CrB, GX1+4), SS73 17 is not known to have shown nova-like optical variability, X-ray flashes, or pulsations, and has always shown faint soft X-ray emission. As a result, although it is likely a white dwarf, the nature of the compact object in SS73 17 is still uncertain. SS73 17 is probably an extreme example of the recently discovered and relatively small class of hard X-ray emitting symbiotic systems.

  12. Sleeping sickness (ss) in the Abraka Belt: a preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty six parasitologically confirmed SS cases by microscopic examination of blood, lymph node aspirate or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)) made up of 14 (53.8%) males and 12 (46.2%) females aged between 0 – 70years (mean 29.88 +18.89), were seen during the period of study. Peak incidence occurred at age 0 – 20 years ...

  13. Model development for prediction and mitigation of dissolved oxygen sags in the Athabasca River, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Nancy, E-mail: nancy@ualberta.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2W2 (Canada); McEachern, Preston [Tervita Corporation, AB (Canada); Yu, Tong; Zhu, David Z. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2W2 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    Northern rivers exposed to high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) loads are prone to dissolved oxygen (DO) sags in winter due to re-aeration occurring within limited open water leads. Additionally, photosynthesis is reduced by decreased daylight hours, inability of solar radiation to pass through ice, and slower algal growth in winter. The low volumetric flow decreases point-source dilution while their travel time increases. The Athabasca River in Alberta, Canada, has experienced these sags which may affect the aquatic ecosystem. A water quality model for an 800 km reach of this river was customized, calibrated, and validated specifically for DO and the factors that determine its concentration. After validation, the model was used to assess the assimilative capacity of the river and mitigation measures that could be deployed. The model reproduced the surface elevation and water temperature for the seven years simulated with mean absolute errors of < 15 cm and < 0.9 °C respectively. The ice cover was adequately predicted for all seven winters, and the simulation of nutrients and phytoplankton primary productivity were satisfactory. The DO concentration was very sensitive to the sediment oxygen demand (SOD), which represented about 50% of the DO sink in winter. The DO calibration was improved by implementing an annual SOD based on the BOD load. The model was used to estimate the capacity of the river to assimilate BOD loads in order to maintain a DO concentration of 7 mg/L, which represents the chronic provincial guideline plus a buffer of 0.5 mg/L. The results revealed the maximum assimilative BOD load of 8.9 ton/day at average flow conditions, which is lower than the maximum permitted load. In addition, the model predicted a minimum assimilative flow of about 52 m{sup 3}/s at average BOD load. Climate change scenarios could increase the frequency of this low flow. A three-level warning-system is proposed to manage the BOD load proactively at different river

  14. Relationship between Mineral and Organic Matter in Shales: The Case of Shahejie Formation, Dongying Sag, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zeng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Types of organic matter and mineral associations and microstructures of shales can reflect the depositional mechanism and sedimentary environment. Therefore, analysis of organic matter and mineral associations is a prerequisite for research on fine-grained sedimentary rocks. Shales from the Eocene Shahejie Formation in the Dongying Sag of China were selected to classify their lithofacies and to investigate the characteristics of their organic matter and mineral associations. This analysis identified six lithofacies (e.g., laminated shales and massive mudstones; in all the lithofacies, clay minerals exhibit a positive correlation with detrital minerals, thus indicating that they were derived from the same source. The comprehensive analysis of mineral and organic matter associations reveals that detrital minerals were deposited with low-hydrogen index (HI OM. The deposition of detrital minerals was mainly a physical process. Clay minerals can undergo deposition in one of two ways due to their surface charge: they can either aggregate with high-HI OM via chemical deposition, thus forming organic-rich laminae, or they can be deposited together with low-HI OM via physical deposition, thus forming clay-rich laminae or a massive matrix. Carbonate minerals, which often coexist with high-HI OM, are biological sediments. The analysis of the sedimentary characteristics of these organic matter and mineral associations indicates that the sedimentary processes differ between various lithofacies: e.g., the discontinuous laminated shale represents the product of biophysical processes. Differences in depositional mechanisms are also present in each sub-member. Therefore, it is important to analyze the properties of minerals and organic matter, as well as their associations, to more deeply understand the classification of lithofacies and the depositional processes of shales and mudstones.

  15. Validation of Robotic Surgery Simulator (RoSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavadas, Thenkurussi; Stegemann, Andrew; Sathyaseelan, Gughan; Chowriappa, Ashirwad; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Seixas-Mikelus, Stéfanie; Chandrasekhar, Rameella; Wilding, Gregory; Guru, Khurshid

    2011-01-01

    Recent growth of daVinci Robotic Surgical System as a minimally invasive surgery tool has led to a call for better training of future surgeons. In this paper, a new virtual reality simulator, called RoSS is presented. Initial results from two studies - face and content validity, are very encouraging. 90% of the cohort of expert robotic surgeons felt that the simulator was excellent or somewhat close to the touch and feel of the daVinci console. Content validity of the simulator received 90% approval in some cases. These studies demonstrate that RoSS has the potential of becoming an important training tool for the daVinci surgical robot.

  16. Oxynitrides decorated 316L SS for potential bioimplant application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan Kaliaraj, Gobi; Kumar, N.

    2018-03-01

    Titanium oxynitride (TiON) and zirconium oxynitride (ZrON) were deposited onto 316L stainless steel (316L SS) using reactive magnetron sputtering technique. The monoclinic and cubic phase of TiON and ZrON were obtained by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Nanoindentation and wear test analysis exhibited the better mechanical properties of TiON and ZrON films. Wettability studies showed hydrophilic nature on coated films; whereas bare 316L SS substrate was least hydrophilic. Drastic reduction of bacterial adhesion (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), as well as biofilm formation, was observed in both the films at different time duration. TiON and ZrON films were exhibited excellent hemocompatibility by preventing the platelet activation. Furthermore, the coated films exhibited corrosion protection in presence and absence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in artificial blood plasma (ABP) solution.

  17. Digipelaamisen hyödyt mielenterveystyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Simula, Kristiina

    2017-01-01

    Mielenterveyshäiriöitä ilmenee joka viidennellä suomalaisella. Avohoitopainotteiseen mielenterveystyöhön siirryttäessä tarvitaan uusia näkökulmia asiakastyöhön. DIgipelien suosion myötä on tärkeää miettiä niiden käyttömahdollisuuksia mielenterveystyössä. Jotta uudet menetelmät voidaan ottaa käyttöön, tarvitaan digipelien hyödyistä tutkimustietoa. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on kuvata mitä tutkimustietoa on saatavilla digipelaamisen hyödyistä mielenterveystyössä. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena ...

  18. Susceptibility to Stress Corrosion Cracking of 254SMO SS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Micheli Lorenzo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC of solubilized and sensitized 254SMO SS was studied in sodium chloride, and sodium fluoride solutions at 80 °C and sulfuric acid solutions in presence of sodium chloride at 25 °C. The influence of salt concentration, pH values and the addition of thiosulfate was examined. The susceptibility to SCC was evaluated by Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT, at 1.5 x 10-6 s-1 strain rate. The behavior of 254SMO was compared to those of AISI 316L SS and Hastelloy C276. 254SMO showed an excellent resistance to SCC in all conditions, except in the more acidic solutions (pH <= 1 where, in the sensitized conditions, intergranular stress corrosion cracking occurred.

  19. Social class and survival on the S.S. Titanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W

    1986-01-01

    Passengers' chances of surviving the sinking of the S.S. Titanic were related to their sex and their social class: females were more likely to survive than males, and the chances of survival declined with social class as measured by the class in which the passenger travelled. The probable reasons for these differences in rates of survival are discussed as are the reasons accepted by the Mersey Committee of Inquiry into the sinking.

  20. EMPReSS: European mouse phenotyping resource for standardized screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eain C J; Gkoutos, Georgios V; Lad, Heena V; Blake, Andrew; Weekes, Joseph; Hancock, John M

    2005-06-15

    Standardized phenotyping protocols are essential for the characterization of phenotypes so that results are comparable between different laboratories and phenotypic data can be related to ontological descriptions in an automated manner. We describe a web-based resource for the visualization, searching and downloading of standard operating procedures and other documents, the European Mouse Phenotyping Resource for Standardized Screens-EMPReSS. Direct access: http://www.empress.har.mrc.ac.uk e.green@har.mrc.ac.uk.

  1. Elastic-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1998-01-01

    Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic strain curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior

  2. Asiakkaan profilointi matkailupalveluiden puhelinmyyntityössä

    OpenAIRE

    Laaksonen, Aura; Taralainen, Tuija

    2010-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena on asiakkaan profilointi puhelinmyyntityössä. Työn toimeksiantaja on Itä-Suomen yliopiston Matkailualan opetus- ja tutkimuslaitos. Tutkimuksessamme selvitimme videotallenteiden avulla, millä tavoin myyjä profiloi asiakasta puhelinmyynnissä, ja missä myyntiprosessin vaiheessa profilointia tapahtuu. Tutkimuksen tulosten perusteella toimeksiantajan on tarkoitus luoda matkailupalveluyritykselle verkossa toimiva matkanvarausjärjestelmä. Teoriaosassa käsittelimme asi...

  3. THE Be STAR SPECTRA (BeSS) DATABASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neiner, C.; De Batz, B.; Cochard, F.; Floquet, M.; Mekkas, A.; Desnoux, V.

    2011-01-01

    Be stars vary on many timescales, from hours to decades. A long time base of observations to analyze certain phenomena in these stars is therefore necessary. Collecting all existing and future Be star spectra into one database has thus emerged as an important tool for the Be star community. Moreover, for statistical studies, it is useful to have centralized information on all known Be stars via an up-to-date catalog. These two goals are what the Be Star Spectra (BeSS, http://basebe.obspm.fr) database proposes to achieve. The database contains an as-complete-as-possible catalog of known Be stars with stellar parameters, as well as spectra of Be stars from all origins (any wavelength, any epoch, any resolution, etc.). It currently contains over 54,000 spectra of more than 600 different Be stars among the ∼2000 Be stars in the catalog. A user can access and query this database to retrieve information on Be stars or spectra. Registered members can also upload spectra to enrich the database. Spectra obtained by professional as well as amateur astronomers are individually validated in terms of format and science before being included in BeSS. In this paper, we present the database itself as well as examples of the use of BeSS data in terms of statistics and the study of individual stars.

  4. Survey of the rubber tree genome reveals a high number of cysteine protease-encoding genes homologous to Arabidopsis SAG12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Liu, Jianting; Yang, Lifu; Xie, Guishui

    2017-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana SAG12, a senescence-specific gene encoding a cysteine protease, is widely used as a molecular marker for the study of leaf senescence. To date, its potential orthologues have been isolated from several plant species such as Brassica napus and Nicotiana tabacum. However, little information is available in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), a rubber-producing plant of the Euphorbiaceae family. This study presents the identification of SAG12-like genes from the rubber tree genome. Results showed that an unexpected high number of 17 rubber orthologues with a single intron were found, contrasting the single copy with two introns in Arabidopsis. The gene expansion was also observed in another two Euphorbiaceae plants, castor bean (Ricinus communis) and physic nut (Jatropha curcas), both of which contain 8 orthologues. In accordance with no occurrence of recent whole-genome duplication (WGD) events, most duplicates in castor and physic nut were resulted from tandem duplications. In contrast, the duplicated HbSAG12H genes were derived from tandem duplications as well as the recent WGD. Expression analysis showed that most HbSAG12H genes were lowly expressed in examined tissues except for root and male flower. Furthermore, HbSAG12H1 exhibits a strictly senescence-associated expression pattern in rubber tree leaves, and thus can be used as a marker gene for the study of senescence mechanism in Hevea.

  5. Bio indication of water quality in the Bogota Sabane using fuzzy logic sagging and aquatic micro invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Juan David; Riss Wolfgang; Ospina Rodolfo

    2002-01-01

    An application of the Sagging-type fuzzy logic to calculate biological water quality in Bogota, Colombia is presented 28 sites corresponding to 9 watersheds in the Bogota area were used. The organisms selected were: Leptoceridae and Hidrobiosidae as indicators of clean waters, Planariidae and Amphipoda as indicators of polluted waters and Psychodida and Syrphidae as indicators of highly polluted waters Chironomids were also included. In order to prove the degree of reliability of Sugeno-type fuzzy logic, the results obtained were compared with values for the Cfq index, and a highly significant correlation was obtained

  6. Investigation on the Performance of UPQC-Q for Voltage Sag Mitigation and PQ Improvement at a Critical Load Point

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Malabika; Das, S. P.; Dubey, Gopal

    2008-01-01

    The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is one of the major custom power solutions, which is capable of mitigating the effect of supply voltage sag at the load end or at the point of common coupling (PCC) in a distributed network. It also prevents the propagation of the load current harmonics to the utility and improves the input power factor of the load. The control of series compensator (SERC) of the UPQC is such that it injects voltage in quadrature advance to the supply current. Thus...

  7. The account of sagging of wires at definition of specific potential factors of air High-Voltage Power Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suslov V.M.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity approached is shown, but more exact as it is usually accepted, the account of sagging of wires at definition of specific potential factors air High-Voltage Power Transmission Lines. The technique of reception of analytical expressions is resulted. For an opportunity of comparison traditional expressions for specific potential factors are resulted also. Communication of the offered and traditional analytical expressions is shown. Offered analytical expressions are not difficult for programming on a personal computer of any class and besides they allow to make an estimation of an error of traditional expressions by means of parallel definition of specific potential factors by both ways.

  8. Distributed Low Voltage Ride-Through Operation of Power Converters in Grid-Connected Microgrids under Voltage Sags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    it can make the MG a contributor in smooth ride through the faults. In this paper, a reactive power support strategy using droop controlled converters is proposed to aid MG riding through three phase symmetrical voltage sags. In such a case, the MGs should inject reactive power to the grid to boost...... the voltage in all phases at AC common bus. However, since the line admittances from each converter to point of common coupling (PCC) are not identical, the injected reactive power may not be equally shared. In order to achieve low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability along with a good power sharing...

  9. Potential need for re-definition of the highest priority recovery action in the Krsko SAG-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilic Zabric, T.; Basic, I.

    2005-01-01

    Replacement of old SG (Steam Generators) [7] and the characteristic of new ones throws the question of proper accident management strategy, which leans on philosophy that repair and recovery actions have first priority. In the current NPP Krsko SAMGs (Severe Accident Management Guidelines), water supply to the SG has priority over re-injection water into the core. NPP Krsko reconsidered the highest priority of SAG-1 (inject water to the SG), against the WOG (Westinghouse Owners Group) generic approach (inject water into the core) and potential revision of Severe Accident Phenomenology Evaluations using MAAP (Modular accident Analysis Program) 4.0.5 code. (author)

  10. SS 383: A NEW S-TYPE YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STAR?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B. [Observatório Nacional, Rua José Cristino 77, CEP 20921-400, São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miranda, L. F. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Vigo, E-36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    Symbiotic stars are key objects in understanding the formation and evolution of interacting binary systems, and are probably the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the number of known symbiotic stars is much lower than predicted. We aim to search for new symbiotic stars, with particular emphasis on the S-type yellow symbiotic stars, in order to determine their total population, evolutionary timescales, and physical properties. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) color-color diagram has been previously used to identify new symbiotic star candidates and show that yellow symbiotics are located in a particular region of that diagram. Candidate symbiotic stars are selected on the basis of their locus in the 2MASS (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) diagram and the presence of Hα line emission in the Stephenson and Sanduleak Hα survey. This diagram separates S-type yellow symbiotic stars from the rest of the S-type symbiotic stars, allowing us to select candidate yellow symbiotics. To establish the true nature of the candidates, intermediate-resolution spectroscopy is obtained. We have identified the Hα emission line source SS 383 as an S-type yellow symbiotic candidate by its position in the 2MASS color-color diagram. The optical spectrum of SS 383 shows Balmer, He I, He II, and [O III] emission lines, in combination with TiO absorption bands that confirm its symbiotic nature. The derived electron density (≅10{sup 8-9} cm{sup –3}), He I emission line intensity ratios, and position in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ versus [O III] λ4363/Hγ diagram indicate that SS 383 is an S-type symbiotic star, with a probable spectral type of K7-M0 deduced for its cool component based on TiO indices. The spectral type and the position of SS 383 (corrected for reddening) in the 2MASS color-color diagram strongly suggest that SS 383 is an S-type yellow symbiotic. Our result points out that the 2MASS color-color diagram is a powerful tool in

  11. SS 383: A NEW S-TYPE YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STAR?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B.; Miranda, L. F.

    2013-01-01

    Symbiotic stars are key objects in understanding the formation and evolution of interacting binary systems, and are probably the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the number of known symbiotic stars is much lower than predicted. We aim to search for new symbiotic stars, with particular emphasis on the S-type yellow symbiotic stars, in order to determine their total population, evolutionary timescales, and physical properties. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) (J – H) versus (H – K s ) color-color diagram has been previously used to identify new symbiotic star candidates and show that yellow symbiotics are located in a particular region of that diagram. Candidate symbiotic stars are selected on the basis of their locus in the 2MASS (J – H) versus (H – K s ) diagram and the presence of Hα line emission in the Stephenson and Sanduleak Hα survey. This diagram separates S-type yellow symbiotic stars from the rest of the S-type symbiotic stars, allowing us to select candidate yellow symbiotics. To establish the true nature of the candidates, intermediate-resolution spectroscopy is obtained. We have identified the Hα emission line source SS 383 as an S-type yellow symbiotic candidate by its position in the 2MASS color-color diagram. The optical spectrum of SS 383 shows Balmer, He I, He II, and [O III] emission lines, in combination with TiO absorption bands that confirm its symbiotic nature. The derived electron density (≅10 8-9 cm –3 ), He I emission line intensity ratios, and position in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ versus [O III] λ4363/Hγ diagram indicate that SS 383 is an S-type symbiotic star, with a probable spectral type of K7-M0 deduced for its cool component based on TiO indices. The spectral type and the position of SS 383 (corrected for reddening) in the 2MASS color-color diagram strongly suggest that SS 383 is an S-type yellow symbiotic. Our result points out that the 2MASS color-color diagram is a powerful tool in identifying new S

  12. Crustal structure of an exhumed IntraCONtinental Sag (ICONS): the Mekele Basin in Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, T. B.; Abdelsalam, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekele Sedimentary Basin (MSB) in Ethiopia is a Paleozoic-Mesozoic IntraCONtinental Sag (ICONS) exposed due to Cenozoic domal and rift flank uplift associated with the Afar mantle plume and Afar Depression (AD). ICONS are formed over stable lithosphere, and in contrast to rift and foreland basins, show circular-elliptical shape in map view, saucer shaped in cross section, and concentric gravity minima. Surface geological features of the MSB have been shown to exhibit geologic characteristics similar to those of other ICONS. We used the World Gravity Map (WGM 2012) data to investigate subsurface-crustal structure of the MSB. We also used 2D power spectrum analysis and inversion of the gravity field to estimate the Moho depth. Our results show the Bouguer anomalies of the WGM 2012 ranges between 130 mGal and - 110 mGal with the highest values within the AD. Despite the effect of the AD on the gravity anomalies, the MSB is characterized by the presence of gravity low anomaly that reaches in places -110 mGal, especially in its western part. The Moho depth estimates, from both spectral analysis and inversion of the gravity data, is between 36 and 40 km depth over most of the western and southern margins of the MSB. However, as the AD is approached, in the eastern margins of the MSB, crustal thickness estimates are highly affected by the anomalously thin and magmatic segment of the AD, and the Moho depth range between 30 and 25 km. Our results are consistent with that of seismic studies in areas far from the MSB, but within the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau where the MSB is located. Those studies have reported an abrupt decrease in Moho depth from 40 km beneath the Northwestern plateau, to 20 km in the adjacent AD. Though the MSB is small (100 kmX100 km) compared to other ICONS, and affected by the neighboring AD, it is characterized by elliptical gravity minima and a relatively thicker crust that gradually thickens away from the rift. In addition, seismic imaging

  13. Biological Mechanisms Underlying the Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Formation of Skin Wrinkling and Sagging I: Reduced Skin Elasticity, Highly Associated with Enhanced Dermal Elastase Activity, Triggers Wrinkling and Sagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    The repetitive exposure of skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) preferentially elicits wrinkling while ultraviolet A (UVA) predominantly elicits sagging. In chronically UVB or UVA-exposed rat skin there is a similar tortuous deformation of elastic fibers together with decreased skin elasticity, whose magnitudes are greater in UVB-exposed skin than in UVA-exposed skin. Comparison of skin elasticity with the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the dermis of ovariectomized rats after UVB or UVA irradiation demonstrates that skin elasticity is more significantly decreased in ovariectomized rats than in sham-operated rats, which is accompanied by a reciprocal increase in elastase activity but not in the activities of collagenases I or IV. Clinical studies using animal skin and human facial skin demonstrated that topical treatment with a specific inhibitor or an inhibitory extract of skin fibroblast-derived elastase distinctly attenuates UVB and sunlight-induced formation of wrinkling. Our results strongly indicated that the upregulated activity of skin fibroblast-derived elastase plays a pivotal role in wrinkling and/or sagging of the skin via the impairment of elastic fiber configuration and the subsequent loss of skin elasticity. PMID:25856675

  14. SAG/ROC-SCFβ-TrCP E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Promotes Pro-Caspase-3 Degradation as a Mechanism of Apoptosis Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjia Tan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Skp1-cullin-F-box protein (SCF is a multicomponent E3 ubiquitin (Ub ligase that ubiquitinates a number of important biologic molecules such as p27, β-catenin, and lκB for proteasomal degradation, thus regulating cell proliferation and survival. One SCF component, SAG/ROC2/Rbx2/Hrt2, a RING finger protein, was first identified as a redox-inducible protein, which, when overexpressed, inhibited apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. We report here that sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG, as well as its family member ROC1/Rbxi, bound to the proinactive form of caspase-3 (pro-caspase-3. Binding was likely mediated through F-box protein, β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP, which binds to the first 38 amino acids of pro-caspase-3. Importantly, β-TrCP1 expression significantly shortened the protein half-life of pro-caspase-3, whereas expression of a dominant-negative β-TrCP1 mutant with the F-box domain deleted extended it. An in vitro ubiquitination assay showed that SAG/ROC-SCF -Trcp promoted ubiquitination of pro-caspase-3. Furthermore, endogenous levels of pro-caspase-3 were decreased by overexpression of SAG/ROC-SCFβ-TrCP E3 Ub ligases, but increased on siRNA silencing of SAG, regulator of cullin-1 (ROC1, or β-TrCPs, leading to increased apoptosis by etoposide and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand through increased activation of caspase-3. Thus, pro-caspase-3 appears to be a substrate of SAG/ROC-SCFβ-TrCP E3 Ub ligase, which protects cells from apoptosis through increased apoptosis threshold by reducing the basal level of pro-caspase-3.

  15. METODOLOGÍA GENERAL PARA CORRELACIONAR SAGS CON EVENTOS AMBIENTALES U OPERATIVOS DEL SISTEMA DE DISTRIBUCIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Castillo Guasca

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Es de gran importancia conocer cuáles son las causas  para que se presenten sags en las barrajes de distribución, debido a que la afectación sobre los clientes industriales es de carácter relevante. Por esta razón se planteó  una metodología para buscar la correlación existente entre sags y los eventos ambientales u operativos del sistema de distribución. A manera de ejemplo, se aplicó en tres subestaciones, las cuales se encuentran ubicadas en diferentes sectores de la ciudad. Para el desarrollo de esta metodología, se realizó la correlación de los datos mediante la implementación de tablas dinámicas y programación en Access, donde se evidenció qué tipo de eventos son los que tienen un mayor impacto sobre los clientes. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos se sugiere algunas recomendaciones para mitigar este tipo de eventos en el sistema de distribución.

  16. Biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using an aerobic bacterial strain SAG{sub 5} of Alcaligenes faecalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santal, Anita Rani, E-mail: anita.gangotra@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001, Haryana (India); Singh, N.P. [Centre for Biotechnology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001, Haryana (India); Saharan, Baljeet Singh [Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana (India)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} The Alcaligenes faecalis strain SAG{sub 5} decolorizes 72.6 {+-} 0.56% of melanoidins. {yields} The decolorization was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 {sup o}C on 5th day. {yields} The distillery effluent after biological treatment is environmentally safe. - Abstract: Distillery effluent retains very dark brown color even after anaerobic treatment due to presence of various water soluble, recalcitrant and coloring compounds mainly melanoidins. In laboratory conditions, melanoidin decolorizing bacteria was isolated and optimized the cultural conditions at various incubation temperatures, pH, carbon sources, nitrogen sources and combined effect of both carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum decolorization (72.6 {+-} 0.56%) of melanoidins was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 {sup o}C on 5th day of cultivation. The toxicity evaluation with mung bean (Vigna radiata) revealed that the raw distillery effluent was environmentally highly toxic as compared to biologically treated distillery effluent, which indicated that the effluent after bacterial treatment is environmentally safe. This proves to be novel biological treatment technique for biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using the bacterial strain SAG{sub 5}.

  17. The complex, variable structure of stationary lines in SS433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falomo, R.; Boksenberg, A.; Tanzi, E.G.; Tarenghi, M.; Treves, A.

    1987-01-01

    On 1979 June 3-6, a number of spectra of SS433 were obtained using the UCL Image Photon Counting System on the 3.6-m telescope of the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. The stationary Hα and He I lambdalambda5875, 6678 and 7065 lines have a complex structure which on June 4-5 exhibited a central feature accompanied by two equally displaced (+- 1000 km s -1 ) side components. Variability of the line profile and equivalent width is observed on time-scales as short as a quarter of an hour. (author)

  18. Complex, variable structure of stationary lines in SS433

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falomo, R.; Boksenberg, A.; Tanzi, E.G.; Tarenghi, M.; Treves, A.

    1987-01-15

    On 1979 June 3-6, a number of spectra of SS433 were obtained using the UCL Image Photon Counting System on the 3.6-m telescope of the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. The stationary H..cap alpha.. and He I lambdalambda5875, 6678 and 7065 lines have a complex structure which on June 4-5 exhibited a central feature accompanied by two equally displaced (+- 1000 km s/sup -1/) side components. Variability of the line profile and equivalent width is observed on time-scales as short as a quarter of an hour.

  19. Tapahtuman mallintaminen kauppakeskusmiljöössä

    OpenAIRE

    Mäenpää, Piia

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli luoda kauppakeskusmiljööseen sopiva tapahtumakonsepti kohdennetulle asiakaskohderyhmälle, tässä tapauksessa seniori-ikäisille yli 65-vuotiaille. Kokonaisvaltaisesti tapahtuman mallinnuksen tavoitteeksi määriteltiin lisäksi uudenlaisen asiakaslähtöisen palvelukulttuurin luominen kauppakeskusmiljööseen, asiakkaiden aktivointi palveluiden sekä synergian luominen yksityisten eri toimijoiden välillä kauppakeskuksessa ja osuuskaupan sisällä. Konseptoinnin tausto...

  20. NanoRNase from Aeropyrum pernix shows nuclease activity on ssDNA and ssRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong-Jie; Feng, Lei; Zhou, Huan; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Feng-Ping; Liu, Xi-Peng

    2018-05-01

    In cells, degrading DNA and RNA by various nucleases is very important. These processes are strictly controlled and regulated to maintain DNA integrity and to mature or recycle various RNAs. NanoRNase (Nrn) is a 3'-exonuclease that specifically degrades nanoRNAs shorter than 5 nucleotides. Several Nrns have been identified and characterized in bacteria, mainly in Firmicutes. Archaea often grow in extreme environments and might be subjected to more damage to DNA/RNA, so DNA repair and recycling of damaged RNA are very important in archaea. There is no report on the identification and characterization of Nrn in archaea. Aeropyrum pernix encodes three potential Nrns: NrnA (Ape1437), NrnB (Ape0124), and an Nrn-like protein Ape2190. Biochemical characterization showed that only Ape0124 could degrade ssDNA and ssRNA from the 3'-end in the presence of Mn 2+ . Interestingly, unlike bacterial Nrns, Ape0124 prefers ssDNA, including short nanoDNA, and degrades nanoRNA with lower efficiency. The 3'-DNA backbone was found to be required for efficiently hydrolyzing the phosphodiester bonds. In addition, Ape0124 also degrads the 3'-overhang of double-stranded DNA. Interestingly, Ape0124 could hydrolyze pAp into AMP, which is a feature of bacterial NrnA, not NrnB. Our results indicate that Ape0124 is a novel Nrn with a combined substrate profile of bacterial NrnA and NrnB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dibenzotetraaza[14]annulene-adenine conjugate recognizes complementary poly dT among ss-DNA/ss-RNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić Stojković, Marijana; Škugor, Marko; Tomić, Sanja; Grabar, Marina; Smrečki, Vilko; Dudek, Łukasz; Grolik, Jarosław; Eilmes, Julita; Piantanida, Ivo

    2013-06-28

    Among three novel DBTAA derivatives only the DBTAA-propyl-adenine conjugate showed recognition of the consecutive oligo dT sequence by increased affinity and specific induced chirooptical response in comparison to other single stranded RNA and DNA; whereby of particular importance is the up until now unique efficient differentiation between dT and rU. At variance, its close analogue DBTAA-hexyl-adenine did not reveal any selectivity between ss-DNA/RNA pointing out the important role of steric factors (linker length); moreover non-selectivity of the reference compound (, lacking adenine) stressed the importance of adenine interactions in the selectivity.

  2. Impact of distributed generation in the probability density of voltage sags; Impacto da geracao distribuida na densidade de probabilidade de afundamentos de tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Alessandro Candido Lopes [CELG - Companhia Energetica de Goias, Goiania, GO (Brazil). Generation and Transmission. System' s Operation Center], E-mail: alessandro.clr@celg.com.br; Batista, Adalberto Jose [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil)], E-mail: batista@eee.ufg.br; Leborgne, Roberto Chouhy [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: rcl@ece.ufrgs.br; Emiliano, Pedro Henrique Mota, E-mail: ph@phph.com.br

    2009-07-01

    This article presents the impact of distributed generation in studies of voltage sags caused by faults in the electrical system. We simulated short-circuit-to-ground in 62 lines of 230, 138, 69 and 13.8 kV that are part of the electrical system of the city of Goiania, of Goias state . For each fault position was monitored the bus voltage of 380 V in an industrial consumer sensitive to such sags. Were inserted different levels of GD near the consumer. The simulations of a short circuit, with the monitoring bar 380 V, were performed again. A study using stochastic simulation Monte Carlo (SMC) was performed to obtain, at each level of GD, the probability curves and sags of the probability density and its voltage class. With these curves were obtained the average number of sags according to each class, that the consumer bar may be submitted annually. The simulations were performed using the Program Analysis of Simultaneous Faults - ANAFAS. In order to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the methods of simulation of this program and allow data entry via windows, a computational tool was developed in Java language. Data processing was done using the MATLAB software.

  3. Usefulness of Toxoplasma gondii recombinant antigens (GRA1, GRA7 and SAG1) in an immunoglobulin G avidity test for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietkiewicz, H; Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, E; Kur, J

    2007-01-01

    The precise diagnosis of an acute and recent Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women and the newborn child is important before treatment. This study describes a new Toxoplasma gondii IgG avidity test based on a combination of recombinant GRA1, GRA7 and SAG1 antigens and shows that this test is use...

  4. Analysis of changes in sagging type ST-T segment induced by exercise. Assessment of regional myocardial blood flow using quantitative 13NH3 positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Takuya; Akutsu, Yasushi; Okazaki, Osamu

    1995-01-01

    Regional myocardial blood flow (RMBF) associated with exercise-induced ST depression was assessed using 13 NH 3 positron emission tomography (PET) to determine the significance of horizontal and sagging type ST segments. The subjects were 25 patients with angina pectoris, 25 patients with myocardial infarction, and 5 healthy male volunteers. Eleven regions of interests (ROI) were prepared to calculate RMBF. ST segments were unchanged in 27 patients (Group A) and were depressed in 23 patients (Group B). A 10% increase in RMBF was significantly observed in Group A (74.1%) than Group B (34.8%). In Group B, ST depression was divided into horizontal type (8 patients) and sagging type (15 patients). According to the type of ST depression, RMBF was increased by 10% or more in 50% (4/8) for horizontal type and in 26.7% (4/15) for sagging type. These findings suggested that unfavorable increase in RMBF in stenosiss-related coronary vessels may contribute to the development of ST depression induced by exercise. A constant increase in RMBF in all ROIs, including those with unfavorable RMBF increase, may be involved in the occurrence of horizontal type ST depression; sagging type ST depression may, however, occur by an increased difference in blood flow between unfavorable and favorable RMBF. (N.K.)

  5. Seroprevalence of antibody to NcSAG1 antigen of Neospora caninum in cattle from Western Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Guswanto, Azirwan; Allamanda, Puttik; Mariamah, Euis Siti; Wibowo, Putut Eko; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Neospora caninum can cause fetal abortion and neonatal mortality in cattle, and is a cause of economic concern worldwide. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Neospora caninum-specific antibodies in cattle from Western Java, Indonesia. Serum samples from 991 cattle from 21 locations were tested for antibodies to N. caninum by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on the basis of recombinant NcSAG1. The overall seroprevalence was 16.6%, ranging from 0 to 87.5% in the sampled locations. The results of this study indicate latent infection rates of sampled animals were different in each location. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relationship between N. caninum infection and abortion in cattle, and to identify risk factors for infection in high-prevalence environments.

  6. An algorithm for reduction of extracted power from photovoltaic strings in grid-tied photovoltaic power plants during voltage sags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafti, Hossein Dehghani; Maswood, Ali Iftekhar; Pou, Josep

    2016-01-01

    strings should be reduced during voltage sags. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for determining the reference voltage of the PV string which results in a reduction of the output power to a certain amount. The proposed algorithm calculates the reference voltage for the dc/dc converter controller......, based on the characteristics of the power-voltage curve of the PV string and therefore, no modification is required in the the controller of the dc/dc converter. Simulation results on a 50-kW PV string verified the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in reducing the power from PV strings under......Due to the high penetration of the installed distributed generation units in the power system, the injection of reactive power is required for the medium-scale and large-scale grid-connected photovoltaic power plants (PVPPs). Because of the current limitation of the grid-connected inverter...

  7. The effect of tectonic evolution on lacustrine syn-rift sediment patters in Qikou Sag, Bohaiwan Basin, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Y.; Wang, H.; Xu, W.

    2013-12-01

    Normal fault arrays and associated relay ramps between two overlapping en-echelon normal faults are well known to control the deposition and distribution of sediments in alluvial, fluvial and deltaic systems in rift settings. The influence of transfer zones or relay ramps on sediment routes and dispersal patterns in subaqueous (deeper marine/lacustrine), however, is barely studied and hence less clear. Previous experimental studies indicate that subaqueous relay ramps may act as sediment transportation pathways if certain conditions are available. In this study, we integrate detailed structural and stratigraphic analysis with three-dimensional seismic data and limited well log data from the Qikou Sag to examine the tectonic evolution and the syn-rift sediment patterns response to fault growth and linkage in an active rift setting. Qikou Sag is located at the center of Huanghua Depression, Bohaiwan Basin of eastern China. Structurally, it is a typical continental rift basin characterized by a linked system of two NEE-SWW-striking half-grabens and one E-W-striking graben. Qikou sag is filled with Eocene-Oligocene syn-rift sediments and Miocene to Quaternary post-rift sediments. The Eocene-Oligocene rifting stage can be divided into early rifting period (43-36.5 Ma, the third member and second member of Shahejie Formation, Es3 and Es2), stable rifting period (36.5-29Ma, the first member of Shaehejie Formation, Es1) and fault-depressed diversionary period (29-24.6Ma, the Dongying Formation, Ed). This study focus on the early syn-rift, the third and second member of Shehejie Formation, which is mostly dark-grey mudstone interbedded with fine to coarse-grained sandstone deposited by large-scale turbidity currents in deep-lake. In particular, we use a combination of thickness variability and facies distributions, onlap patterns within a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework, integrated with structural geometry, fault activity and subsidence history analysis to

  8. Sagging Eye Syndrome or Nemaline Rod Myopathy? Divergence Insufficiency with Levator Dehiscence as an Overlapping Symptom between Two Diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie S. L. Cheung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 78-year-old woman complained of gradual, painless onset of horizontal binocular diplopia associated with progressive axial weakness. Physical examination revealed esotropia that was greater at distance than at near vision, bilateral levator dehiscence, and normal abducting saccadic speeds. Given the age of the patient and compatible clinical findings, the diagnosis of Sagging Eye Syndrome (SES was made. However, further work-up with a muscle biopsy suggested Sporadic Late-Onset Nemaline Myopathy (SLONM as the cause of her progressive muscle weakness. Although rare, external ophthalmoplegia has been described in the literature as a presenting symptom in SLONM. To elucidate the pathological mechanism for the patient’s diplopia, an MRI of the orbits was performed, which revealed findings consistent with SES. This case aims to highlight the importance of integrating clinical findings during the diagnostic process and serves as a reminder that diplopia can be a common symptom for an uncommon diagnosis.

  9. Drowning unconformity of lacustrine rift basins: A case study from the Dongying Sag in Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R.; Fan, J.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of drowning unconformity of lacustrine rift basins was proposed in this paper. This paper utilized 3D seismic data, well-log and the principles methods associated with structural geology, sedimentology and geochemistry, to analyze the drowning unconformity and discuss the origins of drowning unconformity in Dongying Sag in Bohai Bay Basin.Researching on it is not only important for a better understanding of tectonic evolution, palaeogeography and sedimentation of hydrocarbon source rocks, but also a vital guiding significance for the exploration of beach-bar sandstone reservoirs and shale oil.1. The concept of drowning unconformity of lacustrine rift basins is defined. With the consequences of rapid tectonic subsidence in basin, the sharp rise of lake-level and the increased rate of accommodation(A) in basin exceeded the rate of sediment supply(S),namely A>>S, the basin suddenly transformed into deep-water settings from shallow-water settings with sudden change of sediment transport and sediment dispersal patterns. 2.The sequence surface between Sha4 and Sha3 Member of Shahejie Formation is the drowning unconformity(43.5Ma). There are the sedimentary association of the reefs in shallow lacustrine, beach-bar sandstones and glutenite fan bodies under the surface. By contrast, there are the sedimentary association of deep-lake oil shales and shales over the surface. The drowning unconformity in Dongying Sag is a tectonic revolution surface which is changed from extensional tectonics to transtensional tectonics and it is also the surface of discontinuity from shallow lacustrine to deep lacustrine. The responses to sudden changes appeared in the parameters of geophysics, geochemistry and paleontology. 3. With the penetration of India into Asia plate in NNE trending,the subduction zones of Pacific Plate retreated. It caused the rapid downwelling of asthenospheric mantle, followed by the extensive drowning unconformity.

  10. Performance analysis of SS7 congestion controls under sustained overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfield, David R.; Millsteed, Gregory K.; Zukerman, Moshe

    1994-04-01

    Congestion controls are a key factor in achieving the robust performance required of common channel signaling (CCS) networks in the face of partial network failures and extreme traffic loads, especially as networks become large and carry high traffic volume. The CCITT recommendations define a number of types of congestion control, and the parameters of the controls must be well set in order to ensure their efficacy under transient and sustained signalling network overload. The objective of this paper is to present a modeling approach to the determination of the network parameters that govern the performance of the SS7 congestion controls under sustained overload. Results of the investigation by simulation are presented and discussed.

  11. Optical, UV, and EUV Oscillations of SS Cygni in Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauche, Christopher W.

    2004-07-01

    I provide a review of observations in the optical, UV (HST), and EUV (EUVE and Chandra LETG) of the rapid periodic oscillations of nonmagnetic, disk-accreting, high mass-accretion rate cataclysmic variables (CVs), with particular emphasis on the dwarf nova SS Cyg in outburst. In addition, I drawn attention to a correlation, valid over nearly six orders of magnitude in frequency, between the frequencies of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of white dwarf, neutron star, and black hole binaries. This correlation identifies the high frequency quasi-coherent oscillations (so-called ``dwarf nova oscillations'') of CVs with the kilohertz QPOs of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), and the low frequency and low coherence QPOs of CVs with the horizontal branch oscillations (or the broad noise component identified as such) of LMXBs. Assuming that the same mechanisms produce the QPOs of white dwarf, neutron star, and black hole binaries, this correlation has important implications for QPO models.

  12. Photometric behavior of SS 433 in 1979 and 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazeh, T.; Tel Aviv University; Wise Observatory, Tel Aviv, Israel); Leibowitz, E.M.; Wise Observatory, Tel Aviv, Israel)

    1981-01-01

    Results and analysis of photometric measurements performed in the last two observing seasons of SS 433 are presented. The light of the star in the V and the B photometric bands varies with a period of either 6.55 or 6.43 days. The periodicity of approximately 164 days is also apparent in the photometric data, with its first and third harmonics. Fluctuations of the order of a half a magnitude within a few hours have also been recorded. The B-V color shows no dependence on the phase of the periodic variations, while it does change by up to 0.25 mag, in an apparent association with the short time scale fluctuations

  13. PCI-SS: MISO dynamic nonlinear protein secondary structure prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboul-Magd Mohammed O

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the function of a protein is largely dictated by its three dimensional configuration, determining a protein's structure is of fundamental importance to biology. Here we report on a novel approach to determining the one dimensional secondary structure of proteins (distinguishing α-helices, β-strands, and non-regular structures from primary sequence data which makes use of Parallel Cascade Identification (PCI, a powerful technique from the field of nonlinear system identification. Results Using PSI-BLAST divergent evolutionary profiles as input data, dynamic nonlinear systems are built through a black-box approach to model the process of protein folding. Genetic algorithms (GAs are applied in order to optimize the architectural parameters of the PCI models. The three-state prediction problem is broken down into a combination of three binary sub-problems and protein structure classifiers are built using 2 layers of PCI classifiers. Careful construction of the optimization, training, and test datasets ensures that no homology exists between any training and testing data. A detailed comparison between PCI and 9 contemporary methods is provided over a set of 125 new protein chains guaranteed to be dissimilar to all training data. Unlike other secondary structure prediction methods, here a web service is developed to provide both human- and machine-readable interfaces to PCI-based protein secondary structure prediction. This server, called PCI-SS, is available at http://bioinf.sce.carleton.ca/PCISS. In addition to a dynamic PHP-generated web interface for humans, a Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP interface is added to permit invocation of the PCI-SS service remotely. This machine-readable interface facilitates incorporation of PCI-SS into multi-faceted systems biology analysis pipelines requiring protein secondary structure information, and greatly simplifies high-throughput analyses. XML is used to represent the input

  14. Performance Analysis of HF Band FB-MC-SS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein Moradi; Stephen Andrew Laraway; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

    2016-01-01

    Abstract—In a recent paper [1] the filter bank multicarrier spread spectrum (FB-MC-SS) waveform was proposed for wideband spread spectrum HF communications. A significant benefit of this waveform is robustness against narrow and partial band interference. Simulation results in [1] demonstrated good performance in a wideband HF channel over a wide range of conditions. In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of the bit error probably for this system. Our analysis tailors the results from [2] where BER performance was analyzed for maximum ration combining systems that accounted for correlation between subcarriers and channel estimation error. Equations are give for BER that closely match the simulated performance in most situations.

  15. Continuous cooling and low temperature sensitization of AISI types 316 SS and 304 SS with different degrees of cold work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvathavarthini, N.; Dayal, R.K.; Gnanamoorthy, J.B. (Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Metallurgy and Materials Programme); Seshadri, S.K. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering)

    This paper presents the results of investigations carried out to study the sensitization behaviour of AISI Types 316 SS and 304 SS with various degrees of cold work ranging from 0 to 25%. Initially Time-Temperature-Sensitization (TTS) diagrams were established using ASTM standard A262 Practice A and E tests. From these diagrams it was found that the rate of sensitization and overall susceptibility to intergranular corrosion increases up to 15% cold work and above that starts decreasing. Desensitization was observed to be faster for higher levels of cold work, especially in the higher sensitization temperature range. From the TTS diagrams, the critical linear cooling rate below which sensitization occurs was calculated. From these data, Continuous Cooling Sensitization (CCS) diagrams were established. The results show that as the degree of cold work increases up to 15%, time needed for sensitization decreases and hence faster cooling rates must be used in order to avoid sensitization. At temperatures sufficiently below the nose temperature of the TTS diagram, log t versus 1/T plots follow a linear relationship where t is the time needed for the onset of sensitization at temperature T. From the slope, the apparent activation energy for sensitization was estimated. The validity of extrapolating these linear plots to lower temperatures (725 to 775 K) (which lie in the operating temperature regime of fast reactors) has been verified by experiment. The effect of heat treatment and microstructure on the Low Temperature Sensitization (LTS) behaviour was investigated. The results indicate that carbides of optimum size and distribution are the essential pre-requisites for LTS and cold work enhances susceptibility of stainless steels to LTS. (orig.).

  16. Efficient Asymmetric Synthesis of S,S-2-methylsulfanyl-2-methylsulfinyl-1-indanone

    OpenAIRE

    Derisvaldo Rosa Paiva; Roberto da Silva Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Diastereoselective synthesis of SS-2-methylsulfanyl-2-methylsulfinyl-1-indanol by reduction of SS-2-methylsulfanyl-2-methylsulfinyl-1-indanone optically enriched demonstrating to be highly efficiency using the sulfanyl group as asymmetric induction control agent during an addition reaction to carbonyl group.The 2-methylsulfinyl-1-indanone was obtained for the first time in one unique step without further oxidation steps. The synthesis of SR, SS of 2-methylsulphinyl-1-indanone optically enrich...

  17. Hoitajien kokemuksia voimistavan johtamisen arvojen ilmenemisestä esimiestyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Karvinen, Päivi

    2013-01-01

    ssä opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin hoitajien kokemuksia voimistavan johtamisen keskeisten arvojen ilmenemisessä esimiestyössä. Voimistavan johtamisen keskeisiksi arvoiksi valittiin viisi Hannele Laaksosen (2008) nimeämää arvoa: avoimuus, luottamus, arvostus, oikeudenmukaisuus ja itseohjautuvuus. Tutkimus kuvaa hoitajien kokemuksia siitä, kuinka esimies voi edistää voimistavan johtamisen arvoja. Hoitajien kokemuksia ei rajattu nykyiseen työsuhteeseen. Hoitajat kertoivat kokemuksistaan yleisesti....

  18. How to Distinguish Patients with pSS among Individuals with Dryness without Invasive Diagnostic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of pSS, inflammatory cell infiltration consists mainly of lymphocytes infiltrating exocrine glands, which leads to their impaired function. The characteristic feature is generalized dryness. The aim of this study was to attempt to answer the question whether it is possible to distinguish between patients with pSS and individuals with dryness caused by other pathologies without applying invasive studies. The study included 68 patients with pSS and 43 healthy controls with dryness. FS ≥ 1 was observed in 90% of patients with pSS (with or without dryness, and only in 23% of the control group (only with xerostomia. In the pSS group, anaemia (p=0.0085, lymphocytopenia (p=0.0006, elevated ERS (p=0.001, higher RF titer, and ANA antibodies were noted. Configuration of anti-SSA + SSB + Ro52 antibodies was characteristic for the pSS group. Considering the clinical symptoms, statistically significant differences were noted between pSS patients and the control group in frequency (p=0.02 and severity (p=0.042 of fatigue, lymphadenopathy, major salivary gland involvement, and photosensitivity to UV light. In conclusion, invasive methods are pivotal in pSS diagnosis in this salivary gland biopsy. Chronic fatigue syndrome is more common in pSS patients and can be subjective distinguishing factor in the group of people with dryness.

  19. Interest of retro-anal levator plate myorrhaphy in selected cases of descending perineum syndrome with positive anti-sagging test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beco Jacques

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levator plate sagging (LPS, usually called descending perineum syndrome, is one of the main defects encountered in perineology. This defect is classically associated with colo-proctologic functional troubles (dyschesia and anal incontinence but can also induce perineodynia, gynaecological and lower urinary tract symptoms. Methods A retrospective case series of nine female patients (mean age: 44.3 underwent an isolated retro-anal levator plate myorrhaphy (RLPM to treat symptomatic LPS confirmed by rectal examination and/or Perineocaliper®. An anti-sagging test (support of the posterior perineum must significantly improve the symptoms that were resistant to conservative treatment. The effect of the procedure on the symptoms of the 3 axes of the perineum (urological, colo-proctologic and gynecological and on perineodynia was evaluated during a follow up consultation more than 9 months after surgery. The effect of RLPM on the position of the anal margin and on the levator plate angle was studied using rectal examination, Perineocaliper® and retro-anal ultrasound. Results Before surgery, anti-sagging tests were positive for dyschesia, urinary urgency and pain. After a mean follow-up of 16.1 months, RLPM resolved or improved 2/2 cases of stress urinary incontinence, 3/5 of urinary urgency, 3/4 of dysuria, 3/3 of anal incontinence, 7/8 of dyschesia, 3/4 of cystocele, 4/5 of rectocele, 5/8 of dyspareunia and 6/7 of perineodynia. Rectal examination showed a complete suppression of sagging in 4 patients and an improvement in the 5 others. The mean reduction of perineal descent was 1.08 cm (extremes: 0–1.5. Using retro-anal ultrasound of the levator plate, the mean reduction of sagging was 12.67 degrees (extremes: 1 – 21. Conclusion Anti-sagging tests can be used before surgery to simulate the effect of RLPM. This surgical procedure seems to improve stress urinary incontinence, frequency, nocturia, urgency, dysuria, anal

  20. Evolution of microstructure in laser welding of SS304L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Kushwaha, R.P.; Viswanadham, C.S.; Dey, G.K.

    2009-01-01

    Laser welding is an important joining process and its application in industries is growing rapidly. One can produce laser welds over a wide range of process parameters and this offers very good opportunity for producing microstructure of different morphology and scales in the weldment. Weld beads have been produced on 5 mm thick plates of SS304L using CW Nd-YAG laser. Laser power was varied in 200 W to 1000 W range and welding speed was varied in 100 mm/mm to 1000 mm/mm. This resulted in weld beads of different morphology. Microstructure of the weld beads was examined on the cross-section as well as in the axial direction using optical microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to study evolution of the microstructure in the weldment. Microstructure was cellular and cellular-dendritic with grains growing from the fusion line towards the centerline. In the central region, cellular growth along the welding direction was observed. The cell size was found to increase with increasing laser power and decreasing welding speed. The findings are presented in this paper. (author)

  1. Multi-pass TIG welding process: simulating thermal SS304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harinadh, Vemanaboina; Akella, S.; Buddu, Ramesh Kumar; Edision, G.

    2015-01-01

    Welding is basic requirement in the construction of nuclear reactors, power plants and structural components development. A basic studies on various aspects of the welding is essential to ensure the stability and structural requirement conditions. The present study explored the thermo-mechanical analysis of the multipass welds of austenitic stainless steels which are widely used in fusion and fission reactor components development. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model is developed to investigate thermally induced stress field during TIG welding process for SS304 material. The transient thermal analysis is performed to obtain the temperature history, which then is applied to the mechanical (stress) analysis. The present thermal analysis is conducted using element type DC3D8. This element type has a three dimensional thermal conduction capability and eight nodes. The 6 mm thick plated is welded with six numbers of passes. The geometry and meshed model with tetrahedral shape with volume sweep. The analysis is on TIG welding process using 3D-weld interface plug-in on ABAQUS-6.14. The results are reported in the present paper

  2. Proposal and Implementation of An IDS for Potential SMS Spam Signaling Messages on SS7

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah, Paul Ntim

    2016-01-01

    Problem Description Reports on spam activities reaching telecom operators reveal flaws in routing for SMS on the Signaling System 7 network. This thesis consists of the following tasks: A comprehensive Study of vulnerabilities on the SS7 network. Proposal and implementation of an intrusion detection system to mitigate signaling for SMS spam on the SS7 network. Evaluation of the proposed detection method.

  3. Advanced drug delivery nanosystems (aDDnSs): a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetzos, Costas; Pippa, Natassa

    2014-06-01

    Significant progress has been made in nanoscale drugs and delivery systems employing diverse chemical formulations to facilitate the rate of drug delivery and to improve its pharmacokinetics. Biocompatible nanomaterials have been used as biological markers, contrast agents for imaging, healthcare products, pharmaceuticals, drug-delivery systems as well as in detection, diagnosis and treatment of various types of diseases. The classification of drug delivery nanosystems (DDnSs) is a crucial issue and fundamental efforts on this subject are missing from the literature. This article deals with the classification of DDnSs with a modulatory controlled release profile (MCR) denoted as modulatory controlled release nanosystems (MCRnSs). Conventional (c) and advanced (a) DDnSs are denoted by the acronyms cDDnSs and aDDnSs, and can be composed of a single or more than one biomaterials, respectively. The classification was based on their characteristics such as: surface functionality (f), the nature of biomaterials used and the kind of interactions between biomaterials. The aDDnSs can be classified as hybridic (Hy-) or chimeric (Chi-) based on the nature - same or different respectively - of biomaterials and inorganic materials used. The nature of the elements used for producing advanced biomaterials is of great importance and medicinal chemistry contributes effectively to the production of aDDnSs.

  4. A pre-Paleogene unconformity surface of the Sikeshu Sag, Junggar Basin: Lithological, geophysical and geochemical implications for the transportation of hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Gao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The unconformity surface at the bottom of the Paleogene is one of the most important migration pathways in the Sikeshu Sag of the Junggar Basin, which consists of three layers: upper coarse clastic rock, lower weathering crust and leached zone. The upper coarse clastic rock is characterized by higher density and lower SDT and gamma-ray logging parameters, while the lower weathering crust displays opposite features. The transport coefficient of the unconformity surface is controlled by its position in respect to the basal sandstone; it is higher in the ramp region but lower in the adjacent uplifted and sag areas. The content of saturated hydrocarbons increases with the decrease of the content of non-hydrocarbons and asphaltenes. The content of benzo[c] carbazole decreases as the content of benzo[a] carbazole and [alkyl carbazole]/[alkyl + benzo carbazole] increases. This suggests that the unconformity surface is an efficient medium for the transportation of hydrocarbons.

  5. TIMES-SS - A mechanistic evaluation of an external validation study using reaction chemistry principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, David W.; Patlewicz, Grace; Dimitrov, Sabcho D.

    2007-01-01

    The TImes MEtabolism Simulator platform used for predicting skin sensitization (TIMES-SS) is a hybrid expert system that was developed at Bourgas University using funding and data from a consortium comprised of industry and regulators. TIMES-SS encodes structure-toxicity and structure...... chemicals in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and then compared with predictions made by TIMES-SS. The results were promising with an overall good concordance (83%) between experimental and predicted values. The LLNA results were evaluated with respect to reaction chemistry principles...... for sensitization. Additional testing on a further four chemicals was carried out to explore some of the specific reaction chemistry findings in more detail. Improvements for TIMES-SS, where appropriate, were put forward together with proposals for further research work. TIMES-SS is a promising tool to aid...

  6. Asymmetric PCR for good quality ssDNA generation towards DNA aptamer production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Tominaga4

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are ssDNA or RNA that binds to wide variety of target molecules with high affinity and specificity producedby systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX. Compared to RNA aptamer, DNA aptamer is muchmore stable, favourable to be used in many applications. The most critical step in DNA SELEX experiment is the conversion ofdsDNA to ssDNA. The purpose of this study was to develop an economic and efficient approach of generating ssDNA byusing asymmetric PCR. Our results showed that primer ratio (sense primer:antisense primer of 20:1 and sense primer amountof 10 to 100 pmol, up to 20 PCR cycles using 20 ng of initial template, in combination with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,were the optimal conditions for generating good quality and quantity of ssDNA. The generation of ssDNA via this approachcan greatly enhance the success rate of DNA aptamer generation.

  7. French validation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye-Dumanget, Christine; Carré, Julie; Le Borgne, Margaux; Boudoukha, Pr Abdel Halim

    2017-12-01

    Several international studies have been conducted on student burnout. To contribute to the clinical examination as well as research on the mental health of students, the MBI-SS (Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey) has been validated and used in different countries but not in French. The aim of this study is to examine the validity of the 3-dimensional model of the French version of the MBI-SS, which is characterized by emotional "Emotional Exhaustion" (EE); "Cynicism" (CY); and low scores in "Academic Efficacy" (AE). A total of 667 university students were questioned to study the 3-dimensional structure of the French translation of the MBI-SS. The results validate the 3-dimensional structure of the MBI-SS and indicate satisfactory psychometric values. It is concluded that the MBI-SS can be used to assess burnout in French students. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Simultaneous radio and x-ray activity in SS 433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaquist, E.R.; Gilmore, W.S.; Johnston, K.J.; Grindlay, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Simultaneous observations at radio and X-ray wavelengths of flarelike events in SS 433 were made during 1979 October 5-9 and 19-22. The radio spectra show evidence for low-frequency absorption, which may be due to either synchrotron self-absorption or free-free absorption by a stellar wind. In the latter case, a model is developed indicating that clouds of relativistic gas are generated at least 10 14 cm from the stellar object and are swept outward through the stellar wind by highly collimated beams. A mass loss of approx.10 -5 M/sub sun/ yr -1 and an outflow speed of approx.1000 km s -1 are consistent with the data. The beam velocities (0.26c) are found to be consistent with the previous optical and radio data. The X-ray emission is evidently nonthermal and closely related to the radio flares, particularly during the event on October 5-9. The behavior during the second event on October 19-22 is considerably more complex. The source of the X-ray radiation is either synchrotron or inverse Compton emission. No clear cut decision is permitted by the data, although the latter mechanism seems to be an inevitable consequence of the known presence of both ultrarelativistic electrons and a high optical stellar luminosity. The inverse Compton mechansim is considered in more detail in the context of the model used to explain the radio behavior. The complexity of the October 19-22 data seems to defy' any simple model

  9. Cytotoxic Vibrio T3SS1 Rewires Host Gene Expression to Subvert Cell Death Signaling and Activate Cell Survival Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nisco, Nicole J.; Kanchwala, Mohammed; Li, Peng; Fernandez, Jessie; Xing, Chao; Orth, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial effectors are potent manipulators of host signaling pathways. The marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. para), delivers effectors into host cells through two type three secretion systems (T3SS). The ubiquitous T3SS1 is vital for V. para survival in the environment, whereas T3SS2 causes acute gastroenteritis in human hosts. Although the natural host is undefined, T3SS1 effectors attack highly conserved cellular processes and pathways to orchestrate non-apoptotic cell death. Much is known about how T3SS1 effectors function in isolation, but we wanted to understand how their concerted action globally affects host cell signaling. To assess the host response to T3SS1, we compared gene expression changes over time in primary fibroblasts infected with V. para that have a functional T3SS1 (T3SS1+) to those in cells infected with V. para lacking T3SS1 (T3SS1−). Overall, the host transcriptional response to both T3SS1+ and T3SS1− V. para was rapid, robust, and temporally dynamic. T3SS1 re-wired host gene expression by specifically altering the expression of 398 genes. Although T3SS1 effectors target host cells at the posttranslational level to cause cytotoxicity, network analysis indicated that V. para T3SS1 also precipitates a host transcriptional response that initially activates cell survival and represses cell death networks. The increased expression of several key pro-survival transcripts mediated by T3SS1 was dependent on a host signaling pathway that is silenced later in infection by the posttranslational action of T3SS1. Taken together, our analysis reveals a complex interplay between roles of T3SS1 as both a transcriptional and posttranslational manipulator of host cell signaling. PMID:28512145

  10. Thermal-history reconstruction of the Baiyun Sag in the deep-water area of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoyin; Yang, Shuchun; Hu, Shengbiao

    2017-11-01

    The Baiyun Sag, located in the deep-water area of the northern South China Sea, is the largest and deepest subbasin in the Pearl River Mouth Basin and one of the most important hydrocarbon-accumulation depression areas in China. Thermal history is widely thought to be of great importance in oil and gas potential assessment of a basin as it controls the timing of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion from the source rock. In order to unravel the paleo-heat flow of the Baiyun Sag, we first analyzed tectonic subsidence of 55 pseudo-wells constructed based on newly interpreted seismic profiles, along with three drilled wells. We then carried out thermal modeling using the multi-stage finite stretching method and calibrated the results using collected present-day vitrinite reflectance data and temperature data. Results indicate that the first and second heating of the Baiyun Sag after 49 Ma ceased at 33.9 Ma and 23 Ma. Reconstructed average basal paleoheat flow values at the end of the rifting periods are 57.7-86.2 mW/m2 and 66.7-97.3 mW/m2, respectively. Following the last heating period at 23 Ma, the study area has undergone a persistent thermal attenuation phase, and basal heat flow has cooled down to 64.0-79.2 mW/m2 at present.

  11. Fifth harmonic and sag impact on PMSG wind turbines with a balancing new strategy for capacitor voltages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seixas, M.; Melício, R.; Mendes, V.M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact on wind turbines due to fifth harmonic and sag content. • Converter topologies considered are two-level and three-level ones. • Controllers are based on PI and fractional-order methods. • New control strategy for the selection of output voltage vectors. • Balancing voltages in the DC-link capacitors. - Abstract: This paper deals with the computing simulation of the impact on permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbines due to fifth harmonic content and grid voltage decrease. Power converter topologies considered in the simulations are the two-level and the three-level ones. The three-level converters are limited by unbalance voltages in the DC-link capacitors. In order to lessen this limitation, a new control strategy for the selection of the output voltage vectors is proposed. Controller strategies considered in the simulation are respectively based on proportional integral and fractional-order controllers. Finally, a comparison between the results of the simulations with the two controller strategies is presented in order to show the main advantage of the proposed strategy

  12. Geophysical Prediction Technology Based on Organic Carbon Content in Source Rocks of the Huizhou Sag, the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high exploration cost, limited number of wells for source rocks drilling and scarce test samples for the Total Organic Carbon Content (TOC in the Huizhou sag, the TOC prediction of source rocks in this area and the assessment of resource potentials of the basin are faced with great challenges. In the study of TOC prediction, predecessors usually adopted the logging assessment method, since the data is only confined to a “point” and the regional prediction of the source bed in the seismic profile largely depends on the recognition of seismic facies, making it difficult to quantify TOC. In this study, we combined source rock geological characteristics, logging and seismic response and built the mathematical relation between quasi TOC curve and seismic data based on the TOC logging date of a single well and its internal seismic attribute. The result suggested that it was not purely a linear relationship that was adhered to by predecessors, but was shown as a complicated non-linear relationship. Therefore, the neural network algorithm and SVMs were introduced to obtain the optimum relationship between the quasi TOC curve and the seismic attribute. Then the goal of TOC prediction can be realized with the method of seismic inversion.

  13. Secondary recrystallization in non-sag W filament wires -- On the possible role of relative grain boundary character distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samajdar, I.; Watte, P.; Mertens, F.

    1999-01-01

    Non-Sag tungsten (W) wire is indispensable for the lighting industry. For the necessary creep resistance, large elongated grains are considered as the desired microstructure. These large grains are obtained by primary and secondary recrystallization. In the present study an effort has been made to characterize and to understand the origin of such large elongated grains. In secondary recrystallization, often called abnormal grain growth, a few of the grains grow massive. The mechanisms of normal and abnormal grain growth are essentially the same, involving high angle boundary migration and driven by the reduction of surface energy. The abnormal grain growth can be visualized as a growth advantage for a few of the grains or growth disadvantage for the majority. Such an advantage/disadvantage may be caused by (1) differences in grain size and/or (2) differences in grain boundary character distribution (GBCD). In other words, a grain may grow massive if it has large size and/or possibilities of more favorable (i.e., of higher mobility) grain boundaries with the matrix grains

  14. Full length channel Pressure Tube sagging under completely voided full length pressure tube of an Indian PHWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, Sujay, E-mail: negi.sujay@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Kumar, Ravi, E-mail: ravikfme@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Majumdar, P., E-mail: pmajum@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mukopadhyay, D., E-mail: dmukho@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • At 16 kW/m input, thermal stability was attained at 595 °C, without PT-CT contact. • At 20 kW/m step input, PT-CT contact occurred at 637 °C near bottom-center of the tube. • PT integrity was maintained throughout the experiment. - Abstract: An experimental investigation was conducted to simulate the sagging behavior of a full length Pressure Tube of a channel of 220 MWe Indian PHWR. The investigation aimed to recreate a condition resembling Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) with Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) failure in a nuclear power plant. A full length channel assembly immersed in moderator was subjected to electrical resistance heating of Pressure Tube (PT) to simulate the residual heat after shutting down of reactor. The temperature of PT started rising and the contact between PT and CT was established at the center of the tube where average bottom temperature was 637 °C. The integrity of PT was maintained throughout the experiment and the PT heat up was arrested on contact with the CT due to transfer of heat to the moderator.

  15. AtlasT4SS: a curated database for type IV secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rangel C; del Rosario Quispe Saji, Guadalupe; Costa, Maiana O C; Netto, Diogo S; Lima, Nicholas C B; Klein, Cecília C; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Nicolás, Marisa F

    2012-08-09

    The type IV secretion system (T4SS) can be classified as a large family of macromolecule transporter systems, divided into three recognized sub-families, according to the well-known functions. The major sub-family is the conjugation system, which allows transfer of genetic material, such as a nucleoprotein, via cell contact among bacteria. Also, the conjugation system can transfer genetic material from bacteria to eukaryotic cells; such is the case with the T-DNA transfer of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to host plant cells. The system of effector protein transport constitutes the second sub-family, and the third one corresponds to the DNA uptake/release system. Genome analyses have revealed numerous T4SS in Bacteria and Archaea. The purpose of this work was to organize, classify, and integrate the T4SS data into a single database, called AtlasT4SS - the first public database devoted exclusively to this prokaryotic secretion system. The AtlasT4SS is a manual curated database that describes a large number of proteins related to the type IV secretion system reported so far in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as in Archaea. The database was created using the RDBMS MySQL and the Catalyst Framework based in the Perl programming language and using the Model-View-Controller (MVC) design pattern for Web. The current version holds a comprehensive collection of 1,617 T4SS proteins from 58 Bacteria (49 Gram-negative and 9 Gram-Positive), one Archaea and 11 plasmids. By applying the bi-directional best hit (BBH) relationship in pairwise genome comparison, it was possible to obtain a core set of 134 clusters of orthologous genes encoding T4SS proteins. In our database we present one way of classifying orthologous groups of T4SSs in a hierarchical classification scheme with three levels. The first level comprises four classes that are based on the organization of genetic determinants, shared homologies, and evolutionary relationships: (i) F-T4SS, (ii) P-T4SS, (iii

  16. Chitin-induced T6SS in Vibrio cholerae is dependent on ChiS activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourashi, Rhishita; Das, Suman; Dhar, Debarpan; Okamoto, Keinosuke; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar

    2018-05-01

    Vibrio cholerae regularly colonizes the chitinous exoskeleton of crustacean shells in the aquatic region. The type 6 secretion system (T6SS) in V. cholerae is an interbacterial killing device. This system is thought to provide a competitive advantage to V. cholerae in a polymicrobial community of the aquatic region under nutrient-poor conditions. V. cholerae chitin sensing is known to be initiated by the activation of a two-component sensor histidine kinase ChiS in the presence of GlcNAc2 (N,N'-diacetylchitobiose) residues generated by the action of chitinases on chitin. It is known that T6SS in V. cholerae is generally induced by chitin. However, the effect of ChiS activation on T6SS is unknown. Here, we found that ChiS inactivation resulted in impaired bacterial killing and reduced expression of T6SS genes. Active ChiS positively affected T6SS-mediated natural transformation in V. cholerae. ChiS depletion or inactivation also resulted in reduced colonization on insoluble chitin surfaces. Therefore, we have shown that V. cholerae colonization on chitinous surfaces activates ChiS, which promotes T6SS-dependent bacterial killing and horizontal gene transfer. We also highlight the importance of chitinases in T6SS upregulation.

  17. MUFOLD-SS: New deep inception-inside-inception networks for protein secondary structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chao; Shang, Yi; Xu, Dong

    2018-05-01

    Protein secondary structure prediction can provide important information for protein 3D structure prediction and protein functions. Deep learning offers a new opportunity to significantly improve prediction accuracy. In this article, a new deep neural network architecture, named the Deep inception-inside-inception (Deep3I) network, is proposed for protein secondary structure prediction and implemented as a software tool MUFOLD-SS. The input to MUFOLD-SS is a carefully designed feature matrix corresponding to the primary amino acid sequence of a protein, which consists of a rich set of information derived from individual amino acid, as well as the context of the protein sequence. Specifically, the feature matrix is a composition of physio-chemical properties of amino acids, PSI-BLAST profile, and HHBlits profile. MUFOLD-SS is composed of a sequence of nested inception modules and maps the input matrix to either eight states or three states of secondary structures. The architecture of MUFOLD-SS enables effective processing of local and global interactions between amino acids in making accurate prediction. In extensive experiments on multiple datasets, MUFOLD-SS outperformed the best existing methods and other deep neural networks significantly. MUFold-SS can be downloaded from http://dslsrv8.cs.missouri.edu/~cf797/MUFoldSS/download.html. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effect of alloying elements on the isothermal solidification during TLP bonding of SS 410 and SS 321 using a BNi-2 interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arafin, M.A. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, H3G 1M8 (Canada)], E-mail: ma_arafi@encs.concordia.ca; Medraj, M. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, H3G 1M8 (Canada)], E-mail: mmedraj@encs.concordia.ca; Turner, D.P. [Metallurgical Planning, Pratt and Whitney Canada, Longueuil, Que., J4G 1A1 (Canada)], E-mail: Daniel.P.Turner@pwc.ca; Bocher, P. [Department de Genie Mecanique, Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, H3C 1K3 (Canada)], E-mail: Philippe.Bocher@etsmtl.ca

    2007-11-15

    The random diffusion of solute atoms during transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of SS 410 and 321 with nickel-based brazing filler alloy BNi-2 have been modeled using Random Walk Modeling technique. Cumulative probability distributions and probability density functions of isothermal solidification times have been calculated for different process conditions and verified with experimental data. The solubility limit of boron has been found to have decreased from 0.3 at.% at higher temperature bonding operations (1358-1394 K) because of substantial iron-rich base metal dissolution when SS 410 was used as base metals; whereas it remained unchanged for SS 321/BNi-2 combination because of high concentrations of nickel and chromium in the base metal. Silicon diffusion model, based on the EDS analysis, also predicted the isothermal solidification times reasonably well.

  19. Construction, characterization and evaluation of the protective efficacy of the Streptococcus suis double mutant strain ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC as a live vaccine candidate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jin; You, Wujin; Wang, Bin; Hu, Xueying; Tan, Chen; Liu, Jinlin; Chen, Huanchun; Bei, Weicheng

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) causes sepsis and meningitis in piglets and humans, and results in one of the most serious bacterial diseases affecting the production of commercial pigs around the world. Due to the failure of the current inactivated vaccine to protect against the disease, development of a new attenuated live vaccine against S. suis 2 by deleting essential virulence factors is urgently needed. We have previously reported the construction and characterization of an SsPep single gene deletion mutant strain ΔSsPep based on S. suis 2. Our previous results have shown that SsPep plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of S. suis 2. In this study, a precisely defined double-deletion mutant ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC of S. suis 2 without antibiotic-resistance markers was constructed based on ΔSsPep, and the levels of virulence of the wild-type (WT) and ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC were compared in a mouse experimental infection model. We demonstrated that the double mutant ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC was less virulent than the WT, and could induce a noticeable antibody response. Analysis of IgG subclasses (IgG1 and IgG2a) indicated that both Th1 and Th2 responses were induced by ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC, although the IgG2a (Th1) response predominated over the IgG1 (Th2) response. Moreover, ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC could confer 90% protective efficacy against challenge with a lethal dose of fully virulent S. suis 2. Taken together, these data demonstrate that ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC can be used as an effective live vaccine and provide a novel strategy against infection of S. suis 2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Responsiivinen web-kehitys WordPress-julkaisujärjestelmässä

    OpenAIRE

    Jutila, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin responsiivisen web-kehityksen toteuttamista WordPress-julkaisujärjes¬-telmässä. Tavoitteena oli toteuttaa yrityksen käyttöön WordPress-teema, joka sisälsi tarvittavat ominaisuudet mukautuvien verkkosivujen toteuttamiseen. Teeman tarkoituksena oli toimia pohjana, jonka päälle verkkosivun rakentaminen olisi mahdollisimman vaivatonta. Työssä käsiteltiin mobiililaitteiden asettamia haasteita web-kehityksessä, sekä tekniikoita niiden rat-kaisemiseen. Päätelaitteiden ...

  1. Short-term variability of dwarf nova SS Cyg during outbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshina, I; Metlov, V; Rovithis-Livaniou, H

    2009-01-01

    Here we report the results of CCD observations of classical dwarf nova SS Cyg carried out with the two 60-cm telescopes in Crimea during the last years. These observations cover a few outbursts in 2006, 2007 and 2008. Power spectrum analysis of our CCD data clearly shows the existence of rapid periodic oscillations in the light curve of SS Cyg at the stage of decline after maximum. CCD observations of SS Cyg in autumn 2006 outburst revealed oscillations with the two periods 10 s and 76 s, in November 2007 - with 41 s period and in January 2008 with 98 s. We interpret detected variations as quasi-periodic oscillations.

  2. Short-term variability of dwarf nova SS Cyg during outbursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshina, I; Metlov, V; Rovithis-Livaniou, H, E-mail: vib@sai.msu.r [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, Athens University, Zagrafos 15784, Athens (Greece)

    2009-06-01

    Here we report the results of CCD observations of classical dwarf nova SS Cyg carried out with the two 60-cm telescopes in Crimea during the last years. These observations cover a few outbursts in 2006, 2007 and 2008. Power spectrum analysis of our CCD data clearly shows the existence of rapid periodic oscillations in the light curve of SS Cyg at the stage of decline after maximum. CCD observations of SS Cyg in autumn 2006 outburst revealed oscillations with the two periods 10 s and 76 s, in November 2007 - with 41 s period and in January 2008 with 98 s. We interpret detected variations as quasi-periodic oscillations.

  3. Efficient Asymmetric Synthesis of S,S-2-methylsulfanyl-2-methylsulfinyl-1-indanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derisvaldo Rosa Paiva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diastereoselective synthesis of SS-2-methylsulfanyl-2-methylsulfinyl-1-indanol by reduction of SS-2-methylsulfanyl-2-methylsulfinyl-1-indanone optically enriched demonstrating to be highly efficiency using the sulfanyl group as asymmetric induction control agent during an addition reaction to carbonyl group.The 2-methylsulfinyl-1-indanone was obtained for the first time in one unique step without further oxidation steps. The synthesis of SR, SS of 2-methylsulphinyl-1-indanone optically enriched in good yield and good enantiomeric excess determined by nuclear magnetic resonance technique employing the Kagan reagent as chiral shift agent.

  4. Modulación de la expresión por GA y ABA de los genes Ss1 y Ss2 que codifican sacarosa sintasa en cebada

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonero Zalduegui, Pilar; Barrero Sicilia, Cristina; Oñate Sanchez, Luis; Hernando Amado, Sara; Rueda Romero, Paloma

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo se ha llevado a cabo un estudio comparativo entre distintas isoformas de SUSy de cereales y arabidopsis. Además se ha realizado un análisis de expresión de HvSs1 y HvSs2 en distintos órganos, incluyendo patrones temporales en semillas en desarrollo y germinación, así como la variación de su respuesta a ácido abscísico (ABA) y giberélico (GA3).

  5. Study of shale reservoir nanometer-sized pores in Member 1 of Shahejie Formation in JX area, Liaozhong sag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yong; Zhang, Yu; Wen, Yiming

    2018-02-01

    The microscopic pore structure is the key of the shale reservoir study; however, traditional Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) methods cannot identify the irregular morphology caused by mechanical polishing. In this work, Scanning Electron Microscopy combined argon ion polishing technology was taken to study the characteristics of shale reservoir pores of Member 1 of Shahejie Formation (E3s1) located in JX1-1 area of Liaozhong Sag. The results show that pores between clay platelets, intraplatelet pores within clay aggregates and organic-matter pores are very rich in the area and with good pore connectivity, so these types of pores are of great significance for oil-gas exporation. Pores between clay platelets are formed by directional or semi-directional contact between edge and surface, edge and edge or surface and surface of laminated clay minerals, whose shapes are linear, mesh, and irregular with the size of 500 nm to 5 μm. The intraplatelet pores within clay aggregates are formed in the process of the transformation and compaction of clay minerals, whose shapes are usually linear with the width of 30 to 500 nm and the length of 2 to 50 μm. The organic-matter pores are from the process of the conversion from organic matters to the hydrocarbon under thermal evolution, whose shapes are gneissic, irregular, pitted and elliptical with the size of 100 nm to 2 μm. This study is of certain guiding significance to selecting target zones, evaluating resource potential and exploring & developing of shale gas in this region.

  6. Changes of plasma SS, SP contents in adult patients with primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xianghong; Song Changyi; Lei Yamei; Ning Ning; Chen Wei; Li Runming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible mechanism of imparirment of central nervous system function in hypothyroid patients through determination of changes of plasma neuropeptides after thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Methods: Plasma somatostatin (SS) and substance P(SP) contents were measured with RIA in 45 patients with primary hypothyroidism both before and after thyroid hormone replacement therapy as well as in 38 controls. Results: Before treatment, the plasma contents of SP in the patients were significantly lower than those in the controls (P 0.05). However, the plasma contents of SS in the more advanced hypothyroid patients with FT 3 3 , FT 4 levels, the plasma SS, SP increased significantly (vs before treatment P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion: The decrease of plasma contents of SS and SP in patients with hypothyroidism might be related to the development of psycho-neurological symptoms in these patients and thyroid hormone replacement therapy was desirable. (authors)

  7. Characterization of 316L(N)-IG SS joint produced by hot isostatic pressing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, J.; Miwa, Y.; Tsukada, T.; Kikuchi, M.; Kita, S.; Nemoto, Y.; Tsuji, H.; Jitsukawa, S.

    2002-01-01

    Type 316L(N) stainless steel of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor grade (316L(N)-IG SS) is being considered for the first wall/blanket module. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technique is expected for the fabrication of the module. To evaluate the integrity and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of HIPed 316L(N)-IG SS, tensile tests in vacuum and slow strain rate tests in high temperature water were performed. Specimen with the HIPed joint had similar tensile properties to specimens of 316L(N)-IG SS, and did not show susceptibility to SCC in oxygenated water at 423 K. Thermally sensitized specimen was low susceptible to SCC even in the creviced condition. It is concluded that the tensile properties of HIPed SS are as high as those of the base alloy and the HIP process caused no deleterious effects

  8. Is PiSS Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Associated with Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Dawn; Schwarz, Laura; McClure, Rebecca; Peterka, Lauren; Rouhani, Farshid; Brantly, Mark; Strange, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    Background. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AAT) is an inherited condition that predisposes to lung and/or liver disease. Objective. The current study examined the clinical features of the PiSS genotype. Methods. Nineteen study participants (PiSS) and 29 matched control participants (PiMM) were telephone interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Demographic features, cigarette smoking, vocation, medication history, and clinical diagnoses were compared. Statistical analysis was perform...

  9. Effect of Microstructure on the Wear Behavior of Heat Treated SS-304 Stainless Steel

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Sliding wear characteristics of some heat treated SS-304 stainless steel against EN-8 steel in dry condition have been studied in the present experimental work. Samples of SS-304 stainless steel have been heated in a muffle furnace in desired temperature and allowed to dwell for two hours. The heated specimen are then cooled in different media namely inside the furnace, open air, cutting grade oil (grade 44) and water at room temperature to obtain different grades of heat treatment. Microstr...

  10. An investigation of p-normed sparsity evaluation for SS-LBP-based edge extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen-yi, Zhao [School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun (China); Jia-ning, Sun, E-mail: sunjn118@nenu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun (China); Shuang, Qiao, E-mail: qiaos810@nenu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun (China)

    2017-02-01

    SS-LBP is a very efficient tool for fast edge extraction in digital radiography. In this paper, we introduce a p-normed sparsity evaluation strategy to improve and generalize the existing SS-LBP framework. To illustrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, several experimental results are presented. Comparisons show that 1-normed sparsity evaluation is more effective and robust in practical applications.

  11. Features of systemic sclerosis-rheumatoid arthritis overlap syndrome (SS-RA overlap syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Desinova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To reveal clinico-laboratory, immunologic and immunogenetic features of systemic sclerosis-rheumatoid arthritis overlap syndrome (SS-RA.Material and methods. 32 pts with SS-RA (1 male, 31 female aged 22 to 74 years with disease onset at 18 to 69 years and disease duration from 1 to 35 years were included. Complex laboratory and instrumental examination was performed including nailfold capillaroscopy. A part of pts was also evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging of hands. Serum level of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear factor, circulating immune complexes, C-reactive protein, antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACCP was evaluated. Genotyping of DRB1 alleles was performed.Results. Characteristic features of SS-RA were prevalence of limited skin damage, less prominent peripheral and visceral symptoms of SS, presence of anti-topoisomerase antibodies and erosive arthritis, high laboratory and immunological activity, more frequent association with DRB1*01.Conclusion. SS-RA possesses its own clinical features and can be considered as a distinct subtype of SS.

  12. Validation of the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS-QOL): test of reliability and validity of the Danish version (SS-QOL-DK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Ingrid; Williams, Linda S; Ringsberg, Karin C

    2007-07-01

    To test the reliability and validity of the Danish version of the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale version 2.0 (SS-QOL-DK), an instrument for evaluation of health-related quality of life. A correlational study. A stroke unit that provides acute care and rehabilitation for stroke patients in Frederiksborg County, Denmark. One hundred and fifty-two stroke survivors participated; 24 of these performed test-retest. Questionnaires were sent out and returned by mail. A subsequent telephone interview assessed functional level and missing items. Test-retest was measured using Spearman's r, internal consistency was estimated using Cronbach's alpha, and evaluation of floor and ceiling values in proportion of minimum and maximum scores. Construct validity was assessed by comparing patients' scores on the SS-QOL-DK with those obtained by other test methods: Beck's Depression Index, the General Health Survey Short Form 36 (SF-36), the Barthel Index and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, evaluating shared variance using coefficient of determination, r2. Comparing groups with known scores assessed known-group validity. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed. Test-retest of SS-QOL-DK showed excellent stability, Spearman's r = 0.65-0.99. Internal consistency for all domains showed Cronbach's alpha = 0.81-0.94. Missing items rate was 1.0%. Most SS-QOL-DK domains showed moderately shared variance with similar domains of other test methods, r2 = 0.03-0.62. Groups with known differences showed statistically significant difference in scores. Item-to-scale correlation coefficients of 0.37-0.88 supported convergent validity. SS-QOL-DK is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring self-reported health-related quality of life on group level among people with mild to moderate stroke.

  13. Clinical significance of changes of serum TGF-β1, CTGF and SS levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunyan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To esplore the clinical significance of serum TGF-β 1 , CTGF and SS levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Methods: Serum TGF-β 1 , SS (with RIA) serum CTGF (with ELISA) levels were measured in 38 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 35 normal healthy controls. Results: Serum TGF-β 1 , CTGF and SS levels were remarkably higher than those in controls (P 1 levels were positively correlated with CTGF and SS levels (r=0.6134, 0.4916, P 1 , CTGF and SS levels may help to recognize the pathogenesis and prediction in chronic hepatitis C. (authors)

  14. Physical simulation of gas reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 deep-water gas field in the Baiyun sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To figure out the process and controlling factors of gas reservoir formation in deep-waters, based on an analysis of geological features, source of natural gas and process of reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 gas field, physical simulation experiment of the gas reservoir formation process has been performed, consequently, pattern and features of gas reservoir formation in the Baiyun sag has been found out. The results of the experiment show that: ① the formation of the Liwan 3-1 faulted anticline gas field is closely related to the longstanding active large faults, where natural gas is composed of a high proportion of hydrocarbons, a small amount of non-hydrocarbons, and the wet gas generated during highly mature stage shows obvious vertical migration signs; ② liquid hydrocarbons associated with natural gas there are derived from source rock of the Enping & Zhuhai Formation, whereas natural gas comes mainly from source rock of the Enping Formation, and source rock of the Wenchang Formation made a little contribution during the early Eocene period as well; ③ although there was gas migration and accumulation, yet most of the natural gas mainly scattered and dispersed due to the stronger activity of faults in the early period; later as fault activity gradually weakened, gas started to accumulate into reservoirs in the Baiyun sag; ④ there is stronger vertical migration of oil and gas than lateral migration, and the places where fault links effective source rocks with reservoirs are most likely for gas accumulation; ⑤ effective temporal-spatial coupling of source-fault-reservoir in late stage is the key to gas reservoir formation in the Baiyun sag; ⑥ the nearer the distance from a trap to a large-scale fault and hydrocarbon source kitchen, the more likely gas may accumulate in the trap in late stage, therefore gas accumulation efficiency is much lower for the traps which are far away from large-scale faults and hydrocarbon source

  15. A new analysis of Mars "Special Regions": findings of the second MEPAG Special Regions Science Analysis Group (SR-SAG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, John D; Beaty, David W; Jones, Melissa A; Bakermans, Corien; Barlow, Nadine G; Boston, Penelope J; Chevrier, Vincent F; Clark, Benton C; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P; Gough, Raina V; Hallsworth, John E; Head, James W; Hipkin, Victoria J; Kieft, Thomas L; McEwen, Alfred S; Mellon, Michael T; Mikucki, Jill A; Nicholson, Wayne L; Omelon, Christopher R; Peterson, Ronald; Roden, Eric E; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara; Tanaka, Kenneth L; Viola, Donna; Wray, James J

    2014-11-01

    A committee of the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) has reviewed and updated the description of Special Regions on Mars as places where terrestrial organisms might replicate (per the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy). This review and update was conducted by an international team (SR-SAG2) drawn from both the biological science and Mars exploration communities, focused on understanding when and where Special Regions could occur. The study applied recently available data about martian environments and about terrestrial organisms, building on a previous analysis of Mars Special Regions (2006) undertaken by a similar team. Since then, a new body of highly relevant information has been generated from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (launched in 2005) and Phoenix (2007) and data from Mars Express and the twin Mars Exploration Rovers (all 2003). Results have also been gleaned from the Mars Science Laboratory (launched in 2011). In addition to Mars data, there is a considerable body of new data regarding the known environmental limits to life on Earth-including the potential for terrestrial microbial life to survive and replicate under martian environmental conditions. The SR-SAG2 analysis has included an examination of new Mars models relevant to natural environmental variation in water activity and temperature; a review and reconsideration of the current parameters used to define Special Regions; and updated maps and descriptions of the martian environments recommended for treatment as "Uncertain" or "Special" as natural features or those potentially formed by the influence of future landed spacecraft. Significant changes in our knowledge of the capabilities of terrestrial organisms and the existence of possibly habitable martian environments have led to a new appreciation of where Mars Special Regions may be identified and protected. The SR-SAG also considered the impact of Special Regions on potential future human missions to Mars, both as locations of

  16. Subsidence transition during the post-rift stage of the Dongpu Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, NE China: A new geodynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Han; Wang, Xin-Wen; Yan, Dan-Ping; Qiu, Liang

    2018-06-01

    The Dongpu Sag, located in the Bohai Bay Basin, NE China, is a Cenozoic continental rift basin. The post-rift evolution of the Dongpu Sag is associated with the development of petroleum reservoirs and has implications for Neogene-Quaternary basin evolution along the eastern margin of Eurasia. To determine the nature and origin of post-rift subsidence in the Dongpu Sag, we apply backstripping, modified strain-rate inversion, and revised finite extension modelling techniques, using data from 14 real and synthetic wells that are intersected by three seismic lines. Our results reveal discrepancies by subsidence based on backstripping of well data (the observed subsidence) minus that predicted by modified strain-rate inversion and revised finite extension modelling (the predicted subsidence). During the Miocene, the observed subsidence was smaller than the predicted subsidence, leaving negative discrepancies referred to here as "insufficient subsidence" ranging from -343 to -96 m. In contrast, during the Pliocene-Quaternary the observed subsidence was greater than the predicted subsidence by +123 to +407 m, which left positive discrepancies referred to as "over-sufficient subsidence". Therefore, we infer a transition from insufficient to over-sufficient subsidence during the post-rift stage. Normal faulting that started at ca. 5.3 Ma is estimated to have produced only ∼20% of the over-sufficient subsidence. Therefore, the remaining over-sufficient subsidence, as well as the preceding insufficient subsidence and the transition between the two, were likely controlled by lithosphere processes. We propose a new tectonic model in which variations in the conditions (e.g. rate, direction, and angle) associated with subduction of the Pacific plate resulted in a change of heat flow decreasing from a linear to a curvilinear pattern, leading to a transition from insufficient to over-sufficient subsidence.

  17. VMD-SS: A graphical user interface plug-in to calculate the protein secondary structure in VMD program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyavi, Masoumeh; Falsafi-Zadeh, Sajad; Karimi, Zahra; Kalatarian, Giti; Galehdari, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The investigation on the types of secondary structure (SS) of a protein is important. The evolution of secondary structures during molecular dynamics simulations is a useful parameter to analyze protein structures. Therefore, it is of interest to describe VMD-SS (a software program) for the identification of secondary structure elements and its trajectories during simulation for known structures available at the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The program helps to calculate (1) percentage SS, (2) SS occurrence in each residue, (3) percentage SS during simulation, and (4) percentage residues in all SS types during simulation. The VMD-SS plug-in was designed using TCL script and stride to calculate secondary structure features. The database is available for free at http://science.scu.ac.ir/HomePage.aspx?TabID=13755.

  18. Geochemical characteristics of crude oil from a tight oil reservoir in the Lucaogou Formation, Jimusar Sag, Junggar Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Jimusar Sag, which lies in the Junggar Basin,is one of the most typical tight oil study areas in China. However, the properties and origin of the crude oil and the geochemical characteristics of the tight oil from the Lucaogou Formation have not yet been studied. In the present study, 23 crude oilsfrom the Lucaogou Formation were collected for analysis, such as physical properties, bulk composition, saturated hydrocarbon gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the calculation of various biomarker parameters. In addition,source rock evaluation and porosity permeability analysis were applied to the mudstones and siltstones. Biomarkers of suitable source rocks (TOC>1, S1+S2>6mg/g, 0.7%

  19. Rifting and Subsidence in the Gulf of Mexico: Implications for Syn-rift, Sag, and Salt Sections, and Subsequent Paleogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindell, J. L.; Graham, R.; Horn, B.

    2013-05-01

    Thick (up to 5 km), rapid (depression where basement had already subsided tectonically, and thus could receive up to 5 km of salt, roughly the isostatic maximum on exhumed mantle, hyper-thinned continent, or new ocean crust. ION-GXT and other seismic data along W Florida and NW Yucatán show that (1) mother salt was only 1 km thick in these areas, (2) that these areas were depositionally connected to areas of thicker deposition, and (3) the top of all salt was at global sea level, and hence the sub-salt unconformity along Florida and Yucatán was only 1 km deep by end of salt deposition. These observations fit the air-filled chasm hypothesis; however, two further observations make that mechanism highly improbable: (1) basinward limits of sub-salt unconformities along Florida/Yucatán are deeper than top of adjacent ocean crust emplaced at ~2.7 km subsea (shown by backstripping), and (2) deepest abyssal sediments over ocean crust onlap the top of distal salt, demonstrating that the salt itself was rapidly drowned after deposition. Study of global ION datasets demonstrates the process of "rapid outer marginal collapse" at most margins, which we believe is achieved by low-angle detachment on deep, landward-dipping, Moho-equivalent surfaces such that outer rifted margins are hanging walls of crustal scale half-grabens over mantle. The tectonic accommodation space produced (up to 3 km, < 3 Ma) can be filled by ~5 km of sag/salt sequences with little apparent hanging wall rifting. When salt (or other) deposition lags behind, or ends during, outer marginal collapse, deep-water settings result. We suggest that this newly identified, "outer marginal detachment phase", normally separates the traditional "rift" from "drift" stages during continental margin creation. Importantly, this 2-3 km of subsidence presently is neither treated as tectonic nor as thermal in traditional subsidence analysis; thus, Beta estimates may be excessive at many outer margins. Outer marginal

  20. Origin and diagenetic evolution of gypsum and microbialitic carbonates in the Late Sag of the Namibe Basin (SW Angola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Gindre-Chanu; Edoardo, Perri; Ian, Sharp R.; Peacock, D. C. P.; Roger, Swart; Ragnar, Poulsen; Hercinda, Ferreira; Vladimir, Machado

    2016-08-01

    Ephemeral evaporitic conditions developed within the uppermost part of the transgressive Late Sag sequence in the Namibe Basin (SW Angola), leading to the formation of extensive centimetre- to metre-thick sulphate-bearing deposits and correlative microbialitic carbonates rich in pseudomorphs after evaporite crystals. The onshore pre-salt beds examined in this study are located up to 25 m underneath the major mid-Aptian evaporitic succession, which is typified at the outcrop by gypsiferous Bambata Formation and in the subsurface by the halite-dominated Loeme Formation. Carbonate-evaporite cycles mostly occur at the top of metre-thick regressive parasequences, which progressively onlap and overstep landward the former faulted (rift) topography, or fill major pre-salt palaeo-valleys. The sulphate beds are made up of alabastrine gypsum associated with embedded botryoidal nodules, dissolution-related gypsum breccia, and are cross-cut by thin satin-spar gypsum veins. Nodular and fine-grained fabrics are interpreted as being diagenetic gypsum deposits resulting from the dissolution and recrystallisation of former depositional subaqueous sulphates, whereas gypsum veins and breccia result from telogenetic processes. The carbonates display a broader diversity of facies, characterised by rapid lateral variations along strike. Thin dolomitic and calcitic bacterial-mediated filamentous microbialitic boundstones enclose a broad variety of evaporite pseudomorphs and can pass laterally over a few metres into sulphate beds. Dissolution-related depositional breccias are also common and indicate early dissolution of former evaporite layers embedded within the microbialites. Sulphate and carbonate units are interpreted as being concomitantly deposited along a tide-dominated coastal supra- to intertidal- sabkha and constitute high-frequency hypersaline precursor events, prior to the accumulation of the giant saline mid-Aptian Bambata and Loeme Formations. Petrographic and geochemical

  1. [Study and development of a new automatic suction system (SS) of intratracheal sputum in order to improve QOL of many patients with tracheostomy mechanical ventilation (TMV) and their family members by this new autonomic SS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokezu, Youichi; Yamamoto, Makoto; Tokunaga, Syuichi; Niikura, Makoto; Nagamatsu, Keiji; Kira, Jun-ichi; Fukunaga, Toshihide; Shima, Kouji; Kikuchi, Seiji; Kimura, Itaru; Kondo, Kiyohiko; Mori, Teruhiko; Goto, Katumasa; Takigami, Shigeru; Shioya, Keiichi; Uehara, Minako

    2009-11-01

    In Japan, many patients equipped with TMV are under medical treatment at home after 1990. These patients can't put out sputa in trachea, so that these patient's family members must suck these patient's intratracheal sputa all days. Mr Yamamoto and Mr Tokunaga, main researchers of this study, began the study on the automatic SS of itratracheal sputa from 1999. In first stage, They developed the intermittent SS in detaining the suction tube within tracheal cannula, monitering the intratracheal pressure, but this system takes the ventilation away from the patient. Hypoventilation caused by this SS may cause the serious accident in patient. Therefore, we remodel the SS from intermittent SS to rollerpomp-type SS continuing to suck the itratracheal sputa with low volume from 2004, and thereafter we made up the SS of piston pomp type-SS finally at 2007. We developed the tracheal cannula with double suction holes of inner and lower hole in the lower part of its cannula together with the suction machine. We think that the practical use of this automatic SS will bring these patients with TMV and their family members great benefits. We desire that the practical use of this SS will be realized as soon as possible.

  2. On fitting the full spectrum of luminous red galaxies by using ULySS and STARLIGHT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Gao-Chao; Lu You-Jun; Chen Xue-Lei; Du Wei; Zhao Yong-Heng

    2013-01-01

    We select a sample of quiescent luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 with a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) to study the consistency of fitting the full spectrum by using different packages, mainly, ULySS and STARLIGHT. The spectrum of each galaxy in the sample is fitted by the full spectrum fitting packages ULySS and STARLIGHT. We find: (1) for spectra with higher S/Ns, the ages of stellar populations obtained from ULySS are slightly older than those from STARLIGHT, and metallicities derived from ULySS are slightly richer than those from STARLIGHT. In general, both packages can give roughly consistent fitting results. (2) For low S/N spectra, it is possible that the fitting by ULySS can become trapped at some local minimum in the parameter space during execution and thus may give unreliable results, but STARLIGHT can still give reliable results. Based on the fitting results of LRGs, we further analyze their star formation history and the relation between their age and velocity dispersion, and find that they agree well with conclusions from previous works

  3. Structure/property (constitutive and dynamic strength/damage) characterization of additively manufactured 316L SS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, G. T., III; Livescu, V.; Rigg, P. A.; Trujillo, C. P.; Cady, C. M.; Chen, S. R.; Carpenter, J. S.; Lienert, T. J.; Fensin, S.

    2015-09-01

    For additive manufacturing (AM), the certification and qualification paradigm needs to evolve as there exists no "ASTM-type" additive manufacturing certified process or AM-material produced specifications. Accordingly, utilization of AM materials to meet engineering applications requires quantification of the constitutive properties of these evolving materials in comparison to conventionally-manufactured metals and alloys. Cylinders of 316L SS were produced using a LENS MR-7 laser additive manufacturing system from Optomec (Albuquerque, NM) equipped with a 1kW Yb-fiber laser. The microstructure of the AM-316L SS is detailed in both the as-built condition and following heat-treatments designed to obtain full recrystallization. The constitutive behavior as a function of strain rate and temperature is presented and compared to that of nominal annealed wrought 316L SS plate. The dynamic damage evolution and failure response of all three materials was probed using flyer-plate impact driven spallation experiments at a peak stress of 4.5 GPa to examine incipient spallation response. The spall strength of AM-produced 316L SS was found to be very similar for the peak shock stress studied to that of annealed wrought or AM-316L SS following recrystallization. The damage evolution as a function of microstructure was characterized using optical metallography.

  4. ReSS: Resource Selection Service for National and Campus Grid Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Timm, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) offers access to around hundred Compute elements (CE) and storage elements (SE) via standard Grid interfaces. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) is a push-based workload management system that is integrated with the OSG information systems and resources. ReSS integrates standard Grid tools such as Condor, as a brokering service and the gLite CEMon, for gathering and publishing resource information in GLUE Schema format. ReSS is used in OSG by Virtual Organizations (VO) such as Dark Energy Survey (DES), DZero and Engagement VO. ReSS is also used as a Resource Selection Service for Campus Grids, such as FermiGrid. VOs use ReSS to automate the resource selection in their workload management system to run jobs over the grid. In the past year, the system has been enhanced to enable publication and selection of storage resources and of any special software or software libraries (like MPI libraries) installed at computing resources. In this paper, we discuss the Resource Selection Service, its typical usage on the two scales of a National Cyber Infrastructure Grid, such as OSG, and of a campus Grid, such as FermiGrid.

  5. ReSS: Resource Selection Service for National and Campus Grid Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Timm, Steve, E-mail: parag@fnal.go, E-mail: garzogli@fnal.go, E-mail: tlevshin@fnal.go, E-mail: timm@fnal.go [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P O Box 500, Batavia, IL - 60510 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) offers access to around hundred Compute elements (CE) and storage elements (SE) via standard Grid interfaces. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) is a push-based workload management system that is integrated with the OSG information systems and resources. ReSS integrates standard Grid tools such as Condor, as a brokering service and the gLite CEMon, for gathering and publishing resource information in GLUE Schema format. ReSS is used in OSG by Virtual Organizations (VO) such as Dark Energy Survey (DES), DZero and Engagement VO. ReSS is also used as a Resource Selection Service for Campus Grids, such as FermiGrid. VOs use ReSS to automate the resource selection in their workload management system to run jobs over the grid. In the past year, the system has been enhanced to enable publication and selection of storage resources and of any special software or software libraries (like MPI libraries) installed at computing resources. In this paper, we discuss the Resource Selection Service, its typical usage on the two scales of a National Cyber Infrastructure Grid, such as OSG, and of a campus Grid, such as FermiGrid.

  6. ReSS: Resource Selection Service for National and Campus Grid Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Timm, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) offers access to around hundred Compute elements (CE) and storage elements (SE) via standard Grid interfaces. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) is a push-based workload management system that is integrated with the OSG information systems and resources. ReSS integrates standard Grid tools such as Condor, as a brokering service and the gLite CEMon, for gathering and publishing resource information in GLUE Schema format. ReSS is used in OSG by Virtual Organizations (VO) such as Dark Energy Survey (DES), DZero and Engagement VO. ReSS is also used as a Resource Selection Service for Campus Grids, such as FermiGrid. VOs use ReSS to automate the resource selection in their workload management system to run jobs over the grid. In the past year, the system has been enhanced to enable publication and selection of storage resources and of any special software or software libraries (like MPI libraries) installed at computing resources. In this paper, we discuss the Resource Selection Service, its typical usage on the two scales of a National Cyber Infrastructure Grid, such as OSG, and of a campus Grid, such as FermiGrid.

  7. Architecture and ssDNA interaction of the Timeless-Tipin-RPA complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witosch, Justine; Wolf, Eva; Mizuno, Naoko

    2014-11-10

    The Timeless-Tipin (Tim-Tipin) complex, also referred to as the fork protection complex, is involved in coordination of DNA replication. Tim-Tipin is suggested to be recruited to replication forks via Replication Protein A (RPA) but details of the interaction are unknown. Here, using cryo-EM and biochemical methods, we characterized complex formation of Tim-Tipin, RPA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Tim-Tipin and RPA form a 258 kDa complex with a 1:1:1 stoichiometry. The cryo-EM 3D reconstruction revealed a globular architecture of the Tim-Tipin-RPA complex with a ring-like and a U-shaped domain covered by a RPA lid. Interestingly, RPA in the complex adopts a horse shoe-like shape resembling its conformation in the presence of long ssDNA (>30 nucleotides). Furthermore, the recruitment of the Tim-Tipin-RPA complex to ssDNA is modulated by the RPA conformation and requires RPA to be in the more compact 30 nt ssDNA binding mode. The dynamic formation and disruption of the Tim-Tipin-RPA-ssDNA complex implicates the RPA-based recruitment of Tim-Tipin to the replication fork. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Previously unknown and highly divergent ssDNA viruses populate the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Jessica M; Suttle, Curtis A

    2013-11-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses are economically important pathogens of plants and animals, and are widespread in oceans; yet, the diversity and evolutionary relationships among marine ssDNA viruses remain largely unknown. Here we present the results from a metagenomic study of composite samples from temperate (Saanich Inlet, 11 samples; Strait of Georgia, 85 samples) and subtropical (46 samples, Gulf of Mexico) seawater. Most sequences (84%) had no evident similarity to sequenced viruses. In total, 608 putative complete genomes of ssDNA viruses were assembled, almost doubling the number of ssDNA viral genomes in databases. These comprised 129 genetically distinct groups, each represented by at least one complete genome that had no recognizable similarity to each other or to other virus sequences. Given that the seven recognized families of ssDNA viruses have considerable sequence homology within them, this suggests that many of these genetic groups may represent new viral families. Moreover, nearly 70% of the sequences were similar to one of these genomes, indicating that most of the sequences could be assigned to a genetically distinct group. Most sequences fell within 11 well-defined gene groups, each sharing a common gene. Some of these encoded putative replication and coat proteins that had similarity to sequences from viruses infecting eukaryotes, suggesting that these were likely from viruses infecting eukaryotic phytoplankton and zooplankton.

  9. Fluorescence Detection and Discrimination of ss- and ds-DNA with a Water Soluble Oligopyrene Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoquan Shi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel water-soluble cationic conjugated oligopyrene derivative, oligo(N1,N1,N1,N4,N4,N4-hexamethyl-2-(4-(pyren-1-yl butane-1,4-diaminium bromide (OHPBDB, was synthesized by a combination of chemical and electrochemical synthesis techniques. Each oligomer chain has five pyrene derivative repeating units and brings 10 positive charges. OHPBDB showed high and rapid fluorescence quenching in aqueous media upon addition of trace amounts of single-stranded (ss and double-stranded (ds DNA. The Stern-Volmer constants for ss- and ds-DNA were measured to be as high as 1.3 × 108 mol-1·L and 1.2 × 108 mol-1·L, respectively. On the other hand, distinct fluorescence enhancement of OHPBDB upon addition of large amount of ss-DNA or ds-DNA was observed. Furthermore, ss-DNA showed much stronger fluorescence enhancement than that of ds-DNA, thus yielding a clear and simple signal useful for the discrimination between ss- and ds-DNA in aqueous media.

  10. Differential Role of the T6SS in Acinetobacter baumannii Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault-Grunenwald, Marie-Laure; Borges, Vitor; Charpentier, Xavier; Limansky, Adriana S.; Gomes, João Paulo; Viale, Alejandro M.; Salcedo, Suzana P.

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, are an increasing burden in hospitals worldwide with an alarming spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Herein, we compared a type strain (ATCC17978), a non-clinical isolate (DSM30011) and MDR strains of A. baumannii implicated in hospital outbreaks (Ab242, Ab244 and Ab825), revealing distinct patterns of type VI secretion system (T6SS) functionality. The T6SS genomic locus is present and was actively transcribed in all of the above strains. However, only the A. baumannii DSM30011 strain was capable of killing Escherichia coli in a T6SS-dependent manner, unlike the clinical isolates, which failed to display an active T6SS in vitro. In addition, DSM30011 was able to outcompete ATCC17978 as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, bacterial pathogens relevant in mixed nosocomial infections. Finally, we found that the T6SS of DSM30011 is required for host colonization of the model organism Galleria mellonella suggesting that this system could play an important role in A. baumannii virulence in a strain-specific manner. PMID:26401654

  11. Lead (Pb) bioaccumulation; genera Bacillus isolate S1 and SS19 as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifiyanto, Achmad; Apriyanti, Fitria Dwi; Purwaningsih, Puput; Kalqutny, Septian Hary; Agustina, Dyah; Surtiningsih, Tini; Shovitri, Maya; Zulaika, Enny

    2017-06-01

    Lead (Pb) includes a group of large heavy metal in nature was toxic either on animal or human and did not provide an advantage function biologically. Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 known resistant to lead up to 50 mg / L PbCl2. In this research will be examined whether genera Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 could accumulate metal lead (Pb), their capability in accumulating and profile protein differences when the bacteria genera Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 get exposed metal lead (Pb). Inoculum at age ± 9 hours are used, with a Nutrient Broth (NB) containing 50, 75 and 100 mg / L PbCl2. Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP) used to assessed Pb2+ concentrations. Bioaccumulation levels of Pb2+ by Bacillus isolate S1 and SS19 related to the distinction of beginning concentration to the final concentration. Bacillus isolate S1 achieved 53% and 51% bioaccumulation efficiency rate in lead presence concentration (75 and 100 mg/L) and 51% (50 mg/L). Another way Bacillus isolate SS19 was able to accumulate 57% (50 mg/L PbCl2) and kept stable on 36% bioaccumulation efficiency rate (75 and 100 mg/L PbCl2). Regarding SDS-PAGE electrophoresis protein profile result, protein in ± 127 kDa, molecule mass detected in the presence of Lead for Bacillus isolate S1.

  12. Analysis of T4SS-induced signaling by H. pylori using quantitative phosphoproteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frithjof eGlowinski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen colonizing the human stomach. Infection with H. pylori causes chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa and may lead to peptic ulceration and/or gastric cancer. A major virulence determinant of H. pylori is the type IV secretion system (T4SS, which is used to inject the virulence factor CagA into the host cell, triggering a wide range of cellular signaling events. Here, we used a phosphoproteomic approach to investigate tyrosine signaling in response to host-pathogen interaction, using stable isotope labeling in cell culture (SILAC of AGS cells to obtain a differential picture between multiple infection conditions. Cells were infected with wild type H. pylori P12, a P12ΔCagA deletion mutant, and a P12ΔT4SS deletion mutant to compare signaling changes over time and in the absence of CagA or the T4SS. Tryptic peptides were enriched for tyrosine (Tyr phosphopeptides and analysed by nano-LC-Orbitrap MS. In total, 58 different phosphosites were found to be regulated following infection. The majority of phosphosites identified were kinases of the MAPK familiy. CagA and the T4SS were found to be key regulators of Tyr phosphosites. Our findings indicate that CagA primarily induces activation of ERK1 and integrin linked factors, whereas the T4SS primarily modulates JNK and p38 activation.

  13. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2015-12-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A.nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Structure/property (constitutive and dynamic strength/damage characterization of additively manufactured 316L SS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray III G.T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For additive manufacturing (AM, the certification and qualification paradigm needs to evolve as there exists no “ASTM-type” additive manufacturing certified process or AM-material produced specifications. Accordingly, utilization of AM materials to meet engineering applications requires quantification of the constitutive properties of these evolving materials in comparison to conventionally-manufactured metals and alloys. Cylinders of 316L SS were produced using a LENS MR-7 laser additive manufacturing system from Optomec (Albuquerque, NM equipped with a 1kW Yb-fiber laser. The microstructure of the AM-316L SS is detailed in both the as-built condition and following heat-treatments designed to obtain full recrystallization. The constitutive behavior as a function of strain rate and temperature is presented and compared to that of nominal annealed wrought 316L SS plate. The dynamic damage evolution and failure response of all three materials was probed using flyer-plate impact driven spallation experiments at a peak stress of 4.5 GPa to examine incipient spallation response. The spall strength of AM-produced 316L SS was found to be very similar for the peak shock stress studied to that of annealed wrought or AM-316L SS following recrystallization. The damage evolution as a function of microstructure was characterized using optical metallography.

  15. Analysis of the stress-inducible transcription factor SsNAC23 in sugarcane plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Fava Ditt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Stresses such as cold and drought can impair plant yield and induce a highly complex array of responses. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas and is considered a cold-sensitive plant. We previously showed that cold stress induces the expression of several genes in in vitro sugarcane plantlets. Here we characterize one of those genes, SsNAC23, a member of the NAC family of plant-specific transcription factors, which are induced by low temperature and other stresses in several plant species. The expression of SsNAC23 was induced in sugarcane plants exposed to low temperatures (4ºC. With the aim of further understanding the regulatory network in response to stress, we used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify sugarcane proteins that interact with SsNAC23. Using SsNAC23 as bait, we screened a cDNA expression library of sugarcane plants submitted to 4ºC for 48 h. Several interacting partners were identified, including stress-related proteins, increasing our knowledge on how sugarcane plants respond to cold stress. One of these interacting partners, a thioredoxin h1, offers insights into the regulation of SsNAC23 activity.

  16. Study on the IFNL4 gene ss469415590 variant in Ukrainian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucherenko A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine genotype and allele disribution for the IFNL4 gene ss469415590 and examine it for linkage with the IL28B gene rs12979860 in Ukrainian population. Methods. The studied group consisted of 100 unrelated donors of Eastern European origin representing the population of Ukraine. Genotyping for the IFNL4 gene ss469415590 was performed using the amplification-refractory mutation system PCR. Genotyping for the IL28B gene rs12979860 was performed by the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Results. Genotype frequencies for both studied variants showed no significant deviation from those expected according to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Allelic distribution for ss469415590 was: TT – 0.665, G – 0.335. Allelic frequencies of rs12979860 were: C – 0.655, T – 0.345. The results of likelihood ratio test indicated a linkage disequilibrium between the studied variants (p > 0.0001, the major alleles ss469415590 TT and rs12979860 C were in phase. The genetic structure of Ukrainian population in terms of two studied polymorphic variants is similar to the European population presented in the «1000 genomes» project. Conclusions. Considering a tight linkage revealed in Ukrainian population between the ss469415590 variant and rs12979860, a crucial genetic marker of chronic hepatitis C treatment efficiency, this polymorphism might be a promising target for further investigation as a pharmacogenetic marker.

  17. Excessive counterion condensation on immobilized ssDNA in solutions of high ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rant, Ulrich; Arinaga, Kenji; Fujiwara, Tsuyoshi; Fujita, Shozo; Tornow, Marc; Yokoyama, Naoki; Abstreiter, Gerhard

    2003-12-01

    We present experiments on the bias-induced release of immobilized, single-stranded (ss) 24-mer oligonucleotides from Au-surfaces into electrolyte solutions of varying ionic strength. Desorption is evidenced by fluorescence measurements of dye-labeled ssDNA. Electrostatic interactions between adsorbed ssDNA and the Au-surface are investigated with respect to 1), a variation of the bias potential applied to the Au-electrode; and 2), the screening effect of the electrolyte solution. For the latter, the concentration of monovalent salt in solution is varied from 3 to 1600 mM. We find that the strength of electric interaction is predominantly determined by the effective charge of the ssDNA itself and that the release of DNA mainly occurs before the electrochemical double layer has been established at the electrolyte/Au interface. In agreement with Manning's condensation theory, the measured desorption efficiency (etarel) stays constant over a wide range of salt concentrations; however, as the Debye length is reduced below a value comparable to the axial charge spacing of the DNA, etarel decreases substantially. We assign this effect to excessive counterion condensation on the DNA in solutions of high ionic strength. In addition, the relative translational diffusion coefficient of ssDNA in solution is evaluated for different salt concentrations.

  18. Differential Role of the T6SS in Acinetobacter baumannii Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo D Repizo

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacteria, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, are an increasing burden in hospitals worldwide with an alarming spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR strains. Herein, we compared a type strain (ATCC17978, a non-clinical isolate (DSM30011 and MDR strains of A. baumannii implicated in hospital outbreaks (Ab242, Ab244 and Ab825, revealing distinct patterns of type VI secretion system (T6SS functionality. The T6SS genomic locus is present and was actively transcribed in all of the above strains. However, only the A. baumannii DSM30011 strain was capable of killing Escherichia coli in a T6SS-dependent manner, unlike the clinical isolates, which failed to display an active T6SS in vitro. In addition, DSM30011 was able to outcompete ATCC17978 as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, bacterial pathogens relevant in mixed nosocomial infections. Finally, we found that the T6SS of DSM30011 is required for host colonization of the model organism Galleria mellonella suggesting that this system could play an important role in A. baumannii virulence in a strain-specific manner.

  19. Polymorphism and solvates of 3,3'-dihydroxy-ss,ss-carotene-4,4'-dione: Screening and their thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, J.; Ulrich, J. [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Center for Engineering Sciences/ TVT, 06099, Halle Saale (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    3,3'-dihydroxy-ss,ss-carotene-4,4'-dione (DCD) is a carotenoid used for the pink coloration in animal and fish foods. Two nonsolvated and two solvated forms of this compound have been discovered and characterized using different analytical techniques. The thermodynamic stability of the relevant polymorphs is revealed. The transformation rate depends strongly on the selection of solvent medium. Moreover, different chemical stability refers to the shelf life is studied correlating to the different polymorphs. The results show the possibilities to improve the pigmentation efficiency and chemical stability by a changing in the crystal polymorphs. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Biological Mechanisms Underlying the Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Formation of Skin Wrinkling and Sagging II: Over-Expression of Neprilysin Plays an Essential Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genji Imokawa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies strongly indicated that the up-regulated activity of skin fibroblast-derived elastase plays a pivotal role in wrinkling and/or sagging of the skin via the impairment of elastic fiber configuration and the subsequent loss of skin elasticity. Fortunately, we succeeded in identifying human skin fibroblast-derived elastase as a previously known enzyme, neprilysin or neutral endopeptidase (NEP. We have also characterized epithelial-mesenchymal paracrine cytokine interactions between UVB-exposed-keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts and found that interleukin-1α and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulatory factor (GM-CSF are intrinsic cytokines secreted by UVB-exposed keratinocytes that stimulate the expression of neprilysin by fibroblasts. On the other hand, direct UVA exposure of human fibroblasts significantly stimulates the secretion of IL-6 and also elicits a significant increase in the gene expression of matrix metallo-protease(MMP-1 as well as neprilysin (to a lesser extent, which is followed by distinct increases in their protein and enzymatic activity levels. Direct UVA exposure of human keratinocytes also stimulates the secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF but not of IL-1 and endothelin-1. These findings suggest that GM-CSF secreted by UVA-exposed keratinocytes as well as IL-6 secreted by UVA-exposed dermal fibroblasts play important and additional roles in UVA-induced sagging and wrinkling by up-regulation of neprilysin and MMP-1, respectively, in dermal fibroblasts.

  1. Evaluation of a real-time PCR assay based on the single-copy SAG1 gene for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haijie; Huang, Bin; Zhuo, Xunhui; Chen, Xueqiu; Du, Aifang

    2013-11-08

    Real-time PCR-based detection of Toxoplasma gondii is very sensitive and convenient for diagnosing toxoplasmosis. However, the performance of the PCR assays could be influenced by the target gene chosen. Here we evaluate a real-time PCR assay using double-stranded DNA dyes (SYBR(®) Green I assay) with a new set of primers targeting the SAG1 gene for the fast and specific detection of T. gondii. The assay showed higher sensitivity than conventional PCR protocols using T. gondii DNA as template. The detection limit of the developed real-time PCR assay was in the order of 1 tachyzoite. The assay was also assessed by experimentally infected mice and showed positive results for blood (25%), spleen (50%) and lung (50%) as early as 1 dpi. The specificity of the assay was confirmed by using DNA from Neospora caninum, Escherichia coli, Babesia bovis, Trypanosoma brucei, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Toxocara canis. Assay applicability was successfully tested in blood samples collected from slaughtered pigs. These results indicate that, based on SYBR(®) green I, the quantitative SAG1 assay may also be useful in the study of the pathogenicity, immunoprophylaxis, and treatment of T. gondii. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Avaliação do antígeno SAG2a recombinante de Toxoplasma gondii como um potencial marcador diagnóstico para Toxoplasmose humana aguda

    OpenAIRE

    Béla, Samantha Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Proteínas recombinantes têm sido utilizadas para o diagnóstico sorológico da infecção por Toxoplasma gondii para diferenciar entre as fases aguda e crônica da toxoplasmose. Neste estudo, foi avaliada a reatividade de anticorpos IgG e IgG1 através de imunoensaios em soros de pacientes com toxoplasmose aguda e crônica dirigidos contra dois antígenos recombinantes clonados e expressos em E. coli, SAG2A (molécula recombinante total) e SAG2A(DELTA) (molécula recombinante deletada do...

  3. Fast Ss-Ilm a Computationally Efficient Algorithm to Discover Socially Important Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuz, A. S.; Celik, M.

    2017-11-01

    Socially important locations are places which are frequently visited by social media users in their social media lifetime. Discovering socially important locations provide several valuable information about user behaviours on social media networking sites. However, discovering socially important locations are challenging due to data volume and dimensions, spatial and temporal calculations, location sparseness in social media datasets, and inefficiency of current algorithms. In the literature, several studies are conducted to discover important locations, however, the proposed approaches do not work in computationally efficient manner. In this study, we propose Fast SS-ILM algorithm by modifying the algorithm of SS-ILM to mine socially important locations efficiently. Experimental results show that proposed Fast SS-ILM algorithm decreases execution time of socially important locations discovery process up to 20 %.

  4. Nucleation and growth microstructural study of ti films on 304 SS substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Almeida Vieira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Coating of steel surfaces with titanium films has been studied with the objective to protect them against corrosion, and to create an intermediate film for CVD diamond and TiN film deposition. In this work, the nucleation, growth mechanisms and microstructural formation of the titanium films deposited on 304 stainless steel (304 SS substrate are presented and discussed. The titanium films of variable thickness were obtained by vapour phase deposition produced by electron beam. The surfaces of these samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The cross sections of these samples were observed by using an atomic force microscope. The Ti film-304 SS interfaces were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that titanium films have a columnar growth. The Ti film-304 SS interface had a residual compression stress at room temperature due to the inter-diffusion process.

  5. Osakkeenomistajan kunnossapitovastuu ja muutostyöoikeus asunto-osakeyhtiössä

    OpenAIRE

    Kujanpää, Vesa

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä oli tavoitteena selvittää 01.07.2010 muuttuneen asunto-osakeyhtiölain mukaista osakkeenomistajan kunnossapitovastuuta sekä oikeutta tehdä muutostöitä omistamassaan osakehuoneistossa. Lisäksi työssä käsiteltiin uuden lain mukaista korjaustyöhön liittyvää ilmoitus- ja lupamenettelyä. Työssä tutkittiin lain soveltamista käytäntöön ja pohdittiin lainmukaisen toiminnan tuomia lisäkustannuksia ja niiden oikeaa tasoa. Lisäksi työn tavoitteena oli auttaa isännöitsijöitä ymmärtämään, ...

  6. Resistance of superhydrophobic and oleophobic surfaces to varied temperature applications on 316L SS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Hamza; Basit, Kanza; Saleem, Sajid; Siddiqui, Bilal A.

    316L SS also called Marine Stainless Steel is an important material for structural and marine applications. When superhydrophobic and oleophobic coatings are applied on 316L SS it shows significant resistance to wear and corrosion. This paper aims to validate the coatings manufacturer's information on optimal temperature range and test the viability of coating against multiple oil based cleaning agents. 316L SS was coated with multiple superhydrophic and oleohobic coatings and observed under SEM for validity of adhesion and thickness and then scanned under FFM to validate the tribological information. The samples were then dipped into multiple cleaning agents maintained at the range of operating temperatures specified by the manufacturer. Coating was observed for deterioration over a fixed time intervals through SEM and FFM. A comparison was drawn to validate the most critical cleaning agent and the most critical temperature at which the coating fails to leave the base substrate exposed to the environment.

  7. Effect of water vapor on annealing scale formation on 316 SS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.-Y.; Kuan, S.-L.; Tsai, W.-T.

    2006-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of 316 stainless steel (SS) annealed in air containing 0.1 atm water vapor at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1030 deg. C was investigated. A kinetic study of the oxidation was made by employing thermal-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphology, composition and structure of the scale were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results showed that significant breakaway oxidation occurred, resulting in substantial weight increase, as the steel was annealed in moist air at temperatures above 950 deg. C. The scaling behavior of 316 SS in wet air at 1030 deg. C could be divided into two stages based on the alteration of the oxidation rate. In each stage, the scale on 316 SS exhibited a different structure and morphology. The complex process of the formation of scale in wet air was discussed and proposed

  8. Taloushallintoprosessien kehittäminen Iisalmen Putkiasennus Oy:ssä

    OpenAIRE

    Juntunen, Tiia

    2015-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee taloushallintoprosessien kehittämistä Iisalmen Putkiasennus Oy:ssä. Kehittämistyötä päädyttiin rajaamaan keskittyen myynti- ja ostolaskuprosessien kehittämiseen, koska niissä oli havaittu olevan eniten kehitettävää. Iisalmen Putkiasennus Oy on LVI-alalla työskentelevä perheyritys, joka on ollut toiminnassa jo yli 35 vuotta. Yritys sijaitsee Iisalmessa ja työllistää noin 50 henkilöä. Tässä opinnäytetyössä taloushallintoprosessien kehittäminen alkoi tilanteesta...

  9. FAST SS-ILM: A COMPUTATIONALLY EFFICIENT ALGORITHM TO DISCOVER SOCIALLY IMPORTANT LOCATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dokuz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Socially important locations are places which are frequently visited by social media users in their social media lifetime. Discovering socially important locations provide several valuable information about user behaviours on social media networking sites. However, discovering socially important locations are challenging due to data volume and dimensions, spatial and temporal calculations, location sparseness in social media datasets, and inefficiency of current algorithms. In the literature, several studies are conducted to discover important locations, however, the proposed approaches do not work in computationally efficient manner. In this study, we propose Fast SS-ILM algorithm by modifying the algorithm of SS-ILM to mine socially important locations efficiently. Experimental results show that proposed Fast SS-ILM algorithm decreases execution time of socially important locations discovery process up to 20 %.

  10. EuroPhenome and EMPReSS: online mouse phenotyping resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Ann-Marie; Blake, Andrew; Hancock, John M

    2008-01-01

    EuroPhenome (http://www.europhenome.org) and EMPReSS (http://empress.har.mrc.ac.uk/) form an integrated resource to provide access to data and procedures for mouse phenotyping. EMPReSS describes 96 Standard Operating Procedures for mouse phenotyping. EuroPhenome contains data resulting from carrying out EMPReSS protocols on four inbred laboratory mouse strains. As well as web interfaces, both resources support web services to enable integration with other mouse phenotyping and functional genetics resources, and are committed to initiatives to improve integration of mouse phenotype databases. EuroPhenome will be the repository for a recently initiated effort to carry out large-scale phenotyping on a large number of knockout mouse lines (EUMODIC).

  11. Synergistic Protective Effects of Mitochondrial Division Inhibitor 1 and Mitochondria-Targeted Small Peptide SS31 in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P Hemachandra; Manczak, Maria; Yin, XiangLing; Reddy, Arubala P

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the synergistic protective effects of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 and mitochondria division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi1) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using biochemical methods, we assessed mitochondrial function by measuring the levels of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome c oxidase activity, mitochondrial ATP, and GTPase Drp1 enzymatic activity in mutant AβPP cells. Using biochemical methods, we also measured cell survival and apoptotic cell death. Amyloid-β (Aβ) levels were measured using sandwich ELISA, and using real-time quantitative RT-PCR, we assessed mtDNA (mtDNA) copy number in relation to nuclear DNA (nDNA) in all groups of cells. We found significantly reduced levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in mutant AβPP cells treated with SS31, Mdivi1, and SS31+Mdivi1, and the reduction of Aβ42 levels were much higher in SS31+Mdivi1 treated cells than individual treatments of SS31 and Mdivi1. The levels of mtDNA copy number and cell survival were significantly increased in SS31, Mdivi1, and SS31+Mdivi1 treated mutant AβPP cells; however, the increased levels of mtDNA copy number and cell survival were much higher in SS31+Mdivi1 treated cells than individual treatments of SS31 and Mdivi1. Mitochondrial dysfunction is significantly reduced in SS31, Mdivi1, and SS31+Mdivi1 treated mutant AβPP cells; however, the reduction is much higher in cells treated with both SS31+Mdvi1. Similarly, GTPase Drp1 activity is reduced in all treatments, but reduced much higher in SS31+Mdivi1 treated cells. These observations strongly suggest that combined treatment of SS31+Mdivi1 is effective than individual treatments of SS31 and Mdivi1. Therefore, we propose that combined treatment of SS31+Mdivi1 is a better therapeutic strategy for AD. Ours is the first study to investigate combined treatment of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 and mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 in AD neurons.

  12. Serum testosterone levels of HbSS (sickle cell disease male subjects in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adediran Adewumi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility is a major problem in sickle cell disease patients, especially in males. In addition to low serum testosterone, other abnormalities involving the accessory sex organs, such as the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland, as well as marked decrease in ejaculate volume may be observed in male HbSS patients. Hence, the need to study the role of sex hormones as a cause of infertility in male HbSS patients. Methods An unmatched case-control study was performed using seventy-five consenting subjects from Lagos University Teaching Hospital. These included 47 patients with haemoglobin phenotype SS from the Sickle cell clinic and 28 volunteered medical students and members of staff with haemoglobin phenotype AA. Demographic data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 5 mls of blood was collected from each subject between 9.00 am & 11.am, and assayed for serum testosterone concentration. Results The concentrations of serum testosterone in HbSS patients ranged from 0.2 to 4.3 ng/ml with a mean of 1.28 ± 0.72 ng/ml whilst the values in HbAA controls ranged from 1.2 to 6.9 ng/ml with a mean of 2.63 ± 1.04 ng/ml. Seven (25.0% of the 28 controls had serum testosterone concentration lower than the quoted reference (normal range whereas 44 (93.6% of the 47 HbSS subjects had serum testosterone concentration lower than the reference range. Conclusion Overall, subjects with HbSS have significantly lower mean serum testosterone than HbAA controls.

  13. Energy Efficiency Experiments on Samsung Exynos 5 Heterogeneous Multicore using OmpSs Task Based Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explore the energy efficiency of task based programming with OpenMP SuperScalar (OmpSs) on the heterogeneous Samsung Exynos 5422 system on a chip. The system features small energy efficient cores, large high performance cores and a GPGPU, and OmpSs tasks were run on all three different processors. Experiments running a genetic algorithm and a Cholesky decomposition were used to gather results. The option of running applications on the energy efficient cores, on the high perfo...

  14. Attenuation of the in vitro neurotoxicity of 316L SS by graphene oxide surface coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnim, Nishat; Kumar, Alok; Joddar, Binata

    2017-01-01

    A persistent theme in biomaterials research comprises of surface engineering and modification of bare metallic substrates for improved cellular response and biocompatibility. Graphene Oxide (GO), a derivative of graphene, has outstanding chemical and mechanical properties; its large surface to volume ratio, ease of surface modification and processing make GO an attractive coating material. GO-coatings have been extensively studied as biosensors. Further owing to its surface nano-architecture, GO-coated surfaces promote cell adhesion and growth, making it suitable for tissue engineering applications. The need to improve the long-term durability and therapeutic effectiveness of commercially available bare 316L stainless steel (SS) surfaces led us to adopt a polymer-free approach which is cost-effective and scalable. GO was immobilized on to 316L SS utilizing amide linkage, to generate a strongly adherent uniform coating with surface roughness. GO-coated 316L SS surfaces showed increased hydrophilicity and biocompatibility with SHSY-5Y neuronal cells, which proliferated well and showed decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression. In contrast, cells did not adhere to bare uncoated 316L SS meshes nor maintain viability when cultured in the vicinity of bare meshes. Therefore the combination of the improved surface properties and biocompatibility implies that GO-coating can be utilized to overcome pertinent limitations of bare metallic 316L SS implant surfaces, especially SS neural electrodes. Also, the procedure for making GO-based protective coatings can be applied to numerous other implants where the development of such protective films is necessary. - Highlights: • GO was immobilized on to 316L SS utilizing carbodiimide chemistry to generate a strong adherent uniform nano coating. • GO-modified surfaces showed increased hydrophilicity and biocompatibility with SH5YSY cells cultured atop these surfaces. • Proliferation and alignment of the cells with the

  15. Xylanase production by a newly isolated Aspergillus niger SS7 in submerged culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, Yasser; Al-Jazairi, Manal; Al-Kayat, Ghassan

    2008-01-01

    Xylanase production by a newly isolated Aspergillus niger SS7 was studied in submerged culture. The optimum initial pH for xylanase production was found to be 7.0. Different agricultural and industrial wastes were evaluated for their ability to induce xylanase production by this isolate. The best xylanase production (293.82 IU/ml) was recorded at 3% (w/v) corn cob hulls after 120 h of incubation. The Aspergillus niger SS7 isolate grown in a simple medium, proved to be a promising microorganism for xylanase production.

  16. Scalable and reusable emulator for evaluating the performance of SS7 networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Aurel A.; Tseng, Kent H.; Lim, Koon Seng; Choe, Winston

    1994-04-01

    A scalable and reusable emulator was designed and implemented for studying the behavior of SS7 networks. The emulator design was largely based on public domain software. It was developed on top of an environment supported by PVM, the Parallel Virtual Machine, and managed by OSIMIS-the OSI Management Information Service platform. The emulator runs on top of a commercially available ATM LAN interconnecting engineering workstations. As a case study for evaluating the emulator, the behavior of the Singapore National SS7 Network under fault and unbalanced loading conditions was investigated.

  17. SS433: the second Wolf-Rayet X-ray binary ?

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Yael; Koch-Miramond, Lydie; Abraham, Peter

    2002-01-01

    We present mid-infrared spectrophotometric observations of SS433 with ISOPHOT. The HeI+HeII lines in both spectra of SS433 and of the Wolf-Rayet star WR147, a wind-colliding WN8+BO5 binary system, closely match. The 2.5-12 micron continuum radiation is due to an expanding wind free-free emission in an intermediate case between optically thick and optically thin regimes. The inferred mass loss rate evaluation gives ~10^{-4} Msun/yr. Our results are consistent with a Wolf-Rayet-like companion t...

  18. Design and specificity of long ssDNA donors for CRISPR-based knock-in

    OpenAIRE

    Leonetti, Manuel; Li, Han; Beckman, Kyle; Pessino, Veronica; Huang, Bo; Weissman, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas technologies have transformed our ability to manipulate genomes for research and gene-based therapy. In particular, homology-directed repair after genomic cleavage allows for precise modification of genes using exogenous donor sequences as templates. While both single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) forms of donors have been used as repair templates, a systematic comparison of the performance and specificity of repair using ssDNA versus dsDNA donors is still la...

  19. Suklaajälkiruoat ja niiden valmistamisen haasteet ammattikeittiössä

    OpenAIRE

    Lappalainen, Arto

    2016-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö on osa palvelujen tuottamisen ja johtamisen koulutusohjelmaa. Opinnäytetyön aiheena on suklaajälkiruuat ja niiden valmistamisen haasteet ammattikeittiössä. Opinnäytetyön teoriaosuudessa käsitellään suklaan historiaa, lajikkeita, tuottajamaita, valmistusmenetelmiä, suklaan laatuja, tärkeimpiä valmistajia sekä suklaan käyttöä ja tekniikoita ammattikeittiössä. Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin yleisimpiä suklaajälkiruokia ja niiden valmistuksessa olevia haasteita ammattikeitti...

  20. Attenuation of the in vitro neurotoxicity of 316L SS by graphene oxide surface coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnim, Nishat; Kumar, Alok; Joddar, Binata, E-mail: bjoddar@utep.edu

    2017-04-01

    A persistent theme in biomaterials research comprises of surface engineering and modification of bare metallic substrates for improved cellular response and biocompatibility. Graphene Oxide (GO), a derivative of graphene, has outstanding chemical and mechanical properties; its large surface to volume ratio, ease of surface modification and processing make GO an attractive coating material. GO-coatings have been extensively studied as biosensors. Further owing to its surface nano-architecture, GO-coated surfaces promote cell adhesion and growth, making it suitable for tissue engineering applications. The need to improve the long-term durability and therapeutic effectiveness of commercially available bare 316L stainless steel (SS) surfaces led us to adopt a polymer-free approach which is cost-effective and scalable. GO was immobilized on to 316L SS utilizing amide linkage, to generate a strongly adherent uniform coating with surface roughness. GO-coated 316L SS surfaces showed increased hydrophilicity and biocompatibility with SHSY-5Y neuronal cells, which proliferated well and showed decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression. In contrast, cells did not adhere to bare uncoated 316L SS meshes nor maintain viability when cultured in the vicinity of bare meshes. Therefore the combination of the improved surface properties and biocompatibility implies that GO-coating can be utilized to overcome pertinent limitations of bare metallic 316L SS implant surfaces, especially SS neural electrodes. Also, the procedure for making GO-based protective coatings can be applied to numerous other implants where the development of such protective films is necessary. - Highlights: • GO was immobilized on to 316L SS utilizing carbodiimide chemistry to generate a strong adherent uniform nano coating. • GO-modified surfaces showed increased hydrophilicity and biocompatibility with SH5YSY cells cultured atop these surfaces. • Proliferation and alignment of the cells with the

  1. Skipping Strategy (SS) for Initial Population of Job-Shop Scheduling Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolrazzagh-Nezhad, M.; Nababan, E. B.; Sarim, H. M.

    2018-03-01

    Initial population in job-shop scheduling problem (JSSP) is an essential step to obtain near optimal solution. Techniques used to solve JSSP are computationally demanding. Skipping strategy (SS) is employed to acquire initial population after sequence of job on machine and sequence of operations (expressed in Plates-jobs and mPlates-jobs) are determined. The proposed technique is applied to benchmark datasets and the results are compared to that of other initialization techniques. It is shown that the initial population obtained from the SS approach could generate optimal solution.

  2. Aliupseereiden työssä oppiminen - Tapaustutkimus sosiomateriaalisten oppimisverkostojen näkökulmasta

    OpenAIRE

    Pekkarinen, Otto

    2017-01-01

    Tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin Puolustusvoimien perusyksiköissä kouluttajatehtävissä toimivien aliupseerien työssä oppimista ja sen ohjaamista. Työssä oppimista tarkasteltiin kulttuurihistori-allisen toiminnan teorian ja tietoa luovan oppimisen metaforan mukaisen trialogisen oppimisen tarjoamilla teoreettisilla työkaluilla. Tutkimuksen teoreettinen näkökulma kiteytettiin sosiomate-riaalisen oppimisverkostoon, joka määriteltiin toiminnan yhteisen kohteen ympärille rakentu-neeksi yksilön, hänen yh...

  3. Changes in orientation and appearance of the 100 m arc s radio structure in SS433

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilizzi, R T [Netherlands Foundation for Radio Astronomy, Radio Sterrenwacht, Dwingeloo; Miley, G K [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Sterrewacht; Romney, J D [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn (Germany, F.R.); Spencer, R E [Nuffield Radio Astronomy Labs., Jodrell Bank (UK)

    1981-03-26

    Results are presented of observations of SS433 made with the European VLBI network for periods of 9 and 10 h at a wavelength of 6 cm on 9 January (JD2444248) and 1-2 June (JD2444392.5) 1980. The results, together with earlier ones of Walker et al., show that the compact radio structure of SS433 changes orientation in a manner consistent with the 164-day precession period inferred from the optical emission lines, but with a phase delay of 5 +- 4 days. The shape of the radio structure is elongated, non-linear and changes from one observing epoch to the other.

  4. Elokuvan rooli nuorten elämässä ja nuorisotilojen arjessa

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkinen, Kirsi

    2009-01-01

    Elokuva on arkipäiväinen taiteenmuoto, jota erityisesti nuoret seuraavat aktiivisesti. Halusinkin opinnäy-tetyössäni selvittää mitä elokuva nuorille oikeastaan merkitsee. Lisäksi minua kiinnosti tutkia työssäni millaisessa asemassa elokuvien esittäminen on nuorisotiloilla. Tutkimuksen alkuvaiheessa selvisi, että mikkeliläisillä nuorisotaloilla ei esitetä elokuvia, koska ei ole tarvittavia lupia. Sen sijaan Tampereella esitetään elokuvia ilman mitään lupia. Näin työstäni syntyi tapaustutkimus,...

  5. Ostotoiminnan laadunvarmistus ja toiminnanohjauksen kehittäminen Mantsinen Group Ltd Oy:ssä

    OpenAIRE

    Hiltunen, Jarmo

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli ostotoiminnan laadunvarmistuksen ja toiminnanohjauksen kehittäminen Mantsinen Group Ltd Oy:ssä. Työssä on perehdytty erityisesti niihin ostotoiminnan laadun kehittämisen haasteisiin mitkä liittyvät alihankintaostamisen osa-alueeseen. Opinnäytetyön päätavoitteena oli luoda työkaluja hankinnan laadun jatkuvan parantamisen avuksi. Lisäksi tavoitteena oli perehtyä hankintojen mittaamisen teoriaan. Opinnäytetyön tutkimusmenetelmänä on käytetty käytännön tietoa ostam...

  6. Microstructural evolution in dual-ion irradiated 316SS under various helium injection schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohyama, A.; Igata, N.; Ayrault, G.; Tokyo Univ.

    1984-01-01

    Dual-ion irradiated 316 SS samples with various helium injection schedules were studied. The intent of using different schedules was to either approximate the MFR condition, mimic the mixed spectrum reactor condition or mimic the fast reactor condition. The objective of this investigation is to study the influence of these different helium injection schedules on the microstructural development under irradiation. The materials for this study was 316 SS (MFE heat) with three thermomechanical pre-irradiation treatments: solution annealed, solution annealed and aged and 20% cold worked. The cavity nucleation and growth stages were investigated using high resolution TEM. (orig.)

  7. Characterization of systemic disease in primary Sjogren's syndrome : EULAR-SS Task Force recommendations for articular, cutaneous, pulmonary and renal involvements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Brito-Zeron, Pilar; Seror, Raphaele; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bowman, Simon J.; Doerner, Thomas; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Mariette, Xavier; Theander, Elke; Bombardieri, Stefano; De Vita, Salvatore; Mandl, Thomas; Ng, Wan-Fai; Kruize, Aike; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Vitali, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To reach a European consensus on the definition and characterization of the main organspecific extraglandular manifestations in primary SS. Methods. The EULAR-SS Task Force Group steering committee agreed to approach SS-related systemic involvement according to the EULAR SS Disease

  8. Microbiological features and clinical impact of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates causing bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungok; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Haejeong; Choi, Ji Young; Kim, Dae Hun; Wi, Yu Mi; Peck, Kyong Ran; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2017-10-03

    We investigated the genetic background and microbiological features of T6SS-positive Acinetobacter baumannii isolates and clinical impact of the T6SS in patients with A. baumannii bacteremia. One hundred and 62 A. baumannii isolates from patients with bacteremia in 2 tertiary-care hospitals in Korea were included in this study. Approximately one-third (51/162, 31.5%) of the A. baumannii clinical isolates possessed the hcp gene, and the hcp-positive isolates were found in several genotypes in multilocus sequence typing. The expression and secretion of Hcp protein varied among the clinical isolates. A. baumannii isolates with detectable Hcp secretion (T6SS+) could better outcompete Escherichia coli compared with T6SS- isolates, including hcp-negative and inactivated hcp-positive isolates. In addition, T6SS+ isolates showed higher biofilm-forming activity and better survival in the presence of normal human serum than the T6SS- isolates. T6SS+ isolates were more frequently detected in patients with catheter-related bloodstream infection, haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, and patients receiving immunosuppressive agents. However, T6SS was not a prognostic factor for mortality. Our results suggest that the T6SS of A. baumannii is associated with virulence and contributes to infections in immunocompromised patients and those with implanted medical devices.

  9. Clinical significance of determination of changes of plasma ET and SS contents in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuhong; Chen Chuanbing; Li Hua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma ET and somatostatin (SS) levels in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Methods: Plasma ET and SS contents were determined with RIA in 63 neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and 35 controls. Results: In neonates with HIE, the plasma ET levels were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01), while the plasma SS levels were significantly lower (P<0.01). Conclusion: Development of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in newborn infants was closely associated with increase of plasma ET and SS levels. (authors)

  10. Safe and effective error rate monitors for SS7 signaling links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Douglas C.

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes SS7 error monitor characteristics, discusses the existing SUERM (Signal Unit Error Rate Monitor), and develops the recently proposed EIM (Error Interval Monitor) for higher speed SS7 links. A SS7 error monitor is considered safe if it ensures acceptable link quality and is considered effective if it is tolerant to short-term phenomena. Formal criteria for safe and effective error monitors are formulated in this paper. This paper develops models of changeover transients, the unstable component of queue length resulting from errors. These models are in the form of recursive digital filters. Time is divided into sequential intervals. The filter's input is the number of errors which have occurred in each interval. The output is the corresponding change in transmit queue length. Engineered EIM's are constructed by comparing an estimated changeover transient with a threshold T using a transient model modified to enforce SS7 standards. When this estimate exceeds T, a changeover will be initiated and the link will be removed from service. EIM's can be differentiated from SUERM by the fact that EIM's monitor errors over an interval while SUERM's count errored messages. EIM's offer several advantages over SUERM's, including the fact that they are safe and effective, impose uniform standards in link quality, are easily implemented, and make minimal use of real-time resources.

  11. A Bio-Electro-Fenton System Employing the Composite FePc/CNT/SS316 Cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ta Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bio-electro-Fenton microbial fuel cells generate energy through the decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms. The generated electricity drives a Fenton reaction in a cathode chamber, which can be used for the decolorization of dye wastewater. Most of the previous works added expensive platinum catalyst to improve the electrical property of the system. In this research, aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs were generated on the surface of SS316 stainless steel by chemical vapor deposition, and an iron phthalocyanine (FePc catalyst was added to fabricate a compound (FePc/CNT/SS316 that was applied to the cathode electrode of the fuel cell system. This was expected to improve the overall electricity generation efficiency and extent of decolorization of the system. The results showed that the maximum current density of the system with the modified electrode was 3206.30 mA/m2, and the maximum power was 726.55 mW/m2, which were increased by 937 and 2594 times, respectively, compared to the current and power densities of a system where only the SS316 stainless steel electrode was used. In addition, the decolorization of RB5 dye reached 84.6% within 12 h. Measurements of the electrical properties of bio-electro-Fenton microbial fuel cells and dye decolorization experiments with the FePc/CNT/SS316 electrode showed good results.

  12. Is PiSS Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Associated with Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Dawn; Schwarz, Laura; McClure, Rebecca; Peterka, Lauren; Rouhani, Farshid; Brantly, Mark; Strange, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    Background. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AAT) is an inherited condition that predisposes to lung and/or liver disease. Objective. The current study examined the clinical features of the PiSS genotype. Methods. Nineteen study participants (PiSS) and 29 matched control participants (PiMM) were telephone interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Demographic features, cigarette smoking, vocation, medication history, and clinical diagnoses were compared. Statistical analysis was performed. Finally, a comprehensive literature review was performed by two investigators. Results. 12/19 (63.2%) study participants reported the presence of lung and/or liver disease compared to 12/29 (41.4%) control participants. There trended toward having a higher frequency of medication allergies in the study population (42.11% versus 20.69%). Conclusions. The PiSS genotype was associated with a similar incidence of obstructive lung disease to controls. Selective bias intrinsic in testing for AAT deficiency and the rarity of the PiSS genotype will make future study of this association dependent on population-based tests.

  13. Is PiSS Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Associated with Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn McGee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AAT is an inherited condition that predisposes to lung and/or liver disease. Objective. The current study examined the clinical features of the PiSS genotype. Methods. Nineteen study participants (PiSS and 29 matched control participants (PiMM were telephone interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Demographic features, cigarette smoking, vocation, medication history, and clinical diagnoses were compared. Statistical analysis was performed. Finally, a comprehensive literature review was performed by two investigators. Results. 12/19 (63.2% study participants reported the presence of lung and/or liver disease compared to 12/29 (41.4% control participants. There trended toward having a higher frequency of medication allergies in the study population (42.11% versus 20.69%. Conclusions. The PiSS genotype was associated with a similar incidence of obstructive lung disease to controls. Selective bias intrinsic in testing for AAT deficiency and the rarity of the PiSS genotype will make future study of this association dependent on population-based tests.

  14. Brasiliocroton : a new crotonoid genus of Euphorbiaceae s.s. from eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Berry; Ines Cordeiro; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Maria Amelia Vitorino-Cruz; Leticia Ribes de Lima

    2005-01-01

    A new genus and species of Euphorbiaceae s.s., Brasiliocroton mamoninha, is described from two disjunct areas of lowland forest remnants in eastern and northeastern Brazil. It is a member of tribe Crotoneae and was previously confused with Croton and Micrandra. The resemblance to Micrandra is based on the branched inflorescences and terminal position of the pistillate...

  15. Hybridization of plant virus ssRNAs Transferred to Hybond N membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudela, O.; Kudelova, K.; Plaschke-Jakubik, K.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present a protocol for the non-denaturating agarose gel electrophoresis of plant virus ssRNAs, their blotting onto Hybond N membrane, and hybridization with [alpha 32 P]dNTP-labelled cDNA probe. The protocol is not pretentious on technical equipment, omits denaturation and neutralization steps and some chemical required in other modifications. (authors)

  16. Sour grapes: multiple groundwater enclosures in Morocco's Saïss region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossenbroek, L.; Kuper, M.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2017-01-01

    While driving to the douar 1 Ait Ali in the agricultural plain of the Saïss in Morocco, we always passed by a fallow land plot of approximately 10 hectares. We passed this plot without noticing much, until the day we spotted a Syrian tube-well driller with a checked red scarf on his head and his

  17. Photometric variability of the SS 433 (V 1343 Aq1) in 1979-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladyshev, S.A.; Goranskij, V.P.; Cherepashchuk, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Results of photometric observations of SS 433 carried out in 1981 are presented, the 164-day and 13-day variability of this ob ect being confirmed. All available photometric observations of SS 433 during 1979-1981 are summarized in order to investigate main regularities in brightness variability. Using the photometric data of three years the precessing period of 164sup(d)+-1sup(d) is determined. The orbital period is 13sup(d).086+-0sup(d).006. The maximum of the uneclipsed brightness of SS 433 is observed at the moment of maximum separation of ''relativistic'' emission lines. At this moment the orbital brightness curve is most similar to that of #betta# Lyr-type eclipsing variables. The amplitude of the orbital 13-day variability is minimal near the moments of coincidence of relativistic emissions (''cross-over'' dates). New observational data confirm the model of SS 433 as a massive eclipsing binary with a ''slaved'' bright accretion disk

  18. Screening and Identification of ssDNA Aptamer for Human GP73

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingchun Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As one tumor marker of HCC, Golgi Protein 73 (GP73 is given more promise in the early diagnosis of HCC, and aptamers have been developed to compete with antibodies as biorecognition probes in different detection system. In this study, we utilized GP73 to screen specific ssDNA aptamers by SELEX technique. First, GP73 proteins were expressed and purified by prokaryotic expression system and Nickle ion affinity chromatography, respectively. At the same time, the immunogenicity of purified GP73 was confirmed by Western blotting. The enriched ssDNA library with high binding capacity for GP73 was obtained after ten rounds of SELEX. Then, thirty ssDNA aptamers were sequenced, in which two ssDNA aptamers with identical DNA sequence were confirmed, based on the alignment results, and designated as A10-2. Furthermore, the specific antibody could block the binding of A10-2 to GP73, and the specific binding of A10-2 to GP73 was also supported by the observation that several tumor cell lines exhibited variable expression level of GP73. Significantly, the identified aptamer A10-2 could distinguish normal and cancerous liver tissues. So, our results indicate that the aptamer A10-2 might be developed into one molecular probe to detect HCC from normal liver specimens.

  19. High-frequency genome editing using ssDNA oligonucleotides with zinc-finger nucleases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fuqiang; Pruett-Miller, Shondra M; Huang, Yuping

    2011-01-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) have enabled highly efficient gene targeting in multiple cell types and organisms. Here we describe methods for using simple ssDNA oligonucleotides in tandem with ZFNs to efficiently produce human cell lines with three distinct genetic outcomes: (i) targeted point...

  20. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Lopharia s.s., Dendrodontia, Dentocorticium and Fuscocerrena (Basidiomycota, Polyporales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Liang Liu; Karen K. Nakasone; Sheng-Hua Wu; Shuang-Hui He; Yu-Cheng. Dai

    2018-01-01

    Eleven taxa of Lopharia s.s., Dendrodontia, Dentocorticium and Fuscocerrena in Polyporales are included in the phylogenetic analyses of nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS), D1-D2 domains of nuc 28S rDNA (28S) and RNA polymerase II second-largest subunit (rpb2) sequences. New species Lopharia resupinata...

  1. Genesis and distribution pattern of carbonate cements in lacustrine deep-water gravity-flow sandstone reservoirs in the third member of the Shahejie Formation in the Dongying Sag, Jiyang Depression, Eastern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tian; Cao, Yingchang; Friis, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    The lacustrine deep-water gravity-flow sandstone reservoirs in the third member of the Shahejie Formation are the main exploration target for hydrocarbons in the Dongying Sag, Eastern China. Carbonate cementation is responsible for much of the porosity and permeability reduction in the lacustrine...

  2. Stanford SsTO Mission to Mars: A Realistic, Safe and Cost Effective Approach to Human Mars Exploration Using the Stanford SsTO Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Robert D.

    1999-06-01

    In recent years, a lot of time and energy has been spent exploring possible mission scenarios for a human mission to Mars. NASA along with the privately funded Mars Society and a number of universities have come up with many options that could place people on the surface of Mars in a relatively short period of time at a relatively low cost. However, a common theme among all or at least most of these missions is that they require heavy lift vehicles such as the Russian Energia or the NASA proposed Magnum 100MT class vehicle to transport large payloads from the surface of Earth into a staging orbit about Earth. However, there is no current budget or any signs for a future budget to review the Russian Energia, the US made Saturn V, or to design and build a new heavy lift vehicle. However, there is a lot of interest and many companies looking into the possibility of "space planes". These vehicles will have the capability to place a payload into orbit without throwing any parts of the vehicle away. The concept of a space plane is basically that the plane is transported to a given altitude either by it's own power or on the back of another air worthy vehicle before the rocket engines are ignited. From this altitude, a Single Step to Orbit (SsTO) vehicle with a significant payload is possible. This report looks at the possibility of removing the requirement of a heavy lift vehicle by using the Stanford designed Single Step to Orbit.(SsTO) Launch Vehicle. The SsTO would eliminate the need for heavy lift vehicles and actually reduce the cost of the mission because of the very low costs involved with each SSTO launch. Although this scenario may add a small amount of risk assembling transfer vehicles in Earth orbit, it should add no additional risk to the crew.

  3. First insights into the genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeljak, Zoran; Boufana, Belgees; Interisano, Maria; Vidanovic, Dejan; Kulisic, Zoran; Casulli, Adriano

    2016-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is a cosmopolitan zoonotic infection which is endemic in Serbia where it is subject to mandatory reporting. However, information on the incidence of the disease in humans and prevalence of hydatid infection in livestock remains limited. We used sequenced data of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) mitochondrial gene to examine the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) from intermediate hosts from Serbia. We also compared our generated nucleotide sequences with those reported for neighbouring European countries. Echinococcus canadensis was molecularly confirmed from pig and human hydatid isolates. E. granulosus (G1) was confirmed from sheep and cattle hydatid isolates as well as the first molecular confirmation in Serbia of E. granulosus G2 in sheep and E. granulosus G3 in sheep and cattle hydatid isolates. The Serbian E. granulosus (s.s.) parsimony network displayed 2 main haplotypes (SB02 and SB05) which together with the neutrality indices were suggestive of bottleneck and/or balancing selection. Haplotype analysis showed the presence of the common E. granulosus haplotype described from other worldwide regions. Investigation of the pairwise fixation (Fst) index suggested that Serbian populations of E. granulosus (s.s.) from sheep and cattle hosts showed moderate genetic differentiation. Six of the Serbian haplotypes (SB02-SB07) were shared with haplotypes from Bulgaria, Hungary and/or Romania. Further studies using a larger number of hydatid isolates from various locations across Serbia will provide more information on the genetic structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) within this region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Determinación de la relación entre descargas atmosféricas y perturbaciones de corta duración (sags y sobretensiones)

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo Sánchez, Oscar Javier

    2012-01-01

    Se muestra el desarrollo y los resultados de una metodología propuesta para la determinación de la correlación entre descargas eléctricas atmosféricas detectadas y registradas en una zona y los hundimientos de tensión (sags) registrados en el sistema de distribución asociado. Como ejemplo de aplicación se usa información del sistema de localización de rayos WWLLN (wwlln.net), el Sistema de información de Descarga SID (propiedad de ISA. S.A. E.S.P.) y las mediciones de calidad de potencia de C...

  5. Transformation of miniature potted rose (Rosa hybrida cv. Linda) with P( SAG12 )-ipt gene delays leaf senescence and enhances resistance to exogenous ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakizadeh, Hedayat; Lütken, Henrik; Sriskandarajah, Sridevy; Serek, Margrethe; Müller, Renate

    2013-02-01

    KEY MESSAGE : The P ( SAG12 ) -ipt gene was transferred to miniature rose, as the first woody species, resulting in increased ethylene resistance due to specific up-regulation of the ipt gene under senescence promoting conditions. Transgenic plants of Rosa hybrida 'Linda' were obtained via transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring the binary vector pSG529(+) containing the P( SAG12 )-ipt construct. A. tumefaciens strains AGL1, GV3850 and LBA4404 (containing P(35S)-INTGUS gene) were used for transformation of embryogenic callus, but transgenic shoots were obtained only when AGL1 was applied. The highest transformation frequency was 10 % and it was achieved when half MS medium was used for the dilution of overnight culture of Agrobacterium. Southern blot confirmed integration of 1-6 copies of the nptII gene into the rose genome in the tested lines. Four transgenic lines were obtained which were morphologically true-to-type and indistinguishable from Wt shoots while they were in in vitro cultures. Adventitious root induction was more difficult in transgenic shoots compared to the Wt shoots, however, one of the transgenic lines (line 6) was rooted and subsequently analyzed phenotypically. The ipt expression levels were determined in this line after exposure to exogenous ethylene (3.5 μl l(-1)) and/or darkness. Darkness resulted in twofold up-regulation of ipt expression, whereas darkness combined with ethylene caused eightfold up-regulation in line 6 compared to Wt plants. The transgenic line had significantly higher content of chlorophyll at the end of the treatment period compared to Wt plants.

  6. Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon

  7. Core evidence of paleoseismic events in Paleogene deposits of the Shulu Sag in the Bohai Bay Basin, east China, and their petroleum geologic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lijing; Jiang, Zaixing; Liu, Hui; Kong, Xiangxin; Li, Haipeng; Jiang, Xiaolong

    2015-10-01

    The Shulu Sag, located in the southwestern corner of the Jizhong Depression, Bohai Bay Basin of east China, is a NE-SW trending, elongate Cenozoic half-graben basin. The lowermost part of the third member of the Shahejie Formation in this basin is characterized by continental rudstone and calcilutite to calcisiltite facies. Based on core observation and regional geologic analysis, seismites are recognized in these lacustrine deposits, which include soft-sediment deformation structures (sedimentary dikes, hydraulic shattering, diapir structures, convolute lamination, load-flame structures, ball-and-pillow structures, loop bedding, and subsidence structures), synsedimentary faults, and seismoturbidites. In addition, mixed-source rudstones, consisting of the Paleozoic carbonate clasts and in situ calcilutite clasts in the lowermost submember of Shahejie 3, appear in the seismites, suggesting an earthquake origin. A complete representative vertical sequence in the lowermost part of the third member found in well ST1H located in the central part of the Shulu Sag shows, from the base to the top: underlying undeformed layers, synsedimentary faults, liquefied carbonate rocks, allogenetic seismoturbidites, and overlying undeformed layers. Seismites are widely distributed around this well and there are multiple sets of stacked seismites separated by undeformed sediment. The nearby NW-trending Taijiazhuang fault whose fault growth index is from 1.1 to 1.8 and the NNE-trending Xinhe fault with a fault growth index of 1.3-1.9 may be the source of the instability to create the seismites. These deformed sedimentary layers are favorable for the accumulation of oil and gas; for example, sedimentary dikes can cut through many layers and serve as conduits for fluid migration. Sedimentary faults and fractures induced by earthquakes can act as oil and gas migration channels or store petroleum products as well. Seismoturbidites and mixed-source rudstones are excellent reservoirs due to

  8. Episodic normal faulting and magmatism during the syn-spreading stage of the Baiyun sag in Pearl River Mouth Basin: response to the multi-phase seafloor spreading of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Peng; Mei, Lianfu; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Jinyun; Liu, Minghui; Cheng, Zijie; Guo, Fengtai

    2018-03-01

    Considerable post-breakup extensional deformation is recorded in the continental margins of the South China Sea (SCS). To recognize the nature and origin of the significant deformation during the syn-spreading stage (32-15.5 Ma) in the SCS, we comprehensively analyzed the geometry and kinematics of the faults and contemporaneous magmas in the Baiyun sag, northern margin of the SCS, using high-resolution regional three-dimensional seismic data. The kinematic analyses indicate that the faults in the Baiyun sag are recently formed following the onset of seafloor spreading in the SCS. The faults exhibit multiple episodes of growth history, with three active episodes, 32-29, 23.8-21 and 18.5-16.5 Ma, separated by periods of inactivity. Four volcanic groups comprising 98 volcanic mounds have been identified and described, located separately in the northwestern, the central, the southeastern and the northern slope areas. The occurrence of multiple palaeo-seafloors, complemented by the biostratigraphic and K-Ar dating data, reveals multiple extrusive events of the syn-spreading magmas in the Baiyun sag, with three active periods of 23.8-21, 18.5-17.5 and 17.5-16.5 Ma. This study confirms that the normal faulting has a shared genetic origin with the contemporaneous magmatism during the syn-spreading stage in the deep-offshore Baiyun sag, northern margin of the SCS. The episodic fault growth and magmatic extrusive events reveal that the Baiyun sag has undergone at least three episodic tectonic events during the syn-spreading stage, which evolved in response to the multi-stage seafloor spreading of the SCS.

  9. Y =)~.~: SS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the true leader of the regiment in the more prac- tical sense. Any surplus monies at the end of the appropriate period, was shared out. But many .honest regiments used this surplus to provide schools, medical facilities and pensions for the widows and families of the disabled. • Mr Usher is a free-lance writer and a member of.

  10. GSM SiNYALLERİNİN .IP OMURGASI İİZERiNI>E TAŞINMASI (SS7 OVER IP- NettcSS7)

    OpenAIRE

    Tülü, Çağatay Neftali; Demirkol, Aşkın

    2003-01-01

    Bu çalışmada günümüzün en popüler nıobilhaberleşme sistemi olan GSM [1 l sisteminin, kendiöğeleri aras1ndaki en temel sinyalleşme sistemi olannumara 7 (SS7 [2) ) sinyallerinin, günümüzün enyaygın iletim omurgast olan ve tüm dünyadakibilgisayarları birbirine bağlayan IP (3] omurgasıüzerinden taşınabilmesi için gerekli si stemin tasar11n1ve gerçeklenınesi üzerinde çahş1lmtştır. Klasil\\ SS7iletimine göre en büyül< faydası çok düşül{ maliyetiolan bu sistem sayesinde, dünyadaki b i r çok GS...

  11. Phase transformation and hardness of SS 316 L steel cast alloy after heat treatment at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, S.; Prayitno, D. H.

    2000-01-01

    Heat treatment Study of SS 316 L cast alloy at high temperature was conducted. The alloy of SS 316 L was melted by arc melting furnace in argon atmosphere. Heat treatment of SS 316 L casting alloy was carried out in tube furnace at 1400 o C for period of 1/2, 1, and 2 hours. The optical microscopic characterization showed that SS 316 L cast has got dendritic micro structure with ferrite as the primary phase. After the heat treatment, the ferrite phase underwent gradual decrease followed by an increase of the austenite phase. The heat treatment process also resulted in the formation of the new grain boundary. The hardness examination revealed that for longer period of the heat treatment, the hardness of SS 316 L increased. (author)

  12. Immunization with the recombinant antigen Ss-IR induces protective immunity to infection with Strongyloides stercoralis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, David; Hess, Jessica A; Mejia, Rojelio; Nolan, Thomas J; Lok, James B; Lustigman, Sara; Nutman, Thomas B

    2011-10-19

    Human intestinal infections with the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis remain a significant problem worldwide and a vaccine would be a useful addition to the tools available to prevent and control this infection. The goal of this study was to test single antigens for their efficacy in a vaccine against S. stercoralis larvae in mice. Alum was used as the adjuvant in these studies and antigens selected for analysis were either recognized by protective human IgG (Ss-TMY-1, Ss-EAT-6, and Ss-LEC-5) or were known to be highly immunogenic in humans (Ss-NIE-1 and Ss-IR). Only mice immunized with the Ss-IR antigen demonstrated a significant decrease of approximately 80% in the survival of larval parasites in the challenge infection. Antibodies, recovered from mice with protective immunity to S. stercoralis after immunization with Ss-IR, were used to locate the antigen in the larvae. Confocal microscopy revealed that IgG from mice immunized with Ss-IR bound to the surface of the parasites and observations by electron microscopy indicated that IgG bound to granules in the glandular esophagus. Serum collected from mice immunized with Ss-IR passively transferred immunity to naïve mice. These studies demonstrate that Ss-IR, in combination with alum, induces high levels of protective immunity through an antibody dependent mechanism and may therefore be suitable for further development as a vaccine against human strongyloidiasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Thermal Aging and Test Temperatures on Fracture Toughness of SS 316(N) Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, B. Shashank; Babu, M. Nani; Shanthi, G.; Moitra, A.; Sasikala, G.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of thermal aging and test temperatures on fracture toughness (J 0.2) of SS 316(N) weld material has been studied based on J-R curve evaluations. The aging of the welds was carried out at temperatures 370, 475 and 550 °C and for durations varying from 1000 to 20,000 h. The fracture toughness (J-R curve) tests were carried out at 380 and 550 °C for specimens after all aging conditions, including as-weld condition. The initiation fracture toughness (J 0.2) of the SS 316(N) weld material has shown degradation after 20,000-h aging durations and is reflected in all the test temperatures and aging temperatures. The fracture toughness after different aging conditions and test temperatures, including as-weld condition, was higher than the minimum specified value for this class of welds.

  14. Pala-animaatiohahmojen animointi 2D- ja 3D-ympäristössä

    OpenAIRE

    Koivisto, Ida

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö käsittelee hahmoanimointia digitaalisessa pala-animaatiossa. Työssä keskitytään pääasiassa vertailemaan keskenään kahta hyvin erityyppistä ohjelmaa hahmoanimaattorin työskentely-ympäristöinä. Ohjelmat, joita opinnäytetyössä on käytetty animoimiseen, ovat 3D-ohjelma Cinema 4D sekä 2D-2.5D -ohjelma After Effects. Opinnäytetyö on kirjoitettu hahmoanimaattorin näkökulmasta perustuen käytännön animointityöskentelyyn lasten animaatiosarjassa Ella & Aleksi. Työn tekijä on toiminut p...

  15. Functionalization of PVC membrane with ss oligonucleotides for a potentiometric biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkanova, T V; Volf, R; Krondak, M; Král, V

    2007-05-15

    A novel application of a single stranded (ss) oligonucleotide as an active component of polymeric membrane in an ion-selective electrode (ISE) is described. The original oligonucleotides, oligo(dA)(15), modified by cholesterol, triphenylmethyl and hexadecyl derivatives, were immobilized into poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane using extraction protocol. In parallel, the adsorption protocol was used to immobilize unmodified oligo(dA)(15) on the PVC membrane based on tridodecylmethyammonium chloride (TDDMA(+)Cl(-)). Immobilization of ss oligonucleotide probe through spacer was more effective for the potentiometric detection of the hybridization between complementary oligonucleotides. It was found that cholesterol-oligo(dA)(15) modified membranes were sensitive toward complementary oligo(dT)(15) in the concentration range 2-80 nM at pH 7. An explanation for the detection mechanism is proposed.

  16. Evaluation of stress-corrosion cracking of sensitized 304SS in low-temperature borated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Bruemmer, S.M.

    1981-05-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking has been observed in constant extension rate tests, CERT and constant load tests of 304SS tested at 32 0 C in borated water plus 15 ppM C1 - . Evidence of IGSCC was obtained in CERT tests of welded pipe samples only when the original inner diameter surface was intact and with 15 ppM C1 - added to the borated water while IGSCC occurred in a furnace sensitized pipe sample after 500 h at a constant stress of 340 MPa in borated water containing 15 ppM C1 - . These results indicate that surface features associated with weld preparation grinding contributed to the susceptibility of sensitized 304SS to IGSCC in low temperature borated water; however, the constant load test indicates that such surface defects are not necessary for IGSCC in low temperature borated water

  17. Tributyylitina (TBT) maaympäristössä: esiintyminen, vaikutukset ja riskit

    OpenAIRE

    Lukkari, Tuomas; Koponen, Kari; Tuomi, Pirjo; Dahlbo, Kim; Rossi, Esko; Järvinen, Kimmo

    2006-01-01

    Organometalleihin kuuluvan tributyylitinan (TBT) esiintymisestä, vaikutuksista ja mahdollisista riskeistä maaympäristössä on vain vähän tutkimustietoa. Tiedot perustuvat pääasiassa vesiympäristöissä tehtyihin tutkimuksiin. TBT:a ei esiinny ympäristössä luonnostaan, vaan se on peräisin ihmisen toiminnasta. TBT:n päästöt maaperään ovat peräisin mm. TBT:a sisältävien valmisteiden käytöstä, lähinnä laivojen pohjamaaleista sekä mahdollisesti pilaantuneiden sedimenttien loppusijoituksesta. TBT:n...

  18. Use of diffusion bonded SS-Al composite material in the development of neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, Mary; Prasad, K.R.; Pappachan, A.L.; Grover, A.K.; Krishnan, J.; Derose, D.J.; Bhanumurthy, K.; Kale, G.B.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper describes the development of a SS-Al composite plate in-house at BARC by diffusion bonding technique. Details of the several tests carried out on the composite material and the use of the plate in the development of a boron lined neutron chamber for Dhruva reactor control instrumentation has been described. The bonded sample has withstood tensile strength test, leak test and thermal cycling test and the leak rate was observed to be less than 3 x 10 -10 stdcc/sec. The chamber with the composite material has been installed in Dhruva Basket C location and connected to the log rate safety channel. It has been working successfully for the past two years. The use of SS-Al composite material has improved the reliability and long-term performance of the detector. (author)

  19. Hoitajien kokemuksia Theraplay-ryhmäsovelluksesta lastenpsykiatrisessa hoitotyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, Niina; Ollikainen, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää hoitajien kokemuksia ja ajatuksia Theraplay-ryhmäsovelluksesta lastenpsykiatrisessa hoitotyössä sekä kartoittaa hoitajien mielipiteitä mahdollisesta tanssin ja musiikin käytöstä osana tätä sovellusta. Opinnäytetyön tehtävänä oli selvittää millaisia kokemuksia hoitajilla on Theraplay-ryhmäsovelluksesta, mitä ajatuksia mahdollinen musiikin ja tanssin käyttö osana Theraplay-ryhmäsovellusta herättää sekä mitä kehitettävää tämän sovelluksen käytössä ...

  20. Varttuneet ja ikäsyrjintä työelämässä

    OpenAIRE

    Viitasalo, Niina

    2015-01-01

    Työelämän ikäsyrjintä esteenä pitkille työurille Työelämässä esiintyvä ikäsyrjintä on ristiriidassa työurien pidentämisen kanssa. Ikäsyrjintää kokeneilla on jopa kaksinkertainen pitkien sairauspoissaolojen riski 3 vuoden seuranta-aikana. Eniten ikäsyrjintäkokemuksia on yli 55-vuotiailla naisilla, heistä lähes 8 prosenttia on kokenut ikäsyrjintää työssään. Ikäsyrjintä ilmenee työpaikkojen arjessa varttuneiden torjuntana, painostamisena, vähättelynä tai eristämisenä. Ikäsyrjintä näyttäytyy ...

  1. Rekrytointi Myyntityössä : vaikutus & kehittäminen

    OpenAIRE

    Koskinen, Severi

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tutkia rekrytointia myyntityössä, sen vaikutusta ja miten kehittää rekrytointia. Tätä lähdettiin selvittämään käsittelemällä teoriaosuudessa rekrytoinnin vaikutuksia, vaikutuksia myyntityössä sekä rekrytointiprosessin suorittamista. Tutkimusosuudessa tätä pyrittiin selvittämään etsimällä onnistuneista rekrytoinneista yhteisiä tekijöitä sekä epäonnistuneille rekrytoinneille syitä. Näitä tunnistamalla pystytään kehittämään ennalta toimivia rekrytointeja sekä välttä...

  2. Bioconversion of glycerol for bioethanol production using isolated Escherichia coli SS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheril Norliana Suhaimi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioconverting glycerol into various valuable products is one of glycerol's promising applications due to its high availability at low cost and the existence of many glycerol-utilizing microorganisms. Bioethanol and biohydrogen, which are types of renewable fuels, are two examples of bioconverted products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ethanol production from different media by local microorganism isolates and compare the ethanol fermentation profile of the selected strains to use of glucose or glycerol as sole carbon sources. The ethanol fermentations by six isolates were evaluated after a preliminary screening process. Strain named SS1 produced the highest ethanol yield of 1.0 mol: 1.0 mol glycerol and was identified as Escherichia coli SS1 Also, this isolated strain showed a higher affinity to glycerol than glucose for bioethanol production.

  3. Impact of the Arizona NExSS Winter School on Interdisciplinary Knowledge and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Cierra; Burnam-Fink, Michael; Desch, Steven; Apai, Dániel

    2018-01-01

    The Nexus for Exoplanet System Science (NExSS) is a NASA-funded research coordination network whose focus is on investigating exoplanet diversity and devising strategies for searching for life on exoplanets. The fields of exoplanets and astrobiology are inherently highly interdisciplinary. Progress in these fields demands that researchers with various scientific backgrounds understand the issues and techniques of allied fields of study, including the tools and approaches used to solve different problems, as well as their limitations.In 2016, the NExSS teams at Arizona State University (ASU) and University of Arizona (UA) hosted 32 graduate students and postdoctoral researchers from various scientific backgrounds for one week at the Arizona NExSS Winter School. To bridge the gaps between fields and promote interdisciplinarity, students participated in lessons, field trips, hands-on activities, and a capstone proposal-writing activity. To assess the impact of the School on knowledge and attitudes about other fields, we administered a pre- and post-School questionnaire designed using the Impact Analysis Method of Davis & Scalice (2015).The results show that all participants gained knowledge at the School, especially in areas outside their primary field of study. The questionnaire revealed interesting differences in attitudes as well. When asked whether the geochemistry of Earth without life is predictable, planetary scientists were more likely than average to say yes, and geologists were more likely than average to say no. Their attitudes had converged after participation in the School. These results demonstrate that the Arizona NExSS Winter School was impactful not just in the knowledge gained, but in the interdisciplinary attitudes of students.

  4. Protein dynamics during presynaptic complex assembly on individual ssDNA molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Gibb, Bryan; Ye, Ling F.; Kwon, YoungHo; Niu, Hengyao; Sung, Patrick; Greene, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a conserved pathway for repairing double?stranded breaks, which are processed to yield single?stranded DNA overhangs that serve as platforms for presynaptic complex assembly. Here we use single?molecule imaging to reveal the interplay between Saccharomyce cerevisiae RPA, Rad52, and Rad51 during presynaptic complex assembly. We show that Rad52 binds RPA?ssDNA and suppresses RPA turnover, highlighting an unanticipated regulatory influence on protein dynamics. Rad51 b...

  5. Combining use of a panel of ssDNA aptamers in the detection of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Xiaoxiao; Li, Shaohua; Chen, Liucun; Ding, Hongmei; Xu, Hua; Huang, Yanping; Li, Jie; Liu, Nongle; Cao, Weihong; Zhu, Yanjun; Shen, Beifen; Shao, Ningsheng

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a panel of ssDNA aptamers specific to Staphylococcus aureus was obtained by a whole bacterium-based SELEX procedure and applied to probing S. aureus. After several rounds of selection with S. aureus as the target and Streptococcus and S. epidermidis as counter targets, the highly enriched oligonucleic acid pool was sequenced and then grouped under different families on the basis of the homology of the primary sequence and the similarity of the secondary structure. Eleven sequ...

  6. Beginning of the End: The Leadership of SS Obersturmbannfuehrer Jochen Peiper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-17

    of Rudolf Lehmann and Ralf Tiemann on the Leibstandarte are based on the Bundesarchiven (National Archives) in Koblenz and Freiburg in Germany...Hans Schmidt, Paul Hausser, Richard Schulze-Kossens, Rudolf Lehmann, and Ralf Tiemann. Some German sources are at odds with American sources, but that...or a constitution. Among the men who set up the first military training for the Waffen-SS were Felix Steiner and Cassius Freiherr (Baron) von

  7. Assuring SS7 dependability: A robustness characterization of signaling network elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmarkar, Vikram V.

    1994-04-01

    Current and evolving telecommunication services will rely on signaling network performance and reliability properties to build competitive call and connection control mechanisms under increasing demands on flexibility without compromising on quality. The dimensions of signaling dependability most often evaluated are the Rate of Call Loss and End-to-End Route Unavailability. A third dimension of dependability that captures the concern about large or catastrophic failures can be termed Network Robustness. This paper is concerned with the dependability aspects of the evolving Signaling System No. 7 (SS7) networks and attempts to strike a balance between the probabilistic and deterministic measures that must be evaluated to accomplish a risk-trend assessment to drive architecture decisions. Starting with high-level network dependability objectives and field experience with SS7 in the U.S., potential areas of growing stringency in network element (NE) dependability are identified to improve against current measures of SS7 network quality, as per-call signaling interactions increase. A sensitivity analysis is presented to highlight the impact due to imperfect coverage of duplex network component or element failures (i.e., correlated failures), to assist in the setting of requirements on NE robustness. A benefit analysis, covering several dimensions of dependability, is used to generate the domain of solutions available to the network architect in terms of network and network element fault tolerance that may be specified to meet the desired signaling quality goals.

  8. Electrical Properties of Al, Ag, Cu, Ti and SS Thin Film for Electrode of Solar Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang Siswanto; Wirjoadi; Sudjatmoko; Tjipto Sujitno

    2003-01-01

    The Al, Ag, Cu, Ti and SS materials were deposited on the surface of glass substrate using plasma DC sputtering technique. The deposition process was done with the following plasma parameters : deposition time, gas pressure and substrate temperature with the aim to obtain a good conductance of thin films. Variation of substrate deposition time was 1 - 15 minutes, gas pressure was 5x10 -2 - 7x10 -2 torr and of temperature was 100 - 300 o C. The resistance measurement has been done by four points probes and the conductivity was calculated using mathematic formulation. It was obtained that the minimum resistance in the order of R = 0.07 Ω, was found at Ag materials and this was obtained at the following plasma parameters : deposition time 15 minutes, gas pressure 6x10 -2 torr and temperature 300 o C, while, the resistance of : Cu, Al, Ti and SS materials were R = 0.13 Ω, R = 450 Ω, R = 633 Ω, R = 911 Ω respectively, It could be concluded that the Ag thin film has a minimum resistance, high conductivity compared to the other materials Al, Cu, Ti and SS. Ag is therefore the suitable material for applying as electrode of solar cell. (author)

  9. Using long ssDNA polynucleotides to amplify STRs loci in degraded DNA samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Santángelo, Agustín; Corti Bielsa, Rodrigo M.; Sala, Andrea; Ginart, Santiago; Corach, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining informative short tandem repeat (STR) profiles from degraded DNA samples is a challenging task usually undermined by locus or allele dropouts and peak-high imbalances observed in capillary electrophoresis (CE) electropherograms, especially for those markers with large amplicon sizes. We hereby show that the current STR assays may be greatly improved for the detection of genetic markers in degraded DNA samples by using long single stranded DNA polynucleotides (ssDNA polynucleotides) as surrogates for PCR primers. These long primers allow a closer annealing to the repeat sequences, thereby reducing the length of the template required for the amplification in fragmented DNA samples, while at the same time rendering amplicons of larger sizes suitable for multiplex assays. We also demonstrate that the annealing of long ssDNA polynucleotides does not need to be fully complementary in the 5’ region of the primers, thus allowing for the design of practically any long primer sequence for developing new multiplex assays. Furthermore, genotyping of intact DNA samples could also benefit from utilizing long primers since their close annealing to the target STR sequences may overcome wrong profiling generated by insertions/deletions present between the STR region and the annealing site of the primers. Additionally, long ssDNA polynucleotides might be utilized in multiplex PCR assays for other types of degraded or fragmented DNA, e.g. circulating, cell-free DNA (ccfDNA). PMID:29099837

  10. Electropolymerization of camphorsulfonic acid doped conductive polypyrrole anti-corrosive coating for 304SS bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Syed, Junaid Ali; Gao, Yangzhi; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Lu, Hongbin; Meng, Xiangkang

    2017-12-01

    Conductive polymer coating doped with large molecular organic acid is an alternative method used to protect stainless steel (SS) bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). However, it is difficult to select the proper doping acid, which improves the corrosion resistance of the coating without affecting its conductivity. In this study, large spatial molecular group camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) doped polypyrrole (PPY) conductive coating was prepared by galvanostatic electropolymerization on 304SS. The electrochemical properties of the coating were evaluated in 0.1 M H2SO4 solution in order to simulate the PEMFC service environment. The results indicate that the coating increased the corrosion potential and shifted Ecorr towards more positive value, particularly the jcorr value of PPY-CSA coated 304SS was dropped from 97.3 to 0.00187 μA cm-2. The long-term immersion tests (660 h) show that the PPY-CSA coating exhibits better corrosion resistance in comparison with the small acid (SO42-) doped PPY-SO42- or PPY/PPY-SO42- coatings. Moreover, the PPY-CSA coating presents low contact resistance and maintains strong corrosion resistance during the prolonged exposure time due to barrier effect and anodic protection.

  11. An MC-SS Platform for Short-Range Communications in the Personal Network Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakirtzoglou Zeta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wireless personal area networks (WPANs have gained interest in the last few years, and several air interfaces have been proposed to cover WPAN applications. A multicarrier spread spectrum (MC-SS air interface specified to achieve 130 Mbps in typical WPAN channels is presented in this paper. It operates in the 5.2 GHz ISM band and achieves a spectral efficiency of 3.25  . Besides the robustness of the MC-SS approach, this air interface yields to reasonable implementation complexity. This paper focuses on the hardware design and prototype of this MC-SS air interface. The prototype includes RF, baseband, and IEEE802.15.3 compliant medium access control (MAC features. Implementation aspects are carefully analyzed for each part of the prototype, and key hardware design issues and solutions are presented. Hardware complexity and implementation loss are compared to theoretical expectations, as well as flexibility is discussed. Measurement results are provided for a real condition of operations.

  12. Protein dynamics during presynaptic complex assembly on individual ssDNA molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Bryan; Ye, Ling F.; Kwon, YoungHo; Niu, Hengyao; Sung, Patrick; Greene, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a conserved pathway for repairing double–stranded breaks, which are processed to yield single–stranded DNA overhangs that serve as platforms for presynaptic complex assembly. Here we use single–molecule imaging to reveal the interplay between Saccharomyce cerevisiae RPA, Rad52, and Rad51 during presynaptic complex assembly. We show that Rad52 binds RPA–ssDNA and suppresses RPA turnover, highlighting an unanticipated regulatory influence on protein dynamics. Rad51 binding extends the ssDNA, and Rad52–RPA clusters remain interspersed along the presynaptic complex. These clusters promote additional binding of RPA and Rad52. Together, our work illustrates the spatial and temporal progression of RPA and Rad52 association with the presynaptic complex, and reveals a novel RPA–Rad52–Rad51–ssDNA intermediate, which has implications for understanding how the activities of Rad52 and RPA are coordinated with Rad51 during the later stages recombination. PMID:25195049

  13. QoSS Hierarchical NoC-Based Architecture for MPSoC Dynamic Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Sepulveda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As electronic systems are pervading our lives, MPSoC (multiprocessor system-on-chip security is becoming an important requirement. MPSoCs are able to support multiple applications on the same chip. The challenge is to provide MPSoC security that makes possible a trustworthy system that meets the performance and security requirements of all the applications. The network-on-chip (NoC can be used to efficiently incorporate security. Our work proposes the implementation of QoSS (quality of security service to overcome present MPSoC vulnerabilities. QoSS is a novel concept for data protection that introduces security as a dimension of QoS. QoSS takes advantage of the NoC wide system visibility and critical role in enabling system operation, exploiting the NoC components to detect and prevent a wide range of attacks. In this paper, we present the implementation of a layered dynamic security NoC architecture that integrates agile and dynamic security firewalls in order to detect attacks based on different security rules. We evaluate the effectiveness of our approach over several MPSoCs scenarios and estimate their impact on the overall performance. We show that our architecture can perform a fast detection of a wide range of attacks and a fast configuration of different security policies for several MPSoC applications.

  14. Defining the Content of an Online Sexual Health Intervention: The MenSS Website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Rosie; Gerressu, Makeda; Michie, Susan; Estcourt, Claudia; Anderson, Jane; Ang, Chee Siang; Murray, Elizabeth; Rait, Greta; Stephenson, Judith; Bailey, Julia V

    2015-07-03

    Health promotion and risk reduction are essential components of sexual health care. However, it can be difficult to prioritize these within busy clinical services. Digital interventions may provide a new method for supporting these. The MenSS (Men's Safer Sex) website is an interactive digital intervention developed by a multidisciplinary team, which aims to improve condom use in men who have sex with women (MSW). This paper describes the content of this intervention, and the rationale for it. Content was informed by a literature review regarding men's barriers to condom use, workshops with experts in sexual health and technology (N=16) and interviews with men in sexual health clinics (N=20). Data from these sources were analyzed thematically, and synthesized using the Behavior Change Wheel framework. The MenSS intervention is a website optimized for delivery via tablet computer within a clinic waiting room setting. Key targets identified were condom use skills, beliefs about pleasure and knowledge about risk. Content was developed using behavior change techniques, and interactive website features provided feedback tailored for individual users. This paper provides a detailed description of an evidence-based interactive digital intervention for sexual health, including how behavior change techniques were translated into practice within the design of the MenSS website. Triangulation between a targeted literature review, expert workshops, and interviews with men ensured that a range of potential influences on condom use were captured.

  15. Exploring optimization parameters to increase ssDNA recombineering in Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; Neoh, Kar Mun; Sirias, Denise; Findley, Anthony S; Britton, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering is a technology which is used to make subtle changes in the chromosome of several bacterial genera. Cells which express a single-stranded DNA binding protein (RecT or Bet) are transformed with an oligonucleotide which is incorporated via an annealing and replication-dependent mechanism. By in silico analysis we identified ssDNA binding protein homologs in the genus Lactobacillus and Lactococcus lactis. To assess whether we could further improve the recombineering efficiency in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 we expressed several RecT homologs in this strain. RecT derived from Enterococcus faecalis CRMEN 19 yielded comparable efficiencies compared with a native RecT protein, but none of the other proteins further increased the recombineering efficiency. We successfully improved recombineering efficiency 10-fold in L. lactis by increasing oligonucleotide concentration combined with the use of oligonucleotides containing phosphorothioate-linkages (PTOs). Surprisingly, neither increased oligonucleotide concentration nor PTO linkages enhanced recombineering in L. reuteri 6475. To emphasize the utility of this technology in improving probiotic features we modified six bases in a transcriptional regulatory element region of the pdu-operon of L. reuteri 6475, yielding a 3-fold increase in the production of the antimicrobial compound reuterin. Directed genetic modification of lactic acid bacteria through ssDNA recombineering will simplify strain improvement in a way that, when mutating a single base, is genetically indistinguishable from strains obtained through directed evolution.

  16. ssDNA degradation along capillary electrophoresis process using a Tris buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ric, Audrey; Ong-Meang, Varravaddheay; Poinsot, Verena; Martins-Froment, Nathalie; Chauvet, Fabien; Boutonnet, Audrey; Ginot, Frédéric; Ecochard, Vincent; Paquereau, Laurent; Couderc, François

    2017-06-01

    Tris-Acetate buffer is currently used in the selection and the characterization of ssDNA by capillary electrophoresis (CE). By applying high voltage, the migration of ionic species into the capillary generates a current that induces water electrolysis. This phenomenon is followed by the modification of the pH and the production of Tris derivatives. By injecting ten times by capillary electrophoresis ssDNA (50 nM), the whole oligonucleotide was degraded. In this paper, we will show that the Tris buffer in the running vials is modified along the electrophoretic process by electrochemical reactions. We also observed that the composition of the metal ions changes in the running buffer vials. This phenomenon, never described in CE, is important for fluorescent ssDNA analysis using Tris buffer. The oligonucleotides are degraded by electrochemically synthesized species (present in the running Tris vials) until it disappears, even if the separation buffer in the capillary is clean. To address these issues, we propose to use a sodium phosphate buffer that we demonstrate to be electrochemically inactive. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses T3SS to inhibit diabetic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldufsky, Josef; Wood, Stephen J; Jayaraman, Vijayakumar; Majdobeh, Omar; Chen, Lin; Qin, Shanshan; Zhang, Chunxiang; DiPietro, Luisa A; Shafikhani, Sasha H

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are responsible for more hospitalizations than any other complication of diabetes. Bacterial infection is recognized as an important factor associated with impaired healing in diabetic ulcers. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequently detected Gram-negative pathogen in diabetic ulcers. P. aeruginosa infection has been shown to impair healing in diabetic wounds in a manner that correlates with its ability to form biofilm. While the majority of infections in diabetic ulcers are biofilm associated, 33% of infections are nonbiofilm in nature. P. aeruginosa is the most prevalent Gram-negative pathogen in all diabetic wound types, which suggests that the deleterious impact of P. aeruginosa on healing in diabetic wounds goes beyond its ability to form biofilm and likely involves other factors. The Type III Secretion System (T3SS) virulence structure is required for the pathogenesis of all P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, suggesting that it may also play a role in the inhibition of wound repair in diabetic skin ulcers. We evaluated the role of T3SS in mediating P. aeruginosa-induced tissue damage in the wounds of diabetic mice. Our data demonstrate that P. aeruginosa establishes a robust and persistent infection in diabetic wounds independent of its ability to form biofilm and causes severe wound damage in a manner that primarily depends on its T3SS. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  18. The Masses and Evolutionary State of the Stars in the Dwarf Nova SS Cygni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner, Martin A.; Robinson, Edward L.; Behr, Bradford B.

    2007-06-01

    The dwarf nova SS Cygni is a close binary star consisting of a K star transferring mass to a white dwarf by way of an accretion disk. We have obtained new spectroscopic observations of SS Cyg. Fits of synthetic spectra for Roche lobe-filling stars to the absorption-line spectrum of the K star yield the amplitude of the K star's radial velocity curve and the mass ratio, KK=162.5+/-1.0 km s-1 and q=MK/MWD=0.685+/-0.015. The fits also show that the accretion disk and white dwarf contribute a fraction f=0.535+/-0.075 of the total flux at 5500 Å. Taking the weighted average of our results with previously published results obtained using similar techniques, we find =163.7+/-0.7 km s-1 and =0.683+/-0.012. The orbital light curve of SS Cyg shows an ellipsoidal variation diluted by light from the disk and white dwarf. From an analysis of the ellipsoidal variations, we limit the orbital inclination to the range 45degAustin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  19. GSM SiNYALLERİNİN .IP OMURGASI İİZERiNI>E TAŞINMASI (SS7 OVER IP- NettcSS7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağatay Neftali Tülü

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada günümüzün en popüler nıobilhaberleşme sistemi olan GSM [1 l sisteminin, kendiöğeleri aras1ndaki en temel sinyalleşme sistemi olannumara 7 (SS7 [2 sinyallerinin, günümüzün enyaygın iletim omurgast olan ve tüm dünyadakibilgisayarları birbirine bağlayan IP (3] omurgasıüzerinden taşınabilmesi için gerekli si stemin tasar11n1ve gerçeklenınesi üzerinde çahş1lmtştır. Klasil\\ SS7iletimine göre en büyüllt; faydası çok düşül{ maliyetiolan bu sistem sayesinde, dünyadaki b i r çok GSMşebekesi ara bağlanti harcanıalarıııda büyükmiktarda tasarrufa gideceklerdir. Aralarındakiklasik 64 KB/sn 'lik ara bağlantı yerine, bununüzerinde bir bağlantı hızı ile iki şebeke haberleşmişolacaktır. Bu değişimierin etkisi abonelere fiyatlardadüşüş ve servis kalitesinde yükseliş olarakyansıyacaktır.

  20. Subtle variation within conserved effector operon gene products contributes to T6SS-mediated killing and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alteri, Christopher J; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Zhu, Kevin; Hershey, Haley L; Musili, Ninette; Miller, Jessa E; Mobley, Harry L T

    2017-11-01

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) function to deliver lethal payloads into target cells. Many studies have shown that protection against a single, lethal T6SS effector protein requires a cognate antidote immunity protein, both of which are often encoded together in a two-gene operon. The T6SS and an effector-immunity pair is sufficient for both killing and immunity. HereIn this paper we describe a T6SS effector operon that differs from conventional effector-immunity pairs in that eight genes are necessary for lethal effector function, yet can be countered by a single immunity protein. In this study, we investigated the role that the PefE T6SS immunity protein plays in recognition between two strains harboring nearly identical effector operons. Interestingly, despite containing seven of eight identical effector proteins, the less conserved immunity proteins only provided protection against their native effectors, suggesting that specificity and recognition could be dependent on variation within an immunity protein and one effector gene product. The variable effector gene product, PefD, is encoded upstream from pefE, and displays toxic activity that can be countered by PefE independent of T6SS-activity. Interestingly, while the entire pef operon was necessary to exert toxic activity via the T6SS in P. mirabilis, production of PefD and PefE alone was unable to exert this effector activity. Chimeric PefE proteins constructed from two P. mirabilis strains were used to localize immunity function to three amino acids. A promiscuous immunity protein was created using site-directed mutagenesis to change these residues from one variant to another. These findings support the notion that subtle differences between conserved effectors are sufficient for T6SS-mediated kin discrimination and that PefD requires additional factors to function as a T6SS-dependent effector.

  1. Los huevos falsos (SAGs facilitan el comportamiento social de emergencia en las crías de la tortuga laúd Dermochelys coriacea (Testudines: Dermochelyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Patiño-Martinez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La emergencia de las crías de tortuga laúd eclosionadas en los nidos profundos desde la arena hasta la superficie de la playa ocurre sin ayuda parental y es el primer gran desafío de supervivencia en su ciclo de vida. Este estudio, desarrollado en la costa Caribe colombiana, describe el comportamiento social de emergencia de neonatos y evalúa el efecto de la traslocación de los nidos en los patrones temporales de emergencia. Se propone por primera vez que el espacio liberado por la deshidratación de falsos huevos (SAGs en la nidada, representa una ventaja reproductiva al facilitar el agrupamiento de los neonatos en un espacio muy limitado y favorecer la sincronía de la emergencia. El tiempo medio registrado para la emergencia en grupo fue de 3.3 días, variando entre uno y seis días. La traslocación de los nidos no afectó el patrón temporal de emergencia que fue predominantemente nocturno (77.77% en nidos naturales y 81.65% en trasladados. Los picos máximos de emergencias a la superficie coincidieron con los periodos de menor temperatura ambiental exterior (22:00h-06:00h. La ventaja selectiva de este patrón temporal y de la emergencia sincrónica está probablemente relacionada con las mayores tasas de depredación y mortalidad por hipertermia observadas durante el día.False eggs (SAGs facilitate social post-hatching emergence behaviour in Leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea (Testudines: Dermochelyidae nests. Hatchling emergence to the beach surface from deep sand nests occurs without parental care. Social behaviour among siblings is crucial to overcome this first challenge in sea turtles life. This study, carried out at the Caribbean coast of Colombia, describes the emergence social behaviour of hatchlings from eight nests, and assess the nests translocation effects on temporal patterns of emergence. For the first time, we propose that space released by dehydration of shelled albumen globes (SAGs at the top of the clutch

  2. Timing of Hydrocarbon Fluid Emplacement in Sandstone Reservoirs in Neogene in Huizhou Sag, Southern China Sea, by Authigenic Illite 40Ar- 39Ar Laser Stepwise Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesheng, Shi; Junzhang, Zhu; Huaning, Qiu; yu, Shu; Jianyao, Wu; Zulie, Long

    Timing of oil or gas emplacements is a new subject in isotopic geochronology and petroleum geology. Hamilton et al. expounded the principle of the illite K-Ar age: Illite is often the last or one of the latest mineral cements to form prior to hydrocarbon accumulation. Since the displacement of formation water by hydrocarbons will cause silicate diagenesis to cease, K-Ar ages for illite will constrain the timing of this event, and also constrain the maximum age of formation of the trap structure. In this study, the possibility of authigenic illites 40Ar- 39Ar dating has been investigated. The illite samples were separated from the Tertiary sandstones in three rich oil reservoir belts within the Huizhou sag by cleaning, fracturing by cycled cooling-heating, soxhlet-extraction with solvents of benzene and methanol and separating with centrifugal machine. If oil is present in the separated samples, ionized organic fragments with m/e ratios of 36 to 40 covering the argon isotopes will be yielded by the ion source of a mass spectrometer, resulting in wrong argon isotopic analyses and wrong 40Ar- 39Ar ages. The preliminary experiments of illite by heating did show the presence of ionized organic fragments with m/e ratios of 36 to 44. In order to clean up the organic gases completely and obtain reliable analysis results, a special purification apparatus has been established by Qiu et al. and proved valid by the sequent illite analyses. All the illite samples by 40Ar- 39Ar IR-laser stepwise heating yield stair-up age spectra in lower laser steps and plateaux in higher laser steps. The youngest apparent ages corresponding to the beginning steps are reasonable to be interpreted for the hydrocarbon accumulation ages. The weighted mean ages of the illites from the Zhuhai and Zhujiang Formations are (12.1 ± 1.1) Ma and (9.9 ± 1.2) Ma, respectively. Therefore, the critical emplacement of petroleum accumulation in Zhujiang Formation in Huizhou sag took place in ca 10 Ma. Late

  3. Binding of antibodies to the extractable nuclear antigens SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La is induced on the surface of human keratinocytes by ultraviolet light (UVL): Implications for the pathogenesis of photosensitive cutaneous lupus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, F.; Kashihara-Sawami, M.; Lyons, M.B.; Norris, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Autoantibodies to the non-histone nucleoprotein antigens SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, and RNP are highly associated with photosensitive cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LE). In order to better understand the potential mechanisms of ultraviolet (UV) light on photosensitivity in patients with cutaneous LE, we designed immunopathologic in vitro and in vivo experiments to evaluate the effects of UV on the binding of such autoantibodies to the surface of human keratinocytes, one major target of immunologic damage in photosensitive LE. Short-term 2% paraformaldehyde fixation of suspensions of cultured human keratinocytes previously incubated with monospecific antiserum probes enabled the detection of ENA expression on the cell surface by flow-cytometry analysis. UVB light (280-320 nm) induced the binding of monospecific antibody probes for SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La on keratinocytes in a dose-dependent pattern with maximal induction observed at the dose of 200 mJ/cm2 UVB. Binding of SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, and RNP antibody was augmented strongly, but binding of anti-Sm was very weak. In contrast, UVA (320-400 nm) light had no effect on the induction of binding of these antibody probes. Identical results were seen by standard immunofluorescence techniques. Hydroxyurea-treated keratinocytes showed similar induction of those antigens by UVB irradiation, which suggested that ENA expression on cultured keratinocytes by UVB were cell-cycle independent. Tunicamycin, an inhibitor of glycosylation of proteins, reduced UVB light effect on the SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La antigen's expression. These in vitro FACS analyses revealed that ENA augmentation on the keratinocyte cell surface was dose dependent, UVB dependent, glycosylation dependent, and cell-cycle independent. In vivo ENA augmentation on the keratinocyte surface was examined in suction blister epidermal roofs

  4. A low-angle normal fault and basement structures within the Enping Sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin: Insights into late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the South China Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing; Mei, Lianfu; Shi, Hesheng; Shu, Yu; Camanni, Giovanni; Wu, Jing

    2018-04-01

    The basement structure of the Cenozoic Enping Sag, within the Pearl River Mouth Basin on the northern margin of South China Sea, is revealed by borehole-constrained high-quality 3D seismic reflection data. Such data suggest that the Enping Sag is bounded in the north by a low-angle normal fault. We interpret this low-angle normal fault to have developed as the result of the reactivation of a pre-existing thrust fault part of a pre-Cenozoic thrust system. This is demonstrated by the selective reactivation of the pre-existing thrust and by diffuse contractional deformation recognized from the accurate analysis of basement reflections. Another significant result of this study is the finding of some residual rift basins within the basement of the Enping Sag. Both the thrust system and the residual basins are interpreted to have developed after the emplacement of continental margin arc-related granitoids (J3-K1) that define the basement within the study area. Furthermore, seismic sections show that the pre-existing residual rift basins are offset by the main thrust fault and they are both truncated by the Tg unconformity. These structural relationships, interpreted in the frame of previous studies, help us to reconstruct a six-event structural evolution model for the Enping Sag from the late Mesozoic to the early Cenozoic. In particular, we interpret the residual rift basins to have formed as the result of back-arc extension due to the slab roll-back of the Paleo-Pacific Plate subduction in the early K2. The thrust system has recorded a compressional event in the late K2 that followed the back-arc extension in the SCS area. The mechanism of this compressional event is still to be clarified, and might be related to continuous subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate or to the continent-continent collision between a micro-continental block and the South China margin.

  5. Nuorisopsykiatrisessa hoitotyössä jaksaminen, kun itsellä alaikäisiä lapsia

    OpenAIRE

    Kuuslehto, Marianna; Niemi, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli kuvata sairaanhoitajien jaksamista nuorisopsykiatrisessa hoitotyössä, kun heillä itsellään on alaikäisiä lapsia. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on saada tietoa, millaisena sairaanhoitajat kokevat työssäjaksamisen nuorisopsykiatrisessa hoitotyössä, kun itsellä on alaikäisiä lapsia. Tavoitteena on myös saada tietoa sairaanhoitajien työssäjaksamisen keinoista ja nuorisopsykiatrisen työn kuormittavuustekijöistä. Opinnäytetytön avulla saatavaa tietoa voidaan hyödyn...

  6. Kehityshankkeena tasa-arvo : Sukupuolinäkökulman huomioon ottaminen teknologiaosaamisen johtamisessa Yritys Oyj:ssä

    OpenAIRE

    Syrjäläinen, Suvi

    2010-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö tehtiin suurelle kansainväliselle teknologiayritykselle, josta käytän tässä opinnäytetyössä työssä nimeä Yritys Oyj. Opinnäytetyön johtoajatuksena oli tehdä suomalainen sukupuolijärjestelmä, -stereotypiat sekä sukupuolten välinen tasa-arvo näkyväksi ja osoittaa, kuinka näitä parantamalla voidaan lisätä Yritys Oyj:n tuottavuutta ja sitä kautta menestystä. Työn sukupuolta ja sukupuolieroja käsittelevässä teoriaosuudessa selvitettiin sukupuolistereotypioiden olemassao...

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Chilean version of the Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruston, Francisco Contreras; Moreti, Felipe; Vivero, Martín; Malebran, Celina; Behlau, Mara

    This research aims to accomplish the cross-cultural equivalence of the Chilean version of the VoiSS protocol through its cultural and linguistic adaptation. After the translation of the VoiSS protocol to Chilean Spanish by two bilingual speech therapists and its back translation to English, we compared the items of the original tool with the previous translated version. The existing discrepancies were modified by a consensus committee of five speech therapists and the translated version was entitled Escala de Sintomas Vocales - ESV, with 30 questions and five answers: "Never", "Occasionally", "Sometimes", "Most of the time", "Always". For cross-cultural equivalence, the protocol was applied to 15 individuals with vocal problems. In each question the option of "Not applicable" was added to the answer choices for identification of the questions not comprehended or not appropriate for the target population. Two individuals had difficulty answering two questions, which made it necessary to adapt the translation of only one of them. The modified ESV was applied to three individuals with vocal problems, and there were incomprehensible inappropriate questions for the Chilean culture. The ESV reflects the original English version, both in the number of questions and the limitations of the emotional and physical domains. There is now a cross-cultural equivalence of VoiSS in Chilean Spanish, titled ESV. The validation of the ESV for Chilean Spanish is ongoing. RESUMEN Este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar la equivalencia cultural de la versión Chilena del protocolo Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS por medio de su adaptación cultural y lingüística. Después de la traducción del VoiSS para el Español Chileno, por dos fonoaudiólogos bilingües, y de la retro traducción para el inglés, se realizó una comparación de los ítems del instrumento original con la versión traducida, surgiendo discrepancias; tales divergencias fueron resueltas por un comité compuesto por

  8. The heptanucleotide motif GAGACGC is a key component of a cis-acting promoter element that is critical for SnSAG1 expression in Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Howe, Daniel K

    2009-07-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona undergoes a complex process of intracellular development, during which many genes are temporally regulated. The described study was undertaken to begin identifying the basic promoter elements that control gene expression in S. neurona. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region of five S. neurona genes revealed a conserved heptanucleotide motif GAGACGC that is similar to the WGAGACG motif described upstream of multiple genes in Toxoplasma gondii. The promoter region for the major surface antigen gene SnSAG1, which contains three heptanucleotide motifs within 135 bases of the transcription start site, was dissected by functional analysis using a dual luciferase reporter assay. These analyses revealed that a minimal promoter fragment containing all three motifs was sufficient to drive reporter molecule expression, with the presence and orientation of the 5'-most heptanucleotide motif being absolutely critical for promoter function. Further studies should help to identify additional sequence elements important for promoter function and for controlling gene expression during intracellular development by this apicomplexan pathogen.

  9. The effect of pre-storage cooling on 2,3-DPG levels in red cells stored in SAG-M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llohn, Abid Hussain; Vetlesen, Annette; Fagerhol, Magne Kristoffer; Kjeldsen-Kragh, Jens

    2005-10-01

    The concentration of red cell 2,3-DPG (2,3-diphosphoglycerate) rapidly decreases during storage. A favourable effect on red cell 2,3-DPG has been demonstrated by rapid cooling of whole blood prior to storage. In our study we have investigated how different methods of cooling whole blood immediately after donation effect 2,3-DPG levels during storage. Thirty-six whole blood units (in 6 groups) of 450 ml were collected in 63 ml CPD. SAG-M was used as preservative solution for red cell concentrates (RCC). The units in one group were cooled down at ambient temperature, while units in the other groups were cooled down rapidly by different ways immediately after bleeding. Samples from the whole blood units were collected at various days during storage for 2,3-DPG measurements. The decline in 2,3-DPG during the first two weeks of storage was significantly slower in the groups which were cooled down rapidly to 17-18 degrees C within 1h after bleeding (all p

  10. A dual-directional light-control film with a high-sag and high-asymmetrical-shape microlens array fabricated by a UV imprinting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Ta-Wei; Liao, Yunn-Shiuan; Chen, Chi-Feng; Yang, Jauh-Jung

    2008-01-01

    A dual-directional light-control film with a high-sag and high-asymmetric-shape long gapless hexagonal microlens array fabricated by an ultra-violent (UV) imprinting process is presented. Such a lens array is designed by ray-tracing simulation and fabricated by a micro-replication process including gray-scale lithography, electroplating process and UV curing. The shape of the designed lens array is similar to that of a near half-cylindrical lens array with a periodical ripple. The measurement results of a prototype show that the incident lights using a collimated LED with the FWHM of dispersion angle, 12°, are diversified differently in short and long axes. The numerical and experimental results show that the FWHMs of the view angle for angular brightness in long and short axis directions through the long hexagonal lens are about 34.3° and 18.1° and 31° and 13°, respectively. Compared with the simulation result, the errors in long and short axes are about 5% and 16%, respectively. Obviously, the asymmetric gapless microlens array can realize the aim of the controlled asymmetric angular brightness. Such a light-control film can be used as a power saving screen compared with convention diffusing film for the application of a rear projection display

  11. Search for Doppler-shifted gamma-ray emission from SS 433 using the SMM spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldzahler, B.J.; Share, G.H.; Kinzer, R.L.; Magura, J.; Chupp, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    Data accumulated from 1980 to 1983 with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer aboard NASA's Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite were searched for evidence of red and blue Doppler-shifted 1.37 MeV Mg-24 nuclear lines from SS 433. The SMM data base covers 270 days when SS 433 was in the field of view and includes periods of radio flaring and quiescence. No evidence was found for Doppler-shifted line emission in any of the spectra. The range of 3-sigma upper limits for individual 9 day integration periods was 0.0008-0.0023 photons/sq cm per sec for the blue beam, encompassing the reported about 1.5 MeV line, and 0.0008-0.002 photons/sq cm per sec for the red beam, encompassing the reported about 1.2 MeV line; the average 3-sigma upper limit in each beam for shifted about 1.37 MeV lines is 0.0015 photons/sq cm per sec for single 9 day integrations. The 3-sigma upper limit on 1.37 MeV gamma-ray emission over 23 9-day integration intervals for the red beam and 28 intervals for the blue beam is 0.0002 photons/sq cm per sec. These new limits from SMM can be reconciled with the HEAO 3 results only if SS 433 emits gamma radiation at or above the SMM sensitivity limit on rare occasions due to variable physical conditions in the system. 19 refs

  12. Search for Doppler-shifted gamma-ray emission from SS 433 using the SMM spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldzahler, B. J.; Share, G. H.; Kinzer, R. L.; Magura, J.; Chupp, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    Data accumulated from 1980 to 1983 with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer aboard NASA's Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite were searched for evidence of red and blue Doppler-shifted 1.37 MeV Mg-24 nuclear lines from SS 433. The SMM data base covers 270 days when SS 433 was in the field of view and includes periods of radio flaring and quiescence. No evidence was found for Doppler-shifted line emission in any of the spectra. The range of 3-sigma upper limits for individual 9 day integration periods was 0.0008-0.0023 photons/sq cm per sec for the blue beam, encompassing the reported about 1.5 MeV line, and 0.0008-0.002 photons/sq cm per sec for the red beam, encompassing the reported about 1.2 MeV line; the average 3-sigma upper limit in each beam for shifted about 1.37 MeV lines is 0.0015 photons/sq cm per sec for single 9 day integrations. The 3-sigma upper limit on 1.37 MeV gamma-ray emission over 23 9-day integration intervals for the red beam and 28 intervals for the blue beam is 0.0002 photons/sq cm per sec. These new limits from SMM can be reconciled with the HEAO 3 results only if SS 433 emits gamma radiation at or above the SMM sensitivity limit on rare occasions due to variable physical conditions in the system.

  13. Reduced infectivity of waterborne viable but nonculturable Helicobacter pylori strain SS1 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Kevin F; Eaton, Kathryn A; Fontaine, Clinton; Brewster, Rebecca; Wu, Jianfeng; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Valdivieso, Manuel; Baker, Laurence H; Xi, Chuanwu

    2017-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been consistently associated with lack of access to clean water and proper sanitation, but no studies have demonstrated that the transmission of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) H. pylori can occur from drinking contaminated water. In this study, we used a laboratory mouse model to test whether waterborne VBNCH. pylori could cause gastric infection. We performed five mouse experiments to assess the infectivity of VBNCH. pylori in various exposure scenarios. VBNC viability was examined using Live/Dead staining and Biolog phenotype metabolism arrays. High doses of VBNCH. pylori in water were chosen to test the "worst-case" scenario for different periods of time. One experiment also investigated the infectious capabilities of VBNC SS1 using gavage. Further, immunocompromised mice were exposed to examine infectivity among potentially vulnerable groups. After exposure, mice were euthanized and their stomachs were examined for H. pylori infection using culture and PCR methodology. VBNC cells were membrane intact and retained metabolic activity. Mice exposed to VBNCH. pylori via drinking water and gavage were not infected, despite the various exposure scenarios (immunocompromised, high doses) that might have permitted infection with VBNCH. pylori. The positive controls exposed to viable, culturable H. pylori did become infected. While other studies that have used viable, culturable SS1 via gavage or drinking water exposures to successfully infect mice, in our study, waterborne VBNC SS1 failed to colonize mice under all test conditions. Future studies could examine different H. pylori strains in similar exposure scenarios to compare the relative infectivity of the VBNC vs the viable, culturable state, which would help inform future risk assessments of H. pylori in water. © 2017 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Thick SS316 materials TIG welding development activities towards advanced fusion reactor vacuum vessel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B. Ramesh; Gangradey, R.

    2012-11-01

    Advanced fusion reactors like ITER and up coming Indian DEMO devices are having challenges in terms of their materials design and fabrication procedures. The operation of these devices is having various loads like structural, thermo-mechanical and neutron irradiation effects on major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, magnets and blanket modules. The concept of double wall vacuum vessel (VV) is proposed in view of protecting of major reactor subsystems like super conducting magnets, diagnostic systems and other critical components from high energy 14 MeV neutrons generated from fusion plasma produced by D-T reactions. The double walled vacuum vessel is used in combination with pressurized water circulation and some special grade borated steel blocks to shield these high energy neutrons effectively. The fabrication of sub components in VV are mainly used with high thickness SS materials in range of 20 mm- 60 mm of various grades based on the required protocols. The structural components of double wall vacuum vessel uses various parts like shields, ribs, shells and diagnostic vacuum ports. These components are to be developed with various welding techniques like TIG welding, Narrow gap TIG welding, Laser welding, Hybrid TIG laser welding, Electron beam welding based on requirement. In the present paper the samples of 20 mm and 40 mm thick SS 316 materials are developed with TIG welding process and their mechanical properties characterization with Tensile, Bend tests and Impact tests are carried out. In addition Vickers hardness tests and microstructural properties of Base metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Zone are done. TIG welding application with high thick SS materials in connection with vacuum vessel requirements and involved criticalities towards welding process are highlighted.

  15. Thick SS316 materials TIG welding development activities towards advanced fusion reactor vacuum vessel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, B Ramesh; Gangradey, R

    2012-01-01

    Advanced fusion reactors like ITER and up coming Indian DEMO devices are having challenges in terms of their materials design and fabrication procedures. The operation of these devices is having various loads like structural, thermo-mechanical and neutron irradiation effects on major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, magnets and blanket modules. The concept of double wall vacuum vessel (VV) is proposed in view of protecting of major reactor subsystems like super conducting magnets, diagnostic systems and other critical components from high energy 14 MeV neutrons generated from fusion plasma produced by D-T reactions. The double walled vacuum vessel is used in combination with pressurized water circulation and some special grade borated steel blocks to shield these high energy neutrons effectively. The fabrication of sub components in VV are mainly used with high thickness SS materials in range of 20 mm- 60 mm of various grades based on the required protocols. The structural components of double wall vacuum vessel uses various parts like shields, ribs, shells and diagnostic vacuum ports. These components are to be developed with various welding techniques like TIG welding, Narrow gap TIG welding, Laser welding, Hybrid TIG laser welding, Electron beam welding based on requirement. In the present paper the samples of 20 mm and 40 mm thick SS 316 materials are developed with TIG welding process and their mechanical properties characterization with Tensile, Bend tests and Impact tests are carried out. In addition Vickers hardness tests and microstructural properties of Base metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Zone are done. TIG welding application with high thick SS materials in connection with vacuum vessel requirements and involved criticalities towards welding process are highlighted.

  16. Volume-dependent K+ transport in rabbit red blood cells comparison with oxygenated human SS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rohil, N.; Jennings, M.L.

    1989-07-01

    In this study the volume-dependent or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive K+ influx and efflux were measured with the tracer 86Rb+ in rabbit red blood cells. The purpose of the work was to examine the rabbit as a potential model for cell volume regulation in human SS red blood cells and also to investigate the relationship between the NEM-reactive sulfhydryl group(s) and the signal by which cell swelling activates the transport. Ouabain-resistant K+ efflux and influx increase nearly threefold in cells swollen hypotonically by 15%. Pretreatment with 2 mM NEM stimulates efflux 5-fold and influx 10-fold (each measured in an isotonic medium). The ouabain-resistant K+ efflux was dependent on the major anion in the medium. The anion dependence of K+ efflux in swollen or NEM-stimulated cells was as follows: Br- greater than Cl- much greater than NO3- = acetate. The magnitudes of both the swelling- and the NEM-stimulated fluxes are much higher in young cells (density separated but excluding reticulocytes) than in older cells. Swelling- or NEM-stimulated K+ efflux in rabbit red blood cells was inhibited 50% by 1 mM furosemide, and the inhibitory potency of furosemide was enhanced by extracellular K+, as is known to be true for human AA and low-K+ sheep red blood cells. The swelling-stimulated flux in both rabbit and human SS cells has a pH optimum at approximately 7.4. We conclude that rabbit red blood cells are a good model for swelling-stimulated K+ transport in human SS cells.

  17. Single-molecule analysis reveals the kinetics and physiological relevance of MutL-ssDNA binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghyun Park

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available DNA binding by MutL homologs (MLH/PMS during mismatch repair (MMR has been considered based on biochemical and genetic studies. Bulk studies with MutL and its yeast homologs Mlh1-Pms1 have suggested an integral role for a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA binding activity during MMR. We have developed single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET and a single-molecule DNA flow-extension assays to examine MutL interaction with ssDNA in real time. The smFRET assay allowed us to observe MutL-ssDNA association and dissociation. We determined that MutL-ssDNA binding required ATP and was the greatest at ionic strength below 25 mM (K(D = 29 nM while it dramatically decreases above 100 mM (K(D>2 µM. Single-molecule DNA flow-extension analysis suggests that multiple MutL proteins may bind ssDNA at low ionic strength but this activity does not enhance stability at elevated ionic strengths. These studies are consistent with the conclusion that a stable MutL-ssDNA interaction is unlikely to occur at physiological salt eliminating a number of MMR models. However, the activity may infer some related dynamic DNA transaction process during MMR.

  18. Microstructural studies of suck cast (Zr-SS)-3 and 5 AI alloys for nuclear metallic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.; Das, N.; Sengupta, P.; Arya, A.; Dey, G.K.

    2015-01-01

    Management of radioactive metallic waste using 'alloy melting route' is currently being investigated. For disposal of Zr and SS base nuclear metallic wastes, Zr-stainless steel (SS) hybrid alloys are being considered as baseline alloys for developing metallic-waste-form (MWF) alloys. In this context Zr-16 wt. %55 has been selected for MWF alloy in our previous study. In present study, to include amorphous phase in this alloy, 3 and 5 wt. % Al has been added in order to improve desirable properties and useful features of MWF and the two alloys have been prepared by suck casting techniques. Microstructure of these alloys have been investigated by optical and electron microscopy which shows occurrence of two different phases, e.g. dark grey and white phases, in (Zr-16 SS)-3 Al and three different phases, e.g. grey, dark grey and white phases in (Zr-16 SS)-5 AI. Electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of these two alloy specimens revealed the occurrence of Zr (Fe, Cr, AI) (dark grey) and Zr 2 (Fe, Cr, AI) (white) phases in (Zr-16 SS)-3 Al whereas, Zr (Fe, Cr, AI) (dark grey), Zr 2 (Fe, Cr, AI) (grey) and Zr 3 (Fe, Cr, AI) (white) phases were found in (Zr-16 SS)-5 AI. In addition, presence of amorphous phase was indicated by XRD analysis that could be confirmed by transmission electron microscopy of these two alloys. (author)

  19. Efficient Programming for Multicore Processor Heterogeneity: OpenMP versus OmpSs

    OpenAIRE

    Butko , Anastasiia; Bruguier , Florent; Gamatié , Abdoulaye; Sassatelli , Gilles

    2017-01-01

    International audience; ARM single-ISA heterogeneous multicore processors combine high-performance big cores with power-efficient small cores. They aim at achieving a suitable balance between performance and energy. How- ever, a main challenge is to program such architectures so as to efficiently exploit their features. In this paper, we study the impact on performance and energy trade-offs of single-ISA architecture according to OpenMP 3.0 and the OmpSs programming models. We consider differ...

  20. Osaamalla organisaatiokulttuurin oivaltajaksi : Johtamisosaamista tehostetun palveluasumisen esimiestyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Oja, Ulla; Heinonen, Miia

    2015-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö toteutettiin työelämälähtöisenä tutkimuksellisena kehittämishankkeena. Sen tarkoituksena oli edistää organisaatiokulttuuriin liittyvää johtamisosaamista Lahden kaupungin tehostetun palveluasumisen yksiköissä. Kehittämishankkeen ensimmäisenä tavoitteena oli kuvata, miten organisaatiokulttuuri ilmenee työyhteisössä ja millaista osaamista organisaatiokulttuurin johtaminen vaatii. Toisena tavoitteena oli tuottaa organisaatiokulttuurin johtamisosaamisen kehittämisalueet. Keh...

  1. Kehonkuvaa eheyttämässä - kehonkuva psykofyysisessä fysioterapiassa

    OpenAIRE

    Härkälä, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Kuntoutuslainsäädännön mukaan fysioterapia kuuluu lääkinnälliseen kuntoutukseen, jonka tavoitteena on vaikuttaa ihmisen toimintakykyyn ja normaalin elämän edellytyksiin. Käytännössä ihmisen toimintakykyä arvioidaan sen mukaan, millaiset fyysiset, psyykkiset ja sosiaaliset edellytykset yksilöllä on selviytyä päivittäisistä toiminnoista ja askareista, kuten työstä, opiskelusta, sosiaalisista suhteista ja vapaa-ajan toimista. Toimintakyky on siis laaja käsite, ja tähän kuuluvat oleellisesti fyys...

  2. Butt Weldability for SS400 Using Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Do; Myoung, Gi Hoon; Park, Duck; Myoung, Gi Hoon; Park, In Duck

    2016-01-01

    This study presents results of an experimental investigation of the laser-arc, hybrid, butt welding process of SS400 structural steel. Welding parameters including laser power, welding current and speed were varied in order to obtain one-pass, full-penetration welds without defects. The conditions that resulted in optimal beads were identified. After welding, hardness measurements and microstructure observations were carried out in order to study weld properties. The mechanical properties of both the base material and welded specimen were compared based on the results of tensile strength measurements. The yield and tensile strengths were found to be similar

  3. Ikääntyneiden seksuaalisuus ja sen tukeminen hoitotyössä - ohjeita hoitajille

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffrén, Jenni; Eskelinen, Noora

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on kuvata ikääntyneiden seksuaalisuutta ja kuinka hoitajat voivat tukea seksu-aalisuutta hoitotyössä. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on luoda opas ikääntyneiden seksuaalisuuden tukemiseksi Leivolan hoitohenkilökunnalle, johon kuuluu perus-, lähi- ja sairaanhoitajia. Toimeksiantajanamme on Leivolan palvelukeskus Leppävirralla, joka on ympärivuorokautinen hoitokoti. Palvelukeskuksen asukkaiden ikäjakauma on 63–99 vuotta. Opinnäytetyö on kehittämistyö. Opinnäyte...

  4. Transmutation and activation of stainless steel 316 SS in a thermal fusion reactor blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, J.; Schneider, J.

    1977-10-01

    Using the program MATEXP (matrix exponential method) the influence of neutron flux is calculated for stainless steel 3s16 SS which is used as a structural material in a fusion reactor blanket (CTRD-I). The transmutations, activations and γ-dose rates are determined for an operation time of 20 years. Investigating the decay behaviour after operation time, we found that the long term activity and dose rate was mainly influenced by five nuclides: Fe55, Ni63, Ni59, Co60 and Nb94. (orig.) [de

  5. Guanxi-verkostojen merkitys kiinalaisessa liiketoimintaympäristössä

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvonen, Anne; Matveinen, Tarja

    2009-01-01

    Kiina muuttuu valtavaa vauhtia. Entinen suljettu valtio on kasvanut jättimahdiksi ja yhtäjak-soinen talouskasvu on jatkunut yhdeksän prosentin vuositasolla vuodesta 1979 lähtien. Ulko-maisia yrityksiä kiinnostavat Kiinan halvat työvoimakustannukset ja valtavat markkinat, mutta kiinalaiseen liiketoimintaympäristöön sopeutuminen vaatii yrityksiltä aikaa, kärsivällisyyttä ja oikeanlaisia suhteita. Vaikka ulkoiset muutokset ovat tapahtuneet häkellyttävän nopeasti, vaikuttavat ihmisten sisimmässä ...

  6. Constitutive modeling for uniaxial time-dependent ratcheting of SS304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan Qianhua; Kang Guozheng; Zhang Juan

    2007-01-01

    Based on the experimental results of uniaxial time-dependent ratcheting behavior of SS304 stainless steel at room temperature and 973K, a new time-dependent constitutive model was proposed. The model describes the time-dependent ratcheting by adding a static/thermal recovery into the Abdel-Karim-Ohno non-linear kinematic hardening rule. The capability of the model to describe the time-dependent ratcheting was discussed by comparing the simulations with the corresponding experimental results. It is shown that the revised unified viscoplastic model can simulate the time-dependent ratcheting reasonably both at room and high temperatures. (authors)

  7. Interaction of dense nitrogen plasma with SS304 surface using APF plasma focus device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrashteh, M.; Habibi, M.; Heydari, E.

    2012-04-01

    The nitridation of SS304 surfaces is obtained by irradiating nitrogen ions from Amirkabir plasma focus device, which use multiple focus deposition shots at optimum distance 10 cm from the anode. The Vickers Micro-Hardness values are improved more than twice for the nitrided samples comparing to the nonnitrided ones. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis is carried out in order to explore the phase changes in the near surface structure of the metals. The results of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) indicate changes in surface morphology which are the emergence of smooth and uniform film on the surface of the nitrided metals.

  8. Short-time-scale Doppler and intensity variations in the spectrum of SS 433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.M.; Newsom, G.H.; Foltz, C.B.; Byard, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of SS 433 were obtained on ten consecutive nights in 1981 May. Measurements of the equivalent widths of the spectral lines and Doppler shifts of the moving lines are presented. Not only does the 6-day period in the wavelengths of the moving lines appear quite clearly, but the data strongly suggest that this period is decreasing at a rate of (3.0 +- 1.1) x 10 -5 days/day. In addition, large equivalent width variations of the stationary lines are observed

  9. Osallisena omassa elämässä : Kehitysvammaisen nuoren itsenäistymisen tukeminen

    OpenAIRE

    Rosbacka, Marjo

    2009-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö tehtiin yhteistyössä Eskoon aikuiskoulutusyksikkö Kaarisillan kanssa. Tutkinnan kohteena oli kehitysvammaisten nuorten itsenäisyys ja osallisuus arkipäivän toimintaan. Työn tarkoituksena on herättää ihmisiä pohtimaan tasa-arvoista elämää. Mitä siihen kuuluu ja kenen tehtävänä on varmistaa yhdenvertaisuus? Tutkimuksen pääongelmaksi muodostui; Miten tavallisen nuoren ja kehitysvammaisen nuoren elämät eroavat toisistaan? Lisäksi tutkimuksessa selvitettiin, miksi elämät eroavat toisi...

  10. Röntgenhoitajaopiskelijan työturvallisuus ammattitaitoa edistävässä harjoittelussa

    OpenAIRE

    Vierula, Hanna-Leena

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyönä tuotettiin taskuinfo työturvallisuudesta Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoulun radiografian ja sädehoidon koulutusohjelman opiskelijoille ammattitaitoa edistäviin harjoitteluihin. Opinnäytetyön tavoite on edistää röntgenhoitajaopiskelijoiden tietoutta työturvallisuudesta sekä auttaa heitä työturvallisuuteen liittyvissä ongelmatilanteissa ammattitaitoa edistävissä harjoitteluissa. Opinnäytetyössä tuotettiin materiaalia opiskelijoiden työturvallisuuteen liittyen. Pohjana käytettiin...

  11. Lisätty todellisuus vähittäiskaupan markkinointiviestinnässä

    OpenAIRE

    Moisa, Teuvo

    2017-01-01

    Lisätty todellisuus eli AR (englanniksi augmented reality) lisää todellisuuteen virtuaalisen elementin. Vähittäiskaupan markkinointiviestinnässä lisättyä todellisuutta on käytetty useiden vuosien ajan vahvistamaan brändikokemusta. Lisätty todellisuus mahdollistaa mukaansatempaavan markkinoinnin ja lisää asiakkaiden uskollisuutta. Lisättyä todellisuutta voi hyödyntää neljän paradigman kautta, jotka ovat aktiiviset painotuotteet ja pakkaukset, virtuaalipeilit, virtuaali-ikkunat ja paikannusta k...

  12. Pitting corrosion studies on nitrogen implanted 316L SS for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbaiyan, M.; Veerabadran, K.M.; Thampi, N.S.; Kanwar Krishnan; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Dayal, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, human bone fracture and defects have been corrected using metal and alloy fixing devices. Austenitic stainless steels (such as 316L alloy studied here) are favoured because of low cost, compared to titanium alloys, ease of fabrication and fair corrosion resistance. Localized attack on 316l stainless steel, however, results in iron, chromium and nickel ions leaching into surrounding body fluids. This study reports on the successful use of nitrogen ion implantation into 316lSS to evaluate the optimum dose needed to minimise this localised attack, in a physiological saline solution. (UK)

  13. Synthesis and antioxidant evaluation of (S,S)- and (R,R)-secoisolariciresinol diglucosides (SDGs)

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Om P.; Simmons, Nicholas; Tyagi, Sonia; Pietrofesa, Ralph; Shuvaev, Vladimir V.; Valiulin, Roman A.; Heretsch, Philipp; Nicolaou, K. C.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2013-01-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucosides (SDGs) (S,S)-SDG-1 (major isomer in flaxseed) and (R,R)-SDG-2 (minor isomer in flaxseed) were synthesized from vanillin via secoisolariciresinol (6) and glucosyl donor 7 through a concise route that involved chromatographic separation of diastereomeric diglucoside derivatives (S,S)-8 and (R,R)-9. Synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1 and (R,R)-SDG-2 exhibited potent antioxidant properties (EC50 = 292.17 ± 27.71 μM and 331.94 ± 21.21 μM, respectively) which compared well with...

  14. Butt Weldability for SS400 Using Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Do; Myoung, Gi Hoon; Park, Duck [Korea Maritime and Ocean Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Myoung, Gi Hoon; Park, In Duck [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    This study presents results of an experimental investigation of the laser-arc, hybrid, butt welding process of SS400 structural steel. Welding parameters including laser power, welding current and speed were varied in order to obtain one-pass, full-penetration welds without defects. The conditions that resulted in optimal beads were identified. After welding, hardness measurements and microstructure observations were carried out in order to study weld properties. The mechanical properties of both the base material and welded specimen were compared based on the results of tensile strength measurements. The yield and tensile strengths were found to be similar.

  15. Corrosion Testing of 304L SS 3013 Inner Container and Teardrop Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokash, Justin Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hill, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lillard, Scott [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Joyce, Stephen Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tegtmeier, Eric Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) 3013 Standard specifies a minimum of two containers to be used for the storage of plutonium-bearing materials containing at least 30 wt.% plutonium and uranium. Three nested containers are typically used, the outer, inner, and convenience containers, shown in Figure 1. Both the outer and inner containers are sealed with a weld while the innermost convenience container must not be sealed. Lifetime of the containers is expected to be fifty years. The containers are fabricated of austenitic stainless steels (SS) due to their high corrosion resistance. Potential failure mechanisms of the storage containers have been examined by Kolman and Lillard et al.

  16. Role of ethanol on growth, laccase production and protease activity in Pycnoporus cinnabarinus ss3

    OpenAIRE

    Meza, Juan Carlos; Auria, Richard; Lomascolo, A.; Sigoillot, J. C.; Casalot, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    Laccase production by the strain Pycnoporus cinnabarinus ss3 was studied in a solid-state culture on sugar-cane bagasse using chemical compounds as inducers (ethanol, methanol, veratryl alcohol and ferulic acid). Laccase productions were about 5- to 8.5-fold higher than non-induced cultures. Liquid-culture experiments with "Glabeled ethanol were conducted. Ninety-eight percent of the initial amount of C-14 from ethanol was recovered as (CO2)-C-14, C-14-biomass and soluble C-14-compounds (main...

  17. Turvajalkineiden vaikutus jalkaterveyteen Suur-Savon Sähkötyö Oy:ssä

    OpenAIRE

    Pulkkinen, Riikka; Tossavainen, Inka; Ryynänen, Elina

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää, millaisia vaikutuksia turvajalkineilla voi olla jalkaterveyteen, minkälaisia jalkaongelmia turvajalkineiden käyttö voi aiheuttaa, voivatko työntekijät itse vaikuttaa turvajalkineiden hankintaan ja millainen on turvajalkineiden hankintaprosessi Suur-Savon Sähkötyö Oy:ssä. Opinnäytetyömme toimeksiantaja oli Suur-Savon Sähkötyö Oy. Tutkimusmenetelmänä käytettiin pääasiassa kvantitatiivista tutkimusta ja aineisto kerättiin puolistrukturoidulla kysely...

  18. Fluidized pellet bed bioreactor system for SS, COD, nitrogen and phosphorus; Ryudoso zoryu bio reactor system ni yoru SS, COD, chisso oyobi rin jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T.; Tanbo, N.; Kudo, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hamaguchi, T.; Nakabayashi, A. [Tsukishima Kikai Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-02-10

    An examination was carried out on a treatment system which was constituted of an aerobic fluidized pellet bed (AFRB) bioreactor and the two steps comprising a contact aeration process and a sand filtration process for sewage/drainage treatment. The following data were obtained from the experiment by a pilot plant installed in a sewage plant. The removal ratios were the same as or above 95% in SS, 95% in total phosphorus, 85% in COD and 80% in total nitrogen. The highly dense sludge pellets formed in the AFPB bioreactor in summer contained aerobic filamentous bacteria that were capable of multiplying. The sludge retention time of this bioreactor was 2.2 to 8.1 days which were sufficient for the multiplication of denitrifiers, whose number and activity were also satisfactory for dinitrification. Further, other microorganisms existed in the bioreactor such as sulfate reducers and methanation bacteria. The role of a contact aeration tank was the oxidized decomposition and nitration of soluble BOD, and the biofilm had niterite and nitrate bacteria adhered to it. Assuming the retention time of the tank was two hours, the nitration ratio was 90% or more at the water temperature of 15{degree}C or higher. 29 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Diagnostic value of a Rec-ELISA using Toxoplasma gondii recombinant SporoSAG, BAG1, and GRA1 proteins in murine models infected orally with tissue cysts and oocysts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Döşkaya

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii causes congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns resulting with fetal anomalies. Determining the initiation time of infection is very important for pregnant women and current serological assays have drawbacks in distinguishing the recently acute toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of recently acute infection may be improved by using stage specific antigens in serological assays. In the present study, the diagnostic value of sporozoite specific SporoSAG, bradyzoite specific BAG1 proteins and GRA1 protein expressed by all forms of the parasite have been evaluated ELISA using sera systematically collected from mice administered orally with tissue cyst and oocysts. The anti-SporoSAG IgM antibodies in sera obtained from mice infected with oocysts peaked significantly at days 1, 10, and 15 (P<0.01. The anti-BAG1 IgM antibodies in sera obtained from mice infected with tissue cysts peaked significantly at days 15, 40, and 120 (P<0.05. The anti-GRA1 IgM antibodies in sera obtained from mice infected with oocysts peaked significantly at days 2, 10, and 40 (P<0.01. The anti-GRA1 IgM antibodies in sera obtained from mice infected with tissue cysts peaked significantly only at day 40 (P<0.05. The anti-SporoSAG, anti-BAG1, and anti-GRA1 IgG titers of mice showed significant increases at day 40 (P<0.05 and decrement started for only anti-GRA1 IgG at day 120. The presence of anti-SporoSAG IgM and IgG antibodies can be interpreted as recently acute infection between days 10-40 because IgM decreases at day 40. Similarly, presence of anti-BAG1 IgM and absence of IgG can be evaluated as a recently acute infection that occurred 40 days before because IgG peaks at day 40. A peak in anti-GRA1 antibody level at first testing and reduction in consecutive sample can be considered as an infection approximately around day 40 or prior. Overall, recombinant SporoSAG, BAG1 and GRA1 proteins can be accepted as valuable diagnostic markers of recently acute toxoplasmosis.

  20. Comparison of the microbial communities in solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) reactors operated at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Nelson, Michael C; Chen, Po-Hsu; Graf, Joerg; Li, Yebo; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-01-01

    The microbiomes involved in liquid anaerobic digestion process have been investigated extensively, but the microbiomes underpinning solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) are poorly understood. In this study, microbiome composition and temporal succession in batch SS-AD reactors, operated at mesophilic or thermophilic temperatures, were investigated using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A greater microbial richness and evenness were found in the mesophilic than in the thermophilic SS-AD reactors. Firmicutes accounted for 60 and 82 % of the total Bacteria in the mesophilic and in the thermophilic SS-AD reactors, respectively. The genus Methanothermobacter dominated the Archaea in the thermophilic SS-AD reactors, while Methanoculleus predominated in the mesophilic SS-AD reactors. Interestingly, the data suggest syntrophic acetate oxidation coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis as an important pathway for biogas production during the thermophilic SS-AD. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that temperature was the most influential factor in shaping the microbiomes in the SS-AD reactors. Thermotogae showed strong positive correlation with operation temperature, while Fibrobacteres, Lentisphaerae, Spirochaetes, and Tenericutes were positively correlated with daily biogas yield. This study provided new insight into the microbiome that drives SS-AD process, and the findings may help advance understanding of the microbiome in SS-AD reactors and the design and operation of SS-AD systems.

  1. Caffeine inhibits gene conversion by displacing Rad51 from ssDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabar, Michael; Mason, Jennifer M.; Chan, Yuen-Ling; Bishop, Douglas K.; Haber, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient repair of chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination relies on the formation of a Rad51 recombinase filament that forms on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) created at DSB ends. This filament facilitates the search for a homologous donor sequence and promotes strand invasion. Recently caffeine treatment has been shown to prevent gene targeting in mammalian cells by increasing non-productive Rad51 interactions between the DSB and random regions of the genome. Here we show that caffeine treatment prevents gene conversion in yeast, independently of its inhibition of the Mec1ATR/Tel1ATM-dependent DNA damage response or caffeine's inhibition of 5′ to 3′ resection of DSB ends. Caffeine treatment results in a dosage-dependent eviction of Rad51 from ssDNA. Gene conversion is impaired even at low concentrations of caffeine, where there is no discernible dismantling of the Rad51 filament. Loss of the Rad51 filament integrity is independent of Srs2's Rad51 filament dismantling activity or Rad51's ATPase activity and does not depend on non-specific Rad51 binding to undamaged double-stranded DNA. Caffeine treatment had similar effects on irradiated HeLa cells, promoting loss of previously assembled Rad51 foci. We conclude that caffeine treatment can disrupt gene conversion by disrupting Rad51 filaments. PMID:26019181

  2. Sol–gel derived solar selective coatings on SS 321 substrates for solar thermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subasri, R., E-mail: subasri@arci.res.in; Soma Raju, K.R.C.; Reddy, D.S.; Hebalkar, Neha Y.; Padmanabham, G.

    2016-01-01

    Sol–gel derived multilayered solar selective coatings were generated on AISI SS 321 substrates using Ag-TiO{sub 2} as the cermet layer, titania and silica as the dielectric layers with high and low refractive indices respectively. The phase compositions of the individual layers were independently confirmed using grazing angle incidence X-ray diffraction, which was corroborated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. Thickness of the layers was measured using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The solar absorbance was measured over the UV–Vis-NIR wavelength range. Thermal emissivity was determined using FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The durability of the coatings was ascertained using accelerated corrosion testing methods as well as by measuring the optical properties after thermal cycling experiments. The promising nature of hexavalent chrome-free, environmental friendly, multilayered solar selective coating was ascertained with respect to amenability to scale-up. - Highlights: • Sol–gel derived multilayered solar selective coatings developed on SS321 • Solar absorptance and thermal emittance at par with toxic chrome coating • Thermal stability and corrosion resistance of coatings studied • Coating performance found to be promising for large scale applications • Scale-up amenability investigated by coating generation on 1 m tubes.

  3. Sol–gel derived solar selective coatings on SS 321 substrates for solar thermal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subasri, R.; Soma Raju, K.R.C.; Reddy, D.S.; Hebalkar, Neha Y.; Padmanabham, G.

    2016-01-01

    Sol–gel derived multilayered solar selective coatings were generated on AISI SS 321 substrates using Ag-TiO_2 as the cermet layer, titania and silica as the dielectric layers with high and low refractive indices respectively. The phase compositions of the individual layers were independently confirmed using grazing angle incidence X-ray diffraction, which was corroborated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. Thickness of the layers was measured using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The solar absorbance was measured over the UV–Vis-NIR wavelength range. Thermal emissivity was determined using FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The durability of the coatings was ascertained using accelerated corrosion testing methods as well as by measuring the optical properties after thermal cycling experiments. The promising nature of hexavalent chrome-free, environmental friendly, multilayered solar selective coating was ascertained with respect to amenability to scale-up. - Highlights: • Sol–gel derived multilayered solar selective coatings developed on SS321 • Solar absorptance and thermal emittance at par with toxic chrome coating • Thermal stability and corrosion resistance of coatings studied • Coating performance found to be promising for large scale applications • Scale-up amenability investigated by coating generation on 1 m tubes

  4. ssDNA Pairing Accuracy Increases When Abasic Sites Divide Nucleotides into Small Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Peacock-Villada

    Full Text Available Accurate sequence dependent pairing of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA molecules plays an important role in gene chips, DNA origami, and polymerase chain reactions. In many assays accurate pairing depends on mismatched sequences melting at lower temperatures than matched sequences; however, for sequences longer than ~10 nucleotides, single mismatches and correct matches have melting temperature differences of less than 3°C. We demonstrate that appropriately grouping of 35 bases in ssDNA using abasic sites increases the difference between the melting temperature of correct bases and the melting temperature of mismatched base pairings. Importantly, in the presence of appropriately spaced abasic sites mismatches near one end of a long dsDNA destabilize the annealing at the other end much more effectively than in systems without the abasic sites, suggesting that the dsDNA melts more uniformly in the presence of appropriately spaced abasic sites. In sum, the presence of appropriately spaced abasic sites allows temperature to more accurately discriminate correct base pairings from incorrect ones.

  5. Effect of Microstructure on the Wear Behavior of Heat Treated SS-304 Stainless Steel

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    S. Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sliding wear characteristics of some heat treated SS-304 stainless steel against EN-8 steel in dry condition have been studied in the present experimental work. Samples of SS-304 stainless steel have been heated in a muffle furnace in desired temperature and allowed to dwell for two hours. The heated specimen are then cooled in different media namely inside the furnace, open air, cutting grade oil (grade 44 and water at room temperature to obtain different grades of heat treatment. Microstructures and corresponding micro hardness of the samples have been measured along with Feritscopic studies. Wear characteristics have been studied in a multi tribo-tester (Ducom in dry sliding condition against EN-8 steel roller. Speed, load on job and duration of test run have been considered as the experimental parameters. The wear of the samples have been obtained directly from ‘Winducom 2006’ software. Mass loss of the samples before and after operation has also been considered as the measure of wear in the present study. All the samples have been slid against EN-8 steel roller with fixed experimental parameters. The data have been plotted, compared and analyzed. Effect of microstructures as well as micro hardness on the wear behavior has been studied and concluded accordingly.

  6. X-ray variability of SS 433: Evidence for supercritical accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atapin, K. E.; Fabrika, S. N.

    2016-08-01

    We study the X-ray variability of SS 433 based on data from the ASCA observatory and the MAXI and RXTE/ASM monitoring missions. Based on the ASCA data, we have constructed the power spectrum of SS 433 in the frequency range from 10-6 to 0.1 Hz, which confirms the presence of a flat portion in the spectrum at frequencies 3 × 10-5-10-3 Hz. The periodic variability (precession, nutation, eclipses) begins to dominate significantly over the stochastic variability at lower frequencies, which does not allow the stochastic variability to be studied reliably. The model in which the flat portion extends to 9.5 × 10-6 Hz, while a power-law rise with an index of 2.6 occurs below provides the best agreement with the observations. The nutational oscillations of the jets with a period of about three days suggests that the time for the passage of material through the disk is less than this value. At frequencies below 4 × 10-6 Hz, the shape of the power spectrum probably does not reflect the disk structure but is determined by external factors, for example, by a change in the amount of material supplied by the donor. The flat portion can arise from a rapid decrease in the viscous time in the supercritical or radiative disk zones. The flat spectrum is associated with the variability of the X-ray jets that are formed in the supercritical disk region.

  7. Parameter Optimization Of Natural Hydroxyapatite/SS316l Via Metal Injection Molding (MIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, N.; Ibrahim1, M. H. I.; Amin, A. M.; Asmawi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Metal injection molding (MIM) are well known as a worldwide application of powder injection molding (PIM) where as applied the shaping concept and the beneficial of plastic injection molding but develops the applications to various high performance metals and alloys, plus metal matrix composites and ceramics. This study investigates the strength of green part by using stainless steel 316L/ Natural hydroxyapatite composite as a feedstock. Stainless steel 316L (SS316L) was mixed with Natural hydroxyapatite (NHAP) by adding 40 wt. % Low Density Polyethylene and 60 %wt. Palm Stearin as a binder system at 63 wt. % powder loading consist of 90 % wt. of SS316 L and 10 wt. % NHAP prepared thru critical powder volume percentage (CPVC). Taguchi method was functional as a tool in determining the optimum green strength for Metal Injection Molding (MIM) parameters. The green strength was optimized with 4 significant injection parameter such as Injection temperature (A), Mold temperature (B), Pressure (C) and Speed (D) were selected throughout screening process. An orthogonal array of L9 (3)4 was conducted. The optimum injection parameters for highest green strength were established at A1, B2, C0 and D1 and where as calculated based on Signal to Noise Ratio.

  8. Localized Corrosion Behavior of Type 304SS with a Silica Layer Under Atmospheric Corrosion Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Tada; G.S. Frankel

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has proposed a potential repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. [I] The temperature could be high on the waste packages, and it is possible that dripping water or humidity could interact with rock dust particulate to form a thin electrolyte layer with concentrated ionic species. Under these conditions, it is possible that highly corrosion-resistant alloys (CRAs) used as packages to dispose the nuclear waste could suffer localized corrosion. Therefore, to better understand long-term corrosion performance of CRAs in the repository, it is important to investigate localized corrosion under a simulated repository environment. We measured open circuit potential (OCP) and galvanic current (i g ) for silica-coated Type 304SS during drying of salt solutions under controlled RH environments to clarify the effect of silica layer as a dust layer simulant on localized corrosion under atmospheric environments. Type 304SS was used as a relatively susceptible model CRA instead of the much more corrosion resistant alloys, such as Alloy 22, that are being considered as, waste package materials

  9. A second wave of Salmonella T3SS1 activity prolongs the lifespan of infected epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran E Finn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Type III secretion system 1 (T3SS1 is used by the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to establish infection in the gut. Effector proteins translocated by this system across the plasma membrane facilitate invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. One such effector, the inositol phosphatase SopB, contributes to invasion and mediates activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt. Following internalization, some bacteria escape from the Salmonella-containing vacuole into the cytosol and there is evidence suggesting that T3SS1 is expressed in this subpopulation. Here, we investigated the post-invasion role of T3SS1, using SopB as a model effector. In cultured epithelial cells, SopB-dependent Akt phosphorylation was observed at two distinct stages of infection: during and immediately after invasion, and later during peak cytosolic replication. Single cell analysis revealed that cytosolic Salmonella deliver SopB via T3SS1. Although intracellular replication was unaffected in a SopB deletion mutant, cells infected with ΔsopB demonstrated a lack of Akt phosphorylation, earlier time to death, and increased lysis. When SopB expression was induced specifically in cytosolic Salmonella, these effects were restored to levels observed in WT infected cells, indicating that the second wave of SopB protects this infected population against cell death via Akt activation. Thus, T3SS1 has two, temporally distinct roles during epithelial cell colonization. Additionally, we found that delivery of SopB by cytosolic bacteria was translocon-independent, in contrast to canonical effector translocation across eukaryotic membranes, which requires formation of a translocon pore. This mechanism was also observed for another T3SS1 effector, SipA. These findings reveal the functional and mechanistic adaptability of a T3SS that can be harnessed in different microenvironments.

  10. Los huevos falsos (SAGs facilitan el comportamiento social de emergencia en las crías de la tortuga laúd Dermochelys coriacea (Testudines: Dermochelyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Patiño-Martinez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La emergencia de las crías de tortuga laúd eclosionadas en los nidos profundos desde la arena hasta la superficie de la playa ocurre sin ayuda parental y es el primer gran desafío de supervivencia en su ciclo de vida. Este estudio, desarrollado en la costa Caribe colombiana, describe el comportamiento social de emergencia de neonatos y evalúa el efecto de la traslocación de los nidos en los patrones temporales de emergencia. Se propone por primera vez que el espacio liberado por la deshidratación de falsos huevos (SAGs en la nidada, representa una ventaja reproductiva al facilitar el agrupamiento de los neonatos en un espacio muy limitado y favorecer la sincronía de la emergencia. El tiempo medio registrado para la emergencia en grupo fue de 3.3 días, variando entre uno y seis días. La traslocación de los nidos no afectó el patrón temporal de emergencia que fue predominantemente nocturno (77.77% en nidos naturales y 81.65% en trasladados. Los picos máximos de emergencias a la superficie coincidieron con los periodos de menor temperatura ambiental exterior (22:00h-06:00h. La ventaja selectiva de este patrón temporal y de la emergencia sincrónica está probablemente relacionada con las mayores tasas de depredación y mortalidad por hipertermia observadas durante el día.

  11. Production of refolded Toxoplasma gondii recombinant SAG1-related sequence 3 (SRS3) and its use for serodiagnosis of human toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, Abolfazl; Saadatnia, Geita; Golkar, Majid; Babaie, Jalal; Noordin, Rahmah

    2017-05-01

    SAG1-related sequence 3 (SRS3) is one of the major Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite surface antigens and has been shown to be potentially useful for the detection of toxoplasmosis. This protein is highly conformational due to the presence of six disulfide bonds. To achieve solubility and antigenicity, SRS3 depends on proper disulfide bond formation. The aim of this study was to over-express the SRS3 protein with correct folding for use in serodiagnosis of the disease. To achieve this, a truncated SRS3 fusion protein (rtSRS3) was produced, containing six histidyl residues at both terminals and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The refolding process was performed through three methods, namely dialysis in the presence of chemical additives along with reduced/oxidized glutathione and drop-wise dilution methods with reduced/oxidized glutathione or reduced DTT/oxidized glutathione. Ellman's assay and ELISA showed that the protein folding obtained by the dialysis method was the most favorable, probably due to the correct folding. Subsequently, serum samples from individuals with chronic infection (n = 76), probable acute infection (n = 14), and healthy controls (n = 81) were used to determine the usefulness of the refolded rtSRS3 for Toxoplasma serodiagnosis. The results of the developed IgG-ELISA showed a diagnostic specificity of 91% and a sensitivity of 82.89% and 100% for chronic and acute serum samples, respectively. In conclusion, correctly folded rtSRS3 has the potential to be used as a soluble antigen for the detection of human toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intra-instar larval cannibalism in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Crasta, Graziano; Bellini, Romeo; Comandatore, Francesco; Rossi, Paolo; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio; Urbanelli, Sandra

    2016-11-02

    Cannibalism has been observed in a wide range of animal taxa and its importance in persistence and stability of populations has been documented. In anopheline malaria vectors the inter-instar cannibalism between fourth- and first-instar larvae (L4-L1) has been shown in several species, while intra-instar cannibalism remains poorly investigated. In this study we tested the occurrence of intra-instar cannibalism within larvae of second-, third- and fourth-instar (L2, L3 and L4) of Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and An. stephensi. Experiments were set up under laboratory conditions and the effects of larval density, duration of the contact period among larvae and the presence of an older larva (i.e. a potential cannibal of bigger size) on cannibalism rate were analysed. Cannibalism was assessed by computing the number of missing larvae after 24 and 48 h from the beginning of the experiments and further documented by records with a GoPro videocamera. Intra-instar cannibalism was observed in all larval instars of both species with higher frequency in An. gambiae (s.s.) than in An. stephensi. In both species the total number of cannibalistic events increased from 0-24 to 0-48 h. The density affected the cannibalism rate, but its effect was related to the larval instar and to the presence of older larvae. Interestingly, the lower cannibalism rate between L4 larvae was observed at the highest density and the cannibalism rate between L3 larvae decreased when one L4 was added. The present study provides experimental evidence of intra-instar cannibalism in the malaria vectors An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. stephensi and highlights the possible occurrence of complex interactions between all larval instars potentially present in the breeding sites. We hypothesize that the high density and the presence of a potential cannibal of bigger size could affect the readiness to attack conspecifics, resulting into low risk larval behavior and lower cannibalism rate. The understanding of

  13. Intra-instar larval cannibalism in Anopheles gambiae (s.s. and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Porretta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannibalism has been observed in a wide range of animal taxa and its importance in persistence and stability of populations has been documented. In anopheline malaria vectors the inter-instar cannibalism between fourth- and first-instar larvae (L4-L1 has been shown in several species, while intra-instar cannibalism remains poorly investigated. In this study we tested the occurrence of intra-instar cannibalism within larvae of second-, third- and fourth-instar (L2, L3 and L4 of Anopheles gambiae (s.s. and An. stephensi. Experiments were set up under laboratory conditions and the effects of larval density, duration of the contact period among larvae and the presence of an older larva (i.e. a potential cannibal of bigger size on cannibalism rate were analysed. Cannibalism was assessed by computing the number of missing larvae after 24 and 48 h from the beginning of the experiments and further documented by records with a GoPro videocamera. Results Intra-instar cannibalism was observed in all larval instars of both species with higher frequency in An. gambiae (s.s. than in An. stephensi. In both species the total number of cannibalistic events increased from 0–24 to 0–48 h. The density affected the cannibalism rate, but its effect was related to the larval instar and to the presence of older larvae. Interestingly, the lower cannibalism rate between L4 larvae was observed at the highest density and the cannibalism rate between L3 larvae decreased when one L4 was added. Conclusions The present study provides experimental evidence of intra-instar cannibalism in the malaria vectors An. gambiae (s.s. and An. stephensi and highlights the possible occurrence of complex interactions between all larval instars potentially present in the breeding sites. We hypothesize that the high density and the presence of a potential cannibal of bigger size could affect the readiness to attack conspecifics, resulting into low risk larval behavior

  14. The Effects of Hot Bending on the Low Cycle Fatigue Behaviors of 347 SS in PWR Primary Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho-Sub; Hong, Jong-Dae; Lee, Junho; Jang, Changheui [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Fatigue damage could be significant for some locations, especially the welds and bends where stress concentration is typically high. As a possible solution, a large radius hot-bending method has been suggested to eliminate some weld joints and all tight bends. However, for the hot-bending process which involves a high temperature thermal cycle, there is a concern about changes in mechanical properties including low cycle fatigue behaviors. In APR1400, Type 347 SS have been used as surge line pipes. Therefore, to verify the applicability of hot-bending on 347 SS surge line pipes, an environmental fatigue test program was initiated. In this paper, the preliminary results of the on-going test program are introduced. Also, the low cycle fatigue behaviors of 347 SS are compared with those of other grade of stainless steels. The effects of hot bending on the low cycle fatigue behavior of 347 SS were quantitatively evaluated. The fatigue life was compared with the estimated values per NUREG 6909 rev. 1. There are no distinct differences between NUREG 6909 and LCF tests. According to fractography and cross section analysis in progress, basically, the reduction of LCF life of 347 SS in PWR water was caused by operation of HIC mechanism. The cyclic stress responses shows that there is no secondary hardening in 330 .deg.C air and PWR water.

  15. Reprint of "Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A. nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development in corrosion resistance by microstructural refinement in Zr-16 SS 304 alloy using suction casting technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, N., E-mail: nirupamd@barc.gov.in; Sengupta, P.; Abraham, G.; Arya, A.; Kain, V.; Dey, G.K.

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Grain refinement was made in Zr–16 wt.% SS alloy while prepared by suction casting process. • Distribution of Laves phase, e.g., Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Cr) was raised in suction cast (SC) Zr–16 wt.% SS. • Corrosion resistance was improved in SC alloy compared to that of arc-melt-cast alloy. • Grain refinement in SC alloy assisted for an increase in its corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Zirconium (Zr)-stainless steel (SS) hybrid alloys are being considered as baseline alloys for developing metallic-waste-form (MWF) with the motivation of disposing of Zr and SS base nuclear metallic wastes. Zr–16 wt.% SS, a MWF alloy optimized from previous studies, exhibit significant grain refinement and changes in phase assemblages (soft phase: Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Cr)/α-Zr vs. hard phase: Zr{sub 3}(Fe, Ni)) when prepared by suction casting (SC) technique in comparison to arc-cast-melt (AMC) route. Variation in Cr-distribution among different phases are found to be low in suction cast alloy, which along with grain refinement restricted Cr-depletion at the Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Cr)/Zr interfaces, prone to localized attack. Hence, SC alloy, compared to AMC alloy, showed lower current density, higher potential at the breakdown of passivity and higher corrosion potential during polarization experiments (carried out under possible geological repository environments, viz., pH 8, 5 and 1) indicating its superior corrosion resistance.

  17. Identification of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus type III secretion system 2-associated chaperone VocC for the T3SS2-specific effector VopC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeda, Yukihiro; Kodama, Toshio; Saito, Kazunobu; Iida, Tetsuya; Oishi, Kazunori; Honda, Takeshi

    2011-11-01

    The enteropathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus possesses two sets of type III secretion systems, T3SS1 and T3SS2. Effector proteins secreted by these T3SSs are delivered into host cells, leading to cell death or diarrhea. However, it is not known how specific effectors are secreted through a specific T3SS when both T3SSs are expressed within bacteria. One molecule thought to determine secretion specificity is a T3SS-associated chaperone; however, no T3SS2-specific chaperone has been identified. Therefore, we screened T3SS2 chaperone candidates by a pull-down assay using T3SS2 effectors fused with glutathione-S-transferase. A secretion assay revealed that the newly identified cognate chaperone VocC for the T3SS2-specific effector VopC was required for the efficient secretion of the substrate through T3SS2. Further experiments determined the chaperone-binding domain and the amino-terminal secretion signal of the cognate effector. These findings, in addition to the previously identified T3SS1-specific chaperone, VecA, provide a strategy to clarify the specificity of effector secretion through T3SSs of V. parahaemolyticus. 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Myocardiopathy diagnosed in utero in a mother with SS-A antibodies treated with plasmapheresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyave, C M; Puente Ledezma, F; Montiel Amoroso, G; Martínez García, A C

    1995-03-01

    We report a 36 years old patient with Sjogren's syndrome, who during her second pregnancy, the product developed a miocardiopathy with complete heart block that was diagnosed in utero at 26 weeks of pregnancy. Simultaneously, laboratory data reported a SS-A/Ro titer of 1:50,000 with positive antiphospholipids antibodies. Patient was subjected three times to plasmapheresis with three blood volume exchange each time. During the procedures, we had monitor the product and no hemodinamic changes were observed. Unfortunately, 25 days later the patient reported absence of fetal movement and by ecosonography and Doppler was not observed fetal movement or cardiac function. This pregnancy ends in cesarea. The patient is in perfect clinical conditions under control using prednisone and methotrexate.

  19. Perehdytys etätyössä : case Annanpura Oy:n perehdytyssuunnitelma

    OpenAIRE

    Kohomäki, Noora

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli laatia toimiva perehdytyssuunnitelma yritykselle, jonka työntekijät työskentelevät pääsääntöisesti kotoaan käsin. Etätyön perehdyttämisessä korostuvat riittävän viestinnän ja vuorovaikutuksen järjestäminen. Työn keskeisenä haasteena oli dialogisen perehdytyksen ja itsenäisesti suoritettavan etätyön yhdistäminen. Työn tavoitteena oli lisäksi selvittää, onnistuuko hiljaisen tiedon ja osaamisen siirtäminen etätyössä ja sen perehdytyksessä. Teoreettisessa viitekeh...

  20. RICOMPOSIZIONE VIRTUALE DEL TABERNACOLO DI ISAIA DA PISA PER LA CHIESA DELLA SS. TRINITÀ DI VITERBO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Abate

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Questo progetto ha preso spunto da uno studio condotto da Giusy Zevolini e pubblicato nel 2003 sulla Rivista dell’Istituto Nazionale di Archeologia e Storia dell’Arte. Nell’articolo la studiosa proponeva un’ipotesi di ricomposizione di due opere scultoree in marmo, entrambe eseguite durante il XV secolo, una delle quali sicuramente dall’artista toscano Isaia da Pisa. Le due parti, in origine probabilmente inserite in un unico complesso scultoreo monumentale, all’interno della chiesa agostiniana della SS. Trinità di Viterbo, oggi sono conservate in due siti distinti del capoluogo del territorio della Tuscia.

    Virtual Reconstruction of the Tabernacolo of Isaia da Pisa for the Church of SS. Trinità in Viterbo

    This study is based upon a characteristic, Art History paper, published in 2003. Specifically it suggests a reconstruction hypotesis concerning two marble objects, created in the XV Century, which were supposed to belong to each other, in a monumental complex, inside the Augustinian Church of the SS. Trinità in Viterbo (Italy. In the article the iconography was rendered by simply stitching pictures together, losing the objects proportions, without any care given to the likely missing parts, and of course showing the image in 2D. Despite scholars mostly agreeing that the two marble artefacts were made by the same artist (Isaiada Pisa and that both belong to the same church, they are still notsure if the pieces are a unique structure. The virtual re-composition helps to enhance the visual perception of the whole construction, which is now available just in 2D flat images, and to understand how it originally would have looked. The two objects, today placed in different locations in the city of Viterbo, studied in this paper are: a marble tabernacle with Angels and Christ; a marble tympanum with a blessing by Christ. Both sculptures were acquired witha triangulation laser scanner in two different

  1. V 1343 aquilae (SS 433) as a double-periodic star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranskij, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    The new computer method of double periodicity search earlier tested on the Blazhko effect in RR Lyrae type variable stars is applied to define more precise periods of brightness variability of the binary V 1343 Aql (SS 433). Computer program was used in the two-parameter search regime. The obtained periods are P 1 = 13sup(d).074+-0sup(d).008 and P 2 = 163sup(d).8+-1sup(d).2. The periodically repeating brithness curve deeps treated as primary minima (the accretion disc eclipsed by the star) vary their shape with the phase of period P 2 . The expected eclipse at 1979 October 16 did nor occur

  2. SS Cygni: The accretion disk in eruption and at minimum light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiplinger, A.L.

    1979-01-01

    Absolute spectrophotometric observations of the dwarf nova SS Cygni have been obtained at maximum light, during the subsequent decline, and at minimum light. In order to provide a critical test of accretion disk theory, a model for a steady-state α-model accretion disk has been constructed which utilizes a grid of stellar energy distributions to synthesize the disk flux. Physical parameters for the accretion disk at maximum light are set by estimates of the intrinsic luminosity of the system that result from a desynthesis of a composite minimum light energy distribution. At maximum light, agreements between observational and theoretical continuum slopes and the Balmer jump are remarkably good. The model fails, however, during the eruption decline and at minimum light. It appears that the physical character of an accretion disk at minimum light must radiacally differ from the disk observed at maximum light

  3. Blood groups polymorphism (ABO, Ss, Rhesus and Duffy) in the Arabic population of Beni Mellal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ossmani, H.; El Amri, H.; Bouchrif, B.; Glouib, K.; Zaoui, D.; Chafik, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with anthropogenetic profile of the Arab speaking population of the Beni Mellal region which separates areas inhabited by Mid-Atlas Berbers from those inhabited by Soth-Morroccan Arabs. The study of blood groups ABO, Rhesus, Ss,and Duffy was conducted on 131 individuals. The result shows that this population has the highest frequencies of the FyO allele (0.860) and s allele (0.524) in comparison to all Arab and Berber populations of North Africa and the Middle East. However genetic distances estimated on the basis of these four markers reveal that the population of Beni Mellal and another in the Beni Hlal region are in the same sub-cluster with populations from the Middle East. This may be attributed to the Oriental Arab ( M achrek ) origin of these two Moroccan Arab populations. (author)

  4. Periodicity Analysis of X-ray Light Curves of SS 433

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-yi; Lu, Xiang-long; Zhao, Qiu-wen; Dong, Dian-qiao; Lao, Bao-qiang; Lu, Yang; Wei, Yan-heng; Wu, Xiao-cong; An, Tao

    2017-01-01

    SS 433 is sofar the unique X-ray binary that has the simultaneously detected orbital period, super-orbital period, and nutation period, as well as a bidirectional spiral jet. The study on its X-ray light variability is helpful for understanding the dynamic process of the system, and the correlations between the different wavebands. In this paper, two time-series analysis techniques, i.e., the Lomb-Scargle periodogram and weighted wavelet Z-transform, are employed to search for the periods in the Swift/BAT (Burst Alert Telescope) (15-50 keV) and RXTE/ASM (Rose X-ray Timing Explorer/All Sky Monitor) (1.5-3, 3- 4, and 5-12 keV) light curves of SS 433, and the Monte Carlo simulation is performed for the obtained periodical components. For the 15-50 keV energy band, five significant periodical components are detected, which are P1(∼6.29 d), P2 (∼6.54 d), P3 (∼13.08 d), P4 (∼81.50 d), and P5 (∼162.30 d). For the 3-5 and 5-12 keV energy bands, the periodical components P3 (∼13 d) and P5 (∼162 d) are detected in both energy bands. However, for the 1.5-3 keV energy band, no significant periodic signal is detected. P5 is the strongest periodic signal in the power spectrum for all the energy bands of 3-5, 5-12, and 15-50 keV, and it is consistent with the previous result obtained from the study of optical light curves. Furthermore, in combination with the radio spiral jet of SS 433, it is suggested that the X-ray and optical variability of P5 (∼162 d) is probably related to the precession of its relativistic jet. The high correlation between the X-ray and optical light curves may also imply that the X-ray and optical radiations are of the same physical origin. P3 shows a good agreement with the orbital period (∼13.07 d) obtained by the previous study, and P2 and P4 are respectively the high-frequency harmonics of P3 and P5. P1 is detected only in the power spectrum of the 15-50 keV energy band, and it is consistent with the nutation period of the system. As

  5. Effect of microstructure on radiation induced segregation and depletion in ion irradiated SS316 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hyung Ha; Kwon, Sang Chul; Kwon, Jun Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), void swelling and irradiation induced hardening are caused by change of characteristics of material by neutron irradiation, stress state of material and environmental situation. It has been known that chemical compositions varies at grain boundary (GB) significantly with fluence level and the depletion of Cr element at GB has been considered as one of important factors causing material degradation, especially, IASCC in austenitic stainless steel. However, experimental results of IASCC under PWR condition were directly not connected with Cr depletion phenomenon by neutron irradiation. Because the mechanism of IASCC under PWR has not yet been clearly understood in spite of many energetic researches, fundamental researches about radiation induced segregation and depletion in irradiated austenitic stainless steels have been attracted again. In this work, an effect of residual microstructure on radiation induced segregation and depletion of alloy elements at GB was investigated in ion irradiated SS316 steel using transmission electron microscope (TEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS)

  6. Why complexity matters: using ALMaSS for risk assessment of wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John

    with these system properties is agentbased modelling (ABM).ABMs are capable of integrating a range of drivers and actors in space and time and can represent detailed farming operations on a large scale, integrating these with realistic models of animal populations, and expressing each animal as an individual agent...... in time and space. All of these factors can affect the risk assessment. There is also another, difficult to observe, property of real systems, and that is the spatio-temporal dynamics associated with populations, climate, management, and ecology and behaviour, and the potential for feedback loops......-sink dynamics are emergent properties and do not need to be imposed.ALMaSS is one such model system and is used here to exemplify aspects of complexity in population-level risk assessment for terrestrial mammals, birds, and arthropods exposed to pesticides. Results are used to argue for greater realism...

  7. PREFACE: The 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dengqing; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers presented at the 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013) run under the auspices of the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group and hosted by Harbin Institute of Technology (China) from 7-9 January 2013. The conference has been organized in collaboration with the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and follows a one day seminar on Ropes, Cables, Belts and Chains: Theory and Applications and the MoSS2006 symposium held at the University of Northampton (UK) in 2004 and 2006, respectively, the MoSS2008 symposium held at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (USA) in 2008 and the MoSS2010 symposium hosted by Mondragon University and held in San Sebastian (Spain) in 2010. The remit of the Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures series involves a broad range of scientific areas. Applications of slender structures include terrestrial, marine and space systems. Moving elastic elements such as ropes, cables, belts and tethers are pivotal components of many engineering systems. Their lengths often vary when the system is in operation. The applications include vertical transportation installations and, more recently, space tether propulsion systems. Traction drive elevator installations employ ropes and belts of variable length as a means of suspension, and also for the compensation of tensile forces over the traction sheave. In cranes and mine hoists, cables and ropes are subject to length variation in order to carry payloads. Tethers experiencing extension and retraction are important components of offshore and marine installations, as well as being proposed for a variety of different space vehicle propulsion systems based on different applications of momentum exchange and electrodynamic interactions with planetary magnetic fields. Furthermore, cables and slender rods are used extensively in civil engineering

  8. Combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of surface modified SS410 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarendra, H. J.; Pratap, M. S.; Karthik, S.; Punitha Kumara, M. S.; Rajath, H. C.; Ranjith, H.; Shubhatunga, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    Slurry erosion and combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of thermal spray coatings are studied and compared with the as-received martensitic stainless steel material. 70Ni-Cr coatings are deposited on SS 410 material through plasma thermal spray process. The synergy effect of the combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of plasma thermal spray coatings were investigated in a slurry pot tester in the presence of bluff bodies known as Cavitation Inducers. Results showed the combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of martensitic stainless steel - 410 can be improved by plasma thermal spray coating. It is observed that the plasma spray coated specimens are better erosion resistant than the as- received material, subjected to erosion test under similar conditions. As-received and the surface modified steels are mechanically characterized for its hardness, bending. Morphological studies are conducted through scanning electron microscope.

  9. Uudistuva johtajuus ja Z-sukupolvi työelämässä

    OpenAIRE

    Aakkula, Eveliina

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä käsitellään epäjohtamista, joka on uusi johtamisen käsite, jonka ovat luoneet Janne Tienari ja Rebekka Piekkari kirjassaan Z ja epäjohtaminen. Terminä epäjohtaminen ei ole virallinen, eikä tule välttämättä vakiintumaan johtajuuden käsitteiden joukkoon. Tämä uusi johtamisen malli liitetään vahvasti Z-sukupolven tulemiseen työmarkkinoille. Z-sukupolvea ovat 1990-luvulla syntyneet. Johtajuus on tärkeä aihe, jonka käsittelemiseen löytyy aina uusia näkökulmia, joiden toimivuutta vo...

  10. A PIONIER and Incisive Look at the Interacting Binary SS Lep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blind, N.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Berger, J.-P.; Lebouquin, J.-B.; Mérand, A.

    2011-09-01

    Symbiotic stars are excellent laboratories to study a broad range of poorly understood physical processes, such as mass loss of red giants, accretion onto compact objects, and evolution of nova-like outbursts. As their evolution is strongly influenced by the mass transfer episodes, understanding the history of these systems requires foremost to determine which process is at play: Roche lobe overflow, stellar wind accretion, or some more complex mixture of both. We report here an interferometric study of the symbiotic system SS Leporis, performed with the unique PIONIER instrument. By determining the binary orbit and revisiting the parameters of the two stars, we show that the giant does not fill its Roche lobe, and that the mass transfer most likely occurs via the accretion of an important part of the giant's wind.

  11. Evaluation of liquid metal embrittlement of SS304 by Cd and Cd-Al solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Iyer, N.C.; Begley, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The susceptibility of stainless steel 304 to liquid metal embrittlement (LME) by cadmium (Cd) and cadmium-aluminum (Cd-Al) solutions was examined as part of a failure evaluation for SS304-clad cadmium reactor safety rods which had been exposed to elevated temperatures. The active, or cadmium (Cd) bearing, portion of the safety rod consists of a 0.756 in. diameter aluminum allow (Al-6061) core, a 0.05 in. thick Cd layer, and a 0.042 in. thick Type 304 stainless steel cladding. The safety rod thermal tests were conducted as part of a program to define the response of reactor core components to a hypothetical LOCA for the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactor. LME was considered as a potential failure mechanism based on the nature of the failure and susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to embrittlement by other liquid metals

  12. Influence of agitation speeds and aeration rates on the Xylanase activity of Aspergillus niger SS7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Bakri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of agitation and aeration rates on xylanase activity of Aspergillus niger SS7 in 3-litre stirred tank bioreactor was investigated. The agitation rates tested were 100, 200 and 300 rpm at each airflow rates of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 vvm. The maximum xylanase activity in mono- agitator system was at the agitation speed of 200 rpm and aeration rate of 1.0 vvm. In bi-agitator system, at low agitation speed (100 rpm, the xylanase activity was enhanced by 13% compared to mono- agitator system for an aeration rate of 1.0 vvm. Xylanase productivity in continuous culture was higher by approximately 3.5 times than in batch culture.

  13. Effect of helium preinjection and prior thermomechanical treatment on the microstructure of Type 316 SS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohyama, A.; Ayrault, G.; Turner, A.P.L.; Igata, N.

    1982-10-01

    Samples of 316 SS were preinjected with 15 appM helium either hot (650 0 C) or cold (room temperature) and irradiated with 3 MeV Ni + ions to a dose level of 25 dpa at 625 0 C in order to test the validity of helium preinjection as a means of simulation of transmutant helium production. Results for preinjected and single-ion irradiated samples were compared to samples irradiated with 3 MeV Ni + and simultaneously injected with helium at a rate of 15 appM He/dpa (dual-ion irradiated samples). Preinjected samples exhibited bimodal cavity size distributions. Preinjected samples of solution annealed or solution annealed and aged material showed lower swelling than dual-ion irradiated samples. However, He preinjection in 20% cold worked samples showed greater swelling than dual-ion irradiated samples 9 figures, 1 table

  14. Differential biotin labelling of the cell envelope proteins in lipopolysaccharidic diderm bacteria: Exploring the proteosurfaceome of Escherichia coli using sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin and sulfo-NHS-PEG4-bismannose-SS-biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Ricardo; Chafsey, Ingrid; Leroy, Sabine; Chambon, Christophe; Hébraud, Michel; Livrelli, Valérie; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Desvaux, Mickaël

    2018-06-15

    Surface proteins are the major factor for the interaction between bacteria and its environment, playing an important role in infection, colonisation, virulence and adaptation. However, the study of surface proteins has proven difficult mainly due to their hydrophobicity and/or relatively low abundance compared with cytoplasmic proteins. To overcome these issues new proteomic strategies have been developed, such as cell-surface protein labelling using biotinylation reagents. Sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin is the most commonly used reagent to investigate the proteins expressed at the cell surface of various organisms but its use in lipopolysaccharidic diderm bacteria (archetypical Gram-negative bacteria) remains limited to a handful of species. While generally pass over in silence, some periplasmic proteins, but also some inner membrane lipoproteins, integral membrane proteins and cytoplasmic proteins (cytoproteins) are systematically identified following this approach. To limit cell lysis and diffusion of the sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin through the outer membrane, biotin labelling was tested over short incubation times and proved to be as efficient for 1 min at room temperature. To further limit labelling of protein located below the outer membrane, the use of high-molecular weight sulfo-NHS-PEG4-bismannose-SS-biotin appeared to recover differentially cell-envelope proteins compared to low-molecular weight sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin. Actually, the sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin recovers at a higher extent the proteins completely or partly exposed in the periplasm than sulfo-NHS-PEG4-bismannose-SS-biotin, namely periplasmic and integral membrane proteins as well as inner membrane and outer membrane lipoproteins. These results highlight that protein labelling using biotinylation reagents of different sizes provides a sophisticated and accurate way to differentially explore the cell envelope proteome of lipopolysaccharidic diderm bacteria. While generally pass over in silence, some periplasmic proteins

  15. Association analysis of polymorphism in KiSS1 gene with reproductive traits in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S; Zaglool, Asmaa W; El-Tarabany, Akram A; Awad, Ashraf

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the genetic information of related genes is helpful for the selection and breeding course through marker assisted selection. The aim of the current study was to detect polymorphisms of the KiSS1 gene in 137 animals, including Baladi, Zaraibi and Damascus goat breeds by PCR-RFLP, and DNA sequencing and to investigate the association between these variants and reproductive traits. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence indicated the substitution of T with A at position 121 (T121A) in the intron 1 of the KiSS1 gene in all goat breeds. This substitution distorts the restriction site of the XmnI restriction enzyme and consequently two genotypes were detected (TA and TT). The T121A SNP is associated significantly with litter size in Damascus and Zaribi breeds (p=0.025 and 0.001, respectively). The animals with the TT genotype in Damascus and Zaribi breeds had a significantly higher estradiol 17β level than that recorded in TA genotype at estrus phase (p=0.013 and 0.028, respectively) and late-luteal phase (p=0.067 and 0.041, respectively) of the estrus cycle. Furthermore, animals with the TT genotype in Damascus and Zaribi breeds had significant higher progesterone level at mid-luteal (p=0.037 and 0.045, respectively) phase. Meanwhile, there were no significant differences in progesterone level in late-luteal phase between both genotypes in Zaribi breed (p=0.267). The current trial indicated that the prolific TT genotype in both Damascus and Zaribi breeds had superior estradiol 17β level at estrus phase and an eminent progesterone level at both early and mid-luteal phases of the estrous cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Interacting large-scale magnetic fields and ionized gas in the W50/SS433 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnes, J. S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Purcell, C.; Sun, X. H.; Haverkorn, M.; Lenc, E.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; Akahori, T.

    2017-06-01

    The W50/SS433 system is an unusual Galactic outflow-driven object of debatable origin. We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array to observe a new 198 pointing mosaic, covering 3° × 2°, and present the highest-sensitivity full-Stokes data of W50 to date using wide-field, wide-band imaging over a 2 GHz bandwidth centred at 2.1 GHz. We also present a complementary Hα mosaic created using the Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric Hα Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane. The magnetic structure of W50 is consistent with the prevailing hypothesis that the nebula is a reanimated shell-like supernova remnant (SNR), which has been re-energized by the jets from SS433. We observe strong depolarization effects that correlate with diffuse Hα emission, likely due to spatially varying Faraday rotation measure (RM) fluctuations of ≥48-61 rad m-2 on scales ≤4.5-6 pc. We also report the discovery of numerous, faint, Hα filaments that are unambiguously associated with the central region of W50. These thin filaments are suggestive of an SNR's shock emission, and almost all have a radio counterpart. Furthermore, an RM-gradient is detected across the central region of W50, which we interpret as a loop magnetic field with a symmetry axis offset by ≈90° to the east-west jet-alignment axis, and implying that the evolutionary processes of both the jets and the SNR must be coupled. A separate RM-gradient is associated with the termination shock in the eastern ear, which we interpret as a ring-like field located where the shock of the jet interacts with the circumstellar medium. Future optical observations will be able to use the new Hα filaments to probe the kinematics of the shell of W50, potentially allowing for a definitive experiment on W50's formation history.

  17. Pulsar-driven Jets In Sne, Grbs, Lmxbs, Ss 433, And The Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleditch, John

    2011-05-01

    The model of pulsar emission through superluminally induced polarization currents, (SLIP), predicts that pulsations produced by such currents at many light cylinder radii by a rotating, magnetized body, will drive pulsations close to the axis of rotation. In SN 1987A, the possible Rosetta Stone for 99% of SNe, GRBs, ms pulsars, and SS 433, such highly collimated (>1 in 10,000) 2.14 ms pulsations, and the similarly collimated jets of particles which they drove, including 1e-6 solar masses with velocities 0.95 c, were responsible for its very early light curve (days 3-20), its "Mystery Spot," observed slightly later (0.5 to 0.3 c, at days 30-50 and after), and still later, in less collimated form, its bipolarity. The axially driven pulsations enforce a toroidal geometry onto all early SNRs, rendering even SNe Ia unsuitable as standard candles. The numbers for Sco X-1's jet are identical, while those for SS 433 are lower (0.26 c), because of the absence of velocity "boosting" via collisions of heavy elements with lighter ones, due to the nearly pure hydrogen content of the supercritical accretion. SLIP also drives positrons from SNe to high energies, possibly accounting for the excess seen by PAMELA at scores of GeV, and predicts that almost all pulsars with very sharp single pulses have been detected because the Earth is in a favored direction where their fluxes diminish only as 1/distance, and this has been verified in the laboratory as well as for the Parkes Multibeam Survey. SLIP also predicts that GRB afterglows will be 100% pulsed at 500 Hz in their proper frame. Finally, SLIP jets from SNe of the first stars may allow galaxies to form without the need for dark matter. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy through the Los Alamos Directed Research Grant DR20080085.

  18. Oxide induced corrosion on the welded stainless steels SS 2352 and 2353

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, S.; Li Huiqin.

    1991-01-01

    The pitting corrosion properties have been investigated in welded and unwelded condition by polarization tests in sodium chloride solutions. The two steels were TIG welded without adding welding material and as shielding on the bottom side argon gas containing 2, 26 or 99 ppm oxygen was used. In some tests low breakthrough potentials were received, without discovering any pitting corrosion in the specimen surfaces. The unwelded SS 2352 steel had a critical (lowest) pitting temperature (CPT) of 5 degrees C in the more concentrated solution. For the same steel with weld pitting corrosion was obtained at 5 degrees C, which was the lowest temperature for the tests. Thus the CPT value was lower than 5 degrees C, but by looking at the pitting corrosion potentials the following conclusion could be drawn: Welding with higher oxygen content in the shielding gas implied lower pitting corrosion resistance. For the SS 2353 steel the CPT values were 25 and 27.5 degrees C for material without weld, in contact with the more concentrated and the more dilute solution respectively. Welded material was all through more sensitive to pitting corrosion, and the CPT values were 15-17.5, 15 and 5-10 degrees C for welded areas which had been gas shielded with argon containing 2, 26 and 99 ppm oxygen respectively. The result thus showed that welding with shielding gas containing maximum about 30 ppm oxygen does not substantially affect the pitting corrosion properties. Post treatment of the welding areas increased the pitting corrosion resistance. Acid pickling implied the highest pitting corrosion resistance with 15 degrees C as CPT value for the 2353 steel in the more concentrated solution. Steel brushing implied an obvious increase to the pitting corrosion resistance compared to untreated weld areas and the same statement could be done for sand blasted surfaces. (10 refs., 16 tabs., 11 figs.)

  19. Isolation and characterization of Halomonas sp. strain C2SS100, a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium under hypersaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, S; Chamkha, M; Sayadi, S

    2009-09-01

    To isolate and characterize an efficient hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium under hypersaline conditions, from a Tunisian off-shore oil field. Production water collected from 'Sercina' petroleum reservoir, located near the Kerkennah island, Tunisia, was used for the screening of halotolerant or halophilic bacteria able to degrade crude oil. Bacterial strain C2SS100 was isolated after enrichment on crude oil, in the presence of 100 g l(-1) NaCl and at 37 degrees C. This strain was aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, oxidase + and catalase +. Phenotypic characters and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene of the isolate C2SS100 showed that it was related to members of the Halomonas genus. The degradation of several compounds present in crude oil was confirmed by GC-MS analysis. The use of refined petroleum products such as diesel fuel and lubricating oil as sole carbon source, under the same conditions of temperature and salinity, showed that significant amounts of these heterogenic compounds could be degraded. Strain C2SS100 was able to degrade hexadecane (C16). During growth on hexadecane, cells surface hydrophobicity and emulsifying activity increased indicating the production of biosurfactant by strain C2SS100. A halotolerant bacterial strain Halomonas sp. C2SS100 was isolated from production water of an oil field, after enrichment on crude oil. This strain is able to degrade hydrocarbons efficiently. The mode of hydrocarbon uptake is realized by the production of a biosurfactant which enhances the solubility of hydrocarbons and renders them more accessible for biodegradation. The biodegradation potential of the Halomonas sp. strain C2SS100 gives it an advantage for possibly application on bioremediation of water, hydrocarbon-contaminated sites under high-salinity level.

  20. SS-mPEG chemical modification of recombinant phospholipase C for enhanced thermal stability and catalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xian; Wang, Xueting; Li, Guiling; Zeng, Jun; Li, Jian; Liu, Jingwen

    2018-05-01

    PEGylation is one of the most promising and extensively studied strategies for improving the properties of proteins as well as enzymic physical and thermal stability. Phospholipase C, hydrolyzing the phospholipids offers tremendous applications in diverse fields. However, the poor thermal stability and higher cost of production have restricted its industrial application. This study focused on improving the stabilization of recombinant PLC by chemical modification with methoxypolyethylene glycol-Succinimidyl Succinate (SS-mPEG, MW 5000). PLC gene from isolate Bacillus cereus HSL3 was fused with SUMO, a novel small ubiquitin-related modifier expression vector and over expressed in Escherichia coli. The soluble fraction of SUMO-PLC reached 80% of the total recombinant protein. The enzyme exhibited maximum catalytic activity at 80 °C and was relatively thermostable at 40-70 °C. It showed extensive substrate specificity pattern and marked activity toward phosphatidylcholine, which made it a typical non-specific PLC for industrial purpose. SS-mPEG-PLC complex exhibited an enhanced thermal stability at 70-80 °C and the catalytic efficiency (K cat /K m ) had increased by 3.03 folds compared with free PLC. CD spectrum of SS-mPEG-PLC indicated a possible enzyme aggregation after chemical modification, which contributed to the higher thermostability of SS-mPEG-PLC. The increase of antiparallel β sheets in secondary structure also made it more stable than parallel β sheets. The presence of SS-mPEG chains on the enzyme molecule surface somewhat changed the binding rate of the substrates, leading to a significant improvement in catalytic efficiency. This study provided an insight into the addition of SS-mPEG for enhancing the industrial applications of phospholipase C at higher temperature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Antibacterial effects, biocompatibility and electrochemical behavior of zinc incorporated niobium oxide coating on 316L SS for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep PremKumar, K.; Duraipandy, N.; Manikantan Syamala, Kiran; Rajendran, N.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, Nb2O5 (NZ0) composite coatings with various concentrations of zinc (NZ2, NZ4 & NZ6) are produced on 316L SS by sol-gel method with the aim of improving its antibacterial activity, bone formability and corrosion resistance properties. This work studied the surface characterization of NZ0, NZ2, NZ4 & NZ6 coated 316L SS by ATR-FTIR, XRD, HR-SEM with EDAX. The synthesized coatings were different in the morphological aspects, NZ0 shows mesoporous morphology whereas irregular cluster like morphology was observed for the zinc incorporated coatings. The chemical composition of the NZ0 and NZ4 composite coatings were studied by XPS and the results revealed that the zinc exist as ZnO and Nb as Nb2O5 in the coatings. The increase in the concentration of zinc in Nb2O5 increases the hydrophilic nature identified by water contact angle studies. The potentiodynamic polarization studies in simulated body fluid reveals the increase in polarization resistance with decrease in current density (icorr) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic studies with increase in charge transfer resistance (Rct) and double layer capacitance (Qdl) were observed for NZ4 coated 316L SS. The inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria were identified for NZ4 coated 316L SS by bacterial viability studies. The NZ4 coated 316L SS showed better Osseo-integration by spreading the MG 63 osteoblast cells. The study results imply that zinc incorporated Nb2O5 (NZ4) composite coating exhibits antibacterial activity and also enhance the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the 316L SS.

  2. Constraints on particle acceleration in SS433/W50 from MAGIC and H.E.S.S. observations

    OpenAIRE

    MAGIC Collaboration; Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Arcaro, C.; Babić, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; de Almeida, U. Barres; Barrio, J. A.; González, J. Becerra; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Biasuzzi, B.

    2017-01-01

    The large jet kinetic power and non-thermal processes occurring in the microquasar SS 433 make this source a good candidate for a very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emitter. Gamma-ray fluxes have been predicted for both the central binary and the interaction regions between jets and surrounding nebula. Also, non-thermal emission at lower energies has been previously reported. We explore the capability of SS 433 to emit VHE gamma rays during periods in which the expected flux attenuation due to ...

  3. Constraints on particle acceleration in SS433/W50 from MAGIC and H.E.S.S. observations

    OpenAIRE

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Bednarek, W.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Bernardini, E.; Prada Moroni, P. G.

    2018-01-01

    Context. The large jet kinetic power and non-thermal processes occurring in the microquasar SS 433 make this source a good candidate for a very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emitter. Gamma-ray fluxes above the sensitivity limits of current Cherenkov telescopes have been predicted for both the central X-ray binary system and the interaction regions of SS 433 jets with the surrounding W50 nebula. Non-thermal emission at lower energies has been previously reported, indicating that efficient partic...

  4. Laadun- ja riskienhallinta johtamisjärjestelmässä ISO 9001:2015 ja ISO 31000:2009 mukaisesti

    OpenAIRE

    Reinvall, Niko; Karhunen, Joonas

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on tarkastella riskienhallinnan ja laadunhallintajärjestelmien suhdetta ISO 9001:2015 ja ISO 31000:2009-standardien viitekehyksessä, tutkimuskysymyksen ollessa ”miten ja miksi integroida ISO 9001 mukaista laadunhallintaa ja ISO 31000 mukaista riskienhallintaa organisaation johtamisjärjestelmään”. Lisäksi työssä tarkastellaan standardien välisiä yhtymäkohtia ja riskienhallinnan merkitystä ISO 9001:2015 mukaisessa laadunhallintajärjestelmässä. Työn tilaaja...

  5. Facebook-yhteisöpalvelun hyödyntäminen yrityksen markkinointiviestinnässä

    OpenAIRE

    Pajamäki, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää, miksi yritysten olisi kannattavaa olla Facebook-yhteisöpalvelussa ja millaisia keinoja niillä on käytössään Facebook-palvelussa markkinoidessaan. Opinnäytetyössä rakennettiin työn toimeksiantajalle, Mainostoimisto Gurulle, oma Facebook-sivu. Guru on Turun ammattikorkeakoulun sisäinen mainostoimisto, jossa suunnitellaan kaikenlaista markkinointiviestintää opiskelijavoimin. Teoriaosassa käsiteltiin lyhyesti sosiaalista mediaa ja Facebook-palvel...

  6. Development of a sensitive electrochemical DNA sensor by 4-aminothiophenol self-assembled on electrodeposited nanogold electrode coupled with Au nanoparticles labeled reporter ssDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangjiu; Liu Lihua; Qi Xiaowei; Guo Yaqing; Sun Wei; Li Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: A novel and sensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor was fabricated by using the 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) self-assembled on electrodeposited gold nanoparticles (NG) modified electrode to anchor capture ssDNA sequences and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) labeled with reporter ssDNA sequences, which were further coupled with electroactive indicator of hexaammineruthenium (III) ([Ru(NH 3 ) 6 ] 3+ ) to amplify the electrochemical signal of hybridization reaction. Different modified electrodes were prepared and characterized by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscope and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. By using a sandwich model for the capture of target ssDNA sequences, which was based on the shorter probe ssDNA and AuNPs label reporter ssDNA hybridized with longer target ssDNA, the electrochemical behavior of [Ru(NH 3 ) 6 ] 3+ was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The fabricated electrochemical DNA sensor exhibited good distinguish capacity for the complementary ssDNA sequence and two bases mismatched ssDNA. The dynamic detection range of the target ssDNA sequences was from 1.4 × 10 −11 to 2.0 × 10 −9 mol/L with the detection limit as 9.5 × 10 −12 mol/L (3σ). So in this paper a new electrochemical DNA sensor was designed with gold nanoparticles as the immobilization platform and the signal amplifier simultaneously.

  7. Identification of low-overpressure interval and its implication to hydrocarbon migration: Case study in the Yanan sag of the Qiongdongnan Basin, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinghai; Shi, Wanzhong; Xie, Yuhong; Wang, Zhenfeng; Li, Xusheng; Tong, Chuanxin

    2017-01-01

    The Qiongdongnan Basin is a strongly overpressured basin with the maximum pressure coefficient (the ratio of the actual pore pressure versus hydrostatic pressure at the same depth) over 2.27. However, there exists a widespread low-overpressure interval between the strong overpressure intervals in the Yanan Sag of western basin. The mechanisms of the low-overpressure interval are not well understood. Three main approaches, pore pressure test data and well-log analysis, pressure prediction based on the relationship between the deviation of the velocity and the pressure coefficients, and numerical modeling, were employed to illustrate the distribution and evolution of the low-overpressure interval. And we analyzed and explained the phenomenon of the low-overpressure interval that is both underlain and overlain by high overpressure internal. The low-overpressure interval between the strong overpressure intervals can be identified and modelled by drilling data of P-wave sonic and the mud weight, and the numerical modeling using the PetroMod software. Results show that the low-overpressure interval is mainly composed of sandstone sediments. The porosities of sandstone in the low-overpressure interval primarily range from 15%-20%, and the permeabilities range from 10–100 md. Analysis of the geochemical parameters of C1, iC4/nC4, ΔR3, and numerical modeling shows that oil and gas migrated upward into the sandstone in the low-overpressure interval, and then migrated along the sandstone of low-overpressure interval into the Yacheng uplift. The low-overpressure both underlain and overlain by overpressure resulted from the fluids migrating along the sandstones in the low-overpressure interval into the Yacheng uplift since 1.9Ma. The mudstone in the strong overpressure interval is good cap overlain the sandstone of low-overpressure interval, therefore up-dip pinchouts or isolated sandstone in the low-overpressure interval locating the migration path of oil and gas are good

  8. On the electrical contact and long-term behavior of compression-type connections with conventional and high-temperature conductor ropes with low sag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildmann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In Germany and in Europe it is due to the ''Energiewende'' necessary to transmit more electrical energy with existing overhead transmission lines. One possible technical solution to reach this aim is the use of high temperature low sag conductors (HTLS-conductors). Compared to the common Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR), HTLS-conductors have higher rated currents and rated temperatures. Thus the electrical connections for HTLS-conductors are stressed to higher temperatures too. These components are most important for the safe and reliable operation of an overhead transmission line. Besides other connection technologies, hexagonal compression connections with ordinary transmission line conductors have proven themselves since decades. From the literature, mostly empirical studies with electrical tests for compression connections are known. The electrical contact behaviour, i.e. the quality of the electrical contact after assembly, of these connections has been investigated insufficiently. This work presents and enhances an electrical model of compression connections, so that the electrical contact behaviour can be determined more accurate. Based on this, principal considerations on the current distribution in the compression connection and its influence on the connection resistance are presented. As a result from the theoretical and the experimental work, recommendations for the design of hexagonal compression connections for transmission line conductors were developed. Furthermore it is known from the functional principle of compression type connections, that the electrical contact behaviour can be influenced from their form fit, force fit and cold welding. In particular the forces in compression connections have been calculated up to now by approximation. The known analytical calculations simplify the geometry and material behaviour and do not consider the correct mechanical load during assembly. For these reasons the joining process

  9. Dynamic rockfall risk assessment along the SS113 coastal road (Northern Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrolembo, V. Brunella; Penna, Ivanna; Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls are natural hazards that usually affect only small areas. However, due to the big amount of material that can be moved and the associated kinetic energy they can cost serious damages to infrastructures and people. Even fairly small rockfall fragments are a significant hazard if deposited on a highway or along a rail-road track since they are not easily detected and can cause accidents or derailments. Rockfalls can also cause the closure of streets resulting in long term indirect economic losses due to transportation delays as well as to the impact on the commercial and tourist activities. In letterature there are numerous examples of rockfall risk assessments along transportation corridors, most of them are based on the use of standard risk estimation methods. The latters are static approaches founded on a macroscopic view of road traffic, assumed as uniform in space and time, thus characterized by average values of parameters. Lately, a new dynamic approach has been developed within the 'risk analysis group' at the University of Lausanne (Voumard, 2013). It consists of a kinematic interpretation of road traffic where vehicles are parametrized as single entities with different characteristics, speed, dimensions and behaviour. We apply this new approach to estimate the dynamic risk due to rockfall occurrence on the SS113 national road running along the northern coast of Sicily. In this work we focus our attention on a ≈10 km section along which the SS113 road and a railway connect all the costal villages going through very steep cliffs and very close to the sea with evident problems of erosion and maintenance. The area is a tourist destination and many hotels and facilities are found along the road. Moreover the area was already hit in the past by numerous rockfalls resulting in the closure of the road for periods running from a few days up to a few years with big direct and indirect damages to the local socio-economic activities. In order to achieve a

  10. Auto-anticorpos na Esclerose Sistêmica (ES Autoantibody in the Systemic Sclerosis (SS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Eduardo Coelho Andrade

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A esclerose sistêmica (ES é uma enfermidade inflamatória crônica idiopática, cujo principal indício de vínculo com a auto-imunidade é a presença de auto-anticorpos na maior parte dos pacientes. Pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta em células HEp-2, observa-se reatividade predominantemente contra o nucléolo e o núcleo, sendo que títulos de anticorpos antinucléolo acima de 1/640 são fortemente sugestivos de ES. Alguns desses auto-anticorpos apresentam alta especificidade para a ES, sendo considerados marcadores diagnósticos dessa enfermidade. São exemplos os anticorpos anti-Scl-70, antifibrilarina e anti-RNA polimerase I. Outros apresentam interessantes associações com manifestações específicas da ES, como os anticorpos anticentrômero, associados às formas limitadas, os anticorpos anti-RNA polimerase III, associados ao extenso comprometimento da pele, e os anticorpos anti-To/Th, associados às formas limitadas com propensão ao desenvolvimento de hipertensão pulmonar. Algumas dessas associações estão bem estabelecidas em diversos estudos, de diferentes grupos de pesquisadores. Outras, entretanto, devem ser vistas com cautela, pois a exigüidade de casos disponíveis para estudo pode ensejar conclusões preliminares e não acuradas. A detecção de anticorpos anticentrômero por técnica de IFI e anti-Scl-70 por imunodifusão dupla ou por ELISA está disponível nos principais laboratórios clínicos capacitados na área de auto-imunidade. O mesmo não se aplica para a maior parte dos demais auto-anticorpos associados à ES. Espera-se que, com a implementação rotineira de técnicas para detecção desses outros auto-anticorpos, o real significado clínico dos mesmos venha a ser melhor conhecido.Systemic Sclerosis (SS is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory disease whose main hint towards autoimmunity is given by the presence of high serum levels of autoantibodies in the majority of the patients. In indirect

  11. RNA-processing proteins regulate Mec1/ATR activation by promoting generation of RPA-coated ssDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfrini, Nicola; Trovesi, Camilla; Wery, Maxime; Martina, Marina; Cesena, Daniele; Descrimes, Marc; Morillon, Antonin; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2015-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells respond to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by activating a checkpoint that depends on the protein kinases Tel1/ATM and Mec1/ATR. Mec1/ATR is activated by RPA-coated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which arises upon nucleolytic degradation (resection) of the DSB. Emerging evidences indicate that RNA-processing factors play critical, yet poorly understood, roles in genomic stability. Here, we provide evidence that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA decay factors Xrn1, Rrp6 and Trf4 regulate Mec1/ATR activation by promoting generation of RPA-coated ssDNA. The lack of Xrn1 inhibits ssDNA generation at the DSB by preventing the loading of the MRX complex. By contrast, DSB resection is not affected in the absence of Rrp6 or Trf4, but their lack impairs the recruitment of RPA, and therefore of Mec1, to the DSB. Rrp6 and Trf4 inactivation affects neither Rad51/Rad52 association nor DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR), suggesting that full Mec1 activation requires higher amount of RPA-coated ssDNA than HR-mediated repair. Noteworthy, deep transcriptome analyses do not identify common misregulated gene expression that could explain the observed phenotypes. Our results provide a novel link between RNA processing and genome stability. © 2014 The Authors.

  12. Efficient Computation of Sparse Matrix Functions for Large-Scale Electronic Structure Calculations: The CheSS Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Stephan; Dawson, William; Wagner, Michael; Caliste, Damien; Nakajima, Takahito; Genovese, Luigi

    2017-10-10

    We present CheSS, the "Chebyshev Sparse Solvers" library, which has been designed to solve typical problems arising in large-scale electronic structure calculations using localized basis sets. The library is based on a flexible and efficient expansion in terms of Chebyshev polynomials and presently features the calculation of the density matrix, the calculation of matrix powers for arbitrary powers, and the extraction of eigenvalues in a selected interval. CheSS is able to exploit the sparsity of the matrices and scales linearly with respect to the number of nonzero entries, making it well-suited for large-scale calculations. The approach is particularly adapted for setups leading to small spectral widths of the involved matrices and outperforms alternative methods in this regime. By coupling CheSS to the DFT code BigDFT, we show that such a favorable setup is indeed possible in practice. In addition, the approach based on Chebyshev polynomials can be massively parallelized, and CheSS exhibits excellent scaling up to thousands of cores even for relatively small matrix sizes.

  13. Simulation of tensile stress-strain properties of irradiated type 316 SS by heavily cold-worked material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Yasushi; Jitsukawa, Shiro; Hishinuma, Akimichi

    1995-07-01

    Type 316 stainless steel is one of the most promising candidate materials to be used for the structural parts of plasma facing components in the nuclear fusion reactor. The neutron irradiation make the material brittle and reduces its uniform elongation to almost zero at heavy doses. In order to apply such a material of reduced ductility to structural components, the structural integrity should be examined and assured by the fracture mechanics. The procedure requires a formulated stress-strain relationship. However, the available irradiated tensile test data are very limited at present, so that the cold-worked material was used as a simulated material in this study. Property changes of 316 SS, that is, a reduction of uniform elongation and an enhancement of yield stress are seemingly very similar for both the irradiated 316 SS and the cold-worked one. The specimens made of annealed 316 SS, 20% (or 15%) cold worked one and 40% cold worked one were prepared. After the formulation of stress strain behavior, the equation for the cold-worked 316 SS was fitted to the data on irradiated material under the assumption that the yield stress is the same for both materials. In addition, the upper limit for the plastic strain was introduced using the data on the irradiated material. (author)

  14. Generation of a new spectral format, the lifetime synchronous spectrum (LiSS), using phase-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, J.M.; McGown, L.B.

    1994-01-01

    A new fluorescence spectral format is introduced in which fluorescence lifetime is shown as a function of synchronously scanned wavelength to generate a Lifetime Synchronous Spectrum (LiSS). Lifetimes are determined in the frequency domain with the use of Phase-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy (PRFS) to obtain the phase of the fluorescence signal. Theory and construction of the LiSS are presented and experimental results are shown for solutions of single components and simple binary and ternary mixtures. These results show how the lifetime information in the LiSS augments the steady-state intensity information of a standard synchronous spectrum, providing unique information for identification of components and resolution of overlapping spectral peaks. The LiSS technique takes advantage of noise reduction inherent in the extraction of lifetime from PRFS in addition to standard spectral smoothing techniques. The precision of phase determination through PRFS is found to be comparable to that of direct phase measurements at normal fluorescence intensities and superior for low-intensity signals

  15. Structural insights of the ssDNA binding site in the multifunctional endonuclease AtBFN2 from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Fu Yu

    Full Text Available The multi S1/P1 nuclease AtBFN2 (EC 3.1.30.1 encoded by the Arabidopsis thaliana At1g68290 gene is a glycoprotein that digests RNA, ssDNA, and dsDNA. AtBFN2 depends on three zinc ions for cleaving DNA and RNA at 3'-OH to yield 5'-nucleotides. In addition, AtBFN2's enzymatic activity is strongly glycan dependent. Plant Zn(2+-dependent endonucleases present a unique fold, and belong to the Phospholipase C (PLC/P1 nuclease superfamily. In this work, we present the first complete, ligand-free, AtBFN2 crystal structure, along with sulfate, phosphate and ssDNA co-crystal structures. With these, we were able to provide better insight into the glycan structure and possible enzymatic mechanism. In comparison with other nucleases, the AtBFN2/ligand-free and AtBFN2/PO4 models suggest a similar, previously proposed, catalytic mechanism. Our data also confirm that the phosphate and vanadate can inhibit the enzyme activity by occupying the active site. More importantly, the AtBFN2/A5T structure reveals a novel and conserved secondary binding site, which seems to be important for plant Zn(2+-dependent endonucleases. Based on these findings, we propose a rational ssDNA binding model, in which the ssDNA wraps itself around the protein and the attached surface glycan, in turn, reinforces the binding complex.

  16. Tribological changes on SS304 stainless steel induced by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation with and without auxiliary heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, C.B.; Ueda, M.; Lepienski, C.M.; Reuther, H.

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve quite thick treated layers with reasonable thickness uniformity in SS304 steel, the plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) process was run in high-temperature, up to 350 deg. C, to induce high thermal diffusion but avoid the white layer formation. In these experiments, we heated the sample-holder with a shielded resistive wire properly wound around it and subjected the SS samples to nitrogen glow discharge PIII with relatively low voltages (10 kV) in different temperatures. We also treated the SS samples by the traditional PIII method, slowly increasing the high voltage pulse intensities, until 14 kV at the end of processing, reaching temperatures of up to 350 deg. C. These modes of treatments were compared with respect to nitrogen implantation profiles, X-ray diffraction, tribology and mechanical properties. X-ray diffraction results indicated a much higher efficiency of auxiliary heated PIII mode compared to the ordinary PIII. Very prominent γ N peaks were observed for the first mode, indicating large concentration of nitrogen in thick layers, confirmed by the nitrogen profiles measured by GDOS and AES. Improved mechanical and tribological properties were obtained for SS304 samples treated by the PIII with auxiliary heating, more than for ordinary PIII. Hardness was enhanced by up to 2.77 times, as seen by nanoindentation tests.

  17. Economic impacts of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill: Social and economic studies. Technical report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, P.; Isaacs, J.; Richardson, J.; Braund, S.; Witten, E.

    1990-11-01

    On July 2, 1987, an oil spill occurred in Cook Inlet when the S.S. Glacier Bay hit a submerged obstacle while enroute to Kenai Pipeline Company facilities to offload oil. The 1987 commercial fishery in Cook Inlet was barely underway when the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill occurred, and the largest salmon return in history was moving up the inlet. The sockeye salmon run alone totaled over 12 million, providing a seasonal catch of 9.25 million salmon. The 1987 sport fishery in Cook Inlet was in mid-season at the time of the spill. The S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill represents an opportunity to study the economic impacts of an oil spill event in Alaska, particularly with regard to commercial fishing impacts and the public costs of cleanup. The report evaluates the existing information on the spill, response measures, and economic impacts, and adds discussions with individuals and groups involved in or affected by the spill to this data base. The report reviewed accounts of the oil spill and its costs; identified types and sources of data, developed protocol, and contacted groups and people for data collection and verification; and described, analyzed, and prepared reports of the economic effects of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill

  18. Applicability of Al-powder-alloy coating to corrosion barriers of 316SS in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Yuji; Sato, Hidetomo; Yokota, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    A new Al-alloy coating method using Al, Ti and Fe powders has been applied to 316SS in order to develop corrosion resistant coating in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). The 316SS plates with coating layers of different Al concentrations were exposed to liquid LBE with controlled oxygen concentrations of 10 -6 to 10 -4 mass% at 823 K for 3600 ks. While surface oxidation and grain boundary corrosion accompanied by liquid LBE penetration are observed in 316SS without Al-alloy coating, the Al-alloy coating is effective to protect such severe corrosion attacks in liquid LBE. Although the coating layer containing 2.8 mass% Al does not always keep sufficient corrosion resistance, good corrosion resistance is obtained through the Al-oxide film formed in liquid LBE in the coating layer where the average Al concentration is 4.2 mass%. Cracks are formed in the coating layer containing 17.8 mass% Al during the coating process. The Al-powder-alloy coating applied to 316SS is promising as a corrosion resistant coating method in liquid LBE environment. (author)

  19. Electrochemical and in vitro bioactivity of polypyrrole/ceramic nanocomposite coatings on 316L SS bio-implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhan Kumar, A; Nagarajan, S; Ramakrishna, Suresh; Sudhagar, P; Kang, Yong Soo; Kim, Hyongbum; Gasem, Zuhair M; Rajendran, N

    2014-10-01

    The present investigation describes the versatile fabrication and characterization of a novel composite coating that consists of polypyrrole (PPy) and Nb2O5 nanoparticles. Integration of the two materials is achieved by electrochemical deposition on 316L stainless steel (SS) from an aqueous solution of oxalic acid containing pyrrole and Nb2O5 nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectral (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the existence of Nb2O5 nanoparticles in PPy matrix with hexagonal structure. Surface morphological analysis showed that the presence of Nb2O5 nanoparticles strongly influenced the surface nature of the nanocomposite coated 316L SS. Micro hardness results revealed the enhanced mechanical properties of PPy nanocomposite coated 316L SS due to the addition of Nb2O5 nanoparticles. The electrochemical studies were carried out using cyclic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. In order to evaluate the biocompatibility, contact angle measurements and in vitro characterization were performed in simulated body fluid (SBF) and on MG63 osteoblast cells. The results showed that the nanocomposite coatings exhibit superior biocompatibility and enhanced corrosion protection performance over 316L SS than pure PPy coatings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Voyage on the SS "School Library Leadership": Collaboration in Teaching and Learning at the University of Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Judith L.; Ballard, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the SS "School Library Leadership" maiden voyage, which departed from the University of Vermont (UVM) during the 2010 fall semester. Twelve intrepid sailors followed their sense of adventure into uncharted waters with cocaptains Judy Kaplan and Susan Ballard in an online collaboration that provided a powerful…

  1. Comparative wood anatomy of Andromedeae s.s., Gaultherieae, Lyonieae and Oxydendreae (Vaccinioideae, Ericaceae s.l.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The wood anatomical structure of 11 out of 13 genera from four tribes of the Vaccinioideae, namely Andromedeae s.s., Gaultherieae, Lyonieae and Oxydendreae (Ericaceae s.l.), is described using light and scanning electron microscopy. Several features of the secondary xylem support the tribal

  2. Highlights from the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength or FAMuSS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Pescatello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength study or FAMuSS was to identify genetic factors that dictated the response of health-related fitness phenotypes to resistance exercise training (RT. The phenotypes examined were baseline muscle strength and muscle, fat, and bone volume and their response to RT. FAMuSS participants were 1300 young (24 years, healthy men (42% and women (58% that were primarily of European-American descent. They were genotyped for ~500 polymorphisms and completed the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess energy expenditure and time spent in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity habitual physical activity and sitting. Subjects then performed a 12-week progressive, unilateral RT program of the nondominant arm with the dominant arm used as a comparison. Before and after RT, muscle strength was measured with the maximum voluntary contraction and one repetition maximum, while MRI measured muscle, fat, and bone volume. We will discuss the history of how FAMuSS originated, provide a brief overview of the FAMuSS methods, and summarize our major findings regarding genotype associations with muscle strength and size, body composition, cardiometabolic biomarkers, and physical activity.

  3. Sodium confluent rates of flow values, on 0,5 mixer, of a sodium italian SS-050 circuit component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Sodium lines on different temperatures, during an emergency drainage on 0,5 mixer was found. To future valuation by DIMEC of tensions that occurs on that component of SS-050, the confluent rates of flow values were calculated. (L.M.J.) [pt

  4. Efficient Generation of Orthologous Point Mutations in Pigs via CRISPR-assisted ssODN-mediated Homology-directed Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise genome editing in livestock is of great value for the fundamental investigation of disease modeling. However, genetically modified pigs carrying subtle point mutations were still seldom reported despite the rapid development of programmable endonucleases. Here, we attempt to investigate single-stranded oligonucleotides (ssODN mediated knockin by introducing two orthologous pathogenic mutations, p.E693G for Alzheimer's disease and p.G2019S for Parkinson's disease, into porcine APP and LRRK2 loci, respectively. Desirable homology-directed repair (HDR efficiency was achieved in porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs by optimizing the dosage and length of ssODN templates. Interestingly, incomplete HDR alleles harboring partial point mutations were observed in single-cell colonies, which indicate the complex mechanism of ssODN-mediated HDR. The effect of mutation-to-cut distance on incorporation rate was further analyzed by deep sequencing. We demonstrated that a mutation-to-cut distance of 11 bp resulted in a remarkable difference in HDR efficiency between two point mutations. Finally, we successfully obtained one cloned piglet harboring the orthologous p.C313Y mutation at the MSTN locus via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Our proof-of-concept study demonstrated efficient ssODN-mediated incorporation of pathogenic point mutations in porcine somatic cells, thus facilitating further development of disease modeling and genetic breeding in pigs.

  5. Polymorphisms rs12998 and rs5780218 in KiSS1 Suppressor Metastasis Gene in Mexican Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhit Guadalupe Cruz Quevedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. KiSS1 is a metastasis suppressor gene associated with inhibition of cellular chemotaxis and invasion attenuating the metastasis in melanoma and breast cancer cell lines. Along the KiSS-1 gene at least 294 SNPs have been described; however the association of these polymorphisms as genetic markers for metastasis in breast cancer studies has not been investigated. Here we describe two simple PCR-RFLPs protocols to identify the rs5780218 (9DelT and the rs12998 (E20K KiSS1 polymorphisms and the allelic, genotypic, and haplotypic frequencies in Mexican general population (GP and patients with benign breast disease (BBD or breast cancer (BC. Results. The rs5780218 polymorphism was individually associated with breast cancer (P=0.0332 and the rs12998 polymorphism shows statistically significant differences when GP versus case (BC and BBD groups were compared (P<0.0001. The H1 Haplotype (G/- occurred more frequently in BC group (0.4256 whereas H2 haplotype (G/T was the most prevalent in BBD group (0.4674. Conclusions. Our data indicated that the rs5780218 polymorphism individually confers susceptibility for development of breast cancer in Mexican population and a possible role as a genetic marker in breast cancer metastasis for H1 haplotype (Wt/variant in KiSS1 gene must be analyzed in other populations.

  6. Benchmarking of Voltage Sag Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zou, Zhixiang

    2012-01-01

    The increased penetration of renewable energy systems, like photovoltaic and wind power systems, rises the concern about the power quality and stability of the utility grid. Some regulations for Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) for medium voltage or high voltage applications, are coming into force...

  7. Humor er en alvorlig sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Pia

    2016-01-01

    I modsætning til ironi er humor for Kierkegaard fællesskabsgivende – ironikeren hævder sig selv, men humoristen har sympati med den, man ler med. Humor er hos Kierkegaard udtryk for, at humoristen forliger sig med tilværelsen og dens luner, og dermed grænser humoren hos Kierkegaard op til det...

  8. Structure of the hDmc1-ssDNA filament reveals the principles of its architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei L Okorokov

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, meiotic recombination is a major source of genetic diversity, but its defects in humans lead to abnormalities such as Down's, Klinefelter's and other syndromes. Human Dmc1 (hDmc1, a RecA/Rad51 homologue, is a recombinase that plays a crucial role in faithful chromosome segregation during meiosis. The initial step of homologous recombination occurs when hDmc1 forms a filament on single-stranded (ss DNA. However the structure of this presynaptic complex filament for hDmc1 remains unknown. To compare hDmc1-ssDNA complexes to those known for the RecA/Rad51 family we have obtained electron microscopy (EM structures of hDmc1-ssDNA nucleoprotein filaments using single particle approach. The EM maps were analysed by docking crystal structures of Dmc1, Rad51, RadA, RecA and DNA. To fully characterise hDmc1-DNA complexes we have analysed their organisation in the presence of Ca2+, Mg2+, ATP, AMP-PNP, ssDNA and dsDNA. The 3D EM structures of the hDmc1-ssDNA filaments allowed us to elucidate the principles of their internal architecture. Similar to the RecA/Rad51 family, hDmc1 forms helical filaments on ssDNA in two states: extended (active and compressed (inactive. However, in contrast to the RecA/Rad51 family, and the recently reported structure of hDmc1-double stranded (ds DNA nucleoprotein filaments, the extended (active state of the hDmc1 filament formed on ssDNA has nine protomers per helical turn, instead of the conventional six, resulting in one protomer covering two nucleotides instead of three. The control reconstruction of the hDmc1-dsDNA filament revealed 6.4 protein subunits per helical turn indicating that the filament organisation varies depending on the DNA templates. Our structural analysis has also revealed that the N-terminal domain of hDmc1 accomplishes its important role in complex formation through domain swapping between adjacent protomers, thus providing a mechanistic basis for coordinated action of hDmc1 protomers

  9. On the Nature of the Compact Object in SS 433. Observational Evidence of X-Ray Photon Index Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifina, Elena; Titarchuk, Lev

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray spectral properties observed from black hole , candidate (BHC) binary SS 433. We have analyzed Rossi X-ray Time Explorer (RXTE) data from this source, coordinated with Green Bank Interferometer/RATAN-600. We show that SS 433 undergoes a X-ray spectral transition from the low hard state (LHS) to the intermediate state (IS). We show that the X-ray broad-band energy spectra during all spectral states are well fit by a sum of so called "Bulk Motion Comptonization (BMC) component" and by two (broad and narrow) Gaussians for the continuum and line emissions respectively. In addition to these spectral model components we also find a strong feature that we identify as a" blackbody-like (BB)" component which color temperature is in the range of 4-5 keV in 24 IS spectra during the radio outburst decay in SS 433. Our observational results on the "high temperature BB" bump leads us to suggest the presence of gravitationally redshifted annihilation line emission in this source. In fact this spectral feature has been recently reproduced in Monte Carlo simulations by Laurent and Titarchuk. We have also established the photon index saturation at about 2.3 in index vs mass accretion correlation. This index-mass accretion correlation allows us to evaluate the low limit of black hole (BH) mass of compact object in SS 433, M(sub bh) approximately > 2 solar masses, using the scaling method using BHC GX 339-4 as a reference source. Our estimate of the BH mass in SS 433 is consistent with recent BH mass measurement using the radial-velocity measurements of the binary system by Hillwig & Gies who find that M(sub x)( = (4.3 +/- 0.8) solar masses. This is the smallest BH mass found up to now among all BH sources. Moreover, the index saturation effect versus mass accretion rate revealed in SS 433, like in a number of other BH candidates, is the strong observational evidence for the presence of a BH in SS 433.

  10. Burnout syndrome among dental students: a short version of the "Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire" adapted for students (BCSQ-12-SS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Marin, Jesus; Monticelli, Francesca; Casas, Marina; Roman, Amparo; Tomas, Inmaculada; Gili, Margarita; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2011-12-12

    Burnout has been traditionally defined in relation to the dimensions of "exhaustion", "cynicism", and "inefficiency". More recently, the Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-12) further established three different subtypes of burnout: the "frenetic" subtype (related to "overload"), the "under-challenged" subtype (related to "lack of development"), and the "worn-out" subtype (related to "neglect"). However, to date, these definitions have not been applied to students. The aims of this research were (1) to adapt a Spanish version of the BCSQ-12 for use with students, (2) to test its factorial validity, internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and (3) to assess potential socio-demographic and occupational risk factors associated with the development of the subtypes. We used a cross-sectional design on a sample of dental students (n = 314) from Santiago and Huesca universities (Spain). Participants completed the Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire Student Survey (BCSQ-12-SS), the Maslach Burnout Inventory Student Survey (MBI-SS), and a series of socio-demographic and occupational questions formulated for the specific purpose of this study. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using the principal component method with varimax orthogonal rotation. To assess the relations with the criterion, we calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient (r), multiple correlation coefficient (R(y.123)), and the coefficient of determination (R(2)(y.123)). To assess the association between the subtypes and the socio-demographic variables, we examined the adjusted odds ratio (OR) obtained from multivariate logistic regression models. Factorial analyses supported the theoretical proposition of the BCSQ-12-SS, with α-values exceeding 0.80 for all dimensions. The "overload-exhaustion" relation was r = 0.59 (p burnout as established by the BCSQ-12-SS. As such, the BCSQ-12-SS can be used for the recognition of clinical profiles and for the

  11. Functional studies of ssDNA binding ability of MarR family protein TcaR from Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ming Chang

    Full Text Available The negative transcription regulator of the ica locus, TcaR, regulates proteins involved in the biosynthesis of poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG. Absence of TcaR increases PNAG production and promotes biofilm formation in Staphylococci. Previously, the 3D structure of TcaR in its apo form and its complex structure with several antibiotics have been analyzed. However, the detailed mechanism of multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR family proteins such as TcaR is unclear and only restricted on the binding ability of double-strand DNA (dsDNA. Here we show by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA, electron microscopy (EM, circular dichroism (CD, and Biacore analysis that TcaR can interact strongly with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA, thereby identifying a new role in MarR family proteins. Moreover, we show that TcaR preferentially binds 33-mer ssDNA over double-stranded DNA and inhibits viral ssDNA replication. In contrast, such ssDNA binding properties were not observed for other MarR family protein and TetR family protein, suggesting that the results from our studies are not an artifact due to simple charge interactions between TcaR and ssDNA. Overall, these results suggest a novel role for TcaR in regulation of DNA replication. We anticipate that the results of this work will extend our understanding of MarR family protein and broaden the development of new therapeutic strategies for Staphylococci.

  12. A novel silica nanotube reinforced ionic incorporated hydroxyapatite composite coating on polypyrrole coated 316L SS for implant application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prem Ananth, K., E-mail: kpananth01@gmail.com [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore – 641 046 (India); Joseph Nathanael, A. [Department of Nano, Medical and Polymer Materials, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jose, Sujin P. [Department of Materials Science and Nano engineering, Rice University, Texas 77005 (United States); School of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai-625021 (India); Oh, Tae Hwan [Department of Nano, Medical and Polymer Materials, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Mangalaraj, D. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore – 641 046 (India)

    2016-02-01

    An attempt has been made to deposit a novel smart ion (Sr, Zn, Mg) substituted hydroxyapatite (I-HAp) and silica nanotube (SiNTs) composite coatings on polypyrrole (PPy) coated surgical grade 316L stainless steel (316L SS) to improve its biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. The I-HAp/SiNTS/PPy bilayer coating on 316L SS was prepared by electrophoretic deposition technique. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies were carried out. These results confirmed the significant improvement of the corrosion resistance of the 316L SS alloy by the I-HAp/SiNTs/PPy bilayer composite coating. The adhesion strength and hardness test confirmed the anticipated mechanical properties of the composite. A low contact angle value revealed the hydrophilic nature. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was used for the leach out analysis of the samples. Added to this, the bioactivity of the composite was analyzed by observing the apatite formation in the SBF solution for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of incubation. An enhancement of in vitro osteoblast attachment and cell viability was observed, which could lead to the optimistic orthopedic and dental applications. - Highlights: • Polypyrrole (PPy) coated 316L SS substrates were fabricated using electrodeposition method. • A novel silica nanotube (SiNTs) and ionic substituted (Sr, Zn, Mg) hydroxyapatite composite (I-HAp) were prepared. • The composite (I-HAp/SiNTs) was coated on PPy coated 316L SS substrate using electrophoretic deposition. • These results are favorable for corrosion resistance and enhanced osteoblast cell attachment for bone formation.

  13. The Telehealth Satisfaction Scale (TeSS): Reliability, validity, and satisfaction with telehealth in a rural memory clinic population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Debra G; Kosteniuk, Julie; Stewart, Norma; O’Connell, Megan E; Karunanyake, Chandima; Beever, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patient satisfaction is a key aspect of quality of care and can inform continuous quality improvement. Of the few studies that have reported on patient satisfaction with telehealth in programs aimed at individuals with memory problems, none has reported on the psychometric properties of the user satisfaction scales employed. Methods We evaluated the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Telehealth Satisfaction Scale (TeSS), a 10-item scale adapted for use in a Rural and Remote Memory Clinic (RRMC). The RRMC is a one-stop interprofessional clinic for rural and remote seniors with suspected dementia, located in a tertiary care hospital. Telehealth videoconferencing is used for pre-clinic assessment and for follow-up. Patients and caregivers completed the TeSS after each telehealth appointment. With data from 223 patients, exploratory factor analysis was conducted using the principal components analysis extraction method. Results The eigenvalue for the first factor (5.2) was greater than 1 and much larger than the second eigenvalue (.92), supporting a one-factor solution that was confirmed by the scree plot. The total variance explained by factor 1 was 52.1%. Factor loadings (range 0.54 – 0.84) were above recommended cutoffs. The TeSS items demonstrated high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.90). Satisfaction scores on the TeSS items ranged from 3.43 to 3.72 on a 4-point Likert scale, indicating high satisfaction with telehealth. Conclusions The study findings demonstrate high user satisfaction with telehealth in a rural memory clinic, and sound psychometric properties of the TeSS in this population. PMID:25272141

  14. Fusion welding studies using laser on Ti-SS dissimilar combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugarajan, B.; Padmanabham, G.

    2012-11-01

    Laser welding investigations were carried out on dissimilar Ti-SS combination. The study is aimed to improve the weld strength and ductility by minimizing harmful intermetallics and taking advantage of high cooling rates in laser welding. Results of continuous wave 3.5 kW CO2 laser welding of totally dissimilar combination of Titanium and stainless steel (304) have been discussed. Bead on plate welding experiments were conducted to identify the laser welding parameters using depth of penetration as criteria. The welding of dissimilar combination has been attempted both autogenously and with interlayers such as Vanadium (V) and Tantalum (Ta) in the form of laser cladding as well as strip. Autogenous welds were carried out by varying the laser power, welding speed and position of the laser beam with respect to the joint centre. The resultant welds are characterized by macrostructure analysis, SEM/EDAX and XRD and as welded tensile test in UTM. The autogenous welds have exhibited extensive cracking even when welded at high speeds or by manipulating the beam position with respect to the joint. Similarly Vandaium as interlayer could not achieve crack free joint. A joint with 40 MPa strength could be made with Ta as interlayer. Results and analysis of these variants of laser welded joints are reported and discussed.

  15. Synthesis of calcium hydrogen phosphate and hydroxyapatite coating on SS316 substrate through pulsed electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Rajib, E-mail: rajibju4@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Sengupta, Srijan [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Saha, Partha [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Das, Karabi; Das, Siddhartha [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2016-12-01

    The orthopaedic implants for human body are generally made of different biomaterials like stainless steels or Ti based alloys. However, it has been found that from surface properties point of view, none of these materials is attractive for fast tissue or cell growth on the surface of implant. This is one of the most important criteria to assure quick bonding between implant and body tissues vis-à-vis minimum recovery time for the patient. Keeping in view of the above facts, this work involves the pulsed electro-deposition coating of biocompatible hydroxyapatite and its group compounds from a diluted bath of calcium and phosphate salt at various current densities over the biomaterial sheet of SS316. SEM study confirms different morphologies of the coatings at different current densities. Characterization techniques like X-ray diffraction, SEM with EDX and FTIR have been used to confirm the phase and percentage quantity of hydroxyapatite compound in the depositions. This coating can serve as a medium for faster tissue growth over the metallic implants. - Highlights: • Composite coatings of CaHPO{sub 4} and hydroxyapatite for biomedical application through pulsed electro-deposition. • Achieved optimum phase composition in view of crystallinity of both the phases. • Overall coating crystallinity of around 70% in view better bio compatibility. • In cyclic voltammetry it is observed that the deposition reaction is completely irreversible. • The deposited coating consists of nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite similar to human bone; which exhibits better bio-compatibility.

  16. High-Salt Intake Suppressed MicroRNA-133a Expression in Dahl SS Rat Myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tong-Shuai; Zhang, Jie; Mu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Ren, Ke-Yu; Wang, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Salt-sensitive individuals show earlier and more serious cardiac damage than nonsalt-sensitive ones. Some studies have suggested that microRNA-133a could reduce cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. The current study aims to investigate the different functions of high-salt intake on salt-sensitive (SS) rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and the involvement of microRNA-133a in these roles. After high-salt intervention, the left ventricular mass (LVW) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) of the salt-sensitive high salt (SHS) group were obviously higher than those of the salt-sensitive low salt (SLS) group. However, the difference between the Sprague-Dawley high salt (DHS) group and the Sprague-Dawley low salt (DLS) group was not significant. Compared with SLS group, collagen I and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the heart of SHS group were significantly higher, whereas no statistical difference was observed between the DHS group and the DLS group. Compared with low-salt diet, microRNA-133a in the heart of both strains were significantly decreased, but that in the SHS group decreased more significantly. These results suggest that high salt intervention could down-regulate the expression of myocardial microRNA-133a, which may be one of the mechanisms involved in myocardial fibrosis in salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:24937684

  17. High-Salt Intake Suppressed MicroRNA-133a Expression in Dahl SS Rat Myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Shuai Guo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt-sensitive individuals show earlier and more serious cardiac damage than nonsalt-sensitive ones. Some studies have suggested that microRNA-133a could reduce cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. The current study aims to investigate the different functions of high-salt intake on salt-sensitive (SS rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and the involvement of microRNA-133a in these roles. After high-salt intervention, the left ventricular mass (LVW and left ventricular mass index (LVMI of the salt-sensitive high salt (SHS group were obviously higher than those of the salt-sensitive low salt (SLS group. However, the difference between the Sprague-Dawley high salt (DHS group and the Sprague-Dawley low salt (DLS group was not significant. Compared with SLS group, collagen I and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF in the heart of SHS group were significantly higher, whereas no statistical difference was observed between the DHS group and the DLS group. Compared with low-salt diet, microRNA-133a in the heart of both strains were significantly decreased, but that in the SHS group decreased more significantly. These results suggest that high salt intervention could down-regulate the expression of myocardial microRNA-133a, which may be one of the mechanisms involved in myocardial fibrosis in salt-sensitive hypertension.

  18. Cherenkov and scintillation light separation on the CheSS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, Javier; Land, Benjamin; Descamps, Freija; Orebi Gann, Gabriel D.

    2016-09-01

    Separation of the scintillation and Cherenkov light produced in liquid scintillators enables outstanding capabilities for future particle detectors, the most relevant being: particle directionality information in a low energy threshold detector and improved particle identification. The CheSS experiment uses an array of small, fast photomultipliers (PMTs) and state-of-the-art electronics to demonstrate the reconstruction of a Cherenkov ring in liquid scintillator using two techniques: based on the photon density and using the photon hit time information. A charged particle ionizing a scintillation medium produces a prompt Cherenkov cone and late isotropic scintillation light, typically delayed by several ns. The fast response of our PMTs and DAQ provides a precision well below the ns level, making possible the time separation. Furthermore, the usage of the new developed water-based liquid scintillators (WbLS) enhances the separation since it allows tuning of the Cherenkov/Scintillation ratio. Latest results on the separation for pure liquid scintillators and WbLS will be presented.

  19. Model Atmosphere Spectrum Fit to the Soft X-Ray Outburst Spectrum of SS Cyg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Suleimanov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The X-ray spectrum of SS Cyg in outburst has a very soft component that can be interpreted as the fast-rotating optically thick boundary layer on the white dwarf surface. This component was carefully investigated by Mauche (2004 using the Chandra LETG spectrum of this object in outburst. The spectrum shows broad ( ≈5 °A spectral features that have been interpreted as a large number of absorption lines on a blackbody continuum with a temperature of ≈250 kK. Because the spectrum resembles the photospheric spectra of super-soft X-ray sources, we tried to fit it with high gravity hot LTE stellar model atmospheres with solar chemical composition, specially computed for this purpose. We obtained a reasonably good fit to the 60–125 °A spectrum with the following parameters: Teff = 190 kK, log g = 6.2, and NH = 8 · 1019 cm−2, although at shorter wavelengths the observed spectrum has a much higher flux. The reasons for this are discussed. The hypothesis of a fast rotating boundary layer is supported by the derived low surface gravity.

  20. On the anomalous temperature dependency of fatigue crack growth of SS 316(N) weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, M. Nani; Dutt, B. Shashank; Venugopal, S. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Sasikala, G., E-mail: gsasi@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T.; Raj, Baldev [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2010-07-25

    Fatigue crack growth behaviour of a nuclear grade SS 316(N) weld metal was examined in the Paris and threshold regimes in the as-welded condition, at 300, 573 and 823 K. The {Delta}K{sub th} values were 11.2, 7.5, and 9.5 MPa {radical}m, respectively. These values were corrected for closure effects and the corresponding {Delta}K{sub th,eff} were found to be 7.7, 5.8 and 3.5 MPa {radical}m, respectively. The anomalous behaviour, i.e., the high value of {Delta}K{sub th} at 823 K has been explained based on crack closure effect which is roughness induced at 300 K and oxide induced at 823 K, with both these insignificant at 573 K. The effect of temperature on crack growth mechanism and the associated closure mechanisms are discussed. The stress shielding at the crack tip due to closure is accounted for and the effective stress intensity factor experienced by the crack tip, {Delta}K{sub eff,tip} is determined. It is demonstrated that {Delta}K{sub eff,tip} qualifies as a more appropriate parameter as the driving force for the temperature-dependent crack growth in the near-threshold and Paris regimes.

  1. STATUS BAKU MUTU AIR LAUT PERAIRAN TELUK AMBON LUAR UNTUK WISATA BAHARI KAPAL TENGGELAM SS AQUILA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntur Adhi Rahmawan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambon Bay waters consist of two parts, Inner Ambon Bay and Outer Ambon Bay separated by a gap that is narrow and shallow. Ambon Bay has a lot of functionality and usability both in transportation, conservation, and tourism. The existence of one of the sites SS. Aquila sinking ship that sank since May 27, 1958, became one of the tourist attraction diving in Ambon Bay. Determination of water pollution index Ambon Bay becomes very important to do as support material and development of sea travel. Determining pollution index is done by direct measurement using the sea water quality parameters Water Quality Checker (DKK TOA WQC Type-24, as well as laboratory analysis to determine the chemical parameters of seawater (pH, TSS, salinity, turbidity, oil, grease. The results showed that the waters of the Bay of Ambon Affairs based on some parameters water quality standard for marine tourism is still included in accordance with the standard criteria by Keputusan Menteri Negara Lingkungan Hidup Nomor: 51 Tahun 2004 on Guidelines for Determination of Water Quality Status.

  2. PN Sequence Preestimator Scheme for DS-SS Signal Acquisition Using Block Sequence Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kyu Park

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An m-sequence (PN sequence preestimator scheme for direct-sequence spread spectrum (DS-SS signal acquisition by using block sequence estimation (BSE is proposed and analyzed. The proposed scheme consists of an estimator and a verifier which work according to the PN sequence chip clock, and provides not only the enhanced chip estimates with a threshold decision logic and one-chip error correction among the first m received chips, but also the reliability check of the estimates with additional decision logic. The probabilities of the estimator and verifier operations are calculated. With these results, the detection, the false alarm, and the missing probabilities of the proposed scheme are derived. In addition, using a signal flow graph, the average acquisition time is calculated. The proposed scheme can be used as a preestimator and easily implemented by changing the internal signal path of a generally used digital matched filter (DMF correlator or any other correlator that has a lot of sampling data memories for sampled PN sequence. The numerical results show rapid acquisition performance in a relatively good CNR.

  3. El trabajo artesanal en Augusta Emerita durante los ss. I-IV d. C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena BUSTAMANTE ÁLVAREZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente en la antigua capital lusitana es posible examinar, además de los restos arquitectónicos de sus edificios públicos y de una espléndida musivaria en ámbito doméstico, los indicios de otras producciones locales a las que hasta ahora no se les había concedido más que un interés de tipo secundario. En el presente trabajo damos a conocer una síntesis de las evidencias arqueológicas existentes del artesanado emeritense durante los ss. I-IV d. C. Este tema había sido revisado de manera aislada y esporádica en este solar. Aquí se valoran las estructuras, modos productivos y posibles evidencias de la mano de obra usada. Las constantes excavaciones que se han desarrollado en las últimas décadas han sacado a la luz 33 hornos cerámicos, 2 molinos alimentarios, 7 fullonicae, 1 officina infectae, 4 talleres de vidrio, 1 lanifricaria, 2 talleres de hueso, 2 pistrinae, 2 hornos metalúrgicos y 3 caleras que permiten el desarrollo de estudios de cierta envergadura. La industrial textil, la alfarera, alimentaria o metalúrgica, entre otras, son analizadas arqueológicamente. A partir de ello ha sido posible establecer un mapa de distribución de las distintas áreas manufactureras y de sus posibles zonas de influencia.

  4. Laser cladding of nickel base alloy on SS316L for improved wear and corrosion behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, Reena; Kushwaha, R.P.; Chandra, Kamlesh; Viswanadham, C.S.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.; Limaye, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Laser cladding by an Nd:YAG laser was employed to deposit Ni base alloy (Ni-Mo-Cr-Si) on stainless steel-316 L substrate. The resulting defect-free clad with minimum dilution of the substrate was characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Vickers microhardness test. Dry sliding wear of the cladding and the substrate was evaluated using a ball-on-plate reciprocating wear tester against different counter bodies (WC and 52100 Cr steel). The reciprocating sliding wear resistance of the coating was evaluated as a function of the normal load, keeping the sliding amplitude and sliding speed constant. Wear mechanisms were analyzed by observation of wear track morphology using SEM-EDS. The electrochemical corrosion behavior of clad layer was studied in reducing environment (HCl) to estimate the general corrosion resistance of the laser clad layer in comparison with the substrate SS-316L. The clad layer showed higher wear resistance under reducing condition than that of the substrate material stainless steel 316L. (author)

  5. Analysis of the Corrosion Behavior of an A-TIG Welded SS 409 Weld Fusion Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyarthy, R. S.; Dwivedi, D. K.

    2017-11-01

    AISI 409 (SS 409) ferritic stainless steel is generally used as the thick gauge section in freight train wagons, in ocean containers, and in sugar refinery equipment. Activating the flux tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding process can reduce the welding cost during fabrication of thick sections. However, corrosion behavior of the A-TIG weld fusion zone is a prime concern for this type of steel. In the present work, the effect of the A-TIG welding process parameters on the corrosion behavior of a weld fusion zone made of 8-mm-thick AISI 409 ferritic stainless-steel plate has been analyzed. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed to evaluate the corrosion behavior. The maximum corrosion potential ( E corr) was shown by the weld made using a welding current of 215 A, a welding speed of 95 mm/min, and a flux coating density of 0.81 mg/cm2. The minimum E corr was observed in the weld made using a welding current of 190 A, a welding speed of 120 mm/min, and a flux coating density of 1.40 mg/cm2. The current study also presents the inclusive microstructure-corrosion property relationships using the collective techniques of scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction.

  6. Observations of secular changes in the kinematic model of SS433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, G.W. II; Newsom, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper the authors present evidence that several of the defining parameters of the Kinematic Model for SS433 are not constant but rather exhibit long term systematic changes. Recent data confirm the existence of the previously reported decrease in the precessional period. The value for this period change, when combined with the observed change in the period of the synodic spectral variations, implies that the orbital period is not significantly changing on a time scale less than 1000 years. In addition they find mounting evidence for a statistically significant (4sigma) secular change in the cone angle theta at a rate of about -1.5 x 10 -3 deg/day. However, the surprisingly short time scales implied by the observed values of dP/dt and dtheta/dt when combined with estimates of the system age suggest the possible existence of detectable higher time derivatives. This view is supported by the most recent data which suggest a value for d 2 P/dt 2 approximately 10 -5 (days) -1 . It is possible to understand these secular changes in terms of the motions to be expected from an object exhibiting classical precession in response to an external torque. (Auth.)

  7. Discovery of Fast, Large-amplitude Optical Variability of V648 Car (=SS73-17)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeloni, R.; Di Mille, F.; Ferreira Lopes, C. E.; Masetti, N.

    2012-09-01

    We report on the discovery of large-amplitude flickering from V648 Car (= SS73-17), a poorly studied object listed among the very few hard X-ray-emitting symbiotic stars. We performed millimagnitude precision optical photometry with the Swope Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and found that V648 Car shows large U-band variability over timescales of minutes. To our knowledge, it exhibits some of the largest flickering of a symbiotic star ever reported. Our finding supports the hypothesis that symbiotic white dwarfs producing hard X-rays are predominantly powered by accretion, rather than quasi-steady nuclear burning, and have masses close to the Chandrasekhar limit. No significant periodicity is evident from the flickering light curve. The All Sky Automated Survey long-term V light curve suggests the presence of a tidally distorted giant accreting via Roche lobe overflow, and a binary period of ~520 days. On the basis of the outstanding physical properties of V648 Car as hinted at by its fast and long-term optical variability, as well as by its nature as a hard X-ray emitter, we therefore call for simultaneous follow-up observations in different bands, ideally combined with time-resolved optical spectroscopy.

  8. Wavelet Based Hilbert Transform with Digital Design and Application to QCM-SS Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Maity

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent time, wavelet transforms are used extensively for efficient storage, transmission and representation of multimedia signals. Hilbert transform pairs of wavelets is the basic unit of many wavelet theories such as complex filter banks, complex wavelet and phaselet etc. Moreover, Hilbert transform finds various applications in communications and signal processing such as generation of single sideband (SSB modulation, quadrature carrier multiplexing (QCM and bandpass representation of a signal. Thus wavelet based discrete Hilbert transform design draws much attention of researchers for couple of years. This paper proposes an (i algorithm for generation of low computation cost Hilbert transform pairs of symmetric filter coefficients using biorthogonal wavelets, (ii approximation to its rational coefficients form for its efficient hardware realization and without much loss in signal representation, and finally (iii development of QCM-SS (spread spectrum image watermarking scheme for doubling the payload capacity. Simulation results show novelty of the proposed Hilbert transform design and its application to watermarking compared to existing algorithms.

  9. Global Discontinuity Structure of the Mantle Transition Zone from Finite-Frequency Tomography of SS Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z.; Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    We report global structure of the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities from finite-frequency tomography using frequency-dependent traveltime measurements of SS precursors recorded at the Global Seismological Network (GSN). Finite-frequency sensitivity kernels for discontinuity depth perturbations are calculated in the framework of traveling-wave mode coupling. We parametrize the global discontinuities using a set of spherical triangular grid points and solve the tomographic inverse problem based on singular value decomposition. Our global 410-km and 660-km discontinuity models reveal distinctly different characteristics beneath the oceans and subduction zones. In general, oceanic regions are associated with a thinner mantle transition zone and depth perturbations of the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities are anti-correlated, in agreement with a thermal origin and an overall warm and dry mantle beneath the oceans. The perturbations are not uniform throughout the oceans but show strong small-scale variations, indicating complex processes in the mantle transition zone. In major subduction zones (except for South America where data coverage is sparse), depth perturbations of the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities are correlated, with both the 410-km and the 660-km discontinuities occurring at greater depths. The distributions of the anomalies are consistent with cold stagnant slabs just above the 660-km discontinuity and ascending return flows in a superadiabatic upper mantle.

  10. Sa Rocca Ulàri Cave, near S. Pietro di Sorres, Borutta (SS: archaeological aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Soro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cave of Sa Rocca Ulàri, in the municipality of Borutta (SS, is fully inserted into the dense settlement of the natural cavities of Sardinia during the prehistory and early history. Its size and the particular relation to the configuration of the land in relation to the richness of the Mejlogu landscape, allowed small groups of people to settle in the cavity that opens into the northern slope of the Hill of Sorres. Attendance could be certified without interruption from the Neolithic until the Middle Ages. The preliminary study of materials, has determined that the most popular period for residential purposes is referring to the end of the Neolithic culture of Ozieri, and the first Eneolithic Sub Ozieri. The funerary use is assumed for the subsequent cultural phases Monte Claro (Evolved Eneolithic and Bonnanaro I facies Corona Moltana (Bronze Age. In the Nuragic Era (Middle Bronze / Late / Final and early Iron Age the cavity was initially used for storing food, then for other purposes probably linked to the cult.

  11. DISCOVERY OF FAST, LARGE-AMPLITUDE OPTICAL VARIABILITY OF V648 Car (=SS73-17)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeloni, R.; Di Mille, F.; Ferreira Lopes, C. E.; Masetti, N.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the discovery of large-amplitude flickering from V648 Car (= SS73-17), a poorly studied object listed among the very few hard X-ray-emitting symbiotic stars. We performed millimagnitude precision optical photometry with the Swope Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and found that V648 Car shows large U-band variability over timescales of minutes. To our knowledge, it exhibits some of the largest flickering of a symbiotic star ever reported. Our finding supports the hypothesis that symbiotic white dwarfs producing hard X-rays are predominantly powered by accretion, rather than quasi-steady nuclear burning, and have masses close to the Chandrasekhar limit. No significant periodicity is evident from the flickering light curve. The All Sky Automated Survey long-term V light curve suggests the presence of a tidally distorted giant accreting via Roche lobe overflow, and a binary period of ∼520 days. On the basis of the outstanding physical properties of V648 Car as hinted at by its fast and long-term optical variability, as well as by its nature as a hard X-ray emitter, we therefore call for simultaneous follow-up observations in different bands, ideally combined with time-resolved optical spectroscopy.

  12. Nanoindentation and in situ microcompression in different dose regimes of proton beam irradiated 304 SS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichardt, A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lupinacci, A. [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Frazer, D.; Bailey, N.; Vo, H.; Howard, C. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jiao, Z. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Minor, A.M. [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chou, P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hosemann, P., E-mail: peterh@berkeley.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Recent developments in micromechanical testing have allowed for the efficient evaluation of radiation effects in micron-scale volumes of ion-irradiated materials. In this study, both nanoindentation and in situ SEM microcompression testing are carried out on 10 dpa proton beam irradiated 304 stainless steel to assess radiation hardening and radiation-induced deformation mechanisms in the material. Using a focused ion beam (FIB), arrays of 2 μm × 2 μm cross-section microcompression pillars are fabricated in multiple dose regimes within the same grain, providing dose-dependent behavior in a single crystal orientation. Analysis of the microcompression load-displacement data and real-time SEM imaging during testing indicates significant hardening, as well as increased localization of deformation in the irradiated material. Although nanoindentation results suggest that irradiation hardening saturates at low doses, microcompression results indicate that the pillar yield stress continues to rise with dose above 10 dpa in the tested orientation. - Highlights: •Mechanical properties are probed in small volumes of proton irradiated 304SS. •Nanoindentation indicates saturation of irradiation hardening at doses of 5–10 dpa. •Microcompression of irradiated specimens suggest localized deformation.

  13. TEM characterization of corrosion products formed on a SS-15ZR alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, J. S.; Abraham, D. P.

    2000-01-01

    The corrosion products formed on a stainless steel-15Zr (SS-15Zr) alloy have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Examination of alloy particles that were immersed in 90 C deionized water for two years revealed that different corrosion products were formed on the stainless steel and intermetallic phases. Two corrosion products were identified on an austenite particle: trevorite (NiFe 2 O 4 ) in the layer close to the metal and maghemite (Fe 2 O 3 ) in the outer layer. The corrosion layer formed on the intermetallic was uniform, adherent, and amorphous. The EDS analysis indicated that the layer was enriched in zirconium when compared with the intermetallic composition. High-resolution TEM images of the intermetallic-corrosion layer interface show an interlocking metal-oxide interface which may explain the relatively strong adherence of the corrosion layer to the intermetallic surface. These results will be used to evaluate corrosion mechanisms and predict long-term corrosion behavior of the alloy waste form

  14. Combining use of a panel of ssDNA aptamers in the detection of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoxiao; Li, Shaohua; Chen, Liucun; Ding, Hongmei; Xu, Hua; Huang, Yanping; Li, Jie; Liu, Nongle; Cao, Weihong; Zhu, Yanjun; Shen, Beifen; Shao, Ningsheng

    2009-08-01

    In this article, a panel of ssDNA aptamers specific to Staphylococcus aureus was obtained by a whole bacterium-based SELEX procedure and applied to probing S. aureus. After several rounds of selection with S. aureus as the target and Streptococcus and S. epidermidis as counter targets, the highly enriched oligonucleic acid pool was sequenced and then grouped under different families on the basis of the homology of the primary sequence and the similarity of the secondary structure. Eleven sequences from different families were selected for further characterization by confocal imaging and flow cytometry analysis. Results showed that five aptamers demonstrated high specificity and affinity to S. aureus individually. The five aptamers recognize different molecular targets by competitive experiment. Combining these five aptamers had a much better effect than the individual aptamer in the recognition of different S. aureus strains. In addition, the combined aptamers can probe single S. aureus in pyogenic fluids. Our work demonstrates that a set of aptamers specific to one bacterium can be used in combination for the identification of the bacterium instead of a single aptamer.

  15. A new human IgG avidity test, using mixtures of recombinant antigens (rROP1, rSAG2, rGRA6), for the diagnosis of difficult-to-identify phases of toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapała, Dorota; Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Kur, Józef; Ferra, Bartłomiej; Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, Elżbieta; Lautenbach, Dariusz

    2014-07-01

    The preliminary diagnostic utility of two mixtures of Toxoplasma gondii recombinant antigens (rROP1+rSAG2 and rROP1+rGRA6) in IgG ELISA and IgG avidity test has been evaluated. A total of 173 serum samples from patients with toxoplasmosis and seronegative people were examined. The sensitivity of IgG ELISA for rROP1+rSAG2 and rROP1+rGRA6 was 91.1% and 76.7%, respectively, while the reactivity for sera from patients where acute toxoplasmosis was suspected was higher, at 100% and 95.4%, respectively, than for people with chronic infection, at 88.2% and 70.6%. In this study a different trend in avidity maturation of IgG antibodies for two mixtures of proteins in comparison with native antigen was observed. The results suggest that a new IgG avidity test using the mixtures of recombinant antigens may be useful for the diagnosis of difficult-to-identify phases of toxoplasmosis. For this reason, selected mixtures after the additional tests on groups of sera with well-defined dates of infection could be used as a better alternative to the native antigens of the parasite in the serodiagnosis of human T. gondii infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Geologic-seismic models, prediction of shallow-water lacustrine delta sandbody and hydrocarbon potential in the Late Miocene, Huanghekou Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Huanghekou Sag is located at the southeast part of the Bohai Bay Basin, northern China. Large-scale shallow lake delta developed in the Neogene provided suitable geological conditions for the formation of a subtle oil-gas reservoir in this area. The key for analyzing sandstone reservoir and sedimentary facies is by using seismic attributes (amplitude to establish the relationship between lithology combination and seismic attributes. The lower unit of Late Miocene Minghuazhen Formation at the BZ34 block in the Huanghekou Sag was subdivided into 10 parasequence sets (PSS. Thicker sandstones mainly occurred in PSS1 and PSS10, whereas thin sandstones are mostly observed within other parasequence sets. This study presents statistics and analyses of lithology, i.e., statistics of root-mean-square (RMS amplitude and lithology of well locations in different parasequence sets of the study area, as well as 1-D forward seismic models of 7 types of lithology combinations, the establishment of a spatial distribution of 2-D sandbody, forward seismic models etc. Our study indicates that high amplitude peaks correspond to thicker sandbodies, while low amplitude indicates non-development of sandbodies (generally less than 2 m, and medium amplitude agrees well with large sets of mudstones interbedded with medium and thinner sandstones. Different sand–mudstone combinations genetically reflect a combination of multiple micro-facies, therefore, amplitude features can predict sandbodies as well as facies characteristics.

  17. The Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C): a potential rover mission for 2018. Final report of the Mars Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG) October 14, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This report documents the work of the Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG), which was assigned to formulate a concept for a potential rover mission that could be launched to Mars in 2018. Based on programmatic and engineering considerations as of April 2009, our deliberations assumed that the potential mission would use the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) sky-crane landing system and include a single solar-powered rover. The mission would also have a targeting accuracy of approximately 7 km (semimajor axis landing ellipse), a mobility range of at least 10 km, and a lifetime on the martian surface of at least 1 Earth year. An additional key consideration, given recently declining budgets and cost growth issues with MSL, is that the proposed rover must have lower cost and cost risk than those of MSL--this is an essential consideration for the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG). The MRR-SAG was asked to formulate a mission concept that would address two general objectives: (1) conduct high priority in situ science and (2) make concrete steps toward the potential return of samples to Earth. The proposed means of achieving these two goals while balancing the trade-offs between them are described here in detail. We propose the name Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher(MAX-C) to reflect the dual purpose of this potential 2018 rover mission.

  18. Análisis multirresolución del motor trifásico de inducción sometido a huecos de tensión Triphasic induction motor multiresolution analysis on voltage sags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G Macri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este documento presenta los resultados del estudio realizado de la descomposición wavelet multinivel 1D de las señales perturbadas del par electromagnético y de la velocidad del eje del motor trifásico de inducción, cuando este es sometido a diferentes tipologías de huecos de tensión según la caracterización ABC, Bollen (2000. Los huecos de tensión trifásicos (3 variables son analizados indirectamente en el efecto producido en una variable perturbada (el par electromagnético o la velocidad del eje que contiene indirectamente información del tipo de hueco de tensión trifásico producido en el estator. El estudio analiza el efecto de los siete diferentes tipos de huecos de tensión, considerando también la influencia de la duración y tensión retenida. Para cada caso se obtiene un vector cuyos elementos son los niveles de energía wavelet en los distintos niveles de descomposición de la variable analizada, mostrando que la forma en que se distribuye la energía de la señal 1D en los distintos niveles de descomposición establece una firma única para cada caso. Esta forma de descripción de los huecos de tensión producidos en el estator, basada en la descomposición multinivel de una variable perturbada, reduce la cantidad de variables a analizar y permite posteriormente la clasificación de las perturbaciones empleando técnicas de inteligencia artificial; es ventajosa pues el almacenamiento de los vectores de niveles de energía de aproximación en las bases de datos emplea menor cantidad de espacio que la necesaria para una señal temporal, y empleando una DWT reversible es posible, además, reconstruir la variable de estado temporal.This document presents the study results of the wavelet 1D multi-level decomposition of perturbed electromagnetic torque and shaft speed signals, of the three-phase induction motor, when it is subjected to different types of voltage sags, as characterization ABC, Bollen (2000. The three

  19. Roles of C-Terminal Region of Yeast and Human Rad52 in Rad51-Nucleoprotein Filament Formation and ssDNA Annealing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh V Khade

    Full Text Available Yeast Rad52 (yRad52 has two important functions at homologous DNA recombination (HR; annealing complementary single-strand DNA (ssDNA molecules and recruiting Rad51 recombinase onto ssDNA (recombination mediator activity. Its human homolog (hRAD52 has a lesser role in HR, and apparently lacks mediator activity. Here we show that yRad52 can load human Rad51 (hRAD51 onto ssDNA complexed with yeast RPA in vitro. This is biochemically equivalent to mediator activity because it depends on the C-terminal Rad51-binding region of yRad52 and on functional Rad52-RPA interaction. It has been reported that the N-terminal two thirds of both yRad52 and hRAD52 is essential for binding to and annealing ssDNA. Although a second DNA binding region has been found in the C-terminal region of yRad52, its role in ssDNA annealing is not clear. In this paper, we also show that the C-terminal region of yRad52, but not of hRAD52, is involved in ssDNA annealing. This suggests that the second DNA binding site is required for the efficient ssDNA annealing by yRad52. We propose an updated model of Rad52-mediated ssDNA annealing.

  20. 78 FR 47056 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 941, 941-PR, 941-SS, 941-X, 941-X(PR), Schedule B...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... 941, 941-PR, 941- SS, 941-X, 941-X(PR), Schedule B (Form 941), Schedule R (Form 941)and Schedule B (Form 941-PR) AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... Forms 941 (Employer's Quarterly Federal Tax Return), 941-PR, 941-SS (Employer's Quarterly Federal Tax...

  1. Melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein (ML-IAP) specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes cross-react with an epitope from the auto-antigen SS56

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek Sørensen, Rikke; Faurschou, Mikkel; Troelsen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    A large proportion of melanoma patients host a spontaneous T-cell response specifically against ML-IAP-derived peptides. In this study, we describe that some ML-IAP-specific cytotoxic T cells isolated from melanoma patients cross react with an epitope from the auto-antigen SS56. SS56 is a recentl...

  2. Pregnancy outcome in patients with sickle cell disease in the UK--a national cohort study comparing sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) with HbSC disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Ayensah, Benjamin; Knight, Marian; Howard, Jo

    2015-04-01

    We describe the findings from a national study of maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancy in women with sickle cell disease (SCD). Data were collected via the United Kingdom Obstetric Surveillance System between 1 February 2010 and 31 January 2011 from 109 women, of whom 51 (46·8%) had HbSS and 44 (40·4%) had HbSC. Data included antenatal, maternal and fetal outcomes. Comparisons were made between women with HbSS and HbSC. Incidence of complications were acute pain (57%), blood transfusion (26%), urinary tract infection (UTI; 12%) and critical care unit admission (23%) and these were all more common in women with HbSS than HbSC. There was no difference in the incidence of acute chest syndrome, hypertension and venous thromboembolism between HbSS and HbSC. Women with HbSS were more likely to deliver at pregnancy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Biodegradable mixed MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles for triggered intracellular release of paclitaxel and reversing multidrug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong K

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kai Dong,1 Yan Yan,2 Pengchong Wang,2 Xianpeng Shi,2 Lu Zhang,2 Ke Wang,2 Jianfeng Xing,2 Yalin Dong1 1Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, 2School of Pharmacy, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China Abstract: In this study, a type of multifunctional mixed micelles were prepared by a novel biodegradable amphiphilic polymer (MPEG-SS-2SA and a multidrug resistance (MDR reversal agent (D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate, TPGS. The mixed micelles could achieve rapid intracellular drug release and reversal of MDR. First, the amphiphilic polymer, MPEG-SS-2SA, was synthesized through disulfide bonds between poly (ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (MPEG and stearic acid (SA. The structure of the obtained polymer was similar to poly (ethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE. Then the mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, were prepared by MPEG-SS-2SA and TPGS through the thin film hydration method and loaded paclitaxel (PTX as the model drug. The in vitro release study revealed that the mixed micelles could rapidly release PTX within 24 h under a reductive environment because of the breaking of disulfide bonds. In cell experiments, the mixed micelles significantly inhibited the activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex II, also reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the content of adenosine triphosphate, thus effectively inhibiting the efflux of PTX from cells. Moreover, in the confocal laser scanning microscopy, cellular uptake and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays, the MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles achieved faster release and more uptake of PTX in Michigan Cancer Foundation-7/PTX cells and showed better antitumor effects as compared with the insensitive control. In conclusion, the biodegradable mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, could be potential vehicles for delivering hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs in

  4. The Type IX Secretion System (T9SS): Highlights and Recent Insights into Its Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasica, Anna M.; Ksiazek, Miroslaw; Madej, Mariusz; Potempa, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Protein secretion systems are vital for prokaryotic life, as they enable bacteria to acquire nutrients, communicate with other species, defend against biological and chemical agents, and facilitate disease through the delivery of virulence factors. In this review, we will focus on the recently discovered type IX secretion system (T9SS), a complex translocon found only in some species of the Bacteroidetes phylum. T9SS plays two roles, depending on the lifestyle of the bacteria. It provides either a means of movement (called gliding motility) for peace-loving environmental bacteria or a weapon for pathogens. The best-studied members of these two groups are Flavobacterium johnsoniae, a commensal microorganism often found in water and soil, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, a human oral pathogen that is a major causative agent of periodontitis. In P. gingivalis and some other periodontopathogens, T9SS translocates proteins, especially virulence factors, across the outer membrane (OM). Proteins destined for secretion bear a conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) that directs the cargo to the OM translocon. At least 18 proteins are involved in this still enigmatic process, with some engaged in the post-translational modification of T9SS cargo proteins. Upon translocation across the OM, the CTD is removed by a protease with sortase-like activity and an anionic LPS is attached to the newly formed C-terminus. As a result, a cargo protein could be secreted into the extracellular milieu or covalently attached to the bacterial surface. T9SS is regulated by a two-component system; however, the precise environmental signal that triggers it has not been identified. Exploring unknown systems contributing to bacterial virulence is exciting, as it may eventually lead to new therapeutic strategies. During the past decade, the major components of T9SS were identified, as well as hints suggesting the possible mechanism of action. In addition, the list of characterized cargo proteins is

  5. The Type IX Secretion System (T9SS: Highlights and Recent Insights into Its Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Lasica

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein secretion systems are vital for prokaryotic life, as they enable bacteria to acquire nutrients, communicate with other species, defend against biological and chemical agents, and facilitate disease through the delivery of virulence factors. In this review, we will focus on the recently discovered type IX secretion system (T9SS, a complex translocon found only in some species of the Bacteroidetes phylum. T9SS plays two roles, depending on the lifestyle of the bacteria. It provides either a means of movement (called gliding motility for peace-loving environmental bacteria or a weapon for pathogens. The best-studied members of these two groups are Flavobacterium johnsoniae, a commensal microorganism often found in water and soil, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, a human oral pathogen that is a major causative agent of periodontitis. In P. gingivalis and some other periodontopathogens, T9SS translocates proteins, especially virulence factors, across the outer membrane (OM. Proteins destined for secretion bear a conserved C-terminal domain (CTD that directs the cargo to the OM translocon. At least 18 proteins are involved in this still enigmatic process, with some engaged in the post-translational modification of T9SS cargo proteins. Upon translocation across the OM, the CTD is removed by a protease with sortase-like activity and an anionic LPS is attached to the newly formed C-terminus. As a result, a cargo protein could be secreted into the extracellular milieu or covalently attached to the bacterial surface. T9SS is regulated by a two-component system; however, the precise environmental signal that triggers it has not been identified. Exploring unknown systems contributing to bacterial virulence is exciting, as it may eventually lead to new therapeutic strategies. During the past decade, the major components of T9SS were identified, as well as hints suggesting the possible mechanism of action. In addition, the list of characterized cargo

  6. Optimization of the diffusion bonding parameters for SS316L/CuCrZr with and without Nickel interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K.P., E-mail: kpsingh@ipr.res.in; Patel, Alpesh; Bhope, Kedar; Khirwadkar, S.S.; Mehta, Mayur

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Optimization of diffusion bonding parameters for dissimilar materials SS316L with CuCrZr is proposed with and without Nickel interlayer. • Ultrasonic testing on diffusion bonded samples provides the overall information/signatures about well-bonded and de-bonded samples. • Microstructural examination confirms the diffusion of Nickel into parent materials. • Mechanical characterization such as hardness measurement and shear measurement supports the results. - Abstract: Divertor & Firstwall module of ITER like tokamak has several joints of dissimilar materials such as Tungsten (W) to Copper (Cu), Cu to CuCrZr (heat sink material) and CuCrZr to Stainless Steel (SS) materials. These Plasma Facing Components (PFC) are made of multi-layered joints, which are to be exposed to the harsh environment of Plasma with the expected heat flux of 5–10 MW/m{sup 2}. The joining of SS316L material to CuCrZr material is proposed in this paper. As SS316L/CuCrZr being dissimilar materials, direct joining of these materials is a problem, which needs a suitable fabrication process. The joining of SS316L with heat sink material (CuCrZr) requires the good thermal transfer and sound in structural joint. Diffusion bonding technique has been adopted as a process for joining of these two dissimilar materials. The primary objective of the joining study is to obtain the best diffusion bonding parameters for ITER like tokamak application. Thermo-mechanical simulator machine (Gleeble 3800) is used to perform diffusion bonding experiments at different temperatures 650 °C, 850 °C, 900 °C, 950 °C & 1000 °C, different uniaxial pressure varying from 5 MPa to 15 MPa and with the holding time of 15 min & 30 min, using pure nickel interlayer. The diffusion bonded samples have undergone Non-destructive testing (NDT) particularly the ultrasonic examination using immersion probe technique, microstructural examination by the High Resolution (HR) electron microscopy (SEM), Energy

  7. Optimization of the diffusion bonding parameters for SS316L/CuCrZr with and without Nickel interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.P.; Patel, Alpesh; Bhope, Kedar; Khirwadkar, S.S.; Mehta, Mayur

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of diffusion bonding parameters for dissimilar materials SS316L with CuCrZr is proposed with and without Nickel interlayer. • Ultrasonic testing on diffusion bonded samples provides the overall information/signatures about well-bonded and de-bonded samples. • Microstructural examination confirms the diffusion of Nickel into parent materials. • Mechanical characterization such as hardness measurement and shear measurement supports the results. - Abstract: Divertor & Firstwall module of ITER like tokamak has several joints of dissimilar materials such as Tungsten (W) to Copper (Cu), Cu to CuCrZr (heat sink material) and CuCrZr to Stainless Steel (SS) materials. These Plasma Facing Components (PFC) are made of multi-layered joints, which are to be exposed to the harsh environment of Plasma with the expected heat flux of 5–10 MW/m 2 . The joining of SS316L material to CuCrZr material is proposed in this paper. As SS316L/CuCrZr being dissimilar materials, direct joining of these materials is a problem, which needs a suitable fabrication process. The joining of SS316L with heat sink material (CuCrZr) requires the good thermal transfer and sound in structural joint. Diffusion bonding technique has been adopted as a process for joining of these two dissimilar materials. The primary objective of the joining study is to obtain the best diffusion bonding parameters for ITER like tokamak application. Thermo-mechanical simulator machine (Gleeble 3800) is used to perform diffusion bonding experiments at different temperatures 650 °C, 850 °C, 900 °C, 950 °C & 1000 °C, different uniaxial pressure varying from 5 MPa to 15 MPa and with the holding time of 15 min & 30 min, using pure nickel interlayer. The diffusion bonded samples have undergone Non-destructive testing (NDT) particularly the ultrasonic examination using immersion probe technique, microstructural examination by the High Resolution (HR) electron microscopy (SEM), Energy

  8. Morfología de la planta y características de rendimiento y calidad de almidón de sagú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Piedad Valdés Restrepo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El sagú Maranta arundinacea es una Marantaceae cuyo rizoma es utilizado en algunas zonas de Colombia para la elaboración de productos destinados a la alimentación humana. No obstante, el conocimiento agronómico de este cultivo es limitado. En este trabajo se estudiaron varios métodos de propagación, días a cosecha de rizomas, producción de almidón nativo y el análisis químico de esta planta en las condiciones del Valle del Cauca. El cultivo fue establecido en parcelas de 0.25 m x 1 m entre plantas dentro de surco y entre surcos, respectivamente. Para el análisis de los datos cuantitativos se utilizaron estadísticas descriptivas (medidas de tendencia central, de variación y de desviación. La planta adulta alcanzó una altura entre 50 y 75 cm y un rendimiento de rizoma fresco entre 1.46 y 1.94 kg/planta. El índice de cosecha varió entre 0.06 y 0.60; el rendimiento de almidón por el rizoma fresco varió entre 7.2% y 8.1%; la composición proximal (en % del rizoma fue: 22.3, 7.4, 3.62, 1.02, 6.98 y 80.9 para MS, PC, FC, EE, ceniza y ELN, respectivamente. Las pruebas de antimetabolitos mostraron ausencia de estos compuestos en el forraje fresco, con 41.3; 22.0; 22.5; 15.06; 57.13; 32.3; 9.2; 23.13 y 24.8% de MS, PC, FC, ceniza, FDN, FDA, lignina, celulosa y hemicelulosa, respectivamente. El valor relativo como forraje fue de 103.7. Se realizó el análisis granulométrico: el módulo de fineza, módulo de uniformidad y el tamaño de la partícula. El rendimiento de almidón de rizomas fue de 10.57 ± 1.35%, el gasto de agua de 50.45 l/kg de almidón rendido. El gránulo fue elipsoidal de 8 µm de diámetro y compuesto por 20.54% de amilosa y 79.46% de amilopectina, que genera una pasta opaca y resistente a la retrogradación. La temperatura final de gelificación fue de 73 °C, la viscosidad máxima de la pasta fue de 220 Unidades Brabender (U.B., con un pico de viscosidad definido, y posterior conservación de la trayectoria, con

  9. Morfología de la planta y características de rendimiento y calidad de almidón de sagú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Teresa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El sagú Maranta arundinacea es una Marantaceae cuyo rizoma es utilizado en algunas zonas de Colombia para la elaboración de productos destinados a la alimentación humana. No obstante, el conocimiento agronómico de este cultivo es limitado. En este trabajo se estudiaron varios métodos de propagación, días a cosecha de rizomas, producción de almidón nativo y el análisis químico de esta planta en las condiciones del Valle del Cauca. El cultivo fue establecido en parcelas de 0.25 m x 1 m entre plantas dentro de surco y entre surcos, respectivamente. Para el análisis de los datos cuantitativos se utilizaron estadísticas descriptivas (medidas de tendencia central, de variación y de desviación. La planta adulta alcanzó una altura entre 50 y 75 cm y un rendimiento de rizoma fresco entre 1.46 y 1.94 kg/planta. El índice de cosecha varió entre 0.06 y 0.60; el rendimiento de almidón por el rizoma fresco varió entre 7.2% y 8.1%; la composición proximal (en % del rizoma fue: 22.3, 7.4, 3.62, 1.02, 6.98 y 80.9 para MS, PC, FC, EE, ceniza y ELN, respectivamente. Las pruebas de antimetabolitos mostraron ausencia de estos compuestos en el forraje fresco, con 41.3; 22.0; 22.5; 15.06; 57.13; 32.3; 9.2; 23.13 y 24.8% de MS, PC, FC, ceniza, FDN, FDA, lignina, celulosa y hemicelulosa, respectivamente. El valor relativo como forraje fue de 103.7. Se realizó el análisis granulométrico: el módulo de fineza, módulo de uniformidad y el tamaño de la partícula. El rendimiento de almidón de rizomas fue de 10.57 ± 1.35%, el gasto de agua de 50.45 l/kg de almidón rendido. El gránulo fue elipsoidal de 8 µm de diámetro y compuesto por 20.54% de amilosa y 79.46% de amilopectina, que genera una pasta opaca y resistente a la retrogradación. La temperatura final de gelificación fue de 73 °C, la viscosidad máxima de la pasta fue de 220 Unidades Brabender (U.B., con un pico de viscosidad definido, y posterior conservación de la

  10. Canine echinococcosis: genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from definitive hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, B; Lett, W; Lahmar, S; Griffiths, A; Jenkins, D J; Buishi, I; Engliez, S A; Alrefadi, M A; Eljaki, A A; Elmestiri, F M; Reyes, M M; Pointing, S; Al-Hindi, A; Torgerson, P R; Okamoto, M; Craig, P S

    2015-11-01

    Canids, particularly dogs, constitute the major source of cystic echinococcosis (CE) infection to humans, with the majority of cases being caused by Echinococcus granulosus (G1 genotype). Canine echinococcosis is an asymptomatic disease caused by adult tapeworms of E. granulosus sensu lato (s.l.). Information on the population structure and genetic variation of adult E. granulosus is limited. Using sequenced data of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) we examined the genetic diversity and population structure of adult tapeworms of E. granulosus (G1 genotype) from canid definitive hosts originating from various geographical regions and compared it to that reported for the larval metacestode stage from sheep and human hosts. Echinococcus granulosus (s.s) was identified from adult tapeworm isolates from Kenya, Libya, Tunisia, Australia, China, Kazakhstan, United Kingdom and Peru, including the first known molecular confirmation from Gaza and the Falkland Islands. Haplotype analysis showed a star-shaped network with a centrally positioned common haplotype previously described for the metacestode stage from sheep and humans, and the neutrality indices indicated population expansion. Low Fst values suggested that populations of adult E. granulosus were not genetically differentiated. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities for E. granulosus isolates from sheep and human origin were twice as high as those reported from canid hosts. This may be related to self-fertilization of E. granulosus and/or to the longevity of the parasite in the respective intermediate and definitive hosts. Improved nuclear single loci are required to investigate the discrepancies in genetic variation seen in this study.

  11. SS-A/Ro52 promotes apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauharoh, Siti Nur Aisyah; Saegusa, Jun; Sugimoto, Takeshi; Ardianto, Bambang; Kasagi, Shimpei; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kurimoto, Chiyo; Tokuno, Osamu; Nakamachi, Yuji; Kumagai, Shunichi; Kawano, Seiji

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ro52 low HeLa cells are resistant to apoptosis upon various stimulations. ► Ro52 is upregulated by IFN-α, etoposide, or IFN-γ and anti-Fas Ab. ► Ro52-mediated apoptosis is independent of p53. ► Ro52 selectively regulates Bcl-2 expression. -- Abstract: SS-A/Ro52 (Ro52), an autoantigen in systemic autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren’s syndrome, has E3 ligase activity to ubiquitinate proteins that protect against viral infection. To investigate Ro52’s role during stress, we transiently knocked it down in HeLa cells by siRo52 transfection. We found that Ro52 low HeLa cells were significantly more resistant to apoptosis than wild-type HeLa cells when stimulated by H 2 O 2 - or diamide-induced oxidative stress, IFN-α, IFN-γ and anti-Fas antibody, etoposide, or γ-irradiation. Furthermore, Ro52-mediated apoptosis was not influenced by p53 protein level in HeLa cells. Depleting Ro52 in HeLa cells caused Bcl-2, but not other Bcl-2 family molecules, to be upregulated. Taken together, our data showed that Ro52 is a universal proapoptotic molecule, and that its proapoptotic effect does not depend on p53, but is exerted through negative regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These findings shed light on a new physiological role for Ro52 that is important to intracellular immunity.

  12. SS-A/Ro52 promotes apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauharoh, Siti Nur Aisyah [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, Jakarta 15412 (Indonesia); Saegusa, Jun; Sugimoto, Takeshi [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Ardianto, Bambang [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55282 (Indonesia); Kasagi, Shimpei; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kurimoto, Chiyo [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Tokuno, Osamu; Nakamachi, Yuji [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kobe University Hospital, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Kumagai, Shunichi [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Kawano, Seiji, E-mail: sjkawano@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kobe University Hospital, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52{sup low} HeLa cells are resistant to apoptosis upon various stimulations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52 is upregulated by IFN-{alpha}, etoposide, or IFN-{gamma} and anti-Fas Ab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52-mediated apoptosis is independent of p53. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52 selectively regulates Bcl-2 expression. -- Abstract: SS-A/Ro52 (Ro52), an autoantigen in systemic autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjoegren's syndrome, has E3 ligase activity to ubiquitinate proteins that protect against viral infection. To investigate Ro52's role during stress, we transiently knocked it down in HeLa cells by siRo52 transfection. We found that Ro52{sup low} HeLa cells were significantly more resistant to apoptosis than wild-type HeLa cells when stimulated by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}- or diamide-induced oxidative stress, IFN-{alpha}, IFN-{gamma} and anti-Fas antibody, etoposide, or {gamma}-irradiation. Furthermore, Ro52-mediated apoptosis was not influenced by p53 protein level in HeLa cells. Depleting Ro52 in HeLa cells caused Bcl-2, but not other Bcl-2 family molecules, to be upregulated. Taken together, our data showed that Ro52 is a universal proapoptotic molecule, and that its proapoptotic effect does not depend on p53, but is exerted through negative regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These findings shed light on a new physiological role for Ro52 that is important to intracellular immunity.

  13. Creep-fatigue evaluation method for type 304 and 316FR SS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Y.; Aoto, K.; Ueno, F.

    1997-01-01

    For long-term creep-fatigue of Type 304SS, intergranular failure is dominant in the case of significant life reduction. It is considered that this phenomenon has its origin in the grain boundary sliding as observed in cavity-type creep-rupture. Accordingly a simplified procedure to estimate intergranular damages caused by the grain boundary sliding is presented in connection with the secondary creep. In the conventional ductility exhaustion method, failure ductility includes plastic strain, and damage estimation is based on the primary creep strain, which is recoverable during strain cycling. Therefore the accumulated creep strain becomes a very large value, and quite different from grain boundary sliding strain. As a new concept on ductility exhaustion, the product of secondary creep rate and time to rupture (Monkman-Grant product) is applied to fracture ductility, and grain boundary sliding strain is approximately estimated using the accumulated secondary creep strain. From the new concept it was shown that the time fraction rule and the conventional ductility exhaustion method can be derived analytically. Furthermore an advanced method on cyclic stress relaxation was examined. If cyclic plastic strain hardening is softened thermally during strain hold, cyclic creep strain behaviour is also softened. An unrecoverable accumulated primary creep strain causes hardening of the primary creep, and the reduction of deformation resistance to the secondary creep caused by thermal softening accelerates grain boundary sliding rate. As the results creep damages depend not on applied stress but on effective stress. The new concept ductility exhaustion method based on the above consideration leads up to simplified time fraction estimation method only by continuous cycling fatigue and monotonic creep which was already developed in PNC for Monju design guide. This method gave good life prediction for the intergranular failure mode and is convenient for design use on the elastic

  14. GERMINATION TEST IN SEEDS OF MELOTHRIA CAMPESTRIS (NAUDIN H. SCHAEF. & S.S. RENNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA CARINA DA SILVA CÂNDIDO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado occupies 25% of the Brazilian territory and is the second largest biome in South America, second only to the Amazon Rainforest. Hence, studies on the native species of the Cerrado are important for implementing conservation strategies. In this context, knowledge of the requirements and conditions for germination of seeds of these native species is essential. The Cerrado watermelon ( Melothria campestris (Naudin H. Schaef. & S.S. Renner is a plant that is not cultivated, but has been used in revegetation projects in the countryside of the Cerrado because its fruits are fed upon by fauna in times of food shortage. The purpose of this study was to determine the most appropriate methodology for the germination of the Cerrado watermelon, by identifying the best - suited substrate, the optimal temperature, and the corresponding time taken for germination . The treatments consisted of four substrates: in a paper roll, on paper, in sand, and on sand; and four temperatures: 20, 25, and 30 °C (maintained constant, and a fourth temperature treatment that alternated 20 - 30 °C. The effect of the substrates and temperatures on seed performance was evaluated using the germination test, speed index, and average time for germination. The experimental design was fully randomized, with treatments distributed in a 4 × 4 (substrates × temperatures factorial scheme, with four replications. Our results show that the temperature of 20 °C had a negative influence on germination in all substrates. Further, we found that the germination of the Cerrado watermelon seeds was best in a paper roll or on sand substrate, maintained at a constant temperature of 30 °C, or when temperature was alternated 20 - 30 °C, and the time required for germination stabilization was 30 days.

  15. Corrosion study of stainless steel SS304L in molten molybdates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, T., E-mail: tusami@criepi.denken.or.jp [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Iwadokita2-11-1, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Uruga, K.; Tsukada, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Iwadokita2-11-1, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Miura, Y.; Komamine, S.; Ochi, E. [Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, 4-108, Aza Okitsuke, Oaza Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    Depending on operating conditions of the vitrification process of high-level liquid waste, molten salt mainly composed of sodium and molybdenum can be generated, and poured into stainless steel canisters. In this work, the possible reaction between the molten molybdate and stainless steel was investigated using multi-component molybdate and simple Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} – MoO{sub 3} molybdate. In the experiments using multi-component molybdates, no significant reaction is observed between the mixed molybdates and the stainless steel specimens at 700 °C in 4 h. The reaction rate of the stainless steel with the multi-component molybdate increases in proportion to exp(-1/T). The depth of the most reacted area is about 300 μm even at 1000 °C, and was much smaller than the 6 mm thickness of the canister. In the simple Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} – MoO{sub 3} molybdate, the reaction rate was proportional to the MoO{sub 3} concentration. The essence of the reaction is oxidation of metals by Mo{sup 6+} - > Mo{sup 4+}. Part of the reaction product mainly composed of Fe is dissolved into the molybdate, while the other part mainly composed of Cr sloughs and forms a banded layer. - Highlights: • The reaction yield of SS304L with molten molybdate was negligible at 700 °C in 4 h. • The corrosion rate increased in proportion to exp (-1/T). • The corrosion rate was proportional to MoO{sub 3} concentration in Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}–MoO{sub 3} mixture. • The essence of the reaction was oxidation of metals by Mo{sup 6+} –> Mo{sup 4+}.

  16. Pulsar-driven Jets in Supernovae, Gamma-ray Bursts, and SS 433

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleditch, John

    2010-05-01

    The model of pulsar emission through superluminally induced polarization currents (SLIP) predicts that pulsations produced by such currents, induced at many light cylinder radii by a rotating, magnetized body, as would be the case for a neutron star born within any star of more than 1.4 solar masses, will drive pulsations close to the axis of rotation. In SN 1987A, such highly collimated (less than 1 in 10,000) 2.14 ms pulsations, and the similarly collimated jets of particles which they drove, including 1e-6 solar masses with velocities of up to 0.95 c, were responsible for the features of its very early light (days 3 - 20), its "Mystery Spot," observed slightly later (days 30 - 50 and after), and still later, in less collimated form, its bipolarity. SLIP also explains why the 2.14 ms pulsations were more or less consistently observed between years 5.0 and 6.5, and why they eventually disappeared after year 9.0. There is no reason to suggest that this mechanism is not universally applicable to all SNe with gaseous remnants remaining, and thus SN 1987A is the Rosetta Stone for 99% of SNe, gamma-ray bursts, and millisecond pulsars, and possibly SS 433. The axially driven pulsations enforce a toroidal geometry onto all early SNRs, rendering even Ia's unsuitable as standard candles. SLIP predicts that almost all pulsars with very sharp single pulses have been detected because the Earth is in a favored direction where their fluxes diminish only as 1/distance, and this has been verified in the laboratory as well as for the Parkes Multibeam Survey. SLIP also specifically predicts that gamma-ray-burst afterglows will be essentially 100% pulsed at 500 Hz in their proper frame. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy through the Los Alamos Directed Research Grant DR20080085.

  17. High-Resolution X-Ray Spectra of the Symbiotic Star SS73 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, R. N. C.; Luna, G. J. M.; Smith, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    SS73 17 was an innocuous Mira-type symbiotic star until the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory and Swift discovered its bright hard X-ray emission, adding it to the small class of "hard X-ray emitting symbiotics." Suzaku observations in 2006 then showed it emits three bright iron lines as well, with little to no emission in the 0.3-2.0 keV bandpass. We present here follow-up observations with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating and Suzaku that confirm the earlier detection of strong emission lines of Fe K(alpha) fluorescence, Fe XXV and Fe XXVI but also show significantly more soft X-ray emission. The high-resolution spectrum also shows emission lines of other highly ionized ions as Si xiv and possibly S XVI. In addition, a re-analysis of the 2006 Suzaku data using the latest calibration shows that the hard (15-50 keV) X-ray emission is brighter than previously thought and remains constant in both the 2006 and 2008 data. The G ratio calculated from the Fe xxv lines shows that these lines are thermal, not photoionized, in origin.With the exception of the hard X-ray emission, the spectra from both epochs can be fit using thermal radiation assuming a differential emission measure based on a cooling-flow model combined with a full and partial absorber. We show that acceptable fits can be obtained for all the data in the 1-10 keV band varying only the partial absorber. Based on the temperature and accretion rate, the thermal emission appears to be arising from the boundary layer between the accreting white dwarf and the accretion disk.

  18. HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAY SPECTRA OF THE SYMBIOTIC STAR SS73 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, R. N. C.; Luna, G. J. M.; Smith, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    SS73 17 was an innocuous Mira-type symbiotic star until the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory and Swift discovered its bright hard X-ray emission, adding it to the small class of 'hard X-ray emitting symbiotics'. Suzaku observations in 2006 then showed it emits three bright iron lines as well, with little to no emission in the 0.3-2.0 keV bandpass. We present here follow-up observations with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating and Suzaku that confirm the earlier detection of strong emission lines of Fe Kα fluorescence, Fe XXV and Fe XXVI but also show significantly more soft X-ray emission. The high-resolution spectrum also shows emission lines of other highly ionized ions as Si XIV and possibly S XVI. In addition, a re-analysis of the 2006 Suzaku data using the latest calibration shows that the hard (15-50 keV) X-ray emission is brighter than previously thought and remains constant in both the 2006 and 2008 data. The G ratio calculated from the Fe XXV lines shows that these lines are thermal, not photoionized, in origin. With the exception of the hard X-ray emission, the spectra from both epochs can be fit using thermal radiation assuming a differential emission measure based on a cooling-flow model combined with a full and partial absorber. We show that acceptable fits can be obtained for all the data in the 1-10 keV band varying only the partial absorber. Based on the temperature and accretion rate, the thermal emission appears to be arising from the boundary layer between the accreting white dwarf and the accretion disk.

  19. Effects of a new antiarrhythmic drug SS-68 on electrical activity in working atrial and ventricular myocardium of mouse and their ionic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saida K. Bogus

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SS-68 is a derivative of indole, which demonstrated strong antiarrhythmic effects not associated with significant QT prolongation in dog models of atrial fibrillation. Therefore, SS-68 was proposed as a new antiarrhythmic drug and the present study is the first describing its effects on action potentials (APs configuration and elucidating the ionic mechanisms of these effects. Sharp microelectrodes were used to record APs in isolated preparations of mouse atrial and ventricular myocardium. In both types of myocardium 10−6 M SS-68 produced reduction of AP duration, 3 × 10−6 M failed to alter AP waveform and 10−5 – 3 × 10−5 M prolonged APs. Sensitivity of main ionic currents to SS-68 was determined using whole-cell patch clamp. Transient potassium current Ito was slightly inhibited by SS-68 with IC50 = 1.43 × 10−4 M. IKur was more sensitive with IC50 = 1.84 × 10−5 M. Background inward rectifier showed very low sensitivity to SS-68 – only 10−4 M SS-68 caused significant reduction of IK1. ICaL was significantly inhibited by 10−6M – 3 × 10−5 M SS-68. The IC50 value for the ICaL was 1.84 × 10−6 M. Thus, main ionic currents of mouse cardiomyocytes are inhibited by SS-68 in the following order of potency: ICaL > IKur > Ito > IK1. While lower concentration of SS-68 shorten APs via suppression of ICaL, higher concentrations inhibit K+-currents leading to APs prolongation.

  20. T3SS effector VopL inhibits the host ROS response, promoting the intracellular survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela de Souza Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of antimicrobial reactive oxygen species by the nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase complex is an important mechanism for control of invading pathogens. Herein, we show that the gastrointestinal pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus counteracts reactive oxygen species (ROS production using the Type III Secretion System 2 (T3SS2 effector VopL. In the absence of VopL, intracellular V. parahaemolyticus undergoes ROS-dependent filamentation, with concurrent limited growth. During infection, VopL assembles actin into non-functional filaments resulting in a dysfunctional actin cytoskeleton that can no longer mediate the assembly of the NADPH oxidase at the cell membrane, thereby limiting ROS production. This is the first example of how a T3SS2 effector contributes to the intracellular survival of V. parahaemolyticus, supporting the establishment of a protective intracellular replicative niche.